WorldWideScience

Sample records for anaplastic large t-cell

  1. Detection of an early adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma clone in lymph nodes with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Masahito; Yoshida, Noriaki; Nakano, Nobuaki; Kubota, Ayumu; Takeuchi, Shogo; Takatsuka, Yoshifusa; Seto, Masao; Utsunomiya, Atae

    2016-04-01

    A 58-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with systemic lymphadenopathy and was diagnosed with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) by lymph node biopsy. Although he was a human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) carrier, Southern blot analysis of the lymph node did not show monoclonal integration of HTLV-1 provirus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). He achieved complete remission after chemotherapy and subsequently, autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT) was performed. Fifteen months after the auto-PBSCT, abnormal lymphocytes in the peripheral blood gradually increased. Southern blot analysis revealed monoclonal integration of HTLV-1 provirus DNA and monoclonal rearrangement of TRB. He was diagnosed with chronic type adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL), which immediately progressed to the acute type. He died of tumor progression despite intensive chemotherapy. We analyzed genomic alterations of the ALCL and ATL cells using array comparative genomic hybridization. We found that the genomic alteration pattern differed between the two diseases. T-cell receptor clonality analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that the T-cell clone of the ATL was present in the lymph nodes with ALCL involvement, but not in peripheral blood. This finding suggests that lymph nodes can serve as a niche for ATL development. PMID:26874918

  2. CD13-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma of T-cell origin--a diagnostic and histogenetic problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popnikolov, N K; Payne, D A; Hudnall, S D; Hawkins, H K; Kumar, M; Norris, B A; Elghetany, M T

    2000-12-01

    The expression of myelomonocytic-associated antigens in anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs), particularly those presenting in extranodal sites, can make their distinction from extramedullary myeloid cell tumors (EMCTs) or histiocytic tumors problematic. Yet, this distinction is clinically significant because of its therapeutic and prognostic implications. Herein, we describe a case of extranodal anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive CD30-positive ALCL of T-cell origin in a 12-year-old boy, which was initially called an EMCT because of the expression of CD13 and HLA-DR detected by flow cytometry and the absence of other T-cell-related surface markers. However, the detection of cytoplasmic CD3 by flow cytometry prompted further studies. The tumor was composed of large cells with abundant slightly eosinophilic vacuolated cytoplasm and ovoid or reniform nuclei with a few small nucleoli. Using immunohistochemistry, the tumor was positive for CD45, CD30, CD45RO, and CD43 with a strong cytoplasmic and nuclear anaplastic lymphoma kinase stain. The tumor cells showed a T-cell clonal genotype. Electron microscopy revealed no ultrastructural features of myelomonocytic or histiocytic origin. The patient responded well to the chemotherapy and was in complete remission for 10 months at the time of submission of this manuscript. Review of the literature showed inconsistencies regarding the diagnosis, nomenclature, and, therefore, treatment and prognosis of these tumors. In addition, the CD13 expression in ALCL raises some histogenetic questions and may indicate origin from a pluripotent stem cell, misprogramming during malignant transformation, or a microenvironmental effect on lymphoid cell expression of surface antigens. Therefore, ALCL should be considered in the differential diagnosis of EMCTs or histiocytic tumors, particularly when surface marker lineage assignment is ambiguous. PMID:11100061

  3. Extrinsic apoptotic pathways: A new potential "Target" for more sufficient therapy in a case of cutaneous anaplastic large CD30+ ALK-T--cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL represent a clonal T-lymphocyte proliferation infiltrating the skin. CD30+ T-cell lymphomas present clinically as nodules with a diameter between 1 and 15 cm, mostly in elderly patients. The role of the CD30 molecule in patients suffering from T-cell lymphomas is not completely clear yet. The signal transduction pathway which includes CD30 seems to play a key role in tumor progression. In certain forms of T-cellular lymphomas, the interaction between CD30/CD30-ligand is able to provoke apoptosis of the "tumor lymphocytes". The modern conceptions of the pathogenesis of T-cell lymphomas include disorders in the pathways involved in programmed cellular death and disregulation in the expression of certain of its regulatory molecules. We are presenting an unusual case of a female patient with a primary cutaneous form of CD30 + /ALK− anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma. Upon the introduction of systemic PUVA, (psoralen plus ultraviolet light radiation combined with beam therapy, a complete remission could be noticed. Eight months later, we observed a local recurrence, which was overcome by CHOP chemotherapy (Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin, Vincristin (Oncovin®, Predniso(lon. Six months later, new cutaneous lesions had been noticed again. A new therapeutic hope for the patients with anaplastic large CTCL is actually based on the influence of the activity of the different apoptotic pathways. Death ligands, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, CD95L/FasL, and TRAIL, mediate also some important safeguard mechanisms against tumor growth in patients with CD30 + cutaneous anaplastic large T-cell lymphomas and critically contribute to lymphocyte homeostasis.

  4. Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Overview Lymphoma is the most common blood cancer. The two main forms of lymphoma are ... organs, and can accumulate to form tumors. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is arare type of NHL, ...

  5. Research progresses in the pathogenesis of anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Lan Shi; Xiao-Wen Tang; De-Pei Wu

    2011-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a distinct subset of T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. As a consequence of its low incidence, general pathogenic consideration of ALCL is lacking. In this review, we summarize the pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of ALCL, so as to better understand key stages of the development of this disease and provide valuable information for future treatment.

  6. ALK signaling and target therapy in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio eTabbo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The discovery by Morris SW et al. in 1994 of the genes contributing to the t(2;5(p23;q35 translocation has put the foundation for a molecular based recognition of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL and pointed out the need for a further stratification of T-cell neoplasia. Likewise the detection of ALK genetic lesions among many human cancers has defined unique subsets of cancer patients, providing new opportunities for innovative therapeutic interventions. The objective of this review is to appraise the molecular mechanisms driving ALK-mediated transformation, and to maintain the neoplastic phenotype. The understanding of these events will allow the design and implementation of novel tailored strategies for a well-defined subset of cancer patients.

  7. Pathobiology of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Piccaluga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors revise the concept of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL in the light of the recently updated WHO classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues both on biological and clinical grounds. The main histological findings are illustrated with special reference to the cytological spectrum that is indeed characteristic of the tumor. The phenotype is reported in detail: the expression of the ALK protein as well as the chromosomal abnormalities is discussed with their potential pathogenetic implications. The clinical features of ALCL are presented by underlining the difference in terms of response to therapy and survival between the ALK-positive and ALK-negative forms. Finally, the biological rationale for potential innovative targeted therapies is presented.

  8. Non-anaplastic peripheral T-cell lymphoma in children and adolescents--a retrospective analysis of the NHL-BFM study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontny, Udo; Oschlies, Ilske; Woessmann, Willi; Burkhardt, Birgit; Lisfeld, Jasmin; Salzburg, Janina; Janda, Ales; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Niggli, Felix; Zimmermann, Martin; Reiter, Alfred; Klapper, Wolfram

    2015-03-01

    Mature (peripheral) T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) other than anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a heterogeneous group of diseases and exceedingly rare in children and adolescents. Survival rates range between 46% and 85%. This study reports the disease characteristics, treatment and outcome of all patients with the diagnosis of mature TCL registered in the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster non-Hodgkin lymphoma database between 1986 and 2012. All diagnoses were centrally reviewed and revised by clinico-pathological correlation according to the criteria of the current World Health Organization classification. Of the 69 patients originally registered as having PTCL, the diagnosis was confirmed in 38 of them. Most patients were treated with an anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL)-like therapy regimen. Patients with PTCL-not otherwise specified comprised the largest group and showed a 5-year event-free survival rate of 61 ± 11%. Patients suffering from Natural Killer/T-cell- and hepatosplenic TCL had the poorest outcome. Our results suggest that the outcomes of children with mature TCL other than ALCL depend on the subtype and are worse than in all other paediatric lymphomas. The clinical experience presented in this largest study on paediatric mature TCL may serve as basis for future collaborative international prospective clinical trials. PMID:25395120

  9. Non-anaplastic peripheral T cell lymphoma in children and adolescents-an international review of 143 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellgren, K; Attarbaschi, A; Abla, O; Alexander, S; Bomken, S; Bubanska, E; Chiang, A; Csóka, M; Fedorova, A; Kabickova, E; Kapuscinska-Kemblowska, L; Kobayashi, R; Krenova, Z; Meyer-Wentrup, F; Miakova, N; Pillon, M; Plat, G; Uyttebroeck, A; Williams, D; Wróbel, G; Kontny, U

    2016-08-01

    Peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCL) are rare in children and adolescents, and data about outcome and treatment results are scarce. The present study is a joint, international, retrospective analysis of 143 reported cases of non-anaplastic PTCL in patients event-free survival was (pEFS) 0.45 ± 0.05. Patients with SP TCL had a good outcome with 5-year pOS of 0.78 ± 0.1 while patients with HS TCL were reported with 5-year pOS of only 0.13 ± 0.12. Twenty-five percent of the patients were reported to have a pre-existing condition, and this group had a dismal outcome with 5-year pOS of 0.29 ± 0.09. The distribution of non-anaplastic PTCL subtypes in pediatric and adolescent patients differs from what is reported in adult patients. Overall outcome depends on the subtype with some doing better than others. Pre-existing conditions are frequent and associated with poor outcomes. There is a clear need for subtype-based treatment recommendations for children and adolescents with PTCL. PMID:27270301

  10. CD30-Positive Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Negative Systemic Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma in a 9-Year-Old Boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Eun; Oh, Eui Hyun; Ro, Young Suck

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a CD30-positive T-cell/null-cell lymphoma that is clinically classified into either primary cutaneous ALCL or systemic ALCL (S-ALCL) sub-types. Because 90% of childhood S-ALCL cases are anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive, there is a lack of data on ALK-negative S-ALCL cases among pediatric patients. Herein, we report a rare case of ALK-negative S-ALCL in a 9-year-old Korean boy who initially presented with itchy erythematous maculopapules and an erosive nodule on the trunk area. We emphasize the need of high index of suspicion of an underlying malignant disease in the presence of refractory eczematous lesions. PMID:27274637

  11. Combination Chemotherapy and Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV Peripheral T-cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-02

    Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma, ALK-Negative; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma, ALK-Positive; Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage II Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Stage II Enteropathy-Associated T-Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Stage III Enteropathy-Associated T-Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Enteropathy-Associated T-Cell Lymphoma

  12. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma: A single institution experience from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Lakshmaiah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL accounts for 2-8% of non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma in adults and 10-15% in children. While there is ample data in the world literature about the clinical features and outcome of this disease, prognosis in Indian patients is largely unknown. Objective: To study the clinical, pathologic profile and outcome ALCL. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients who had pathologically proven diagnosis of systemic ALCL at our institute from June 2003 to May 2011 were included for retrospective analysis. This included 30 cases of anaplastic lymphoma kinase+ (ALK+, ALCL and 20 cases of anaplastic lymphoma kinase- (ALK−, ALCL. The hospital protocol for treatment of these patients included CHOP chemotherapy regimen in >15 years of age and MCP842 protocol with vinblastine for 1 year in <15 years of age. Event free survival was noted. These outcomes were correlated with ALK status, International Prognostic Index (IPI score, and stage at presentation. Results: At a median follow-up of 36 months (range: 6-72 months ALK− ALCL had a poor outcome. The 3 year event free survival in pediatric ALCL was 66.7%. In adults, this was 60% ALK+ ALCL was 60% and 20% in ALK− ALCL. Conclusions: Systemic ALCL is an aggressive disease. CD3 + positivity is commonly seen in ALK− ALCL and ALK+, epithelial membrane antigen + positivity is seen in ALK+ ALCL. ALK− ALCL, advanced stage III, IV and high IPI score were associated with poor prognosis. The demographic profile and outcome in our study was similar to the world literature. With new drugs like crizotinib and brentuximab vedotin the future looks very promising.

  13. Combination therapy with brentuximab vedotin and cisplatin/cytarabine in a patient with primarily refractory anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidegger S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Simon Heidegger,1 Ambros Beer,2 Eva Geissinger,3 Andreas Rosenwald,3 Christian Peschel,1 Ingo Ringshausen,1 Ulrich Keller11III Medical Department, 2Nuclear Medicine Department, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany; 3Institute of Pathology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, GermanyAbstract: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a common subtype of the heterogeneous group of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, which is characterized by large pleomorphic cells with strong expression of CD30. Translocations involving ALK, the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene, are associated with a favorable clinical outcome. Such ALK-positive ALCLs are usually responsive to a multidrug chemotherapy with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone. However, there is no general consensus on the optimal therapy for relapsed or refractory ALCL. We report the case of a 24-year-old male suffering from ALK-positive ALCL with an uncommon manifestation of only extranodal disease in the gastric cardia region that showed primary refractoriness to standard CHOP chemotherapy. A combination therapy consisting of the anti-CD30 drug conjugate, brentuximab vedotin, and classical lymphoma salvage regimen DHAP (cisplatin, high-dose cytarabine and dexamethasone was administered. Following two treatment cycles in 21-day intervals, the lymphoma showed considerable regression based on imaging diagnostics and no evidence of vital lymphoma in a subsequent biopsy. We did not observe any increase in toxicity; in particular, polyneuropathy and febrile neutropenia were not observed. In summary, we report that the antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin and a classical regimen used for aggressive lymphoma, DHAP, could be combined as salvage therapy in a case of refractory ALK-positive ALCL. Phase I/II studies will be required for safety and efficacy analysis.Keywords: anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, refractory/relapsed lymphoma, anti-CD30 drug conjugate, DHAP

  14. Synchronous Occurrence of Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hye; Lee, Jae Ho; Lim, Youngkyoung; Lee, You Jin

    2016-01-01

    CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) represent a spectrum of T-cell lymphoma including lymphomatoid papulosis and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). Epidermis overlying cutaneous CD30+ LPD often shows epidermal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, crusting, and ulceration and it is difficult to distinguish from carcinoma such as keratoacanthoma (KA) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Several cases of pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia mimicking KA or SCC in CD30+ LPD have been reported. The relationship between CD30+ LPD and epithelial proliferations has not yet well understood. It was reported that a variety of mediators, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-α and EGFR from CD30+ LPD could attribute to epidermal hyperplasia. However, separate and distinct SCC occurring in CD30+ LPD has rarely been reported. Herein, we present a rare case of coexistence of SCC and cutaneous ALCL located on the same region. PMID:27489433

  15. Primary pancreatic anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK negative:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christos G Savopoulos; NE Tsesmeli; GD Kaiafa; AT Zantidis; MT Bobos; AI Hatzitolios; ST Papavramidis; IS Kostopoulos

    2005-01-01

    We present the fourth case of a primary pancreatic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), ALK-. An 80-year-old man was admitted to our clinic for further investigation of a fever of unknown origin. He noted anorexia, weight loss and fatigue. His laboratory tests showed anemia and a great elevation of ESR, LDH, and β2 microglobulin. In CT and MRI scan, a soft tissue mass in the pancreas was observed. A repeated endoscopy after his admission revealed an ulcerated mass-like deformity of the duodenal bulb. Explorative laparotomy confirmed a diffuse spread of an unresectable malignant pancreatic mass extending to the adjacent organs. Duodenal and surgical biopsies identified an ALCL of T-cell lineage, ALK-. The patient died in the Intensive Care Unit due to hemodynamic instability.Our case is the first one indicating that primary pancreatic lymphoma should be suspected in a patient with pancreatic mass and elevated serum LDH and β2 microglobulin.

  16. Isolated cutaneous involvement in a child with nodal anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhu Mendiratta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a common childhood T-cell and B-cell neoplasm that originates primarily from lymphoid tissue. Cutaneous involvement can be in the form of a primary extranodal lymphoma, or secondary to metastasis from a non-cutaneous location. The latter is uncommon, and isolated cutaneous involvement is rarely reported. We report a case of isolated secondary cutaneous involvement from nodal anaplastic large cell lymphoma (CD30 + and ALK + in a 7-year-old boy who was on chemotherapy. This case is reported for its unusual clinical presentation as an acute febrile, generalized papulonodular eruption that mimicked deep fungal infection, with the absence of other foci of systemic metastasis.

  17. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Can; Zeng, Kang; Wang, Menglei; Han, Kai; Peng, Yusheng; Xiong, Hao; Wang, Qi; Li, Qian; Wang, Qian; Li, Li

    2016-07-01

    Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (PCALCL) is a part of the spectrum of CD30+ lymphoproliferative cutaneous processes. The characteristics include single or multifocal nodules that ulcerate as skin lesion, slow disease progression, autoregressive, and recurrent in few years. The present study report the case of a 16-year-old boy presenting PCALCL with single nodules, ulcer, keloid, and scab in his right-side face. He showed a good response to the treatment with systemic chemotherapy and dermatoplasty, and regained confidence after the appearance of recovery. There is no relapse of the primary lesion and organs involved till now. The chemotherapy combining with surgical excision and dermatoplasty is a good method for PCALCL, per the lesion biopsy and positron emission tomography-computed tomography before and after treatment. PMID:26970422

  18. MicroRNA Expression Profiling Identifies Molecular Diagnostic Signatures for Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cuiling; Iqbal, Javeed; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie;

    2013-01-01

    Anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCLs) encompass at least 2 systemic diseases distinguished by the presence or absence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) expression. We performed genome-wide microRNA (miRNA) profiling on 33 ALK-positive (ALK[+]) ALCLs, 25 ALK-negative (ALK[-]) ALCLs, 9 angioimm...

  19. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma of hard palate as first clinical manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, Anjali; Yadav, Achla Bharti; Prakash, Sant; Gupta, Shally

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an uncommon disease, accounting for <5% of all cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We report a case of 48-year-old male who presented a clinically benign swelling in the right anterior palatal region since last 2 months. Radiographic evaluation showed no bone loss in palatal area. Histological and radiological examination was in favor of a peripheral reactive lesion like pyogenic granuloma or a benign salivary gland tumor. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative (ALK(-)) ALCL. Further laboratory tests ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and CD4 cell count was done which showed positivity for HIV. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first case of ALK(-) ALCL in the hard palate presenting as the first clinical manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. PMID:27041916

  20. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma of hard palate as first clinical manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Narwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is an uncommon disease, accounting for <5% of all cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We report a case of 48-year-old male who presented a clinically benign swelling in the right anterior palatal region since last 2 months. Radiographic evaluation showed no bone loss in palatal area. Histological and radiological examination was in favor of a peripheral reactive lesion like pyogenic granuloma or a benign salivary gland tumor. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative (ALK(− ALCL. Further laboratory tests ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and CD4 cell count was done which showed positivity for HIV. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first case of ALK(− ALCL in the hard palate presenting as the first clinical manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

  1. Association of Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma and Active Toxoplasmosis in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Sayyahfar, Shirin; Karimi, Abdollah; Gharib, Atoosa; Fahimzad, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a subset of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and an unusual disease in children. Case Presentation: Herein we have reported a 7- year- old girl with a large necrotic skin ulcer on the chest caused by systemic form of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma and simultaneous active toxoplasmosis diagnosed by PCR on lymph node specimen. There were few reports showing a role for toxoplasma infection to cause some malignancies such as lymphoma in adults. Conclusions: Bas...

  2. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma ALK-negative clinically mimicking alcoholic hepatitis – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, described less than 30 years ago by Karl Lennert and Herald Stein in Kiel, West Germany, is a T-cell or null non-Hodgkin lymphoma, with distinctive morphology (hallmark cells, prominent sinus and/or perivascular growth pattern, characteristic immunophenotype (CD30+, cytotoxic granules protein+, CD3–/+ and specific genetic features as translocations involving the receptor tyrosine kinase called anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK on 2p23 and variable partners genes, which results in the expression of ALK fusion protein. The absence of ALK expression is also observed and is associated with poorer prognosis that seen with ALK expression. ALK-negative ALCL is more frequent in adults, with both nodal and extra nodal clinical presentation and includes several differential diagnoses with other CD30+ lymphomas. Liver involvement by ALCL is rare and is generally seen as mass formation; the diffuse pattern of infiltration is even more unusual. The authors present a case of a 72-year-old man who presented clinical symptoms of acute hepatic failure. The patient had a long history of alcohol abuse and the diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis was highly considered, although the serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH value was highly elevated. The clinical course was fulminant leading to death on the fourth day of hospitalization. Autopsy demonstrated diffuse neoplastic hepatic infiltration as well as splenic, pulmonary, bone marrow, and minor abdominal lymph nodes involvement by the tumor. Based on morphological, immunophenotypical, and immunohistochemical features, a diagnosis of ALK- negative ALCL was concluded. When there is marked elevation of LDH the possibility of lymphoma, ALCL and other types, should be the principal diagnosis to be considered.

  3. Breast Implant Informed Consent Should Include the Risk of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Mark W; Miranda, Roberto N; Butler, Charles E

    2016-04-01

    Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare T-cell lymphoma arising around breast implants. Public awareness has increased following a safety communication warning of the association of breast implant-associated ALCL by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2011. Difficulty with determining an accurate assessment of risk, including diagnosis, or standardized treatment regimen has led surgeons to commonly omit preoperative discussion of this rare and frequently misunderstood cancer. Risk disclosure is a form of respect for patient autonomy, and informed consent has positive practical and moral consequences for the practice of plastic surgery. A model of breast implant-associated ALCL informed consent implementation and health care provider education are reviewed with 1-year process follow-up at a tertiary cancer center. Breast implant-associated ALCL should be included during preoperative counseling on the risks of breast implantation when obtaining informed consent. Pertinent aspects of decision-making include disease awareness, presenting symptoms, and resources for concerned patients. Education of health care professionals and provision of patient-focused materials ensures effectiveness of the informed consent process. PMID:27018666

  4. Neutrophil rich anaplastic large cell lymphoma presented as cutaneous nodules in an adolescent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL),a type of lymphoma,was first described by Stain in 1985 and included in non-Hodgkin lymphoma according to REAL classification since 1998.In the absence of necrosis,neutrophils infiltration in non-Hodgkin lymphoma is uncommon.Mann et all had previously reported neutrophil rich ALCL as a variant of ALCL.In this paper,we describe a neutrophil rich,anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) which presented as cutaneous nodules in an adolescent.

  5. Cardiac anaplastic large cell lymphoma in an 8-year old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melchior Lauten

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on an 8 year old boy with primary cardiac anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, in whom the diagnosis was challenging and who was treated with modified chemotherapy without radiation therapy according to the ALCL 99 study protocol [1]. Two years and 4 months after completion of therapy the boy is in complete remission with normal cardiac function.

  6. Cardiac anaplastic large cell lymphoma in an 8-year old boy

    OpenAIRE

    Melchior Lauten; Simon Vieth; Christopher Hart; Wilhelm Wössmann; Birte Tröger; Christoph Härtel; Martin Bethge; André Schrauder; Gunnar Cario

    2014-01-01

    We report on an 8 year old boy with primary cardiac anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), in whom the diagnosis was challenging and who was treated with modified chemotherapy without radiation therapy according to the ALCL 99 study protocol [1]. Two years and 4 months after completion of therapy the boy is in complete remission with normal cardiac function.

  7. Biomarkers Provide Clues to Early Events in the Pathogenesis of Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadin, Marshall E; Deva, Anand; Xu, Haiying; Morgan, John; Khare, Pranay; MacLeod, Roderick A F; Van Natta, Bruce W; Adams, William P; Brody, Garry S; Epstein, Alan L

    2016-07-01

    Almost 200 women worldwide have been diagnosed with breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL). The unique location and specific lymphoma type strongly suggest an etio-pathologic link between breast implants and BIA-ALCL. It is postulated that chronic inflammation via bacterial infection may be an etiological factor. BIA-ALCL resembles primary cutaneous ALCL (pcALCL) in morphology, activated T-cell phenotype, and indolent clinical course. Gene expression array analysis, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry were used to study pcALCL and BIA-ALCL cell lines. Clinical samples were also studied to characterize transcription factor and cytokine profiles of tumor cells and surrounding lymphocytes. BIA-ALCL and pcALCL were found to have common expression of transcription factors SOCS3, JunB, SATB1, and a cytokine profile suggestive of a Th1 phenotype. Similar patterns were observed in a CD30+ cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). The patterns of cytokine and transcription factor expression suggest that BIA-ALCL is likely to arise from chronic bacterial antigen stimulation of T-cells. Further analysis of cytokine and transcription factor profiles may allow early detection and treatment of BIA-ALCL leading to better prognosis and survival. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 5: Risk. PMID:26979456

  8. Large cell anaplastic medulloblastoma metastatic to the scalp: tumor and derived stem-like cells features

    OpenAIRE

    Mastronuzzi, Angela; Miele, Evelina; Po, Agnese; Antonelli, Manila; Buttarelli, Francesca Romana; Colafati, Giovanna Stefania; Del Bufalo, Francesca; Faedda, Roberta; Spinelli, Gian Paolo; Carai, Andrea; Giangaspero, Felice; Gulino, Alberto; Locatelli, Franco; Ferretti, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    Background Extraneural metastases (ENM) rarely occur in medulloblastoma (MBL) patients and only few cases of subcutaneous localizations have been described. ENM indicate an aggressive disease associated with a worse prognosis. The characterization of metastatic tumours might be useful to understand their pathogenesis and to identify the most appropriate therapeutic strategies. Case presentation We present the case of a child with Large Cell Anaplastic (LC/A) MBL, who developed multiple subcut...

  9. ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma with soft tissue involvement in a young woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao KH

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kehai Gao, Hongtao Li, Caihong Huang, Huazhuang Li, Jun Fang, Chen Tian Department of Orthopaedics, Yidu Central Hospital, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Introduction: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that has strong expression of CD30. ALCL can sometimes involve the bone marrow, and in advanced stages, it can produce destructive extranodal lesions. But anaplastic large cell lymphoma kinase (ALK+ ALCL with soft tissue involvement is very rare.Case report: A 35-year-old woman presented with waist pain for over 1 month. The biopsy of soft tissue lesions showed that these cells were positive for ALK-1, CD30, TIA-1, GranzymeB, CD4, CD8, and Ki67 (90%+ and negative for CD3, CD5, CD20, CD10, cytokeratin (CK, TdT, HMB-45, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, and pan-CK, which identified ALCL. After six cycles of Hyper-CVAD/MA regimen, she achieved partial remission. Three months later, she died due to disease progression.Conclusion: This case illustrates the unusual presentation of ALCL in soft tissue with a bad response to chemotherapy. Because of the tendency for rapid progression, ALCL in young adults with extranodal lesions are often treated with high-grade chemotherapy, such as Hyper-CVAD/MA. Keywords: anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK+, soft tissue involvement, Hyper-CVAD/MA

  10. A rare case of ALK negative CD30+ primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma in a young adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H B Sridevi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma can present either as a primary disease or as secondary to a pre-existing systemic anaplastic lymphoma. Distinguishing primary cutaneous anaplastic lymphoma (PC-ALCL from its systemic counterpart requires a complete clinical and laboratory workup. We hereby report a case of PC-ALCL in a young adult, who presented with unusual rapidly progressive ulcerated mass in the neck. Biopsy showed anaplastic large cells, which were strongly positive for CD30 and CD25 but ALK1 gene product was negative. Clinical examination and computed tomography (CT scan ruled out extracutaneous involvement. Chemotherapy with 6 cycles of CHOP regimen was planned and on follow-up, a complete remission of the lesion was attained.

  11. Primary nodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas: diagnosis and therapeutic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto de Pádua Covas Lage

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas are a rare group of neoplasms derived from post-thymic and activated T lymphocytes. A review of scientific articles listed in PubMed, Lilacs, and the Cochrane Library databases was performed using the term "peripheral T-cell lymphomas". According to the World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic tissue tumors, this group of neoplasms consists of peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS, angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL, anaplastic large cell lymphoma-anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive (ALCL-ALK+, and a provisional entity called anaplastic large cell lymphoma-anaplastic lymphoma kinase negative (ALCL-ALK-. Because the treatment and prognoses of these neoplasms involve different principles, it is essential to distinguish each one by its clinical, immunophenotypic, genetic, and molecular features. Except for anaplastic large cell lymphoma-anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive, which has no adverse international prognostic index, the prognosis of nodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas is worse than that of aggressive B-cell lymphomas. Chemotherapy based on anthracyclines provides poor outcomes because these neoplasms frequently have multidrug-resistant phenotypes. Based on this, the current tendency is to use intensified cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone (CHOP regimens with the addition of new drugs, and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This paper describes the clinical features and diagnostic methods, and proposes a therapeutic algorithm for nodal peripheral T-cell lymphoma patients.

  12. Indium-111-oxine labeled leukocyte uptake in Ki-1-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, W.; Amodio, J.B.; Scharf, S.C. (New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Rivlin, K.A. (Department of Hematology and Oncology, New York Univ. Medical Center, NY (United States)); Desai, P. (Department of Pathology, Hospital for Joint Diseases-Orthopaedic Inst., New York, NY (United States)); Breuer, F. (Department of Pathology, Lenox Hill Hospital, New York, NY (United States))

    1999-08-01

    Indium-111-oxine labeled leukocyte ([sup 111]In-WBC) scintigraphy is well known for its ability to localize in areas of active infection, but not in areas of lymphomatous involvement. We present a case of Ki-1-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma that was initially thought to be a case of multifocal osteomyelitis because of positive uptake on a [sup 111]In-WBC scan. The areas of abnormal uptake on the indium scan were demonstrated histopathologically to be sites of lymphomatous involvement in bone. (orig.) With 4 figs., 3 refs.

  13. Indium-111-oxine labeled leukocyte uptake in Ki-1-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium-111-oxine labeled leukocyte (111In-WBC) scintigraphy is well known for its ability to localize in areas of active infection, but not in areas of lymphomatous involvement. We present a case of Ki-1-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma that was initially thought to be a case of multifocal osteomyelitis because of positive uptake on a 111In-WBC scan. The areas of abnormal uptake on the indium scan were demonstrated histopathologically to be sites of lymphomatous involvement in bone. (orig.)

  14. Targeted therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma: focus on brentuximab vedotin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen X

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xueyan Chen, Lorinda A Soma, Jonathan R FrommDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Despite the relative success of chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, novel therapeutic agents are needed for refractory or relapsed patients. Targeted immunotherapy has emerged as a novel treatment option for these patients. Although unconjugated anti-cluster of differentiation (CD30 antibodies showed minimal antitumor activity in early clinical trials, development of antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs appears promising. Brentuximab vedotin is an ADC composed of an anti-CD30 antibody linked to a potent microtubule-disrupting agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE. It has the ability to target CD30-positive tumor cells and, once bound to CD30, brentuximab vedotin is internalized and MMAE is released to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In two phase II trials, objective response was reported in 75% and 86% of patients with refractory or relapsed HL and systemic ALCL, respectively, with an acceptable toxicity profile. Based on these studies, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA granted accelerated approval of brentuximab vedotin in August 2011 for the treatment of refractory and relapsed HL and ALCL. We review the key characteristics of brentuximab vedotin, clinical data supporting its therapeutic efficacy, and current ongoing trials to explore its utility in other CD30-positive malignancies.Keywords: classical Hodgkin lymphoma, systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma, CD30, brentuximab vedotin, SGN-35

  15. Aberrant expression and biological significance of Sox2, an embryonic stem cell transcriptional factor, in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sox2 (sex-determining region Y-Box) is one of the master transcriptional factors that are important in maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). In line with this function, Sox2 expression is largely restricted to ESCs and somatic stem cells. We report that Sox2 is expressed in cell lines and tumor samples derived from ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ALCL), for which the normal cellular counterpart is believed to be mature T-cells. The expression of Sox2 in ALK+ALCL can be attributed to nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK), the oncogenic fusion protein carrying a central pathogenetic role in these tumors. By confocal microscopy, Sox2 protein was detectable in virtually all cells in ALK+ALCL cell lines. However, the transcriptional activity of Sox2, as assessed using a Sox2-responsive reporter construct, was detectable only in a small proportion of cells. Importantly, downregulation of Sox2 using short interfering RNA in isolated Sox2active cells, but not Sox2inactive cells, resulted in a significant decrease in cell growth, invasiveness and tumorigenicity. To conclude, ALK+ALCL represents the first example of a hematologic malignancy that aberrantly expresses Sox2, which represents a novel mechanism by which NPM-ALK mediates tumorigenesis. We also found that the transcriptional activity and oncogenic effects of Sox2 can be heterogeneous in cancer cells

  16. Clinical features and treatment results in children with anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataş, Erman; Kutluk, M Tezer; Akyüz, Canan; Kale, Gülsev; Varan, Ali; Yalçın, Bilgehan; Aydın, Burça; Büyükpamukçu, Münevver

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) tends to have frequent relapse and good response to salvage chemotherapy. The frequency of ALCL among 1486 Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cases followed-up since 1972 was 1.5%, however, the percentage was 9.3% in cases diagnosed after 2000. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for 23 children were 32.2% and 72.8% at 3 years, respectively. Disseminated diseases, no response to first line treatment, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) negativity were found as significant predictors on survival of ALCL. The proper diagnosis and early referral is essential in these children for a better survival rate. The children with ALK negative status should be monitored carefully because of the poor prognostic factors, and treated differently. The survival rates in this study are need of further improvement since the survival rates with current protocols are achievable at a level more than 80%. This is mainly related with late referral of those children with advanced disease. PMID:27411412

  17. A novel Patient Derived Tumorgraft model with TRAF1-ALK Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Francesco; Todaro, Maria; van der Krogt, Jo-Anne; Boi, Michela; Landra, Indira; Machiorlatti, Rodolfo; Tabbo’, Fabrizio; Messana, Katia; Barreca, Antonella; Novero, Domenico; Gaudiano, Marcello; Aliberti, Sabrina; Di Giacomo, Filomena; Tousseyn, Thomas; Lasorsa, Elena; Crescenzo, Ramona; Bessone, Luca; Ficarra, Elisa; Acquaviva, Andrea; Rinaldi, Andrea; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Longo, Dario Livio; Aime, Silvio; Cheng, Mangeng; Ruggeri, Bruce; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo; Pileri, Stefano; Tiacci, Enrico; Falini, Brunangelo; Pera-Gresely, Benet; Cerchietti, Leandro; Iqbal, Javeed; Chan, Wing C; Shultz, Leonard D.; Kwee, Ivo; Piva, Roberto; Wlodarska, Iwona; Rabadan, Raul; Bertoni, Francesco; Inghirami, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Although Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphomas (ALCL) carrying Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) have a relatively good prognosis, aggressive forms exist. We have identified a novel translocation, causing the fusion of the TRAF1 and ALK genes, in one patient who presented with a leukemic ALK+ ALCL (ALCL-11). To uncover the mechanisms leading to high-grade ALCL, we developed a human Patient Derived Tumorgraft (hPDT) line. Molecular characterization of primary and PDT cells demonstrated the activation of ALK and of NFkB pathways. Genomic studies of ALCL-11 showed the TP53 loss and the in vivo subclonal expansion of lymphoma cells lacking PRDM1/Blimp-1 and with c-MYC gene amplification. The treatment with proteasome inhibitors of TRAF1-ALK cells led to down-regulation of p50/p52 and lymphoma growth inhibition. Moreover a NFkB gene set classifier stratified ALCL in distinct subsets with different clinical outcome. Moreover, a selective ALK inhibitor (CEP28122) resulted in a significant clinical response of hPDT mice, but the disease could not be eradicated. These data indicate that the activation of NFkB signaling contributes to the neoplastic phenotype of TRAF1-ALK ALCL. ALCL hPDTs are invaluable to validate the role of druggable molecules, predict therapeutic responses and are helpful tools for the implementation of patient specific therapies. PMID:25533804

  18. CPI-613 and Bendamustine Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma or Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-26

    Adult Lymphocyte Depletion Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Adult Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia

  19. SV40 large T antigen-specific human T cell memory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Sharon; Gibbs, Allen; Butchart, Eric; Mason, Malcolm D; Jasani, Bharat; Tabi, Zsuzsanna

    2008-08-01

    The continued presence of simian virus 40 (SV40), a monkey polyomavirus, in man is confirmed by the regular detection of SV40-specific antibodies in 5-10% of children who are unlikely to have received contaminated polio-vaccines. The aim of our experiments was to find cellular immunological evidence of SV40 infection in humans by testing memory T cell responses to SV40 large T antigen (Tag). As there is some indication that the virus may be present in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells, we analyzed T cell responses in MPM patients and in healthy donors. The frequencies of responding T cells to overlapping Tag peptides were tested by cytokine flow cytometry. CD8+ T cells from 4 of 32 MPM patients responded (above twofold of control) to SV40 Tag peptides, while no positive responses were detected in 12 healthy donors. Within SV40 Tag we identified three 15 amino acid-long immunogenic sequences and one 9 amino acid-long T cell epitope (p138) (138FPSELLSFL146), the latter including a HLA-B7-restriction motif. T cell responses to p138 were SV40-specific as T cells stimulated with p138 did not cross-react with the corresponding sequences of Tag of human polyomaviruses BKV and JCV. Similarly, the relevant BKV and JCV Tag peptides did not generate T cell responses against SV40 TAg p138. Peptide-stimulated T cells also killed SV40 Tag-transfected target cells. This article demonstrates the presence, and provides a detailed analysis, of SV40-specific T cell memory in man. PMID:18551603

  20. How T-cells use large deviations to recognize foreign antigens

    CERN Document Server

    Zint, Natali; Hollander, Frank den

    2008-01-01

    A stochastic model for the activation of T-cells is analysed. T-cells are part of the immune system and recognize foreign antigens against a background of the body's own molecules. The model under consideration is a slight generalization of a model introduced by Van den Berg, Rand and Burroughs in 2001, and is capable of explaining how this recognition works on the basis of rare stochastic events. With the help of a refined large deviation theorem and numerical evaluation it is shown that, for a wide range of parameters, T-cells can distinguish reliably between foreign antigens and self-antigens.

  1. A Report of a Rare Case of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma of the Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad G Kango

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Case history: Malignant lymphoma is a neoplastic proliferative process of the lymphopoietic portion of the reticuloendothelial system that involves cells of either the lymphocytic or histiocytic series in varying degrees of differentiation and occurs in an essentially homogenous population of a single cell type. The character of histologic involvement is either diffuse (uniform or nodular and the distribution of involvement may be regional or systemic (generalized, the process basically being multicentric. A case of oral cavity lymphoma was detected and after various panel of imunnohistochemical (IHC markers it was diagnosed as Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL of oral cavity. Conclusion: Lymphoma of oral regions are very rare and ALCL is rarest. It is of utmost importance to do the IHC, so that the prognosis of the lesion is known at the earliest. In this case since it was detected at a later stage the outcome was fatal.

  2. Unusual immunophenotype of T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Rabade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large granular lymphocytes (LGL leukemias are commonly of the T-cell or NK-cell type. T-cell LGL leukemia is typically a disorder of mature CD3, CD8 and T-cell receptor TCR (TCR - T cell receptor-αβ positive cytotoxic T-cells. Rare variants include TCRγδ+ variants and CD4 + TCRαβ+ cases. We report a case of each of these rare variants. An 83-year-old female presented with anemia and lymphocytosis with LGLs on peripheral smear. Six-color multiparametric flowcytometric analysis showed expression of CD3, heterogeneous CD7, dim CD2 and TCRγδ and lacked expression of CD5, TCRαβ, CD56, CD4 and CD8. A final diagnosis of TCRγδ+ T-cell LGL leukemia was made. Differentiation between TCRγδ+ T-cell LGL leukemia and other γδ+ T-cell malignancies is of utmost importance due to the indolent nature of the former as compared to the highly aggressive behavior of the latter. An 85-year-old male diagnosed with liposarcoma was identified to have lymphocytosis during preoperative evaluation. Peripheral smear showed presence of LGLs. Flowcytometric immunophenotyping showed expression of TCRαβ, CD3, CD2, CD5, CD4, dim CD8, CD56 with aberrant loss of CD7 expression. Vβ repertoire analysis by flowcytometry showed 97% cells with Vβ14 clonality. A final diagnosis of TCRαβ+ CD4 + T-cell LGL leukemia was made. CD4 + T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemias have an indolent, less aggressive course when compared to their CD8 + counterparts and are not necessarily associated with cytopenias. However, their association with secondary neoplasia (29% of the cases warrants a high degree of suspicion in the diagnosis as also noted in the index case. Use of a wide panel of antibodies and newer modalities such as Vβ repertoire analysis helps in accurate subtyping of LGL leukemia.

  3. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis secondary to T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Devitt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH is a life-threatening clinical syndrome characterized by dysregulation of the immune system. Impaired function of cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells is often seen, and T-cell malignancies represent most cases of lymphoma-associated HLH. HLH associated with B-cell lymphoma is rare. We describe a case of a 30-year-old man who presented with fever, splenomegaly, and hyperferritinemia. Bone marrow biopsy revealed T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma, a rare, aggressive B-cell malignancy. This case highlights the interplay between a pro-inflammatory cytokine microenvironment and tumor-mediated immune suppression, and addresses the importance of accurately diagnosing these entities for appropriate clinical management.

  4. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma in Chinese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yan-Fang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (S-ALCL is a rare disease with a highly variable prognosis and no standard chemotherapy regimen. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK has been reported as an important prognostic factor correlated with S-ALCL in many but not all studies. In our study, we retrospectively analyzed 92 patients with S-ALCL from the Peking University Lymphoma Center for clinical and molecular prognostic factors to make clear the role of ALK and other prognostic factors in Han Chinese S-ALCL. Results The majority of Chinese S-ALCL patients were young male patients (median age 26, male/female ratio 1.7 and the median age was younger than previous reports regardless of ALK expression status. The only statistically significant different clinical characteristic in S-ALCL between ALK positive (ALK+ and ALK negative (ALK- was age, with a younger median age of 22 for ALK+ compared with 30 for ALK-. However, when pediatric patients (≤18 were excluded, there was no age difference between ALK+ and ALK-. The groups did not differ in the proportion of males, those with clinical stage III/IV (49 vs 51% or those with extranodal disease (53 vs 59%. Of 73 evaluable patients, the 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 60% and 47%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that three factors: advanced stage III/IV, lack of expression of ALK, and high Ki-67 expression, were associated with treatment failure in patients with S-ALCL. However, ALK expression correlated with improved survival only in patients younger than 14 years, while not in adult patients. In multivariate analysis, only clinical stage was an independent prognostic factor for survival. Expressions of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1 and B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (BCL-2 correlated with the expression of ALK, but they did not have prognostic significance. High Ki-67 expression was also a poor prognostic factor. Conclusions Our results show that ALK expression alone is not

  5. Three Years Sustained Complete Remission Achieved in a Primary Refractory ALK-Positive Anaplastic T Large Cell Lymphoma Treated with Crizotinib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahuad, Carolina Valeria; Repáraz, María de los Ángeles Vicente; Zerga, Marta E.; Aizpurua, María Florencia; Casali, Claudia; Garate, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis of the primary refractory anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK+) anaplastic T large cell lymphoma is ominous. The identification of molecular targets with potential to drive oncogenesis remains a cornerstone for the designing of new selective cancer therapies. Crizotinib is a selective ATP-competitive inhibitor for ALK, approved for its use in lung cancer with rearrangements on ALK gene. The reported cases describe the use of crizotinib as a bridging strategy prior to allotransplantation; there are no reported prolonged survivals under monotherapy with Crizotinib. We report a case of a primary refractory ALK+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma that sustains complete response after 3 years of crizotinib monotherapy.

  6. Three Years Sustained Complete Remission Achieved in a Primary Refractory ALK-Positive Anaplastic T Large Cell Lymphoma Treated with Crizotinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahuad, Carolina Valeria; Repáraz, María de Los Ángeles Vicente; Zerga, Marta E; Aizpurua, María Florencia; Casali, Claudia; Garate, Gonzalo

    2016-06-28

    The prognosis of the primary refractory anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK+) anaplastic T large cell lymphoma is ominous. The identification of molecular targets with potential to drive oncogenesis remains a cornerstone for the designing of new selective cancer therapies. Crizotinib is a selective ATP-competitive inhibitor for ALK, approved for its use in lung cancer with rearrangements on ALK gene. The reported cases describe the use of crizotinib as a bridging strategy prior to allotransplantation; there are no reported prolonged survivals under monotherapy with Crizotinib. We report a case of a primary refractory ALK+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma that sustains complete response after 3 years of crizotinib monotherapy. PMID:27441079

  7. Successful treatment in a child with anaplastic large cell lymphoma and coexistence of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baka, Margarita; Doganis, Dimitrios; Pourtsidis, Apostolos; Tsolia, Maria; Bouhoutsou, Despina; Varvoutsi, Maria; Strantzia, Katerina; Kosmidis, Helen

    2013-01-01

    A 13-year-old girl was admitted to our department with a history of severe pain of her left axilla and fever. On physical examination, a block of lymph nodes in her left axilla, diffuse papular rash, and red-violet swelling of her supraclavicular and subclavian region were noted. Imaging investigations revealed left axillar and supraclavicular lymphadenopathy and a small nodular shade in the upper lobe of her left lung. A biopsy from an axillary lymph node established the diagnosis of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), whereas DNA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the same tissue biopsy. Patient was started on chemotherapy for ALCL and achieved remission of all initially involved fields. Nevertheless, two new nodular lesions were detected in the left lower lobe. Biopsy revealed granulomas, and PCR was positive for M. tuberculosis. Our patient received treatment with the combination of isoniazid and rifampin (12 months), pyrazinamide (the first 2 months), and maintenance chemotherapy for her ALCL for one year simultaneously. Four years later, she is disease free for both mycobacterial infection and lymphoma. We are reporting this successful management of mycobacterial infection in a patient with ALCL despite intensive chemotherapy that the patient received at the same time. PMID:23841007

  8. Successful Treatment in a Child with Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma and Coexistence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Baka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old girl was admitted to our department with a history of severe pain of her left axilla and fever. On physical examination, a block of lymph nodes in her left axilla, diffuse papular rash, and red-violet swelling of her supraclavicular and subclavian region were noted. Imaging investigations revealed left axillar and supraclavicular lymphadenopathy and a small nodular shade in the upper lobe of her left lung. A biopsy from an axillary lymph node established the diagnosis of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, whereas DNA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the same tissue biopsy. Patient was started on chemotherapy for ALCL and achieved remission of all initially involved fields. Nevertheless, two new nodular lesions were detected in the left lower lobe. Biopsy revealed granulomas, and PCR was positive for M. tuberculosis. Our patient received treatment with the combination of isoniazid and rifampin (12 months, pyrazinamide (the first 2 months, and maintenance chemotherapy for her ALCL for one year simultaneously. Four years later, she is disease free for both mycobacterial infection and lymphoma. We are reporting this successful management of mycobacterial infection in a patient with ALCL despite intensive chemotherapy that the patient received at the same time.

  9. Infectious Mimicry Complicates Diagnosis in Hemophagocytic Syndrome Caused by Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Peluso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS arises secondary to genetic, rheumatologic, neoplastic, and infectious causes. We discuss a patient whose presentation was consistent with systemic infection but was discovered to have HPS of unknown etiology. The presenting symptoms, as well as unremarkable malignancy and rheumatologic workups, led to the pursuit of an infectious cause, but the patient was ultimately discovered to have an occult anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL. This case demonstrates the diagnostic challenges that result from infectious mimicry in the context of HPS—first, in distinguishing noninfectious HPS from the systemic inflammation that can result from a widespread infectious process, second, in the identification of the precipitating cause of HPS. While evidence of these challenges has been suggested by the limited literature on HPS and ALCL, our case illustrates the diagnostic dilemma that arises when tissue biopsy does not quickly reveal an etiology. It is important that all physicians be aware that HPS can mimic infection and be prepared to redirect the workup when an infectious etiology for HPS cannot be identified.

  10. Large cell anaplastic medulloblastoma metastatic to the scalp: tumor and derived stem-like cells features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraneural metastases (ENM) rarely occur in medulloblastoma (MBL) patients and only few cases of subcutaneous localizations have been described. ENM indicate an aggressive disease associated with a worse prognosis. The characterization of metastatic tumours might be useful to understand their pathogenesis and to identify the most appropriate therapeutic strategies. We present the case of a child with Large Cell Anaplastic (LC/A) MBL, who developed multiple subcutaneous metastases in the scalp area after a ventriculo-peritoneal shunting procedure. The disease rapidly progressed and the child died despite chemotherapy and primary tumour surgical debulking. We molecularly classified the tumour as a group 3 MBL; in addition, we derived stem-like cells (SLC) from a metastatic lesion. Primary tumour, metastases and SLC were further analysed, particularly focusing on features linked to the cutaneous dissemination. Indeed, molecules involved in angiogenesis, cell invasion and epidermal growth factor signalling resulted highly expressed. The present report describes a very rare case of subcutaneous metastatic MBL. The tumour, metastases and SLC have been clinically, pathologically and molecularly characterized. Our case is an example of multidisciplinary approach aiming to characterize MBL aggressive behaviour

  11. Galectin-1-mediated cell adhesion, invasion and cell death in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma: Regulatory roles of cell surface glycans

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Osamu; Abe, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Galectin-1 is known to be one of the extracellular matrix proteins. To elucidate the biological roles of galectin-1 in cell adhesion and invasion of human anaplastic large cell lymphoma, we performed cell adhesion and invasion assays using the anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell line H-ALCL, which was previously established in our laboratory. From the cell surface lectin array, treatment with neuraminidase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens which cleaves all linkage types of cell surface sialic ac...

  12. {sup 18}F-FDG PET in Patients with Primary Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: Differential Features According to Expression of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Yun; Lee, Jong Jin; Park, Seol Hoon; Chae, Sunyoung; Kim, Shin; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Suh, Cheolwon; Huh, Jooryung; Ryu, Jinsook [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Primary systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is divided into two entities according to the expression of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). We investigated {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET) findings in primary systemic ALCL according to ALK expression. Thirty-seven patients who had baseline PET before CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone)-based chemotherapy were enrolled. Among them, patients who underwent interim and/or post-therapy PET were further investigated for the treatment response and survival analysis. Baseline PET was analyzed visually and semi-quantitatively using peak SUV, and interim and post-therapy PETs were visually analyzed. All cases were {sup 18}F-FDG-avid on baseline PET. The peak SUV of ALK-positive ALCL (n =16, 18.7±10.5) was higher than that of ALK-negative ALCL (n =21, 10.0±4.9) (P =0.006). In ALK-negative ALCL, complete response (CR) rate in negative-interim PET was higher than positive-interim PET (100 % vs 37.5 %, P=0.02); however, there was no such difference in ALK-positive ALCL (100 % vs 75 %, P =0.19). The 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) was not significantly different between ALK-positive and ALK-negative ALCL (72.7 % vs 47.6 %, P =0.34). In ALK-negative ALCL, negative interim and post-therapy PET patients had better 3-year PFS than positive interim (83.3 % vs 25.0 %, P =0.06) and post-therapy PET patients (70.0%vs 20.0 %, P =0.04). In contrast, ALK-positive ALCL had no such differences between PFS and PET results. On baseline PET, all cases showed {sup 18}F-FDG avidity, and ALK expression was related to higher {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. ALK-positive patients tend to have better PFS than ALK-negative patients. Negative-interim PET was a good indicator of CR, and interim or post-therapy PET was helpful for predicting the prognosis only in the ALK-negative group.

  13. ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma with prominent bone involvement in a 13-year-old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chen Tian, Yong Yu, Hongliang Yang, Lei Zhu, Yafei Wang, Yizhuo Zhang Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Introduction: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which has strong expression of cluster of differentiation (CD-30 and ALK. ALCL sometimes can involve the bone marrow, and in advanced stages, it can produce destructive bone lesions. But ALK+ ALCL with prominent bone involvement is very rare, especially in children. Case report: A 13-year-old boy presented with waist pain and low-grade fever for 8 months. The biopsy of soft tissue lesions around the thoracic spine showed that these cells were positive for ALK-1, CD30, leukocyte common antigen, CD3, CD4, and CD8, as well as being negative for epithelial membrane antigen and pan-cytokeratin, which revealed ALCL. After six cycles of a regimen consisting of hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone/methotrexate and cytarabine (hyper-CVAD/MA and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, he achieved complete remission (CR. Conclusion: It is generally believed that the regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin (doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP is also applicable to ALCL. Because of the tendency of rapid progression and the frequency of B symptoms, ALCL in children and young adults is treated with high-grade chemotherapy such as hyper-CVAD/MA. Keywords: anaplastic large cell lymphoma, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, bone involvement, hyper-CVAD/MA

  14. Oral Manifestations of T-Cell Large Granular Lymphocytic Leukemia: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna-Eirini Arvanitidou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: T-cell large granular lymphocytic (T-LGL leukemia is a rare, chronic, often indolent lymphoproliferative disorder of mature T cells (CD3+. Severe neutropenia and other cytopenias are common features in patients with T-LGL leukemia and may cause infections, thus representing a major cause of morbidity in this disease. Immunosuppressive therapy with low-dose regimes of methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, corticosteroids or cyclosporine A is the treatment of choice. Amongst the variety of T-LGL leukemia complications, oral manifestations such as ulcers have been rarely reported. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia with oral manifestations and to discuss their pathogenesis and management.Methods: In the present case, a 65 year old female with a two-month history of diagnosed T-LGL leukemia presented with oral lesions, including ulcerations on the ventral tongue and soft palate as well as swollen, erythematous and ulcerated gingiva. The patient was under treatment with methotrexate, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF and erythropoietin.Results: Considering patients’ medical history and clinical appearance of the lesions, a clinical diagnosis of a neutropenic ulcer of the tongue was established. The oral lesions resolved after treatment with antibiotics, topical steroids and antiseptics combined with improvement of the hematological condition. The pertinent literature related to T-LGL leukemia ethiopathology, diagnostics and treatment was discussed.Conclusions: Although rare, T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia should be included in the list of lymphoproliferative disorders, which may present with oral manifestations as a result of the disease and its treatment complications.

  15. Prognostic significance and therapeutic potential of the activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (AKT/mTOR) pathway has been demonstrated to be involved in nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK)-mediated tumorigenesis in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and correlated with unfavorable outcome in certain types of other cancers. However, the prognostic value of AKT/mTOR activation in ALCL remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we aim to address this question from a clinical perspective by comparing the expressions of the AKT/mTOR signaling molecules in ALCL patients and exploring the therapeutic significance of targeting the AKT/mTOR pathway in ALCL. A cohort of 103 patients with ALCL was enrolled in the study. Expression of ALK fusion proteins and the AKT/mTOR signaling phosphoproteins was studied by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The pathogenic role of ALK fusion proteins and the therapeutic significance of targeting the ATK/mTOR signaling pathway were further investigated in vitro study with an ALK + ALCL cell line and the NPM-ALK transformed BaF3 cells. ALK expression was detected in 60% of ALCLs, of which 79% exhibited the presence of NPM-ALK, whereas the remaining 21% expressed variant-ALK fusions. Phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR, 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1), and 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase polypeptide 1 (p70S6K1) was detected in 76%, 80%, 91%, and 93% of ALCL patients, respectively. Both phospho-AKT (p-AKT) and p-mTOR were correlated to ALK expression, and p-mTOR was closely correlated to p-AKT. Both p-4E-BP1 and p-p70S6K1 were correlated to p-mTOR, but were not correlated to the expression of ALK and p-AKT. Clinically, ALK + ALCL occurred more commonly in younger patients, and ALK + ALCL patients had a much better prognosis than ALK-ALCL cases. However, expression of p-AKT, p-mTOR, p-4E-BP1, or p-p70S6K1 did not have an impact on the clinical outcome. Overexpression of NPM-ALK in a nonmalignant murine pro-B lymphoid cell line, BaF3, induced the

  16. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in patient after treatment of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skugor, Nives Dzeko; Perić, Zinaida; Vrhovac, Radovan; Radić-Kristo, Delfa; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Jaksić, Branimir

    2010-03-01

    Relatively few cases of Epstein-Barr (EBV)-positive B-cell lymphomas arising in patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) have been reported. We report a case of AITL in which diffuse large B-cell lymphoma arose 13 months after the initial diagnosis of AITL. In a 36-year-old female patient, evaluated for moderate leukocytosis, peripheral and abdominal lymphadenopathy AITL was diagnosed in March 2008, based on results of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the enlarged cervical and supraclavicular lymph nodes. The diagnosis was also confirmed by immunophenotyping and histopathology of the cervical lymph nodes. The patient initially recieved FED chemotherapy (fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, dexamethasone) followed by elective autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In April 2009 the patient was hospitalized because of fever, pancytopenia, hyperbilirubinemia and peripheral lymphadenopathy. The FNAC of the enlarged cervical lymph nodes was performed again, but this time the smears were composed of polymorphous population of lymphocytes with the predomination of large cells, CD20+ on immunocytochemical stains. The immunophenotyping confirmed a predomination of monoclonal mature B-cells. Patient had high number of EBV DNA copies in plasma and serologic testing revealed increased titers of EBV VCA IgG and EBV EBNA IgG. CHOP-R chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone and rituximab) was then administered, resulting in good partial response of the disease. Reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation performed thereafter, resulted in complete remission of the disease. AITL is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder in which the neoplastic T-cells represent the minority of the lymph node cell population and almost all cases harbor EBV-infected B-cells. Various authors postulated that immunodeficiency in AITL patients together with immunosuppressive effects of cytotoxic drugs, may be responsible for EBV

  17. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma of thyroid as a masquerader of anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid, diagnosed by FNA: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani Mehdi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both thyroid lymphoma and anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid present with rapidly growing mass in eldery patients. Anaplastic carcinoma has high mortality rate and combination of surgery, radiation therapy and multidrug chemotherapy are the best chance for cure. Prognosis of thyroid lymphoma is excellent and chemotherapy for widespred lymphoms and radiotherapy with or without adjuvant chemotherapy for tumors localized to the gland, are the treatment of choice. Case report This article reports a 70 year old man presenting with diffuse neck swelling and hoarseness of few weeks duration. Fine needle aspiration was done and reported as anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid which thyroidectomy was planned. The slides were sent for second opinion. After review, with initial diagnosis of anaplastic carcinoma versus lymphoma, immunocytochemical study was performed. Smears were positive for B cell markers and negative for cytokeratin, so with the impression of diffuse large B cell lymphoma, the patient received two courses of chemotherapy by which the tumor disappeared during two weaks. Conclusion Despite previous reports, stating easy diagnosis of high-grade thyroid lymphoma on the grounds of cytomorphological features we like to emphasize, overlapping cytologic features of the curable high grade thyroid lymphoma form noncurable anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and usefulness of immunocytochemistry to differentiate these two disease.

  18. Large scale analysis of pediatric antiviral CD8+ T cell populations reveals sustained, functional and mature responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Northfield John

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular immunity plays a crucial role in cytomegalovirus (CMV infection and substantial populations of CMV-specific T cells accumulate throughout life. However, although CMV infection occurs during childhood, relatively little is know about the typical quantity and quality of T cell responses in pediatric populations. Methods One thousand and thirty-six people (Male/Female = 594/442, Age: 0–19 yr.; 959 subjects, 20–29 yr.; 77 subjects were examined for HLA typing. All of 1036 subjects were tested for HLA-A2 antigen. Of 1036 subjects, 887 were also tested for HLA-A23, 24 antigens. In addition, 50 elderly people (Male/Female = 11/39, Age: 60–92 yr. were also tested for HLA-A2 antigen. We analyzed the CD8+ T cell responses to CMV, comparing these to responses in children and young. The frequencies, phenotype and function CD8+ T cells for two imunodominant epitopes from pp65 were measured. Results We observed consistently high frequency and phenotypically "mature" (CD27 low, CD28 low, CD45RA+ CMV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in children, including those studied in the first year of life. These CD8+ T cells retained functionality across all age groups, and showed evidence of memory "inflation" only in later adult life. Conclusion CMV consistently elicits a very strong CD8+ T cell response in infants and large pools of CMV specific CD8+ T cells are maintained throughout childhood. The presence of CMV may considerably mould the CD8+ T cell compartment over time, but the relative frequencies of CMV-specific cells do not show the evidence of a population-level increase during childhood and adulthood. This contrast with the marked expansion ("inflation" of such CD8+ T cells in older adults. This study indicates that large scale analysis of peptide specific T cell responses in infants is readily possible. The robust nature of the responses observed suggests vaccine strategies aimed at priming and boosting CD8+ T cells against

  19. T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    T Cells - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society Sign ... Is MS? Definition of MS T Cells T Cells Share Smaller Text Larger Text Print In this ...

  20. Locally advanced breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma: A case report of successful treatment with radiation and chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fleighton Estes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a rare phenomenon. A typical presentation is an effusion associated with a breast implant. Less commonly, disease can become more advanced locoregionally or distantly. The optimal treatment schema is a topic of debate: localized ALCL can potentially be cured with implant removal alone, while other cases in the literature, including those that are more advanced, have been treated with varying combinations of surgery, chemotherapy, and external beam radiotherapy. This is a case report of breast implant ALCL with pathologically proven lymph node involvement, the fifth such patient reported. Our patient experienced a favorable outcome with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

  1. Towards immunotherapy with redirected T cells in a large animal model: Ex vivo activation, expansion, and genetic modification of canine T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Melinda; Vera, Juan; Gerken, Claudia; Rooney, Cliona M; Miller, Tasha; Pfent, Catherine; Wang, Lisa L.; Wilson-Robles, Heather M.; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has shown promising anti-tumor activity in early phase clinical studies, especially for hematological malignancies. However, most preclinical models do not reliably mimic human disease. We reasoned that developing an adoptive T-cell therapy approach for spontaneous osteosarcoma (OS) occurring in dogs would more closely reproduce the condition in human cancer. To generate CAR-expressing canine T cells we developed expans...

  2. CD52 expression in T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia--implications for treatment with alemtuzumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, N; Del Giudice, I; Matutes, E; Morilla, A; Owusu-Ankomah, K; Morilla, R; Dunlop, A; Catovksy, D

    2005-05-01

    Few reports on the successful treatment of T-cell large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia with the humanized anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab are emerging in the literature. The expression of CD52 by LGLs has not been previously investigated. Using semi-quantitative 2- and 3-color flow cytometry, we documented the expression of CD52 in 100% of abnormal cells in T-cell LGL leukemia (n = 11) and natural killer (NK) cell LGL leukemia (n = 2), and showed no significant difference in CD52 expression between T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL) and T-cell LGL leukemia. Higher CD52 expression has been noted in responders to alemtuzumab in T-cell PLL and in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a B-cell disorder. The strong and consistent expression of CD52 shown here highlights the potential role of alemtuzumab in the treatment of refractory T-cell LGL leukemia and possibly aggressive NK cell leukemia. PMID:16019510

  3. Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the breast arising in reconstruction mammoplasty capsule of saline filled breast implant after radical mastectomy for breast cancer: an unusual case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sur Monalisa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL of the breast represents 0.04–0.5% of malignant lesions of the breast and accounts for 1.7–2.2% of extra-nodal NHL. Most primary cases are of B-cell phenotype and only rare cases are of T-cell phenotype. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a rare T-cell lymphoma typically seen in children and young adults with the breast being one of the least common locations. There are a total of eleven cases of primary ALCL of the breast described in the literature. Eight of these cases occurred in proximity to breast implants, four in relation to silicone breast implant and three in relation to saline filled breast implant with three out of the eight implant related cases having previous history of breast cancer treated surgically. Adjuvant postoperative chemotherapy is given in only one case. Secondary hematological malignancies after breast cancer chemotherapy have been reported in literature. However in contrast to acute myeloid leukemia (AML, the association between lymphoma and administration of chemotherapy has never been clearly demonstrated. Case Presentation In this report we present a case of primary ALCL of the breast arising in reconstruction mamoplasty capsule of saline filled breast implant after radical mastectomy for infiltrating ductal carcinoma followed by postoperative chemotherapy twelve years ago. Conclusion Primary ALK negative ALCL arising at the site of saline filled breast implant is rare. It is still unclear whether chemotherapy and breast implantation increases risk of secondary hematological malignancies significantly. However, it is important to be aware of these complications and need for careful pathologic examination of tissue removed for implant related complications to make the correct diagnosis for further patient management and treatment. It is important to be aware of this entity at this site as it can be easily misdiagnosed on histologic grounds and to exclude

  4. A nanocomplex that is both tumor cell-selective and cancer gene-specific for anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu Youli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many in vitro studies have demonstrated that silencing of cancerous genes by siRNAs is a potential therapeutic approach for blocking tumor growth. However, siRNAs are not cell type-selective, cannot specifically target tumor cells, and therefore have limited in vivo application for siRNA-mediated gene therapy. Results In this study, we tested a functional RNA nanocomplex which exclusively targets and affects human anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL by taking advantage of the abnormal expression of CD30, a unique surface biomarker, and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK gene in lymphoma cells. The nanocomplexes were formulated by incorporating both ALK siRNA and a RNA-based CD30 aptamer probe onto nano-sized polyethyleneimine-citrate carriers. To minimize potential cytotoxicity, the individual components of the nanocomplexes were used at sub-cytotoxic concentrations. Dynamic light scattering showed that formed nanocomplexes were ~140 nm in diameter and remained stable for more than 24 hours in culture medium. Cell binding assays revealed that CD30 aptamer probes selectively targeted nanocomplexes to ALCL cells, and confocal fluorescence microscopy confirmed intracellular delivery of the nanocomplex. Cell transfection analysis showed that nanocomplexes silenced genes in an ALCL cell type-selective fashion. Moreover, exposure of ALCL cells to nanocomplexes carrying both ALK siRNAs and CD30 RNA aptamers specifically silenced ALK gene expression, leading to growth arrest and apoptosis. Conclusions Taken together, our findings indicate that this functional RNA nanocomplex is both tumor cell type-selective and cancer gene-specific for ALCL cells.

  5. Is ALK-gene rearrangement overlooked in primary gastrointestinal T-cell lymphomas? About two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mneimneh, Wadad S; Vyas, Shikhar Gautam; Cheng, Liang; Cummings, Oscar W; Czader, Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    A 41-year-old male patient with a history of ankylosing spondylitis and Crohn disease, treated with immunomodulators and disease-modifying drugs, was diagnosed with a primary intestinal T-cell lymphoma that followed a 7.5-year-course. This transmural proliferation lacked cytological characteristics of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), and was CD8-positive, and CD30- and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-negative by immunohistochemistry (IHC). However, ALK-gene rearrangement (ALK-gr) was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in both initial and persistent disease. The possibility of indolent T-cell lymphoproliferative disease of the gastrointestinal tract with atypical features (transmural involvement) related to ALK-gr was suggested. A previous case of aggressive 'enteropathy-associated ALCL' in the context of celiac disease was recently reported, which also lacked anaplastic morphology, and where CD30 and ALK expression was incidentally demonstrated by IHC, and ALK-gr subsequently confirmed by FISH. These two recent cases represent two distinct rare entities pertaining to the group of primary intestinal T-cell lymphomas, and they both show unexpected ALK-gr. This suggests that ALK-gr has been overlooked in the group of primary intestinal T-cell lymphomas. Performing IHC and FISH tests for ALK-gr in primary gastrointestinal T-cell lymphomas might be of importance, particularly with the advancement of targeted therapy that could impact treatment and prognosis. PMID:26531107

  6. Large-scale prospective T cell function assays in shipped, unfrozen blood samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadley, David; Cheung, Roy K; Becker, Dorothy J;

    2014-01-01

    cell immunocompetence. We have found that the vast majority of the samples were viable up to 3 days from the blood draw, yet meaningful responses were found in a proportion of those with longer travel times. Furthermore, the shipping time of uncooled samples significantly decreased both the viabilities...... of the samples and the unstimulated cell counts in the viable samples. Also, subject age was significantly associated with the number of unstimulated cells and T cell proliferation to positive activators. Finally, we observed a pattern of statistically significant increases in T cell responses to...

  7. Sialylation by β-galactoside α-2,6-sialyltransferase and N-glycans regulate cell adhesion and invasion in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Osamu; Abe, Masafumi; HASHIMOTO, YUKO

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between cell surface glycans and extracellular matrix (ECM) including galectins is known to be closely associated with tumor cell adhesion, invasion and metastasis. We analyzed the roles of cell surface sialylation or glycosylation in galectin or ECM-mediated cell adhesion and invasion of human malignant lymphoma cells. Neuraminidase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens (AU) treatment resulted in reduction of cell adhesion to galectin-8 in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma (H-ALCL...

  8. Locally Advanced Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma: A Case Report of Successful Treatment with Radiation and Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Estes, Christopher F.; Zhang, Da; Reyes, Ruben; Korentager, Richard; McGinness, Marilee; Lominska, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The development of breast implant-associated anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare phenomenon. A typical presentation is an effusion associated with a breast implant. Less commonly, disease can be more advanced locoregionally or distantly. The optimal treatment schema is a topic of debate: localized ALCL can potentially be cured with implant removal alone, while other cases in the literature, including those that are more advanced, have been treated with varying combinations of surg...

  9. Clinicopathologic Features of Gastrointestinal Tract Involvement of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma%累及胃肠道的间变性大细胞淋巴瘤的临床病理学特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健; 周皎琳; 陈杰; 卢朝辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of gastrointestinal tract involvement of anaplastic large cell lymphoma ( ALCL ). Methods The clinicopathological features of four patients with ALCL that involved gastrointestinal tract were retrospectively analyzed using immunohistochemical study, T-cell receptor gene rearrangement analysis, and evaluation for Epstein Barr virus infection status. Results Most tumor cells in all these four cases are large and highly pleomorphic, and all four cases were classified as the "common pattern" ALCL Tumor cells in all four tumors expressed CD30, and expressed at least one cytotoxic maker. Two patients were confirmed to be with anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( ALK) -positive ALCL, and four patients were negative during in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA but showed clonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. Conclusion Gastrointestinal tract involvement of ALCL has the unique clinicopathological features.%目的 总结累及胃肠道的间变性大细胞淋巴瘤(ALCL)的临床病理学特点.方法 收集整理4例累及胃肠道的ALCL病例标本,对其进行临床病理分析、免疫组织化学检测、EB病毒编码的RNA (EBER)原位杂交检测及T细胞受体(TCR)基因重排检测.结果 4例病例中,肿瘤细胞均以多形性大细胞为主,归为普通型ALCL;均表现为弥漫、较强地表达CD30,且至少表达1种细胞毒性抗原;2例为间变性淋巴瘤激酶(ALK)阳性ALCL;4例EBER原位杂交检测均为阴性且均存在TCR基因克隆性重排.结论 累及胃肠道的ALCL具有独特的临床病理特点.

  10. Novel somatic mutations in large granular lymphocytic leukemia affecting the STAT-pathway and T-cell activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T-cell large granular lymphocytic (T-LGL) leukemia is a clonal disease characterized by the expansion of mature CD3+CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It is often associated with autoimmune disorders and immune-mediated cytopenias. Our recent findings suggest that up to 40% of T-LGL patients harbor mutations in the STAT3 gene, whereas STAT5 mutations are present in 2% of patients. In order to identify putative disease-causing genetic alterations in the remaining T-LGL patients, we performed exome sequencing from three STAT mutation-negative patients and validated the findings in 113 large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia patients. On average, 11 CD8+ LGL leukemia cell-specific high-confidence nonsynonymous somatic mutations were discovered in each patient. Interestingly, all patients had at least one mutation that affects either directly the STAT3-pathway (such as PTPRT) or T-cell activation (BCL11B, SLIT2 and NRP1). In all three patients, the STAT3 pathway was activated when studied by RNA expression or pSTAT3 analysis. Screening of the remaining 113 LGL leukemia patients did not reveal additional patients with same mutations. These novel mutations are potentially biologically relevant and represent rare genetic triggers for T-LGL leukemia, and are associated with similar disease phenotype as observed in patients with mutations in the STAT3 gene

  11. Anaplastic astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Sean A; Chamberlain, Marc C

    2016-07-01

    Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) is a diffusely infiltrating, malignant, astrocytic, primary brain tumor. AA is currently defined by histology although future classification schemes will include molecular alterations. AA can be separated into subgroups, which share similar molecular profiles, age at diagnosis and median survival, based on 1p/19q co-deletion status and IDH mutation status. AA with co-deletion of chromosomes 1p and 19q and IDH mutation have the best prognosis. AA with IDH mutation and no 1p/19q co-deletion have intermediate prognosis and AA with wild-type IDH have the worst prognosis and share many molecular alterations with glioblastoma. Treatment of noncodeleted AA based on preliminary results from the CATNON clinical trial consists of maximal safe resection followed by radiotherapy with post-radiotherapy temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. The role of concurrent TMZ and whether IDH1 subgroups benefit from TMZ is currently being evaluated in the recently completed randomized, prospective Phase III clinical trial, CATNON. PMID:27230974

  12. Chemotherapy-resistant breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Parthasarathy, Muralidharan; Orrell, Julian; Mortimer, Caroline; Ball, Liz

    2013-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman presented with a few weeks’ history of discomfort and swelling in her left breast. She had undergone bilateral breast augmentation 8 years previously. There were no risk factors for breast cancer. Clinical examination, mammography and breast ultrasound revealed a large left breast mass adjacent to the breast implant with enlarged axillary lymph nodes. Owing to diagnostic uncertainty, core biopsies were sent to a specialist unit which confirmed breast implant-associated ana...

  13. Brentuximab vedotin in children and adolescents with Hodgkin’s lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma – literature review and own experience

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Myakova; D. A. Evstratov; D. S. Abramov; D. M. Konovalov; A. V. Pshonkin; D. V. Litvinov

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant advances in the treatment of lymphomas in children remain a small proportion of patients with refractory or recurrent disease. An effective approach to the treatment of such patients – not only is the second line chemotherapy, but the use of the new targeted therapies. An example of this approach is the use of brentuximab vedotin (antibody-drug conjugate directed to the CD30) in relapsed Hodgkin’s lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Literature review and own exper...

  14. T-Cell Lymphomas in South America and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Bellei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral T-cell lymphomas are a group of rare neoplasms originating from clonal proliferation of mature post-thymic lymphocytes with different entities having specific biological characteristics and clinical features. As natural killer cells are closely related to T-cells, natural killer-cell lymphomas are also part of the group. The current World Health Organization classification recognizes four categories of T/natural killer-cell lymphomas with respect to their presentation: disseminated (leukemic, nodal, extranodal and cutaneous. Geographic variations in the distribution of these diseases are well documented: nodal subtypes are more frequent in Europe and North America, while extranodal forms, including natural killer-cell lymphomas, occur almost exclusively in Asia and South America. On the whole, T-cell lymphomas are more common in Asia than in western countries, usually affect adults, with a higher tendency in men, and, excluding a few subtypes, usually have an aggressive course and poor prognosis. Apart from anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, that have a good outcome, other nodal and extranodal forms have a 5-year overall survival of about 30%. According to the principal prognostic indexes, the majority of patients are allocated to the unfavorable subset. In the past, the rarity of these diseases prevented progress in the understanding of their biology and improvements in the efficaciousness of therapy. Recently, international projects devoted to these diseases created networks promoting investigations on T-cell lymphomas. These projects are the basis of forthcoming cooperative, large scale trials to detail biologic characteristics of each sub-entity and to possibly individuate targets for new therapies.

  15. T-cell lymphomas in South america and europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellei, Monica; Chiattone, Carlos Sergio; Luminari, Stefano; Pesce, Emanuela Anna; Cabrera, Maria Elena; de Souza, Carmino Antonio; Gabús, Raul; Zoppegno, Lucia; Zoppegno, Lucia; Milone, Jorge; Pavlovsky, Astrid; Connors, Joseph Michael; Foss, Francine Mary; Horwitz, Steven Michael; Liang, Raymond; Montoto, Silvia; Pileri, Stefano Aldo; Polliack, Aaron; Vose, Julie Marie; Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Zucca, Emanuele; Federico, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas are a group of rare neoplasms originating from clonal proliferation of mature post-thymic lymphocytes with different entities having specific biological characteristics and clinical features. As natural killer cells are closely related to T-cells, natural killer-cell lymphomas are also part of the group. The current World Health Organization classification recognizes four categories of T/natural killer-cell lymphomas with respect to their presentation: disseminated (leukemic), nodal, extranodal and cutaneous. Geographic variations in the distribution of these diseases are well documented: nodal subtypes are more frequent in Europe and North America, while extranodal forms, including natural killer-cell lymphomas, occur almost exclusively in Asia and South America. On the whole, T-cell lymphomas are more common in Asia than in western countries, usually affect adults, with a higher tendency in men, and, excluding a few subtypes, usually have an aggressive course and poor prognosis. Apart from anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, that have a good outcome, other nodal and extranodal forms have a 5-year overall survival of about 30%. According to the principal prognostic indexes, the majority of patients are allocated to the unfavorable subset. In the past, the rarity of these diseases prevented progress in the understanding of their biology and improvements in the efficaciousness of therapy. Recently, international projects devoted to these diseases created networks promoting investigations on T-cell lymphomas. These projects are the basis of forthcoming cooperative, large scale trials to detail biologic characteristics of each sub-entity and to possibly individuate targets for new therapies. PMID:23049383

  16. Homeostasis of T Cell Diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinay S. Mahajan; Ilya B. Leskov; Jianzhu Chen

    2005-01-01

    T cell homeostasis commonly refers to the maintenance of relatively stable T cell numbers in the peripheral lymphoid organs. Among the large numbers of T cells in the periphery, T cells exhibit structural diversity, I.e., the expression of a diverse repertoire of T cell receptors (TCRs), and functional diversity, I.e., the presence of T cells at na(I)ve, effector, and memory developmental stages. Although the homeostasis of T cell numbers has been extensively studied, investigation of the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of structural and functional diversity of T cells is still at an early stage. The fundamental feature throughout T cell development is the interaction between the TCR and either self or foreign peptides in association with MHC molecules. In this review, we present evidence showing that homeostasis of T cell number and diversity is mediated through competition for limiting resources.The number of T cells is maintained through competition for limiting cytokines, whereas the diversity of T cells is maintained by competition for self-peptide-MHC complexes. In other words, diversity of the self-peptide repertoire limits the structural (TCR) diversity of a T cell population. We speculate that cognate low affinity self-peptides,acting as weak agonists and antagonists, regulate the homeostasis of T cell diversity whereas non-cognate or null peptides which are extremely abundant for any given TCR, may contribute to the homeostasis of T cell number by providing survival signals. Moreover, self-peptides and cytokines may form specialized niches for the regulation of T cell homeostasis.

  17. Homeostasis of T Cell Diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VinayS.Mahajan; IlyaB.Leskov; JianzhuChen

    2005-01-01

    T cell homeostasis commonly refers to the maintenance of relatively stable T cell numbers in the peripheral lymphoid organs. Among the large numbers of T cells in the periphery, T cells exhibit structural diversity, i.e., the expression of a diverse repertoire of T cell receptors (TCRs), and functional diversity, i.e., the presence of T cells at naive, effector, and memory developmental stages. Although the homeostasis of T cell numbers has been extensively studied, investigation of the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of structural and functional diversity of T cells is still at an early stage. The fundamental feature throughout T cell development is the interaction between the TCR and either self or foreign peptides in association with MHC molecules. In this review, we present evidence showing that homeostasis of T cell number and diversity is mediated through competition for limiting resources. The number of T cells is maintained through competition for limiting cytokines, whereas the diversity of T cells is maintained by competition for self-peptide-MHC complexes. In other words, diversity of the self-peptide repertoire limits the structural (TCR) diversity of a T cell population. We speculate that cognate low affinity self-peptides, acting as weak agonists and antagonists, regulate the homeostasis of T cell diversity whereas non-cognate or null peptides which are extremely abundant for any given TCR, may contribute to the homeostasis of T cell number by providing survival signals. Moreover, self-peptides and cytokines may form specialized niches for the regulation of T cell homeostasis. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(1): 1-10.

  18. Locally advanced breast implant-associated anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: a case report of successful treatment with radiation and chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Christopher F; Zhang, Da; Reyes, Ruben; Korentager, Richard; McGinness, Marilee; Lominska, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The development of breast implant-associated anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare phenomenon. A typical presentation is an effusion associated with a breast implant. Less commonly, disease can be more advanced locoregionally or distantly. The optimal treatment schema is a topic of debate: localized ALCL can potentially be cured with implant removal alone, while other cases in the literature, including those that are more advanced, have been treated with varying combinations of surgery, chemotherapy, and external beam radiotherapy. This is a case report of breast implant ALCL with pathologically proven lymph node involvement, the fifth such patient reported. Our patient experienced a favorable outcome with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. PMID:25741471

  19. Donor T Cells After Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-20

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood

  20. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma of thyroid as a masquerader of anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid, diagnosed by FNA: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani Mehdi; Omidvari Shapour; Daneshbod Yahya; Daneshbod Khosrow; Negahban Shahrzad

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Both thyroid lymphoma and anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid present with rapidly growing mass in eldery patients. Anaplastic carcinoma has high mortality rate and combination of surgery, radiation therapy and multidrug chemotherapy are the best chance for cure. Prognosis of thyroid lymphoma is excellent and chemotherapy for widespred lymphoms and radiotherapy with or without adjuvant chemotherapy for tumors localized to the gland, are the treatment of choice. Case report Thi...

  1. The importance of Notch signaling in peripheral T-cell lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Maria Rørbæk; Biskup, Edyta; Gjerdrum, Lise Mette Rahbek;

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTLs) represent an area of high medical need. Previously, we demonstrated high expression of Notch, a known oncogene, in primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). In this study, we performed immunohistochemical staining for Notch1 in lymph nodes from PTL...... ALK- (nine cases) (p > 0.05). In the ALK+ ALCL cell line, Karpas-299, pharmacological inhibition of Notch with γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) I was far more potent than with GSI IX, XX and XXI with regard to cell viability and apoptosis. In conclusion, PTL tumor cells have prominent Notch1 expression and...

  2. FOXP3 positive regulatory T-cells in cutaneous and systemic CD30 positive T-cell lymphoproliferations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum, Lise Mette; Woetmann, Anders; Ødum, Niels;

    2008-01-01

    -cells (Tregs) may be implicated. In this study, skin biopsies from lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) (n = 14), primary cutaneous anaplastic large cells lymphoma (C-ALCL) (n = 13) and systemic anaplastic large cells lymphoma (S-ALCL) with (n = 9) or without (n = 6) ALK expression were examined by immunohistology for...... FOXP3 expression in tumour cells and tumour infiltrating Tregs. Labelling of a majority of the neoplastic cells was seen in one case of C-ALCL. Another three cases (one LyP and two C-ALCL) displayed weak labelling of very occasional atypical T-cells. In the remaining 38 cases the atypical lymphoid...... infiltrate was FOXP3 negative. By contrast, all biopsies contained tumour infiltrating FOXP3-positive Tregs. Significant higher numbers were recorded in ALK negative S-ALCL and LyP than in C-ALCL and S-ALCL positive for ALK. In conclusion, it is shown that FOXP3 expression in cutaneous and systemic CD30...

  3. Galectin-1-mediated cell adhesion, invasion and cell death in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma: regulatory roles of cell surface glycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Osamu; Abe, Masafumi

    2014-05-01

    Galectin-1 is known to be one of the extracellular matrix proteins. To elucidate the biological roles of galectin-1 in cell adhesion and invasion of human anaplastic large cell lymphoma, we performed cell adhesion and invasion assays using the anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell line H-ALCL, which was previously established in our laboratory. From the cell surface lectin array, treatment with neuraminidase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens which cleaves all linkage types of cell surface sialic acid enhanced Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Helix pomatia (HPA) and Phaseolus vulgaris-L (L-PHA) lectin binding reactivity to cell surface of lymphoma cells suggesting that neuraminidase removes cell surface sialic acid. In cell adhesion and invasion assays treatment with neuraminidase markedly enhanced cell adhesion to galectin-1 and decreased cell invasive capacity through galectin-1. α2,6-linked sialic acid may be involved in masking the effect of the interaction between galectin-1 and cell surface glycans. H-ALCL cells expressed the β-galactoside-α2,6-sialyltransferase ST6Gal1. On resialylation assay by recombinant ST6Gal1 with CMP-Neu5Ac, α2,6-resialylation of L-PHA reactive oligosaccharide by ST6Gal1 resulted in inhibition of H-ALCL cell adhesion to galectin-1 compared to the desialylated H-ALCL cells. On knockdown experiments, knockdown of ST6Gal1 dramatically enhanced cell adhesion to galectin-1. N-glycosylation inhibitor swainsonine treatment resulted in enhancement of cell adhesion to galectin-1. In glycomic analysis using the lectin blocking assay treatment with PNA, Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin), Glycine max (SBA), Helix pomatia (HPA), Vicia villosa (VVA), Ulex europaeus (UEA-1), Triticum vulgaris (WGA), Canavalia ensiformis (ConA), Phaseolus vulgaris-L (L-PHA), Phaseolus vulgaris-E4 (E-PHA), Datura stramonium (DSA) lectins resulted in modulation of lymphoma cell to galectin-1 suggesting that several types of glycans may regulate cell adhesion to galectin-1 by

  4. Case report: a unique pediatric case of a primary CD8 expressing ALK-1 positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma of skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaiser Timo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary involvement of skeletal muscle is a very rare event in ALK-1 positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL. We describe a case of a 10-year old boy presenting with a three week history of pain and a palpable firm swelling at the dorsal aspect of the left thigh. Histological examination of the lesion revealed a tumoral and diffuse polymorphic infiltration of the muscle by large lymphoid cells. Tumor cells displayed eccentric, lobulated "horse shoe" or "kidney-shape" nuclei. The cells showed immunohistochemical positivity for CD30, ALK-1, CD2, CD3, CD7, CD8, and Perforin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed a characteristic rearrangement of the ALK-1 gene in 2p23 leading to the diagnosis of ALK-1 positive ALCL. Chemotherapy according to the ALCL-99-NHL-BFM protocol was initiated and resulted in a complete remission after two cycles. This case illustrates the unusual presentation of a pediatric ALCL in soft tissue with a good response to chemotherapy.

  5. A 16-Gene Signature Distinguishes Anaplastic Astrocytoma from Glioblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Soumya Alige Mahabala Rao; Sujaya Srinivasan; Irene Rosita Pia Patric; Alangar Sathyaranjandas Hegde; Bangalore Ashwathnarayanara Chandramouli; Arivazhagan Arimappamagan; Vani Santosh; Paturu Kondaiah; Manchanahalli R Sathyanarayana Rao; Kumaravel Somasundaram

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA; Grade III) and glioblastoma (GBM; Grade IV) are diffusely infiltrating tumors and are called malignant astrocytomas. The treatment regimen and prognosis are distinctly different between anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma patients. Although histopathology based current grading system is well accepted and largely reproducible, intratumoral histologic variations often lead to difficulties in classification of malignant astrocytoma samples. In order to obtain a mo...

  6. Circulating human CD4 and CD8 T cells do not have large intracellular pools of CCR5

    OpenAIRE

    Pilch-Cooper, Heather A.; Sieg, Scott F.; Hope, Thomas J.; Koons, Ann; Escola, Jean-Michel; Offord, Robin; Veazey, Ronald S.; Mosier, Donald E.; Clagett, Brian; Medvik, Kathy; Jadlowsky, Julie K; Chance, Mark R.; Kiselar, Janna G.; Hoxie, James A.; Collman, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    CC Chemokine Receptor 5 (CCR5) is an important mediator of chemotaxis and the primary coreceptor for HIV-1. A recent report by other researchers suggested that primary T cells harbor pools of intracellular CCR5. With the use of a series of complementary techniques to measure CCR5 expression (antibody labeling, Western blot, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction), we established that intracellular pools of CCR5 do not exist and that the results obtained by the other rese...

  7. Epigenetic Silencing of the Proapoptotic Gene BIM in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma through an MeCP2/SIN3a Deacetylating Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Piazza

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BIM is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. Here, we investigated the epigenetic status of the BIM locus in NPM/ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL cell lines and in lymph node biopsies from NPM/ALK+ ALCL patients. We show that BIM is epigenetically silenced in cell lines and lymph node specimens and that treatment with the deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A restores the histone acetylation, strongly upregulates BIM expression, and induces cell death. BIM silencing occurs through recruitment of MeCP2 and the SIN3a/histone deacetylase 1/2 (HDAC1/2 corepressor complex. This event requires BIM CpG methylation/demethylation with 5-azacytidine that leads to detachment of the MeCP2 corepressor complex and reacetylation of the histone tails. Treatment with the ALK inhibitor PF2341066 or with an inducible shRNA targeting NPM/ALK does not restore BIM locus reacetylation; however, enforced expression of NPM/ALK in an NPM/ALK-negative cell line significantly increases the methylation at the BIM locus. This study demonstrates that BIM is epigenetically silenced in NPM/ALK-positive cells through recruitment of the SIN3a/HDAC1/2 corepressor complex and that NPM/ALK is dispensable to maintain BIM epigenetic silencing but is able to act as an inducer of BIM methylation.

  8. The dichloromethane extract of the ethnomedicinal plant Neurolaena lobata inhibits NPM/ALK expression which is causal for anaplastic large cell lymphomagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Christine; Popescu, Ruxandra; Giessrigl, Benedikt; Laimer, Daniela; Heider, Susanne; Seelinger, Mareike; Diaz, Rene; Wallnöfer, Bruno; Egger, Gerda; Hassler, Melanie; Knöfler, Martin; Saleh, Leila; Sahin, Emine; Grusch, Michael; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Dolznig, Helmut; Frisch, Richard; Kenner, Lukas; Kopp, Brigitte; Krupitza, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates extracts of Neuolaena lobata, an anti-protozoan ethnomedicinal plant of the Maya, regarding its anti-neoplastic properties. Firstly, extracts of increasing polarity were tested in HL-60 cells analyzing inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis induction. Secondly, the most active extract was further tested in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) cell lines of human and mouse origin. The dichloromethane extract inhibited proliferation of HL-60, human and mouse ALCL cells with an IC50 of ~2.5, 3.7 and 2.4 µg/ml, respectively and arrested cells in the G2/M phase. The extract induced the checkpoint kinases Chk1 and Chk2 and perturbed the orchestrated expression of the Cdc25 family of cell cycle phosphatases which was paralleled by the activation of p53, p21 and downregulation of c-Myc. Importantly, the expression of NPM/ALK and its effector JunB were drastically decreased, which correlated with the activation of caspase 3. Subsequently also platelet derived growth factor receptor β was downregulated, which was recently shown to be transcriptionally controlled by JunB synergizing with ALK in ALCL development. We show that a traditional healing plant extract downregulates various oncogenes, induces tumor suppressors, inhibits cell proliferation and triggers apoptosis of malignant cells. The discovery of the 'Active Principle(s)' is warranted. PMID:23135783

  9. Lobatin B inhibits NPM/ALK and NF-κB attenuating anaplastic-large-cell-lymphomagenesis and lymphendothelial tumour intravasation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Izabella; Unger, Christine; Huu, Chi Nguyen; Atanasov, Atanas Georgiev; Kramer, Nina; Chatruphonprasert, Waranya; Brenner, Stefan; McKinnon, Ruxandra; Peschel, Andrea; Vasas, Andrea; Lajter, Ildiko; Kain, Renate; Saiko, Philipp; Szekeres, Thomas; Kenner, Lukas; Hassler, Melanie R; Diaz, Rene; Frisch, Richard; Dirsch, Verena M; Jäger, Walter; de Martin, Rainer; Bochkov, Valery N; Passreiter, Claus M; Peter-Vörösmarty, Barbara; Mader, Robert M; Grusch, Michael; Dolznig, Helmut; Kopp, Brigitte; Zupko, Istvan; Hohmann, Judit; Krupitza, Georg

    2015-01-28

    An apolar extract of the traditional medicinal plant Neurolaena lobata inhibited the expression of the NPM/ALK chimera, which is causal for the majority of anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs). Therefore, an active principle of the extract, the furanoheliangolide sesquiterpene lactone lobatin B, was isolated and tested regarding the inhibition of ALCL expansion and tumour cell intravasation through the lymphendothelium. ALCL cell lines, HL-60 cells and PBMCs were treated with plant compounds and the ALK inhibitor TAE-684 to measure mitochondrial activity, proliferation and cell cycle progression and to correlate the results with protein- and mRNA-expression of selected gene products. Several endpoints indicative for cell death were analysed after lobatin B treatment. Tumour cell intravasation through lymphendothelial monolayers was measured and potential causal mechanisms were investigated analysing NF-κB- and cytochrome P450 activity, and 12(S)-HETE production. Lobatin B inhibited the expression of NPM/ALK, JunB and PDGF-Rβ, and attenuated proliferation of ALCL cells by arresting them in late M phase. Mitochondrial activity remained largely unaffected upon lobatin B treatment. Nevertheless, caspase 3 became activated in ALCL cells. Also HL-60 cell proliferation was attenuated whereas PBMCs of healthy donors were not affected by lobatin B. Additionally, tumour cell intravasation, which partly depends on NF-κB, was significantly suppressed by lobatin B most likely due to its NF-κB-inhibitory property. Lobatin B, which was isolated from a plant used in ethnomedicine, targets malignant cells by at least two properties: I) inhibition of NPM/ALK, thereby providing high specificity in combating this most prevalent fusion protein occurring in ALCL; II) inhibition of NF-κB, thereby not affecting normal cells with low constitutive NF-κB activity. This property also inhibits tumour cell intravasation into the lymphatic system and may provide an option to manage this

  10. MicroRNA181a Is Overexpressed in T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma and Related to Chemoresistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Xun Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRs play an important role in tumorogenesis and chemoresistance in lymphoid malignancies. Comparing with reactive hyperplasia, miR181a was overexpressed in 130 patients with T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, including acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (n=32, T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (n=16, peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (n=45, anaplastic large cell lymphoma (n=15, and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (n=22. Irrespective to histological subtypes, miR181a overexpression was associated with increased AKT phosphorylation. In vitro, ectopic expression of miR181a in HEK-293T cells significantly enhanced cell proliferation, activated AKT, and conferred cell resistance to doxorubicin. Meanwhile, miR181a expression was upregulated in Jurkat cells, along with AKT activation, during exposure to chemotherapeutic agents regularly applied to T-cell leukemia/lymphoma treatment, such as doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, and cisplatin. Isogenic doxorubicin-resistant Jurkat and H9 cells were subsequently developed, which also presented with miR181a overexpression and cross-resistance to cyclophosphamide and cisplatin. Meanwhile, specific inhibition of miR181a enhanced Jurkat and H9 cell sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents, further indicating that miR181a was involved in acquired chemoresistance. Collectively, miR181a functioned as a biomarker of T-cell leukemia/lymphoma through modulation of AKT pathway. Related to tumor cell chemoresistance, miR181a could be a potential therapeutic target in treating T-cell malignancies.

  11. Large-scale in vitro expansion of human regulatory T cells with potent xenoantigen-specific suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xi; Lu, Yanrong; Zhao, Ye; Yi, Shounan

    2016-08-01

    Xenotransplantation is a potential solution to the organ donor shortage. Immunosuppression is required for successful application of xenotransplantation but may lead to infection and cancer. Thus, strategies for immune tolerance induction need to be developed. Polyclonal regulatory T cells (Treg) play a central role in the induction and maintenance of immune tolerance and have been shown to protect against islet xenograft rejection in vivo. However, global immune suppression may be mediated by polyclonal Treg immunotherapy and a simple method for in vitro expansion of xenoantigen-specific Treg for efficient Treg application becomes necessary. Human Treg isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were initially cultured with anti-CD3/CD28 beads, rapamycin and IL-2 for 7 days as polyclonal expansion. Expanded Treg were then cocultured with irradiated porcine PBMC as xenoantigen stimulation for three subsequent cycles with 7 days for each cycle in the presence of IL-2 and anti-CD3/CD28 beads. Treg phenotype and suppressive capacity were assessed after each cycle of xenoantigen stimulation. Treg expanded with one cycle of xenoantigen stimulation retained Treg suppressive phenotype but acquired no xenoantigen specificity along with poor expansion efficiency, whereas expansion with two-cycle xenoantigen stimulation resulted in not only more than 800-fold Treg expansion but highly suppressive xenoantigen-specific Treg with effector Treg phenotype. However further increase of stimulation cycles resulted in reduced Treg suppressive potency. This study provides a simple approach to obtain high numbers of xenoantigen-specific Treg for immune tolerance induction in xenotransplantation. PMID:25605448

  12. Alisertib in Combination With Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma, B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-12

    Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Cutaneous B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Lymphomatous Involvement of Non-Cutaneous Extranodal Site; Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestinal Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-Cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  13. T Cells Going Innate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyda, Midas; Elkhal, Abdallah; Quante, Markus; Falk, Christine S; Tullius, Stefan G

    2016-08-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell receptors (NKRs) play a crucial role in the homeostasis of antigen-experienced T cells. Indeed, prolonged antigen stimulation may induce changes in the receptor repertoire of T cells to a profile that features NKRs. Chronic antigen exposure, at the same time, has been shown to trigger the loss of costimulatory CD28 molecules with recently reported intensified antigen thresholds of antigen-experienced CD8(+) T cells. In transplantation, NKRs have been shown to assist allograft rejection in a CD28-independent fashion. We discuss here a role for CD28-negative T cells that have acquired the competency of the NKR machinery, potentially promoting allorecognition either through T cell receptor (TCR) crossreactivity or independently from TCR recognition. Collectively, NKRs can bring about innate-like T cells by providing alternative costimulatory pathways that gain relevance in chronic inflammation, potentially leading to resistance to CD28-targeting immunosuppressants. PMID:27402226

  14. A 16-gene signature distinguishes anaplastic astrocytoma from glioblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Alige Mahabala Rao

    Full Text Available Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA; Grade III and glioblastoma (GBM; Grade IV are diffusely infiltrating tumors and are called malignant astrocytomas. The treatment regimen and prognosis are distinctly different between anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma patients. Although histopathology based current grading system is well accepted and largely reproducible, intratumoral histologic variations often lead to difficulties in classification of malignant astrocytoma samples. In order to obtain a more robust molecular classifier, we analysed RT-qPCR expression data of 175 differentially regulated genes across astrocytoma using Prediction Analysis of Microarrays (PAM and found the most discriminatory 16-gene expression signature for the classification of anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma. The 16-gene signature obtained in the training set was validated in the test set with diagnostic accuracy of 89%. Additionally, validation of the 16-gene signature in multiple independent cohorts revealed that the signature predicted anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma samples with accuracy rates of 99%, 88%, and 92% in TCGA, GSE1993 and GSE4422 datasets, respectively. The protein-protein interaction network and pathway analysis suggested that the 16-genes of the signature identified epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT pathway as the most differentially regulated pathway in glioblastoma compared to anaplastic astrocytoma. In addition to identifying 16 gene classification signature, we also demonstrated that genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition may play an important role in distinguishing glioblastoma from anaplastic astrocytoma.

  15. Course and Clinical Significance of CD8+ T-Cell Counts in a Large Cohort of HIV-Infected Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Kronborg, Gitte; Ullum, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine trajectories of CD8(+) T-cell counts before and after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and associations with mortality. METHODS: CD8(+) T-cell counts were measured in 3882 HIV-infected individuals who...... received care in Copenhagen during 1995-2012. Reference values were obtained from 1230 persons from the background population. Mortality rate ratios were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: CD8(+) T-cell counts were elevated during untreated HIV infection and remained elevated through 10 years of c......ART. A slight drop of 130 cells/µL (interquartile range, -160 to 410 cells/μL) in the median CD8(+) T-cell count was observed after cART initiation. CD8(+) T-cell counts stabilized at approximately 900 cells/µL (95th percentile of the background population, 835 cells/µL). Markedly elevated CD8(+) T-cell...

  16. From IMGT-ONTOLOGY to IMGT/LIGMotif: the IMGT® standardized approach for immunoglobulin and T cell receptor gene identification and description in large genomic sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefranc Marie-Paule

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antigen receptors, immunoglobulins (IG and T cell receptors (TR, are specific molecular components of the adaptive immune response of vertebrates. Their genes are organized in the genome in several loci (7 in humans that comprise different gene types: variable (V, diversity (D, joining (J and constant (C genes. Synthesis of the IG and TR proteins requires rearrangements of V and J, or V, D and J genes at the DNA level, followed by the splicing at the RNA level of the rearranged V-J and V-D-J genes to C genes. Owing to the particularities of IG and TR gene structures related to these molecular mechanisms, conventional bioinformatic software and tools are not adapted to the identification and description of IG and TR genes in large genomic sequences. In order to answer that need, IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system®, has developed IMGT/LIGMotif, a tool for IG and TR gene annotation. This tool is based on standardized rules defined in IMGT-ONTOLOGY, the first ontology in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics. Results IMGT/LIGMotif currently annotates human and mouse IG and TR loci in large genomic sequences. The annotation includes gene identification and orientation on DNA strand, description of the V, D and J genes by assigning IMGT® labels, gene functionality, and finally, gene delimitation and cluster assembly. IMGT/LIGMotif analyses sequences up to 2.5 megabase pairs and can analyse them in batch files. Conclusions IMGT/LIGMotif is currently used by the IMGT® biocurators to annotate, in a first step, IG and TR genomic sequences of human and mouse in new haplotypes and those of closely related species, nonhuman primates and rat, respectively. In a next step, and following enrichment of its reference databases, IMGT/LIGMotif will be used to annotate IG and TR of more distantly related vertebrate species. IMGT/LIGMotif is available at http://www.imgt.org/ligmotif/.

  17. T-cell costimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T

    1996-01-01

    The CD40L molecule expressed by CD4+ regulatory T lymphocytes is known to deliver signals that activate B cells and macrophages. It now appears that CD40L regulates T cells themselves, during both their development and their participation in adaptive immune responses.......The CD40L molecule expressed by CD4+ regulatory T lymphocytes is known to deliver signals that activate B cells and macrophages. It now appears that CD40L regulates T cells themselves, during both their development and their participation in adaptive immune responses....

  18. T cell senescence and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hee Tae; Park, Sungha; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lee, Won-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Age-related changes in the immune system, commonly termed "immunosenescence," contribute to deterioration of the immune response and fundamentally impact the health and survival of elderly individuals. Immunosenescence affects both the innate and adaptive immune systems; however, the most notable changes are in T cell immunity and include thymic involution, the collapse of T cell receptor (TCR) diversity, an imbalance in T cell populations, and the clonal expansion of senescent T cells. Senescent T cells have the ability to produce large quantities of proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic mediators; thus, they have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory diseases. Recently, an increasing body of evidence has suggested that senescent T cells also have pathogenic potential in cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and myocardial infarction, underscoring the detrimental roles of these cells in various chronic inflammatory responses. Given that cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide, there is great interest in understanding the contribution of age-related immunological changes to its pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss general features of age-related alterations in T cell immunity and the possible roles of senescent T cells in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26188489

  19. T cell traffic signals

    OpenAIRE

    Van Epps, Heather L.

    2005-01-01

    In 1990, Charles Mackay and colleagues combined classical physiology with modern molecular biology to provide the first concrete evidence that naive and memory T cells follow distinct migratory routes out of the bloodstream— a discovery that helped invigorate the field of lymphocyte homing.

  20. 77例T细胞非霍奇金淋巴瘤的临床病理特点和免疫表型分析%The clinicopathologic features and immunophenotypes of T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: an analysis of 77 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟; 陈陆俊; 田波; 谈炎; 鲁常青

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the clinicopathologic features and immunophenotypes of T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Methods Seventy-seven of T-cell non-Hodgkin s lymphomas were studied by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. All cases were reclassified according to the new WHO classification of lymphomas. Results Of 77 T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas,32(41. 6%) cases were extranodal NK/T cell lymphomas of nasal type,20(26. 0%) cases were nonspecific peripheral T cell lymphomas, 11 (14. 3%) cases were anaplastic large cell lymphomas and 9(11.7%) cases were precursor T lymphoblastic lymphomas. Conclusion Among T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma of nasal type is the most common subtype. The other main subtypes conclude nonspecific peripheral T cell lymphomas, anaplastic large cell lymphomas and precursor T lymphoblastic lymphomas. The patients with extranodal NK/T cell lymphomas of nasal type have poor prognosis, while those with anaplastic large cell lymphomas have favorable prognosis.%目的 探讨T细胞非霍奇金淋巴瘤的临床病理特点和免疫表型.方法 对77例T细胞非霍奇金淋巴瘤进行苏木素和伊红染色(HE)和免疫组织化学检查,按WHO 2008年《造血和淋巴 组织肿瘤的病理学和遗传学》标准进行分类.结果 77例T细胞非霍奇金淋巴瘤中,鼻型结外NK/T细胞淋巴瘤32例(41.6%),非特异性外周T细胞淋巴瘤20例(26.0%),间变性大细胞淋巴瘤11例(14.3%),前驱T淋巴细胞淋巴瘤9例(11.7%).结论 T细胞非霍奇金淋巴瘤中,最常发生的亚型是鼻型结外NK/T细胞淋巴瘤,其次为非特异性外周T细胞淋巴瘤、间变性大细胞淋巴瘤和前驱T淋巴细胞淋巴瘤.其中,鼻型结外NK/T细胞淋巴瘤预后较差,而间变性大细胞淋巴瘤预后相对 较好.

  1. [Successful long-term control of recurrent primary central nervous system anaplastic large cell lymphoma after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with concurrent whole brain and spinal cord radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroshima, Yuki; Kaiume, Hiroko; Kirihara, Takehiko; Takeda, Wataru; Kurihara, Taro; Sato, Keijiro; Shimizu, Ikuo; Ueki, Toshimitsu; Sumi, Masahiko; Ueno, Mayumi; Ichikawa, Naoaki; Asano, Naoko; Watanabe, Masahide; Kobayashi, Hikaru

    2015-12-01

    A 24-year-old woman was hospitalized with seizures in 2002. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an intraspinal mass and inhomogeneous gadolinium enhancement along the cerebrospinal meninges. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology showed large atypical cells expressing CD2, cytoplasmic CD3, CD7, CD13 and CD30. The patient was finally diagnosed with primary central nervous system anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). She completed 5 courses of methotrexate (MTX)/ procarbazine (PCZ)/ vincristine (VCR) (MPV) chemotherapy, followed by 2 courses of high dose cytarabine (AraC) and achieved a complete remission. In 2003, she suffered from headache. CSF analysis showed atypical lymphoid cells expressing CD 30. First CNS relapse was diagnosed. She then underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT) after administration of thiotepa, buslfan, and cyclophosphamide. However, second CNS relapse occurred in 2004. She received 5 courses of MPV chemotherapy followed by 36 Gy of craniospinal irradiation. Although there was no recurrence of the CNS disease, a third relapse was detected in the right breast in 2009. Pathological and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed ALK-1 positive ALCL. She was treated with 6 courses of cyclophosphamide/adriamycin/vincristine/predonine (CHOP) chemotherapy and 30.6 Gy of local radiation therapy. She has remained in remission for 6 years, to date, since the last therapy and has an excellent quality of life. PMID:26725359

  2. T cells in peripheral blood after gluten challenge in coeliac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, R. P.; VAN HEEL, D A; Tye-Din, J A; Barnardo, M; Salio, M; Jewell, D P; Hill, A. V. S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Current understanding of T cell epitopes in coeliac disease (CD) largely derives from intestinal T cell clones in vitro. T cell clones allow identification of gluten peptides that stimulate T cells but do not quantify their contribution to the overall gluten specific T cell response in individuals with CD when exposed to gluten in vivo.

  3. Expression of TIA-1 and TIA-2 in T cell malignancies and T cell lymphocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matutes, E; Coelho, E; Aguado, M J; Morilla, R; Crawford, A; Owusu-Ankomah, K; Catovsky, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the reactivity with TIA-1 and TIA-2, two monoclonal antibodies that recognise, respectively, granular structures in T lymphocytes and the T cell receptor chain in cells from a variety of T cell disorders. METHODS: Cytoplasmic staining with TIA-1 and TIA-2 was carried out by the immunoalkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase technique in 67 cases with a T cell disorder: 31 large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukaemia, nine T-prolymphocytic leukaemia (T-PLL), five Sezary syndrome, four peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL), 13 T cell lymphocytosis, and five T-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL). All had over 75% abnormal T cells which were CD2+, CD3+, CD5+, CD7+, and negative with B cell markers. RESULTS: TIA-1 was positive in 77% cases of LGL leukaemia and half of the PTCL and T-ALL, whereas it was negative in all Sezary syndrome and most T-PLL (8/9) and reactive T-lymphocytosis (10/13). In LGL leukaemia, TIA-1 was positive irrespective of the membrane phenotype, whether CD8+, CD4- or CD4+, CD8-, and was more often positive in cases where cells were CD16+, CD56+, or CD57+. TIA-2 was positive in 60% of cases encompassing all diagnostic types of T cell disorder. There was no correlation between TIA-2 expression and that of other T cell markers, activation antigens, and natural killer markers. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of TIA-1 expression in T cell malignancies may help in the differential diagnosis among LGL leukaemia (high expression), T cell lymphocytosis and other T cell diseases (low expression). As TIA-2 is expressed in over 95% mature T lymphocytes and thymic cells, its assessment may be useful to demonstrate aberrant phenotypes which can be exploited for detecting minimal residual disease. Images PMID:8655683

  4. Dissecting the regulatory microenvironment of a large animal model of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: evidence of a negative prognostic impact of FOXP3+ T cells in canine B cell lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dammy Pinheiro

    Full Text Available The cancer microenvironment plays a pivotal role in oncogenesis, containing a number of regulatory cells that attenuate the anti-neoplastic immune response. While the negative prognostic impact of regulatory T cells (Tregs in the context of most solid tissue tumors is well established, their role in lymphoid malignancies remains unclear. T cells expressing FOXP3 and Helios were documented in the fine needle aspirates of affected lymph nodes of dogs with spontaneous multicentric B cell lymphoma (BCL, proposed to be a model for human non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Multivariable analysis revealed that the frequency of lymph node FOXP3(+ T cells was an independent negative prognostic factor, impacting both progression-free survival (hazard ratio 1.10; p = 0.01 and overall survival (hazard ratio 1.61; p = 0.01 when comparing dogs showing higher than the median FOXP3 expression with those showing the median value of FOXP3 expression or less. Taken together, these data suggest the existence of a population of Tregs operational in canine multicentric BCL that resembles thymic Tregs, which we speculate are co-opted by the tumor from the periphery. We suggest that canine multicentric BCL represents a robust large animal model of human diffuse large BCL, showing clinical, cytological and immunophenotypic similarities with the disease in man, allowing comparative studies of immunoregulatory mechanisms.

  5. Follicular Helper T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinuesa, Carola G; Linterman, Michelle A; Yu, Di; MacLennan, Ian C M

    2016-05-20

    Although T cell help for B cells was described several decades ago, it was the identification of CXCR5 expression by B follicular helper T (Tfh) cells and the subsequent discovery of their dependence on BCL6 that led to the recognition of Tfh cells as an independent helper subset and accelerated the pace of discovery. More than 20 transcription factors, together with RNA-binding proteins and microRNAs, control the expression of chemotactic receptors and molecules important for the function and homeostasis of Tfh cells. Tfh cells prime B cells to initiate extrafollicular and germinal center antibody responses and are crucial for affinity maturation and maintenance of humoral memory. In addition to the roles that Tfh cells have in antimicrobial defense, in cancer, and as HIV reservoirs, regulation of these cells is critical to prevent autoimmunity. The realization that follicular T cells are heterogeneous, comprising helper and regulatory subsets, has raised questions regarding a possible division of labor in germinal center B cell selection and elimination. PMID:26907215

  6. IL15 and T-cell Stemness in T-cell-Based Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipow, Karolina; Roberto, Alessandra; Roederer, Mario; Waldmann, Thomas A; Mavilio, Domenico; Lugli, Enrico

    2015-12-15

    Preclinical models revealed that the immune system can mediate rejection of established tumors, but direct evidence in humans has been limited to largely immunogenic tumors, such as melanoma. The recent success of immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive T-cell transfer immunotherapy in clinical trials has instilled new hope for the use of T-cell immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer. IL15, a potent immunostimulatory cytokine, both potentiates host T-cells and natural killer (NK) cell immune responses and promotes the generation of long-lived memory T cells with superior functional capacity, with potential use in adoptive T-cell transfer protocols. IL15 has been recently tested in the clinic and showed dramatic effects at the level of responding NK and CD8(+) memory T cells. The recent advances in the knowledge of IL15-dependent regulation of T-cell responses, gene expression, and metabolic adaptation have important implications for the use of IL15 in T-cell-based immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:26627006

  7. Identification of differential PI3K pathway target dependencies in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia through a large cancer cell panel screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, James T; McEwen, Robert; Crafter, Claire; McDermott, Ultan; Garnett, Mathew J; Barry, Simon T; Davies, Barry R

    2016-04-19

    Selective phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR inhibitors are currently under evaluation in clinical studies. To identify tumor types that are sensitive to PI3K pathway inhibitors we screened compounds targeting PI3Kα/δ (AZD8835), PI3Kβ/δ (AZD8186), AKT (AZD5363) and mTORC1/2 (AZD2014) against a cancer cell line panel (971 cell lines). There was an enrichment of hematological malignancies that were sensitive to AKT and mTOR inhibition, with the greatest degree of sensitivity observed in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). We found that all NOTCH mutant T-ALL cell lines were sensitive to AKT and mTORC1/2 inhibitors, with only partial sensitivity to agents that target the PI3K α, β or δ isoforms. Induction of apoptosis only occurred following AKTi treatment in cell lines with PTEN protein loss and high levels of active AKT. In summary, we have demonstrated that T-ALL cell lines show differential sensitivity to inhibition at different nodes in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and inhibiting AKT or mTOR may have a therapeutic benefit in this disease setting. PMID:26989080

  8. Histone H1 interphase phosphorylation becomes largely established in G1 or early S phase and differs in G1 between T-lymphoblastoid cells and normal T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gréen Anna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone H1 is an important constituent of chromatin, and is involved in regulation of its structure. During the cell cycle, chromatin becomes locally decondensed in S phase, highly condensed during metaphase, and again decondensed before re-entry into G1. This has been connected to increasing phosphorylation of H1 histones through the cell cycle. However, many of these experiments have been performed using cell-synchronization techniques and cell cycle-arresting drugs. In this study, we investigated the H1 subtype composition and phosphorylation pattern in the cell cycle of normal human activated T cells and Jurkat T-lymphoblastoid cells by capillary electrophoresis after sorting of exponentially growing cells into G1, S and G2/M populations. Results We found that the relative amount of H1.5 protein increased significantly after T-cell activation. Serine phosphorylation of H1 subtypes occurred to a large extent in late G1 or early S phase in both activated T cells and Jurkat cells. Furthermore, our data confirm that the H1 molecules newly synthesized during S phase achieve a similar phosphorylation pattern to the previous ones. Jurkat cells had more extended H1.5 phosphorylation in G1 compared with T cells, a difference that can be explained by faster cell growth and/or the presence of enhanced H1 kinase activity in G1 in Jurkat cells. Conclusion Our data are consistent with a model in which a major part of interphase H1 phosphorylation takes place in G1 or early S phase. This implies that H1 serine phosphorylation may be coupled to changes in chromatin structure necessary for DNA replication. In addition, the increased H1 phosphorylation of malignant cells in G1 may be affecting the G1/S transition control and enabling facilitated S-phase entry as a result of relaxed chromatin condensation. Furthermore, increased H1.5 expression may be coupled to the proliferative capacity of growth-stimulated T cells.

  9. Redirecting T Cell Specificity Using T Cell Receptor Messenger RNA Electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Sarene; Shimasaki, Noriko; Bertoletti, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Autologous T lymphocytes genetically modified to express T cell receptors or chimeric antigen receptors have shown great promise in the treatment of several cancers, including melanoma and leukemia. In addition to tumor-associated antigens and tumor-specific neoantigens, tumors expressing viral peptides can also be recognized by specific T cells and are attractive targets for cell therapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma cells often have hepatitis B virus DNA integration and can be targeted by hepatitis B virus-specific T cells. Here, we describe a method to engineer hepatitis B virus-specific T cell receptors in primary human T lymphocytes based on electroporation of hepatitis B virus T cell receptor messenger RNA. This method can be extended to a large scale therapeutic T cell production following current good manufacturing practice compliance and is applicable to the redirection of T lymphocytes with T cell receptors of other virus specificities such as Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and chimeric receptors specific for other antigens expressed on cancer cells. PMID:27236807

  10. Continuous requirement for the T cell receptor for regulatory T cell function

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Andrew G; Arvey, Aaron; Jin, Wei; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2014-01-01

    Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) maintain immunological tolerance and their deficiency results in fatal multi-organ autoimmunity. Although heightened T cell receptor (TCR) signaling is critical for the differentiation of Treg cells, the role of TCR signaling in Treg cell function remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate inducible ablation of the TCR results in Treg cell dysfunction which cannot be attributed to impaired Foxp3 expression, decreased expression of Treg cell signature g...

  11. T cell subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnani, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The role of allergen-specific CD4+ effector type 2 helper (Th2) cells in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders is an established fact. Th2 cells produce interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, which induce immunoglobulin E production by B cells, and IL-5 that allows recruitment of eosinophils. Two main mechanisms control the Th2-mediated allergic inflammation: immune deviation (or Th1 redirection) and immune regulation. Regulatory T (Treg) cells exhibit a CD4+ phenotype and include Foxp3-positive thymic and induced Tregs, as well as Foxp3-negative IL-10-producing cells. Both immune deviation and immune regulation evoked by the maternal and newborn microbial environment probably operate in preventing allergen-specific Th2 responses. However, microbe-related protection from allergy seems to mainly depend on epigenetically controlled acetylation of the IFNG promoter of CD4+ T cells. Even Th17 and Th9 cells, as well as invariant NKT cells, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders, but their role is certainly more limited. Recently, innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2) have been found to be able to produce high amounts of IL-5 and IL-13 in response to stimulation with IL-25 and IL-33 produced by non-immune cells. Together with Th2 cells, ILC2 may contribute to the induction and maintenance of allergic inflammation. PMID:24925396

  12. Memory T-cell competition for bone marrow seeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rosa, Francesca; Santoni, Angela

    2003-03-01

    The presence in the bone marrow of memory CD8 T cells is well recognized. However, it is still largely unclear how T-cell migration from the lymphoid periphery to the bone marrow is regulated. In the present report, we show that antigen-specific CD4 T cells, as well as antigen-specific CD8 T cells, localize to the bone marrow of immunized mice, and are sustained there over long periods of time. To investigate the rules governing T-cell migration to the bone marrow, we generated chimeric mice in which the lymphoid periphery contained two genetically or phenotypically distinct groups of T cells, one of which was identical to the host. We then examined whether a distinct type of T cell had an advantage over the others in the colonization of bone marrow. Our results show that whereas ICAM1 and CD18 molecules are both involved in homing to lymph nodes, neither is crucial for T-cell bone marrow colonization. We also observed that memory-phenotype CD44high T cells, but not virgin-type CD44-/low T cells, preferentially home to the bone marrow upon adoptive transfer to normal young mice, but not to thymectomized old recipients where an existing memory T-cell pool precludes their free access. Thus, T-cell colonization of the bone marrow uses distinct molecules from those implicated in lymph node homing, and is regulated both by the properties of the T cell and by the competitive efficacy of other T cells inhabiting the same, saturable niche. This implies that the homing potential of an individual lymphocyte is not merely an intrinsic property of the cell, but rather a property of the lymphoid system taken as a whole. PMID:12603595

  13. T-cell responses in malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, L; Jakobsen, P H; Abu-Zeid, Y A;

    1992-01-01

    Malaria is caused by infection with protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. It remains one of the most severe health problems in tropical regions of the world, and the rapid spread of resistance to drugs and insecticides has stimulated intensive research aimed at the development of a malaria...... vaccine. Despite this, no efficient operative vaccine is currently available. A large amount of information on T-cell responses to malaria antigens has been accumulated, concerning antigens derived from all stages of the parasite life cycle. The present review summarizes some of that information, and...... discusses factors affecting the responses of T cells to malaria antigens....

  14. A phase II study of cyclophosphamide, etoposide, vincristine and prednisone (CEOP) Alternating with Pralatrexate (P) as front line therapy for patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL): final results from the T- cell consortium trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advani, Ranjana H; Ansell, Stephen M; Lechowicz, Mary J; Beaven, Anne W; Loberiza, Fausto; Carson, Kenneth R; Evens, Andrew M; Foss, Francine; Horwitz, Steven; Pro, Barbara; Pinter-Brown, Lauren C; Smith, Sonali M; Shustov, Andrei R; Savage, Kerry J; M Vose, Julie

    2016-02-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) have suboptimal outcomes using conventional CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) chemotherapy. The anti-folate pralatrexate, the first drug approved for patients with relapsed/refractory PTCL, provided a rationale to incorporate it into the front-line setting. This phase 2 study evaluated a novel front-line combination whereby cyclophosphamide, etoposide, vincristine and prednisone (CEOP) alternated with pralatrexate (CEOP-P) in PTCL. Patients achieving a complete or partial remission (CR/PR) were eligible for consolidative stem cell transplantation (SCT) after 4 cycles. Thirty-three stage II-IV PTCL patients were treated: 21 PTCL-not otherwise specified (64%), 8 angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (24%) and 4 anaplastic large cell lymphoma (12%). The majority (61%) had stage IV disease and 46% were International Prognostic Index high/intermediate or high risk. Grade 3-4 toxicities included anaemia (27%), thrombocytopenia (12%), febrile neutropenia (18%), mucositis (18%), sepsis (15%), increased creatinine (12%) and liver transaminases (12%). Seventeen patients (52%) achieved a CR. The 2-year progression-free survival and overall survial, were 39% (95% confidence interval 21-57) and 60% (95% confidence interval 39-76), respectively. Fifteen patients (45%) (12 CR) received SCT and all remained in CR at a median follow-up of 21·5 months. CEOP-P did not improve outcomes compared to historical data using CHOP. Defining optimal front line therapy in PTCL continues to be a challenge and an unmet need. PMID:26627450

  15. Anaplastic thyroid cancer, tumorigenesis and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2010-03-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a fatal endocrine malignancy. Current therapy fails to significantly improve survival. Recent insights into thyroid tumorigenesis, post-malignant dedifferentiation and mode of metastatic activity offer new therapeutic strategies.

  16. Anaplastic myeloma in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, R C; Thomas, S M; Thompson, J M; Keat, A C

    1984-01-01

    We describe a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus who developed an unusual form of anaplastic myeloma. Possible relationships between the two disease, and the role played by immunosuppressive therapy, are discussed. Images PMID:6476924

  17. Leptomeningeal metastases from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is an extremely aggressive neoplasm that accounts for 1-3% of all thyroid cancers. ' Most patients have metastatic disease at presentation and die in a short period of time, often with uncontrolled local disease. We report a case of anaplastic thyroid cancer characterised by good response to initial treatment both locally and in distant metastases, and the subsequent development of refractory metastatic disease in an unusual site, the leptomeninges

  18. The Lupus Susceptibility Gene Pbx1 Regulates the Balance between Follicular Helper T Cell and Regulatory T Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Chul; Hutchinson, Tarun E; Titov, Anton A; Seay, Howard R; Li, Shiwu; Brusko, Todd M; Croker, Byron P; Salek-Ardakani, Shahram; Morel, Laurence

    2016-07-15

    Pbx1 controls chromatin accessibility to a large number of genes and is entirely conserved between mice and humans. The Pbx1-d dominant-negative isoform is more frequent in CD4(+) T cells from lupus patients than from healthy controls. Pbx1-d is associated with the production of autoreactive T cells in mice carrying the Sle1a1 lupus-susceptibility locus. Transgenic (Tg) expression of Pbx1-d in CD4(+) T cells reproduced the phenotypes of Sle1a1 mice, with increased inflammatory functions of CD4(+) T cells and impaired Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell (Treg) homeostasis. Pbx1-d-Tg expression also expanded the number of follicular helper T cells (TFHs) in a cell-intrinsic and Ag-specific manner, which was enhanced in recall responses and resulted in Th1-biased Abs. Moreover, Pbx1-d-Tg CD4(+) T cells upregulated the expression of miR-10a, miR-21, and miR-155, which were implicated in Treg and follicular helper T cell homeostasis. Our results suggest that Pbx1-d impacts lupus development by regulating effector T cell differentiation and promoting TFHs at the expense of Tregs. In addition, our results identify Pbx1 as a novel regulator of CD4(+) T cell effector function. PMID:27296664

  19. T cells expressing CD19-specific Engager Molecules for the Immunotherapy of CD19-positive Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Mireya Paulina Velasquez; David Torres; Kota Iwahori; Sunitha Kakarla; Caroline Arber; Tania Rodriguez-Cruz; Arpad Szoor; Bonifant, Challice L.; Claudia Gerken; Cooper, Laurence J.N.; Xiao-Tong Song; Stephen Gottschalk

    2016-01-01

    T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) or the infusion of bispecific T-cell engagers (BITEs) have shown antitumor activity in humans for CD19-positive malignancies. While BITEs redirect the large reservoir of resident T cells to tumors, CAR T cells rely on significant in vivo expansion to exert antitumor activity. We have shown that it is feasible to modify T cells to secrete solid tumor antigen-specific BITEs, enabling T cells to redirect resident T cells to tumor cells. To ada...

  20. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng ZHI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the clinical pathological characteristics, immunophenotyping, diagnosis and differential diagnosis and prognosis of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA with anaplastic features.  Methods  HE staining was used for histological observation. The expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, vimentin (Vim, CD34, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, progestrone receptor (PR, neurofilment protein (NF, neuronal nuclei (NeuN, synaptophysin (Syn, Nestin (Nes, S-100 protein (S-100, P53 and Ki-67 labeling index were detected by immunohistochemical method. BRAF mutation was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification.  Results  A 43-year-old male patient presented with repeatedly paroxysmal tic of limbs and disturbance of consciousness. Cranial MRI revealed multiple abnormal signals in left temporo-occipito-parietal lobe and posterior horn of lateral ventricle, with unclear borderline and cystic degeneration. Surgical removal of the lesion was performed. Histologically, the tumor was biphasic. One part was composed of spindle cells arranged in fascicles or as running water, with weird multinuclear giant cells. Abundant vacuolated lipidized cytoplasm could be seen. Mitosis and "map"-like necrosis were noted. Another part revealed the tumor cells were consistent in size and uniform in distribution, with loose background tissue. Immunohistochemistry showed tumor cells were diffusely positive for GFAP, Vim, S-100, Nes, CD34 and P53, and negative for EMA, Syn, NeuN and NF. Ki-67 labeling index was about 15%. Reticular fiber staining showed abundant reticular fibers in the tumor tissue. BRAF mutation detected by PCR amplification was not found.  Conclusions  Classified as grade Ⅱ in the World Health Organization (WHO classification, the prognosis of PXA is good. A diagnosis of PXA with anaplastic features should be considered when the tumor demonstrates mitotic activity > 5/10 high power field (HPF and/or areas of

  1. B and T cell screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct immunofluorescence; E-rosetting; T and B lymphocyte assays; B and T lymphocyte assays ... identifiers are added to distinguish between T and B cells. The E-rosetting test identifies T cells ...

  2. Genetic Modification of T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Morgan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene transfer technology and its application to human gene therapy greatly expanded in the last decade. One area of investigation that appears particularly promising is the transfer of new genetic material into T cells for the potential treatment of cancer. Herein, we describe several core technologies that now yield high-efficiency gene transfer into primary human T cells. These gene transfer techniques include viral-based gene transfer methods based on modified Retroviridae and non-viral methods such as DNA-based transposons and direct transfer of mRNA by electroporation. Where specific examples are cited, we emphasize the transfer of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs to T cells, which permits engineered T cells to recognize potential tumor antigens.

  3. ADULT T CELL LEUKEMIA LYMPHOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Neely, S. M.

    2004-01-01

    Adult T cell leukemia lymphoma (ATLL) is a CD4+ lymphoproliferative malignancy resulting from human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV1) infection. It includes differing clinical forms classified as smoldering, chronic, lymphomatous, and acute ATLL. The Tax protein of HTLV-1 has been implicated as a viral oncoprotein which enhances virus replication and alters cellular gene expression, including activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF kB), to result in lymphoid transformation. Chemotherapy f...

  4. Genetics of T Cell Defects in Lupus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yifang Chen; Laurence More

    2005-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by anti-nuclear autoantibodies that cause damage to multiple organs and tissues. Intrinsic defects have been demonstrated in the lymphoid and myeloid cellular compartments, including T cells. Lupus susceptibility is mediated through the interplay of a large number of genes, most of which are still unidentified. Most of the genetic studies in both human patients and mouse models have addressed lupus susceptibility as a whole. More recently however, more attention has been paid to the inheritance of specific lupus-associated phenotypes. In this review, we summarized our results obtained with the Slel locus in the NZM2410 mouse model, which mediates the generation of anti-histone autoreactive T cells. Sle1,which is constituted of multiple genes, is the only known genomic region that is sufficient for the generation of autoreactive T cells. The identification of the corresponding genes will constitute a landmark for our understanding of the mechanisms of autoimmunity. Our results are discussed in the context of candidate genes and the role of T cells in systemic autoimmunity.

  5. Relative contribution of "determinant selection" and "holes in the T-cell repertoire" to T-cell responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, E B; Sette, A; Johnson, D L; Bekoff, M C; Smith, J A; Grey, H M; Buus, S

    1989-01-01

    for a large universe of antigens. On the other hand, since the Ia molecules cannot distinguish between self and non-self, not all antigen-Ia interactions would be permitted to elicit a T-cell response. It appears that both Ia binding ("determinant selection") and T-cell repertoire act in concert to...

  6. Monoclonal regulatory T cells provide insights into T cell suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, Céline; Schmaler, Mathias; Rossi, Simona W; Palmer, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have a crucial role in maintaining lymphocyte homeostasis. However an understanding of how Tregs function at a cellular and molecular level has not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we make use of a T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic, Rag(-/-) mouse expressing a Forkhead-Box-Protein P3 (Foxp3) transgene. This mouse provides a source of monoclonal CD4(+) Foxp3(+) T cells with a defined specificity. Here we show that monoclonal B3K506 Tregs are functional in vitro and in vivo and clearly require cognate antigen to be suppressive. We further show that the strength of Treg stimulation determines the strength of Treg mediated suppression. Finally we analysed various suppressive mechanisms used by monoclonal Tregs and found that Treg-Tconv proximity is a parameter, which correlates with enhanced suppression. PMID:27210828

  7. Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors, CNS Tumors, Lymphoma, or T-Cell Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-04

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Gonadotroph Adenoma; Pituitary Basophilic Adenoma; Pituitary Chromophobe Adenoma; Pituitary Eosinophilic Adenoma; Prolactin Secreting Adenoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent Pituitary Tumor; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; TSH Secreting Adenoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  8. Multi-gene epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes in T-cell lymphoma cells; delayed expression of the p16 protein upon reversal of the silencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagasawa, T; Zhang, Q; Raghunath, P N; Wong, H Y; El-Salem, M; Szallasi, A; Marzec, M; Gimotty, P; Rook, A H; Vonderheid, E C; Odum, Niels; Wasik, M A

    2006-01-01

    To understand better T-cell lymphomagenesis, we examined promoter CpG methylation and mRNA expression of closely related genes encoding p16, p15, and p14 tumor suppressor genes in cultured malignant T-cells that were derived from cutaneous, adult type, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-express......To understand better T-cell lymphomagenesis, we examined promoter CpG methylation and mRNA expression of closely related genes encoding p16, p15, and p14 tumor suppressor genes in cultured malignant T-cells that were derived from cutaneous, adult type, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK......)-expressing T-cell lymphomas. p16 gene was epigenetically silenced in all but one of the 10 malignant T-cell lines examined, p15 gene silenced in roughly half of the lines, and p14 was the least frequently affected. Extensive methylation of the p16 promoter was seen in six out of 10 cutaneous T-cell lymphoma...... patient samples and corresponded with lack of p16 protein expression in the cases examined. Treatment of cultured T-cells with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2-deoxy-cytidine, resulted in reversal of the p16 gene silencing. However, expression of p16 protein was delayed in relationship to p16...

  9. Increased Frequency of Suppressive Regulatory T Cells and T-cell Mediated Antigen Loss Results in Murine Melanoma Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Shawn M.; Twitty, Christopher G.; Maston, Levi D.; Antony, Paul A.; Lim, May; Hu, Hong-Ming; Petrausch, Ulf; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Fox, Bernard A.

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic treatment of large established tumors using immunotherapy has yielded few promising results. We investigated if adoptive transfer of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells together with tumor-specific CD4+ T cells would mediate regression of large established B16BL6-D5 (D5) melanomas in lymphopenic Rag1−/− recipients devoid of regulatory T cells. The combined adoptive transfer of subtherapeutic doses of both TRP1-specific TCR transgenic Rag1−/− CD4+ T cells and gp100-specific TCR transgenic Rag1−/− CD8+ T cells into lymphopenic recipients, that received vaccination, led to regression of large (100–400 mm2) melanomas. The same treatment strategy was ineffective in lymphoreplete wt mice. Twenty-five percent of mice (15/59) had tumors recur (15–180 days post regression). Recurrent tumors were depigmented and had decreased expression of gp100, the epitope targeted by the CD8+ T cells. Mice with recurrent melanoma had increased CD4+Foxp3+ TRP1-specific T cells compared to mice that did not show evidence of disease. Importantly, splenocytes from mice with recurrent tumor were able to suppress the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of splenocytes from tumor-free mice. These data demonstrate that large established tumors can be treated by a combination of tumor-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. Additionally, recurrent tumors exhibited decreased antigen expression and were accompanied by conversion of the therapeutic tumor-specific CD4+ T cell population to a FoxP3+ CD4+ regulatory T cell population. PMID:22723522

  10. T-Bet and Eomes Regulate the Balance between the Effector/Central Memory T Cells versus Memory Stem Like T Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    Full Text Available Memory T cells are composed of effector, central, and memory stem cells. Previous studies have implicated that both T-bet and Eomes are involved in the generation of effector and central memory CD8 T cells. The exact role of these transcription factors in shaping the memory T cell pool is not well understood, particularly with memory stem T cells. Here, we demonstrate that both T-bet or Eomes are required for elimination of established tumors by adoptively transferred CD8 T cells. We also examined the role of T-bet and Eomes in the generation of tumor-specific memory T cell subsets upon adoptive transfer. We showed that combined T-bet and Eomes deficiency resulted in a severe reduction in the number of effector/central memory T cells but an increase in the percentage of CD62L(highCD44(low Sca-1(+ T cells which were similar to the phenotype of memory stem T cells. Despite preserving large numbers of phenotypic memory stem T cells, the lack of both of T-bet and Eomes resulted in a profound defect in antitumor memory responses, suggesting T-bet and Eomes are crucial for the antitumor function of these memory T cells. Our study establishes that T-bet and Eomes cooperate to promote the phenotype of effector/central memory CD8 T cell versus that of memory stem like T cells.

  11. T cells and aging, January 2002 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelec, Graham; Barnett, Yvonne; Forsey, Ros; Frasca, Daniela; Globerson, Amiela; McLeod, Julie; Caruso, Calogero; Franceschi, Claudio; Fülöp, Támás; Gupta, Sudhir; Mariani, Erminia; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Solana, Rafael

    2002-05-01

    Age-related changes in the immune system may contribute to morbidity and mortality due to decreased resistance to infection and, possibly, certain cancers in the aged. Many studies mostly performed in mice, rats and man but also including monkeys and dogs have established that age-associated immune decline is characterized by decreases in both humoral and cellular responses. The former may be largely a result of the latter, because observed changes both in the B cell germline-encoded repertoire and the age-associated decrease in somatic hypermutation of the B cell antigen receptors are now known to be critically affected by helper T cell aging. As antigen presenting cell (APC) function appears to be well-maintained in the elderly, this review will focus on the T cell. Factors contributing to T cell immunosenescence may include a) altered production of T cell progenitors (stem cell defects, stromal cell defects), b) decreased levels of newly-generated mature T cells (thymic involution), c) aging of resting immune cells, d) disrupted activation pathways in immune cells (stimulation via the T cell receptor for antigen, costimulation, apoptosis control), e) replicative senescence of clonally expanding cells. This review aims to consider the current state of knowledge on the scientific basis for and potential clinical relevance of those factors in immunosenescence in humans. Experiments in other species will be touched upon with the proviso that there are clearly differences between them, especially between humans and rodents, but exactly what those differences are is not completely clear. Given its potential importance and the increasing proportion of elderly people the world over, coupled with the realisation that whereas mortality is decreasing, morbidity may not be decreasing in parallel (1), a better understanding of the causes and impact of immunosenescence may offer the possibility of identifying where prevention or delay of onset, as well as therapeutic

  12. Secondary cutaneous Epstein-Barr virus-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a patient with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Xu; Pei, Xiao-Juan; Tian, Xiao-Ying; Li, Yang; Li, Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Only a few cases of extranodal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B-cell lymphomas arising from patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) have been described. We report a case of AITL of which secondary cutaneous EBV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) developed after the initial diagnosis of AITL. A 65-year-old Chinese male patient was diagnosed as AITL based on typical histological and immunohistochemical characteristics in biopsy of the enlarged right inguinal lymph nodes. The patient initially received 6 cycles of chemotherapy with CHOP regimen (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, adriamycin, prednisone), but his symptoms did not disappear. Nineteen months after initial diagnosis of AITL, the patient was hospitalized again because of multiple plaques and nodules on the skin. The skin biopsy was performed, but this time the tumor was composed of large, polymorphous population of lymphocytes with CD20 and CD79a positive on immunohistochemical staining. The tumor cells were strong positive for EBER by in situ hybridization. The findings of skin biopsy were compatible with EBV-associated DLBCL. CHOP-R chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone and rituximab) was then administered, resulting in partial response of the disease with pancytopenia and suppression of cellular immunity. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cutaneous EBV-associated DLBCL originated from AITL in Chinese pepole. We suggest the patients with AITL should perform lymph node and skin biopsies regularly in the course of the disease to detect the progression of secondary lymphomas. PMID:22260632

  13. Fish T cells: recent advances through genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Kerry J.; Hansen, John D.

    2011-01-01

    This brief review is intended to provide a concise overview of the current literature concerning T cells, advances in identifying distinct T cell functional subsets, and in distinguishing effector cells from memory cells. We compare and contrast a wealth of recent progress made in T cell immunology of teleost, elasmobranch, and agnathan fish, to knowledge derived from mammalian T cell studies. From genome studies, fish clearly have most components associated with T cell function and we can speculate on the presence of putative T cell subsets, and the ability to detect their differentiation to form memory cells. Some recombinant proteins for T cell associated cytokines and antibodies for T cell surface receptors have been generated that will facilitate studying the functional roles of teleost T cells during immune responses. Although there is still a long way to go, major advances have occurred in recent years for investigating T cell responses, thus phenotypic and functional characterization is on the near horizon.

  14. T-cell-predominant lymphoid hyperplasia in a tattoo*

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Erica Sales; Rocha, Bruno de Oliveira; Batista, Everton da Silva; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Ferreira; Farre, Lourdes; Bittencourt, Achilea Lisboa

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH) can be idiopathic or secondary to external stimuli, and is considered rare in tattoos. The infiltrate can be predominantly of B or T-cells, the latter being seldom reported in tattoos. We present a case of a predominantly T CLH, secondary to the black pigment of tattooing in a 35-year-old patient, with a dense infiltrate of small, medium and scarce large T-cells. Analysis of the rearrangement of T-cells receptor revealed a polyclonal proliferation. Since t...

  15. Mixed functional characteristics correlating with TCR-ligand koff -rate of MHC-tetramer reactive T cells within the naive T-cell repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombrink, Pleun; Raz, Yotam; Kester, Michel G D; de Boer, Renate; Weißbrich, Bianca; von dem Borne, Peter A; Busch, Dirk H; Schumacher, Ton N M; Falkenburg, J H Frederik; Heemskerk, Mirjam H M

    2013-11-01

    The low frequency of antigen-specific naïve T cells has challenged numerous laboratories to develop various techniques to study the naïve T-cell repertoire. Here, we combine the generation of naïve repertoire-derived antigen-specific T-cell lines based on MHC-tetramer staining and magnetic-bead enrichment with in-depth functional assessment of the isolated T cells. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) specific T-cell lines were generated from seronegative individuals. Generated T-cell lines consisted of a variety of immunodominant CMV-epitope-specific oligoclonal T-cell populations restricted to various HLA-molecules (HLA-A1, A2, B7, B8, and B40), and the functional and structural avidity of the CMV-specific T cells was studied. Although all CMV-specific T cells were isolated based on their reactivity toward a specific peptide-MHC complex, we observed a large variation in the functional avidity of the MHC-tetramer positive T-cell populations, which correlated with the structural avidity measured by the recently developed Streptamer koff -rate assay. Our data demonstrate that MHC-tetramer staining is not always predictive for specific T-cell reactivity, and challenge the sole use of MHC-tetramers as an indication of the peripheral T-cell repertoire, independent of the analysis of functional activity or structural avidity parameters. PMID:23893393

  16. Secondary cutaneous Epstein-Barr virus-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a patient with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qing-Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Only a few cases of extranodal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-associated B-cell lymphomas arising from patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL have been described. We report a case of AITL of which secondary cutaneous EBV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL developed after the initial diagnosis of AITL. A 65-year-old Chinese male patient was diagnosed as AITL based on typical histological and immunohistochemical characteristics in biopsy of the enlarged right inguinal lymph nodes. The patient initially received 6 cycles of chemotherapy with CHOP regimen (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, adriamycin, prednisone, but his symptoms did not disappear. Nineteen months after initial diagnosis of AITL, the patient was hospitalized again because of multiple plaques and nodules on the skin. The skin biopsy was performed, but this time the tumor was composed of large, polymorphous population of lymphocytes with CD20 and CD79a positive on immunohistochemical staining. The tumor cells were strong positive for EBER by in situ hybridization. The findings of skin biopsy were compatible with EBV-associated DLBCL. CHOP-R chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone and rituximab was then administered, resulting in partial response of the disease with pancytopenia and suppression of cellular immunity. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cutaneous EBV-associated DLBCL originated from AITL in Chinese pepole. We suggest the patients with AITL should perform lymph node and skin biopsies regularly in the course of the disease to detect the progression of secondary lymphomas. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1197421158639299

  17. TCF12 is mutated in anaplastic oligodendroglioma

    OpenAIRE

    Labreche, Karim; Simeonova, Iva; Kamoun, Aurélie; Gleize, Vincent; Chubb, Daniel; Letouzé, Eric; Riazalhosseini, Yasser; Dobbins, Sara E; Elarouci, Nabila; Ducray, Francois; De Reyniès, Aurélien; Zelenika, Diana; Wardell, Christopher P.; Frampton, Mathew; Saulnier, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) are rare primary brain tumours that are generally incurable, with heterogeneous prognosis and few treatment targets identified. Most oligodendrogliomas have chromosomes 1p/19q co-deletion and an IDH mutation. Here we analysed 51 AO by whole-exome sequencing, identifying previously reported frequent somatic mutations in CIC and FUBP1. We also identified recurrent mutations in TCF12 and in an additional series of 83 AO. Overall, 7.5% of AO are mutated for TCF12...

  18. Self-reactive T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Jürgen C; thor Straten, Per; Andersen, Mads Hald

    2014-01-01

    The immune system is a tightly regulated and complex system. An important part of this immune regulation is the assurance of tolerance toward self-antigens to maintain immune homeostasis. However, in recent years, antigen-specific cellular immune responses toward several normal self......-proteins expressed in regulatory immune cells have been reported, especially in patients with cancer. The seemingly lack of tolerance toward such proteins is interesting, as it suggests a regulatory function of self-reactive T (srT) cells, which may be important for the fine tuning of the immune system. In...

  19. Pathogenetic and diagnostic significance of microRNA deregulation in peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas not otherwise specified (PTCLs/NOS) are rare and aggressive tumours whose molecular pathogenesis and diagnosis are still challenging. The microRNA (miRNA) profile of 23 PTCLs/NOS was generated and compared with that of normal T-lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+, naive, activated). The differentially expressed miRNA signature was compared with the gene expression profile (GEP) of the same neoplasms. The obtained gene patterns were tested in an independent cohort of PTCLs/NOS. The miRNA profile of PTCLs/NOS then was compared with that of 10 angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas (AITLs), 6 anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCLs)/ALK+ and 6 ALCLs/ALK−. Differentially expressed miRNAs were validated in an independent set of 20 PTCLs/NOS, 20 AITLs, 19 ALCLs/ALK− and 15 ALCLs/ALK+. Two hundred and thirty-six miRNAs were found to differentiate PTCLs/NOS from activated T-lymphocytes. To assess which miRNAs impacted on GEP, a multistep analysis was performed, which identified all miRNAs inversely correlated to different potential target genes. One of the most discriminant miRNAs was selected and its expression was found to affect the global GEP of the tumours. Moreover, two sets of miRNAs were identified distinguishing PTCL/NOS from AITL and ALCL/ALK−, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of this tool was very high (83.54%) and its prognostic value validated

  20. Gut-homing CD4+ T cell receptor alpha beta+ T cells in the pathogenesis of murine inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolphi, A; Boll, G; Poulsen, S S;

    1994-01-01

    +/+) mice. No antigen receptor-expressing lymphoid cells were found in GALT of congenic C.B-17 scid/scid (scid) mice. The heterotopic transplantation of a full-thickness gut wall graft from the ileum or colon of immunocompetent (C.B-17+/+, BALB/cdm2) donor mice onto immunodeficient scid mice selectively...... reconstituted a CD3+ T cell receptor alpha beta+ CD4+ T cell subset. CD4+ cells of this subset expressed the surface phenotype of mucosa-seeking, memory T cells. In the immunodeficient scid host, this gut-derived CD4+ T cell subset was found in spleen, peritoneal cavity, mesenteric lymph nodes (LN), epithelial...... layer and lamina propria of the small and large intestine, but not in peripheral LN. Scid mice heterotopically transplanted with gut from a congenic, immunocompetent donor developed clinical and histological signs of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Hence, the selective repopulation of GALT...

  1. Clinical analysis of primary anaplastic carcinoma of the small intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsutomu Namikawa; Kazuhiro Hanazaki

    2009-01-01

    Primary anaplastic carcinoma is a rare variant of small intestinal cancer. Most reports of primary anaplastic carcinoma of the small intestine are isolated case reports, therefore the clinicopathological features, therapeutic management, and surgical outcome of this tumor type remain unclear. This review analyzes the available clinical characteristics of primary anaplastic carcinoma of the small intestine and investigates key differences from differentiated adenocarcinoma of the small intestine. A Medline search was performed using the keywords 'small intestine' and 'anaplastic carcinoma' or 'undifferentiated carcinoma'. Additional articles were obtained from references with in the papers identified by the Medline search. The literature revealed a poor prognosis for patients who underwent surgical resection for anaplastic carcinoma of the small intestine, which gave a 3-year overall survival rate of 10.8% and a median survival time of 5.0 mo. The literature suggests that anaplastic carcinoma is markedly more aggressive than differentiated adenocarcinoma of the small intestine. Surgical resection with the aim of complete tumor removal provides the only beneficial therapeutic option for patients with anaplastic carcinoma of the small intestine, because chemotherapy and radiation therapy have no significant effect on the rate of survival. However, despite complete tumor resection, most patients with anaplastic carcinoma of the small intestine are at great risk of disease recurrence. Multicenter clinical trials are expected to provide additional therapeutic strategies and establish the efficacy of multimodality adjuvant therapy. This report also highlights the importance of a systematic diagnostic approach for anaplastic carcinoma of the small intestine.

  2. Human immunodeficiencies related to APC/T cell interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinos eKallikourdis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary event for initiating adaptive immune responses is the encounter between T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells (APC in the T cell area of secondary lymphoid organs and the formation of highly organized inter-cellular junctions referred to as the immune synapses. In vivo live-cell imaging of APC-T cell interactions combined to functional studies unveiled that T cell fate is dictated, in large part, by the stability of the initial contact. Immune cell interaction is equally important during delivery of T cell help to B cells and for the killing of target cells by cytotoxic T cells and NK cells. The critical role of contact dynamics and synapse stability on the immune response is well illustrated by human immune deficiencies in which disease pathogenesis is linked to altered adhesion or defective cross-talk between the synaptic partners. Here we will discuss in details the mechanisms of defective APC-T cell communications in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS and in warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, myelokathexis syndrome (WHIM. In addition, we will summarize the evidences pointing to a compromised conjugate formation in WIP deficiency, DOCK8 deficiency and X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome.

  3. Epigenetic biomarkers of T-cells in human glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiencke, John K; Accomando, William P; Zheng, Shichun; Patoka, Joe; Dou, Xiaoqin; Phillips, Joanna J; Hsuang, George; Christensen, Brock C; Houseman, E Andres; Koestler, Devin C; Bracci, Paige; Wiemels, Joseph L; Wrensch, Margaret; Nelson, Heather H; Kelsey, Karl T

    2012-12-01

    Immune factors are thought to influence glioma risk and outcomes, but immune profiling studies to further our understanding of the immune response are limited by current immunodiagnostic methods. We developed a new assay to capture glioma immune biology based on quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP) of two T-cell genes (CD3Z: T-cells, and FOXP3: Tregs). Flow cytometry of T-cells correlated well with the CD3Z demethylation assay (r = 0.93; p < 2.2 × 10 (-16) ), demonstrating the validity of the assay. Furthermore, there was a high correlation between qMSP and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in quantifying tumor infiltrating T-cells (r = 0.85; p = 3.4 × 10 (-11) ). Applying our qMSP methods to archival whole blood from 65 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cases and 94 non-diseased controls, GBM cases had highly statistically significantly lower T-cells (p = 1.7 × 10 (-9) ) as well as Tregs (p = 5.2 × 10 (-11) ) and a modestly lower ratio of Tregs/T-cells (p = 0.024). Applying the methods to 120 excised glioma tumors, we observed that tumor infiltrating CD3+ T-cells were positively correlated with glioma tumor grade (p = 5.7 × 10 (-7) ), and that Tregs were enriched in tumors compared with peripheral blood indicating active chemoattraction of suppressive Tregs into the tumor compartment. Poorer patient survival was correlated with higher levels of tumor infiltrating T-cells (p = 0.01) and Tregs (p = 0.04). DNA methylation based immunodiagnostics represent a new generation of powerful laboratory tools offering many advantages over conventional methods that will facilitate large clinical epidemiologic studies and capitalize on stored archival blood and tissue banks. PMID:23108258

  4. Nodular lymphocyte-predominant hodgkin lymphoma with atypical T cells: a morphologic variant mimicking peripheral T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohani, Aliyah R; Jaffe, Elaine S; Harris, Nancy Lee; Ferry, Judith A; Pittaluga, Stefania; Hasserjian, Robert P

    2011-11-01

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a distinct Hodgkin lymphoma subtype composed of few neoplastic lymphocyte-predominant (LP) cells in a background of reactive small B and T cells. We have seen occasional NLPHL cases that contain background T cells with prominent cytologic atypia, raising the differential diagnosis of peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) or a composite lymphoma. We sought to characterize the clinicopathologic features of such cases. Eleven NLPHL cases with atypical T cells diagnosed from 1977 to 2010 were identified at 2 institutions and compared with 24 control NLPHL cases lacking atypical T cells. All 9 male patients and 2 female patients presented with localized peripheral lymphadenopathy. In comparison with control patients, they were younger (median age, 13.8 vs. 36.1 y; P=0.015), with more frequent cervical lymph node involvement (54.5% vs. 8.3%, P=0.015). In all 11 cases, areas of NLPHL with typical B-cell-rich nodules containing LP cells were present. Nine cases contained sheets of atypical T cells surrounding primary and secondary follicles in a pattern mimicking the T-zone pattern of PTCL-NOS; the remaining 2 cases contained atypical T cells presented as large clusters at the periphery of B-cell-rich nodules. In all cases, the atypical T-cell-rich areas contained rare scattered LP cells, which were IgD in 5 of 7 cases (71.4%). The atypical T cells showed no pan-T-cell antigen loss or aberrant T-cell antigen expression in any case, and polymerase chain reaction or Southern blot analysis showed no evidence of T-cell clonality in 6 cases tested. The atypical T cells exhibited a variable immunophenotype with respect to germinal center, follicular T-helper, T-regulatory, and cytotoxic T-cell markers. Among 8 patients with clinical follow-up (median follow-up: 6.4 y), 5 patients had recurrent NLPHL at 6 months to 12 years after diagnosis and 6 patients are alive without disease at 9 months to 18

  5. Immunometabolism of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Ryan; Priyadharshini, Bhavana; Turka, Laurence A

    2016-05-19

    The bidirectional interaction between the immune system and whole-body metabolism has been well recognized for many years. Via effects on adipocytes and hepatocytes, immune cells can modulate whole-body metabolism (in metabolic syndromes such as type 2 diabetes and obesity) and, reciprocally, host nutrition and commensal-microbiota-derived metabolites modulate immunological homeostasis. Studies demonstrating the metabolic similarities of proliferating immune cells and cancer cells have helped give birth to the new field of immunometabolism, which focuses on how the cell-intrinsic metabolic properties of lymphocytes and macrophages can themselves dictate the fate and function of the cells and eventually shape an immune response. We focus on this aspect here, particularly as it relates to regulatory T cells. PMID:27196520

  6. Regulatory T Cell Infusion Can Enhance Memory T Cell and Alloantibody Responses in Lymphodepleted Nonhuman Primate Heart Allograft Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzelarab, M B; Zhang, H; Guo, H; Lu, L; Zahorchak, A F; Wiseman, R W; Nalesnik, M A; Bhama, J K; Cooper, D K C; Thomson, A W

    2016-07-01

    The ability of regulatory T cells (Treg) to prolong allograft survival and promote transplant tolerance in lymphodepleted rodents is well established. Few studies, however, have addressed the therapeutic potential of adoptively transferred, CD4(+) CD25(+) CD127(-) Foxp3(+) (Treg) in clinically relevant large animal models. We infused ex vivo-expanded, functionally stable, nonselected Treg (up to a maximum cumulative dose of 1.87 billion cells) into antithymocyte globulin-lymphodepleted, MHC-mismatched cynomolgus monkey heart graft recipients before homeostatic recovery of effector T cells. The monkeys also received tacrolimus, anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibodies and tapered rapamycin maintenance therapy. Treg administration in single or multiple doses during the early postsurgical period (up to 1 month posttransplantation), when host T cells were profoundly depleted, resulted in inferior graft function compared with controls. This was accompanied by increased incidences of effector memory T cells, enhanced interferon-γ production by host CD8(+) T cells, elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and antidonor alloantibodies. The findings caution against infusion of Treg during the early posttransplantation period after lymphodepletion. Despite marked but transient increases in Treg relative to endogenous effector T cells and use of reputed "Treg-friendly" agents, the host environment/immune effector mechanisms instigated under these conditions can perturb rather than favor the potential therapeutic efficacy of adoptively transferred Treg. PMID:26700196

  7. CEOP/IVE/GDP Compared With CEOP as the First-line Therapy for Newly Diagnosed Adult Patients With PTCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-18

    Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T Cell Lymphoma; ALK-negative Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Enteropathy Associated T Cell Lymphoma; Subcutaneous Panniculitis Like T Cell Lymphoma; Acute Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma

  8. Driving CAR T-cells forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Hollie J; Rafiq, Sarwish; Brentjens, Renier J

    2016-06-01

    The engineered expression of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) on the surface of T cells enables the redirection of T-cell specificity. Early clinical trials using CAR T cells for the treatment of patients with cancer showed modest results, but the impressive outcomes of several trials of CD19-targeted CAR T cells in the treatment of patients with B-cell malignancies have generated an increased enthusiasm for this approach. Important lessons have been derived from clinical trials of CD19-specific CAR T cells, and ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in haematological and solid malignancies. In this Review, we discuss these trials and present strategies that can increase the antitumour efficacy and safety of CAR T-cell therapy. Given the fast-moving nature of this field, we only discuss studies with direct translational application currently or soon-to-be tested in the clinical setting. PMID:27000958

  9. T cell migration, search strategies and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummel, Matthew F; Bartumeus, Frederic; Gérard, Audrey

    2016-03-01

    T cell migration is essential for T cell responses; it allows for the detection of cognate antigen at the surface of antigen-presenting cells and for interactions with other cells involved in the immune response. Although appearing random, growing evidence suggests that T cell motility patterns are strategic and governed by mechanisms that are optimized for both the activation stage of the cell and for environment-specific cues. In this Opinion article, we discuss how the combined effects of T cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic forces influence T cell motility patterns in the context of highly complex tissues that are filled with other cells involved in parallel motility. In particular, we examine how insights from 'search theory' can be used to describe T cell movement across an 'exploitation-exploration trade-off' in the context of activation versus effector function and lymph nodes versus peripheral tissues. PMID:26852928

  10. The IL-17A-producing CD8+ T-cell population in psoriatic lesional skin comprises mucosa-associated invariant T cells and conventional T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Marcel B M; Yeremenko, Nataliya G; Baeten, Dominique L P; Chielie, Saskia; Spuls, Phyllis I; de Rie, Menno A; Lantz, Olivier; Res, Pieter C M

    2014-12-01

    IL-17A is pivotal in the etiology of psoriasis, and CD8(+) T cells with the ability to produce this cytokine (Tc17 cells) are over-represented in psoriatic lesions. Here we demonstrate that the frequency of Tc17 cells in peripheral blood of psoriasis patients correlated with the clinical severity of the disease. Analysis of cutaneous-associated lymphocyte antigen expression showed that the blood Tc17 population contains a significantly higher proportion of cells with skin-homing potential compared with the CD8(+) T-cell population lacking IL-17A/IL-22 expression. IL-17A-producing CD8(+) T cells in blood have previously been reported to belong mainly to the mucosa-associated invariant T-cell (MAIT cell) lineage characterized by TCR Vα7.2 chain, CD161, IL-18Rα, and multidrug transporter ABCB1 expression. We demonstrate the presence of CD8(+) MAIT cells in the dermis and epidermis of psoriatic plaques, as well as healthy skin; however, IL-17A-producing CD8(+) MAIT cells were predominantly found in psoriatic skin. Notably, we observed IL-17A production in a large proportion of psoriatic plaque-derived CD8(+) T cells devoid of MAIT cell characteristics, likely representing conventional CD8(+) T cells. In conclusion, we provide supporting evidence that implicates Tc17 cells in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and describe the presence of innate CD8(+) MAIT cells in psoriatic lesions as an alternative source of IL-17A. PMID:24945094

  11. Intracellular Signals of T Cell Costimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianxun Song; Fengyang Tylan Lei; Xiaofang Xiong; Rizwanul Haque

    2008-01-01

    Ligation of T cell receptor (TCR) alone is insufficient to induce full activation of T lymphocytes. Additional ligand-receptor interactions (costimulation) on antigen presenting cells (APCs) and T cells are required. T cell costimulation has been shown to be essential for eliciting efficient T cell responses, involving all phases during T cell development. However, the mechanisms by which costimulation affects the function of T cells still need to be elucidated. In recent years, advances have been made in studies of costimulation as potential therapies in cancer, infectious disease as well as autoimmune disease. In this review, we discussed intracellular costimulation signals that regulate T cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, cytokine production, survival, and memory development. In general, the pathway of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PBK)/protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt)/nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) might be central to many costimulatory effects. Through these pathways, costimulation controls T-cell expansion and proliferation by maintenance of survivin and aurora B expression, and sustains long-term T-cell survival and memory development by regulating the expression of bci-2 family members. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.2008;5(4):239-247.

  12. Genomic Landscape of poorly Differentiated and Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Ghossein, Ronald

    2016-09-01

    Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) are aggressive thyroid tumors associated with a high mortality rate of 38-57 % and almost 100 % respectively. Several recent studies utilizing next generation sequencing techniques have shed lights on the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors, providing evidence to support a stepwise tumoral progression from well-differentiated to poorly differentiated, and finally to anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. While BRAF (V600E) and RAS mutations remain the main drivers in aggressive thyroid carcinoma, PDTC and ATC gains additional mutations, e.g., TERT promoter mutation, TP53 mutation, as well as frequent alterations in PIK3CA-PTEN-AKT-mTOR pathway, SWI-SNF complex, histomethyltransferases, and mismatch repair genes. RAS-mutated PDTCs are commonly associated with a histologic phenotype defined by Turin proposal, high frequency of distant metastasis, high thyroid differentiation score, and a RAS-like gene expression profile, whereas BRAF-mutated PDTCs are usually defined solely by the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) criteria with a propensity for nodal metastasis and are less differentiated with a BRAF-like expression signature. Such demarcation is largely lost in ATC which is characterized by genomic complexity, heavy mutation burden, and profound undifferentiation. Additionally, several molecular events, e.g., EIF1AX mutation, mutation burden, and chromosome 1q gain in PDTCs, as well as EIF1AX mutation, chromosome 13q loss, and 20q gains in ATCs, may serve as adverse prognostic markers predicting poor clinical outcome. PMID:27372303

  13. The Timing of Stimulation and IL-2 Signaling Regulate Secondary CD8 T Cell Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaniya H Khan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Memory CD8 T cells provide protection to immune hosts by eliminating pathogen-infected cells during re-infection. While parameters influencing the generation of primary (1° CD8 T cells are well established, the factors controlling the development of secondary (2° CD8 T cell responses remain largely unknown. Here, we address the mechanisms involved in the generation and development of 2° memory (M CD8 T cells. We observed that the time at which 1° M CD8 T cells enter into immune response impacts their fate and differentiation into 2° M CD8 T cells. Late-entry of 1° M CD8 T cells into an immune response (relative to the onset of infection not only facilitated the expression of transcription factors associated with memory formation in 2° effector CD8 T cells, but also influenced the ability of 2° M CD8 T cells to localize within the lymph nodes, produce IL-2, and undergo Ag-driven proliferation. The timing of stimulation of 1° M CD8 T cells also impacted the duration of expression of the high-affinity IL-2 receptor (CD25 on 2° effector CD8 T cells and their sensitivity to IL-2 signaling. Importantly, by blocking or enhancing IL-2 signaling in developing 2° CD8 T cells, we provide direct evidence for the role of IL-2 in controlling the differentiation of Ag-driven 2° CD8 T cell responses. Thus, our data suggest that the process of 1° M to 2° M CD8 T cell differentiation is not fixed and can be manipulated, a notion with relevance for the design of future prime-boost vaccination approaches.

  14. Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphoma: A Clinicopathologic Review With an Emphasis on Diagnostic Differentiation From Other T-Cell/Natural Killer-Cell Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yang; Wang, Endi

    2015-09-01

    Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma is a rare, aggressive T-cell lymphoma, characterized by hepatosplenic sinusoidal infiltration of monotonous, medium-sized, nonactivated cytotoxic T cells, usually of γ/δ T-cell receptor type. Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma occurs more frequently in immunocompromised patients, especially in those receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy. Patients usually manifest hepatosplenomegaly without lymphadenopathy. The bone marrow is also involved in two-thirds of cases and is often accompanied by circulating lymphoma cells, which, along with anemia and thrombocytopenia, may raise suspicion for acute leukemia. The differential diagnosis includes aggressive natural killer-cell leukemia, T-large granular lymphocytic leukemia, T-lymphoblastic leukemia, enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma type II, primary cutaneous γ/δ T-cell lymphoma, other peripheral T-cell lymphomas, myelodysplastic syndrome, and infectious mononucleosis. The diagnosis is usually established from the combination of clinical findings, histologic features, and immunophenotype, although cytogenetic/molecular studies are occasionally needed. Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma exhibits a dismal clinical course with a poor response to currently available therapies. PMID:26317456

  15. Broadening the repertoire of melanoma-associated T-cell epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøsig, Thomas Mørch; Lyngaa, Rikke Birgitte; Met, Özcan; Larsen, Stine Kiaer; Donia, Marco; Svane, Inge Marie; Straten, Per thor; Hadrup, Sine Reker

    2015-01-01

    Immune therapy has provided a significant breakthrough in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Despite the remarkable clinical efficacy and established involvement of effector CD8 T cells, the knowledge of the exact peptide-MHC complexes recognized by T cells on the tumor cell surface is limited....... Many melanoma-associated T-cell epitopes have been described, but this knowledge remains largely restricted to HLA-A2, and we lack understanding of the T-cell recognition in the context of other HLA molecules. We selected six melanoma-associated antigens (MAGE-A3, NY-ESO-1, gp100, Mart1, tyrosinase and......-based enrichment of peripheral blood from 39 melanoma patients and 10 healthy donors. To dissect the T-cell reactivity against this large peptide library, we used combinatorial-encoded MHC multimers and observed the T-cell responses against 17 different peptide-MHC complexes in the patient group and four in the...

  16. h-prune affects anaplastic thyroid cancer invasion and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Junko; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Sugino, Keizo; Shimamoto, Fumio; Kikuchi, Akira; Ohdan, Hideki

    2016-06-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer is one of the most aggressive human malignancies and is resistant to multimodal treatments. The expression of h-prune, the human homologue of Drosophila prune, has been reported to be correlated with progression and aggressiveness in various cancers including breast, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. We examined the role of h-prune in anaplastic thyroid cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Immunohistochemical analysis of h-prune was performed with 15 surgically resected specimens of anaplastic thyroid cancers. To investigate cell motility, Boyden chamber, wound healing and matrigel invasion assays were performed using cells from anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines. A murine orthotopic thyroid cancer model was used to investigate metastatic ability. In the immunohistochemical analysis, only weak focal or no staining of h-prune was observed in non-tumor tissue. In contrast, diffuse staining of h-prune was observed in anaplastic thyroid cancer and lymph node metastasis samples. Both inhibition of h-prune phosphodiesterase activity with dipyridamole and small interfering RNA for h-prune suppressed 8505C and KTC-3 cell motility. In addition, treatment with dipyridamole and decreased expression of h-prune suppressed tumor invasion and pulmonary metastasis in a NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2Rγnull (NOG) mouse orthotopic thyroid cancer model. In conclusion, h-prune is frequently expressed in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells and lymph nodes metastasis, and promotes migration and invasion of anaplastic thyroid cancer cells and metastasis in an anaplastic thyroid cancer model. Thus, h-prune shows promise as a targeting candidate against anaplastic thyroid cancer. PMID:27109060

  17. The role of Protein Kinase Cη in T cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R.J. Gascoigne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase Cη (PKCη is a member of the novel PKC subfamily, which also includes δ, ε, and θ isoforms. Compared to the other novel PKCs, the function of PKCη in the immune system is largely unknown. Several studies have started to reveal the role of PKCη, particularly in T cells. PKCη is highly expressed in T cells, and is upregulated during thymocyte positive selection. Interestingly, like the θ isoform, PKCη is also recruited to the immunological synapse that is formed between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell. However, unlike PKCθ, which becomes concentrated to the central region of the synapse, PKCη remains in a diffuse pattern over the whole area of the synapse, suggesting distinctive roles of these two isoforms in signal transduction. Although PKCη is dispensable for thymocyte development, further analysis of PKCη− or PKCθ−deficient and double knockout mice revealed the redundancy of these two isoforms in thymocyte development. In contrast, PKCη rather than PKCθ, plays an important role for T cell homeostatic proliferation, which requires recognition of self-antigen. Another piece of evidence demonstrating that PKCη and PKCθ have isoform specific as well as redundant roles come from the analysis of CD4 to CD8 T cell ratios in the periphery of these knockout mice. Deficiency in PKCη or PKCθ had opposing effects as PKCη knockout mice had a higher ratio of CD4 to CD8 T cells compared to that of wild-type mice, whereas PKCθ-deficient mice had a lower ratio. Biochemical studies showed that calcium flux and NFκB translocation is impaired in PKCη-deficient T cells upon TCR crosslinking stimulation, a character shared with PKCθ-deficient T cells. However, unlike the case with PKCθ, the mechanistic study of PKCη is at early stage and the signaling pathways involving PKCη, at least in T cells, are essentially unknown. In this review, we will cover the topics mentioned above as well as provide some

  18. PD-L1-specific T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Shamaila Munir; Borch, Troels Holz; Hansen, Morten; Andersen, Mads Hald

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increased focus on the immune checkpoint protein PD-1 and its ligand PD-L1 due to the discovery that blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway with monoclonal antibodies elicits striking clinical results in many different malignancies. We have described naturally occurring PD-L1......-specific T cells that recognize both PD-L1-expressing immune cells and malignant cells. Thus, PD-L1-specific T cells have the ability to modulate adaptive immune reactions by reacting to regulatory cells. Thus, utilization of PD-L1-derived T cell epitopes may represent an attractive vaccination strategy...... for targeting the tumor microenvironment and for boosting the clinical effects of additional anticancer immunotherapy. This review summarizes present information about PD-L1 as a T cell antigen, depicts the initial findings about the function of PD-L1-specific T cells in the adjustment of immune...

  19. T cell immunity using transgenic B lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloni, Mara; Rizzi, Marta; Castiglioni, Paola; Zanetti, Maurizio

    2004-03-01

    Adaptive immunity exists in all vertebrates and plays a defense role against microbial pathogens and tumors. T cell responses begin when precursor T cells recognize antigen on specialized antigen-presenting cells and differentiate into effector cells. Currently, dendritic cells are considered the only cells capable of stimulating T lymphocytes. Here, we show that mature naïve B lymphocytes can be genetically programmed by using nonviral DNA and turned into powerful antigen-presenting cells with a dual capacity of synthesis and presentation of antigen to T cells in vivo. A single i.v. injection of transgenic lymphocytes activates T cell responses reproducibly and specifically even at very low cell doses (102). We also demonstrate that T cell priming can occur in the absence of dendritic cells and results in immunological memory with protective effector functions. These findings disclose aspects in the regulation of adaptive immunity and indicate possibilities for vaccination against viruses and cancer in humans.

  20. Targeting regulatory T cells in cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, William L

    2012-01-31

    Infiltration of tumors by regulatory T cells confers growth and metastatic advantages by inhibiting antitumor immunity and by production of receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK) ligand, which may directly stimulate metastatic propagation of RANK-expressing cancer cells. Modulation of regulatory T cells can enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Strategies include depletion, interference with function, inhibition of tumoral migration, and exploitation of T-cell plasticity. Problems with these strategies include a lack of specificity, resulting in depletion of antitumor effector T cells or global interruption of regulatory T cells, which may predispose to autoimmune diseases. Emerging technologies, such as RNA interference and tetramer-based targeting, may have the potential to improve selectivity and efficacy.

  1. T cell immune responses in psoriasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Jadali

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A central role for T cells and their cytokines in the pathogenesis of psoriasis has been proposed; however, there are controversies over the details of this issue. The goal of this study is to summarise currently available data on the importance of T cells in psoriasis pathogenesis. A systematic review of the English medical literature was conducted by searching PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Iranian databases including Iranmedex, and SID for studies on associations between the involvement of T cell subsets and psoriasis. The results of the present study indicate that alterations in the number and function of different subsets of T-cells are associated with psoriasis. It appears that studies on T cell subsets contributed to understanding the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis. In addition, it may have provided novel therapeutic opportunities in ameliorating immunopathologies.

  2. Amino acid similarity accounts for T cell cross-reactivity and for "holes" in the T cell repertoire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; de Boer, Rob J.; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten; Kesmir, Can

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cytotoxic T cell (CTL) cross-reactivity is believed to play a pivotal role in generating immune responses but the extent and mechanisms of CTL cross-reactivity remain largely unknown. Several studies suggest that CTL clones can recognize highly diverse peptides, some sharing no obviou...

  3. T cells in vascular inflammatory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas L Lintermans

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the human vasculature is a manifestation of many different diseases ranging from systemic autoimmune diseases to chronic inflammatory diseases, in which multiple types of immune cells are involved. For both autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory diseases several observations support a key role for T lymphocytes in these disease pathologies, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Previous studies in several autoimmune diseases have demonstrated a significant role for a specific subset of CD4+ T cells termed effector memory T cells. This expanded population of effector memory T cells may contribute to tissue injury and disease progression. These cells exert multiple pro-inflammatory functions through the release of effector cytokines. Many of these cytokines have been detected in the inflammatory lesions and participate in the vasculitic reaction, contributing to recruitment of macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, NK cells, B cells and T cells. In addition, functional impairment of regulatory T cells paralyzes anti-inflammatory effects in vasculitic disorders. Interestingly, activation of effector memory T cells in uniquely dependent on the voltage-gated Kv1.3 potassium channel providing an anchor for specific drug targeting. In this review, we focus on the CD4+ T cells in the context of vascular inflammation and describe the evidence supporting the role of different T cell subsets in vascular inflammation. Selective targeting of pathogenic effector memory T cells might enable a more tailored therapeutic approach that avoids unwanted adverse side effects of generalized immunosuppression by modulating the effector functions of T cell responses to inhibit the development of vascular inflammation.

  4. TIM-4, expressed by medullary macrophages, regulates respiratory tolerance by mediating phagocytosis of antigen-specific T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Albacker, Lee A; Yu, Sanhong; Bedoret, Denis; Lee, Wan-Ling; Umetsu, Sarah E.; Monahan, Sheena; Freeman, Gordon J.; Umetsu, Dale T.; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory exposure to antigen induces T cell tolerance via several overlapping mechanisms that limit the immune response. While the mechanisms involved in the development of Treg cells have received much attention, those that result in T cell deletion are largely unknown. Herein, we show that F4/80+ lymph node medullary macrophages expressing TIM-4, a phosphatidylserine receptor, remove antigen-specific T cells during respiratory tolerance, thereby reducing secondary T cell responses. Block...

  5. CD8+ T cells cause disability and axon loss in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Deb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that CD8+ T cells directly mediate motor disability and axon injury in the demyelinated central nervous system. We have previously observed that genetic deletion of the CD8+ T cell effector molecule perforin leads to preservation of motor function and preservation of spinal axons in chronically demyelinated mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine if CD8+ T cells are necessary and sufficient to directly injure demyelinated axons, we adoptively transferred purified perforin-competent CD8+ spinal cord-infiltrating T cells into profoundly demyelinated but functionally preserved perforin-deficient host mice. Transfer of CD8+ spinal cord-infiltrating T cells rapidly and irreversibly impaired motor function, disrupted spinal cord motor conduction, and reduced the number of medium- and large-caliber spinal axons. Likewise, immunodepletion of CD8+ T cells from chronically demyelinated wildtype mice preserved motor function and limited axon loss without altering other disease parameters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In multiple sclerosis patients, CD8+ T cells outnumber CD4+ T cells in active lesions and the number of CD8+ T cells correlates with the extent of ongoing axon injury and functional disability. Our findings suggest that CD8+ T cells may directly injure demyelinated axons and are therefore a viable therapeutic target to protect axons and motor function in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  6. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: outcome and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid has been described as a rapidly progressive disease. We assessed the outcome and prognostic factors in patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma at our institution. Materials and Methods: Between 1975 and 1995, 37 patients were seen and treated at our institution with pathologically proven anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Patients ranged in age from 49 to 97 years old (median 73 years) and females were represented in a 2:1 ratio. Many patients had history of prior benign thyroid disease (17) or low grade malignancy (6). Other medical illnesses were frequently present in these patients, including 5 with diabetes, 1 scleroderma, 1 sarcoidosis and 1 polycythemia vera. 12 patients had metastatic disease at presentation. 26 patients had locally advanced (T4) disease. The time from diagnosis to treatment was never longer than 1 month. Management was most often with biopsy only (22 patients) and local irradiation (34 patients, median dose 52.5 Gy). 15 patients had primary surgical resection, one of which had negative surgical margins. 11 patients received chemotherapy, 9 with Adriamycin-based regimens. Follow-up ranged from 4 months to 11 years, with a mean of 11 months. Results: 26 patients had a local response, either partial or complete, to their treatment regimen. However, systemic disease was an important cause of failure. 9 patients (24%) survived at least one year from diagnosis; 3 (8%) survived beyond two years. The development of metastases occurred quickly in originally localized disease, at a median of 2 months. Metastases occurred most commonly in the lung (11 of 14 cases), but also occured in brain (2), liver (1), bone (1) and pericardium (1). Performance status, sex, metastatic disease, hyperfractionation, treatment modalities, RT dose, age and response to treatment were assessed as prognostic factors for survival. On univariate analysis, age over 70 (p=.004) and failure to attain a complete response to

  7. Anaplastic Medullary Ependymoma Presenting as Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Nicastro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A-41-year old man presented with violent thunderclap headache and a bilateral proprioceptive sensibility deficit of the upper limbs. Cerebral CT scan and MRI were negative. Lumbar puncture confirmed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, but cerebral angiography was negative. Three months later, the patient presented with paraparesis, and a thorough work-up revealed a diffuse, anaplastic extramedullary C7-D10 ependymoma with meningeal carcinomatosis considered the source of hemorrhage. The patient went through a D5-D8 laminectomy, temozolomide chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The situation remained stable for a few months. In this paper, we would like to emphasize that spinal masses should be considered in cases of SAH with negative diagnostic findings for aneurysms or arteriovenous malformation.

  8. Malignant skin diseases: Malignant melanoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma (CTCL): The term CTCL encompasses a variety of disorders including mycosis fungoides (MF), ATLL, CD30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and related lymphoid entities. MF is a clonal neoplasm of mature CD4+ T-cells which express BE-2, CD45RO, and cutaneous lymphoid antigen. The incidence of MF is 4 per 1,000,000 and is often diagnosed in the 5th and 6th decades and is more common among African Americans. The etiology of MF is unproven although viral or chemical exposure has been suggested as a possible cause. Cutaneous presentation includes patches, plaques, tumors, and/or erythroderma-corresponding to four T-stages. Early stage disease is often managed with topical treatment such as Mechlorethamine, BCNU, PUVA, local RT, or total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) when skin involvement is diffuse. TSEBT (36 Gy via electrons-6 fields) provides CR rates of 85% - 95% in T1, and T2 patients, with 5-year overall survival (OS) of 85% and 70%, respectively. PUVA has been shown to significantly improve disease free survival (DFS) after TSEBT but not OS. Advanced stage disease may be managed with TSEBT and adjuvant PUVA, photopheresis, interferon, retinoids, monoclonal antibodies, nucleotide derivatives, or various combinations. CR rates following TSEBT are 75% and 60%, respectively, for T3 or T4 patients, with OS of 55% at 3 years for T3 disease. TSEBT may be safely repeated in selected patients. Systemic chemotherapy is generally palliative and transplantation has not been effective. In summary, CTCL is a chronic and often debilitating disease of CD4+ lymphocytes involving skin. The most effective treatment is skin directed and TSEBT is one of the most important components of multi-modality therapy. Although many modalities produce clinical response, long term DFS is rare without maintenance therapy

  9. B cells help alloreactive T cells differentiate into memory T cells1

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Yue-Harn; Oberbarnscheidt, Martin H.; Chandramoorthy, Harish Chinna Konda; Hoffman, Rosemary; Chalasani, Geetha

    2010-01-01

    B cells are recognized as effector cells in allograft rejection that are dependent upon T cell help to produce alloantibodies causing graft injury. It is not known if B cells can also help T cells differentiate into memory cells in the alloimmune response. We found that in B cell-deficient hosts, differentiation of alloreactive T cells into effectors was intact whereas their development into memory T cells was impaired. To test if B cell help for T cells was required for their continued diffe...

  10. Regulatory T Cells in Melanoma Revisited by a Computational Clustering of FOXP3+ T Cell Subpopulations

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Hiroko; Josse, Julie; Tanioka, Miki; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Husson, François; Ono, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    CD4+ T cells that express the transcription factor FOXP3 (FOXP3+ T cells) are commonly regarded as immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs). FOXP3+ T cells are reported to be increased in tumor-bearing patients or animals and are considered to suppress antitumor immunity, but the evidence is often contradictory. In addition, accumulating evidence indicates that FOXP3 is induced by antigenic stimulation and that some non-Treg FOXP3+ T cells, especially memory-phenotype FOXP3low cells, prod...

  11. Determinants of public T cell responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanjie Li; Congting Ye; Guoli Ji; Jiahuai Han

    2012-01-01

    Historically,sharing T cell receptors (TCRs) between individuals has been speculated to be impossible,considering the dramatic discrepancy between the potential enormity of the TCR repertoire and the limited number of T cells generated in each individual.However,public T cell response,in which multiple individuals share identical TCRs in responding to a same antigenic epitope,has been extensively observed in a variety of immune responses across many species.Public T cell responses enable individuals within a population to generate similar antigen-specific TCRs against certain ubiquitous pathogens,leading to favorable biological outcomes.However,the relatively concentrated feature of TCR repertoire may limit T cell response in a population to some other pathogens.It could be a great benefit for human health if public T cell responses can be manipulated.Therefore,the mechanistic insight of public TCR generation is important to know.Recently,high-throughput DNA sequencing has revolutionized the study of immune receptor repertoires,which allows a much better understanding of the factors that determine the overlap of TCR repertoire among individuals.Here,we summarize the current knowledge on public T-cell response and discuss future challenges in this field.

  12. Bim/Bcl-2 balance is critical for maintaining naive and memory T cell homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciechowski, Sara; Tripathi, Pulak; Bourdeau, Tristan; Acero, Luis; Grimes, H. Leighton; Katz, Jonathan D.; Finkelman, Fred D.; Hildeman, David A.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the role of the antiapoptotic molecule Bcl-2 in combating the proapoptotic molecule Bim in control of naive and memory T cell homeostasis using Bcl-2−/− mice that were additionally deficient in one or both alleles of Bim. Naive T cells were significantly decreased in Bim+/−Bcl-2−/− mice, but were largely restored in Bim−/−Bcl-2−/− mice. Similarly, a synthetic Bcl-2 inhibitor killed wild-type, but not Bim−/− , T cells. Further, T cells from Bim+/−Bcl-2−/− mice died rapidly ex vivo ...

  13. Immunoregulatory T Cells May Be Involved in Preserving CD4 T Cell Counts in HIV-Infected Long-Term Nonprogressors and Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Ronit, Andreas; Hartling, Hans J;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-infected controllers control viral replication and maintain normal CD4 T cell counts. Long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) also maintain normal CD4 T cell counts but have ongoing viral replication. We hypothesized that immunoregulatory mechanisms are involved in preserved CD4 T cell...... counts in controllers and in LTNPs. METHODS: Twenty HIV-infected viremic controllers, 5 elite controllers (ECs), and 14 LTNPs were included in this cross-sectional study. For comparison, 25 progressors and 34 healthy controls were included. Regulatory T cells (Tregs), Treg subpopulations, CD161+Th17...... patients and controls. However, both ECs and LTNPs displayed a large proportion of activated Tregs suggesting immunoregulatory mechanisms to be involved in preserving CD4 T cell counts in HIV-infected nonprogressors....

  14. T cell priming: let there be light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ludmila Jirmanova; Jonathan D Ashwell

    2010-01-01

    @@ Activation of naive T cells via the T cell receptor (TCR) induces proliferation, gain of effector functions, and ultimately the development of long-lived memory cells. Memory cells have lower thresholds of activation than naive cells and respond more robustly to similar degrees of stimulation, which are fundamental properties of adaptive immunity. TCR occupancy leads to phosphorylation of TCR-ζ and CD3 cytoplasmic tails by Lck and Fyn, recruitment of ζ-associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP70), and phosphorylation/acti-vation of downstream targets such as the linker for activation of T cells (LAT) and SLP-76 [1].

  15. Clinical Strategies to Enhance T cell Reconstitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Gabrielle L; Zakrzewski, Johannes L; Perales, Miguel A; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Strategies to enhance T cell recovery are of increasing clinical importance to overcome long lasting T cell deficiencies, which occur in association with infections, autoimmunity and chemo/radiotherapy as well as aging of the immune system. In this review we discuss those strategies that are close to or in the clinic. Interleukin-7, sex steroid modulation, keratinocyte growth factor, growth hormone and cellular therapies using ex vivo generated T cell precursors are currently being tested in recipients of a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and patients with malignancies or HIV/AIDS. PMID:17964803

  16. Tracking antigen-specific T-cells during clinical tolerance induction in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Aslam

    Full Text Available Allergen immunotherapy presents an opportunity to define mechanisms of induction of clinical tolerance in humans. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of changes in T cell responses during immunotherapy, but existing work has largely been based on functional T cell assays. HLA-peptide-tetrameric complexes allow the tracking of antigen-specific T-cell populations based on the presence of specific T-cell receptors and when combined with functional assays allow a closer assessment of the potential roles of T-cell anergy and clonotype evolution. We sought to develop tools to facilitate tracking of antigen-specific T-cell populations during wasp-venom immunotherapy in people with wasp-venom allergy. We first defined dominant immunogenic regions within Ves v 5, a constituent of wasp venom that is known to represent a target antigen for T-cells. We next identified HLA-DRB1*1501 restricted epitopes and used HLA class II tetrameric complexes alongside cytokine responses to Ves v 5 to track T-cell responses during immunotherapy. In contrast to previous reports, we show that there was a significant initial induction of IL-4 producing antigen-specific T-cells within the first 3-5 weeks of immunotherapy which was followed by reduction of circulating effector antigen-specific T-cells despite escalation of wasp-venom dosage. However, there was sustained induction of IL-10-producing and FOXP3 positive antigen-specific T cells. We observed that these IL-10 producing cells could share a common precursor with IL-4-producing T cells specific for the same epitope. Clinical tolerance induction in humans is associated with dynamic changes in frequencies of antigen-specific T-cells, with a marked loss of IL-4-producing T-cells and the acquisition of IL-10-producing and FOXP3-positive antigen-specific CD4+ T-cells that can derive from a common shared precursor to pre-treatment effector T-cells. The development of new approaches to track antigen

  17. How do Regulatory T Cells Work?

    OpenAIRE

    Corthay, A

    2009-01-01

    CD4+ T cells are commonly divided into regulatory T (Treg) cells and conventional T helper (Th) cells. Th cells control adaptive immunity against pathogens and cancer by activating other effector immune cells. Treg cells are defined as CD4+ T cells in charge of suppressing potentially deleterious activities of Th cells. This review briefly summarizes the current knowledge in the Treg field and defines some key questions that remain to be answered. Suggested functions for Treg cells include: p...

  18. Regulatory T-cell compartmentalization and trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Shuang; Kryczek, Ilona; Zou, Weiping

    2006-01-01

    CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (CD4+ Treg cells) are thought to differentiate in the thymus and immigrate from the thymus to the periphery. Treg cells can regulate both acquired and innate immunity through multiple modes of suppression. The cross-talk between Treg cells and targeted cells, such as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells, is crucial for ensuring suppression by Treg cells in the appropriate microenvironment. Emerging evidence suggests that Treg compartmentalization and ...

  19. Regulatory T cells in cutaneous immune responses.

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Tetsuya; MIYACHI, YOSHIKI; Kabashima, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) are a subset of T cells with strong immunosuppressive activity. In the skin, it has recently been revealed that Treg play important roles not only in the maintenance of skin homeostasis but also in the regulation of the immune responses, such as contact hypersensitivity and atopic dermatitis. Furthermore, the skin plays important roles in the induction of Treg in the periphery. In this review, we will provide an overview of the mechanism of Treg-mediated immunosuppre...

  20. CD4+ T cell effects on CD8+ T cell location defined using bioluminescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Azadniv

    Full Text Available T lymphocytes of the CD8+ class are critical in delivering cytotoxic function and in controlling viral and intracellular infections. These cells are "helped" by T lymphocytes of the CD4+ class, which facilitate their activation, clonal expansion, full differentiation and the persistence of memory. In this study we investigated the impact of CD4+ T cells on the location of CD8+ T cells, using antibody-mediated CD4+ T cell depletion and imaging the antigen-driven redistribution of bioluminescent CD8+ T cells in living mice. We documented that CD4+ T cells influence the biodistribution of CD8+ T cells, favoring their localization to abdominal lymph nodes. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that this was associated with an increase in the expression of specific integrins. The presence of CD4+ T cells at the time of initial CD8+ T cell activation also influences their biodistribution in the memory phase. Based on these results, we propose the model that one of the functions of CD4+ T cell "help" is to program the homing potential of CD8+ T cells.

  1. Neurohypophysial Receptor Gene Expression by Thymic T Cell Subsets and Thymic T Cell Lymphoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hansenne

    2004-01-01

    transcribed in thymic epithelium, while immature T lymphocytes express functional neurohypophysial receptors. Neurohypophysial receptors belong to the G protein-linked seven-transmembrane receptor superfamily and are encoded by four distinct genes, OTR, V1R, V2R and V3R. The objective of this study was to identify the nature of neurohypophysial receptor in thymic T cell subsets purified by immunomagnetic selection, as well as in murine thymic lymphoma cell lines RL12-NP and BW5147. OTR is transcribed in all thymic T cell subsets and T cell lines, while V3R transcription is restricted to CD4+ CD8+ and CD8+ thymic cells. Neither V1R nor V2R transcripts are detected in any kind of T cells. The OTR protein was identified by immunocytochemistry on thymocytes freshly isolated from C57BL/6 mice. In murine fetal thymic organ cultures, a specific OTR antagonist does not modify the percentage of T cell subsets, but increases late T cell apoptosis further evidencing the involvement of OT/OTR signaling in the control of T cell proliferation and survival. According to these data, OTR and V3R are differentially expressed during T cell ontogeny. Moreover, the restriction of OTR transcription to T cell lines derived from thymic lymphomas may be important in the context of T cell leukemia pathogenesis and treatment.

  2. How some T cells escape tolerance induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, G; Sercarz, E

    1989-11-01

    A feature common to many animal models of autoimmune disease, for example, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis and collagen-induced arthritis, is the presence of self-reactive T cells in healthy animals, which are activated to produce disease by immunization with exogenous antigen. It is unclear why these T cells are not deleted during ontogeny in the thymus and, having escaped tolerance induction, why they are not spontaneously activated by self-antigen. To investigate these questions, we have examined an experimental model in which mice are tolerant to an antigen despite the presence of antigen-reactive T cells. We find that the T cells that escape tolerance induction are specific for minor determinants on the antigen. We propose that these T cells evade tolerance induction because some minor determinants are only available in relatively low amounts after in vivo processing of the whole antigen. For the same reason, these T cells are not normally activated but can be stimulated under special circumstances to circumvent tolerance. PMID:2478888

  3. Malaria drives T cells to exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle N Wykes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a significant global burden but after >30 years of effort there is no vaccine on the market. While the complex life cycle of the parasite presents several challenges, many years of research have also identified several mechanisms of immune evasion by Plasmodium spp.. Recent research on malaria, has investigated the Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1 pathway which mediates exhaustion of T cells, characterized by poor effector functions and recall responses and in some cases loss of the cells by apoptosis. Such studies have shown exhaustion of CD4+ T cells and an unappreciated role for CD8+ T cells in promoting sterile immunity against blood stage malaria. This is because PD-1 mediates up to a 95% reduction in numbers and functional capacity of parasite-specific CD8+ T cells, thus masking their role in protection. The role of T cell exhaustion during malaria provides an explanation for the absence of sterile immunity following the clearance of acute disease which will be relevant to future malaria-vaccine design and suggests the need for novel therapeutic solutions. This review will thus examine the role of PD-1-mediated T cell exhaustion in preventing lasting immunity against malaria.

  4. T-cell receptors in ectothermic vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlemagne, J; Fellah, J S; De Guerra, A; Kerfourn, F; Partula, S

    1998-12-01

    The structure and expression of genes encoding molecules homologous to mammalian T-cell receptors (TCR) have been recently studied in ectothermic vertebrate species representative of chondrychthians, teleosts, and amphibians. The overall TCR chain structure is well conserved in phylogeny: TCR beta- and TCR alpha-like chains were detected in all the species analyzed; TCR gamma- and TCR delta-like chains were also present in a chondrychthian species. The diversity potential of the variable (V) and joining (J) segments is rather large and, as in mammals, conserved diversity (D) segments are associated to the TCR beta and TCR delta chains. An important level of junctional diversity occurred at the V-(D)-J junctions, with the potential addition of N- and P-nucleotides. Thus, the conservation of the structure and of the potential of diversity of TCR molecules have been under a permanent selective pressure during vertebrate evolution. The structure of MHC class I and class II molecules was also well conserved in jawed vertebrates. TCR and MHC molecules are strongly functionally linked and play a determinant role in the initiation and the regulation of the specific immune responses; thus, it is not surprising that their structures have been reciprocally frozen during evolution. PMID:9914905

  5. Biogenesis and Function of T Cell-Derived Exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventimiglia, Leandro N; Alonso, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are a particular type of extracellular vesicle, characterized by their endosomal origin as intraluminal vesicles present in large endosomes with a multivesicular structure. After these endosomes fuse with the plasma membrane, exosomes are secreted into the extracellular space. The ability of exosomes to carry and selectively deliver bioactive molecules (e.g., lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) confers on them the capacity to modulate the activity of receptor cells, even if these cells are located in distant tissues or organs. Since exosomal cargo depends on cell type, a detailed understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the biochemical composition of exosomes is fundamental to a comprehensive view of exosome function. Here, we review the latest advances concerning exosome function and biogenesis in T cells, with particular focus on the mechanism of protein sorting at multivesicular endosomes. Exosomes secreted by specific T-cell subsets can modulate the activity of immune cells, including other T-cell subsets. Ceramide, tetraspanins and MAL have been revealed to be important in exosome biogenesis by T cells. These molecules, therefore, constitute potential molecular targets for artificially modulating exosome production and, hence, the immune response for therapeutic purposes. PMID:27583248

  6. Azathioprine therapy selectively ablates human Vδ2+ T cells in Crohn’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Neil E.; Hedin, Charlotte R.; Sanders, Theodore J.; Amon, Protima; Hoti, Inva; Ayada, Ibrahim; Baji, Vidya; Giles, Edward M.; Wildemann, Martha; Bashir, Zora; Whelan, Kevin; Sanderson, Ian; Lindsay, James O.; Stagg, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-derived and bacterial phosphoantigens are recognized by unconventional lymphocytes that express a Vγ9Vδ2 T cell receptor (Vδ2 T cells) and mediate host protection against microbial infections and malignancies. Vδ2 T cells are absent in rodents but readily populate the human intestine, where their function is largely unknown. Here, we assessed Vδ2 T cell phenotype and function by flow cytometry in blood and intestinal tissue from Crohn’s disease patients (CD patients) and healthy controls. Blood from CD patients included an increased percentage of gut-tropic integrin β7–expressing Vδ2 T cells, while “Th1-committed” CD27-expressing Vδ2 T cells were selectively depleted. A corresponding population of CD27+ Vδ2 T cells was present in mucosal biopsies from CD patients and produced elevated levels of TNFα compared with controls. In colonic mucosa from CD patients, Vδ2 T cell production of TNFα was reduced by pharmacological blockade of retinoic acid receptor-α (RARα) signaling, indicating that dietary vitamin metabolites can influence Vδ2 T cell function in inflamed intestine. Vδ2 T cells were ablated in blood and tissue from CD patients receiving azathioprine (AZA) therapy, and posttreatment Vδ2 T cell recovery correlated with time since drug withdrawal and inversely correlated with patient age. These results indicate that human Vδ2 T cells exert proinflammatory effects in CD that are modified by dietary vitamin metabolites and ablated by AZA therapy, which may help resolve intestinal inflammation but could increase malignancy risk by impairing systemic tumor surveillance. PMID:26168223

  7. Azathioprine therapy selectively ablates human Vδ2⁺ T cells in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Neil E; Hedin, Charlotte R; Sanders, Theodore J; Amon, Protima; Hoti, Inva; Ayada, Ibrahim; Baji, Vidya; Giles, Edward M; Wildemann, Martha; Bashir, Zora; Whelan, Kevin; Sanderson, Ian; Lindsay, James O; Stagg, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Tumor-derived and bacterial phosphoantigens are recognized by unconventional lymphocytes that express a Vγ9Vδ2 T cell receptor (Vδ2 T cells) and mediate host protection against microbial infections and malignancies. Vδ2 T cells are absent in rodents but readily populate the human intestine, where their function is largely unknown. Here, we assessed Vδ2 T cell phenotype and function by flow cytometry in blood and intestinal tissue from Crohn's disease patients (CD patients) and healthy controls. Blood from CD patients included an increased percentage of gut-tropic integrin β7-expressing Vδ2 T cells, while "Th1-committed" CD27-expressing Vδ2 T cells were selectively depleted. A corresponding population of CD27+ Vδ2 T cells was present in mucosal biopsies from CD patients and produced elevated levels of TNFα compared with controls. In colonic mucosa from CD patients, Vδ2 T cell production of TNFα was reduced by pharmacological blockade of retinoic acid receptor-α (RARα) signaling, indicating that dietary vitamin metabolites can influence Vδ2 T cell function in inflamed intestine. Vδ2 T cells were ablated in blood and tissue from CD patients receiving azathioprine (AZA) therapy, and posttreatment Vδ2 T cell recovery correlated with time since drug withdrawal and inversely correlated with patient age. These results indicate that human Vδ2 T cells exert proinflammatory effects in CD that are modified by dietary vitamin metabolites and ablated by AZA therapy, which may help resolve intestinal inflammation but could increase malignancy risk by impairing systemic tumor surveillance. PMID:26168223

  8. Fractionation of T cell subsets on Ig anti-Ig columns: isolation of helper T cells from nonresponder mice, demonstration of antigen-specific T suppressor cells, and selection of CD-3 negative variants of Jurkat T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, B; Geisler, C; Kuhlmann, J; Plesner, T

    1989-01-01

    In the present experiments we have explored the possibilities of a modified immunoadsorbent technique to select for (1) mutagenized T cell receptor (Tcr) negative variants of Jurkat T lymphoma cells and (2) purified CD-4+ or CD-8+ T lymphocytes. The basic principle was to make large numbers of...... "autologous" mixed lymphocyte reaction. In addition, the immunoadsorbent method very efficiently selects Tcr/CD-3- variants from mutagenized Jurkat cell populations incubated with anti-CD3 mAb. The described method is easy and quick and can fractionate large numbers of cells; it is the "poor-man's cell sorter...... immunoglobulin (Ig) negative T cells Ig+ by T cell subset-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb), and to select such cells on Ig anti-Ig columns. Our results demonstrated that Thy-1+, Fc receptor positive, antigen-specific T cells regulate the immune response in mice nonresponders to pork insulin, and the...

  9. Why Do CD8+ T Cells become Indifferent to Tumors: A Dynamic Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin; Zhang, Ranran; Haley, Jeremy S; Liu, Xin; Loughran, Thomas; Schell, Todd D; Albert, Réka; Thakar, Juilee

    2011-01-01

    CD8+ T cells have the potential to influence the outcome of cancer pathogenesis, including complete tumor eradication or selection of malignant tumor escape variants. The Simian virus 40 large T-antigen (Tag) oncoprotein promotes tumor formation in Tag-transgenic mice and also provides multiple target determinants (sites) for responding CD8+ T cells in C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) mice. To understand the in vivo quantitative dynamics of CD8+ T cells after encountering Tag, we constructed a dynamic model from in vivo-generated data to simulate the interactions between Tag-expressing cells and CD8+ T cells in distinct scenarios including immunization of wild-type C57BL/6 mice and of Tag-transgenic mice that develop various tumors. In these scenarios the model successfully reproduces the dynamics of both the Tag-expressing cells and antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses. The model predicts that the tolerance of the site-specific T cells is dependent on their apoptosis rates and that the net growth of CD8+ T cells is altered in transgenic mice. We experimentally validate both predictions. Our results indicate that site-specific CD8+ T cells have tissue-specific apoptosis rates affecting their tolerance to the tumor antigen. Moreover, the model highlights differences in apoptosis rates that contribute to compromised CD8+ T cell responses and tumor progression, knowledge of which is essential for development of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:21808621

  10. Neuron-mediated generation of regulatory T cells from encephalitogenic T cells suppresses EAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawei; Teige, Ingrid; Birnir, Bryndis;

    2006-01-01

    Neurons have been neglected as cells with a major immune-regulatory function because they do not express major histocompatibility complex class II. Our data show that neurons are highly immune regulatory, having a crucial role in governing T-cell response and central nervous system (CNS......) inflammation. Neurons induce the proliferation of activated CD4+ T cells through B7-CD28 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1-TGF-beta receptor signaling pathways, resulting in amplification of T-cell receptor signaling through phosphorylated ZAP-70, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-9. The interaction between...... neurons and T cells results in the conversion of encephalitogenic T cells to CD25+ TGF-beta1+ CTLA-4+ FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells that suppress encephalitogenic T cells and inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Suppression is dependent on cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 but not...

  11. Malignant T Cells Secrete Galectins and Induce Epidermal Hyperproliferation and Disorganized Stratification in a Skin Model of Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thode, Christenze; Andersen, Anders Woetmann; Wandall, Hans H;

    2015-01-01

    epidermis and T cell infiltration. Despite considerable progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the malignant transformation of T cells, the causes of the morphological and histopathological features of the disease are largely unknown. We used an organotypic model of CTCL to show that...... mesenchymal compartments. In addition, hyperproliferation was followed by a downregulation of differentiation markers, such as keratin 10 and involucrin, and a decrease in barrier formation. In conclusion, we provide evidence that malignant T cells orchestrate the histopathological epidermal changes seen in...... CTCL.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 09 July 2014; doi:10.1038/jid.2014.284....

  12. B7-H1 (PD-L1) on T cells is required for T-cell-mediated conditioning of dendritic cell maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Talay, Oezcan; Shen, Ching-Hung; Chen, Lieping; Chen, Jianzhu

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that T-cell-dendritic cell (DC) interaction is required for efficient DC maturation. However, the identities of the molecules that mediate the interaction in vivo are largely unknown. Here, we show that maturation of DCs as well as CD8 T-cell responses were impaired in B7-H1-deficient (B7-H1−/−) mice to influenza virus infection. Both defects were restored by transferring B7-H1-expressing naïve T cells into B7-H1−/− mice. Similarly, transferring DCs from wild-type mice or f...

  13. Distribution, characterization, and induction of CD8+ regulatory T cells and IL-17-producing CD8+ T cells in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Li Jiang; Huang Zhou-Feng; Xiong Geng; Mo Hao-Yuan; Qiu Fang; Mai Hai-Qiang; Chen Qiu-Yan; He Jia; Chen Shu-peng; Zheng Li-Min; Qian Chao-Nan; Zeng Yi-Xin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background CD8+ effector cells often have an antitumor function in patients with cancer. However, CD8+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tcregs) and interleukin (IL)-17-producing CD8+ T cells (Tc17 cells) also derive from the CD8+ T cell lineage. Their role in the antitumor response remains largely unknown. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the distribution, characterization, and generation of CD8+ Tcregs and Tc17 cells in NPC patients. Methods Peripheral blood and tumor biopsy t...

  14. Transcriptional Analysis of T Cells Resident in Human Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Li; Moshe Olshansky; Carbone, Francis R.; Ma, Joel Z.

    2016-01-01

    Human skin contains various populations of memory T cells in permanent residence and in transit. Arguably, the best characterized of the skin subsets are the CD8(+) permanently resident memory T cells (TRM) expressing the integrin subunit, CD103. In order to investigate the remaining skin T cells, we isolated skin-tropic (CLA(+)) helper T cells, regulatory T cells, and CD8(+) CD103(-) T cells from skin and blood for RNA microarray analysis to compare the transcriptional profiles of these grou...

  15. Regulatory T-cells and autoimmunity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Choileain, Niamh

    2012-02-03

    Approximately 20% of the population is affected by autoimmune or inflammatory diseases mediated by an abnormal immune response. A characteristic feature of autoimmune disease is the selective targeting of a single cell type, organ or tissue by certain populations of autoreactive T-cells. Examples of such diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), all of which are characterized by chronic inflammation, tissue destruction and target organ malfunction. Although strong evidence links most autoimmune diseases to specific genes, considerable controversy prevails regarding the role of regulatory T-cell populations in the disease process. These cells are now also believed to play a key role in mediating transplantation tolerance and inhibiting the induction of tumor immunity. Though the concept of therapeutic immune regulation aimed at treating autoimmune pathology has been validated in many animal models, the development of strategies for the treatment of human autoimmune disorders remains in its infancy. The main obstacles to this include the conflicting findings of different model systems, as well as the contrasting functions of regulatory T-cells and cytokines involved in the development of such disorders. This review examines the role of regulatory T-cells in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and describes the therapeutic potential of these cells for the prevention of immune-mediated pathologies in the future. Although much remains to be learned about such pathologies, a clearer understanding of the mechanisms by which regulatory T-cells function will undoubtedly lead to exciting new possibilities for immunotherapeutics.

  16. CAR-T Cell Therapy for Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Carlos A; Heslop, Helen E; Brenner, Malcolm K

    2016-01-01

    Lymphomas arise from clonal expansions of B, T, or NK cells at different stages of differentiation. Because they occur in the immunocyte-rich lymphoid tissues, they are easily accessible to antibodies and cell-based immunotherapy. Expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) on T cells is a means of combining the antigen-binding site of a monoclonal antibody with the activating machinery of a T cell, enabling antigen recognition independent of major histocompatibility complex restriction, while retaining the desirable antitumor properties of a T cell. Here, we discuss the basic design of CARs and their potential advantages and disadvantages over other immune therapies for lymphomas. We review current clinical trials in the field and consider strategies to improve the in vivo function and safety of immune cells expressing CARs. The ultimate driver of CAR development and implementation for lymphoma will be the demonstration of their ability to safely and cost-effectively cure these malignancies. PMID:26332003

  17. Pharmacologic suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Vallina, L; Yañez, R; Blanco, B; Gil, M; Russell, S J

    2000-04-01

    Adoptive therapy with autologous T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors (chTCRs) is of potential interest for the treatment of malignancy. To limit possible T-cell-mediated damage to normal tissues that weakly express the targeted tumor antigen (Ag), we have tested a strategy for the suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells. Jurkat T cells were transduced with an anti-hapten chTCR tinder the control of a tetracycline-suppressible promoter and were shown to respond to Ag-positive (hapten-coated) but not to Ag-negative target cells. The engineered T cells were then reacted with hapten-coated target cells at different effector to target cell ratios before and after exposure to tetracycline. When the engineered T cells were treated with tetracycline, expression of the chTCR was greatly decreased and recognition of the hapten-coated target cells was completely suppressed. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells may be a useful strategy to limit the toxicity of the approach to cancer gene therapy. PMID:10811469

  18. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase status in rhabdomyosarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akihiko; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Wakai, Susumu; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Tsuta, Koji; Fukayama, Masashi; Makimoto, Atsushi; Furuta, Koh; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2013-06-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma that typically affects children, adolescents, and young adults. Despite treatment via a multidisciplinary approach, the prognosis of advance-stage rhabdomyosarcomas remains poor, and a new treatment strategy is needed. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is a potential target for specific inhibitors. In this study, we investigated 116 rhabdomyosarcomas using a polymer-based ALK immunostaining method and correlated the results with clinicopathological parameters. In addition, we examined ALK status using dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization, PCR, and sequencing. In immunohistochemical analysis, ALK was detected in 2 (6%) of 33 embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas, 42 (69%) of 61 alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, and 0 (0%) of 22 other subtypes, including pleomorphic, adult-spindle-cell/sclerosing, and epithelioid variants. Compared with ALK-negative alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, ALK-positive ones are presented with metastatic spread more frequently and showed a greater extent of myogenin reactivity. Overall survival was not associated with ALK expression. FOXO1 rearrangement was significantly associated with ALK immunoreactivity. The median ALK copy number was greater in ALK-positive tumors than in ALK-negative tumors. Most (93%) cases tested showed no selective increase in the ALK gene dosage. ALK selective amplification and low-level selective gain were noted in one and three cases, respectively. Further, a high-polysomy pattern (≥4 ALK copies in ≥40% of cells) was observed in seven cases. A significant increase in the ALK copy number was exclusive to the ALK-immunopositive cohort, but it was uncommon, accounting for only 30% of the 37 ALK-positive rhabdomyosarcomas. ALK gene rearrangement was not observed in either cohort, while an ALK somatic mutation (I1277T) was found in one ALK-negative embryonal case. Although it remains controversial whether ALK expression without gene rearrangement

  19. Regulation of T cell receptor signaling by the actin cytoskeleton and poroelastic cytoplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemiller, Peter; Krummel, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The actin cytoskeleton plays essential roles in modulating T-cell activation. Most models of T-cell receptor (TCR) triggering, signalosome assembl, y and immune synapse formation invoke actin-dependent mechanisms. As T cells are constitutively motile cells, TCR triggering and signaling occur against a cytoskeletal backdrop that is constantly remodeling. While the interplay between actin dynamics and TCR signaling have been the focus of research for many years, much of the work in T cells has considered actin largely for its ‘scaffolding’ function. We examine the roles of the actin cytoskeleton in TCR signaling and immune synapse formation with an emphasis on how poroelasticity, an ensemble feature of actin dynamics with the cytosol, relates to how T cells respond to stimulation. PMID:24117819

  20. Regulation of T-cell receptor signaling by the actin cytoskeleton and poroelastic cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemiller, Peter; Krummel, Matthew F

    2013-11-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays essential roles in modulating T-cell activation. Most models of T-cell receptor (TCR) triggering signalosome assembly and immune synapse formation invoke actin-dependent mechanisms. As T cells are constitutively motile cells, TCR triggering and signaling occur against a cytoskeletal backdrop that is constantly remodeling. While the interplay between actin dynamics and TCR signaling have been the focus of research for many years, much of the work in T cells has considered actin largely for its 'scaffolding' function. We examine the roles of the actin cytoskeleton in TCR signaling and immune synapse formation with an emphasis on how poroelasticity, an ensemble feature of actin dynamics with the cytosol, relates to how T cells respond to stimulation. PMID:24117819

  1. Parallel detection of antigen-specific T cell responses by combinatorial encoding of MHC multimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sick; Kvistborg, Pia; Frøsig, Thomas Mørch;

    2012-01-01

    -dimensional combinatorial matrix, these eight fluorochromes are combined to generate 28 unique two-color codes. By the use of combinatorial encoding, a large number of different T cell populations can be detected in a single sample. The method can be used for T cell epitope mapping, and also for the monitoring of CD8......Fluorescently labeled multimeric complexes of peptide-MHC, the molecular entities recognized by the T cell receptor, have become essential reagents for detection of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells by flow cytometry. Here we present a method for high-throughput parallel detection of antigen......-specific T cells by combinatorial encoding of MHC multimers. Peptide-MHC complexes are produced by UV-mediated MHC peptide exchange and multimerized in the form of streptavidin-fluorochrome conjugates. Eight different fluorochromes are used for the generation of MHC multimers and, by a two...

  2. Vitamin D controls T cell antigen receptor signaling and activation of human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Marina Rode; Kongsbak, Martin; Schjerling, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes are key signaling proteins downstream of many extracellular stimuli. Here we show that naive human T cells had very low expression of PLC-gamma1 and that this correlated with low T cell antigen receptor (TCR) responsiveness in naive T cells. However, TCR triggering...... led to an upregulation of approximately 75-fold in PLC-gamma1 expression, which correlated with greater TCR responsiveness. Induction of PLC-gamma1 was dependent on vitamin D and expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Naive T cells did not express VDR, but VDR expression was induced by TCR...... signaling via the alternative mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 pathway. Thus, initial TCR signaling via p38 leads to successive induction of VDR and PLC-gamma1, which are required for subsequent classical TCR signaling and T cell activation....

  3. Anaplastic carcinoma following well-differentiated thyroid cancer: etiological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most cases of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma can be pathologically and often historically associated with the presence of low-grade (differentiated) cancer in the thyroid. That radiation therapy to the differentiated tumor plays an etiologic role in the transformation of a differentiated to an undifferentiated tumor has been suggested. If such therapy can be implicated, is there a difference in risk between external radiotherapy or radioactive iodine. Review of the literature discloses that more anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid develop in patients without a history of prior radiation than in individuals who have received radiation. We report our recent experience with two patients who demonstrated the sequence of well-differentiated followed by anaplastic thyroid cancer subsequent to radiation and review the question

  4. Selective estrogen receptor modulators in T cell development and T cell dependent inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Angelina I; Andersson, Annica; Stubelius, Alexandra; Grahnemo, Louise; Carlsten, Hans; Islander, Ulrika

    2015-10-01

    Lasofoxifene (las) and bazedoxifene (bza) are third generation selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) with minimal estrogenic side effects, approved for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. T cells are involved in the pathology of postmenopausal osteoporosis and previous studies have established an important role for 17β-estradiol (E2) in T cell development and function. E2 causes a drastic thymic atrophy, alters the composition of thymic T cell populations, and inhibits T cell dependent inflammation. In contrast, the second generation SERM raloxifene (ral) lacks these properties. Although las and bza are drugs approved for treatment of postmenopausal bone loss, it is of importance to study their effects on other biological aspects in order to extend the potential use of these compounds. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if treatment with las and bza affects T lymphopoiesis and T cell dependent inflammation. C57Bl6 mice were ovariectomized (ovx) and treated with vehicle, E2, ral, las or bza. As expected, E2 reduced both thymus weight and decreased the proportion of early T cell progenitors while increasing more mature T cell populations in the thymus. E2 also suppressed the T cell dependent delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to oxazolone (OXA). Ral and las, but not bza, decreased thymus weight, while none of the SERMs had any effects on T cell populations in the thymus or on inflammation in DTH. In conclusion, this study shows that treatment with las or bza does not affect T lymphopoiesis or T cell dependent inflammation. PMID:26044996

  5. Helios defines T cells being driven to tolerance in the periphery and thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ellen M; Bourges, Dorothée; Hogan, Thea V; Gleeson, Paul A; van Driel, Ian R

    2014-07-01

    The expression of the Ikaros transcription factor family member, Helios, has been shown to be associated with T-cell tolerance in both the thymus and the periphery. To better understand the importance of Helios in tolerance pathways, we have examined the expression of Helios in TCR-transgenic T cells specific for the gastric H(+) /K(+) ATPase, the autoantigen target in autoimmune gastritis. Analysis of H(+) /K(+) ATPase-specific T cells in mice with different patterns of H(+) /K(+) ATPase expression revealed that, in addition to the expression of Helios in CD4(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells, Helios is expressed by a large proportion of CD4(+) Foxp3(-) T cells in both the thymus and the paragastric lymph node (PgLN), which drains the stomach. In the thymus, Helios was expressed by H(+) /K(+) ATPase-specific thymocytes that were undergoing negative selection. In the periphery, Helios was expressed in H(+) /K(+) ATPase-specific CD4(+) T cells following H(+) /K(+) ATPase presentation and was more highly expressed when T-cell activation occurred in the absence of inflammation. Analysis of purified H(+) /K(+) ATPase-specific CD4(+) Foxp3(-) Helios(+) T cells demonstrated that they were functionally anergic. These results demonstrate that Helios is expressed by thymic and peripheral T cells that are being driven to tolerance in response to a genuine autoantigen. PMID:24740292

  6. When aging reaches CD4+ T-cells: phenotypic and functional changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Moro-García

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Beyond midlife, the immune system shows aging features and its defensive capability becomes impaired, by a process known as immunosenescence that involves many changes in the innate and adaptive responses. Innate immunity seems to be better preserved globally, while the adaptive immune response exhibits profound age-dependent modifications. Elderly people display a decline in numbers of naïve T-cells in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues, while, in contrast, their proportion of highly differentiated effector and memory T-cells, such as the CD28null T-cells, increases markedly. Naïve and memory CD4+ T-cells constitute a highly dynamic system with constant homeostatic and antigen-driven proliferation, influx, and loss of T-cells. Thymic activity dwindles with age and essentially ceases in the later decades of life, severely constraining the generation of new T-cells. Homeostatic control mechanisms are very effective at maintaining a large and diverse subset of naïve CD4+ T-cells throughout life, but although later than in CD8+T-cell compartment, these mechanisms ultimately fail with age.

  7. T cells and the humoral immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Muiswinkel (Willem)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractLymphoid cells and macrophages play an important role in the development and rnaintance of humoral and cellular immunity in mammals. The lymphoid cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs are divided into two major classes: (1) thymus-derived lymphocytes or T cells and (2) bursa-equivalent

  8. Biomarkers in T cell therapy clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalos Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract T cell therapy represents an emerging and promising modality for the treatment of both infectious disease and cancer. Data from recent clinical trials have highlighted the potential for this therapeutic modality to effect potent anti-tumor activity. Biomarkers, operationally defined as biological parameters measured from patients that provide information about treatment impact, play a central role in the development of novel therapeutic agents. In the absence of information about primary clinical endpoints, biomarkers can provide critical insights that allow investigators to guide the clinical development of the candidate product. In the context of cell therapy trials, the definition of biomarkers can be extended to include a description of parameters of the cell product that are important for product bioactivity. This review will focus on biomarker studies as they relate to T cell therapy trials, and more specifically: i. An overview and description of categories and classes of biomarkers that are specifically relevant to T cell therapy trials, and ii. Insights into future directions and challenges for the appropriate development of biomarkers to evaluate both product bioactivity and treatment efficacy of T cell therapy trials.

  9. Shifting the Evolving CAR T Cell Platform into Higher Gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holohan, Daniel R; Lee, James C; Bluestone, Jeffrey A

    2015-10-12

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Zhao and colleagues test various chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells to show that CD28-CD3ζ CAR T cells that constitutively express 4-1BBL promote T cell expansion and tumor eradication while reducing exhaustion. The results have important implications for the development of effective CAR T cell therapies in cancer patients. PMID:26461084

  10. T-Cell Tumor Elimination as a Result of T-Cell Receptor-Mediated Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Jonathan D.; Longo, Dan L.; Bridges, Sandra H.

    1987-07-01

    It has recently been shown that activation of murine T-cell hybridomas with antigen inhibits their growth in vitro. The ``suicide'' of these neoplastic T cells upon stimulation with antigen suggested the possibility that activation via the antigen-specific receptor could also inhibit the growth of neoplastic T cells in vivo. To test this, mice were subcutaneously inoculated with antigen-specific T-cell hybridomas and then treated intraperitoneally with antigen. Administration of the appropriate antigen immediately after inoculation with the T-cell hybridoma abrogated tumor formation; antigen administered after tumors had become established decreased the tumor burden and, in a substantial fraction of animals, led to long-term survival. The efficacy of antigen therapy was due to both a direct inhibitory effect on tumor growth and the induction of host immunity. These studies demonstrate the utility of cellular activation as a means of inhibiting neoplastic T-cell growth in vivo and provide a rationale for studying the use of less selective reagents that can mimic the activating properties of antigen, such as monoclonal antibodies, in the treatment of T-cell neoplasms of unknown antigen specificity.

  11. Requirements for Peptide-induced T Cell Receptor Downregulation on Naive CD8+ T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Zeling; Kishimoto, Hidehiro; Brunmark, Anders; Jackson, Michael R.; Peterson, Per A.; Sprent, Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    The requirements for inducing downregulation of α/β T cell receptor (TCR) molecules on naive major histocompatibility complex class I–restricted T cells was investigated with 2C TCR transgenic mice and defined peptides as antigen. Confirming previous results, activation of 2C T cells in response to specific peptides required CD8 expression on the responder cells and was heavily dependent upon costimulation provided by either B7-1 or ICAM-1 on antigen-presenting cells (APC). These stringent re...

  12. Genetically Modified T Cells for the Treatment of Malignant Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Wieczorek, Agnieszka; Uharek, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    The broaden application of adoptive T-cell transfer has been constrained by the technical abilities to isolate and expand antigen-specific T cells potent to selectively kill tumor cells. With the recent progress in the design and manufacturing of cellular products, T cells used in the treatment of malignant diseases may be regarded as anticancer biopharmaceuticals. Genetical manipulation of T cells has given T cells desired specificity but also enable to tailor their activation and proliferat...

  13. The emerging pathogenic and therapeutic importance of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Fergal C

    2012-02-01

    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) is a gene on chromosome 2p23 that has expression restricted to the brain, testis and small intestine but is not expressed in normal lymphoid tissue. It has similarity to the insulin receptor subfamily of kinases and is emerging as having increased pathologic and potential therapeutic importance in malignant disease. This gene was originally established as being implicated in the pathogenesis of rare diseases including inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) and ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, which is a subtype of non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma. Recently the number of diseases in which ALK is implicated in their pathogenesis has increased. In 2007, an inversion of chromosome 2 involving ALK and a fusion partner gene in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer was discovered. In 2008, publications emerged implicating ALK in familial and sporadic cases of neuroblastoma, a childhood cancer of the sympatho-adrenal system. Chromosomal abnormalities involving ALK are translocations, amplifications or mutations. Chromosomal translocations are the longest recognised ALK genetic abnormality. When translocations occur a fusion gene is created between ALK and a gene partner. This has been described in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma in which ALK is fused to NPM (nucleolar protein gene) and in non-small cell lung cancer where ALK is fused to EML4 (Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein 4). The most frequently described partner genes in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour are tropomyosin 3\\/4 (TMP3\\/4), however in IMTs a diversity of ALK fusion partners have been found, with the ability to homodimerise a common characteristic. Point mutations and amplification of the ALK gene occur in the childhood cancer neuroblastoma. Therapeutic targeting of ALK fusion genes using tyrosine kinase inhibition, vaccination using an ALK specific antigen and treatment using viral vectors for RNAi are emerging potential therapeutic

  14. Roles of regulatory T cells in cancer immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yoshiko; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi

    2016-08-01

    CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing the transcription factor FoxP3 are highly immune suppressive and play central roles in the maintenance of self-tolerance and immune homeostasis, yet in malignant tumors they promote tumor progression by suppressing effective antitumor immunity. Indeed, higher infiltration by Tregs is observed in tumor tissues, and their depletion augments antitumor immune responses in animal models. Additionally, increased numbers of Tregs and, in particular, decreased ratios of CD8(+) T cells to Tregs among tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are correlated with poor prognosis in various types of human cancers. The recent success of cancer immunotherapy represented by immune checkpoint blockade has provided a new insight in cancer treatment, yet more than half of the treated patients did not experience clinical benefits. Identifying biomarkers that predict clinical responses and developing novel immunotherapies are therefore urgently required. Cancer patients whose tumors contain a large number of neoantigens stemming from gene mutations, which have not been previously recognized by the immune system, provoke strong antitumor T-cell responses associated with clinical responses following immune checkpoint blockade, depending on the resistance to Treg-mediated suppression. Thus, integration of a strategy restricting Treg-mediated immune suppression may expand the therapeutic spectrum of cancer immunotherapy towards patients with a lower number of neoantigens. In this review, we address the current understanding of Treg-mediated immune suppressive mechanisms in cancer, the involvement of Tregs in cancer immunotherapy, and strategies for effective and tolerable Treg-targeted therapy. PMID:27160722

  15. Successful radiopeptide targeting of metastatic anaplastic meningioma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biersack Hans-Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A patient with anaplastic meningioma and lung metastases resistant to conventional treatment underwent radiopeptide therapy with 177Lu- DOTA-octreotate in our institute. The treatment resulted in significant improvement in patient's quality of life and inhibition of tumor progression. This case may eventually help to establish the value of radiopeptide therapy in patients with this rare condition.

  16. Successful radiopeptide targeting of metastatic anaplastic meningioma: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patient with anaplastic meningioma and lung metastases resistant to conventional treatment underwent radiopeptide therapy with 177Lu- DOTA-octreotate in our institute. The treatment resulted in significant improvement in patient's quality of life and inhibition of tumor progression. This case may eventually help to establish the value of radiopeptide therapy in patients with this rare condition

  17. Control of T cell infiltration and tumor rejection by regulatory T cells, basophils and macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Sektioglu, Ibrahim Murathan

    2015-01-01

    Most solid tumors are intrinsically resistant to immune rejection due to immunosuppressive mechanisms operative within the tumor microenvironment. Cancer patients frequently harbor elevated numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which inhibit efficient anti-tumor T cell responses. We employed different mouse models for Treg depletion in order to study the mechanisms that control tumor rejection. Depletion of about 99% Tregs in Foxp3DTR knock-in mice resulted in complete rejection of transplan...

  18. Regulatory T cells diminish transmission of HIV from Dendritic cells to conventional CD4+ T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Eugenia Moreno-Fernandez; Joedicke, Jara J; Claire Anne Chougnet

    2014-01-01

    Formation of immunological synapses between dendritic cells (DC) and conventional CD4+ T cells (Tcon) is critical for productive immune responses. However, when DCs are HIV-infected such synapses are critical to establish HIV infection. As regulatory T cells (Treg) control DC-Tcon interactions, we inquired whether Treg might interfere with DC to Tcon HIV transmission. We developed a model, using monocyte-derived DC infected with R5-HIV, and cultured with Tcon in the presence or absence of a...

  19. Upregulation of T-Cell-Specific Transcription Factor Expression in Pediatric T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge Sayitoğlu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL is associated with recurrent chromosomal aberrations and abnormal ectopic gene expression during T-cell development. In order to gain insight into the pathogenesis of T-ALL this study aimed to measure the level of expression of 7 T-cell oncogenes (LMO2, LYL1, TAL1, TLX1, TLX3, BMI1, and CALM-AF10 in pediatric T-ALL patients. METHODS: LMO2, LYL1, TLX1, TLX3, BMI1, TAL1, and CALM-AF10 expression was measured using quantitative real-time PCR in 43 pediatric T-ALL patients. RESULTS: A high level of expression of LMO2, LYL1, TAL1, and BMI1 genes was observed in a large group of T-ALL. Several gene expression signatures indicative of leukemic arrest at specific stages of normal thymocyte development (LYL1 and LMO2 were highly expressed during the cortical and mature stages of T-cell development. Furthermore, upregulated TAL1 and BMI1 expression was observed in all phenotypic subgroups. In all, 6 of the patients had TLX1 and TLX3 proto-oncogene expression, which does not occur in normal cells, and none of the patients had CALM-AF10 fusion gene transcription. Expression of LYL1 alone and LMO2-LYL1 co-expression were associated with mediastinal involvement; however, high-level oncogene expression was not predictive of outcome in the present pediatric T-ALL patient group, but there was a trend towards a poor prognostic impact of TAL1 and/or LMO2 and/or LYL1 protooncogene expression. CONCLUSION: Poor prognostic impact of TAL1 and/or LMO2 and/or LYL1 proto-oncogene expression indicate the need for extensive study on oncogenic rearrangement and immunophenotypic markers in T-ALL, and their relationship to treatment outcome.

  20. Accumulation of cytolytic CD8{sup +} T cells in B16-melanoma and proliferation of mature T cells in TIS21-knockout mice after T cell receptor stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Min Sook [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Min-Yeong [Department of Microbiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Sciences, The Graduate School, Ajou University (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Daeho [Department of Microbiology, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung, Gangwon-do 210-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Allen E. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kye Yong [Department of Pathology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sun [Department of Microbiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, In Kyoung [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    In vivo and in vitro effects of TIS21 gene on the mature T cell activation and antitumor activities were explored by employing MO5 melanoma orthograft and splenocytes isolated from the TIS21-knockout (KO) mice. Proliferation and survival of mature T cells were significantly increased in the KO than the wild type (WT) cells, indicating that TIS21 inhibits the rate of mature T cell proliferation and its survival. In MO5 melanoma orthograft model, the KO mice recruited much more CD8{sup +} T cells into the tumors at around day 14 after tumor cell injection along with reduced tumor volumes compared with the WT. The increased frequency of granzyme B{sup +} CD8{sup +} T cells in splenocytes of the KO mice compared with the WT may account for antitumor-immunity of TIS21 gene in the melanoma orthograft. In contrast, reduced frequencies of CD107a{sup +} CD8{sup +} T cells in the splenocytes of KO mice may affect the loss of CD8{sup +} T cell infiltration in the orthograft at around day 19. These results indicate that TIS21 exhibits antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in mature T cells, and differentially affects the frequencies of granzyme B{sup +} CD8{sup +} T-cells and CD107a{sup +} CD8{sup +} T-cells, thus transiently regulating in vivo anti-tumor immunity. - Highlights: • Constitutive expression of TIS21 in splenocytes and upregulation by TCR stimulation. • Proliferation of mature T-cells in spleen of TIS21KO mice after TCR stimulation. • Inhibition of cell death in mature T-cells of TIS21KO mice compared with the wild type. • Inhibition of melanoma growth in TIS21KO mice and CD8{sup +} T cell infiltration in tumor. • Reduction of CD 107{sup +}CD8{sup +} T cells, but increased granzyme B{sup +} CD8{sup +} T cells in TIS21KO mice.

  1. Accumulation of cytolytic CD8+ T cells in B16-melanoma and proliferation of mature T cells in TIS21-knockout mice after T cell receptor stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo and in vitro effects of TIS21 gene on the mature T cell activation and antitumor activities were explored by employing MO5 melanoma orthograft and splenocytes isolated from the TIS21-knockout (KO) mice. Proliferation and survival of mature T cells were significantly increased in the KO than the wild type (WT) cells, indicating that TIS21 inhibits the rate of mature T cell proliferation and its survival. In MO5 melanoma orthograft model, the KO mice recruited much more CD8+ T cells into the tumors at around day 14 after tumor cell injection along with reduced tumor volumes compared with the WT. The increased frequency of granzyme B+ CD8+ T cells in splenocytes of the KO mice compared with the WT may account for antitumor-immunity of TIS21 gene in the melanoma orthograft. In contrast, reduced frequencies of CD107a+ CD8+ T cells in the splenocytes of KO mice may affect the loss of CD8+ T cell infiltration in the orthograft at around day 19. These results indicate that TIS21 exhibits antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in mature T cells, and differentially affects the frequencies of granzyme B+ CD8+ T-cells and CD107a+ CD8+ T-cells, thus transiently regulating in vivo anti-tumor immunity. - Highlights: • Constitutive expression of TIS21 in splenocytes and upregulation by TCR stimulation. • Proliferation of mature T-cells in spleen of TIS21KO mice after TCR stimulation. • Inhibition of cell death in mature T-cells of TIS21KO mice compared with the wild type. • Inhibition of melanoma growth in TIS21KO mice and CD8+ T cell infiltration in tumor. • Reduction of CD 107+CD8+ T cells, but increased granzyme B+ CD8+ T cells in TIS21KO mice

  2. T-cell response in human leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharazmi, A; Kemp, K; Ismail, A;

    1999-01-01

    In the present communication we provide evidence for the existence of a Th1/Th2 dichotomy in the T-cell response to Leishmania antigens in human leishmaniasis. Our data suggest that the pattern of IL-4 and IFN-gamma response is polarised in these patients. Lymphocytes from individuals recovered...... from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) responded by IFN-gamma production following stimulation with Leishmania antigens whereas cells from patients recovered from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) showed a mixed pattern of IFN-gamma and IL-4 responses. The cells producing these cytokines were predominantly CD4......+. Furthermore, IL-10 plays an important role in the development of post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) from VL. The balance between the parasitic-specific T-cell response plays an important regulatory role in determining the outcome of Leishmania infections in humans....

  3. Pathogenic T cells persist after reversal of autoimmune disease by immunosuppression with regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Eric; Bourges, Dorothée; Gleeson, Paul A; Ang, Desmond K Y; van Driel, Ian R

    2013-05-01

    Autoimmune disease can be prevented with immunosuppressive agents; however, the effectiveness of these treatments in advanced stage of disease and the fate of pathogenic T cells following such treatments are not clear. In this study we demonstrate that a single dose of in vitro-induced Treg cells (iTreg cells) resulted in the functional repair and restitution of stomach tissue that had been severely damaged in advanced autoimmune gastritis. iTreg cells caused depletion or inactivation of autoreactive naïve T cells that were antigen inexperienced, however, autoreactive effector/memory T cells persisted in treated mice, resulting in residual cellular infiltrates within the repaired stomach tissue. The persisting autoreactive T cells were able to rapidly cause autoimmune disease if iTreg cells were removed. Similar data were obtained from mice treated continuously with corticosteroid, in that there was substantial restitution of the gastric mucosa; however, effector T cells persisted and rapidly caused pathology following drug removal. Therefore, iTreg cells or corticosteroid can suppress pathogenic autoreactive cells in advanced autoimmune disease, reversing tissue damage and improving tissue function. However, the persistence of pathogenic T cells represents a disease risk. PMID:23420509

  4. Species-specific transformation of T cells by HVMNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HVMNE is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-like lymphocryptovirus (LCV) originally isolated from a Macaca nemestrina with CD8+ T cell mycosis fungoides/cutaneous T cell lymphoma (Blood 98 (2001), 2193). HVMNE transforms rabbit T cells in vitro and causes T cell lymphoma in New Zealand white rabbits. Here we demonstrate that HVMNE also immortalizes T cells from mustached tamarins but not those from owl monkeys, common marmosets, squirrel monkeys, black-capped capuchins, and humans. Cytogenetic and FACS analysis revealed the true origin and T cell lineage of the transformed tamarin T cell lines. Tamarin T cells contained HVMNE DNA sequence and displayed a decreased requirement for the IL-2 cytokine for growth. Thus, this EBV-like virus from M. nemestrina differs from the other EBV-like viruses found in nonhuman primates inasmuch as it appears to preferentially transform T cells

  5. Elevated and cross-responsive CD1a-reactive T cells in bee and wasp venom allergic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sumithra; Aslam, Aamir; Misbah, Siraj A; Salio, Mariolina; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Moody, D Branch; Ogg, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The role of CD1a-reactive T cells in human allergic disease is unknown. We have previously shown that circulating CD1a-reactive T cells recognize neolipid antigens generated by bee and wasp venom phospholipase, and here tested the hypothesis that venom-responsive CD1a-reactive T cells associate with venom allergy. Circulating T cells from bee and wasp venom allergic individuals, before and during immunotherapy, were exposed to CD1a-transfected K562 cells in the presence of wasp or bee venom. T-cell response was evaluated based on IFNγ, GM-CSF, and IL-13 cytokine production. Venom allergic individuals showed significantly higher frequencies of IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and IL-13 producing CD1a-reactive T cells responsive to venom and venom-derived phospholipase than healthy individuals. Venom-responsive CD1a-reactive T cells were cross-responsive between wasp and bee suggesting shared pathways of allergenicity. Frequencies of CD1a-reactive T cells were initially induced during subcutaneous immunotherapy, peaking by weeks 5, but then reduced despite escalation of antigen dose. Our current understanding of venom allergy and immunotherapy is largely based on peptide and protein-specific T cell and antibody responses. Here, we show that lipid antigens and CD1a-reactive T cells associate with the allergic response. These data have implications for mechanisms of allergy and approaches to immunotherapy. PMID:26518614

  6. Clonal expansions of CD8+ T cells with IL-10 secreting capacity occur during chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Cyktor

    Full Text Available The exact role of CD8(+ T cells during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection has been heavily debated, yet it is generally accepted that CD8(+ T cells contribute to protection against Mtb. In this study, however, we show that the Mtb-susceptible CBA/J mouse strain accumulates large numbers of CD8(+ T cells in the lung as infection progresses, and that these cells display a dysfunctional and immunosuppressive phenotype (PD-1(+, Tim-3(+, CD122(+. CD8(+ T cell expansions from the lungs of Mtb-infected CBA/J mice were also capable of secreting the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10, although in vivo CD8(+ T cell depletion did not significantly alter Mtb burden. Further analysis revealed that pulmonary CD8(+ T cells from Mtb-infected CBA/J mice were clonally expanded, preferentially expressing T cell receptor (TcR Vβ chain 8 (8.2, 8.3 or Vβ 14. Although Vβ8(+ CD8(+ T cells were responsible for the majority of IL-10 production, in vivo depletion of Vβ8(+ did not significantly change the outcome of Mtb infection, which we hypothesize was a consequence of their dual IL-10/IFN-γ secreting profiles. Our data demonstrate that IL-10-secreting CD8(+ T cells can arise during chronic Mtb infection, although the significance of this T cell population in tuberculosis pathogenesis remains unclear.

  7. T- cell prolymphocytic leukemia - A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sharmila

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available T- cell Prolymhocytic leukemia (T-PLL is a rare mature post-thymic T-cell malignancy that is usually reported in the elderly and follows an aggressive course. A 68 year old male presented with a history of weakness and weight loss of two months duration. Clinical examination revealed pallor, enlarged cervical and axillary lymph nodes and splenomegaly. He also had a maculo- papular skin rash. There was marked leucocytosis, anemia and thrombocytopenia (WBC 445 x103sub/ml, Hb 8.5gm/dl, Platelet 25x103/µl with 60% prolymphocytes in the peripheral blood. Bone marrow was hypercellular with an excess of prolymphocytes. Flow cytometric analysis of the bone marrow showed positivity for CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5 and CD7. T- PLL is a rare T cell disorder with characteristic clinical and laboratory features.Currently, no optimal treatment exists although there has been some success with 2′- deoxycoformycin or Campath-1H

  8. Microenvironmental Control of High-Speed Interstitial T Cell Migration in the Lymph Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakai, Tomoya; Kinashi, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    T cells are highly concentrated in the lymph node (LN) paracortex, which serves an important role in triggering adoptive immune responses. Live imaging using two-photon laser scanning microscopy revealed vigorous and non-directional T cell migration within this area at average velocity of more than 10 μm/min. Active interstitial T cell movement is considered to be crucial for scanning large numbers of dendritic cells (DCs) to find rare cognate antigens. However, the mechanism by which T cells achieve such high-speed movement in a densely packed, dynamic tissue environment is not fully understood. Several new findings suggest that fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) and DCs control T cell movement in a multilateral manner. Chemokines and lysophosphatidic acid produced by FRCs cooperatively promote the migration, while DCs facilitate LFA-1-dependent motility via expression of ICAM-1. Furthermore, the highly dense and confined microenvironment likely plays a key role in anchorage-independent motility. We propose that T cells dynamically switch between two motility modes; anchorage-dependent and -independent manners. Unique tissue microenvironment and characteristic migration modality of T cells cooperatively generate high-speed interstitial movement in the LN.

  9. T cell mediated cerebral hemorrhages and microhemorrhages during passive Aβ immunization in APPPS1 transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Calignon Alix

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunization against amyloid-β (Aβ, the peptide that accumulates in the form of senile plaques and in the cerebrovasculature in Alzheimer's disease (AD, causes a dramatic immune response that prevents plaque formation and clears accumulated Aβ in transgenic mice. In a clinical trial of Aβ immunization, some patients developed meningoencephalitis and hemorrhages. Neuropathological investigations of patients who died after the trial showed clearance of amyloid pathology, but also a powerful immune response involving activated T cells probably underlying the negative effects of the immunization. Results To define the impact of T cells on this inflammatory response we used passive immunization and adoptive transfer to separate the effect of IgG and T cell mediated effects on microhemorrhage in APPPS1 transgenic mice. Neither anti Aβ IgG nor adoptively transferred T cells, alone, led to increased cerebrovascular damage. However, the combination of adoptively transferred T cells and passive immunization led to massive cerebrovascular bleeding that ranged from multiple microhemorrhages in the parenchyma to large hematomas. Conclusions Our results indicate that vaccination can lead to Aβ and T cell induced cerebral micro-hemorrhages and acute hematomas, which are greatly exacerbated by T cell mediated activity.

  10. Enhancing T cell reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a brief update of the latest trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Johannes L.; Goldberg, Gabrielle L.; Smith, Odette M.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with a period of immune incompetence that particularly affects the T cell lineage. Strategies to enhance T cell reconstitution could significantly improve the survival of HSCT recipients by decreasing the incidence of fatal infectious complications and by enhancing graft-versus-tumor activity. In recent years, a variety of promising strategies have been established in preclinical models to improve T cell recovery in particular after allogeneic T cell-depleted HSCT, without aggravating graft-versus-host disease while preserving or even improving graft-versus-tumor activity. These therapies include treatment with keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), growth hormone (GH), LHRH agonists, interleukin 7 (IL-7) and interleukin 15 (IL-15). Thanks to the establishment of Notch-based culture systems, adoptive cellular therapies with T lineage-committed precursor cells have become feasible, since early T cell progenitors can now easily be generated in vitro in large quantities and have been proven to be very effective in enhancing T cell reconstitution and anti-tumor activity after allogeneic T cell-depleted HSCT. The translation of most of these strategies into clinical trials is likely and in some cases Phase I/II studies are already underway. PMID:17905611

  11. T Cells and Gene Regulation: The Switching On and Turning Up of Genes after T Cell Receptor Stimulation in CD8 T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, James M.; Gallagher, Michael P.; Berg, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    Signaling downstream of the T cell receptor (TCR) is directly regulated by the dose and affinity of peptide antigen. The strength of TCR signaling drives a multitude of T cell functions from development to differentiation. CD8 T cells differentiate into a diverse pool of effector and memory cells after activation, a process that is critical for pathogen clearance and is highly regulated by TCR signal strength. T cells rapidly alter their gene expression upon activation. Multiple signaling pathways downstream of the TCR activate transcription factors, which are critical for this process. The dynamics between proximal TCR signaling, transcription factor activation and CD8 T cell function are discussed here. We propose that inducible T cell kinase (ITK) acts as a rheostat for gene expression. This unique regulation of TCR signaling by ITK provides a possible signaling mechanism for the promotion of a diverse T cell repertoire in response to pathogen. PMID:26973653

  12. T-cell response to allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Cevdet; Akdis, Mübeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2010-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening IgE-dependent type 1 hypersensitivity reaction in which multiple organ systems are involved. The existence of allergen exposure and specific IgE are the major contributors to this systemic reaction. The decision of the immune system to respond to allergens is highly dependent on factors including the type and load of allergen, behavior and type of antigen-presenting cells, innate immune response stimulating substances in the same micromilieu, the tissue of exposure, interactions between T and B lymphocytes, costimulators, and genetic propensity known as atopy. Antigen-presenting cells introduce processed allergens to T-helper lymphocytes, where a decision of developing different types of T-cell immunity is given under the influence of several cytokines, chemokines, costimulatory signals and regulatory T cells. Among Th2-type cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 are responsible for class switching in B cells, which results in production of allergen-specific IgE antibodies that bind to specific receptors on mast cells and basophils. After re-exposure to the sensitized allergen, this phase is followed by activation of IgE Fc receptors on mast cells and basophils resulting in biogenic mediator releases responsible for the symptoms and signs of anaphylaxis. Since the discovery of regulatory T cells, the concepts of immune regulation have substantially changed during the last decade. Peripheral T-cell tolerance is a key immunologic mechanism in healthy immune response to self antigens and non-infectious non-self antigens. Both naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and inducible populations of allergen-specific, IL-10-secreting Treg type 1 cells inhibit allergen-specific effector cells and have been shown to play a central role in the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis and the establishment of controlled immune responses. On the other hand, Th17 cells are characterized by their IL-17 (or IL-17A), IL-17F, IL-6

  13. Alterations in regulatory T-cells: rediscovered pathways in immunotoxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Corsini, E; Oukka, M; Pieters, R; Kerkvliet, N.I.; Ponce, R.; Germolec, D R

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the effector T-cells subsets, T-cells can also differentiate into cells that play a suppressive or regulatory role in adaptive immune responses. The cell types currently identified as regulatory T-cells (Tregs) include natural or thymic-derived Tregs, T-cells which express Foxp3+CD25+CD4+ and can suppress immune responses to autoreactive T-cells, as well as inducible Tregs, that are generated from naïve T-cells in the periphery after interaction with antigens presented by dendr...

  14. A comparative evaluation of supervised and unsupervised representation learning approaches for anaplastic medulloblastoma differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Roa, Angel; Arevalo, John; Basavanhally, Ajay; Madabhushi, Anant; González, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Learning data representations directly from the data itself is an approach that has shown great success in different pattern recognition problems, outperforming state-of-the-art feature extraction schemes for different tasks in computer vision, speech recognition and natural language processing. Representation learning applies unsupervised and supervised machine learning methods to large amounts of data to find building-blocks that better represent the information in it. Digitized histopathology images represents a very good testbed for representation learning since it involves large amounts of high complex, visual data. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of different supervised and unsupervised representation learning architectures to specifically address open questions on what type of learning architectures (deep or shallow), type of learning (unsupervised or supervised) is optimal. In this paper we limit ourselves to addressing these questions in the context of distinguishing between anaplastic and non-anaplastic medulloblastomas from routine haematoxylin and eosin stained images. The unsupervised approaches evaluated were sparse autoencoders and topographic reconstruct independent component analysis, and the supervised approach was convolutional neural networks. Experimental results show that shallow architectures with more neurons are better than deeper architectures without taking into account local space invariances and that topographic constraints provide useful invariant features in scale and rotations for efficient tumor differentiation.

  15. Improved anti-leukemia activities of adoptively transferred T cells expressing bispecific T-cell engager in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Barrett, D M; Jiang, S; Fang, C; Kalos, M; Grupp, S A; June, C H; Zhao, Y

    2016-01-01

    Despite the impressive clinical efficacy of T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR-Ts), the current applications of CAR-T cell therapy are limited by major treatment-related toxicity. Thus, safer yet effective alternative approaches must be developed. In this study, we compared CD19 bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE)-transferred T cells that had been transfected by RNA electroporation with CD19 CAR RNA-transferred T cells both in vitro and in an aggressive Nalm6 leukemia mouse model. BiTEs were secreted from the transferred T cells and enabled both the transferred and bystander T cells to specifically recognize CD19(+) cell lines, with increased tumor killing ability, prolonged functional persistence, increased cytokine production and potent proliferation compared with the CAR-T cells. More interestingly, in comparison with CD3/CD28 bead-stimulated T cells, T cells that were expanded by a rapid T-cell expansion protocol (REP) showed enhanced anti-tumor activities for both CAR and BiTE RNA-electroporated T cells both in vitro and in a Nalm6 mouse model (P<0.01). Furthermore, the REP T cells with BiTE RNAs showed greater efficacy in the Nalm6 leukemia model compared with REP T cells with CAR RNA (P<0.05) and resulted in complete leukemia remission. PMID:27258611

  16. WT1-specific T cell receptor gene therapy: improving TCR function in transduced T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauss, Hans J; Thomas, Sharyn; Cesco-Gaspere, Michela; Hart, Daniel P; Xue, Shao-An; Holler, Angelika; King, Judy; Wright, Graham; Perro, Mario; Pospori, Constantina; Morris, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T lymphocytes is an attractive form of immunotherapy for haematological malignancies and cancer. The difficulty of isolating antigen-specific T lymphocytes for individual patients limits the more widespread use of adoptive T cell therapy. The demonstration that cloned T cell receptor (TCR) genes can be used to produce T lymphocyte populations of desired specificity offers new opportunities for antigen-specific T cell therapy. The first trial in humans demonstrated that TCR gene-modified T cells persisted for an extended time period and reduced tumor burden in some patients. The WT1 protein is an attractive target for immunotherapy of leukemia and solid cancer since elevated expression has been demonstrated in AML, CML, MDS and in breast, colon and ovarian cancer. In the past, we have isolated high avidity CTL specific for a WT1-derived peptide presented by HLA-A2 and cloned the TCR alpha and beta genes of a WT1-specific CTL line. The genes were inserted into retroviral vectors for transduction of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes of leukemia patients and normal donors. The treatment of leukemia-bearing NOD/SCID mice with T cells transduced with the WT1-specific TCR eliminated leukemia cells in the bone marrow of most mice, while treatment with T cells transduced with a TCR of irrelevant specificity did not diminish the leukemia burden. In order to improve the safety and efficacy of TCR gene therapy, we have developed lentiviral TCR gene transfer. In addition, we employed strategies to enhance TCR expression while avoiding TCR mis-pairing. It may be possible to generate dominant TCR constructs that can suppress the expression of the endogenous TCR on the surface of transduced T cells. The development of new TCR gene constructs holds great promise for the safe and effective delivery of TCR gene therapy for the treatment of malignancies. PMID:17855129

  17. A novel thymoma-associated immunodeficiency with increased naive T cells and reduced CD247 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, Petros; Dopfer, Elaine P; Malkovsky, Miroslav; Esser, Philipp R; Schaefer, Hans-Eckart; Marx, Alexander; Kock, Sylvia; Rupp, Nicole; Lorenz, Myriam R; Schwarz, Klaus; Harder, Jan; Martin, Stefan F; Werner, Martin; Bogdan, Christian; Schamel, Wolfgang W A; Fisch, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms underlying thymoma-associated immunodeficiency are largely unknown, and the significance of increased blood γδ Τ cells often remains elusive. In this study we address these questions based on an index patient with thymoma, chronic visceral leishmaniasis, myasthenia gravis, and a marked increase of rare γδ T cell subsets in the peripheral blood. This patient showed cutaneous anergy, even though he had normal numbers of peripheral blood total lymphocytes as well as CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Despite his chronic infection, analyses of immunophenotypes and spectratyping of his lymphocytes revealed an unusual accumulation of naive γδ and αβ T cells, suggesting a generalized T cell activation defect. Functional studies in vitro demonstrated substantially diminished IL-2 and IFN-γ production following TCR stimulation of his "untouched" naive CD4(+) T cells. Biochemical analysis revealed that his γδ and αβ T cells carried an altered TCR complex with reduced amounts of the ζ-chain (CD247). No mutations were found in the CD247 gene that encodes the homodimeric ζ protein. The diminished presence of CD247 and increased numbers of γδ T cells were also observed in thymocyte populations obtained from three other thymoma patients. Thus, our findings describe a novel type of a clinically relevant acquired T cell immunodeficiency in thymoma patients that is distinct from Good's syndrome. Its characteristics are an accumulation of CD247-deficient, hyporresponsive naive γδ and αβ T cells and an increased susceptibility to infections. PMID:25732729

  18. EMSA Eritin Drives Expansion of Regulatory T Cells and Promotes T Cells Differentiation in Irradiated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mansur; Widjajanto, Edi; Widodo, M Aris; Sumitro, Sutiman B

    2016-07-01

    Sublethal irradiation therapy in cancer treatment causes generalized immunosuppression, which results in a range of DNA damage. We examined the significance of a polyherbal medicine called "EMSA Eritin" on immunological responses in sublethally irradiated mice focusing on the involvement of Treg, naïve T cell, and also the development and differentiation of T cells in thymus. Normal BALB/c mice were sublethally irradiated with dose of 600 rad. The irradiated mice were then orally administered by EMSA Eritin once a day at different doses: 1.04, 3.12, 9.37 mg/g body weight. The treatment was performed for 14 days. On day 15, immunological responses were observed by analyzing the status of Treg and differentiation of T cells in thymus. The administration of EMSA Eritin to irradiated mice resulted in a significant increase of pre T cells, Treg cells, and naïve T cells, which in general could maintain and normalize healthy condition in mice. PMID:26170134

  19. T Cell Vaccination as an Immunotherapy for Autoimmune Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingwuZhang

    2004-01-01

    Immunization with inactivated autoreactive T cells (T cell vaccination) selected from individual's own T cellrepertoire provides a unique in vivo setting for testing immune regulation that is known to involve interactionsof a variety of related surface molecules (1). It induces regulatory immune responses that closely resemble thein vivo situation where the immune system is challenged by clonal activation and expansion of given T cellpopulations in various autoimmune diseases. T cell vaccination provides a powerful means of eliciting naturalreactions of the immune system in response to clonal expansion of T cells, which can used as a therapeuticapproach to suppress or eliminate specific pathogenic autoreactive T cells in autoimmune conditions. Clinicaltrials using T cell vaccination to deplete autoreactive T cells in human autoimmune conditions have begun toreveal the pathologic relevance of various autoimmune T cell populations in the disease processes, providing aunique opportunity to test the autoimmune theories in a clinical setting. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.2004; 1(5):321-327.

  20. MHC class II molecules regulate growth in human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Odum, Niels; Bendtzen, K;

    1994-01-01

    modulate several T cell responses. Here, we studied further the role of class II molecules in the regulation of T cell growth. Costimulation of class II molecules by immobilized HLA-DR mAb significantly enhanced interleukin (IL)-2-supported T cell growth of the majority of CD4+, CD45RAlow, ROhigh T cell......-like) as well as T cells producing both cytokines (THO-like) responded to class II mAb. The costimulatory effect was not restricted to IL-2-driven T cell growth, since TCR/CD3-induced T cell activation was also enhanced by HLA-DR mAb. Moreover, class II costimulation potentiated CD28-mAb-induced T cell...

  1. Molecular Hallmarks of Adult T Cell Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MakotoYamagishi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The molecular hallmarks of adult T cell leukemia (ATL comprise outstanding deregulations of signaling pathways that control the cell cycle, resistance to apoptosis, and proliferation of leukemic cells, all of which have been identified by early excellent studies. Nevertheless, we are now confronted the therapeutic difficulties of ATL that is a most aggressive T cell leukemia/lymphoma. Using next-generation strategies, emerging molecular characteristics such as specific surface markers and an additional catalog of signals affecting the fate of leukemic cells have been added to the molecular hallmarks that constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of ATL. Although human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is undoubtedly involved in ATL leukemogenesis, most leukemic cells do not express the viral protein Tax. Instead, cellular gene expression changes dominate homeostasis disorders of infected cells and characteristics of ATL. In this review, we summarize the state of the art of ATL molecular pathology, which supports the biological properties of leukemic cells. In addition, we discuss the recent discovery of two molecular hallmarks of potential generality; an abnormal microRNA (miRNA pattern and epigenetic reprogramming, which strongly involve the imbalance of the molecular network of lymphocytes. Global analyses of ATL have revealed the functional impact of crosstalk between multifunctional pathways. Clinical and biological studies on signaling inhibitory agents have also revealed novel oncogenic drivers that can be targeted in future. ATL cells, by deregulation of such pathways and their interconnections, may become masters of their own destinies. Recognizing and understanding of the widespread molecular applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of novel strategies for treating ATL.

  2. Effect of ageing on CMV-specific CD8 T cells from CMV seropositive healthy donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Corona

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ageing is associated with changes in the immune system with substantial alterations in T-lymphocyte subsets. Cytomegalovirus (CMV is one of the factors that affect functionality of T cells and the differentiation and large expansions of CMV pp65-specific T cells have been associated with impaired responses to other immune challenges. Moreover, the presence of clonal expansions of CMV-specific T cells may shrink the available repertoire for other antigens and contribute to the increased incidence of infectious diseases in the elderly. In this study, we analyse the effect of ageing on the phenotype and frequency of CMV pp65-specific CD8 T cell subsets according to the expression of CCR7, CD45RA, CD27, CD28, CD244 and CD85j. Results Peripheral blood from HLA-A2 healthy young, middle-aged and elderly donors was analysed by multiparametric flow cytometry using the HLA-A*0201/CMV pp65495–504 (NLVPMVATV pentamer and mAbs specific for the molecules analysed. The frequency of CMV pp65-specific CD8 T cells was increased in the elderly compared with young and middle-aged donors. The proportion of naïve cells was reduced in the elderly, whereas an age-associated increase of the CCR7null effector-memory subset, in particular those with a CD45RAdim phenotype, was observed, both in the pentamer-positive and pentamer-negative CD8 T cells. The results also showed that most CMV pp65-specific CD8 T cells in elderly individuals were CD27/CD28 negative and expressed CD85j and CD244. Conclusion The finding that the phenotype of CMV pp65-specific CD8 T cells in elderly individuals is similar to the predominant phenotype of CD8 T cells as a whole, suggests that CMV persistent infections contributes to the age-related changes observed in the CD8 T cell compartment, and that chronic stimulation by other persistent antigens also play a role in T cell immunosenescence. Differences in subset distribution in elderly individuals showing a decrease in

  3. Tumor-specific CD4+ T cells maintain effector and memory tumor-specific CD8+ T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Sarah E; Jensen, Shawn M; Antony, Paul A; Restifo, Nicholas P; Fox, Bernard A

    2014-01-01

    Immunotherapies that augment antitumor T cells have had recent success for treating patients with cancer. Here we examined whether tumor-specific CD4+ T cells enhance CD8+ T-cell adoptive immunotherapy in a lymphopenic environment. Our model employed physiological doses of tyrosinase-related protein 1-specific CD4+ transgenic T cells-CD4+ T cells and pmel-CD8+ T cells that when transferred individually were subtherapeutic; however, when transferred together provided significant (p ≤ 0.001) therapeutic efficacy. Therapeutic efficacy correlated with increased numbers of effector and memory CD8+ T cells with tumor-specific cytokine expression. When combined with CD4+ T cells, transfer of total (naïve and effector) or effector CD8+ T cells were highly effective, suggesting CD4+ T cells can help mediate therapeutic effects by maintaining function of activated CD8+ T cells. In addition, CD4+ T cells had a pronounced effect in the early posttransfer period, as their elimination within the first 3 days significantly (p < 0.001) reduced therapeutic efficacy. The CD8+ T cells recovered from mice treated with both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells had decreased expression of PD-1 and PD-1-blockade enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of pmel-CD8 alone, suggesting that CD4+ T cells help reduce CD8+ T-cell exhaustion. These data support combining immunotherapies that elicit both tumor-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells for treatment of patients with cancer. PMID:24114780

  4. Suppression of T cell responses in the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Alan B

    2015-12-16

    The immune system recognizes protein antigens expressed in transformed cells evidenced by accumulation of antigen-specific T cells in tumor and tumor draining lymph nodes. However, despite demonstrable immune response, cancers grow progressively suggesting that priming of antitumor immunity is insufficiently vigorous or that antitumor immunity is suppressed, or both. Compared to virus infection, antitumor T cells are low abundance that likely contributes to tumor escape and enhancement of priming is a long-sought goal of experimental vaccination therapy. Furthermore, patient treatment with antigen-specific T cells can in some cases overcome deficient priming and cause tumor regression supporting the notion that low numbers of T cells permits tumor outgrowth. However, tumor-induced suppression of antitumor immune response is now recognized as a significant factor contributing to cancer growth and reversal of the inhibitory influences within the tumor microenvironment is a major research objective. Multiple cell types and factors can inhibit T cell functions in tumors and may be grouped in two general classes: T cell intrinsic and T cell extrinsic. T cell intrinsic factors are exemplified by T cell expression of cell surface inhibitory signaling receptors that, after contact with cells expressing a cognate ligand, inactivate proximal T Cell Receptor-mediated signal transduction therein rendering T cells dysfunctional. T cell extrinsic factors are more diverse in nature and are produced by tumors and various non-tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment. These include proteins secreted by tumor or stromal cells, highly reactive soluble oxygen and nitrogen species, cytokines, chemokines, gangliosides, and toxic metabolites. These factors may restrict T cell entrance into the tumor parenchyma, cause inactivation of effector phase T cell functions, or induce T cell apoptosis ultimately causing diminished cancer elimination. Here, we review the contributions of inhibitory

  5. Distribution, characterization, and induction of CD8+ regulatory T cells and IL-17-producing CD8+ T cells in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD8+ effector cells often have an antitumor function in patients with cancer. However, CD8+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tcregs and interleukin (IL-17-producing CD8+ T cells (Tc17 cells also derive from the CD8+ T cell lineage. Their role in the antitumor response remains largely unknown. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the distribution, characterization, and generation of CD8+ Tcregs and Tc17 cells in NPC patients. Methods Peripheral blood and tumor biopsy tissues from 21 newly diagnosed patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC were collected, along with peripheral blood from 21 healthy donors. The biological characteristics of Tcregs and Tc17 cells from blood and tumor tissues were examined by intracellular staining, tetramer staining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS analysis. The suppressive function of Tcregs was investigated using a proliferation assay that involved co-culture of sorted CD8+CD25+ T cells with naïve CD4+ T cells in vitro. Results We observed an increased prevalence of Tcregs and Tc17 cells among tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs and different distribution among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in NPC patients. Cytokine profiles showed that the Tcregs expressed a high level of IL-10 and low level of transforming growth factor β, whereas Tc17 cells expressed a high level of tumor necrosis factor α. Interestingly, both subsets expressed a high level of interferon γ in TILs, and the Tcregs suppressed naïve CD4+ T cell proliferation by a cell contact-dependent mechanism in vitro. Moreover, we demonstrated the existence of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein (LMP 1 and LMP2 antigen-specific Tcregs in NPC. Conclusions Our data provide new insights into the composition and function of CD8+ T-cell subsets in NPC, which may have an important influence on NPC immunotherapy.

  6. Anaplastic astrocytoma in the spinal cord of an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, C J; Parry, N M A; Jakowski, R M; Eshar, D

    2008-11-01

    A 2-year-old, female hedgehog presented with an 8-month history of progressive, ascending paresis/paralysis and was tentatively diagnosed with wobbly hedgehog syndrome. She died awaiting further diagnostic tests, and the owners consented to postmortem examination. Grossly, the bladder was large and flaccid and the cervical and lumbar spinal cord were regionally enlarged, light grey, and friable with multifocal hemorrhages. The thoracic spinal cord was grossly normal. Microscopically all regions of the spinal cord had similar changes, although the cervical and lumbar sections were most severely affected. These regions were completely effaced by a moderately cellular infiltration of highly pleomorphic polygonal to spindle shaped cells, mineralization, and necrosis, which were most consistent with anaplastic astrocytoma. The thoracic spinal cord white matter was similarly infiltrated by the neoplastic cells, with perivascular extension into the otherwise normal grey matter. A diagnosis of anaplastic astrocytoma was confirmed using immunohistochemical stains that were positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein and S100. PMID:18984799

  7. Tapping out a mechanical code for T cell triggering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, Michael L; Kam, Lance C

    2016-06-01

    Mechanical forces play increasingly recognized roles in T cell receptor (TCR) signal transduction. Hu and Butte (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201511053) demonstrate that actin is required for T cells to generate forces at the TCR and that exogenous application of force can emulate these cytoskeletal forces and trigger T cell activation. PMID:27269063

  8. Adoptive immunotherapy via CD4+ versus CD8+ T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vy Phan-Lai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of cancer immunotherapy is to induce specific and durable antitumor immunity. Adoptive T cell therapy (ACT has garnered wide interest, particularly in regard to strategies to improve T cell efficacy in trials. There are many types of T cells (and subsets which can be selected for use in ACT. CD4+ T cells are critical for the regulation, activation and aid of host defense mechanisms and, importantly, for enhancing the function of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells. To date, much research in cancer immunotherapy has focused on CD8+ T cells, in melanoma and other cancers. Both CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells have been evaluated as ACT in mice and humans, and both are effective at eliciting antitumor responses. IL-17 producing CD4+ T cells are a new subset of CD4+ T cells to be evaluated in ACT models. This review discusses the benefits of adoptive immunotherapy mediated by CD8+ and CD4+ cells. It also discusses the various type of T cells, source of T cells, and ex vivo cytokine growth factors for augmenting clinical efficacy of ACT. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(4.000: 588-595

  9. Molecular phenotyping of T cell-mediated rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Anita S.; Perkins, David L.

    2014-01-01

    A new study has reported a molecular signature of T cell-mediated rejection in human kidney transplant biopsy samples that is enriched for effector T cells, interferon-γ and macrophages. Inhibitors of T cell activation, such as CTLA4 and PDL1, were also prominent, raising the possibility that these immunological constrains could be harnessed by therapies for treating rejection.

  10. Anaplastic cerebral hemangiopericytoma: Rare variant of a rare disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnima Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial hemangiopericytoma (HPC is a rare tumor of central nervous system, anaplastic type (grade 3 being the rarest. HPC closely mimics meningiomas in clinical and radiological features, thus, its diagnosis and treatment is a challenge. We report a rare case of histopathologically diagnosed anaplastic HPC of frontal lobe of the brain. A lady in her 60′s presented with neurological signs of impaired memory, headache, decreased vision and slurring of speech that gradually progressed to aphasia over a period of 2 months. A space occupying lesion was identified on magnetic resonance imaging in the left frontal region. Left frontal craniotomy and Simpson grade 1 excision of the tumor was done. Postoperative radiotherapy was administered in view of positive margins on histopathological specimen. We describe the clinical, radiological, and histological features of this tumor, its outcome on completion of treatment and on subsequent follow-up along with a review of the literature.

  11. Regulatory T cells inhibit stable contacts between CD4+ T cells and dendritic cells in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Tadokoro, Carlos E.; Shakhar, Guy; Shen, Shiqian; Ding, Yi; Lino, Andreia C.; Maraver, Antonio; Lafaille, Juan J.; Dustin, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory T (T reg) cells exert powerful down-modulatory effects on immune responses, but it is not known how they act in vivo. Using intravital two-photon laser scanning microscopy we determined that, in the absence of T reg cells, the locomotion of autoantigen-specific T cells inside lymph nodes is decreased, and the contacts between T cells and antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) are of longer duration. Thus, T reg cells can exert an early effect on immune responses by attenuating the es...

  12. The E3 ubiquitin ligase GRAIL regulates T cell tolerance and regulatory T cell function by mediating T cell receptor-CD3 degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Nurieva, Roza I.; Zheng, Shuling; Jin, Wei; Chung, Yeonseok; Zhang, Yongliang; Martinez, Gustavo J.; Reynolds, Joseph M.; Wang, Sung-Ling; Lin, Xin; Sun, Shao-Cong; Lozano, Guillermina; Dong, Chen

    2010-01-01

    T cell activation is tightly regulated to avoid autoimmunity. Gene related to anergy in lymphocytes (GRAIL, encoded by Rnf128) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase associated with T cell tolerance. Here we generated and analyzed GRAIL-deficient mice and found they were resistant to immune tolerance induction and exhibited greater susceptibility to autoimmune diseases than wild-type mice. GRAIL-deficient naïve T cells, after activation, exhibited increased proliferation and cytokine expression than contr...

  13. Anaplastic carcinoma following well-differentiated thyroid cancer: etiological considerations.

    OpenAIRE

    Kapp, D S; LiVolsi, V. A.; Sanders, M M

    1982-01-01

    Most cases of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma can be pathologically and often historically associated with the presence of low-grade (differentiated) cancer in the thyroid. That radiation therapy to the differentiated tumor plays an etiologic role in the transformation of a differentiated to an undifferentiated tumor has been suggested. If such therapy can be implicated, is there a difference in risk between external radiotherapy or radioactive iodine? Review of the literature discloses that mor...

  14. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Following Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Graves' Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sun Hwa; Kim, Hee Young; Jung, Kwang Yoon; Choi, Dong Seop; Kim, Sin Gon

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy has been used as a treatment option for Graves' disease, and it has been widely accepted to be safe. On the other hand, some evidence suggests that RAI therapy is possibly associated with a small increased risk of thyroid cancer. Herein, we report a rare case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) associated with Graves' disease, following RAI treatment. A 42-year-old woman had been diagnosed with Graves' disease and although she was treated with an antithyroid...

  15. Anaplastic thyroid cancer: molecular pathogenesis and emerging therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Smallridge, Robert C.; Marlow, Laura A.; Copland, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare malignancy. While external beam radiation therapy has improved locoregional control, the median survival of ∼ 4 months has not changed in more than half a century due to uncontrolled systemic metastases. The objective of this study was to review the literature in order to identify potential new strategies for treating this highly lethal cancer. PubMed searches were the principal source of articles reviewed. The molecular pathogenesis of ATC includes m...

  16. Anaplastic thyroid cancer Irish epidemiology and novel chemotherapeutic strategies

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, James Paul

    2009-01-01

    This body of work was conducted over a four year period. Within this timeframe we have conducted a National Epidemiology project, established a National Head and Neck Cancer database and completed Oncology laboratory investigations. Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is the most aggressive endocrine disease in nature. Within the thyroid gland a heterogeneous group of neoplasms may develop. These can range from well differentiated tumours with an excellent prognosis, to ATC tumours which prese...

  17. Ovarian mucinous cystadenoma with mural nodule of anaplastic carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, S. R.; Chun, Y. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Lim, K. T.; Kim, H S

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of malignant mural nodule in benign cystic common epithelial tumor of the ovary have been reported in only three cases; the case one was mucinous cystadenoma with a mural nodule of fibrosarcoma and the others were of carcinomas. Our case was another rare case of ovarian mucinous cystadenoma with mural nodule of anaplastic carcinoma in a 42-year-old woman. The cystadenoma had an unilocular cystic cavity and a mural nodule with thick multinodular solid wall. The internal cystic w...

  18. Presence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase in inflammatory breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Fredika M; Petricoin III, Emanuel F.; van Laere, Steven J; Bertucci, Francois; Chu, Khoi; Fernandez, Sandra V.; Mu, Zhaomei; Alpaugh, Katherine; Pei, Jianming; Circo, Rita; Wulfkuhle, Julia; Ye, Zaiming; Boley, Kimberly M; Liu, Hui; Moraes, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Although Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC) is recognized as the most metastatic variant of locally advanced breast cancer, the molecular basis for the distinct clinical presentation and accelerated program of metastasis of IBC is unknown. Reverse phase protein arrays revealed activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and biochemically-linked downstream signaling molecules including JAK1/STAT3, AKT, mTor, PDK1, and AMPKβ in pre-clinical models of IBC. To evalu...

  19. DNA methylation alterations in grade II- and anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare WHO grade II tumor accounting for less than 1% of all astrocytomas. Malignant transformation into PXA with anaplastic features, is unusual and correlates with poorer outcome of the patients. Using a DNA methylation custom array, we have quantified the DNA methylation level on the promoter sequence of 807 cancer-related genes of WHO grade II (n = 11) and III PXA (n = 2) and compared to normal brain tissue (n = 10) and glioblastoma (n = 87) samples. DNA methylation levels were further confirmed on independent samples by pyrosequencing of the promoter sequences. Increasing DNA promoter hypermethylation events were observed in anaplastic PXA as compared with grade II samples. We further validated differential hypermethylation of CD81, HCK, HOXA5, ASCL2 and TES on anaplastic PXA and grade II tumors. Moreover, these epigenetic alterations overlap those described in glioblastoma patients, suggesting common mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Even taking into consideration the small size of our patient populations, our data strongly suggest that epigenome-wide profiling of PXA is a valuable tool to identify methylated genes, which may play a role in the malignant progression of PXA. These methylation alterations may provide useful biomarkers for decision-making in those patients with low-grade PXA displaying a high risk of malignant transformation

  20. ZFAT plays critical roles in peripheral T cell homeostasis and its T cell receptor-mediated response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We generated Cd4-Cre-mediated T cell-specific Zfat-deficient mice. ► Zfat-deficiency leads to reduction in the number of the peripheral T cells. ► Impaired T cell receptor-mediated response in Zfat-deficient peripheral T cells. ► Decreased expression of IL-7Rα, IL-2Rα and IL-2 in Zfat-deficient peripheral T cells. ► Zfat plays critical roles in peripheral T cell homeostasis. -- Abstract: ZFAT, originally identified as a candidate susceptibility gene for autoimmune thyroid disease, has been reported to be involved in apoptosis, development and primitive hematopoiesis. Zfat is highly expressed in T- and B-cells in the lymphoid tissues, however, its physiological function in the immune system remains totally unknown. Here, we generated the T cell-specific Zfat-deficient mice and demonstrated that Zfat-deficiency leads to a remarkable reduction in the number of the peripheral T cells. Intriguingly, a reduced expression of IL-7Rα and the impaired responsiveness to IL-7 for the survival were observed in the Zfat-deficient T cells. Furthermore, a severe defect in proliferation and increased apoptosis in the Zfat-deficient T cells following T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation was observed with a reduced IL-2Rα expression as well as a reduced IL-2 production. Thus, our findings reveal that Zfat is a critical regulator in peripheral T cell homeostasis and its TCR-mediated response.

  1. Adoptive T cell therapy: Addressing challenges in cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Cassian

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adoptive T cell therapy involves the ex vivo selection and expansion of effector cells for the treatment of patients with cancer. In this review, the advantages and limitations of using antigen-specific T cells are discussed in counterpoint to vaccine strategies. Although vaccination strategies represent more readily available reagents, adoptive T cell therapy provides highly selected T cells of defined phenotype, specificity and function that may influence their biological behavior in vivo. Adoptive T cell therapy offers not only translational opportunities but also a means to address fundamental issues in the evolving field of cancer immunotherapy.

  2. A novel xenograft model of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn; Kopp, Katharina; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth; Willumsgaard, Ayelah E; Eriksen, Karsten W; Labuda, Tord; Rasmussen, Susanne; Mathiesen, Anne-Merete; Geisler, Carsten; Lauenborg, Britt; Becker, Jürgen C; Zhang, Qian; Wasik, Mariusz A; Odum, Niels; Woetmann, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are characterized by accumulation of malignant T cells in the skin. Early disease resembles benign skin disorders but during disease progression cutaneous tumors develop, and eventually the malignant T cells can spread to lymph nodes and internal organs. However......)/J) mice. Subcutaneous transplantation of the malignant T cells led to rapid tumor formation in 43 of 48 transplantations, whereas transplantation of non-malignant T cells isolated from the same donor did not result in tumor development. Importantly, the tumor growth was significantly suppressed in mice...

  3. CD8+ T cells in inflammatory demyelinating disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Hanne A; Millward, Jason M; Owens, Trevor

    We review the contribution made by CD8+ T cells to inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and discuss their role in the animal model Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE). We show that the inflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma and interleukin-17 are...... differentially regulated in CNS-infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in EAE, and that CD8+ T cells regulate disease. In MS, CD8+ T cells appear to play a role in promotion of disease, so cytokine regulation is likely different in CD8+ T cells in MS and EAE...

  4. Malignant skin diseases: Malignant melanoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    local control rates of 75%-88%. II. Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma (CTCL): The term CTCL encompasses a variety of disorders including mycosis fungoides (MF), ATLL, CD30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and related lymphoid entities. MF is a clonal neoplasm of mature CD4+ T-cells which express BE-2, CD45RO, and cutaneous lymphoid antigen. The incidence of MF is 4 per 1,000,000 and is often diagnosed in the 5th and 6th decades and is more common among African Americans. The etiology of MF is unproven although viral or chemical exposure has been suggested as a possible cause. Cutaneous presentation includes patches, plaques, tumors, and/or erythroderma-corresponding to four T-stages. Early stage disease is often managed with topical treatment such as Mechlorethamine, BCNU, PUVA, local RT, or total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) when skin involvement is diffuse. TSEBT (36 Gy via electrons-6 fields) provides CR rates of 85% - 95% in T1, and T2 patients, with 5-year overall survival (OS) of 85% and 70%, respectively. PUVA has been shown to significantly improve disease free survival (DFS) after TSEBT but not OS. Advanced stage disease may be managed with TSEBT and adjuvant PUVA, photopheresis, interferon, retinoids, monoclonal antibodies, nucleotide derivatives, or various combinations. CR rates following TSEBT are 75% and 60%, respectively, for T3 or T4 patients, with OS of 55% at 3 years for T3 disease. TSEBT may be safely repeated in selected patients with recurrent disease. Systemic chemotherapy is generally palliative and high dose systemic therapy followed by transplantation has not been effective. In summary, CTCL is a chronic and often debilitating disease of CD4+ lymphocytes involving skin. The most effective treatment is skin directed and TSEBT is one of the most important components of multi-modality therapy. Although many modalities produce clinical response, long term DFS is rare without maintenance therapy

  5. Approaches to augment CAR T-cell therapy by targeting the apoptotic machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Hannah

    2016-04-15

    Chimaeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells have shown impressive results in patients with B-cell leukaemia. Yet, in patients with lymphoma durable responses are still rare and heavy preconditioning required. Apoptosis resistance is considered a hallmark of cancer, often conveyed by a halted apoptosis signalling. Tumours regularly skew the balance of the components of the apoptotic machinery either through up-regulating anti-apoptotic proteins or silencing pro-apoptotic ones. Malignant B-cells frequently up-regulate anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins leading to therapy resistance. CAR T-cells kill tumour cells via apoptosis induction and their efficacy may be affected by the level of Bcl-2 family proteins. Hence, there is an interesting possibility to increase the effect of CAR T-cell therapy by combining it with apoptosis inhibitor blockade agents. Compounds that inhibit Bcl-2, B-cell lymphoma extra large (Bcl-xL) and Bcl-2-like protein 2 (Bcl-w), can restore execution of apoptosis in tumour cells or sensitize them to other apoptosis-dependent treatments. Hence, there is a great interest to combine such agents with CAR T-cell therapy to potentiate the effect of CAR T-cell killing. This review will focus on the potential of targeting the apoptotic machinery to sensitize tumour cells to CAR T-cell killing. PMID:27068942

  6. Impact of nicotine on the interplay between human periodontal ligament cells and CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xin; Liu, Ying-Feng; Wong, Yong; Wu, Li-Zheng; Tan, Ling; Liu, Fen; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2016-09-01

    Periodontitis is a common infectious disease associated with destruction of periodontal ligaments and alveolar bones. CD4(+) T cell-mediated immune response is involved in the progression of periodontitis. Tobacco consumption increases the risk of periodontal disease. However, the impact of nicotine on the interaction between human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and CD4(+) T cells remains unrevealed. Our study aims to investigate the effect of nicotine on PDL cells and the cocultured CD4(+) T cells. The PDL cell cultures were established by explants from healthy individuals, exposed to nicotine or α-bungarotoxin (α-BTX), and incubated solely or in combination with CD4(+) T cells. Afterwards, cell viability, secreted cytokines, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were evaluated. In monoculture of PDL cells, nicotine dramatically repressed cell viability and increased apoptosis. Meanwhile, α-BTX largely reversed the nicotine-induced apoptosis and increased viability of PDL cells. Compared with the monoculture, MMP-1, MMP-3, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-21 in supernatant of cocultures were markedly elevated after treatment with nicotine. Moreover, α-BTX significantly attenuated nicotine-triggered production of these components either in mono- or co-cultures. In addition, PDL cell-derived CXCL12 following nicotine treatment recruited CD4(+) T cells. Above all, nicotine deteriorated periodontitis partially by promoting PDL cell-CD4(+) T cell-mediated inflammatory response and matrix degradation. PMID:26553320

  7. Memory IL-22-producing CD4+ T cells specific for Candida albicans are present in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Yang, Binyan; Zhou, Maohua; Li, Li; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Jianping; Chen, Hui; Wu, Changyou

    2009-06-01

    Co-expression of IL-22 and IL-17 has been identified and demonstrated to be involved in the immunopathogenesis of some autoimmune diseases as well as the defense against pathogenic infections in animal studies. However, the properties of IL-22-producing cells in humans remain largely unclear. In the present study, we showed that IL-22 could be induced from human PBMC following various polyclonal stimulations. The majority of IL-22-producing cells in PBMC were CD4(+) T cells with a memory cell phenotype. In addition, we found that a subset of IL-22(+) T cells produced IL-22 alone, whereas other IL-22(+) T cells co-expressed cytokines typical of Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells. Importantly, stimulation of PBMC from healthy adults with heat-inactivated Candida albicans (C. albicans) yeast or hyphae resulted in IL-22 production by central and effector memory CD4(+) T cells. Moreover, CD4(+)CCR6(+) but not CD4(+)CCR6(-) T cells produced IL-22 when stimulated with either C. albicans or PMA and ionomycin. In addition, PBMC from the individuals infected with C. albicans produced a significantly higher amount of IL-22 compared with healthy controls following stimulation with C. albicans. These data demonstrate that IL-22-producing T cells in humans may play an important role in the defense against fungal infections such as C. albicans. PMID:19449309

  8. The Dendritic Cell Synapse: A Life Dedicated to T Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, Federica

    2016-01-01

    T-cell activation within immunological synapses is a complex process whereby different types of signals are transmitted from antigen-presenting cells to T cells. The molecular strategies developed by T cells to interpret and integrate these signals have been systematically dissected in recent years and are now in large part understood. On the other side of the immune synapse, dendritic cells (DCs) participate actively in synapse formation and maintenance by remodeling of membrane receptors and intracellular content. However, the details of such changes have been only partially characterized. The DCs actin cytoskeleton has been one of the first systems to be identified as playing an important role in T-cell priming and some of the underlying mechanisms have been elucidated. Similarly, the DCs microtubule cytoskeleton undergoes major spatial changes during synapse formation that favor polarization of the DCs subcellular space toward the interacting T cell. Recently, we have begun to investigate the trafficking machinery that controls polarized delivery of endosomal vesicles at the DC-T immune synapse with the aim of understanding the functional relevance of polarized secretion of soluble factors during T-cell priming. Here, we will review the current knowledge of events occurring in DCs during synapse formation and discuss the open questions that still remain unanswered. PMID:27014259

  9. A Gene Expression Signature That Correlates with CD8+ T Cell Expansion in Acute EBV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, Thomas C; Straubhaar, Juerg R; Kamga, Larisa; Weiss, Eric R; Brody, Robin M; McManus, Margaret M; Lambrecht, Linda K; Somasundaran, Mohan; Luzuriaga, Katherine F

    2015-11-01

    Virus-specific CD8(+) T cells expand dramatically during acute EBV infection, and their persistence is important for lifelong control of EBV-related disease. To better define the generation and maintenance of these effective CD8(+) T cell responses, we used microarrays to characterize gene expression in total and EBV-specific CD8(+) T cells isolated from the peripheral blood of 10 individuals followed from acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM) into convalescence (CONV). In total CD8(+) T cells, differential expression of genes in AIM and CONV was most pronounced among those encoding proteins important in T cell activation/differentiation, cell division/metabolism, chemokines/cytokines and receptors, signaling and transcription factors (TF), immune effector functions, and negative regulators. Within these categories, we identified 28 genes that correlated with CD8(+) T cell expansion in response to an acute EBV infection. In EBV-specific CD8(+) T cells, we identified 33 genes that were differentially expressed in AIM and CONV. Two important TF, T-bet and eomesodermin, were upregulated and maintained at similar levels in both AIM and CONV; in contrast, protein expression declined from AIM to CONV. Expression of these TF varied among cells with different epitope specificities. Collectively, gene and protein expression patterns suggest that a large proportion, if not a majority of CD8(+) T cells in AIM are virus specific, activated, dividing, and primed to exert effector activities. High expression of T-bet and eomesodermin may help to maintain effector mechanisms in activated cells and to enable proliferation and transition to earlier differentiation states in CONV. PMID:26416268

  10. Mouse T-cells restrict replication of human immunodeficiency virus at the level of integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goffinet Christine

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of an immunocompetent, genetically modified mouse model to study HIV-1 pathogenesis and to test antiviral strategies has been hampered by the fact that cells from native mice do not or only inefficiently support several steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle. Upon HIV-1 infection, mouse T-cell lines fail to express viral proteins, but the underlying replication barrier has thus far not been unambiguously identified. Here, we performed a kinetic and quantitative assessment of consecutive steps in the early phase of the HIV-1 replication cycle in T-cells from mice and humans. Results Both T-cell lines and primary T-cells from mice harbor a severe post-entry defect that is independent of potential species-specTR transactivation. Reverse transcription occurred efficiently following VSV-G-mediated entry of virions into mouse T-cells, and abundant levels of 2-LTR circles indicated successful nuclear import of the pre-integration complex. To probe the next step in the retroviral replication cycle, i.e. the integration of HIV-1 into the host cell genome, we established and validated a nested real-time PCR to specifically quantify HIV-1 integrants exploiting highly repetitive mouse B1 elements. Importantly, we demonstrate that the frequency of integrant formation is diminished 18- to > 305-fold in mouse T-cell lines compared to a human counterpart, resulting in a largely abortive infection. Moreover, differences in transgene expression from residual vector integrants, the transcription off which is cyclin T1-independent, provided evidence for an additional, peri-integrational deficit in certain mouse T-cell lines. Conclusion In contrast to earlier reports, we find that mouse T-cells efficiently support early replication steps up to and including nuclear import, but restrict HIV-1 at the level of chromosomal integration.

  11. Role of T cell receptor affinity in the efficacy and specificity of adoptive T cell therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Stone

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several years, there has been considerable progress in the treatment of cancer using gene modified adoptive T cell therapies. Two approaches have been used, one involving the introduction of a conventional alpha-beta T cell receptor (TCR against a pepMHC cancer antigen, and the second involving introduction of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR consisting of a single-chain antibody as an Fv fragment (scFv linked to transmembrane and signaling domains. In this review, we focus on one aspect of TCR-mediated adoptive T cell therapies, the impact of the affinity of the alpha-beta TCR for the pepMHC cancer antigen on both efficacy and specificity. We discuss the advantages of higher affinity TCRs in mediating potent activity of CD4 T cells. This is balanced with the potential disadvantage of higher affinity TCRs in mediating greater self-reactivity against a wider range of structurally similar antigenic peptides, especially in synergy with the CD8 co-receptor. Both TCR affinity and target selection will influence potential safety issues. We suggest pre-clinical strategies that might be used to examine each TCR for possible on-target and off-target side effects due to self-reactivities, and to adjust TCR affinities accordingly.

  12. Primary intestinal T cell lymphomas in Indian patients - In search of enteropathic T cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shet Tanuja

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This series of six intestinal T cell lymphomas (ITCL attempts to document enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma (EATCL in India. Materials and Methods: A total of six ITCL were selected from 170 gastrointestinal lymphomas in last 10 years. Results: The cases studied included EATCL (4, ITCL with a CD4 positive phenotype (1 and ITCL NK/T cell type (1. Of the four EATCL, two occurred in the ileum, one in right colon and one in duodenum. In three EATCL cases, there was history of celiac disease or lactose intolerance and enteropathic changes were noted in the adjacent mucosa. These tumors had CD3+/CD8+/CD56 (+/-/CD4-/ Granzyme B+ immunophenotype. One EATCL was monomorphic small cell type (type II EATCL with a CD3+/CD8-CD56+/CD4-/ Granzyme B+ phenotype. EBER- ISH (Epstein Barr virus coded RNA′s- in situ hybridization revealed positive tumor cells in ITCL NK/T cell type and in bystander cells in three EATCL. Conclusion: ITCL are rare in Indian patients but do occur and comprise a mixture of the enteropathic and non-enteropathic subtypes.

  13. Green tea EGCG, T cells, and T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the proposed health benefits of consuming green tea is its protective effect on autoimmune diseases. Research on the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases has made significant progression in the past few years and several key concepts have been revised. T cells, particularly CD4+ T helper...

  14. Toxicities of chimeric antigen receptor T cells: recognition and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudno, Jennifer N; Kochenderfer, James N

    2016-06-30

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells can produce durable remissions in hematologic malignancies that are not responsive to standard therapies. Yet the use of CAR T cells is limited by potentially severe toxicities. Early case reports of unexpected organ damage and deaths following CAR T-cell therapy first highlighted the possible dangers of this new treatment. CAR T cells can potentially damage normal tissues by specifically targeting a tumor-associated antigen that is also expressed on those tissues. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS), a systemic inflammatory response caused by cytokines released by infused CAR T cells can lead to widespread reversible organ dysfunction. CRS is the most common type of toxicity caused by CAR T cells. Neurologic toxicity due to CAR T cells might in some cases have a different pathophysiology than CRS and requires different management. Aggressive supportive care is necessary for all patients experiencing CAR T-cell toxicities, with early intervention for hypotension and treatment of concurrent infections being essential. Interleukin-6 receptor blockade with tocilizumab remains the mainstay pharmacologic therapy for CRS, though indications for administration vary among centers. Corticosteroids should be reserved for neurologic toxicities and CRS not responsive to tocilizumab. Pharmacologic management is complicated by the risk of immunosuppressive therapy abrogating the antimalignancy activity of the CAR T cells. This review describes the toxicities caused by CAR T cells and reviews the published approaches used to manage toxicities. We present guidelines for treating patients experiencing CRS and other adverse events following CAR T-cell therapy. PMID:27207799

  15. T cell avidity and tumor recognition: implications and therapeutic strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roszkowski Jeffrey J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last two decades, great advances have been made studying the immune response to human tumors. The identification of protein antigens from cancer cells and better techniques for eliciting antigen specific T cell responses in vitro and in vivo have led to improved understanding of tumor recognition by T cells. Yet, much remains to be learned about the intricate details of T cell – tumor cell interactions. Though the strength of interaction between T cell and target is thought to be a key factor influencing the T cell response, investigations of T cell avidity, T cell receptor (TCR affinity for peptide-MHC complex, and the recognition of peptide on antigen presenting targets or tumor cells reveal complex relationships. Coincident with these investigations, therapeutic strategies have been developed to enhance tumor recognition using antigens with altered peptide structures and T cells modified by the introduction of new antigen binding receptor molecules. The profound effects of these strategies on T cell – tumor interactions and the clinical implications of these effects are of interest to both scientists and clinicians. In recent years, the focus of much of our work has been the avidity and effector characteristics of tumor reactive T cells. Here we review concepts and current results in the field, and the implications of therapeutic strategies using altered antigens and altered effector T cells.

  16. To investigate the necessity of STRA6 upregulation in T cells during T cell immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Terra

    Full Text Available Our earlier study revealed that STRA6 (stimulated by retinoic acid gene 6 was up-regulated within 3 h of TCR stimulation. STRA6 is the high-affinity receptor for plasma retinol-binding protein (RBP and mediates cellular vitamin A uptake. We generated STRA6 knockout (KO mice to assess whether such up-regulation was critical for T-cell activation, differentiation and function. STRA6 KO mice under vitamin A sufficient conditions were fertile without apparent anomalies upon visual inspection. The size, cellularity and lymphocyte subpopulations of STRA6 KO thymus and spleen were comparable to those of their wild type (WT controls. KO and WT T cells were similar in terms of TCR-stimulated proliferation in vitro and homeostatic expansion in vivo. Naive KO CD4 cells differentiated in vitro into Th1, Th2, Th17 as well as regulatory T cells in an analogous manner as their WT counterparts. In vivo experiments revealed that anti-viral immune responses to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in KO mice were comparable to those of WT controls. We also demonstrated that STRA6 KO and WT mice had similar glucose tolerance. Total vitamin A levels are dramatically lower in the eyes of KO mice as compared to those of WT mice, but the levels in other organs were not significantly affected after STRA6 deletion under vitamin A sufficient conditions, indicating that the eye is the mouse organ most sensitive to the loss of STRA6. Our results demonstrate that 1 in vitamin A sufficiency, the deletion of STRA6 in T cells does no affect the T-cell immune responses so-far tested, including those depend on STAT5 signaling; 2 STRA6-independent vitamin A uptake compensated the lack of STRA6 in lymphoid organs under vitamin A sufficient conditions in mice; 3 STRA6 is critical for vitamin A uptake in the eyes even in vitamin A sufficiency.

  17. Retinoids in cutaneous T cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrle, G; Thiele, B

    1987-01-01

    Sixteen patients - 12 with cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL), 1 with Sézary syndrome, 1 with actinic reticuloid, and 2 with parapsoriasis variegata - were treated with either a new, potent arotinoid alone or with combined etretinate (Tigason) and PUVA therapy (Re-PUVA). 92% of all patients showed a minor up to a distinct response of their skin lesions within 12.6 +/- 7.4 weeks. More than 50% of the skin lesions cleared in 67% of the patients. After discontinuation of the retinoid therapy, relapses occurred in all cases within 3-10 weeks. There was no difference between the therapeutic efficacy of arotinoid alone and the Re-PUVA regimen, but the latter was less toxic. PMID:3500880

  18. Engineering CAR-T Cells: Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shivani; Riddell, Stanley R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being empirically designed based on a simple understanding of TCR signaling, T cells engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been remarkably successful in treating patients with advanced refractory B cell malignancies. However, many challenges remain in improving the safety and efficacy of this therapy and extending it toward the treatment of epithelial cancers. Other aspects TCR signaling beyond those directly provided by CD3ζ and CD28 phosphorylation strongly influence a T cell’s ability to differentiate and acquire full effector functions. Here, we discuss how the principles of TCR recognition, including spatial constraints, Kon/Koff rates, and synapse formation, along with in-depth analysis of CAR signaling might be applied to develop safer and more effective synthetic tumor targeting receptors. PMID:26169254

  19. Cooperativity of HIV-Specific Cytolytic CD4 T Cells and CD8 T Cells in Control of HIV Viremia

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Susan; Eller, Michael; Teigler, Jeffrey E.; Maloveste, Sebastien M.; Schultz, Bruce T.; Soghoian, Damien Z.; Lu, Richard; Oster, Alexander F.; Chenine, Agnès-Laurence; Alter, Galit; Dittmer, Ulf; Marovich, Mary; Merlin L Robb; Michael, Nelson L.; Bolton, Diane

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T cells play a pivotal role in the control of chronic viral infections. Recently, nontraditional CD4+ T cell functions beyond helper effects have been described, and a role for cytolytic CD4+ T cells in the control of HIV infection has been suggested. We define here the transcriptional, phenotypic, and functional profiles of HIV-specific cytolytic CD4+ T cells. Fluidigm BioMark and multiparameter flow cytometric analysis of HIV-specific cytolytic CD4+ T cells revealed a distinct transcri...

  20. Adoptive Cell Therapy for Lymphoma with CD4 T Cells Depleted of CD137 Expressing Regulatory T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Matthew J; Kohrt, Holbrook E.; Houot, Roch; Varghese, Bindu; Lin, Jack T.; Swanson, Erica; Levy, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy with anti-tumor T cells is a promising novel approach to the treatment of cancer. However, T cell therapy may be limited by the co-transfer of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Here we explored this hypothesis by using two cell surface markers, CD44 and CD137, to isolate anti-tumor CD4 T cells while excluding Tregs. In a murine model of B cell lymphoma, only CD137negCD44hi CD4 T cells infiltrated tumor sites and provided protection. Conversely, the population of CD137posCD44h...

  1. Pre-Transplant Donor-Specific T-Cell Alloreactivity Is Strongly Associated with Early Acute Cellular Rejection in Kidney Transplant Recipients Not Receiving T-Cell Depleting Induction Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Elena; Lucia, Marc; Cruzado, Josep M.; Luque, Sergio; Melilli, Edoardo; Manonelles, Anna; Lloberas, Nuria; Torras, Joan; Grinyó, Josep M.; Bestard, Oriol

    2015-01-01

    Preformed T-cell immune-sensitization should most likely impact allograft outcome during the initial period after kidney transplantation, since donor-specific memory T-cells may rapidly recognize alloantigens and activate the effector immune response, which leads to allograft rejection. However, the precise time-frame in which acute rejection is fundamentally triggered by preformed donor-specific memory T cells rather than by de novo activated naïve T cells is still to be established. Here, preformed donor-specific alloreactive T-cell responses were evaluated using the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay in a large consecutive cohort of kidney transplant patients (n = 90), to assess the main clinical variables associated with cellular sensitization and its predominant time-frame impact on allograft outcome, and was further validated in an independent new set of kidney transplant recipients (n = 67). We found that most highly T-cell sensitized patients were elderly patients with particularly poor HLA class-I matching, without any clinically recognizable sensitizing events. While one-year incidence of all types of biopsy-proven acute rejection did not differ between T-cell alloreactive and non-alloreactive patients, Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis indicated the first two months after transplantation as the highest risk time period for acute cellular rejection associated with baseline T-cell sensitization. This effect was particularly evident in young and highly alloreactive individuals that did not receive T-cell depletion immunosuppression. Multivariate analysis confirmed preformed T-cell sensitization as an independent predictor of early acute cellular rejection. In summary, monitoring anti-donor T-cell sensitization before transplantation may help to identify patients at increased risk of acute cellular rejection, particularly in the early phases after kidney transplantation, and thus guide decision-making regarding the use of induction therapy. PMID:25689405

  2. Immediate dysfunction of vaccine-elicited CD8+ T cells primed in the absence of CD4+ T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provine, Nicholas M.; Larocca, Rafael A.; Aid, Malika; Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; Borducchi, Erica N.; Yates, Kathleen B.; Abbink, Peter; Kirilova, Marinela; Ng’ang’a, David; Bramson, Jonathan; Haining, W. Nicholas; Barouch, Dan H.

    2016-01-01

    CD4+ T cell help is critical for optimal CD8+ T cell memory differentiation and maintenance in many experimental systems. Additionally, many reports have identified reduced primary CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of CD4+ T cell help, which often coincides with reduced antigen or pathogen clearance. Here we demonstrate that absence of CD4+ T cells at the time of adenovirus vector immunization of mice led to immediate impairments in early CD8+ T cell functionality and differentiation. Unhelped CD8+ T cells exhibited a reduced effector phenotype, decreased ex vivo cytotoxicity, and decreased capacity to produce cytokines. This dysfunctional state was imprinted within 3 days of immunization. Unhelped CD8+ T cells expressed elevated levels of inhibitory receptors and exhibited transcriptomic exhaustion and anergy profiles by gene set enrichment analysis. Dysfunctional, impaired effector differentiation also occurred following immunization of CD4+ T cell-deficient mice with a poxvirus vector. This study demonstrates that following priming with viral vectors, CD4+ T cell help is required to promote both the expansion and acquisition of effector functions by CD8+ T cells, which is accomplished by preventing immediate dysfunction. PMID:27448585

  3. Canine CD4+CD8+ double positive T cells in peripheral blood have features of activated T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismarck, Doris; Schütze, Nicole; Moore, Peter; Büttner, Mathias; Alber, Gottfried; Buttlar, Heiner v

    2012-10-15

    In dogs a CD4(+)CD8(+) double positive T cell subpopulation exists that has not been phenotypically defined yet. We demonstrate that canine CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells are mature CD1a(-) and TCRαβ(+) T cells. To analyse the activation potential of CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells, PBMC from dogs vaccinated against canine distemper virus (CDV) were re-stimulated with CDV. Upon antigen-specific stimulation, the CD4(+)CD8(+) T cell fraction increases and consists nearly exclusively of proliferated cells. Similarly, other features of activated effector/memory T cells such as up-regulation of CD25 and MHC-II as well as down-regulation of CD62L (L-selectin) were observed in CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells after stimulation. Canine CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells are less abundant, but more heterogeneous than porcine ones, comprising a small proportion expressing the β chain of CD8 in addition to the CD8α chain, like human CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells. In summary, this analysis provides the basis for functional characterisation of the in vivo relevance of CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells in T-cell mediated immunity. PMID:22789871

  4. Radiographically Negative, Asymptomatic, Sentinel Lymph Node Positive Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma in a 3-Year-Old Male: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Carson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 3-year-old male originally diagnosed with a CD30+ anaplastic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with no evidence of systemic disease after CT scan, PET scan, and bone marrow aspiration. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB was performed as an additional step in the workup and showed microscopic disease. Current management/recommendations for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma do not include SLNB. Medical and surgical management of cutaneous malignancies is dramatically different for local versus advanced disease. Therefore adequate evaluation is necessary to properly stage patients for specific treatment. Such distinction in extent of disease suggests more extensive therapy including locoregional radiation and systemic chemotherapy versus local excision only. Two international case reports have described SLNB in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with one demonstrating evidence of node positive microscopic disease despite a negative metastatic disease workup. This case is being presented as a novel case in a child with implications including lymphoscintigraphy and SLNB as a routine procedure for evaluation and staging of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma if the patient does not demonstrate evidence of metastatic disease on routine workup.

  5. PLZF(+) Innate T Cells Support the TGF-β-Dependent Generation of Activated/Memory-Like Regulatory T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byung Hyun; Park, Hyo Jin; Park, Hi Jung; Lee, Jae-Ii; Park, Seong Hoe; Jung, Kyeong Cheon

    2016-06-30

    PLZF-expressing invariant natural killer T cells and CD4 T cells are unique subsets of innate T cells. Both are selected via thymocyte-thymocyte interaction, and they contribute to the generation of activated/memory-like CD4 and CD8 T cells in the thymus via the production of IL-4. Here, we investigated whether PLZF(+) innate T cells also affect the development and function of Foxp3(+) regulatory CD4 T cells. Flow cytometry analysis of the thymus and spleen from both CIITA transgenic C57BL/6 and wild-type BALB/c mice, which have abundant PLZF(+) CD4 T cells and invariant natural killer T cells, respectively, revealed that Foxp3(+) T cells in these mice exhibited a CD103(+) activated/memory-like phenotype. The frequency of CD103(+) regulatory T cells was considerably decreased in PLZF(+) cell-deficient CIITA(Tg)Plzf(lu/lu) and BALB/c.CD1d(-/-) mice as well as in an IL-4-deficient background, such as in CIITA(Tg)IL-4(-/-) and BALB/c.lL-4(-/-) mice, indicating that the acquisition of an activated/memory-like phenotype was dependent on PLZF(+) innate T cells and IL-4. Using fetal thymic organ culture, we further demonstrated that IL-4 in concert with TGF-β enhanced the acquisition of the activated/memory-like phenotype of regulatory T cells. In functional aspects, the activated/memory-like phenotype of Treg cells was directly related to their suppressive function; regulatory T cells of CIITA(Tg)PIV(-/-) mice more efficiently suppressed ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation compared with their counterparts from wild-type mice. All of these findings suggest that PLZF(+) innate T cells also augmented the generation of activated/memory-like regulation via IL-4 production. PMID:27101876

  6. Bone marrow T cells and the integrated functions of recirculating and tissue-resident memory T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eDi Rosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in T cell trafficking accompany the naïve to memory T cell antigen-driven differentiation, which remains an incompletely defined developmental step. Upon priming, each naïve T cell encounters essential signals–i.e. antigen, co-stimuli and cytokines– in a secondary lymphoid organ; nevertheless its daughter effector and memory T cells recirculate and receive further signals during their migration through various lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs. These additional signals from tissue microenvironments have an impact on immune response features, including T cell effector function, expansion and contraction, memory differentiation, long-term maintenance and recruitment upon antigenic re-challenge into local and/or systemic responses. The critical role of T cell trafficking in providing efficient T cell memory has long been a focus of interest. It is now well recognized that naïve and memory T cells have different migratory pathways, and that memory T cells are heterogeneous with respect to their trafficking. We and others have observed that, long time after priming, memory T cells are preferentially found in certain niches such as the bone marrow or at the skin/mucosal site of pathogen entry, even in the absence of residual antigen. The different underlying mechanisms and peculiarities of resulting immunity are currently under study. In this review, we summarize key findings on bone marrow and tissue-resident memory T cells and revisit some issues in memory T cell maintenance within such niches. Moreover, we discuss bone marrow seeding by memory T cells in the context of migration patterns and protective functions of either recirculating or tissue-resident memory T cells.

  7. Bone Marrow T Cells and the Integrated Functions of Recirculating and Tissue-Resident Memory T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rosa, Francesca; Gebhardt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Changes in T cell trafficking accompany the naive to memory T cell antigen-driven differentiation, which remains an incompletely defined developmental step. Upon priming, each naive T cell encounters essential signals - i.e., antigen, co-stimuli and cytokines - in a secondary lymphoid organ; nevertheless, its daughter effector and memory T cells recirculate and receive further signals during their migration through various lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs. These additional signals from tissue microenvironments have an impact on immune response features, including T cell effector function, expansion and contraction, memory differentiation, long-term maintenance, and recruitment upon antigenic rechallenge into local and/or systemic responses. The critical role of T cell trafficking in providing efficient T cell memory has long been a focus of interest. It is now well recognized that naive and memory T cells have different migratory pathways, and that memory T cells are heterogeneous with respect to their trafficking. We and others have observed that, long time after priming, memory T cells are preferentially found in certain niches such as the bone marrow (BM) or at the skin/mucosal site of pathogen entry, even in the absence of residual antigen. The different underlying mechanisms and peculiarities of resulting immunity are currently under study. In this review, we summarize key findings on BM and tissue-resident memory (TRM) T cells and revisit some issues in memory T cell maintenance within such niches. Moreover, we discuss BM seeding by memory T cells in the context of migration patterns and protective functions of either recirculating or TRM T cells. PMID:26909081

  8. T Cell Vaccination as an Immunotherapy for Autoimmune Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingwu Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Immunization with inactivated autoreactive T cells (T cell vaccination) selected from individual's own T cell repertoire provides a unique in vivo setting for testing immune regulation that is known to involve interactions of a variety of related surface molecules (1). It induces regulatory immune responses that closely resemble the in vivo situation where the immune system is challenged by clonal activation and expansion of given T cell populations in various autoimmune diseases. T cell vaccination provides a powerful means of eliciting natural reactions of the immune system in response to clonal expansion of T cells, which can used as a therapeutic approach to suppress or eliminate specific pathogenic autoreactive T cells in autoimmune conditions. Clinical trials using T cell vaccination to deplete autoreactive T cells in human autoimmune conditions have begun to reveal the pathologic relevance of various autoimmune T cell populations in the disease processes, providing a unique opportunity to test the autoimmune theories in a clinical setting. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.2004;1(5):321-327.

  9. Chronic Inflammation and γδ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Nathan S; Larson, Emily C; Jameson, Julie M

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial tissues of the skin, lungs, reproductive tract, and intestines are the largest physical barriers the body has to protect against infection. Epithelial tissues are woven with a matrix of immune cells programed to mobilize the host innate and adaptive immune responses. Included among these immune cells are gamma delta T lymphocytes (γδ T cells) that are unique in their T cell receptor usage, location, and functions in the body. Stress reception by γδ T cells as a result of traumatic epithelial injury, malignancy, and/or infection induces γδ T cell activation. Once activated, γδ T cells function to repair tissue, induce inflammation, recruit leukocytes, and lyse cells. Many of these functions are mediated via the production of cytokines and growth factors upon γδ T cell activation. Pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory diseases involves γδ T cells; some of which are exacerbated by their presence, while others are improved. γδ T cells require a delicate balance between their need for acute inflammatory mediators to function normally and the detrimental impact imparted by chronic inflammation. This review will focus on the recent progress made in understanding how epithelial γδ T cells influence the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases and how a balance between acute and chronic inflammation impacts γδ T cell function. Future studies will be important to understand how this balance is achieved. PMID:27303404

  10. Cytotoxic reactivity of gut lamina propria CD4+ alpha beta T cells in SCID mice with colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonhagen, K; Thoma, S; Bland, P;

    1996-01-01

    Polyclonal, mucosa-seeking memory/effector CD4+ T cells containing a large fraction of blasts activated in situ accumulate in the gut lamina propria of severe-combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice developing colitis after CD4+ T cell transplantation. CD4+ T cells isolated from different repopulated...... lymphoid tissues of transplanted SCID mice proliferate in vitro in the presence of interleukin (IL)-2 + IL-7. CD3 ligation enhances this cytokine-supported proliferation in CD4+ T cells from the spleen and the mesenteric lymph node of transplanted SCID mice; CD3 ligation suppresses the cytokine...... fraction of colitis-inducing CD4+ T cells undergo activation-induced cell death in situ and can damage other cells through Fas-dependent cytotoxicity....

  11. Role of alphabeta and gammadelta T cells in the host response to Salmonella infection as demonstrated in T-cell-receptor-deficient mice of defined Ity genotypes.

    OpenAIRE

    Weintraub, B C; Eckmann, L; Okamoto, S; Hense, M; Hedrick, S M; Fierer, J.

    1997-01-01

    Salmonella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria which enter the body through the intestinal tract. We studied the roles of T cells expressing either the alpha and beta chains or the gamma and delta chains of the T-cell receptor (alphabeta T cells or gammadelta T cells, respectively) in the host defense against Salmonella using mice genetically deficient in either alphabeta T cells, gammadelta T cells, or both T-cell subsets. These mutant strains of mice were infected orally or intraper...

  12. Hyperoxia Inhibits T Cell Activation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Meissler, J.; Aguayo, E. T.; Globus, R.; Aguado, J.; Candelario, T.

    2013-02-01

    , spleens were removed and the splenocytes were isolated and kept as individual biological samples. We have also examined transcription factors (JASPAR) and pathways of the immune system to help us understand the mechanism of regulation. Results: Our recent mouse immunology experiment aboard STS-131 suggests that the early T cell immune response was inhibited in animals that have been exposed to spaceflight, even 24 hours after return to earth. Moreover, recent experiments in hyperoxic mice show that many of the same genes involved in early T cell activation were altered. Specifically, expression of IL-2Rα, Cxcl2, TNFα, FGF2, LTA and BCL2 genes are dysregulated in mice exposed to hyperoxia. Conclusions: If these hyperoxia-induced changes of gene expression in early T cell activation are additive to the changes seen in the microgravity of spaceflight, there could be an increased infection risk to EVA astronauts, which should be addressed prior to conducting a Mars or other long-term mission.

  13. Cardiomyocytes display low mitochondrial priming and are highly resistant toward cytotoxic T-cell killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiang; Halle, Stephan; Yu, Kai; Mishra, Pooja; Scherr, Michaela; Pietzsch, Stefan; Willenzon, Stefanie; Janssen, Anika; Boelter, Jasmin; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Eder, Matthias; Förster, Reinhold

    2016-06-01

    Following heart transplantation, alloimmune responses can cause graft rejection by damaging donor vascular and parenchymal cells. However, it remains unclear whether cardiomyocytes are also directly killed by immune cells. Here, we used two-photon microscopy to investigate how graft-specific effector CD8(+) T cells interact with cardiomyocytes in a mouse heart transplantation model. Surprisingly, we observed that CD8(+) T cells are completely impaired in killing cardiomyocytes. Even after virus-mediated preactivation, antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells largely fail to lyse these cells although both cell types engage in dynamic interactions. Furthermore, we established a two-photon microscopy-based assay using intact myocardium to determine the susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to undergo apoptosis. This feature, also known as mitochondrial priming reveals an unexpected weak predisposition of cardiomyocytes to undergo apoptosis in situ. These observations together with the early exhaustion phenotype of graft-infiltrating specific T cells provide an explanation why cardiomyocytes are largely protected from direct CD8(+) T-cell-mediated killing. PMID:26970349

  14. Follicular variant of peripheral T cell lymphoma with mediastinal involvement in a child: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delas, Audrey; Gaulard, Philippe; Plat, Geneviève; Brousset, Pierre; Laurent, Camille

    2015-03-01

    Peripheral T cell lymphomas are rare in young patients. We report the first case of a follicular variant of peripheral T cell lymphoma not otherwise specified in an 11-year-old boy, who presented with a large mediastinal mass. Microscopic examination of the mediastinal biopsy revealed nodular infiltration of medium- to large-sized atypical lymphocytes. Immunohistochemistry showed expression of follicular helper T cell markers (CD10, PD1, CXCL13, and BCL6) in tumor T cells. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was not detected by an in situ hybridization assay for EBV-encoded RNA. Interestingly, fluorescence in situ hybridization detected the presence in the tumor cells of the t(5;9)(q33;q22) translocation, involving ITK and SYK rearrangement. T cell clonality was detected by multiplex PCR analysis of TRG and TRD gene rearrangements. After 4 cycles of systemic chemotherapy, the patient was in complete remission. Although this entity is very rare, our observations show that lymphomas arising from T follicular helper cells may occur in children and that this should be distinguished from other lymphomas, such T-lymphoblastic lymphomas, which require a specific therapeutic approach. PMID:25604350

  15. Computational modeling of heterogeneity and function of CD4+ T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adria eCarbo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The immune system is composed of many different cell types and hundreds of intersecting molecular pathways and signals. This large biological complexity requires coordination between distinct pro-inflammatory and regulatory cell subsets to respond to infection while maintaining tissue homeostasis. CD4+ T cells play a central role in orchestrating immune responses and in maintaining a balance between pro- and anti- inflammatory responses. This tight balance between regulatory and effector reactions depends on the ability of CD4+ T cells to modulate distinct pathways within large molecular networks, since dysregulated CD4+ T cell responses may result in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The CD4+ T cell differentiation process comprises an intricate interplay between cytokines, their receptors, adaptor molecules, signaling cascades and transcription factors that help delineate cell fate and function. Computational modeling can help to describe, simulate, analyze, and predict some of the behaviors in this complicated differentiation network. This review provides a comprehensive overview of existing computational immunology methods as well as novel strategies used to model immune responses with a particular focus on CD4+ T cell differentiation.

  16. A transgenic mouse model of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1–associated diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo eOhsugi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL and several inflammatory diseases. Tax, the protein encoded by HTLV-1, may be responsible for the development of the diseases caused by this virus. To investigate the pathogenic role of Tax, several transgenic mouse strains expressing Tax have been developed in recent years. These mice develop various tumors including large granular lymphocytic leukemia, as well as inflammatory diseases such as arthritis. These results suggest that Tax expression alone is sufficient to cause both malignant neoplastic diseases and inflammatory diseases. However, until recently, there were no tax transgenic mice that develop T-cell leukemia and lymphoma resembling ATLL. The first successful induction of leukemia in T cells was pre–T-cell leukemia generated in transgenic mice in which a mouse lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase p56lck (lck proximal promoter was used to express the tax gene in immature T cells. Subsequently, transgenic mice were established in which the lck-distal promoter was used to express Tax in mature T cells; these mice developed mature T-cell leukemia and lymphoma that more closely resembled ATLL than did earlier mouse models.

  17. Alloreactive cloned T cell lines. I. Interactions between cloned amplifier and cytolytic T cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Several T cell clones have been derived by limiting dilution of secondary mixed leukocyte culture cells stimulated by H-2- and M locus (Mls)-disparate spleen cells. When examined for the expression of cytolytic activity and the ability to proliferate, these cell clones can be classified into two major categories. One type of cell is noncytolytic; when cultured with irradiated spleen cells, such clones proliferate in response to Mls determinants. Some, but not all, of these clones express Lyt-...

  18. Role of the T cell receptor ligand affinity in T cell activation by bacterial superantigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Geisler, C; Buus, S; Mariuzza, R A; Karjalainen, K

    2001-01-01

    the SEC3 variants correlated with enhanced binding without any optimum in the binding range covered by native TCR ligands. Comparable studies using anti-TCR antibodies of known affinity confirmed these observations. By comparing the biological potency of the two sets of ligands, we found a significant...... correlation between ligand affinity and ligand potency indicating that it is the density of receptor-ligand complexes in the T cell contact area that determines TCR signaling strength....

  19. Frequency patterns of T-cell exposed motifs in immunoglobulin heavy chain peptides presented by MHCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Bremel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulins are highly diverse protein sequences that are processed and presented to T-cells by B-cells and other antigen presenting cells. We examined a large dataset of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable regions (IGHV to assess the diversity of T-cell exposed motifs (TCEM. TCEM comprise those amino acids in a MHC-bound peptide which face outwards, surrounded by the MHC histotope, and which engage the T-cell receptor. Within IGHV there is a distinct pattern of predicted MHC class II binding and a very high frequency of re-use of the TCEMs. The re-use frequency indicates that only a limited number of different cognate T-cells are required to engage many different clonal B-cells. The amino acids in each outward-facing TCEM are intercalated with the amino acids of inward-facing MHC groove-exposed motifs (GEM. Different GEM may have differing, allele-specific, MHC binding affinities. The intercalation of TCEM and GEM in a peptide allows for a vast combinatorial repertoire of epitopes, each eliciting a different response. Outcome of T-cell receptor binding is determined by overall signal strength, which is a function of the number of responding T-cells and the duration of engagement. Hence, the frequency of T-cell exposed motif re-use appears to be an important determinant of whether a T-cell response is stimulatory or suppressive. The frequency distribution of TCEMs implies that somatic hypermutation is followed by clonal expansion that develop along repeated pathways. The observations of TCEM and GEM derived from immunoglobulins suggest a relatively simple, yet powerful, mechanism to correlate T-cell polyspecificity, through re-use of TCEMs, with a very high degree of specificity achieved by combination with a diversity of GEMs. The frequency profile of TCEMs also points to an economical mechanism for maintaining T-cell memory, recall, and self-discrimination based on an endogenously generated profile of motifs.

  20. Chimeric Antigen Receptors Modified T-Cells for Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hanren; Wang, Yao; Lu, Xuechun; Han, Weidong

    2016-07-01

    The genetic modification and characterization of T-cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) allow functionally distinct T-cell subsets to recognize specific tumor cells. The incorporation of costimulatory molecules or cytokines can enable engineered T-cells to eliminate tumor cells. CARs are generated by fusing the antigen-binding region of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) or other ligand to membrane-spanning and intracellular-signaling domains. They have recently shown clinical benefit in patients treated with CD19-directed autologous T-cells. Recent successes suggest that the modification of T-cells with CARs could be a powerful approach for developing safe and effective cancer therapeutics. Here, we briefly review early studies, consider strategies to improve the therapeutic potential and safety, and discuss the challenges and future prospects for CAR T-cells in cancer therapy. PMID:26819347

  1. T Cell Adolescence: Maturation Events Beyond Positive Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogquist, Kristin A; Xing, Yan; Hsu, Fan-Chi; Shapiro, Virginia Smith

    2015-08-15

    Single-positive thymocytes that successfully complete positive and negative selection must still undergo one final step, generally termed T cell maturation, before they gain functional competency and enter the long-lived T cell pool. Maturation initiates after positive selection in single-positive thymocytes and continues in the periphery in recent thymic emigrants, before these newly produced T cells gain functional competency and are ready to participate in the immune response as peripheral naive T cells. Recent work using genetically altered mice demonstrates that T cell maturation is not a single process, but a series of steps that occur independently and sequentially after positive selection. This review focuses on the changes that occur during T cell maturation, as well as the molecules and pathways that are critical at each step. PMID:26254267

  2. Transgelin-2 in B-Cells Controls T-Cell Activation by Stabilizing T Cell - B Cell Conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Myoung-Won; Kim, Hye-Ran; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Jun, Chang-Duk; Park, Zee-Yong

    2016-01-01

    The immunological synapse (IS), a dynamic and organized junction between T-cells and antigen presenting cells (APCs), is critical for initiating adaptive immunity. The actin cytoskeleton plays a major role in T-cell reorganization during IS formation, and we previously reported that transgelin-2, an actin-binding protein expressed in T-cells, stabilizes cortical F-actin, promoting T-cell activation in response to antigen stimulation. Transgelin-2 is also highly expressed in B-cells, although no specific function has been reported. In this study, we found that deficiency in transgelin-2 (TAGLN2-/-) in B-cells had little effect on B-cell development and activation, as measured by the expression of CD69, MHC class II molecules, and CD80/86. Nevertheless, in B-cells, transgelin-2 accumulated in the IS during the interaction with T-cells. These results led us to hypothesize that transgelin-2 may also be involved in IS stability in B-cells, thereby influencing T-cell function. Notably, we found that transgelin-2 deficiency in B-cells reduced T-cell activation, as determined by the release of IL-2 and interferon-γ and the expression of CD69. Furthermore, the reduced T-cell activation was correlated with reduced B-cell–T-cell conjugate formation. Collectively, these results suggest that actin stability in B-cells during IS formation is critical for the initiation of adaptive T-cell immunity. PMID:27232882

  3. Regulation of CD8+ T cell responses to retinal antigen by local FoxP3+ regulatory T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W McPherson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available While pathogenic CD4 T cells are well known mediators of autoimmune uveoretinitis, CD8 T cells can also be uveitogenic. Since preliminary studies indicated that C57BL/6 mice were minimally susceptible to autoimmune uveoretinitis induction by CD8 T cells, the basis of the retinal disease resistance was sought. Mice that express β-galactosidase (βgal on a retina-specific promoter (arrβgal mice were backcrossed to mice expressing green fluorescent protein and diphtheria toxin receptor under control of the Foxp3 promoter (Foxp3-DTR/GFP mice, and to T cell receptor transgenic mice that produce βgal specific CD8 T cells (BG1 mice. These mice were used to explore the role of regulatory T cells in the resistance to retinal autoimmune disease. Experiments with T cells from double transgenic BG1 x Foxp3-DTR/GFP mice transferred into Foxp3-DTR/GFP x arrβgal mice confirmed that the retina was well protected from attempts to induce disease by adoptive transfer of activated BG1 T cells. The successful induction of retinal disease following unilateral intraocular administration of diphtheria toxin to deplete regulatory T cells showed that the protective activity was dependent on local, toxin-sensitive regulatory T cells; the opposite, untreated eye remained disease-free. Although there were very few Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the parenchyma of quiescent retina, and they did not accumulate in retina, their depletion by local toxin administration led to disease susceptibility. We propose that these regulatory T cells modulate the pathogenic activity of βgal-specific CD8 T cells in the retinas of arrβgal mice on a local basis, allowing immunoregulation to be responsive to local conditions.

  4. Metronomic chemotherapy in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: A potentially feasible alternative to therapeutic nihilism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaroop Revannasiddaiah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is one of the most aggressive malignancies and prognostic outlook remains very dismal. Treatment most often is palliative in intent attempting to relieve the patients from local compressive symptoms in the neck. Radical surgery, radiotherapy (RT, and chemotherapy have not been tested in large prospective trials, and current evidence from retrospective series and small trials indicate only marginal survival benefits. Given the poor prognostic and therapeutic outlook, patients must be encouraged to be actively involved in the decision making process. We report the case of an elderly patient who had no response to palliative RT, and was treated with oral metronomic chemotherapy. The response to oral metronomic chemotherapy was dramatic, and the patient has enjoyed complete freedom from symptoms as well as radiologically exhibits a complete regression. Thus, we document the first ever use of a simple, cost-effective, and convenient oral metronomic chemotherapeutic regimen delivering a remarkable response in an elderly patient with ATC.

  5. Metronomic chemotherapy in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a potentially feasible alternative to therapeutic nihilism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop; Madabhavi, Irappa; Bodh, Anita; Thakur, Priyanka; Sharma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies and prognostic outlook remains very dismal. Treatment most often is palliative in intent attempting to relieve the patients from local compressive symptoms in the neck. Radical surgery, radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy have not been tested in large prospective trials, and current evidence from retrospective series and small trials indicate only marginal survival benefits. Given the poor prognostic and therapeutic outlook, patients must be encouraged to be actively involved in the decision making process. We report the case of an elderly patient who had no response to palliative RT, and was treated with oral metronomic chemotherapy. The response to oral metronomic chemotherapy was dramatic, and the patient has enjoyed complete freedom from symptoms as well as radiologically exhibits a complete regression. Thus, we document the first ever use of a simple, cost-effective, and convenient oral metronomic chemotherapeutic regimen delivering a remarkable response in an elderly patient with ATC. PMID:26009682

  6. The effect of low level laser on anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Yun-Hee; Moon, Jeon-Hwan; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2015-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a non-thermal phototherapy used in several medical applications, including wound healing, reduction of pain and amelioration of oral mucositis. Nevertheless, the effects of LLLT upon cancer or dysplastic cells have been so far poorly studied. Here we report that the effects of laser irradiation on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells leads to hyperplasia. 650nm of laser diode was performed with a different time interval (0, 15, 30, 60J/cm2 , 25mW) on anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line FRO in vivo. FRO was orthotopically injected into the thyroid gland of nude mice and the irradiation was performed with the same method described previously. After irradiation, the xenograft evaluation was followed for one month. The thyroid tissues from sacrificed mice were undergone to H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining with HIF-1α, Akt, TGF-β1. We found the aggressive proliferation of FRO on thyroid gland with dose dependent. In case of 60 J/ cm2 of energy density, the necrotic bodies were found in a center of the thyroid. The phosphorylation of HIF-1α and Akt was detected in the thyroid gland, which explained the survival signaling of anaplastic cancer cell was turned on the thyroid gland. Furthermore, TGF-β1 expression was decreased after irradiation. In this study, we demonstrated that insufficient energy density irradiation occurred the decreasing of TGF-β1 which corresponding to the phosphorylation of Akt/ HIF-1α. This aggressive proliferation resulted to the hypoxic condition of tissue for angiogenesis. We suggest that LLLT may influence to cancer aggressiveness associated with a decrease in TGF-β1 and increase in Akt/HIF-1α.

  7. Indoctrinating T cells to attack pathogens through homeschooling

    OpenAIRE

    Parello, Caitlin S.; Huseby, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive immunity is predicated on the ability of the T cell repertoire to have pre-existing specificity for the universe of potential pathogens. Recent findings suggest that TCR-self-pMHC interactions limit autoimmune responses while enhancing T cell response to foreign antigens. We review these findings here, placing them in context of the current understanding of how TCR-self-pMHC interactions regulate T cell activation thresholds, and suggest that TCR-self-pMHC interactions increase the e...

  8. Calculations show substantial serial engagement of T cell receptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Wofsy, C; Coombs, D; Goldstein, B

    2001-01-01

    The serial engagement model provides an attractive and plausible explanation for how a typical antigen presenting cell, exhibiting a low density of peptides recognized by a T cell, can initiate T cell responses. If a single peptide displayed by a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) can bind, sequentially, to different T cell receptors (TCR), then a few peptides can activate many receptors. To date, arguments supporting and questioning the prevalence of serial engagement have centered on th...

  9. Targeting CD8 T-Cell Metabolism in Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, Michelle; Brouard, Sophie; Pecqueur, Claire; Degauque, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Infiltration of effector CD8 T cells plays a major role in allograft rejection, and increases in memory and terminally differentiated effector memory CD8 T cells are associated with long-term allograft dysfunction. Alternatively, CD8 regulatory T cells suppress the inflammatory responses of effector lymphocytes and induce allograft tolerance in animal models. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the field of immunometabolics and its important role in CD8 function and differentiation...

  10. Human memory T cells: generation, compartmentalization and homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Farber, Donna L.; Yudanin, Naomi A.; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2013-01-01

    Memory T cells comprise the most abundant lymphocyte population in the body for the majority of one’s lifetime; however, our understanding of memory T cell generation, function and maintenance mainly derives from mouse studies, which cannot recapitulate the decades-long exposure to multiple pathogens that occurs in humans. Here, we review studies focused on human memory T cells that reveal key properties including subset heterogeneity and diverse tissue residence in multiple mucosal and lymph...

  11. Programming CD8+ T cells for effective immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hinrichs, Christian S.; Gattinoni, Luca; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2006-01-01

    The differentiation state of CD8+ T cells has emerged as a crucial determinant of their ability to respond to tumor and infection. Signals from T-cell receptors, co-stimulatory molecules and cytokine receptors direct the differentiation process. These signals ‘program’ sustained and heritable gene expression patterns that govern progressive differentiation and lineage commitment. The epigenetic mechanisms by which T cells are programmed are just beginning to be elucidated. Understanding the m...

  12. T Cells in Gastric Cancer: Friends or Foes

    OpenAIRE

    Mario M. D'Elios; Elena Silvestri; Chiara Della Bella; Amedeo Amedei; Domenico Prisco

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Helicobacter pylori is the major risk factor for gastric cancer. As for any type of cancer, T cells are crucial for recognition and elimination of gastric tumor cells. Unfortunately T cells, instead of protecting from the onset of cancer, can contribute to oncogenesis. Herein we review the different types, “friend or foe”, of T-cell response in gastric cancer.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Salmonid CD4+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisey, Kevin; Montero, Ruth; Corripio-Miyar, Yolanda; Toro-Ascuy, Daniela; Valenzuela, Beatriz; Reyes-Cerpa, Sebastián; Sandino, Ana María; Zou, Jun; Wang, Tiehui; Secombes, Christopher J; Imarai, Mónica

    2016-05-15

    This study reports the isolation and functional characterization of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) CD4-1(+) T cells and the establishment of an IL-15-dependent CD4-1(+) T cell line. By using Abs specific for CD4-1 and CD3ε it was possible to isolate the double-positive T cells in spleen and head kidney. The morphology and the presence of transcripts for T cell markers in the sorted CD4-1(+)CD3ε(+) cells were studied next. Cells were found to express TCRα, TCRβ, CD152 (CTLA-4), CD154 (CD40L), T-bet, GATA-3, and STAT-1. The sorted CD4-1(+) T cells also had a distinctive functional attribute of mammalian T lymphocytes, namely they could undergo Ag-specific proliferation, using OVA as a model Ag. The OVA-stimulated cells showed increased expression of several cytokines, including IFN-γ1, IL-4/13A, IL-15, IL-17D, IL-10, and TGF-β1, perhaps indicating that T cell proliferation led to differentiation into distinct effector phenotypes. Using IL-15 as a growth factor, we have selected a lymphoid cell line derived from rainbow trout head kidney cells. The morphology, cell surface expression of CD4-1, and the presence of transcripts of T cell cytokines and transcription factors indicated that this is a CD4-1(+) T cell line. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the presence of CD4-1(+)CD3ε(+) T cells in salmonids. As in mammals, CD4-1(+) T cells may be the master regulators of immune responses in fish, and therefore these findings and the new model T cell line developed will contribute to a greater understanding of T cell function and immune responses in teleost fish. PMID:27053758

  14. Metabolic engineering of Salmonella vaccine bacteria to boost human Vγ2Vδ2 T cell immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workalemahu, Grefachew; Wang, Hong; Puan, Kia-Joo; Nada, Mohanad H; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Jones, Bradley D; Jin, Chenggang; Morita, Craig T

    2014-07-15

    Human Vγ2Vδ2 T cells monitor isoprenoid metabolism by recognizing foreign (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP), a metabolite in the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway used by most eubacteria and apicomplexan parasites, and self isopentenyl pyrophosphate, a metabolite in the mevalonate pathway used by humans. Whereas microbial infections elicit prolonged expansion of memory Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, immunization with prenyl pyrophosphates or aminobisphosphonates elicit short-term Vγ2Vδ2 expansion with rapid anergy and deletion upon subsequent immunizations. We hypothesized that a live, attenuated bacterial vaccine that overproduces HMBPP would elicit long-lasting Vγ2Vδ2 T cell immunity by mimicking a natural infection. Therefore, we metabolically engineered the avirulent aroA(-) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 strain by deleting the gene for LytB (the downstream enzyme from HMBPP) and functionally complementing for this loss with genes encoding mevalonate pathway enzymes. LytB(-) Salmonella SL7207 had high HMBPP levels, infected human cells as efficiently as did the wild-type bacteria, and stimulated large ex vivo expansions of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells from human donors. Importantly, vaccination of a rhesus monkey with live lytB(-) Salmonella SL7207 stimulated a prolonged expansion of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells without significant side effects or anergy induction. These studies provide proof-of-principle that metabolic engineering can be used to derive live bacterial vaccines that boost Vγ2Vδ2 T cell immunity. Similar engineering of metabolic pathways to produce lipid Ags or B vitamin metabolite Ags could be used to derive live bacterial vaccine for other unconventional T cells that recognize nonpeptide Ags. PMID:24943221

  15. TCR down-regulation controls T cell homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boding, Lasse; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Nielsen, Bodil L;

    2009-01-01

    TCR and cytokine receptor signaling play key roles in the complex homeostatic mechanisms that maintain a relative stable number of T cells throughout life. Despite the homeostatic mechanisms, a slow decline in naive T cells is typically observed with age. The CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif...... was caused by the combination of reduced thymic output, decreased T cell apoptosis, and increased transition of naive T cells to memory T cells. Experiments with bone marrow chimeric mice confirmed that the CD3gammaLLAA mutation exerted a T cell intrinsic effect on T cell homeostasis that resulted in...... controls TCR down-regulation and plays a central role in fine-tuning TCR expression and signaling in T cells. In this study, we show that the age-associated decline of naive T cells is strongly accelerated in CD3gammaLLAA knock-in mice homozygous for a double leucine to alanine mutation in the CD3gamma di...

  16. Monoclonal T-cell receptors: new reagents for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauss, Hans J; Cesco-Gaspere, Michela; Thomas, Sharyn; Hart, Daniel P; Xue, Shao-An; Holler, Angelika; Wright, Graham; Perro, Mario; Little, Ann-Margaret; Pospori, Constantina; King, Judy; Morris, Emma C

    2007-10-01

    Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T lymphocytes is an effective form of immunotherapy for persistent virus infections and cancer. A major limitation of adoptive therapy is the inability to isolate antigen-specific T lymphocytes reproducibly. The demonstration that cloned T-cell receptor (TCR) genes can be used to produce T lymphocyte populations of desired specificity offers new opportunities for antigen-specific T-cell therapy. TCR gene-modified lymphocytes display antigen-specific function in vitro, and were shown to protect against virus infection and tumor growth in animal models. A recent trial in humans demonstrated that TCR gene-modified T cells persisted in all and reduced melanoma burden in 2/15 patients. In future trials, it may be possible to use TCR gene transfer to equip helper and cytotoxic T cells with new antigen-specificity, allowing both T-cell subsets to cooperate in achieving improved clinical responses. Sequence modifications of TCR genes are being explored to enhance TCR surface expression, while minimizing the risk of pairing between introduced and endogenous TCR chains. Current T-cell transduction protocols that trigger T-cell differentiation need to be modified to generate "undifferentiated" T cells, which, upon adoptive transfer, display improved in vivo expansion and survival. Both, expression of only the introduced TCR chains and the production of naïve T cells may be possible in the future by TCR gene transfer into stem cells. PMID:17637721

  17. Adoptive immunotherapy of cancer using CD4+ T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Muranski, Pawel; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2009-01-01

    CD4+ T cells are central to the function of the immune system but their role in tumor immunity remains underappreciated. It is becoming clear that there is an enormous diversity of CD4+ T cell polarization patterns including Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs). These functionally divergent T cell subsets can have opposing effects — they can trigger tumor rejection or inhibit treatment after adoptive cell transfer. Some polarized CD4+ cells have plasticity, and their phenotypes and ...

  18. Consensus nomenclature for CD8+ T cell phenotypes in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetoh, Lionel; Smyth, Mark J.; Drake, Charles G.; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Apte, Ron N.; Ayyoub, Maha; Blay, Jean-Yves; Bonneville, Marc; Butterfield, Lisa H.; Caignard, Anne; Castelli, Chiara; Cavallo, Federica; Celis, Esteban; Chen, Lieping; Colombo, Mario P.; Comin-Anduix, Begoña; Coukos, Georges; Dhodapkar, Madhav V.; Dranoff, Glenn; Frazer, Ian H.; Fridman, Wolf-Hervé; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.; Gilboa, Eli; Gnjatic, Sacha; Jäger, Dirk; Kalinski, Pawel; Kaufman, Howard L.; Kiessling, Rolf; Kirkwood, John; Knuth, Alexander; Liblau, Roland; Lotze, Michael T.; Lugli, Enrico; Marincola, Francesco; Melero, Ignacio; Melief, Cornelis J.; Mempel, Thorsten R.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Odun, Kunle; Overwijk, Willem W.; Palucka, Anna Karolina; Parmiani, Giorgio; Ribas, Antoni; Romero, Pedro; Schreiber, Robert D.; Schuler, Gerold; Srivastava, Pramod K.; Tartour, Eric; Valmori, Danila; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.; van der Bruggen, Pierre; van den Eynde, Benoît J.; Wang, Ena; Zou, Weiping; Whiteside, Theresa L.; Speiser, Daniel E.; Pardoll, Drew M.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Anderson, Ana C.

    2015-01-01

    Whereas preclinical investigations and clinical studies have established that CD8+ T cells can profoundly affect cancer progression, the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. Challenging the prevalent view that the beneficial effect of CD8+ T cells in cancer is solely attributable to their cytotoxic activity, several reports have indicated that the ability of CD8+ T cells to promote tumor regression is dependent on their cytokine secretion profile and their ability to self-renew. Evidence has also shown that the tumor microenvironment can disarm CD8+ T cell immunity, leading to the emergence of dysfunctional CD8+ T cells. The existence of different types of CD8+ T cells in cancer calls for a more precise definition of the CD8+ T cell immune phenotypes in cancer and the abandonment of the generic terms “pro-tumor” and “antitumor.” Based on recent studies investigating the functions of CD8+ T cells in cancer, we here propose some guidelines to precisely define the functional states of CD8+ T cells in cancer. PMID:26137416

  19. Human memory T cells: generation, compartmentalization and homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Donna L.; Yudanin, Naomi A.; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2014-01-01

    Memory T cells comprise the most abundant lymphocyte population in the body for the majority of one’s lifetime; however, our understanding of memory T cell generation, function and maintenance mainly derives from mouse studies, which cannot recapitulate the decades-long exposure to multiple pathogens that occurs in humans. Here, we review studies focused on human memory T cells that reveal key properties including subset heterogeneity and diverse tissue residence in multiple mucosal and lymphoid tissue sites. We also discuss how the function and adaptability of human memory T cells depend on spatial and temporal compartmentalization. PMID:24336101

  20. Stimulation of adult oligodendrogenesis by myelin-specific T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted Nielsen, Helle; Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Lambertsen, Kate Lykke;

    2011-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), myelin-specific T cells are normally associated with destruction of myelin and axonal damage. However, in acute MS plaque, remyelination occurs concurrent with T-cell infiltration, which raises the question of whether T cells might stimulate myelin repair. We investiga...... calretinergic associational/commissural fibers within the dentate gyrus. These results have implications for the perception of MS pathogenesis because they show that infiltrating myelin-specific T cells can stimulate oligodendrogenesis in the adult central nervous system....

  1. Chronic Inflammation and  T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan S Fay

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The epithelial tissues of the skin, lungs, reproductive tract, and intestines are the largest physical barriers the body has to protect against infection. Epithelial tissues are woven with a matrix of immune cells programmed to mobilize the host innate and adaptive immune responses. Included among these immune cells are  T cells that are unique in their TCR usage, location, and functions in the body. Stress reception by  T cells as a result of traumatic epithelial injury, malignancy, and/or infection induces  T cell activation. Once activated,  T cells function to repair tissue, induce inflammation, recruit leukocytes, and lyse cells. Many of these functions are mediated via the production of cytokines and growth factors upon  T cell activation. Pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory diseases involve  T cells; some of which are exacerbated by their presence, while others are improved.  T cells require a delicate balance between their need for acute inflammatory mediators to function normally and the detrimental impact imparted by chronic inflammation. This review will focus on the recent progress made in understanding how epithelial  T cells influence the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases and how a balance between acute and chronic inflammation impacts  T cell function. Future studies will be important to understand how this balance is achieved.

  2. Cortical Anaplastic Ependymoma with Significant Desmoplasia: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsharkawy, Alaa Eldin; Abuamona, Raid; Bergmann, Markus; Salem, Shadi; Gafumbegete, Evariste; Röttger, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic brain anaplastic ependymomas with no connection to the ventricles are rare. We present a rare case of a 25-year-old male who presented with generalized convulsions. Computed tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) showed characters of an intra- and extra-axial lesion. Intraoperatively, the lesion was a cortical solid mass that had no connections to the dura or to the ventricle. The histological diagnosis showed an anaplastic ependymoma with WHO grade III with distinctive desmoplasia. A literature review of ectopic anaplastic ependymomas regarding their clinical presentations, management, and prognostic factors was performed. There is a need to establish a clinically based histopathological grading system for anaplastic ependymomas. Ectopic anaplastic ependymomas should be included in the preoperative differential diagnosis. PMID:24455359

  3. Cortical Anaplastic Ependymoma with Significant Desmoplasia: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Eldin Elsharkawy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic brain anaplastic ependymomas with no connection to the ventricles are rare. We present a rare case of a 25-year-old male who presented with generalized convulsions. Computed tomography (CT, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS showed characters of an intra- and extra-axial lesion. Intraoperatively, the lesion was a cortical solid mass that had no connections to the dura or to the ventricle. The histological diagnosis showed an anaplastic ependymoma with WHO grade III with distinctive desmoplasia. A literature review of ectopic anaplastic ependymomas regarding their clinical presentations, management, and prognostic factors was performed. There is a need to establish a clinically based histopathological grading system for anaplastic ependymomas. Ectopic anaplastic ependymomas should be included in the preoperative differential diagnosis.

  4. A gut-homing, oligoclonal CD4+ T cell population in severe-combined immunodeficient mice expressing a rearranged, transgenic class I-restricted alpha beta T cell receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, J; Rudolphi, A; Spiess, S;

    1995-01-01

    We studied the peripheral T cell compartment of H-2b severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice that express a transgenic (tg) alpha beta T cell receptor (TcR) specific for the H-Y (male) epitope presented by the H-2 class I Db molecule. Large populations of CD3+ NK1.1-TCR beta T+ T cells were...... present in spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, peritoneal cavity, lamina propria and epithelial layer of the small and large intestine of 6- to 10-month-old, male and female tg scid mice. Only low numbers of CD3+ T cells were recovered from inguinal, popliteal, or axillary lymph nodes. We studied CD4+ T cells...... in these tg scid mice. CD4+ T cells were found in the peritoneal cavity, in the mesenteric lymph nodes and in the intraepithelial layer and lamina propria of the gut. All CD4+ T cells were CD44+ (i.e. showed evidence of antigen-driven differentiation) and expressed the tg V beta 8.2 TcR beta...

  5. Canine CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive T cells can develop from CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismarck, Doris; Moore, Peter F; Alber, Gottfried; von Buttlar, Heiner

    2014-12-15

    For a long time the expression of the CD4 and CD8 receptor on peripheral blood T cells was thought to be mutually exclusive. However, in canine peripheral blood, similar to other species as swine or human for example, mature CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (dp) T cells exist which simultaneously express both surface receptors and have features of activated T cells. Canine CD4(+)CD8(+)dp T cells are heterogeneous and can be divided into three subpopulations by their intensity of CD4 and CD8α expression: CD4(bright)CD8α(bright), CD4(dim)CD8α(bright) and CD4(dim)CD8α(dim). The number of CD4(+)CD8α(+)dp T cells increases after in vitro stimulation of canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) raising the question of their progenitor(s). Thus, the aim of our study was to characterize the progenitor(s) of canine CD4(+)CD8α(+)dp T cells. By cell tracing experiments we identified both CD4(+) single-positive (sp) and also CD8α(+)sp T cells as progenitors of canine CD4(+)CD8α(+)dp T cells after in vitro stimulation. CD4(+)sp T cells almost exclusively upregulate a CD8αα homodimer, whereas CD8α(+)sp T cells can become CD4(+)CD8αβ(+) or CD4(+)CD8αα(+). Even in the absence of other cells, highly purified CD4(+)sp T cells can become double-positive upon in vitro stimulation, whereas highly purified CD8α(+)sp T cells fail to do so. However, CD8α(+)sp T cells can additionally express CD4 when stimulated in the presence of CD4(-)CD8α(-) double-negative (dn) cells or more efficiently when stimulated in the presence of CD4(+)sp T cells. Soluble factors secreted by CD4(+)sp T cells are sufficient for the upregulation of CD4 on CD8α(+)sp T cells, but direct cell-cell contact between CD4(+)sp and CD8α(+)sp T cells is more efficient. mRNA analysis shows that additional CD4 expression on CD8α(+)sp T cells results from de novo synthesis. Thus, uptake of soluble CD4 or trogocytosis is less likely as mechanism for generation of canine double-positive T cells. CD4(+)CD

  6. Change of paradigm: CD8+ T cells as important helper for CD4+ T cells during asthma and autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Magdalena; Lohoff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Summary The activation of naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in response to antigen and their subsequent proliferation and differentiation into effectors are important features of a cell-mediated immune response. CD4+ T cells (also known as T helper cells, Th) differentiate into several subpopulations including Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Tfh and Treg cells, characterized by specific cytokine profiles and effector functions. However, recent evidence indicates that CD8+ T cells (termed cytotoxic T lymphocyt...

  7. Transmembrane signalling via HLA-DR molecules on T cells from a Sezary T-cell leukaemia line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Kuhlmann, J; Møller, T;

    1990-01-01

    The human Sezary T-cell leukaemia line, HUT.78, represents a population of activated T cells, i.e. they are HLA-DR+ and IL-2R+. We have analysed the capacity of HUT.78 cells (1) to stimulate HLA-DR-specific T-cell lines or clones and (2) to be induced to synthesize IL-2 by anti-HLA-DR monoclonal...

  8. Contribution of Herpesvirus Specific CD8 T Cells to Anti-Viral T Cell Response in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Sandalova; Diletta Laccabue; Carolina Boni; Tan, Anthony T.; Katja Fink; Eng Eong Ooi; Robert Chua; Bahar Shafaeddin Schreve; Carlo Ferrari; Antonio Bertoletti

    2010-01-01

    Herpesviruses infect most humans. Their infections can be associated with pathological conditions and significant changes in T cell repertoire but evidences of symbiotic effects of herpesvirus latency have never been demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that HCMV and EBV-specific CD8 T cells contribute to the heterologous anti-viral immune response. Volume of activated/proliferating virus-specific and total CD8 T cells was evaluated in 50 patients with acute viral infections: 20 with HBV, 1...

  9. ZFAT plays critical roles in peripheral T cell homeostasis and its T cell receptor-mediated response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Keiko [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Central Research Institute for Advanced Molecular Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Central Research Institute of Life Sciences for the Next Generation of Women Scientists, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Fujimoto, Takahiro [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Central Research Institute for Advanced Molecular Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Okamura, Tadashi [Division of Animal Models, Department of Infectious Diseases, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, Masahiro [Central Research Institute for Advanced Molecular Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Tanaka, Yoko [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Mototani, Yasumasa; Goto, Motohito [Division of Animal Models, Department of Infectious Diseases, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ota, Takeharu; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Kuroki, Masahide [Central Research Institute for Advanced Molecular Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Tsunoda, Toshiyuki [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Central Research Institute for Advanced Molecular Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Sasazuki, Takehiko [Institute for Advanced Study, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shirasawa, Senji, E-mail: sshirasa@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Central Research Institute for Advanced Molecular Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We generated Cd4-Cre-mediated T cell-specific Zfat-deficient mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zfat-deficiency leads to reduction in the number of the peripheral T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impaired T cell receptor-mediated response in Zfat-deficient peripheral T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreased expression of IL-7R{alpha}, IL-2R{alpha} and IL-2 in Zfat-deficient peripheral T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zfat plays critical roles in peripheral T cell homeostasis. -- Abstract: ZFAT, originally identified as a candidate susceptibility gene for autoimmune thyroid disease, has been reported to be involved in apoptosis, development and primitive hematopoiesis. Zfat is highly expressed in T- and B-cells in the lymphoid tissues, however, its physiological function in the immune system remains totally unknown. Here, we generated the T cell-specific Zfat-deficient mice and demonstrated that Zfat-deficiency leads to a remarkable reduction in the number of the peripheral T cells. Intriguingly, a reduced expression of IL-7R{alpha} and the impaired responsiveness to IL-7 for the survival were observed in the Zfat-deficient T cells. Furthermore, a severe defect in proliferation and increased apoptosis in the Zfat-deficient T cells following T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation was observed with a reduced IL-2R{alpha} expression as well as a reduced IL-2 production. Thus, our findings reveal that Zfat is a critical regulator in peripheral T cell homeostasis and its TCR-mediated response.

  10. Impact of HIV on CD8+ T cell CD57 expression is distinct from that of CMV and aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulggi A Lee

    Full Text Available Chronic antigenic stimulation by cytomegalovirus (CMV is thought to increase "immunosenesence" of aging, characterized by accumulation of terminally differentiated CD28- CD8+ T cells and increased CD57, a marker of proliferative history. Whether chronic HIV infection causes similar effects is currently unclear.We compared markers of CD8+ T cell differentiation (e.g., CD28, CD27, CCR7, CD45RA and CD57 expression on CD28- CD8+ T cells in healthy HIV-uninfected adults with and without CMV infection and in both untreated and antiretroviral therapy (ART-suppressed HIV-infected adults with asymptomatic CMV infection.Compared to HIV-uninfected adults without CMV (n=12, those with asymptomatic CMV infection (n=31 had a higher proportion of CD28-CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 (P=0.005. Older age was also associated with greater proportions of CD28-CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 (rho: 0.47, P=0.007. In contrast, untreated HIV-infected CMV+ participants (n=55 had much lower proportions of CD28- CD8+ cells expressing CD57 than HIV-uninfected CMV+ participants (P<0.0001 and were enriched for less well-differentiated CD28- transitional memory (TTR CD8+ T cells (P<0.0001. Chronically HIV-infected adults maintaining ART-mediated viral suppression (n=96 had higher proportions of CD28-CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 than untreated patients (P<0.0001, but continued to have significantly lower levels than HIV-uninfected controls (P=0.001. Among 45 HIV-infected individuals initiating their first ART regimen, the proportion of CD28-CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 declined (P<0.0001, which correlated with a decline in percent of transitional memory CD8+ T cells, and appeared to be largely explained by a decline in CD28-CD57- CD8+ T cell counts rather than an expansion of CD28-CD57+ CD8+ T cell counts.Unlike CMV and aging, which are associated with terminal differentiation and proliferation of effector memory CD8+ T cells, HIV inhibits this process, expanding less well

  11. Characterization of a novel subset of CD8(+) T cells that expands in patients receiving interleukin-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollob, J A; Schnipper, C P; Orsini, E; Murphy, E; Daley, J F; Lazo, S B; Frank, D A; Neuberg, D; Ritz, J

    1998-08-01

    IL-12 has significant antitumor activity in mice that may be mediated by CD8(+) T cells. We show in this report that repeated subcutaneous injections of IL-12 in patients with cancer resulted in the selective expansion of a subset of peripheral blood CD8(+) T cells. This T cell subset expressed high levels of CD18 and upregulated IL-12 receptor expression after IL-12 treatment in vivo. In normal subjects, these CD3(+)CD8(+)CD18(bright) T cells expressed IL-12 and IL-2 receptors and adhesion/costimulatory molecules to a greater degree than other CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. They appeared morphologically as large granular lymphocytes, although they did not express NK cell markers such as CD56. In addition, CD8(+)CD18(bright) T cells were almost exclusively T cell receptor (TCR) alphabeta+, and exhibited a TCR Vbeta repertoire that was strikingly oligoclonal, whereas the Vbeta repertoire of CD18(dim) T cells was polyclonal. Although CD8+CD18(bright) T cells demonstrated little functional responsiveness to IL-12 or IL-2 alone in vitro, they responded to the combination of IL-12+IL-2 with strong IFN-gamma production and proliferation and enhanced non-MHC-restricted cytolytic activity. In contrast, CD18(dim) T cells were not activated by IL-12 or IL-2, alone or in combination. These findings demonstrate that CD8+CD18(bright) T cells are a unique population of peripheral blood lymphocytes with features of both memory and effector cells that are capable of TCR-independent activation through combined stimulation with IL-12+IL-2. As this activation results in IFN-gamma production and enhanced cytolytic activity, these T cells may play a role in innate as well as acquired immunity to tumors and infectious pathogens. Additional studies will be necessary to determine whether CD8+CD18(bright) T cells mediate the antitumor effect of IL-12 or IL-2 administered to cancer patients, and if so, whether maximal activation of these T cells with the combination of IL-12+IL-2 in vivo can

  12. Abundance of early functional HIV-specific CD8+ T cells does not predict AIDS-free survival time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid M M Schellens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: T-cell immunity is thought to play an important role in controlling HIV infection, and is a main target for HIV vaccine development. HIV-specific central memory CD8(+ and CD4(+ T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 have been associated with control of viremia and are therefore hypothesized to be truly protective and determine subsequent clinical outcome. However, the cause-effect relationship between HIV-specific cellular immunity and disease progression is unknown. We investigated in a large prospective cohort study involving 96 individuals of the Amsterdam Cohort Studies with a known date of seroconversion whether the presence of cytokine-producing HIV-specific CD8(+ T cells early in infection was associated with AIDS-free survival time. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The number and percentage of IFNgamma and IL-2 producing CD8(+ T cells was measured after in vitro stimulation with an overlapping Gag-peptide pool in T cells sampled approximately one year after seroconversion. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard models showed that frequencies of cytokine-producing Gag-specific CD8(+ T cells (IFNgamma, IL-2 or both shortly after seroconversion were neither associated with time to AIDS nor with the rate of CD4(+ T-cell decline. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that high numbers of functional HIV-specific CD8(+ T cells can be found early in HIV infection, irrespective of subsequent clinical outcome. The fact that both progressors and long-term non-progressors have abundant T cell immunity of the specificity associated with low viral load shortly after seroconversion suggests that the more rapid loss of T cell immunity observed in progressors may be a consequence rather than a cause of disease progression.

  13. Human purified CD8+ T cells: Ex vivo expansion model to generate a maximum yield of functional cytotoxic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shanti, Nasser; Aldahoudi, Ziyad

    2007-01-01

    CD8+ T cells are a critical component of the cellular immune response. They play an important role in the control of viral infection and eliminating cells with malignant potential. However, attempts to generate and expand human CD8+ T cells in vitro for an adoptive immunotherapy have been conducted with limitation of the very low frequency of CD8+ T cells in blood. Therefore, several expansion protocols have been developed to obtain large and efficient numbers of human CD8+ T cells for use in adoptive immunotherapies. In this study various common culture conditions using different cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-15 and autologous feeders and sera were investigated to expand human purified CD8+ T cells. The importance and the influence of these factors on the growth and phenotype of CD8+ T cell were assessed by serially sampling cultures using flow cytometry. We demonstrated that combination of IL-2 (50 U/ml) and autologous feeders induced maximal CD8+ T cell proliferation (40-50 folds) compared to other cytokines. Immunophenotypic analysis of cultured cells showed that expanded CD8+ T cells were activated and differentiated. Furthermore our expansion model also demonstrated that expanded CD8+ T cells are functionally cytotoxic active by killing Allogeneic LCLs cells. In conclusion, we have developed a reliable, simple method that uses minimal cell numbers to generate a high yield of functional cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, which can be used for the development of cellular immunotherapies. PMID:17190652

  14. Comparative contribution of CD1 on the development of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Chun, T; Wang, C R

    2000-01-15

    CD1 molecules are MHC class I-like glycoproteins whose expression is essential for the development of a unique subset of T cells, the NK T cells. To evaluate to what extent CD1 contributes to the development of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, we generated CD1oIIo and CD1oTAPo mice and compared the generation of T cells in these double-mutant mice and IIo or TAPo mice. FACS analysis showed that the number of CD4+ T cells in CD1oIIo mice was reduced significantly compared with the corresponding population in IIo mice. Both CD4+ NK1.1+ and the CD4+ NK1.1- population were reduced in CD1oIIo mice, suggesting that CD1 can select not only CD4+ NK1.1+ T cells but also some NK1.1- CD4+ T cells. Functional analysis showed that the residual CD4+ cells in CD1oIIo can secrete large amounts of IFN-gamma and a significant amount of IL-4 during primary stimulation with anti-CD3, suggesting that this population may be enriched for NK T cells restricted by other class I molecules. In contrast to the CD4+ population, no significant differences in the CD8+ T cell compartment can be detected between TAPo and CD1oTAPo mice in all lymphoid tissues tested, including intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. Our data suggest that, unlike other MHC class I molecules, CD1 does not contribute in a major way to the development of CD8+ T cells. PMID:10623818

  15. The integrin αvβ6: a novel target for CAR T-cell immunotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whilding, Lynsey M; Vallath, Sabari; Maher, John

    2016-04-15

    Immunotherapy of cancer using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells is a rapidly expanding field. CARs are fusion molecules that couple the binding of a tumour-associated cell surface target to the delivery of a tailored T-cell activating signal. Re-infusion of such genetically engineered T-cells to patients with haematological disease has demonstrated unprecedented response rates in Phase I clinical trials. However, such successes have not yet been observed using CAR T-cells against solid malignancies and this is, in part, due to a lack of safe tumour-specific targets. The αvβ6 integrin is strongly up-regulated in multiple solid tumours including those derived from colon, lung, breast, cervix, ovaries/fallopian tube, pancreas and head and neck. It is associated with poorer prognosis in several cancers and exerts pro-tumorigenic activities including promotion of tumour growth, migration and invasion. By contrast, physiologic expression of αvβ6 is largely restricted to wound healing. These attributes render this epithelial-specific integrin a highly attractive candidate for targeting using immunotherapeutic strategies such as CAR T-cell adoptive immunotherapy. This mini-review will discuss the role and expression of αvβ6 in cancer, as well as its potential as a therapeutic target. PMID:27068939

  16. T cell diversity and TcR repertoires in teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R; Bernard, D; Lefranc, M P; Six, A; Benmansour, A; Boudinot, P

    2011-11-01

    In vertebrates, the diverse and extended range of antigenic motifs is matched to large populations of lymphocytes. The concept of immune repertoire was proposed to describe this diversity of lymphocyte receptors--IG and TR--required for the recognition specificity. Immune repertoires have become useful tools to describe lymphocyte and receptor populations during the immune system development and in pathological situations. In teleosts, the presence of conventional T cells was first proposed to explain graft rejection and optimized specific antibody production. The discovery of TR genes definitely established the reality of conventional T cells in fish. The development of genomic and EST databases recently led to the description of several key T cell markers including CD4, CD8, CD3, CD28, CTLA4, as well as important cytokines, suggesting the existence of different T helper (Th) subtypes, similar to the mammalian Th1, Th2 and Th17. Over the last decade, repertoire studies have demonstrated that both public and private responses occur in fish as they do in mammals, and in vitro specific cytotoxicity assays have been established. While such typical features of T cells are similar in both fish and mammals, the structure of particular repertoires such as the one of gut intra-epithelial lymphocytes seems to be very different. Future studies will further reveal the particular characteristics of teleost T cell repertoires and adaptive responses. PMID:20804845

  17. Expression of Ki-67 nuclear antigen in B and T cell lymphoproliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, N.; Matutes, E.; Cordone, I.; Morilla, R.; Catovksy, D.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To determine whether the proliferation rates of tumour cells may relate to prognosis and reflect disease activity. METHODS: Blood mononuclear cells from 155 patients with B cell (n = 120) or T cell (n = 35) chronic lymphoproliferative disorders were tested with the monoclonal antibody Ki-67 by indirect immunoperoxidase or immunoalkaline phosphatase techniques. B cell diseases included chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), CLL in prolymphocytic transformation (CLL/PL), prolymphocytic leukaemia (B-PLL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) in leukaemic phase. The T cell diseases comprised large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukaemia, T-PLL, and T-NHL. RESULTS: These showed significantly higher proportions of Ki-67 positive cells in T cell (11.2%) than in B cell (2.9%) disorders (p < 0.001). The highest values were found in NHL of both B and T cell types, particularly when low grade disease transformed to high grade. The lowest percentages of Ki-67 positive cells were found in CLL (1.4%) and LGL leukaemia (1.7%); intermediate values were seen in B PLL (3.3%) and T PLL (5.8%). CONCLUSIONS: There is a positive correlation between prognosis and proliferation rates in chronic B and T cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Estimation of Ki-67 in circulating leukaemic cells could be used to determine prognosis in low grade malignancies. Images PMID:1401173

  18. CIP2A Promotes T-Cell Activation and Immune Response to Listeria monocytogenes Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvrljevic, Anna; Khan, Mohd Moin; Treise, Irina; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Au-Yeung, Byron; Sittig, Eleonora; Laajala, Teemu Daniel; Chen, Yiling; Oeder, Sebastian; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Horsch, Marion; Aittokallio, Tero; Busch, Dirk H.; Ollert, Markus W.; Neff, Frauke; Beckers, Johannes; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Fuchs, Helmut; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Chen, Zhi; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Westermarck, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    The oncoprotein Cancerous Inhibitor of Protein Phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) is overexpressed in most malignancies and is an obvious candidate target protein for future cancer therapies. However, the physiological importance of CIP2A-mediated PP2A inhibition is largely unknown. As PP2A regulates immune responses, we investigated the role of CIP2A in normal immune system development and during immune response in vivo. We show that CIP2A-deficient mice (CIP2AHOZ) present a normal immune system development and function in unchallenged conditions. However when challenged with Listeria monocytogenes, CIP2AHOZ mice display an impaired adaptive immune response that is combined with decreased frequency of both CD4+ T-cells and CD8+ effector T-cells. Importantly, the cell autonomous effect of CIP2A deficiency for T-cell activation was confirmed. Induction of CIP2A expression during T-cell activation was dependent on Zap70 activity. Thus, we reveal CIP2A as a hitherto unrecognized mediator of T-cell activation during adaptive immune response. These results also reveal CIP2AHOZ as a possible novel mouse model for studying the role of PP2A activity in immune regulation. On the other hand, the results also indicate that CIP2A targeting cancer therapies would not cause serious immunological side-effects. PMID:27100879

  19. T-cell activation promotes tumorigenesis in inflammation-associated cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lairmore Michael

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic inflammation has long been associated with a wide range of malignancies, is now widely accepted as a risk factor for development of cancer, and has been implicated as a promoter of a variety of cancers including hematopoietic malignancies. We have described a mouse model uniquely suited to examine the link between inflammation and lymphoma in which the Tax oncogene, expressed in activated T and NK cells, perpetuates chronic inflammation that begins as microscopic intraepithelial lesions and develops into inflammatory nodules, subcutaneous tumors, and large granular lymphocytic leukemia. The use of bioluminescent imaging in these mice has expanded our ability to interrogate aspects of inflammation and tumorigenesis non-invasively. Here we demonstrate that bioluminescence induction in these mice correlated with inflammation resulting from wounding, T cell activation, and exposure to chemical agents. In experiments in which long-term effects of inflammation on disease outcome were monitored, the development of lymphoma was promoted by an inflammatory stimulus. Finally we demonstrated that activation of T-cells in T-cell receptor (TCR transgenic TAX-LUC animals dramatically exacerbated the development of subcutaneous TCR- CD16+ LGL tumors. The role of activated T-cells and acquired immunity in inflammation-associated cancers is broadly applicable to hematopoietic malignancies, and we propose these mice will be of use in dissecting mechanisms by which activated T-cells promote lymphomagenesis in vivo.

  20. Selective NFAT targeting in T cells ameliorates GvHD while maintaining antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, Martin; Bäuerlein, Carina A; Pusch, Tobias; Findeis, Janina; Chopra, Martin; Mottok, Anja; Rosenwald, Andreas; Beilhack, Andreas; Berberich-Siebelt, Friederike

    2015-01-27

    Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a life-threatening immunological complication after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT). The intrinsic graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effect, however, is the desirable curative benefit. Patients with acute GvHD are treated with cyclosporine A (CsA) or tacrolimus (FK506), which not only often causes severe adverse effects, but also interferes with the anticipated GvL. Both drugs inhibit calcineurin, thus at first suppressing activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). Therefore, we explored the specific contribution of individual NFAT factors in donor T cells in animal models of GvHD and GvL. Ablation of NFAT1, NFAT2, or a combination of both resulted in ameliorated GvHD, due to reduced proliferation, target tissue homing, and impaired effector function of allogenic donor T cells. In contrast, the frequency of Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells was increased and NFAT-deficient Tregs were fully protective in GvHD. CD8(+) T-cell recall response and, importantly, the beneficial antitumor activity were largely preserved in NFAT-deficient effector T cells. Thus, specific inhibition of NFAT opens an avenue for an advanced therapy of GvHD maintaining protective GvL. PMID:25583478

  1. Switching CAR T cells on and off: a novel modular platform for retargeting of T cells to AML blasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartellieri, M; Feldmann, A; Koristka, S; Arndt, C; Loff, S; Ehninger, A; von Bonin, M; Bejestani, E P; Ehninger, G; Bachmann, M P

    2016-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor engineered T cells (CAR T cells) resulted in encouraging clinical trials in indolent B-cell malignancies. However, they also show the limitations of this fascinating technology: CAR T cells can lead to even life-threatening off-tumor, on-target side effects if CAR T cells crossreact with healthy tissues. Here, we describe a novel modular universal CAR platform technology termed UniCAR that reduces the risk of on-target side effects by a rapid and reversible control of CAR T-cell reactivity. The UniCAR system consists of two components: (1) a CAR for an inert manipulation of T cells and (2) specific targeting modules (TMs) for redirecting UniCAR T cells in an individualized time- and target-dependent manner. UniCAR T cells can be armed against different tumor targets simply by replacement of the respective TM for (1) targeting more than one antigen simultaneously or subsequently to enhance efficacy and (2) reducing the risk for development of antigen-loss tumor variants under treatment. Here we provide 'proof of concept' for retargeting of UniCAR T cells to CD33- and/or CD123-positive acute myeloid leukemia blasts in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27518241

  2. Crosslinking of the T cell-specific accessory molecules CD7 and CD28 modulates T cell adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Regulated adhesion enables T cells to migrate through tissue and transiently interact with an endless succession of cells. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) engagement of the CD3/T cell receptor (TCR) complex results in a rapid and transient augmentation of the adhesion function of LFA-1 and VLA integrin molecules on human T cells. We show in this study that mAb crosslinking of the T cell-specific accessory molecules CD7 and CD28, or treatment with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, results in the rapid indu...

  3. EXPRESSION OF T CELL RECEPTOR Vα GENE FAMILIES IN INTRATHYROIDAL T CELLS OF CHINESE PATIENTS WITH GRAVES' DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. Patients with Graves' disease (GD) have marked lymphocytic infiltration in their thyroid glands. We examined the gene for the variable regions of the α-chain of the Chinese T-cell receptor( Vα gene) in intrathyroidal Tcells to determine the role of T cells in the pathogenesis of GD and offer potential for the development of immunothera-peutic remedies for GD. Methods. We used the reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) to amplify complementary DNA(cDNA) for the 18 known families of the Vα gene in intrathyroidal T cells from 5 patients with Graves' disease.The findings were compared with the results of peripheral blood T cells in the same patients as well as those in normalsubjects. Results. We found that marked restriction in the expression of T cell receptor Vα genes by T cells from the thyroidtissue of Chinese patients with GD(P < 0.001). An average of only 4.6 ± 1.52 of the 18 Vα genes were expressed insuch samples, as compared with 10.4 ± 2.30Vα genes expressed in peripheral blood T cells from the same patients.The pattem of expressed Vα genes differed from patient to patient with no clear predominance. Condusions. Expression of intrathyroidal T cell receptor Vα genes in GD is highly restricted suggesting the prima-cy of T cells in causing the disorders.

  4. T-cell libraries allow simple parallel generation of multiple peptide-specific human T-cell clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theaker, Sarah M.; Rius, Cristina; Greenshields-Watson, Alexander; Lloyd, Angharad; Trimby, Andrew; Fuller, Anna; Miles, John J.; Cole, David K.; Peakman, Mark; Sewell, Andrew K.; Dolton, Garry

    2016-01-01

    Isolation of peptide-specific T-cell clones is highly desirable for determining the role of T-cells in human disease, as well as for the development of therapies and diagnostics. However, generation of monoclonal T-cells with the required specificity is challenging and time-consuming. Here we describe a library-based strategy for the simple parallel detection and isolation of multiple peptide-specific human T-cell clones from CD8+ or CD4+ polyclonal T-cell populations. T-cells were first amplified by CD3/CD28 microbeads in a 96U-well library format, prior to screening for desired peptide recognition. T-cells from peptide-reactive wells were then subjected to cytokine-mediated enrichment followed by single-cell cloning, with the entire process from sample to validated clone taking as little as 6 weeks. Overall, T-cell libraries represent an efficient and relatively rapid tool for the generation of peptide-specific T-cell clones, with applications shown here in infectious disease (Epstein–Barr virus, influenza A, and Ebola virus), autoimmunity (type 1 diabetes) and cancer. PMID:26826277

  5. IRF8 Transcription-Factor-Dependent Classical Dendritic Cells Are Essential for Intestinal T Cell Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luda, Katarzyna M.; Joeris, Thorsten; Persson, Emma K.; Rivollier, Aymeric Marie Christian; Demiri, Mimoza; Sitnik, Katarzyna Maria; Pool, Lieneke; Holm, Jacob B.; Melo-Gonzalez, F.; Richter, Lisa; Lambrecht, Bart N.; Kristiansen, Karsten; Travis, Mark A.; Svensson-Frej, Marcus; Kotarsky, Knut; Agace, William Winston

    2016-01-01

    The role of dendritic cells (DCs) in intestinal immune homeostasis remains incompletely defined. Here we show that mice lacking IRF8 transcription-factor-dependent DCs had reduced numbers of T cells in the small intestine (SI), but not large intestine (LI), including an almost complete absence of......-derived MLN DCs, and inefficient T cell localization to the SI. These mice also lacked intestinal T helper 1 (Th1) cells, and failed to support Th1 cell differentiation in MLN and mount Th1 cell responses to Trichuris muris infection. Collectively these results highlight multiple non-redundant roles for IRF8...

  6. T-cell recognition is shaped by epitope sequence conservation in the host proteome and microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresciani, Anne Gøther; Paul, Sinu; Schommer, Nina;

    2016-01-01

    allergen with the conservation of its sequence in the human proteome or the healthy human microbiome. Indeed, performing such comparisons on large sets of validated T-cell epitopes, we found that epitopes that are similar with self-antigens above a certain threshold showed lower immunogenicity, presumably...... as a result of negative selection of T cells capable of recognizing such peptides. Moreover, we also found a reduced level of immune recognition for epitopes conserved in the commensal microbiome, presumably as a result of peripheral tolerance. These findings indicate that the existence (and...

  7. Primary CNS T-cell Lymphomas: A Clinical, Morphologic, Immunophenotypic, and Molecular Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Madhu P; Nicolae, Alina; Meeker, Hillary; Raffeld, Mark; Xi, Liqiang; Jegalian, Armin G; Miller, Douglas C; Pittaluga, Stefania; Jaffe, Elaine S

    2015-12-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas are relatively rare with the most common subtype being diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Primary CNS T-cell lymphomas (PCNSTL) account for 1 mutation, and none showed overlapping mutations. These included mutations in DNMT3A, KRAS, JAK3, STAT3, STAT5B, GNB1, and TET2 genes, genes implicated previously in other T-cell neoplasms. The outcome was heterogenous; 2 patients are alive without disease, 4 are alive with disease, and 6 died of disease. In conclusion, PCNSTLs are histologically and genomically heterogenous with frequent phenotypic aberrancy and a cytotoxic phenotype in most cases. PMID:26379152

  8. E3 ubiquitin ligase GRAIL controls primary T cell activation and oral tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Kriegel, Martin A.; Rathinam, Chozhavendan; Richard A Flavell

    2009-01-01

    T cell unresponsiveness or anergy is one of the mechanisms that maintain inactivity of self-reactive lymphocytes. E3 ubiquitin ligases are important mediators of the anergic state. The RING finger E3 ligase GRAIL is thought to selectively function in anergic T cells but its mechanism of action and its role in vivo are largely unknown. We show here that genetic deletion of Grail in mice leads not only to loss of an anergic phenotype in various models but also to hyperactivation of primary CD4+...

  9. Inhibition of allostimulated HLA-DQ and DP-specific T cells by staphylococcal enterotoxin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masewicz, S; Ledbetter, J A; Martin, P;

    1993-01-01

    Bacterial superantigens have two immunologically important features. They bind MHC class II molecules and stimulate T cells bearing certain V beta TCR phenotypes. Superantigens such as SEA, SEB, and TSST bind to each of the three HLA class II isotypes (DR, DQ, and DP). Allotypic variation seems to...... play an important role in superantigen binding to class II molecules, but the functional implications of these differences remain largely unknown. In the present investigation, we studied the effects of SEA, SEB, and TSST on allostimulation of HLA-DR-, DQ-, and DP-allospecific T-cell clones. To avoid...

  10. PARP-1 Controls Immunosuppressive Function of Regulatory T Cells by Destabilizing Foxp3

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Pin; Maruyama, Takashi; Konkel, Joanne E.; Abbatiello, Brittany; Zamarron, Brian; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Chen, Wanjun

    2013-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a nuclear enzyme and transcription factor that is involved in inflammatory response, but its role in T cell response remains largely unknown. We show here that PARP-1 regulates the suppressive function of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Specifically, Tregs in mice with a null mutation of the PARP-1 gene (PARP-1–/–) showed significantly stronger suppressive activity than did wild-type Tregs in culture. We elucidate that this enhanced suppr...

  11. Combination chemotherapy (COMP protocol) and radiotherapy of anaplastic supratentorial gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postoperative survival time and recurrence-free intervals in 116 consecutive patients with supratentorial grade III and IV gliomas (glioblastomas, gliosarcomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, and ependymomas) were compared in unselected groups receiving different forms of treatment. Postoperative high-voltage radiotherapy (31 patients, dosage 4,000-6,000 rads) and combined chemotherapy consisting of CCNU, vincristine, amethopterine, and procarbazine in 15-day circles (COMP protocol) (12 patients) showed the same median survival time of 10.6 months and comparable recurrence-free intervals of 6.8 and 7.0 months, respectively. These results were significantly different from a control group (39 patients) receiving best postoperative supportive (conventional) care (median survival 5.4 months, free interval 3.7 months). Combination of postoperative radiotherapy with simultaneous polychemotherapy (COMP protocol), evaluated in 18 patients, did not significantly change the recurrence-free interval (median 7.0 months), but increased the median survival time to 12.9 months, which was significantly superior to the two other treatment groups. The toxic side effects of COMP therapy were moderate and essentially haematological. In general, simultaneous radiation and chemical treatment was well tolerated after major tumour resection. These preliminary results of postoperative combination of radiation and polychemotherapy for anaplastic supratentorial gliomas appear encouraging, but further trials for optimization of combined therapeutic strategies are warranted. (author)

  12. Composite B-cell and T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleem, Zahid; McGuire, Michael H; Caracioni, Adrian C; Leonard, Ronald L; Pathan, M Hanif; Lessmann, Ellen A; Chan, Wing C

    2005-02-01

    We report a unique case of de novo composite lymphoma in the tibia of a 35-year-old man who presented with increasingly frequent and intense pain in the right upper leg. He was otherwise healthy without significant medical history. A plain radiograph of the right leg showed a permeative lesion with alternating areas of radiolucency and radiodensity in the upper third of the tibia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large, heterogeneous enhancing lesion involving the medullary and cortical bone of the proximal tibia with cortical disruption and extension into the adjacent soft tissue. A biopsy showed sheets and clusters of large cells, punctuated by clusters of small, irregular lymphocytes. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemical analysis showed composite lymphoma: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and peripheral T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma with predominantly small cell morphologic features. The DLBCL expressed CD19, CD20, CD79a, CD5, CD10, CD23, CD38, CD117, bcl-2, and bcl-6, with monotypic expression of immunoglobulin kappa light chain. The T cells expressed CD2, CD3, CD5, CD7, and CD8, with partial loss of CD4. Clonal rearrangement of T-cell receptor gamma chain gene was found. Neither the large B cells nor the small T cells expressed Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA. Physical examination and radiologic studies showed no evidence of lymphadenopathy, organomegaly, or other mass lesions in the body. No peripheral lymphocytosis or bone marrow involvement was present. PMID:15842045

  13. Up-Front Autologous Stem-Cell Transplantation in Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Amore, Francesco; Relander, Thomas; Lauritzsen, Grete F; Jantunen, Esa; Hagberg, Hans; Anderson, Harald; Holte, Harald; Osterborg, Anders; Merup, Mats; Brown, Peter De Nully; Kuittinen, Outi; Erlanson, Martin; Ostenstad, Bjørn; Fagerli, Unn-Merete; Gadeberg, Ole Vestergaard; Sundström, Christer; Delabie, Jan; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth; Vornanen, Martine; Toldbod, Helle

    2012-01-01

    Systemic peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) respond poorly to conventional therapy. To evaluate the efficacy of a dose-dense approach consolidated by up-front high-dose chemotherapy (HDT) and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) in PTCL, the Nordic Lymphoma Group (NLG) conducted a large...

  14. Primary epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma as a cause of diarrhea in a horse

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz, Macarena G.; Sellon, Debra C.; Potter, Kathleen A.

    2010-01-01

    A 25-year-old Appaloosa gelding was evaluated for chronic weight loss and diarrhea. A clinical diagnosis of protein loosing enteropathy was made and the gelding was euthanized. Histology revealed neoplastic lymphocytes infiltrating the mucosa of the small and large intestine. Immunohistochemistry was positive for CD3, consistent with epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma.

  15. Rituximab therapy reduces organ-specific T cell responses and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L Monson

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials have established B cell depletion by the anti-CD20 chimeric antibody Rituximab as a beneficial therapy for patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS. The impact of Rituximab on T cell responses remains largely unexplored. In the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model of MS in mice that express human CD20, Rituximab administration rapidly depleted peripheral B cells and strongly reduced EAE severity. B cell depletion was also associated with diminished Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH and a reduction in T cell proliferation and IL-17 production during recall immune response experiments. While Rituximab is not considered a broad immunosuppressant, our results indicate a role for B cells as a therapeutic cellular target in regulating encephalitogenic T cell responses in specific tissues.

  16. A CRISPR-Based Toolbox for Studying T Cell Signal Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shen; Weiss, Arthur; Wang, Haopeng

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful technology to perform genome editing in a variety of cell types. To facilitate the application of Cas9 in mapping T cell signaling pathways, we generated a toolbox for large-scale genetic screens in human Jurkat T cells. The toolbox has three different Jurkat cell lines expressing distinct Cas9 variants, including wild-type Cas9, dCas9-KRAB, and sunCas9. We demonstrated that the toolbox allows us to rapidly disrupt endogenous gene expression at the DNA level and to efficiently repress or activate gene expression at the transcriptional level. The toolbox, in combination with multiple currently existing genome-wide sgRNA libraries, will be useful to systematically investigate T cell signal transduction using both loss-of-function and gain-of-function genetic screens. PMID:27057542

  17. Intrinsic requirement for the vitamin D receptor in the development of CD8αα expressing T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Danny; Cantorna, Margherita T.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR) deficiency results in severe symptoms of experimental inflammatory bowel disease in several different models. The intraepithelial lymphocytes of the small intestine contain large numbers of CD8αα+ T cells that have been shown to suppress the immune response to antigens found there. Here we determined the role of the VDR in the development of CD8αα+ T cells. There are fewer total numbers of TCRαβ+ T cells in the gut of VDR knockout (KO) mice and that redu...

  18. T Cell Responses: Naive to Memory and Everything in Between

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennock, Nathan D.; White, Jason T.; Cross, Eric W.; Cheney, Elizabeth E.; Tamburini, Beth A.; Kedl, Ross M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe the actions that take place in T cells because of their amazing capacity to proliferate and adopt functional roles aimed at clearing a host of an infectious agent. There is a drastic decline in the T cell population once the primary response is over and the infection is terminated. What remains afterward is a population of T…

  19. High epitope expression levels increase competition between T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almut Scherer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Both theoretical predictions and experimental findings suggest that T cell populations can compete with each other. There is some debate on whether T cells compete for aspecific stimuli, such as access to the surface on antigen-presenting cells (APCs or for specific stimuli, such as their cognate epitope ligand. We have developed an individual-based computer simulation model to study T cell competition. Our model shows that the expression level of foreign epitopes per APC determines whether T cell competition is mainly for specific or aspecific stimuli. Under low epitope expression, competition is mainly for the specific epitope stimuli, and, hence, different epitope-specific T cell populations coexist readily. However, if epitope expression levels are high, aspecific competition becomes more important. Such between-specificity competition can lead to competitive exclusion between different epitope-specific T cell populations. Our model allows us to delineate the circumstances that facilitate coexistence of T cells of different epitope specificity. Understanding mechanisms of T cell coexistence has important practical implications for immune therapies that require a broad immune response.

  20. Tax fingerprint in adult T-cell leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarbachi, Ali

    2016-04-01

    In this issue of Blood, Fujikawa et al demonstrate that the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax induces an epigenetic-dependent global modification of host gene expression in adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL). Hence, the fingerprint of Tax is all over ATL and this may be used for finally capturing ATL. PMID:27056993

  1. Recognition and Regulation of T Cells by NK Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallmer, Katharina; Oxenius, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of T cell responses by innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) is increasingly documented and studied. Direct or indirect crosstalk between ILCs and T cells early during and after T cell activation can affect their differentiation, polarization, and survival. Natural killer (NK) cells that belong to the ILC1 group were initially described for their function in recognizing and eliminating “altered self” and as source of early inflammatory cytokines, most notably type II interferon. Using signals conveyed by various germ-line encoded activating and inhibitory receptors, NK cells are geared to sense sudden cellular changes that can be caused by infection events, malignant transformation, or cellular stress responses. T cells, when activated by TCR engagement (signal 1), costimulation (signal 2), and cytokines (signal 3), commit to a number of cellular alterations, including entry into rapid cell cycling, metabolic changes, and acquisition of effector functions. These abrupt changes may alert NK cells, and T cells might thereby expose themselves as NK cell targets. Here, we review how activated T cells can be recognized and regulated by NK cells and what consequences such regulation bears for T cell immunity in the context of vaccination, infection, or autoimmunity. Conversely, we will discuss mechanisms by which activated T cells protect themselves against NK cell attack and outline the significance of this safeguard mechanism. PMID:27446081

  2. The transcriptional landscape of alpha beta T cell differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mingueneau, Michael; Kreslavsky, Taras; Gray, Daniel; Heng, Tracy; Cruse, Richard; Ericson, Jeffrey; Bendall, Sean; Spitzer, Matt; Nolan, Garry; Kobayashi, Koichi; von Boehmer, Harald; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe; Best, Adam J.; Knell, Jamie; Goldrath, Ananda; Jojic, Vladimir; Koller, Daphne; Shay, Tal; Regev, Aviv; Cohen, Nadia; Brennan, Patrick; Brenner, Michael; Kim, Francis; Rao, Tata Nageswara; Wagers, Amy; Heng, Tracy; Ericson, Jeffrey; Rothamel, Katherine; Ortiz-Lopez, Adriana; Mathis, Diane; Bezman, Natalie A.; Sun, Joseph C.; Min-Oo, Gundula; Kim, Charlie C.; Lanier, Lewis L.; Miller, Jennifer; Brown, Brian; Merad, Miriam; Gautier, Emmanuel L.; Jakubzick, Claudia; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Monach, Paul; Blair, David A.; Dustin, Michael L.; Shinton, Susan A.; Hardy, Richard R.; Laidlaw, David; Collins, Jim; Gazit, Roi; Rossi, Derrick J.; Malhotra, Nidhi; Sylvia, Katelyn; Kang, Joonsoo; Kreslavsky, Taras; Fletcher, Anne; Elpek, Kutlu; Bellemare-Pelletier, Angelique; Malhotra, Deepali; Turley, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    The differentiation of abT cells from thymic precursors is a complex process essential for adaptive immunity. Here we exploited the breadth of expression data sets from the Immunological Genome Project to analyze how the differentiation of thymic precursors gives rise to mature T cell transcriptomes

  3. Visualizing early splenic memory CD8+ T cells reactivation against intracellular bacteria in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bajénoff

    Full Text Available Memory CD8(+ T cells represent an important effector arm of the immune response in maintaining long-lived protective immunity against viruses and some intracellular bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes (L.m. Memory CD8(+ T cells are endowed with enhanced antimicrobial effector functions that perfectly tail them to rapidly eradicate invading pathogens. It is largely accepted that these functions are sufficient to explain how memory CD8(+ T cells can mediate rapid protection. However, it is important to point out that such improved functional features would be useless if memory cells were unable to rapidly find the pathogen loaded/infected cells within the infected organ. Growing evidences suggest that the anatomy of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs fosters the cellular interactions required to initiate naive adaptive immune responses. However, very little is known on how the SLOs structures regulate memory immune responses. Using Listeria monocytogenes (L.m as a murine infection model and imaging techniques, we have investigated if and how the architecture of the spleen plays a role in the reactivation of memory CD8(+ T cells and the subsequent control of L.m growth. We observed that in the mouse, memory CD8(+ T cells start to control L.m burden 6 hours after the challenge infection. At this very early time point, L.m-specific and non-specific memory CD8(+ T cells localize in the splenic red pulp and form clusters around L.m infected cells while naïve CD8(+ T cells remain in the white pulp. Within these clusters that only last few hours, memory CD8(+ T produce inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-gamma and CCL3 nearby infected myeloid cells known to be crucial for L.m killing. Altogether, we describe how memory CD8(+ T cells trafficking properties and the splenic micro-anatomy conjugate to create a spatio-temporal window during which memory CD8(+ T cells provide a local response by secreting effector molecules around infected cells.

  4. miR-17-92 expression in differentiated T cells - implications for cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinson Jeremy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type-1 T cells are critical for effective anti-tumor immune responses. The recently discovered microRNAs (miRs are a large family of small regulatory RNAs that control diverse aspects of cell function, including immune regulation. We identified miRs differentially regulated between type-1 and type-2 T cells, and determined how the expression of such miRs is regulated. Methods We performed miR microarray analyses on in vitro differentiated murine T helper type-1 (Th1 and T helper type-2 (Th2 cells to identify differentially expressed miRs. We used quantitative RT-PCR to confirm the differential expression levels. We also used WST-1, ELISA, and flow cytometry to evaluate the survival, function and phenotype of cells, respectively. We employed mice transgenic for the identified miRs to determine the biological impact of miR-17-92 expression in T cells. Results Our initial miR microarray analyses revealed that the miR-17-92 cluster is one of the most significantly over-expressed miR in murine Th1 cells when compared with Th2 cells. RT-PCR confirmed that the miR-17-92 cluster expression was consistently higher in Th1 cells than Th2 cells. Disruption of the IL-4 signaling through either IL-4 neutralizing antibody or knockout of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT6 reversed the miR-17-92 cluster suppression in Th2 cells. Furthermore, T cells from tumor bearing mice and glioma patients had decreased levels of miR-17-92 when compared with cells from non-tumor bearing counterparts. CD4+ T cells derived from miR-17-92 transgenic mice demonstrated superior type-1 phenotype with increased IFN-γ production and very late antigen (VLA-4 expression when compared with counterparts derived from wild type mice. Human Jurkat T cells ectopically expressing increased levels of miR-17-92 cluster members demonstrated increased IL-2 production and resistance to activation-induced cell death (AICD. Conclusion The type-2-skewing

  5. Chemokine receptor expression by inflammatory T cells in EAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Thyagabhavan Mony

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines direct cellular infiltration to tissues, and their receptors and signaling pathways represent targets for therapy in diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS. The chemokine CCL20 is expressed in choroid plexus, a site of entry of T cells to the central nervous system (CNS. The CCL20 receptor CCR6 has been reported to be selectively expressed by CD4+ T cells that produce the cytokine IL-17 (Th17 cells. Th17 cells and interferon-gamma (IFNγ-producing Th1 cells are implicated in induction of MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. We have assessed whether CCR6 identifies specific inflammatory T cell subsets in EAE. Our approach was to induce EAE, and then examine chemokine receptor expression by cytokine-producing T cells sorted from CNS at peak disease. About 7% of CNS-infiltrating CD4+ T cells produced IFNγ in flow cytometric cytokine assays, whereas less than 1% produced IL-17. About 7.7% of CD4+ T cells produced both cytokines. CCR6 was expressed by Th1, Th1+17 and by Th17 cells, but not by CD8+ T cells. CD8+ T cells expressed CXCR3, which was also expressed by CD4+ T cells, with no correlation to cytokine profile. Messenger RNA for IFNγ, IL-17A, and the Th1 and Th17-associated transcription factors T-bet and RORγt was detected in both CCR6+ and CXCR3+ CD4+ T cells. IFNγ, but not IL-17A mRNA expression was detected in CD8+ T cells in CNS. CCR6 and CD4 were co-localized in spinal cord infiltrates by double immunofluorescence. Consistent with flow cytometry data some but not all CD4+ T cells expressed CCR6 within infiltrates. CD4-negative CCR6+ cells included macrophage/microglial cells. Thus we have for the first time directly studied CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the CNS of mice with peak EAE, and determined IFNγ and IL17 expression by cells expressing CCR6 and CXCR3. We show that neither CCR6 or CXCR3 align with CD4 T cell subsets, and Th1 or mixed Th1+17 predominate in EAE.

  6. Allergen-Specific CD4(+) T Cells in Human Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Morris F; Luster, Andrew D

    2016-03-01

    In allergic asthma, aeroallergen exposure of sensitized individuals mobilizes robust innate and adaptive airway immune responses, stimulating eosinophilic airway inflammation and the activation and infiltration of allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells into the airways. Allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells are thought to be central players in the asthmatic response as they specifically recognize the allergen and initiate and orchestrate the asthmatic inflammatory response. In this article, we briefly review the role of allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells in the pathogenesis of human allergic airway inflammation in allergic individuals, discuss the use of allergen-major histocompatibility complex class II tetramers to characterize allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells, and highlight current gaps in knowledge and directions for future research pertaining to the role of allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells in human asthma. PMID:27027948

  7. T-cell Migration, Search Strategies and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummel, Matthew F; Bartumeus, Frederic; Gérard, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    T cell migration is essential for T cell responses, allowing for detection of cognate antigen at the surface of an Antigen-Presenting Cell (APC) and for interactions with other cells involved in the immune response. Although appearing random, growing evidence supports that T cell motility patterns are strategic and governed by mechanisms that are optimized for both activation-stage and environment-specific attributes. In this Opinion Article, we will discuss how to understand the combined effects of T cell- intrinsic and -extrinsic forces upon these motility patterns when viewed in highly complex tissues filled with other cells involved in parallel motility. In particular, we will examine how insights from ‘search theory’ describe T cell movement across exploitation-exploration gradients, in the context of activation versus effector function and in the context of lymph nodes versus peripheral tissues. PMID:26852928

  8. Dissection of T-cell antigen specificity in human melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sick; Albæk Thrue, Charlotte; Junker, Niels; Skou, Rikke Birgitte Lyngaa; Donia, Marco; Ellebæk, Eva; Svane, Inge Marie; Schumacher, Ton N; Thor Straten, Per; Hadrup, Sine Reker

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) isolated from melanoma patients and expanded in vitro by interleukin (IL)-2 treatment can elicit therapeutic response after adoptive transfer, but the antigen specificities of the T cells transferred have not been determined. By compiling all known melanoma......-associated antigens and applying a novel technology for high-throughput analysis of T-cell responses, we dissected the composition of melanoma-restricted T-cell responses in 63 TIL cultures. T-cell reactivity screens against 175 melanoma-associated epitopes detected 90 responses against 18 different epitopes...... from different fragments of resected melanoma lesions. In summary, our findings provide an initial definition of T-cell populations contributing to tumor recognition in TILs although the specificity of many tumor-reactive TILs remains undefined....

  9. A response calculus for immobilized T cell receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Menné, C; Mariuzza, R A;

    2001-01-01

    To address the molecular mechanism of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, we have formulated a model for T cell activation, termed the 2D-affinity model, in which the density of TCR on the T cell surface, the density of ligand on the presenting surface, and their corresponding two-dimensional affini...... affinity in solution, are of optimal two-dimensional affinity thereby allowing effective TCR binding under physiological conditions, i.e. at low ligand densities in cellular interfaces....... determine the level of T cell activation. When fitted to T cell responses against purified ligands immobilized on plastic surfaces, the 2D-affinity model adequately simulated changes in cellular activation as a result of varying ligand affinity and ligand density. These observations further demonstrated the...

  10. T Cell Epitope Immunotherapy Induces a CD4+ T Cell Population with Regulatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhoef Adrienne

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Synthetic peptides, representing CD4+ T cell epitopes, derived from the primary sequence of allergen molecules have been used to down-regulate allergic inflammation in sensitised individuals. Treatment of allergic diseases with peptides may offer substantial advantages over treatment with native allergen molecules because of the reduced potential for cross-linking IgE bound to the surface of mast cells and basophils. Methods and Findings In this study we address the mechanism of action of peptide immunotherapy (PIT in cat-allergic, asthmatic patients. Cell-division-tracking dyes, cell-mixing experiments, surface phenotyping, and cytokine measurements were used to investigate immunomodulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs after therapy. Proliferative responses of PBMCs to allergen extract were significantly reduced after PIT. This was associated with modified cytokine profiles generally characterised by an increase in interleukin-10 and a decrease in interleukin-5 production. CD4+ cells isolated after PIT were able to actively suppress allergen-specific proliferative responses of pretreatment CD4neg PBMCs in co-culture experiments. PIT was associated with a significant increase in surface expression of CD5 on both CD4+ and CD8+ PBMCs. Conclusion This study provides evidence for the induction of a population of CD4+ T cells with suppressor/regulatory activity following PIT. Furthermore, up-regulation of cell surface levels of CD5 may contribute to reduced reactivity to allergen.

  11. Antigen-specific T cell activation independently of the MHC: chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-redirected T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinrich eAbken

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive T cell therapy has recently shown powerful in initiating a lasting anti-tumor response with spectacular therapeutic success in some cases. Specific T cell therapy, however, is limited since a number of cancer cells are not recognized by T cells due to various mechanisms including the limited availability of tumor-specific T cells and deficiencies in antigen processing or major histocompatibility complex (MHC expression of cancer cells. To make adoptive cell therapy applicable for the broad variety of cancer entities, patient's T cells are engineered ex vivo with pre-defined specificity by a recombinant chimeric antigen receptor (CAR which consists in the extracellular part of an antibody-derived domain for binding with a tumor-associated antigen and in the intracellular part of a TCR-derived signaling moiety for T cell activation. The specificity of CAR mediated T cell recognition is defined by the antibody domain, is independent of MHC presentation and can be extended to any target for which an antibody is available. We discuss the advantages and limitations of MHC-independent T cell targeting by an engineered CAR and review most significant progress recently made in early stage clinical trials to treat cancer.

  12. GATA-3 promotes T-cell specification by repressing B-cell potential in pro-T cells in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. García (Marcos); R.G.J. Klein Wolterink (Roel); F. Lemâitre (Fabrice); C. Le Goff (Carine); M. Hasan (Milena); R.W. Hendriks (Rudi); A. Cumano (Ana); J.P. di Santo (James)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractTranscription factors orchestrate T-lineage differentiation in the thymus. One critical checkpoint involves Notch1 signaling that instructs T-cell commitment at the expense of the B-lineage program. While GATA-3 is required for T-cell specification, its mechanism of action is poorly unde

  13. Inhibition of MerTK increases chemosensitivity and decreases oncogenic potential in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Brandao, L N; Winges, A; Christoph, S; Sather, S; Migdall-Wilson, J; Schlegel, J.; McGranahan, A; Gao, D.; Liang, X; DeRyckere, D; Graham, D K

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric leukemia survival rates have improved dramatically over the past decades. However, current treatment protocols are still largely ineffective in cases of relapsed leukemia and are associated with a significant rate of chronic health conditions. Thus, there is a continued need for new therapeutic options. Here, we show that mer receptor tyrosine kinase (MerTK) was abnormally expressed in approximately one half of pediatric T-cell leukemia patient samples and T-cell acute lymphoblastic...

  14. Induction of Specific CD8+ T Cells against Intracellular Bacteria by CD8+ T-Cell-Oriented Immunization Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshi Nagata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For protection against intracellular bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes, the cellular arm of adaptive immunity is necessary. A variety of immunization methods have been evaluated and are reported to induce specific CD8+ T cells against intracellular bacterial infection. Modified BCG vaccines have been examined to enhance CD8+ T-cell responses. Naked DNA vaccination is a promising strategy to induce CD8+ T cells. In addition to this strategy, live attenuated intracellular bacteria such as Shigella, Salmonella, and Listeria have been utilized as carriers of DNA vaccines in animal models. Vaccination with dendritic cells pulsed with antigenic peptides or the cells introduced antigen genes by virus vectors such as retroviruses is also a powerful strategy. Furthermore, vaccination with recombinant lentivirus has been attempted to induce specific CD8+ T cells. Combinations of these strategies (prime-boost immunization have been studied for the efficient induction of intracellular bacteria-specific CD8+ T cells.

  15. Enhancement of T cell responses as a result of synergy between lower doses of radiation and T cell stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spary, Lisa K; Al-Taei, Saly; Salimu, Josephine; Cook, Alexander D; Ager, Ann; Watson, H Angharad; Clayton, Aled; Staffurth, John; Mason, Malcolm D; Tabi, Zsuzsanna

    2014-04-01

    As a side effect of cancer radiotherapy, immune cells receive varying doses of radiation. Whereas high doses of radiation (>10 Gy) can lead to lymphopenia, lower radiation doses (2-4 Gy) represent a valid treatment option in some hematological cancers, triggering clinically relevant immunological changes. Based on our earlier observations, we hypothesized that lower radiation doses have a direct positive effect on T cells. In this study, we show that 0.6-2.4 Gy radiation enhances proliferation and IFN-γ production of PBMC or purified T cells induced by stimulation via the TCR. Radiation with 1.2 Gy also lowered T cell activation threshold and broadened the Th1 cytokine profile. Although radiation alone did not activate T cells, when followed by TCR stimulation, ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation increased above that induced by stimulation alone. These changes were followed by an early increase in glucose uptake. Naive (CD45RA(+)) or memory (CD45RA(-)) T cell responses to stimulation were boosted at similar rates by radiation. Whereas increased Ag-specific cytotoxic activity of a CD8(+) T cell line manifested in a 4-h assay (10-20% increase), highly significant (5- to 10-fold) differences in cytokine production were detected in 6-d Ag-stimulation assays of PBMC, probably as a net outcome of death of nonstimulated and enhanced response of Ag-stimulated T cells. T cells from patients receiving pelvic radiation (2.2-2.75 Gy) also displayed increased cytokine production when stimulated in vitro. We report in this study enhanced T cell function induced by synergistic radiation treatment, with potential physiological significance in a wide range of T cell responses. PMID:24600032

  16. Temozolomide Treatment for Pediatric Refractory Anaplastic Ependymoma with Low MGMT Protein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Kazutoshi; Yanagisawa, Ryu; Miyairi, Yosuke; Sakashita, Kazuo; Shiohara, Masaaki; Fujihara, Ikuko; Morita, Daisuke; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Ogiso, Yoshifumi; Sano, Kenji; Shirahata, Mitsuaki; Fukuoka, Kohei; Ichimura, Koichi; Shigeta, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    The benefit of postoperative chemotherapy for anaplastic ependymoma remains unknown. We report two pediatric patients with refractory anaplastic ependymoma treated with temozolomide (TMZ). We did not detect O(6) -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation in tumor samples; however, MGMT protein expression was low. With TMZ treatment, one patient had a 7-month complete remission; the other, stable disease for 15 months. Three other patients did not respond to TMZ; two had high and one low MGMT expression, and two showed no MGMT promoter methylation. These findings suggest that TMZ may be effective for pediatric refractory anaplastic ependymoma with low MGMT protein expression. PMID:26305586

  17. Divergent Response Profile in Activated Cord Blood T cells from First-born Child Implies Birth-order-associated in Utero Immune Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Marie; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Thysen, Anna Hammerich;

    2016-01-01

    Background: First-born children are at higher risk for development of a range of immune-mediated diseases. The underlying mechanism of ‘birth-order-effects’ on disease risk is largely unknown, but in utero programming of the child's immune system may play a role. Objective: We studied the...... association between birth-order and the functional response of stimulated cord blood T cells. Method: Purified cord blood T cells were polyclonally activated with anti-CD3/CD28-coated beads in a subgroup of 28 children enrolled in the COPSAC2010 birth cohort. Expression levels of seven activation markers on...... activated cord blood T cells were selectively reduced in first-born children, while the percentage of CD4+CD25+ cord blood T cells was independent of birth-order. Conclusion: First-born infants display a reduced anti-inflammatory profile in T cells at birth. This possible in utero ‘birth-order’ T cell...

  18. Indoctrinating T cells to attack pathogens through homeschooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parello, Caitlin S; Huseby, Eric S

    2015-06-01

    Adaptive immunity is predicated on the ability of the T cell repertoire to have pre-existing specificity for the universe of potential pathogens. Recent findings suggest that T cell receptor (TCR)-self-major histocompatibility protein (pMHC) interactions limit autoimmune responses while enhancing T cell response to foreign antigens. We review these findings here, placing them in context of the current understanding of how TCR-self-pMHC interactions regulate T cell activation thresholds, and suggest that TCR-self-pMHC interactions increase the efficiency of the T cell repertoire by giving a competitive advantage to peptide cross-reactive T cells. We propose that self-reactivity and peptide cross-reactivity are controlled by particular CDR3 sequence motifs, which would allow thymic selection to contribute to solving the feat of broad pathogen specificity by exporting T cells that are pre-screened by positive and negative selection for the ability to be 'moderately' peptide cross-reactive. PMID:25979654

  19. The antihistamine olopatadine regulates T cell activation in palladium allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Naohiko; Takeda, Yuri; Sato, Naoki; Ukichi, Kenichirou; Katakura, Akira; Ueda, Kyosuke; Narushima, Takayuki; Higuchi, Shigehito; Ogasawara, Kouetsu

    2016-06-01

    Because of its corrosion resistance palladium (Pd) has been widely used in many consumer products ranging from fashion accessories to dental materials. Recently, however, an increase in Pd allergy cases has been reported. Metal allergy is categorized as a Type IV allergy, which is characterized as a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in which T cells are known to play an important role; however, the precise mechanism of their action remains unclear. Here we defined the relationship between histamine and the Pd allergic reaction specifically with respect to T cell responses. To verify the effects of histamine on T cells, we examined whether there is a change in IFN-γ production following stimulation of histamine or the antihistamine, olopatadine hydrochloride (OLP), in vitro. In addition, we assessed whether OLP administration affected the degree of footpad swelling or IFN-γ production during the Pd allergy response in mice. We found that histamine stimulation increased IFN-γ production in T cells, specifically enhancing IFN-γ production in CD8(+) T cells compared with CD4(+) T cells. Interestingly, OLP suppressed the production of IFN-γ in CD8(+) T cells, and this compound inhibited footpad swelling and IFN-γ production in mice with Pd allergy. These results suggest that histamine promotes the Type IV allergic reaction and thus, the histamine 1 receptor (H1R) might be useful therapeutic target for treatment of metal allergy. PMID:27035718

  20. T cells in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fletcher, J M

    2012-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), which involves autoimmune responses to myelin antigens. Studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS, have provided convincing evidence that T cells specific for self-antigens mediate pathology in these diseases. Until recently, T helper type 1 (Th1) cells were thought to be the main effector T cells responsible for the autoimmune inflammation. However more recent studies have highlighted an important pathogenic role for CD4(+) T cells that secrete interleukin (IL)-17, termed Th17, but also IL-17-secreting gammadelta T cells in EAE as well as other autoimmune and chronic inflammatory conditions. This has prompted intensive study of the induction, function and regulation of IL-17-producing T cells in MS and EAE. In this paper, we review the contribution of Th1, Th17, gammadelta, CD8(+) and regulatory T cells as well as the possible development of new therapeutic approaches for MS based on manipulating these T cell subtypes.

  1. Functional profile of S100A4-deficient T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, Kathleen; Bettonville, Marie; Torres, David; Kohler, Arnaud; Goriely, Stanislas; Braun, Michel Y

    2015-12-01

    The protein S100A4 is best known for its significant role in promoting motility and invasive capacity of cancer cells. Since S100A4 expression has been reported also in T cells, we analyzed its potential role in T cell motility and inflammation. Using S100a4(+/Gfp) mice, we show here that S100A4 is exclusively expressed by memory T cells of CD4(+) or CD8(+) subpopulations, predominantly of the effector memory T cell subtype. However, the protein was not required for in vitro memory T cell migration toward gradients of the inflammatory chemokine CXCL10. Moreover, T cell memory response was normal in S100A4-deficient mice and lack of S100a4 gene expression did not induce any defect in promoting the development of protective immunity or inflammatory reactions leading to autoimmunity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that S100A4 activity is dispensable for T cell motility/migration and inflammatory potential. PMID:26734465

  2. Regulatory T Cells and Their Role in Animal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Parga, T

    2016-07-01

    In humans and mouse models, Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells are known to control all aspects of immune responses. However, only limited information exists on these cells' role in diseases of other animals. In this review, we cover the most important features and different types of regulatory T cells, which include those that are thymus-derived and peripherally induced, the mechanisms by which they control immune responses by targeting effector T cells and antigen-presenting cells, and most important, their role in animal health and diseases including cancer, infections, and other conditions such as hypersensitivities and autoimmunity. Although the literature regarding regulatory T cells in domestic animal species is still limited, multiple articles have recently emerged and are discussed. Moreover, we also discuss the evidence suggesting that regulatory T cells might limit the magnitude of effector responses, which can have either a positive or negative result, depending on the context of animal and human disease. In addition, the issue of plasticity is discussed because plasticity in regulatory T cells can result in the loss of their protective function in some microenvironments during disease. Lastly, the manipulation of regulatory T cells is discussed in assessing the possibility of their use as a treatment in the future. PMID:26945003

  3. Murine Lung Cancer Induces Generalized T Cell Exhaustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rohit; Chen, Ching-Wen; Lyons, John D; Margoles, Lindsay M; Liang, Zhe; Coopersmith, Craig M; Ford, Mandy L

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer is known to modulate tumor-specific immune responses by establishing a micro-environment that leads to the upregulation of T cell inhibitory receptors, resulting in the progressive loss of function and eventual death of tumor-specific T cells. However, the ability of cancer to impact the functionality of the immune system on a systemic level is much less well characterized. Because cancer is known to predispose patients to infectious complications including sepsis, we hypothesized that the presence of cancer alters pathogen-directed immune responses on a systemic level. Materials and Methods We assessed systemic T cell coinhibitory receptor expression, cytokine production, and apoptosis in mice with established subcutaneous lung cancer tumors and in unmanipulated mice without cancer. Results Results indicated that the frequencies of PD-1+, BTLA+, and 2B4+ cells in both the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments were increased in mice with localized cancer relative to non-cancer controls, and the frequencies of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing multiple different inhibitory receptors was increased in cancer animals relative to non-cancer controls. Additionally, 2B4+CD8+ T cells in cancer mice exhibited reduced IL-2 and IFN-γ, while BTLA+CD8+ T cells in cancer mice exhibited reduced IL-2 and TNF. Conversely, CD4+ T cells in cancer animals demonstrated an increase in the frequency of Annexin V+ apoptotic cells. Conclusion Taken together, these data suggest that the presence of cancer induces systemic T cell exhaustion and generalized immune suppression. PMID:25748104

  4. CD27 Agonism Plus PD-1 Blockade Recapitulates CD4+ T-cell Help in Therapeutic Anticancer Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrends, Tomasz; Bąbała, Nikolina; Xiao, Yanling; Yagita, Hideo; van Eenennaam, Hans; Borst, Jannie

    2016-05-15

    While showing promise, vaccination strategies to treat cancer require further optimization. Likely barriers to efficacy involve cancer-associated immunosuppression and peripheral tolerance, which limit the generation of effective vaccine-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Because CD4(+) T cells improve CTL responsiveness, next-generation vaccines include helper epitopes. Here, we demonstrate in mice how CD4(+) T-cell help optimizes the CTL response to a clinically relevant DNA vaccine engineered to combat human papillomavirus-expressing tumors. Inclusion of tumor-unrelated helper epitopes greatly increased CTL priming, effector, and memory T-cell programming. CD4(+) T-cell help optimized the CTL response in all these aspects via CD27/CD70 costimulation. Notably, administration of an agonistic CD27 antibody could largely replace helper epitopes in promoting primary and memory CTL responses, acting directly on CD8(+) T cells. CD27 agonism improved efficacy of the vaccine without helper epitopes, more so than combined PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade. Combining CD27 agonism with CTLA-4 blockade improved vaccine-induced CTL priming and tumor infiltration, but only combination with PD-1 blockade was effective at eradicating tumors, thereby fully recapitulating the effect of CD4(+) T-cell help on vaccine efficacy. PD-1 blockade alone did not affect CTL priming or tumor infiltration, so these results implied that it cooperated with CD4(+) T-cell help by alleviating immune suppression against CTL in the tumor. Helper epitope inclusion or CD27 agonism did not stimulate regulatory T cells, and vaccine efficacy was also improved by CD27 agonism in the presence of CD4(+) T-cell help. Our findings provide a preclinical rationale to apply CD27 agonist antibodies, either alone or combined with PD-1 blockade, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of cancer vaccines and immunotherapy generally. Cancer Res; 76(10); 2921-31. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27020860

  5. Concomitant occurrence of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and KRAS (V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) mutations in an ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive lung adenocarcinoma patient with acquired resistance to crizotinib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Henrik H; Grauslund, Morten; Urbanska, Edyta M;

    2013-01-01

    events behind crizotinib-resistance currently remain largely uncharacterized. Thus, we report on an anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung carcinoma patient with concomitant occurrence of epidermal growth factor receptor and V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog mutations...

  6. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: 91 patients treated by surgery and radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junor, E.J.; Paul, J.; Reed, N.S. (Beatson Oncology Centre, Glasgow (United Kingdom))

    1992-04-01

    Ninety-one patients with histologically proven anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid were referred to the Beatson Oncology Centre between 1961 and 1986. The female:male ratio was 2.4:1 and the median age at presentation was 70 (range 38-92) years. All patients had a thyroid mass at presentation and the most common symptoms were dyspnoea, dyspnagia and dysphonia. Five patients had a total thyroidectomy and 28 partial thyroidectomy. Ninety five per cent of patients received external beam radiotherapy. Results show dyspnoea to be the only symptom strongly influencing survival. Total or partial thyroidectomy is associated with increased survival. This association is most marked for patients presenting without dyspnoea. Eighty per cent of patients responded to radiotherapy. (Author).

  7. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: 91 patients treated by surgery and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninety-one patients with histologically proven anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid were referred to the Beatson Oncology Centre between 1961 and 1986. The female:male ratio was 2.4:1 and the median age at presentation was 70 (range 38-92) years. All patients had a thyroid mass at presentation and the most common symptoms were dyspnoea, dyspnagia and dysphonia. Five patients had a total thyroidectomy and 28 partial thyroidectomy. Ninety five per cent of patients received external beam radiotherapy. Results show dyspnoea to be the only symptom strongly influencing survival. Total or partial thyroidectomy is associated with increased survival. This association is most marked for patients presenting without dyspnoea. Eighty per cent of patients responded to radiotherapy. (Author)

  8. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: 91 patients treated by surgery and radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junor, E J; Paul, J; Reed, N S

    1992-04-01

    Ninety-one patients with histologically proven anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid were referred to the Beatson Oncology Centre between 1961 and 1986. The female:male ratio was 2.4:1 and the median age at presentation was 70 (range 38-92) years. All patients had a thyroid mass at presentation and the most common symptoms were dyspnoea, dysphagia and dysphonia. Five patients had a total thyroidectomy and 28 partial thyroidectomy. Ninety five per cent of patients received external beam radiotherapy. Results show dyspnoea to be the only symptom strongly influencing survival. Total or partial thyroidectomy is associated with increased survival. This association is most marked for patients presenting without dyspnoea. Eighty per cent of patients responded to radiotherapy. PMID:1582515

  9. Inhibition of NAMPT pathway by FK866 activates the function of p53 in HEK293T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► In 293T cells, p53 is considered to be inactive due to its interaction with the large T-antigen. ► Acetylation of p53 at lysine 382 is important for its functional activation. ► First evidence to document the presence of a functional p53 in 293T cells. ► Inhibition of NAMPT/SIRT pathway by FK866 in 293T cells increases the functional activity of p53. ► This activation of p53 involves reversible acetylation of p53 at lysine 382. -- Abstract: Inactivation of p53 protein by endogenous and exogenous carcinogens is involved in the pathogenesis of different human malignancies. In cancer associated with SV-40 DNA tumor virus, p53 is considered to be non-functional mainly due to its interaction with the large T-antigen. Using the 293T cell line (HEK293 cells transformed with large T antigen) as a model, we provide evidence that p53 is one of the critical downstream targets involved in FK866-mediated killing of 293T cells. A reduced rate of apoptosis and an increased number of cells in S-phase was accompanied after knockdown of p53 in these cells. Inhibition of NAMPT by FK866, or inhibition of SIRT by nicotinamide decreased proliferation and triggered death of 293T cells involving the p53 acetylation pathway. Additionally, knockdown of p53 attenuated the effect of FK866 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest. The data presented here shed light on two important facts: (1) that p53 in 293T cells is active in the presence of FK866, an inhibitor of NAMPT pathway; (2) the apoptosis induced by FK866 in 293T cells is associated with increased acetylation of p53 at Lys382, which is required for the functional activity of p53.

  10. Regulatory T cells and B cells: implication on autoimmune diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping; Zheng, Song Guo

    2013-01-01

    The regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in the maintenance of homeostasis and the prevention of autoimmune diseases. Although most studies are focusing on the role of Treg cells in T cells and T cells-mediated diseases, these cells also directly affect B cells and other non-T cells. This manuscript updates the role of Treg cells on the B cells and B cell-mediated diseases. In addition, the mechanisms whereby Treg cells suppress B cell responses have been discussed.

  11. Bystander T cells in human immune responses to dengue antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwannasaen Duangchan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies of T cell activation in dengue infection have focused on restriction of specific T cell receptors (TCRs and classical MHC molecules. However, bystander T cell activation, which is TCR independent, occurs via cytokines in other viral infections, both in vitro and in vivo, and enables T cells to bypass certain control checkpoints. Moreover, clinical and pathological evidence has pointed to cytokines as the mediators of dengue disease severity. Therefore, we investigated bystander T cell induction by dengue viral antigen. Results Whole blood samples from 55 Thai schoolchildren aged 13-14 years were assayed for in vitro interferon-gamma (IFN-γ induction in response to inactivated dengue serotype 2 antigen (Den2. The contribution of TCR-dependent and independent pathways was tested by treatment with cyclosporin A (CsA, which inhibits TCR-dependent activation of T cells. ELISA results revealed that approximately 72% of IFN-γ production occurred via the TCR-dependent pathway. The major IFN-γ sources were natural killer (NK (mean ± SE = 55.2 ± 3.3, CD4+T (24.5 ± 3.3 and CD8+T cells (17.9 ± 1.5, respectively, as demonstrated by four-color flow cytometry. Interestingly, in addition to these cells, we found CsA-resistant IFN-γ producing T cells (CD4+T = 26.9 ± 3.6% and CD8+T = 20.3 ± 2.1% implying the existence of activated bystander T cells in response to dengue antigen in vitro. These bystander CD4+ and CD8+T cells had similar kinetics to NK cells, appeared after 12 h and were inhibited by anti-IL-12 neutralization indicating cytokine involvement. Conclusions This study described immune cell profiles and highlighted bystander T cell activation in response to dengue viral antigens of healthy people in an endemic area. Further studies on bystander T cell activation in dengue viral infection may reveal the immune mechanisms that protect or enhance pathogenesis of secondary dengue infection.

  12. A unique T cell receptor discovered in marsupials

    OpenAIRE

    Parra, Zuly E.; Baker, Michelle L.; Schwarz, Ryan S.; Deakin, Janine E; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Miller, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    T cells recognize antigens by using T cell receptors (TCRs) encoded by gene segments, called variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J), that undergo somatic recombination to create diverse binding specificities. Four TCR chains (α, β, γ, and δ) have been identified to date, and, as T cells develop in the thymus, they express exclusively either an αβTCR or a γδTCR heterodimer. Here, we show that marsupials have an additional TCR (TCRμ) that has V, D, and J that are either somatically recomb...

  13. Epigenetic biomarkers of T-cells in human glioma

    OpenAIRE

    Wiencke, John K.; Accomando, William P.; Zheng, Shichun; Patoka, Joe; Dou, Xiaoqin; Phillips, Joanna J.; Hsuang, George; Christensen, Brock C.; Houseman, E. Andres; Koestler, Devin C; Bracci, Paige; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Wrensch, Margaret; Nelson, Heather H.; Kelsey, Karl T.

    2012-01-01

    Immune factors are thought to influence glioma risk and outcomes, but immune profiling studies to further our understanding of the immune response are limited by current immunodiagnostic methods. We developed a new assay to capture glioma immune biology based on quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP) of two T-cell genes (CD3Z: T-cells, and FOXP3: Tregs). Flow cytometry of T-cells correlated well with the CD3Z demethylation assay (r = 0.93; p < 2.2 × 10−16), demonstrating the validity of...

  14. Preparing T Cell Growth Factor from Rat Splenocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Beeton, Christine; Chandy, K. George

    2007-01-01

    Maintenance of antigen-specific T cell lines or clones in culture requires rounds of antigen-induced activation separated by phases of cell expansion 1,2. Addition of interleukin 2 to the culture media during the expansion phase is necessary to prevent cell death and sufficient to maintain short-term T cell lines but has been shown to increase Th1 polarization 3. Replacement of interleukin 2 by T cell growth factor (TCGF) which contains a mix of cytokines is more effective than interleukin 2...

  15. Lineage relationship of effector and memory T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Restifo, Nicholas P; Gattinoni, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive immunity is characterized by the ability to form long-lived immunological memory. Upon re-exposure to antigen, memory T cells respond more rapidly and robustly than naïve T cells, providing better clearance of pathogens. Recent reviews have reinforced the text-book view that memory T cells arise from effector cells. Although this notion is teleologically appealing, emerging data is more consistent with a model where naïve cells directly develop into memory cells without transitioning...

  16. Tumor Regulatory T Cells Potently Abrogate Antitumor Immunity1

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zuqiang; Kim, Jin H.; Falo, Louis D.; You, Zhaoyang

    2009-01-01

    Treg from mice bearing a breast tumor were elevated (tumor Treg). In vitro, whereas tumor Treg ability to inhibit tumor-primed CD4+ T cell activity is comparable to Treg from naïve mice (naïve Treg), only tumor Treg suppress naïve CD8+ T cell activation and DC function. Neither tumor Treg nor naïve Treg can suppress antitumor immunity at the effector phase of the immune response induced by adoptively-transferred tumor-primed CD4+ T cells. This is consistent with the observation that, in this ...

  17. GATA-3 in Human T Cell Helper Type 2 Development

    OpenAIRE

    Skapenko, Alla; Leipe, Jan; Niesner, Uwe; Devriendt, Koen; Beetz, Rolf; Radbruch, Andreas; Kalden, Joachim R.; Lipsky, Peter E; Schulze-Koops, Hendrik

    2004-01-01

    The delineation of the in vivo role of GATA-3 in human T cell differentiation is a critical step in the understanding of molecular mechanisms directing human immune responses. We examined T cell differentiation and T cell–mediated effector functions in individuals lacking one functional GATA-3 allele. CD4 T cells from GATA-3+/− individuals expressed significantly reduced levels of GATA-3, associated with markedly decreased T helper cell (Th)2 frequencies in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, Th2 ce...

  18. Blimp-1-mediated CD4 T cell exhaustion causes CD8 T cell dysfunction during chronic toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, SuJin; Cobb, Dustin A; Bhadra, Rajarshi; Youngblood, Ben; Khan, Imtiaz A

    2016-08-22

    CD8, but not CD4, T cells are considered critical for control of chronic toxoplasmosis. Although CD8 exhaustion has been previously reported in Toxoplasma encephalitis (TE)-susceptible model, our current work demonstrates that CD4 not only become exhausted during chronic toxoplasmosis but this dysfunction is more pronounced than CD8 T cells. Exhausted CD4 population expressed elevated levels of multiple inhibitory receptors concomitant with the reduced functionality and up-regulation of Blimp-1, a transcription factor. Our data demonstrates for the first time that Blimp-1 is a critical regulator for CD4 T cell exhaustion especially in the CD4 central memory cell subset. Using a tamoxifen-dependent conditional Blimp-1 knockout mixed bone marrow chimera as well as an adoptive transfer approach, we show that CD4 T cell-intrinsic deletion of Blimp-1 reversed CD8 T cell dysfunction and resulted in improved pathogen control. To the best of our knowledge, this is a novel finding, which demonstrates the role of Blimp-1 as a critical regulator of CD4 dysfunction and links it to the CD8 T cell dysfunctionality observed in infected mice. The critical role of CD4-intrinsic Blimp-1 expression in mediating CD4 and CD8 T cell exhaustion may provide a rational basis for designing novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:27481131

  19. Regulatory T cells prevent CD8 T cell maturation by inhibiting CD4 Th cells at tumor sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Nathalie; Darrasse-Jèze, Guillaume; Bergot, Anne-Sophie; Cordier, Corinne; Ngo-Abdalla, Stacie; Klatzmann, David; Azogui, Orly

    2007-10-15

    Natural regulatory T cells (Tregs) are present in high frequencies among tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and in draining lymph nodes, supposedly facilitating tumor development. To investigate their role in controlling local immune responses, we analyzed intratumoral T cell accumulation and function in the presence or absence of Tregs. Tumors that grew in normal BALB/c mice injected with the 4T1 tumor cell line were highly infiltrated by Tregs, CD4 and CD8 cells, all having unique characteristics. Most infiltrating Tregs expressed low levels of CD25Rs and Foxp3. They did not proliferate even in the presence of IL-2 but maintained a strong suppressor activity. CD4 T cells were profoundly anergic and CD8 T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were severely impaired. Depletion of Tregs modified the characteristics of tumor infiltrates. Tumors were initially invaded by activated CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells, which produced IL-2 and IFN-gamma. This was followed by the recruitment of highly cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells at tumor sites leading to tumor rejection. The beneficial effect of Treg depletion in tumor regression was abrogated when CD4 helper cells were also depleted. These findings indicate that the massive infiltration of tumors by Tregs prevents the development of a successful helper response. The Tregs in our model prevent Th cell activation and subsequent development of efficient CD8 T cell activity required for the control of tumor growth. PMID:17911581

  20. Oligomeric Procyanidins Interfere with Glycolysis of Activated T Cells. A Novel Mechanism for Inhibition of T Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Goto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Procyanidins, which are flavonoids that are found in a variety of plant species, reduce or prevent immune disorders, such as allergy and autoimmune diseases, through an unknown mechanism. In the present study, we investigated the effects of procyanidins on the T cell receptor (TCR-mediated responses of CD4+ T cells in vitro. Apple procyanidins strongly suppressed the proliferation of splenic CD4+ T cells that were stimulated by an anti-CD3ε antibody, as well as splenocytes stimulated by antigen, but did not alter interleukin (IL-2 secretion from these cells. Furthermore, we found that oligomeric procyanidins strongly suppressed, in a degree of polymerization dependent manner, the proliferation of activated CD4+ T cells, as well as their production of effector cytokines, including glycolysis associated-cytokines, without affecting IL-2 secretion. Additionally, we investigated the inhibitory effects of oligomeric procyanidins on the glycolytic activity of activated CD4+ T cells. We show that pentameric procyanidin suppressed L-lactate production and glucose uptake in activated CD4+ T cells. These results suggest that oligomeric procyanidins suppress the functions of activated CD4+ T cells by interfering with glycolysis.

  1. Gamma c-signaling cytokines induce a regulatory T cell phenotype in malignant CD4+ T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasprzycka, Monika; Zhang, Qian; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka;

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that malignant mature CD4(+) T lymphocytes derived from cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCL) variably display some aspects of the T regulatory phenotype. Whereas seven cell lines representing a spectrum of primary cutaneous T cell lymphoproliferative disorders expressed...... that FOXP3-expressing cells were common among the CD7-negative enlarged atypical and small lymphocytes at the early skin patch and plaque stages. Their frequency was profoundly diminished at the tumor stage and in the CTCL lymph node lesions with or without large cell transformation. These results...... indicate that the T regulatory cell features are induced in CTCL T cells by common gamma chain signaling cytokines such as IL-2 and do not represent a fully predetermined, constitutive phenotype independent of the local environmental stimuli to which these malignant mature CD4(+) T cells become exposed....

  2. Human rotavirus specific T cells: quantification by ELISPOT and expression of homing receptors on CD4+ T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an intracellular cytokine assay, we recently showed that the frequencies of rotavirus (RV)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells secreting INFγ, circulating in RV infected and healthy adults, are very low compared to the frequencies of circulating cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactive T cells in comparable individuals. In children with acute RV infection, these T cells were barely or not detectable. In the present study, an ELISPOT assay enabled detection of circulating RV-specific INFγ-secreting cells in children with RV diarrhea but not in children with non-RV diarrhea without evidence of a previous RV infection. Using microbead-enriched CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, IFNγ-secreting RV-specific CD8+ but not CD4+ T cells were detected in recently infected children. Using the same approach, both CD4+ and CD8+ RV-specific T cells were detected in healthy adults. Furthermore, stimulation of purified subsets of PBMC that express lymphocyte homing receptors demonstrated that RV-specific INFγ-secreting CD4+ T cells from adult volunteers preferentially express the intestinal homing receptor α4β7, but not the peripheral lymph node homing receptor L-selectin. In contrast, CMV-specific INFγ-secreting CD4+ T cells preferentially express L-selectin but not α4β7. These results suggest that the expression of homing receptors on virus-specific T cells depends on the organ where these cells were originally stimulated and that their capacity to secrete INFγ is independent of the expression of these homing receptors

  3. Control of T cell antigen reactivity via programmed TCR downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Alena M; Xiong, Huizhong; Leiner, Ingrid M; Sušac, Bože; Glickman, Michael S; Pamer, Eric G; van Heijst, Jeroen W J

    2016-04-01

    The T cell antigen receptor (TCR) is unique in that its affinity for ligand is unknown before encounter and can vary by orders of magnitude. How the immune system regulates individual T cells that display very different reactivity to antigen remains unclear. Here we found that activated CD4(+) T cells, at the peak of clonal expansion, persistently downregulated their TCR expression in proportion to the strength of the initial antigen recognition. This programmed response increased the threshold for cytokine production and recall proliferation in a clone-specific manner and ultimately excluded clones with the highest antigen reactivity. Thus, programmed downregulation of TCR expression represents a negative feedback mechanism for constraining T cell effector function with a suitable time delay to thereby allow pathogen control while avoiding excess inflammatory damage. PMID:26901151

  4. Mechanism of T cell regulation by microRNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding single-stranded RNAs that can modulate target gene expression at post-transcriptional level and participate in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. T cells have important functions in acquired immune response; miRNAs regulate this immune response by targeting the mRNAs of genes involved in T cell development, proliferation, differentiation, and function. For instance, miR-181 family members function in progression by targeting Bcl2 and CD69, among others. MiR-17 to miR-92 clusters function by binding to CREB1, PTEN, and Bim. Considering that the suppression of T cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells is involved in cancer progression, we should investigate the mechanism by which miRNA regulates T cells to develop new approaches for cancer treatment

  5. The timing of T cell priming and cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard eObst

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of specific lymphocytes is the central tenet of the clonal selection paradigm. Antigen recognition by T cells triggers a series of events that produces expanded clones of differentiated effector cells. TCR signaling events are detectable within seconds and minutes and are likely to continue for hours and days in vivo. Here, I review the work done on the importance of TCR signals in the later part of the expansion phase of the primary T cell response, primarily regarding the regulation of the cell cycle in CD4+ and CD8+ cells. The results suggest a degree of programming by early signals for effector differentiation, particularly in the CD8+ T cell compartment, with optimal expansion supported by persistent antigen presentation later on. Differences to CD4+ T cell expansion and new avenues towards a molecular understanding of cell cycle regulation in lymphocytes are discussed.

  6. Increased sensitivity to interferon-alpha in psoriatic T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Karsten Wessel; Lovato, Paola; Skov, Lone;

    2005-01-01

    disease characterized by CD8(+)-infiltrating T cells. In this study, we therefore investigate IFN-alpha signaling in T cells isolated from involved skin of psoriatic patients. We show that psoriatic T cells have increased and prolonged responses to IFN-alpha, on the level of signal transducers and......Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by abnormal epidermal proliferation. Several studies have shown that skin-infiltrating activated T cells and cytokines play a pivotal role during the initiation and maintenance of the disease. Interferon (IFN)-alpha plays an important...... role in host defense against infections, but recent data have also implicated IFN-alpha in psoriasis. Thus, IFN-alpha induces or aggravates psoriasis in some patients, and mice lacking a transcriptional attenuator of IFN-alpha/beta signaling spontaneously develop a psoriasis-like inflammatory skin...

  7. Lineage relationship of effector and memory T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restifo, Nicholas P.; Gattinoni, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive immunity is characterized by the ability to form long-lived immunological memory. Upon re-exposure to antigen, memory T cells respond more rapidly and robustly than naïve T cells, providing better clearance of pathogens. Recent reviews have reinforced the text-book view that memory T cells arise from effector cells. Although this notion is teleologically appealing, emerging data is more consistent with a model where naïve cells directly develop into memory cells without transitioning through an effector stage. A clear understanding of the lineage relationships between memory and effector cells has profound implications for the design of vaccines and for the development of effective T cell-based therapies. PMID:24148236

  8. Towards Future T Cell-Mediated Influenza Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi H. O. Nguyen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAVs infections impact significantly on global health, being particularly problematic in children, the elderly, pregnant women, indigenous populations and people with co-morbidities. Antibody-based vaccines require annual administration to combat rapidly acquired mutations modifying the surface haemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA glycoproteins. Conversely, influenza-specific CD8+ T cell responses directed at peptides derived from the more conserved internal virus proteins are known to be protective, suggesting that T cell-based vaccines may provide long-lasting cross-protection. This review outlines the importance of CD8+ T cell immunity to seasonal influenza and pandemic IAVs and summarises current vaccination strategies for inducing durable CD8+ T cell memory. Aspects of future IAV vaccine design and the use of live virus challenge in humans to establish proof of principle are also discussed.

  9. Establishing guidelines for CAR-T cells: challenges and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Di-Yuan; Zhang, Bing-Lan; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2016-04-01

    T cells, genetically modified by chimeric antigen receptors (CAR-T), are endowed with specificity to a desired antigen and are cytotoxic to cells expressing the targeted antigen. CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy is a promising therapy for curing hematological malignancy, such as acute lymphoid leukemia, and is promising for extending their efficacy to defeat solid tumors. To date, dozens of different CAR-T cells have been evaluated in clinical trials to treat tumors; this necessitates the establishment of guidelines for the production and application of CAR-T cells. However, it is challenging to standardize CAR-T cancer therapy because it involves a combination of gene therapy and cell therapy. In this review, we compare the existing guidelines for CAR-T cells and discuss the challenges and considerations for establishing guidance for CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26965523

  10. T cell mediated pathogenesis in EAE: Molecular mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian C Kurschus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available T cells are major initiators and mediators of disease in multiple sclerosis (MS and in its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. EAE is an antigen-driven autoimmune model in which immunization against myelin autoantigens elicits strong T cell responses which initiate its pathology with CNS myelin destruction. T cells cause pathogenic events by several mechanisms; some work in a direct fashion in the CNS, such as direct cytokine-induced damage, granzyme-mediated killing, or glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, whereas most are indirect mechanisms, such as activation of other cell types like macrophages, B cells, or neutrophils. This review aims to describe and discuss the molecular effector mechanism by which T cells harm the CNS during EAE.

  11. Upregulation of T-Cell-Specific Transcription Factor Expression in Pediatric T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL)

    OpenAIRE

    Müge Sayitoğlu; Yücel Erbilgin; Özden Hatırnaz; İnci Yıldız; Tiraje Celkan; Sema Anak; Ömer Devecioğlu; Gönül Aydoğan; Serap Karaman; Nazan Sarper; Çetin Timur; Ümit Üre; Uğur Özbek

    2012-01-01

    Objective: T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is associated with recurrent chromosomal aberrations andabnormal ectopic gene expression during T-cell development. In order to gain insight into the pathogenesis of T-ALLthis study aimed to measure the level of expression of 7 T-cell oncogenes (LMO2, LYL1, TAL1, TLX1, TLX3, BMI1, andCALM-AF10) in pediatric T-ALL patients Material and Methods: LMO2, LYL1, TLX1, TLX3, BMI1, TAL1, and CALM-AF10 expression was measured usingquantitative real...

  12. Networked T cell death following macrophage infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H-F Macdonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depletion of T cells following infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb impairs disease resolution, and interferes with clinical test performance that relies on cell-mediated immunity. A number of mechanisms contribute to this T cell suppression, such as activation-induced death and trafficking of T cells out of the peripheral circulation and into the diseased lungs. The extent to which Mtb infection of human macrophages affects T cell viability however, is not well characterised. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that lymphopenia (<1.5 × 10(9 cells/l was prevalent among culture-positive tuberculosis patients, and lymphocyte counts significantly improved post-therapy. We previously reported that Mtb-infected human macrophages resulted in death of infected and uninfected bystander macrophages. In the current study, we sought to examine the influence of infected human alveolar macrophages on T cells. We infected primary human alveolar macrophages (the primary host cell for Mtb or PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells with Mtb H37Ra, then prepared cell-free supernatants. The supernatants of Mtb-infected macrophages caused dose-dependent, caspase-dependent, T cell apoptosis. This toxic effect of infected macrophage secreted factors did not require TNF-α or Fas. The supernatant cytotoxic signal(s were heat-labile and greater than 50 kDa in molecular size. Although ESAT-6 was toxic to T cells, other Mtb-secreted factors tested did not influence T cell viability; nor did macrophage-free Mtb bacilli or broth from Mtb cultures. Furthermore, supernatants from Mycobacterium bovis Bacille de Calmette et Guerin (BCG- infected macrophages also elicited T cell death suggesting that ESAT-6 itself, although cytotoxic, was not the principal mediator of T cell death in our system. CONCLUSIONS: Mtb-Infected macrophages secrete heat-labile factors that are toxic to T cells, and may contribute to the immunosuppression seen in tuberculosis as well as

  13. DMPD: Activation of lymphokine genes in T cells: role of cis-acting DNA elements thatrespond to T cell activation signals. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1492121 Activation of lymphokine genes in T cells: role of cis-acting DNA elements ...html) (.csml) Show Activation of lymphokine genes in T cells: role of cis-acting ...DNA elements thatrespond to T cell activation signals. PubmedID 1492121 Title Activation of lymphokine genes in T cells: role

  14. Adsorption of multimeric T cell antigens on carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadel, Tarek R; Li, Nan; Shah, Smith;

    2013-01-01

    Antigen-specific activation of cytotoxic T cells can be enhanced up to three-fold more than soluble controls when using functionalized bundled carbon nanotube substrates ((b) CNTs). To overcome the denaturing effects of direct adsorption on (b) CNTs, a simple but robust method is demonstrated to...... stabilize the T cell stimulus on carbon nanotube substrates through non-covalent attachment of the linker neutravidin....

  15. Functional Implications of Plasma Membrane Condensation for T Cell Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Rentero, Carles; Zech, Tobias; Quinn, Carmel M.; Engelhardt, Karin; Williamson, David; Grewal, Thomas; Jessup, Wendy; Harder, Thomas; Gaus, Katharina

    2008-01-01

    The T lymphocyte plasma membrane condenses at the site of activation but the functional significance of this receptor-mediated membrane reorganization is not yet known. Here we demonstrate that membrane condensation at the T cell activation sites can be inhibited by incorporation of the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), which is known to prevent the formation of raft-like liquid-ordered domains in model membranes. We enriched T cells with 7KC, or cholesterol as control, to assess the importa...

  16. Epithelioid granuloma formation requiring no T-cell function.

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, A.; Emori, K; Nagao, S.; Kushima, K.; Kohashi, O; Saitoh, M.; Kataoka, T.

    1982-01-01

    Muramyl dipeptide (MDP), a minimal structure in bacterial cell walls essential for their adjuvant activity, was incorporated in a water-in-oil emulsion and injected into the footpads of nude rats devoid of functional T cells. MDP thus injected evoked massive epithelioid granulomas in the draining lymph nodes, indicating that MDP induced epithelioid granuloma formation requires no T cells. This finding with other data available strongly suggest that epithelioid granulomas can be induced withou...

  17. Regulatory T Cells and Immune Tolerance in the Intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Oliver J.; Powrie, Fiona M.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental role of the mammalian immune system is to eradicate pathogens while minimizing immunopathology. Instigating and maintaining immunological tolerance within the intestine represents a unique challenge to the mucosal immune system. Regulatory T cells are critical for continued immune tolerance in the intestine through active control of innate and adaptive immune responses. Dynamic adaptation of regulatory T-cell populations to the intestinal tissue microenvironment is key in this p...

  18. T Cells Recognizing a Peptide Contaminant Undetectable by Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Brezar, Vedran; Culina, Slobodan; Østerbye, Thomas; Guillonneau, François; Chiappetta, Giovanni; Verdier, Yann; Vinh, Joelle; Wong, F. Susan; Buus, Søren; Mallone, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are widely used in immunological research as epitopes to stimulate their cognate T cells. These preparations are never completely pure, but trace contaminants are commonly revealed by mass spectrometry quality controls. In an effort to characterize novel major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I-restricted β-cell epitopes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, we identified islet-infiltrating CD8+ T cells recognizing a contaminating peptide. The amount of this contaminant w...

  19. Adult T-cell leukaemia lymphoma in an aborigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, M A; Frasca, J; Bastian, I

    1991-10-01

    A 44-year-old Aborigine with Adult T-cell Leukaemia/Lymphoma (ATLL) due to HTLV-I is reported. He presented with transverse myelitis of subacute onset, and subsequently developed frank T-cell leukaemia complicated by splenomegaly and hypercalcaemia. Cell surface marker studies showed a phenotype of CD3+ CD4+ CD8- CD25+, and serological and molecular studies confirmed HTLV-I infection. This is the first report of ATLL in an Australian Aborigine. PMID:1759923

  20. Control of Th2-Mediated Inflammation by Regulatory T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Poojary, K. Venuprasad; Kong, Yi-chi M.; Farrar, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Allergic diseases and asthma are caused by dysregulated Th2-type immune responses, which drive disease development in susceptible individuals. Immune tolerance to allergens prevents inflammatory symptoms in the respiratory mucosa and provides protection against inflammation in the airways. Increasing evidence indicates that Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in immune tolerance and control Th2-biased responses. Tregs develop in the thymus from CD4+ T cells (natural Tregs) ...

  1. The impact of aging on regulatory T-cells

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes eFessler; Anja eFelber; Christina eDuftner; Christian eDejaco

    2013-01-01

    Age related deviations of the immune system contribute to a higher likelihood of infections, cancer and autoimmunity in the elderly. Senescence of T-lymphocytes is characterized by phenotypical and functional changes including the loss of characteristic T-cell surface markers, while an increase of stimulatory receptors, cytotoxicity as well as resistance against apoptosis is observed. One of the key mediators of immune regulation are naturally occurring regulatory T-cells (Tregs). Tregs expre...

  2. Functional Development of the T Cell Receptor for Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Peter J.R.; Li, Qi-Jing; Huppa, Johannes B.; Davis, Mark M.

    2016-01-01

    For over three decades now, the T cell receptor (TCR) for antigen has not ceased to challenge the imaginations of cellular and molecular immunologists alike. T cell antigen recognition transcends every aspect of adaptive immunity: it shapes the T cell repertoire in the thymus and directs T cell-mediated effector functions in the periphery, where it is also central to the induction of peripheral tolerance. Yet, despite its central position, there remain many questions unresolved: how can one TCR be specific for one particular peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) ligand while also binding other pMHC ligands with an immunologically relevant affinity? And how can a T cell’s extreme specificity (alterations of single methyl groups in their ligand can abrogate a response) and sensitivity (single agonist ligands on a cell surface are sufficient to trigger a measurable response) emerge from TCR–ligand interactions that are so low in affinity? Solving these questions is intimately tied to a fundamental understanding of molecular recognition dynamics within the many different contexts of various T cell–antigen presenting cell (APC) contacts: from the thymic APCs that shape the TCR repertoire and guide functional differentiation of developing T cells to the peripheral APCs that support homeostasis and provoke antigen responses in naïve, effector, memory, and regulatory T cells. Here, we discuss our recent findings relating to T cell antigen recognition and how this leads to the thymic development of foreign-antigen-responsive αβT cells. PMID:20800817

  3. Structure-Based, Rational Design of T Cell Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Zoete, V; Irving, M.; Ferber, M.; Cuendet, M. A.; Michielin, O

    2013-01-01

    Adoptive cell transfer using engineered T cells is emerging as a promising treatment for metastatic melanoma. Such an approach allows one to introduce T cell receptor (TCR) modifications that, while maintaining the specificity for the targeted antigen, can enhance the binding and kinetic parameters for the interaction with peptides (p) bound to major histocompatibility complexes (MHC). Using the well-characterized 2C TCR/SIYR/H-2K(b) structure as a model system, we demonstrated that a binding...

  4. Auto-reactive T cells revised. Overestimation based on methodology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius-Ussing, Gorm; Sørensen, Jesper F; Wandall, Hans H;

    2015-01-01

    loaded with E. coli produced recombinant protein or unmodified synthetic HLA binding peptides. Our concern is that this approach may ignore the presence of natural genetic variation and post-translational modifications such as e.g. the complex nature of N- and O-linked glycosylation of mammalian proteins...... methodology applied to document T cell reactivity against unmodified protein or peptide may lead to overinterpretation of the reported frequencies of autoreactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells....

  5. CYTOMEGALOVIRUS VECTORS VIOLATE CD8+ T CELL EPITOPE RECOGNITION PARADIGMS

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Scott G.; Sacha, Jonah B.; Hughes, Colette M.; Ford, Julia C.; Burwitz, Benjamin J.; Scholz, Isabel; Gilbride, Roxanne M.; Lewis, Matthew S.; Gilliam, Awbrey N.; Ventura, Abigail B.; Malouli, Daniel; Xu, Guangwu; Richards, Rebecca; Whizin, Nathan; Reed, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    CD8+ T cell responses focus on a small fraction of pathogen- or vaccine-encoded peptides, and for some pathogens, these restricted recognition hierarchies limit the effectiveness of anti-pathogen immunity. We found that simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) protein-expressing Rhesus Cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) vectors elicit SIV-specific CD8+ T cells that recognize unusual, diverse and highly promiscuous epitopes, including dominant responses to epitopes restricted by class II major histocompatibil...

  6. T cell responses in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diani, Marco; Altomare, Gianfranco; Reali, Eva

    2015-04-01

    According to the current view the histological features of psoriasis arise as a consequence of the interplay between T cells, dendritic cells and keratinocytes giving rise to a self-perpetuating loop that amplifies and sustains inflammation in lesional skin. In particular, myeloid dendritic cell secretion of IL-23 and IL-12 activates IL-17-producing T cells, Th22 and Th1 cells, leading to the production of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF and IL-22. These cytokines mediate effects on keratinocytes thus establishing the inflammatory loop. Unlike psoriasis the immunopathogenic features of psoriatic arthritis are poorly characterized and there is a gap in the knowledge of the pathogenic link between inflammatory T cell responses arising in the skin and the development of joint inflammation. Here we review the knowledge accumulated over the years from the early evidence of autoreactive CD8 T cells that was studied mainly in the years 1990s and 2000s to the recent findings of the role of Th17, Tc17 cells and γδ T cells in psoriatic disease pathogenesis. The review will also focus on common and distinguishing features of T cell responses in psoriatic plaques and in synovial fluid of patients with psoriatic arthritis. The integration of this information could help to distinguish the role played by T cells in the initiation phase of the disease from the role of T cells as downstream effectors sustaining inflammation in psoriatic plaques and potentially leading to disease manifestation in distant joints. PMID:25445403

  7. Long-term control of disseminated pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features by means of stereotactic irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Koga, Tomoyuki; Morita, Akio; Maruyama, Keisuke; Tanaka, Minoru; Ino, Yasushi; Shibahara, Junji; Louis, David N.; Reifenberger, Guido; Itami, Jun; Hara, Ryusuke; SAITO, Nobuhito; Todo, Tomoki

    2009-01-01

    Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare astrocytic neoplasm of the brain. Some PXAs are accompanied by anaplastic features and are difficult to manage because of frequent recurrences that lead to early death. No previous reports have demonstrated consistent efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy for this disease. We report a case of PXA with anaplastic features treated with stereotactic irradiation (STI) that resulted in long-term control of repeatedly recurring nodules throu...

  8. Cortical Anaplastic Ependymoma with Significant Desmoplasia: A Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Alaa Eldin Elsharkawy; Raid Abuamona; Markus Bergmann; Shadi Salem; Evariste Gafumbegete; Ernst Röttger

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic brain anaplastic ependymomas with no connection to the ventricles are rare. We present a rare case of a 25-year-old male who presented with generalized convulsions. Computed tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) showed characters of an intra- and extra-axial lesion. Intraoperatively, the lesion was a cortical solid mass that had no connections to the dura or to the ventricle. The histological diagnosis showed an anaplastic ependym...

  9. Focused Ultrasound Surgery for the Treatment of Recurrent Anaplastic Astrocytoma: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Wuk; Jung, Shin; Jung, Tae-Young; Lee, Min-Cheol

    2006-05-01

    Anaplastic glioma is a highly aggressive tumor in the central nervous system. The conventional treatment for patients with anaplstic glioma consists of the combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, the effect of the currently available therapies is limited, and the prognosis is very poor in these patients. The purpose of this abstract is to introduce our preliminary experience of using focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) for the treatment of patients with recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma.

  10. The Pathology of T Cells in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Mak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is characterized by the production of a wide array of autoantibodies. Thus, the condition was traditionally classified as a “B-cell disease”. Compelling evidence has however shown that without the assistance of the helper T lymphocytes, it is indeed difficult for the “helpless” B cells to become functional enough to trigger SLE-related inflammation. T cells have been recognized to be crucial in the pathogenicity of SLE through their capabilities to communicate with and offer enormous help to B cells for driving autoantibody production. Recently, a number of phenotypic and functional alterations which increase the propensity to trigger lupus-related inflammation have been identified in lupus T cells. Here, potential mechanisms involving alterations in T-cell receptor expressions, postreceptor downstream signalling, epigenetics, and oxidative stress which favour activation of lupus T cells will be discussed. Additionally, how regulatory CD4+, CD8+, and γδ T cells tune down lupus-related inflammation will be highlighted. Lastly, while currently available outcomes of clinical trials evaluating therapeutic agents which manipulate the T cells such as calcineurin inhibitors indicate that they are at least as efficacious and safe as conventional immunosuppressants in treating lupus glomerulonephritis, larger clinical trials are undoubtedly required to validate these as-yet favourable findings.

  11. Clinical significance of T cell metabolic reprogramming in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, Christoph; Patsoukis, Nikolaos; Bardhan, Kankana; Seth, Pankaj; Weaver, Jessica D; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A

    2016-12-01

    Conversion of normal cells to cancer is accompanied with changes in their metabolism. During this conversion, cell metabolism undergoes a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, also known as Warburg effect, which is a hallmark for cancer cell metabolism. In cancer cells, glycolysis functions in parallel with the TCA cycle and other metabolic pathways to enhance biosynthetic processes and thus support proliferation and growth. Similar metabolic features are observed in T cells during activation but, in contrast to cancer, metabolic transitions in T cells are part of a physiological process. Currently, there is intense interest in understanding the cause and effect relationship between metabolic reprogramming and T cell differentiation. After the recent success of cancer immunotherapy, the crosstalk between immune system and cancer has come to the forefront of clinical and basic research. One of the key goals is to delineate how metabolic alterations of cancer influence metabolism-regulated function and differentiation of tumor resident T cells and how such effects might be altered by immunotherapy. Here, we review the unique metabolic features of cancer, the implications of cancer metabolism on T cell metabolic reprogramming during antigen encounters, and the translational prospective of harnessing metabolism in cancer and T cells for cancer therapy. PMID:27510264

  12. Multiple actions of lysophosphatidylcholine in human Jurkat T cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young-jin IM; Yun-kyung LEE; Hae-young CHUNG; Dong-soon IM

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To obtain pathophysiological meanings of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) through the investigation of the effects of LPC in Jurkat T cells . Methods: We measured ROS generation, [Ca2+]i, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by fluorescent spectrometry in Jurkat T cells. Results: We observed that LPC significantly increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in human Jurkat T cells. Among structurally-related lysolipids and eleven synthetic LPCs with different acyl chain lengths, palmitoyl LPC increased ROS to the highest level, α-Tocopherol, an antioxidant, and rottlerin PKCδinhibitor were inhibitory effects on LPC-induced ROS generation. LPC rapidly depolarized MMP and markedly elevated [Ca2+]i by Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane. However, LPC-induced ROS increase seemed to not be related with LPC-induced depolarization of MMP or [Ca2+]i increase. G2A family G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) for lysolipids were expressed in Jurkat T cells, however, evidence indicated that GPCR was not involved in LPC actions. Conclusion: LPC induced several cellular changes in Jurkat T cells, including an increase of ROS generation in a PKC8-dependent and GPCR-independent manner, increase of [Ca2+]i through Ca2+ influx, and decrease of MMP. LPC-induced actions in Jurkat T cells represent novel action modes of LPC that do not involve GPCR and multiple independent changes of intracellular signaling molecules.

  13. T cell behavior at the maternal-fetal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy, Patrice; Erlebacher, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the function of T cells at the maternal-fetal interface remains one of the most difficult problems in reproductive immunology. A great deal of work over the last two decades has led to the view that the T cells that populate the decidua have important roles in both normal and pathological pregnancies, but the exact nature of these roles has remained unclear. Indeed, the old assumption that decidual T cells are uniformly threatening to fetal survival because the placenta is fundamentally an 'allograft' has given way to the idea that different T cell subsets contribute in different ways to pregnancy success or failure. Accordingly, some T cells are thought to protect the placenta from immune rejection and facilitate embryo implantation, while others are thought to contribute to pregnancy pathologies such as preeclampsia and spontaneous abortion. Here, we review the current state of information on the behavior of decidual T cells with a focus on both mouse and human studies, and with an emphasis on the many unresolved areas within this overall emerging framework. PMID:25023685

  14. T cell-dependence of Lassa fever pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Flatz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lassa virus (LASV, the causative agent of Lassa fever (LF, is endemic in West Africa, accounting for substantial morbidity and mortality. In spite of ongoing research efforts, LF pathogenesis and mechanisms of LASV immune control remain poorly understood. While normal laboratory mice are resistant to LASV, we report that mice expressing humanized instead of murine MHC class I (MHC-I failed to control LASV infection and develop severe LF. Infection of MHC-I knockout mice confirmed a key role for MHC-I-restricted T cell responses in controlling LASV. Intriguingly we found that T cell depletion in LASV-infected HHD mice prevented disease, irrespective of high-level viremia. Widespread activation of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells, manifest through inducible NO synthase expression, and elevated IL-12p40 serum levels indicated a systemic inflammatory condition. The absence of extensive monocyte/macrophage activation in T cell-depleted mice suggested that T cell responses contribute to deleterious innate inflammatory reactions and LF pathogenesis. Our observations in mice indicate a dual role for T cells, not only protecting from LASV, but also enhancing LF pathogenesis. The possibility of T cell-driven enhancement and immunopathogenesis should be given consideration in future LF vaccine development.

  15. T cell-dependence of Lassa fever pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatz, Lukas; Rieger, Toni; Merkler, Doron; Bergthaler, Andreas; Regen, Tommy; Schedensack, Mariann; Bestmann, Lukas; Verschoor, Admar; Kreutzfeldt, Mario; Brück, Wolfgang; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Günther, Stephan; Pinschewer, Daniel D

    2010-03-01

    Lassa virus (LASV), the causative agent of Lassa fever (LF), is endemic in West Africa, accounting for substantial morbidity and mortality. In spite of ongoing research efforts, LF pathogenesis and mechanisms of LASV immune control remain poorly understood. While normal laboratory mice are resistant to LASV, we report that mice expressing humanized instead of murine MHC class I (MHC-I) failed to control LASV infection and develop severe LF. Infection of MHC-I knockout mice confirmed a key role for MHC-I-restricted T cell responses in controlling LASV. Intriguingly we found that T cell depletion in LASV-infected HHD mice prevented disease, irrespective of high-level viremia. Widespread activation of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells, manifest through inducible NO synthase expression, and elevated IL-12p40 serum levels indicated a systemic inflammatory condition. The absence of extensive monocyte/macrophage activation in T cell-depleted mice suggested that T cell responses contribute to deleterious innate inflammatory reactions and LF pathogenesis. Our observations in mice indicate a dual role for T cells, not only protecting from LASV, but also enhancing LF pathogenesis. The possibility of T cell-driven enhancement and immunopathogenesis should be given consideration in future LF vaccine development. PMID:20360949

  16. T Cell-Dependence of Lassa Fever Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergthaler, Andreas; Regen, Tommy; Schedensack, Mariann; Bestmann, Lukas; Verschoor, Admar; Kreutzfeldt, Mario; Brück, Wolfgang; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Günther, Stephan; Pinschewer, Daniel D.

    2010-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV), the causative agent of Lassa fever (LF), is endemic in West Africa, accounting for substantial morbidity and mortality. In spite of ongoing research efforts, LF pathogenesis and mechanisms of LASV immune control remain poorly understood. While normal laboratory mice are resistant to LASV, we report that mice expressing humanized instead of murine MHC class I (MHC-I) failed to control LASV infection and develop severe LF. Infection of MHC-I knockout mice confirmed a key role for MHC-I-restricted T cell responses in controlling LASV. Intriguingly we found that T cell depletion in LASV-infected HHD mice prevented disease, irrespective of high-level viremia. Widespread activation of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells, manifest through inducible NO synthase expression, and elevated IL-12p40 serum levels indicated a systemic inflammatory condition. The absence of extensive monocyte/macrophage activation in T cell-depleted mice suggested that T cell responses contribute to deleterious innate inflammatory reactions and LF pathogenesis. Our observations in mice indicate a dual role for T cells, not only protecting from LASV, but also enhancing LF pathogenesis. The possibility of T cell-driven enhancement and immunopathogenesis should be given consideration in future LF vaccine development. PMID:20360949

  17. Targeting memory T cells in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Mario R; Rigby, Mark R

    2015-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease that leads to progressive destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Compared to healthy controls, a characteristic feature of patients with T1D is the presence of self-reactive T cells with a memory phenotype. These autoreactive memory T cells in both the CD4(+) and CD8(+) compartments are likely to be long-lived, strongly responsive to antigenic stimulation with less dependence on costimulation for activation and clonal expansion, and comparatively resistant to suppression by regulatory T cells (Tregs) or downregulation by immune-modulating agents. Persistence of autoreactive memory T cells likely contributes to the difficulty in preventing disease progression in new-onset T1D and maintaining allogeneic islet transplants by regular immunosuppressive regimens. The majority of immune interventions that have demonstrated some success in preserving beta cell function in the new-onset period have been shown to deplete or modulate memory T cells. Based on these and other considerations, preservation of residual beta cells early after diagnosis or restoration of beta cell mass by use of stem cell or transplantation technology will require a successful strategy to control the autoreactive memory T cell compartment, which could include depletion, inhibition of homeostatic cytokines, induction of hyporesponsiveness, or a combination of these approaches. PMID:26370695

  18. CTLA-4 promotes Foxp3 induction and regulatory T cell accumulation in the intestinal lamina propria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M J; Griseri, T; Johnson, A M F; Young, W; Powrie, F; Izcue, A

    2013-03-01

    Thymic induction of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells relies on CD28 costimulation and high-affinity T-cell receptor (TCR) signals, whereas Foxp3 (forkhead box P3) induction on activated peripheral CD4(+) T cells is inhibited by these signals. Accordingly, the inhibitory molecule CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4) promoted, but was not essential for CD4(+) T-cell Foxp3 induction in vitro. We show that CTLA-4-deficient cells are equivalent to wild-type cells in the thymic induction of Foxp3 and maintenance of Foxp3 populations in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes, but their accumulation in the colon, where Treg cells specific for commensal bacteria accumulate, is impaired. In a T cell-transfer model of colitis, the two known CTLA-4 ligands, B7-1 and B7-2, had largely redundant roles in inducing inflammation and promoting Treg cell function. However, B7-2 proved more efficient than B7-1 in inducing Foxp3 in vitro and in vivo. Our data reveal an unappreciated role for CTLA-4 in establishing the Foxp3(+) compartment in the intestine. PMID:22910217

  19. HLA-DQ molecules as affinity matrix for identification of gluten T cell epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dørum, Siri; Bodd, Michael; Fallang, Lars-Egil; Bergseng, Elin; Christophersen, Asbjørn; Johannesen, Marie K; Qiao, Shuo-Wang; Stamnaes, Jorunn; de Souza, Gustavo A; Sollid, Ludvig M

    2014-11-01

    Even though MHC class II is a dominant susceptibility factor for many diseases, culprit T cell epitopes presented by disease-associated MHC molecules remain largely elusive. T cells of celiac disease lesions recognize cereal gluten epitopes presented by the disease-associated HLA molecules DQ2.5, DQ2.2, or DQ8. Employing celiac disease and complex gluten Ag digests as a model, we tested the feasibility of using DQ2.5 and DQ2.2 as an affinity matrix for identification of disease-relevant T cell epitopes. Known gluten T cell epitope peptides were enriched by DQ2.5, whereas a different set of peptides was enriched by DQ2.2. Of 86 DQ2.2-enriched peptides, four core sequences dominated. One of these core sequences is a previously known epitope and two others are novel epitopes. The study provides insight into the selection of gluten epitopes by DQ2.2. Furthermore, the approach presented is relevant for epitope identification in other MHC class II-associated disorders. PMID:25261484

  20. Tumor-associated neutrophils stimulate T cell responses in early-stage human lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eruslanov, Evgeniy B.; Bhojnagarwala, Pratik S.; Quatromoni, Jon G.; Stephen, Tom Li; Ranganathan, Anjana; Deshpande, Charuhas; Akimova, Tatiana; Vachani, Anil; Litzky, Leslie; Hancock, Wayne W.; Conejo-Garcia, José R.; Feldman, Michael; Albelda, Steven M.; Singhal, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Infiltrating inflammatory cells are highly prevalent within the tumor microenvironment and mediate many processes associated with tumor progression; however, the contribution of specific populations remains unclear. For example, the nature and function of tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) in the cancer microenvironment is largely unknown. The goal of this study was to provide a phenotypic and functional characterization of TANs in surgically resected lung cancer patients. We found that TANs constituted 5%–25% of cells isolated from the digested human lung tumors. Compared with blood neutrophils, TANs displayed an activated phenotype (CD62LloCD54hi) with a distinct repertoire of chemokine receptors that included CCR5, CCR7, CXCR3, and CXCR4. TANs produced substantial quantities of the proinflammatory factors MCP-1, IL-8, MIP-1α, and IL-6, as well as the antiinflammatory IL-1R antagonist. Functionally, both TANs and neutrophils isolated from distant nonmalignant lung tissue were able to stimulate T cell proliferation and IFN-γ release. Cross-talk between TANs and activated T cells led to substantial upregulation of CD54, CD86, OX40L, and 4-1BBL costimulatory molecules on the neutrophil surface, which bolstered T cell proliferation in a positive-feedback loop. Together our results demonstrate that in the earliest stages of lung cancer, TANs are not immunosuppressive, but rather stimulate T cell responses. PMID:25384214

  1. Role of denileukin diftitox in the treatment of persistent or recurrent cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Lansigan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Frederick Lansigan1, Diane M Stearns1, Francine Foss21Hematology/Oncology, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, USA; 2Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USAAbstract: Denileukin diftitox (Ontak® is indicated for the treatment of patients with persistent or recurrent cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL, a rare lymphoproliferative disorder of the skin. Denileukin diftitox was the first fusion protein toxin approved for the treatment of a human disease. This fusion protein toxin combines the IL2 protein with diphtheria toxin, and targets the CD25 subunit of the IL2 receptor, resulting in the unique delivery of a cytocidal agent to CD-25 bearing T-cells. Historically, immunotherapy targeting malignant T-cells including monoclonal antibodies has been largely ineffective as cytocidal agents compared to immunotherapy directed against B-cells such as rituximab. This review will summarize the development of denileukin diftitox, its proposed mechanism of action, the pivotal clinical trials that led to its FDA approval, the improvements in quality of life, and the common toxicities experienced during the treatment of patients with CTCL. CTCL is often a chronic progressive lymphoma requiring the sequential use of treatments such as retinoids, traditional chemotherapy, or biological response modifiers. The incorporation of the immunotoxin denileukin diftitox into the sequential or combinatorial treatment of CTCL will also be addressed.Keywords: denileukin diftitox, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, fusion protein toxin

  2. Neuropilin-1 expression is induced on tolerant self-reactive CD8+ T cells but is dispensable for the tolerant phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie R Jackson

    Full Text Available Establishing peripheral CD8(+ T cell tolerance is vital to avoid immune mediated destruction of healthy self-tissues. However, it also poses a major impediment to tumor immunity since tumors are derived from self-tissue and often induce T cell tolerance and dysfunction. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that regulate T cell tolerance versus immunity has important implications for human health. Signals received from the tissue environment largely dictate whether responding T cells become activated or tolerant. For example, induced expression and subsequent ligation of negative regulatory receptors on the surface of self-reactive CD8(+ T cells are integral in the induction of tolerance. We utilized a murine model of T cell tolerance to more completely define the molecules involved in this process. We discovered that, in addition to other known regulatory receptors, tolerant self-reactive CD8(+ T cells distinctly expressed the surface receptor neuropilin-1 (Nrp1. Nrp1 was highly induced in response to self-antigen, but only modestly when the same antigen was encountered under immune conditions, suggesting a possible mechanistic link to T cell tolerance. We also observed a similar Nrp1 expression profile on human tumor infiltrating CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells. Despite high expression on tolerant CD8(+ T cells, our studies revealed that Nrp1 had no detectable role in the tolerant phenotype. Specifically, Nrp1-deficient T cells displayed the same functional defects as wild-type self-reactive T cells, lacking in vivo cytolytic potential, IFNγ production, and antitumor responses. While reporting mostly negative data, our findings have therapeutic implications, as Nrp1 is now being targeted for human cancer therapy in clinical trials, but the precise molecular pathways and immune cells being engaged during treatment remain incompletely defined.

  3. Isolation and partial characterization of peripheral blood CD4+ T cell clones expressing γδT cell receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare T cell clones bearing both CD4 and T cell receptors (TCRγ and TCRδ) were obtained from human peripheral blood by cell sorting using anti-CD4 and anti-TCRδ1 antibodies. All the clones established were reactive with anti-TCRγδ1 antibody, whereas only about 20 % of the clones showed reactivity with anti-δTCS1 antibody. Unlike CD4+ T cells bearing TCRαβ, all the clones tested were lectin-dependent and showed CD3 antibody-redirected cytolytic activity. About 60 % exhibited natural killer cell-like activity. Immunoprecipitation analysis of TCRγδ showed that each clone expressed either a disulfide-linked or nondisulfide-linked heterodimer consisting of 37-44 kilodalton TCRγ and TCRδ chains. Southern blot analyses of TCRγ and TCRδ genes revealed some identical rearrangement patterns, suggesting the limited heterogeneity of CD4+TCRγδ+ T cells in peripheral blood. (author)

  4. High proportions of CD4⁺ T cells among residual bone marrow T cells in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia are associated with favorable early responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustfeld, Imke; Altvater, Bianca; Ahlmann, Martina; Ligges, Sandra; Brinkrolf, Peter; Rosemann, Annegret; Moericke, Anja; Rossig, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Residual nonmalignant T cells in the bone marrow of patients with acute leukemias may be involved in active immune responses to leukemic cells. Here, we investigated the phenotypic signature of T cells present at diagnosis in 39 pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated within standardized ALL-BFM study protocols. Previously described age associations of lymphocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood of healthy children were reproduced in leukemic bone marrow. Analysis of individual lymphocyte parameters and risk-associated variables using univariate linear regression models revealed a correlation of higher CD4/CD8 ratios at diagnosis with a favorable bone marrow response on day 15. Separate analysis of CD4⁺ cells with the CD4⁺CD25(hi)FoxP3⁺ T(reg) cell phenotype showed that the association was caused by non-T(reg) CD4⁺ cells. The association of higher CD4/CD8 ratios with a favorable bone marrow response on day 15 of treatment persisted in a cohort extended to 69 patients. We conclude that CD4⁺ non-T(reg) cells in leukemic bone marrow at diagnosis may have a role in early response to treatment. Prospective analysis of the CD4/CD8 ratio in a large cohort of pediatric patients is now needed. Moreover, future experiments will establish the functional role of the individual T cell subsets in immune control in pediatric ALL. PMID:24021585

  5. Antileukemic T-cell Responses Can Be Predicted by the Composition of Specific Regulatory T-cell Subpopulations

    OpenAIRE

    Schick, Julia; Vogt, Valentin; Zerwes, Marion; Kröll, Tanja; Kraemer, Doris; Koehne, Claus-Henning; Hausmann, Andreas; Buhmann, Raymund; Tischer, Johanna; Schmetzer, Helga

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (T-reg) are important regulators of immune responses. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients before/after immunotherapy (stem cell transplantation or donor lymphocyte infusion), their suppressive role can contribute to suppress severe graft-versus-host reactions, but also to impair antileukemic reactions. As leukemia-derived dendritic cells (DCleu) are known to improve the antileukemic functionality of T cells, we evaluated the composition and development of distinct T-re...

  6. Positive and negative selection of T cells in T-cell receptor transgenic mice expressing a bcl-2 transgene.

    OpenAIRE

    Strasser, A.; Harris, A W; von Boehmer, H; Cory, S

    1994-01-01

    To explore the role of bcl-2 in T-cell development, a bcl-2 transgene was introduced into mice expressing a T-cell receptor (TCR) transgene encoding reactivity for the mouse male antigen HY presented by the H-2Db class I antigen of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Normal thymic development is contingent on the ability of immature thymocytes to interact with self-MHC molecules presented by thymic stroma (positive selection). Thus, thymocyte numbers are low in femal...

  7. Transient T cell depletion causes regression of melanoma metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lear Sheron C

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognate immunity against neoplastic cells depends on a balance between effector T cells and regulatory T (Treg cells. Treg cells prevent immune attack against normal and neoplastic cells by directly suppressing the activation of effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We postulated that a recombinant interleukin 2/diphtheria toxin conjugate (DAB/IL2; Denileukin Diftitox; Ontak may serve as a useful strategy to deplete Treg cells and break tolerance against neoplastic tumors in humans. Methods We administered DAB/IL2 (12 μg/kg; four daily doses; 21 day cycles to 16 patients with metastatic melanoma and measured the effects on the peripheral blood concentration of several T cell subsets and on tumor burden. Results We found that DAB/IL2 caused a transient depletion of Treg cells as well as total CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (de novo appearance of melanoma antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in several patients as determined by flow cytometry using tetrameric MART-1, tyrosinase and gp100 peptide/MHC conjugates. Sixteen patients received at least one cycle of DAB/IL2 and five of these patients experienced regressions of melanoma metastases as measured by CT and/or PET imaging. One patient experienced a near complete response with the regression of several hepatic and pulmonary metastases coupled to the de novo appearance of MART-1-specific CD8+ T cells. A single metastatic tumor remained in this patient and, after surgical resection, immunohistochemical analysis revealed MART1+ melanoma cells surrounded by CD8+ T cells. Conclusion Taken together, these data indicate that transient depletion of T cells in cancer patients may disrupt the homeostatic control of cognate immunity and allow for the expansion of effector T cells with specificity against neoplastic cells. Several T cell depleting agents are clinically available and this study provides strong rationale for an examination of their efficacy in cancer patients. Trial registration NCT00299689

  8. Primary vaccination with low dose live dengue 1 virus generates a proinflammatory, multifunctional T cell response in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet C Lindow

    Full Text Available The four dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1-DENV-4 have a large impact on global health, causing 50-100 million cases of dengue fever annually. Herein, we describe the first kinetic T cell response to a low-dose DENV-1 vaccination study (10 PFU in humans. Using flow cytometry, we found that proinflammatory cytokines, IFNγ, TNFα, and IL-2, were generated by DENV-1-specific CD4(+ cells 21 days post-DENV-1 exposure, and their production continued through the latest time-point, day 42 (p<0.0001 for all cytokines. No statistically significant changes were observed at any time-points for IL-10 (p = 0.19, a regulatory cytokine, indicating that the response to DENV-1 was primarily proinflammatory in nature. We also observed little T cell cross-reactivity to the other 3 DENV serotypes. The percentage of multifunctional T cells (T cells making ≥ 2 cytokines simultaneously increased with time post-DENV-1 exposure (p<0.0001. The presence of multifunctional T cells together with neutralizing antibody data suggest that the immune response generated to the vaccine may be protective. This work provides an initial framework for defining primary T cell responses to each DENV serotype and will enhance the evaluation of a tetravalent DENV vaccine.

  9. The phosphoproteome of human Jurkat T cell clones upon costimulation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien Dung; Carrascal, Montserrat; Vidal-Cortes, Oriol; Gallardo, Oscar; Casas, Vanessa; Gay, Marina; Phan, Van Chi; Abian, Joaquin

    2016-01-10

    Phosphorylation is a reversible post-translational modification, playing a vital role in protein function. In T cells, protein phosphorylation is the key mechanism regulating T cell receptor-driven signaling pathways. In order to gain insights into the phosphoproteome evolution of T cell activation, we performed a large-scale quantitative phosphoproteomics study of Jurkat E6.1 (wild type) and Jurkat gamma1 (Phospholipase gamma1 null) cell clones upon costimulation with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies at times ranging from 15min to as long as 120min. In total, we identified 5585 phosphopeptides belonging to 2008 phosphoproteins from both cell clones. We detected 130 and 114 novel phosphopeptides in Jurkat E6.1 and Jurkat gamma1 clones, respectively. A significantly lower number of proteins containing regulated phosphorylation sites were identified in Jurkat gamma1 in comparison to Jurkat E6.1, reflecting the vital role of Phospholipase gamma1 in T cell signaling. Several new phosphorylation sites from lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) were identified. Of these, serine-121 showed significant changes in JE6.1 while only small changes in the Jgamma1 clone. Our data may contribute to the current human T cell phosphoproteome and provide a better understanding on T cell receptor signaling. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002871. PMID:26546556

  10. Indolent small intestinal CD4+ T-cell lymphoma is a distinct entity with unique biologic and clinical features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Margolskee

    Full Text Available Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphomas (EATL are rare and generally aggressive types of peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Rare cases of primary, small intestinal CD4+ T-cell lymphomas with indolent behavior have been described, but are not well characterized. We describe morphologic, phenotypic, genomic and clinical features of 3 cases of indolent primary small intestinal CD4+ T-cell lymphomas. All patients presented with diarrhea and weight loss and were diagnosed with celiac disease refractory to a gluten free diet at referring institutions. Small intestinal biopsies showed crypt hyperplasia, villous atrophy and a dense lamina propria infiltrate of small-sized CD4+ T-cells often with CD7 downregulation or loss. Gastric and colonic involvement was also detected (n = 2 each. Persistent, clonal TCRβ gene rearrangement products were detected at multiple sites. SNP array analysis showed relative genomic stability, early in disease course, and non-recurrent genetic abnormalities, but complex changes were seen at disease transformation (n = 1. Two patients are alive with persistent disease (4.6 and 2.5 years post-diagnosis, despite immunomodulatory therapy; one died due to bowel perforation related to large cell transformation 11 years post-diagnosis. Unique pathobiologic features warrant designation of indolent small intestinal CD4+ T-cell lymphoma as a distinct entity, greater awareness of which would avoid misdiagnosis as EATL or an inflammatory disorder, especially celiac disease.

  11. MUC1 (CD227) interacts with lck tyrosine kinase in Jurkat lymphoma cells and normal T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, P; Tinder, T L; Basu, G D; Gendler, S J

    2005-01-01

    MUC1 (CD227) is a large transmembrane epithelial mucin glycoprotein, which is aberrantly overexpressed in most adenocarcinomas and is a target for immune therapy for epithelial tumors. Recently, MUC1 has been detected in a variety of hematopoietic cell malignancies including T and B cell lymphomas and myelomas; however, its function in these cells is not clearly defined. Using the Jurkat T cell lymphoma cell line and normal human T cells, we demonstrate that MUC1 is not only expressed in these cells but is also phosphorylated upon T cell receptor (TCR) ligation and associates with the Src-related T cell tyrosine kinase, p56lck. Upon TCR-mediated activation of Jurkat cells, MUC1 is found in the low-density membrane fractions, where linker of T cell activation is contained. Abrogation of MUC1 expression in Jurkat cells by MUC1-specific small interfering RNA resulted in defects in TCR-mediated downstream signaling events associated with T cell activation. These include reduction in Ca2+ influx and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation, leading to a decrease in CD69 expression, proliferation, and interleukin-2 production. These results suggest a regulatory role of MUC1 in modulating proximal signal transduction events through its interaction with proteins of the activation complex. PMID:15513966

  12. Regulatory T cell suppressive potency dictates the balance between bacterial proliferation and clearance during persistent Salmonella infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanner M Johanns

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of persistent infection is dictated by the balance between opposing immune activation and suppression signals. Herein, virulent Salmonella was used to explore the role and potential importance of Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells in dictating the natural progression of persistent bacterial infection. Two distinct phases of persistent Salmonella infection are identified. In the first 3-4 weeks after infection, progressively increasing bacterial burden was associated with delayed effector T cell activation. Reciprocally, at later time points after infection, reductions in bacterial burden were associated with robust effector T cell activation. Using Foxp3(GFP reporter mice for ex vivo isolation of regulatory T cells, we demonstrate that the dichotomy in infection tempo between early and late time points is directly paralleled by drastic changes in Foxp3(+ Treg suppressive potency. In complementary experiments using Foxp3(DTR mice, the significance of these shifts in Treg suppressive potency on infection outcome was verified by enumerating the relative impacts of regulatory T cell ablation on bacterial burden and effector T cell activation at early and late time points during persistent Salmonella infection. Moreover, Treg expression of CTLA-4 directly paralleled changes in suppressive potency, and the relative effects of Treg ablation could be largely recapitulated by CTLA-4 in vivo blockade. Together, these results demonstrate that dynamic regulation of Treg suppressive potency dictates the course of persistent bacterial infection.

  13. Activated human CD4 T cells express transporters for both cysteine and cystine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levring, Trine Bøegh; Hansen, Ann Kathrine; Nielsen, Bodil Lisbeth;

    2012-01-01

    Because naïve T cells are unable to import cystine due to the absence of cystine transporters, it has been suggested that T cell activation is dependent on cysteine generated by antigen presenting cells. The aim of this study was to determine at which phases during T cell activation exogenous...... cystine/cysteine is required and how T cells meet this requirement. We found that early activation of T cells is independent of exogenous cystine/cysteine, whereas T cell proliferation is strictly dependent of uptake of exogenous cystine/cysteine. Naïve T cells express no or very low levels of both...... cystine and cysteine transporters. However, we found that these transporters become strongly up-regulated during T cell activation and provide activated T cells with the required amount of cystine/cysteine needed for T cell proliferation. Thus, T cells are equipped with mechanisms that allow T cell...

  14. Spontaneous and vaccine induced AFP-specific T cell phenotypes in subjects with AFP-positive hepatocellular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Lisa H; Ribas, Antoni; Potter, Douglas M; Economou, James S

    2007-12-01

    We are investigating the use of Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP) as a tumor rejection antigen for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We recently completed vaccination of 10 AFP+/HLA-A2.1+ HCC subjects with AFP peptide-pulsed autologous dendritic cells (DC). There were increased frequencies of circulating AFP-specific T cells and of IFNgamma-producing AFP-specific T cells after vaccination. In order to better understand the lack of association between immune response and clinical response, we have examined additional aspects of the AFP immune response in patients. Here, we have characterized the cell surface phenotype of circulating AFP tetramer-positive CD8 T cells and assessed AFP-specific CD4 function. Before vaccination, HCC subjects had increased frequencies of circulating AFP-specific CD8 T cells with a range of naïve, effector, central and effector memory phenotypes. Several patients had up-regulated activation markers. A subset of patients was assessed for phenotypic changes pre- and post-vaccination, and evidence for complete differentiation to effector or memory phenotype was lacking. CD8 phenotypic and cytokine responses did not correlate with level of patient serum AFP antigen (between 74 and 463,040 ng/ml). Assessment of CD4+ T cell responses by ELISPOT and multi-cytokine assay did not identify any spontaneous CD4 T cell responses to this secreted protein. These data indicate that there is an expanded pool of partially differentiated AFP-specific CD8 T cells in many of these HCC subjects, but that these cells are largely non-functional, and that a detectable CD4 T cell response to this secreted oncofetal antigen is lacking. PMID:17522860

  15. Nod2 Activates NF-kB in CD4+ T Cells but Its Expression Is Dispensable for T Cell-Induced Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Galliano; Goethel, Ashleigh; Forster, Katharina; Geddes, Kaoru; Philpott, Dana J.; Croitoru, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Although the etiology of Crohn's disease (CD) remains elusive this disease is characterized by T cell activation that leads to chronic inflammation and mucosal damage. A potential role for maladaptation between the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune response is suggested by the fact that mutations in the pattern recognition receptor Nod2 are associated with higher risks for developing CD. Although Nod2 deletion in CD4+ T cells has been shown to impair the induction of colitis in the murine T cell transfer model, the analysis of T cell intrinsic Nod2 function in T cell differentiation and T cell-mediated immunity is inconsistent between several studies. In addition, the role of T cell intrinsic Nod2 in regulatory T cell (Treg) development and function during colitis remain to be analyzed. In this study, we show that Nod2 expression is higher in activated/memory CD4+ T cells and its expression was inducible after T cell receptor (TCR) ligation. Nod2 stimulation with muramyl dipeptide (MDP) led to a nuclear accumulation of c-Rel NF-kB subunit. Although functionally active in CD4+ T cells, the deletion of Nod2 did not impair the induction and the prevention of colitis in the T cell transfer model. Moreover, Nod2 deletion did not affect the development of Foxp3+ Treg cells in the spleen of recipient mice and Nod2 deficient CD4 T cells expressing the OVA specific transgenic TCR were able to differentiate in Foxp3+ Treg cells after OVA feeding. In vitro, CD25+ Nod2 deficient T cells suppressed T cell proliferation as well as wild type counter parts and T cell stimulation with MDP did not affect the proliferation and the cytokine secretion of T cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that Nod2 is functional in murine CD4+ T cells but its expression is dispensable for the T cell regulation of colitis. PMID:24324812

  16. Transcriptional regulation by Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 during T cell activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parrilla Pascual

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating evidence suggests an important role for the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 as an integral part of the gene expression regulatory machinery during development and in response to specific cellular signals. PARP-1 might modulate gene expression through its catalytic activity leading to poly(ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins or by its physical association with relevant proteins. Recently, we have shown that PARP-1 is activated during T cell activation. However, the proposed role of PARP-1 in reprogramming T cell gene expression upon activation remains largely unexplored. Results In the present study we use oligonucleotide microarray analysis to gain more insight into the role played by PARP-1 during the gene expression reprogramming that takes place in T cells upon activation with anti-CD3 stimulation alone, or in combination with anti-CD28 co-stimulation. We have identified several groups of genes with expression modulated by PARP-1. The expression of 129 early-response genes to anti-CD3 seems to be regulated by PARP-1 either in a positive (45 genes or in a negative manner (84 genes. Likewise, in the presence of co-stimulation (anti-CD3 + anti-CD28 stimulation, the expression of 203 genes is also regulated by PARP-1 either up (173 genes or down (30 genes. Interestingly, PARP-1 deficiency significantly alters expression of genes associated with the immune response such as chemokines and genes involved in the Th1/Th2 balance. Conclusion This study provides new insights into changes in gene expression mediated by PARP-1 upon T cell activation. Pathway analysis of PARP-1 as a nuclear signalling molecule in T cells would be of relevance for the future development of new therapeutic approaches targeting PARP-1 in the acquired immune response.

  17. Natural killer cells promote early CD8 T cell responses against cytomegalovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott H Robbins

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that help promote protective immune responses to pathogens is a major challenge in biomedical research and an important goal for the design of innovative therapeutic or vaccination strategies. While natural killer (NK cells can directly contribute to the control of viral replication, whether, and how, they may help orchestrate global antiviral defense is largely unknown. To address this question, we took advantage of the well-defined molecular interactions involved in the recognition of mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV by NK cells. By using congenic or mutant mice and wild-type versus genetically engineered viruses, we examined the consequences on antiviral CD8 T cell responses of specific defects in the ability of the NK cells to control MCMV. This system allowed us to demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, that NK cells accelerate CD8 T cell responses against a viral infection in vivo. Moreover, we identify the underlying mechanism as the ability of NK cells to limit IFN-alpha/beta production to levels not immunosuppressive to the host. This is achieved through the early control of cytomegalovirus, which dramatically reduces the activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs for cytokine production, preserves the conventional dendritic cell (cDC compartment, and accelerates antiviral CD8 T cell responses. Conversely, exogenous IFN-alpha administration in resistant animals ablates cDCs and delays CD8 T cell activation in the face of NK cell control of viral replication. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the ability of NK cells to respond very early to cytomegalovirus infection critically contributes to balance the intensity of other innate immune responses, which dampens early immunopathology and promotes optimal initiation of antiviral CD8 T cell responses. Thus, the extent to which NK cell responses benefit the host goes beyond their direct antiviral effects and extends to the prevention of innate

  18. Problems of primary T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland -A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Junkichi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the following report we discuss a very rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 70-year-old woman with a past history of hypothyroidism due to chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaint was a rapidly growing neck mass. CT and ultrasonographic examination revealed a diffuse large thyroid gland without a nodule extending up to 13 cm. Although presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood was not found, the sIL-2 Receptor antibody and thyroglobulin measured as high as 970 U/ml and 600 ng/mL respectively. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosed chronic thyroiditis. A preoperative diagnosis of suspicious malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland accompanied by Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was made, and a right hemithyroidectomy was performed to definite diagnosis. Histological examination revealed diffuse small lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the small lymphocytes were positive for T-cell markers with CD3 and CD45RO. The pathological diagnosis was chronic thyroiditis with atypical lymphocytes infiltration. However, Southern blot analysis of tumor specimens revealed only a monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. Finally, peripheral T cell lymphoma was diagnosed. Therefore, the left hemithyroidectomy was also performed one month later. No adjuvant therapy was performed due to the tumor stage and its subtype. The patient is well with no recurrence or metastasis 22 months after the surgical removal of the thyroid. As malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was difficult to diagnose, gene rearrangement examination needed to be performed concurrently.

  19. Intrasinusoidal cytotoxic CD8+ T cells in nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziol, Marianne; Poirel, Helene; Kountchou, Gisele N; Boyer, Olivier; Mohand, Djamila; Mouthon, Luc; Tepper, Maryline; Guillet, Jean-Gerard; Guettier, Catherine; Raphael, Martine; Beaugrand, Michel

    2004-10-01

    Diffuse nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) of the liver is an acquired architectural disturbance that can lead to portal hypertension. Although frequently associated with autoimmune or hematologic malignancies, its exact pathogenesis remains largely unknown. We observed CD8+ cytotoxic T cells in the liver sinusoids of 14 of 44 NRH patients and explored possible relationships between these lymphocytes and vascular damage. The immunophenotype of intrahepatic lymphocytes was determined using immunohistochemical analysis and endothelial injury using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling method for apoptosis combined with endothelial cell labeling. Controls for the quantitative analysis of liver-infiltrating lymphocytes consisted of patients with chronic hepatitis C or normal liver (n = 13 and n = 6, respectively). Liver specimens from the 14 patients dislayed intrasinusoidal infiltrate composed of CD3+ and CD8+ lymphocytes, located near atrophic liver cell plates. Significantly more granzyme B+ and CD57+ lymphocytes were observed in NRH than chronic hepatitis C samples with quantitatively similar CD8+ infiltrates. Double-labeling revealed apoptotic endothelial sinusoidal cells in CD8+ T-cell-infiltrated areas in all NRH samples but never in chronic hepatitis C or normal livers. T-cell receptor rearrangement or immunoscope analysis suggested liver-specific polyclonal or oligoclonal T-cell expansions. Clinical and biological characteristics of the 14 patients were similar to those observed in the 30 patients with NRH devoid of lymphocytic infiltration. We report here that CD8+ cytotoxic T cells infiltrated the liver sinusoids of a high percentage (32%) of NRH patients and suggest that some NRH cases might result from chronic, cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocyte targeting of sinusoidal endothelial cells. PMID:15492992

  20. Human T cell aging and the impact of persistent viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas eFulop

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a dysregulation of the immune response, loosely termed immunosenescence. Each part of the immune system is influenced to some extent by the aging process. However, adaptive immunity seems more extensively affected and among all participating cells it is the T cells that are most altered. There is a large body of experimental work devoted to the investigation of age-associated differences in T cell phenotypes and functions in young and old individuals, but few longitudinal studies in humans actually delineating changes at the level of the individual. In most studies, the number and proportion of late-differentiated T cells, especially CD8+ T cells, is reported to be higher in the elderly than in the young. Limited longitudinal studies suggest that accumulation of these cells is a dynamic process and does indeed represent an age-associated change. Accumulations of such late-stage cells may contribute to the enhanced systemic pro-inflammatory milieu commonly seen in older people. We do not know exactly what causes these observed changes, but an understanding of the possible causes is now beginning to emerge. A favored hypothesis is that these events are at least partly due to the effects of the maintenance of essential immune surveillance against persistent viral infections, notably Cytomegalovirus (CMV, which may exhaust the immune system over time. It is still a matter of debate as to whether these changes are compensatory and beneficial or pathological and detrimental to the proper functioning of the immune system and whether they impact longevity. Here, we will review present knowledge of T cell changes with aging and their relation to chronic viral and possibly other persistent infections.

  1. Thymic epithelial cells use macroautophagy to turn their inside out for CD4 T cell tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chunyan; Aichinger, Martin; Nedjic, Jelena; Klein, Ludger

    2013-01-01

    During development in the thymus, each T lymphocyte is equipped with one, essentially unique, T cell receptor (TCR)-specificity. Due to its random nature, this process inevitably also leads to the emergence of potentially dangerous T lymphocytes that may recognize ‘self.’ Nevertheless, autoimmune tissue destruction, the cause of diseases such as multiple sclerosis and diabetes, is the exception rather than the rule. This state of immunological self-tolerance is to a large degree based upon a ...

  2. CD4+ T cell responses in hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasser Semmo; Paul Klenerman

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver damage, with virus-induced end-stage disease such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma resulting in a high rate of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Evidence that CD4+ T cell responses to HCV play an important role in the outcome of acute infection has been shown in several studies. However, the mechanisms behind viral persistence and the failure of CD4+ T cell responses to contain virus are poorly understood. During chronic HCV infection, HCV-specific CD4+ T cell responses are relatively weak or absent whereas in resolved infection these responses are vigorous and multispecific. Persons with a T-helper type Ⅰ profile, which promotes cellular effector mechanisms are thought to be more likely to experience viral clearance, but the overall role of these cells in the immunopathogenesis of chronic liver disease is not known. To define this, much more data is required on the function and specificity of virus-specific CD4+ T cells,especially in the early phases of acute disease and in the liver during chronic infection. The role and possible mechanisms of action of CD4+ T cell responses in determining the outcome of acute and chronic HCV infection will be discussed in this review.

  3. CAR T Cell Therapy: A Game Changer in Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almåsbak, Hilde; Aarvak, Tanja; Vemuri, Mohan C

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel targeted therapies with acceptable safety profiles is critical to successful cancer outcomes with better survival rates. Immunotherapy offers promising opportunities with the potential to induce sustained remissions in patients with refractory disease. Recent dramatic clinical responses in trials with gene modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) in B-cell malignancies have generated great enthusiasm. This therapy might pave the way for a potential paradigm shift in the way we treat refractory or relapsed cancers. CARs are genetically engineered receptors that combine the specific binding domains from a tumor targeting antibody with T cell signaling domains to allow specifically targeted antibody redirected T cell activation. Despite current successes in hematological cancers, we are only in the beginning of exploring the powerful potential of CAR redirected T cells in the control and elimination of resistant, metastatic, or recurrent nonhematological cancers. This review discusses the application of the CAR T cell therapy, its challenges, and strategies for successful clinical and commercial translation. PMID:27298832

  4. Regulatory T cells subsets in filarial infection and their function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eMetenou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Filarial infections in humans are chronic infections that cause significant morbidity. The chronic nature of these infections with continuous antigen release is associated with a parasite-specific T cell hypo-responsiveness that may over time also affect the immune responses to bystander antigens. Previous studies have shown the filarial parasite antigen-specific T cells hypo-responsiveness is mediated by regulatory cytokines -- IL-10 and TGF-β in particular. Recent studies have suggested that the modulated/regulated T cell responses associated with patent filarial infection may reflect an expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs that include both Tregs induced in peripheral circulation or pTregs and the thymus-derived Tregs or tTregs. Although much is known about the phenotype of these regulatory populations, the mechanisms underlying their expansion and their mode of action in filarial and other infections remain unclear. Nevertheless there are data to suggest that while many of these regulatory cells are activated in an antigen-specific manner the ensuing effectors of this activation are relatively non-specific and may affect a broad range of immune cells. This review will focus on the subsets and function of regulatory T cells in filarial infection.

  5. Epigenetically Mediated Pathogenic Effects of Phenanthrene on Regulatory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenanthrene (Phe, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH, is a major constituent of urban air pollution. There have been conflicting results regarding the role of other AhR ligands 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD and 6-formylindolo [3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ in modifying regulatory T cell populations (Treg or T helper (Th17 differentiation, and the effects of Phe have been understudied. We hypothesized that different chemical entities of PAH induce Treg to become either Th2 or Th17 effector T cells through epigenetic modification of FOXP3. To determine specific effects on T cell populations by phenanthrene, primary human Treg were treated with Phe, TCDD, or FICZ and assessed for function, gene expression, and phenotype. Methylation of CpG sites within the FOXP3 locus reduced FOXP3 expression, leading to impaired Treg function and conversion of Treg into a CD4+CD25lo Th2 phenotype in Phe-treated cells. Conversely, TCDD treatment led to epigenetic modification of IL-17A and conversion of Treg to Th17 T cells. These findings present a mechanism by which exposure to AhR-ligands mediates human T cell responses and begins to elucidate the relationship between environmental exposures, immune modulation, and initiation of human disease.

  6. Cellular plasticity of CD4+ T cells in the intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena eBrucklacher-Waldert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Barrier sites such as the gastrointestinal tract are in constant contact with the environment which contains both beneficial and harmful components. The immune system at the epithelia must make the distinction between these components to balance tolerance, protection and immunopathology. This is achieved via multifaceted immune recognition, highly organised lymphoid structures and the interaction of many types of immune cells. The adaptive immune response in the gut is orchestrated by CD4+ helper T (Th cells which are integral to gut immunity. In recent years it has become apparent that the functional identity of these Th cells is not as fixed as initially thought. Plasticity in differentiated T cell subsets has now been firmly established, in both health and disease. The gut, in particular, utilises CD4+ T cell plasticity to mould CD4+ T cell phenotypes to maintain its finely poised balance of tolerance and inflammation and to encourage biodiversity within the enteric microbiome. In this review we will discuss intestinal helper T cell plasticity and our current understanding of its mechanisms, including our growing knowledge of an evolutionarily ancient symbiosis between microbiota and malleable CD4+ T cell effectors.

  7. Reassessing target antigens for adoptive T cell therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Christian S.; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive T cell therapy can target and kill widespread malignant cells thereby inducing durable clinical responses in melanoma and selected other malignances. However, many commonly targeted tumor antigens are also expressed by healthy tissues, and T cells do not distinguish between benign and malignant tissues if both express the target antigen. As such, autoimmune toxicity from T-cell-mediated destruction of normal tissue has limited the development and adoption of this otherwise promising type of cancer therapy. A review of the unique biology of T-cell therapy and of recent clinical experience compels a reassessment of target antigens that traditionally have been viewed from the perspective of weaker immunotherapeutic modalities. In selecting target antigens for adoptive T-cell therapy, expression by tumors and not by essential healthy tissues is of paramount importance. The risk of autoimmune adverse events can be further mitigated by generating antigen receptors using strategies that reduce the chance of cross-reactivity against epitopes in unintended targets. In general, a circumspect approach to target selection and thoughtful preclinical and clinical studies are pivotal to the ongoing advancement of these promising treatments. PMID:24142051

  8. Regulation of Memory T Cells by Interleukin-23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanchun; Wang, Hongbo; Lu, Honghua; Hua, Shucheng

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-23 (IL-23), a member of the IL-12 family of cytokines, is a heterodimeric cytokine. It is composed of subunits p40 (shared with IL-12) and p19 (an IL-12 p35-related subunit) and is secreted by several types of immune cells, such as natural killer cells and dendritic cells. The IL-23 receptor is composed of the subunit IL-12Rβ1 and the IL-23-specific subunit IL-23R. The binding of IL-23 to its specific cell surface receptor regulates a number of functions, including proliferation and differentiation of cells and secretion of cell factors. Memory T cells are a subset of T cells that secrete numerous important cell factors, and they function in the immune response to infection and diseases like cancer, autoimmune disease and bronchial asthma. IL-23R is expressed on the surface of memory T cells, which suggests that it can specifically regulate memory T cell function. IL-23 has been widely used as a clinical indicator in immune-related diseases and shows potential for use in disease treatment. Here we review the current progress in the study of the role of IL-23 in the regulation of memory T cells. PMID:27100864

  9. T Cell Transcriptomes Describe Patient Subtypes in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean J Bradley

    Full Text Available T cells regulate the adaptive immune response and have altered function in autoimmunity. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE has great diversity of presentation and treatment response. Peripheral blood component gene expression affords an efficient platform to investigate SLE immune dysfunction and help guide diagnostic biomarker development for patient stratification.Gene expression in peripheral blood T cell samples for 14 SLE patients and 4 controls was analyzed by high depth sequencing. Unbiased clustering of genes and samples revealed novel patterns related to disease etiology. Functional annotation of these genes highlights pathways and protein domains involved in SLE manifestation.We found transcripts for hundreds of genes consistently altered in SLE T cell samples, for which DAVID analysis highlights induction of pathways related to mitochondria, nucleotide metabolism and DNA replication. Fewer genes had reduced mRNA expression, and these were linked to signaling, splicing and transcriptional activity. Gene signatures associated with the presence of dsDNA antibodies, low complement levels and nephritis were detected. T cell gene expression also indicates the presence of several patient subtypes, such as having only a minimal expression phenotype, male type, or severe with or without induction of genes related to membrane protein production.Unbiased transcriptome analysis of a peripheral blood component provides insight on autoimmune pathophysiology and patient variability. We present an open source workflow and richly annotated dataset to support investigation of T cell biology, develop biomarkers for patient stratification and perhaps help indicate a source of SLE immune dysfunction.

  10. CAR T Cell Therapy: A Game Changer in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almåsbak, Hilde; Aarvak, Tanja; Vemuri, Mohan C.

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel targeted therapies with acceptable safety profiles is critical to successful cancer outcomes with better survival rates. Immunotherapy offers promising opportunities with the potential to induce sustained remissions in patients with refractory disease. Recent dramatic clinical responses in trials with gene modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) in B-cell malignancies have generated great enthusiasm. This therapy might pave the way for a potential paradigm shift in the way we treat refractory or relapsed cancers. CARs are genetically engineered receptors that combine the specific binding domains from a tumor targeting antibody with T cell signaling domains to allow specifically targeted antibody redirected T cell activation. Despite current successes in hematological cancers, we are only in the beginning of exploring the powerful potential of CAR redirected T cells in the control and elimination of resistant, metastatic, or recurrent nonhematological cancers. This review discusses the application of the CAR T cell therapy, its challenges, and strategies for successful clinical and commercial translation. PMID:27298832

  11. Regulation of Germinal Center Reactions by B and T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonseok Chung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Break of B cell tolerance to self-antigens results in the development of autoantibodies and, thus, leads to autoimmunity. How B cell tolerance is maintained during active germinal center (GC reactions is yet to be fully understood. Recent advances revealed several subsets of T cells and B cells that can positively or negatively regulate GC B cell responses in vivo. IL-21-producing CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells comprise a distinct lineage of helper T cells—termed follicular helper T cells (TFH—that can provide help for the development of GC reactions where somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation take place. Although the function of TFH cells is beneficial in generating high affinity antibodies against infectious agents, aberrant activation of TFH cell or B cell to self-antigens results in autoimmunity. At least three subsets of immune cells have been proposed as regulatory cells that can limit such antibody-mediated autoimmunity, including follicular regulatory T cells (TFR, Qa-1 restricted CD8+ regulatory T cells (CD8+TREG, and regulatory B cells (BREG. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of GC B cell regulation with specific emphasis on the newly identified immune cell subsets involved in this process.

  12. T cell reconstitution in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsen, K; Jordan, K K; Uhlving, H H;

    2015-01-01

    Infections and acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) are major causes of treatment-related mortality and morbidity following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Both complications depend on reconstitution of the T-lymphocyte population based on donor T cells. Although it...... is well established that Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a cytokine essential for de novo T cell development in the thymus and homoeostatic peripheral expansion of T cells, associations between circulating levels of IL-7 and T cell reconstitution following HSCT have not been investigated previously. We...... patients treated with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) compared with those not treated with ATG (P = 0.0079). IL-7 levels at day +7 were negatively associated with T cell counts at day +30 to +60 (at day +60: CD3(+) : β = -10.6 × 10(6) cells/l, P = 0.0030; CD8(+) : β = -8.4 × 10(6) cells/l, P = 0.061; CD4...

  13. Expression of recombination-activating genes and T cell receptor gene recombination in the human T cell leukemia cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Hong-yun; MA Li; MENG Min-jie; YAO Xin-sheng; LIN Ying; WU Zhen-qiang; HE Xiao-wei; WANG Ju-fang; WANG Xiao-ning

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that mature T cells can change their specificity through reexpression of recombination-activating genes (RAG) and RAG-mediated V(D)J recombination. This process is named receptor revision and has been observed in mature peripheral T cells from transgenic mice and human donors. However, whether the receptor revision in mature T cells is a random or orientated process remains poorly understood. Here we used the Jurkat human T cell line, which represents a mature stage of T cell development, as a model to investigate the regulation of T cell receptor (TCR) gene recombination.Methods TCR Dβ-Jβ signal joint T cell receptor excision DNA circles (sjTRECs) were determined by nested and seminested PCR. Double-strand DNA breaks at recombination signal sequences (RSSs) in the TCRVβ chain locus were detected by ligation-mediated-PCR. Further analysis of the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) size of the TCRVβ chain was examined by the TCR GeneScan technique.Results RAG1, RAG2, and three crucial components of the nonhomologous DNA end-joining (NHEJ) pathway were readily detected in Jurkat. Characteristics of junctional diversity of Dβ2-Jβ2 signal joints and ds RSS breaks associated with the Dβ25' and Dβ 23' sites were detected in DNA from Jurkat cells. CDR3 size and the gene sequences of the TCRVβ chain did not change during cell proliferation.Conclusions RAG1 and RAG2 and ongoing TCR gene recombination are coexpressed in Jurkat cells, but the ongoing recombination process may not play a role in modification of the TCR repertoire. However, the results suggest that Jurkat could be used as a model for studying the regulation of RAGs and V(D)J recombination and as a "special" model of the coexistence of TCR gene rearrangements and "negative" receptor revision.

  14. Dengue virus specific dual HLA binding T cell epitopes induce CD8+ T cell responses in seropositive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, Joseph D; Karabudak, Aykan; Huang, Xiaofang; Piazza, Paolo A; Marques, Ernesto T A; Philip, Ramila

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus infects an estimated 300 million people each year and even more are at risk of becoming infected as the virus continues to spread into new areas. Despite the increase in viral prevalence, no anti-viral medications or vaccines are approved for treating or preventing infection. CD8+ T cell responses play a major role in viral clearance. Therefore, effective vaccines that induce a broad, multi-functional T cell response with substantial cross-reactivity between all virus serotypes can have major impacts on reducing infection rates and infection related complications. Here, we took an immunoproteomic approach to identify novel MHC class I restricted T cell epitopes presented by dengue virus infected cells, representing the natural and authentic targets of the T cell response. Using this approach we identified 4 novel MHC-I restricted epitopes: 2 with the binding motif for HLA-A24 molecules and 2 with both HLA-A2 and HLA-A24 binding motifs. These peptides were able to activate CD8+ T cell responses in both healthy, seronegative individuals and in seropositive individuals who have previously been infected with dengue virus. Importantly, the dual binding epitopes activated pre-existing T cell precursors in PBMCs obtained from both HLA-A2+ and HLA-A24+ seropositive individuals. Together, the data indicate that these epitopes are immunologically relevant T cell activating peptides presented on infected cells during a natural infection and therefore may serve as candidate antigens for the development of effective multi-serotype specific dengue virus vaccines. PMID:25668665

  15. Radiation Enhances Regulatory T Cell Representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Immunotherapy could be a useful adjunct to standard cytotoxic therapies such as radiation in patients with micrometastatic disease, although successful integration of immunotherapy into treatment protocols will require further understanding of how standard therapies affect the generation of antitumor immune responses. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of radiation therapy (RT) on immunosuppressive T regulatory (Treg) cells. Methods and Materials: Treg cells were identified as a CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+ lymphocyte subset, and their fate was followed in a murine TRAMP C1 model of prostate cancer in mice with and without RT. Results: CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+ Treg cells increased in immune organs after local leg or whole-body radiation. A large part, but not all, of this increase after leg-only irradiation could be ascribed to radiation scatter and Treg cells being intrinsically more radiation resistant than other lymphocyte subpopulations, resulting in their selection. Their functional activity on a per-cell basis was not affected by radiation exposure. Similar findings were made with mice receiving local RT to murine prostate tumors growing in the leg. The importance of the Treg cell population in the response to RT was shown by systemic elimination of Treg cells, which greatly enhanced radiation-induced tumor regression. Conclusions: We conclude that Treg cells are more resistant to radiation than other lymphocytes, resulting in their preferential increase. Treg cells may form an important homeostatic mechanism for tissues injured by radiation, and in a tumor context, they may assist in immune evasion during therapy. Targeting this population may allow enhancement of radiotherapeutic benefit through immune modulation.

  16. Radiation Enhances Regulatory T Cell Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachikwu, Evelyn L.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Liao, Yu-Pei; DeMarco, John J.; Agazaryan, Nzhde [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Economou, James S. [Department of Surgical Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); McBride, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schaue, Doerthe, E-mail: dschaue@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Immunotherapy could be a useful adjunct to standard cytotoxic therapies such as radiation in patients with micrometastatic disease, although successful integration of immunotherapy into treatment protocols will require further understanding of how standard therapies affect the generation of antitumor immune responses. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of radiation therapy (RT) on immunosuppressive T regulatory (Treg) cells. Methods and Materials: Treg cells were identified as a CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} lymphocyte subset, and their fate was followed in a murine TRAMP C1 model of prostate cancer in mice with and without RT. Results: CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} Treg cells increased in immune organs after local leg or whole-body radiation. A large part, but not all, of this increase after leg-only irradiation could be ascribed to radiation scatter and Treg cells being intrinsically more radiation resistant than other lymphocyte subpopulations, resulting in their selection. Their functional activity on a per-cell basis was not affected by radiation exposure. Similar findings were made with mice receiving local RT to murine prostate tumors growing in the leg. The importance of the Treg cell population in the response to RT was shown by systemic elimination of Treg cells, which greatly enhanced radiation-induced tumor regression. Conclusions: We conclude that Treg cells are more resistant to radiation than other lymphocytes, resulting in their preferential increase. Treg cells may form an important homeostatic mechanism for tissues injured by radiation, and in a tumor context, they may assist in immune evasion during therapy. Targeting this population may allow enhancement of radiotherapeutic benefit through immune modulation.

  17. Carfilzomib potentiates CUDC-101-induced apoptosis in anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lisa; Boufraqech, Myriem; Lake, Ross; Kebebew, Electron

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies, with no effective treatment currently available. Previously, we identified agents active against ATC cells, both in vitro and in vivo, using quantitative high-throughput screening of 3282 clinically approved drugs and small molecules. Here, we report that combining two of these active agents, carfilzomib, a second-generation proteasome inhibitor, and CUDC-101, a histone deacetylase and multi-kinase inhibitor, results in increased, synergistic activity in ATC cells. The combination of carfilzomib and CUDC-101 synergistically inhibited cellular proliferation and caused cell death in multiple ATC cell lines harboring various driver mutations observed in human ATC tumors. This increased anti-ATC effect was associated with a synergistically enhanced G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased caspase 3/7 activity induced by the drug combination. Mechanistically, treatment with carfilzomib and CUDC-101 increased p21 expression and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein cleavage. Our results suggest that combining carfilzomib and CUDC-101 would offer an effective therapeutic strategy to treat ATC. PMID:26934320

  18. Lactate Regulates Metabolic and Pro-inflammatory Circuits in Control of T Cell Migration and Effector Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Haas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lactate has long been considered a "waste" by-product of cell metabolism, and it accumulates at sites of inflammation. Recent findings have identified lactate as an active metabolite in cell signalling, although its effects on immune cells during inflammation are largely unexplored. Here we ask whether lactate is responsible for T cells remaining entrapped in inflammatory sites, where they perpetuate the chronic inflammatory process. We show that lactate accumulates in the synovia of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Extracellular sodium lactate and lactic acid inhibit the motility of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, respectively. This selective control of T cell motility is mediated via subtype-specific transporters (Slc5a12 and Slc16a1 that we find selectively expressed by CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, respectively. We further show both in vitro and in vivo that the sodium lactate-mediated inhibition of CD4+ T cell motility is due to an interference with glycolysis activated upon engagement of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 with the chemokine CXCL10. In contrast, we find the lactic acid effect on CD8+ T cell motility to be independent of glycolysis control. In CD4+ T helper cells, sodium lactate also induces a switch towards the Th17 subset that produces large amounts of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17, whereas in CD8+ T cells, lactic acid causes the loss of their cytolytic function. We further show that the expression of lactate transporters correlates with the clinical T cell score in the synovia of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Finally, pharmacological or antibody-mediated blockade of subtype-specific lactate transporters on T cells results in their release from the inflammatory site in an in vivo model of peritonitis. By establishing a novel role of lactate in control of proinflammatory T cell motility and effector functions, our findings provide a potential molecular mechanism for T cell entrapment and functional changes in inflammatory sites that drive

  19. Challenges and future perspectives of T cell immunotherapy in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino, Maria Teresa P; Malhotra, Anshu; Mishra, Manoj K; Shanker, Anil

    2015-08-01

    Since the formulation of the tumour immunosurveillance theory, considerable focus has been on enhancing the effectiveness of host antitumour immunity, particularly with respect to T cells. A cancer evades or alters the host immune response by various ways to ensure its development and survival. These include modifications of the immune cell metabolism and T cell signalling. An inhibitory cytokine milieu in the tumour microenvironment also leads to immune suppression and tumour progression within a host. This review traces the development in the field and attempts to summarize the hurdles that the approach of adoptive T cell immunotherapy against cancer faces, and discusses the conditions that must be improved to allow effective eradication of cancer. PMID:26096822

  20. The interplay of sequence conservation and T cell immune recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresciani, Anne Gøther; Sette, Alessandro; Greenbaum, Jason;

    2014-01-01

    examined the hypothesis that conservation of a peptide in bacteria that are part of the healthy human microbiome leads to a reduced level of immunogenicity due to tolerization of T cells to the commensal bacteria. This was done by comparing experimentally characterized T cell epitope recognition data from...... the Immune Epitope Database with their conservation in the human microbiome. Indeed, we did see a lower immunogenicity for conserved peptides conserved. While many aspects how this conservation comparison is done require further optimization, this is a first step towards a better understanding T cell...... recognition of peptides in bacterial pathogens is influenced by their conservation in commensal bacteria. If the further work proves that this approach is successful, the degree of overlap of a peptide with the human proteome or microbiome could be added to the arsenal of tools available to assess peptide...

  1. Dynamic imaging for CAR-T-cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami-Shahri, Nia; Papa, Sophie

    2016-04-15

    Chimaeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy is entering the mainstream for the treatment of CD19(+)cancers. As is does we learn more about resistance to therapy and the role, risks and management of toxicity. In solid tumour CAR therapy research the route to the clinic is less smooth with a wealth of challenges facing translating this, potentially hugely valuable, therapeutic option for patients. As we strive to understand our successes, and navigate the challenges, having a clear understanding of how adoptively transferred CAR-T-cells behavein vivoand in human trials is invaluable. Harnessing reporter gene imaging to enable detection and tracking of small numbers of CAR-T-cells after adoptive transfer is one way by which we can accomplish this. The compatibility of certain reporter gene systems with tracers available routinely in the clinic makes this approach highly useful for future appraisal of CAR-T-cell success in humans. PMID:27068944

  2. Role of Ikaros in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philippe; Kastner; Susan; Chan

    2011-01-01

    Ikaros is a zinc finger transcriptional regulator encoded by the Ikzf1 gene.Ikaros displays crucial functions in the hematopoietic system and its loss of function has been linked to the development of lymphoid leukemia.In particular,Ikaros has been found in recent years to be a major tumor suppressor involved in human B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.Its role in T-cell leukemia,however,has been more controversial.While Ikaros deficiency appears to be very frequent in murine T-cell leukemias,loss of Ikaros appears to be rare in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL).We review here the evidence linking Ikaros to T-ALL in mouse and human systems.

  3. NK/T cell lymphoma associated with peripheral eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, E; Wan Jamaluddin, W F; Tumian, N R; Mashuri, F; Mohammed, F; Tan, G C; Masir, N; Abdul Wahid, F S

    2014-12-01

    NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type is an aggressive and uncommon malignancy. Disease that occurs outside of the aerodigestive tract exhibits an even more aggressive clinical behaviour and does not respond as well to conventional therapy compared to its nasal counterpart. We report such a case of NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type, that presented as an anterior chest wall mass, arising from the left pectoralis muscle. An interesting feature we wish to highlight is the associated eosinophilia that corresponded to disease activity, exhibiting fluctuations with surgical resection and chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge this is the third reported case of NK/T cell lymphoma that is associated with peripheral eosinophilia. Our case highlights the role of certain NK cell subsets that play a major role in eosinophilic activation in NK/T lymphomas and calls for more research into further classification of this disease by virtue of its NK cell subsets. PMID:25500520

  4. Detecting protein association at the T cell plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Florian; Schütz, Gerhard J

    2015-04-01

    At the moment, many models on T cell signaling rely on results obtained via rather indirect methodologies, which makes direct comparison and conclusions to the in vivo situation difficult. Recently, a variety of new imaging methods were developed, which have the potential to directly shed light onto the mysteries of protein association at the T cell membrane. While the new modalities are extremely promising, for a broad readership it may be difficult to judge the results, since technological shortcomings are not always obvious. In this review article, we put key questions on the mechanism of protein interactions in the T cell plasma membrane into relation with techniques that allow to address such questions. We discuss applicability of the techniques, their strengths and weaknesses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nanoscale membrane organisation and signalling. PMID:25300585

  5. SOCS1 and Regulation of Regulatory T Cells Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several reports have suggested that natural regulatory T cells (Tregs lose Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3 expression and suppression activity under certain inflammatory conditions. Treg plasticity has been studied because it may be associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. Some studies showed that a minor uncommitted Foxp3+ T cell population, which lacks hypomethylation at Treg-specific demethylation regions (TSDRs, may convert to effector/helper T cells. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1, a negative regulator of cytokine signaling, has been reported to play an important role in Treg cell integrity and function by protecting the cells from excessive inflammatory cytokines. In this review, we discuss Treg plasticity and maintenance of suppression functions in both physiological and pathological settings. In addition, we discuss molecular mechanisms of maintaining Treg plasticity by SOCS1 and other molecules. Such information will be useful for therapy of autoimmune diseases and reinforcement of antitumor immunity.

  6. Maintenance of immune homeostasis through ILC/T cell interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole evon Burg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs have emerged as a new family of immune cells with crucial functions in innate and adaptive immunity. ILC subsets mirror the cytokine and transcriptional profile of CD4+ T helper (TH cell subsets. Hence, group 1 (ILC1, group 2 (ILC2 and group 3 (ILC3 ILCs can be distinguished by the production of TH1, TH2, and TH17-type cytokines, respectively. Cytokine release by ILCs not only shapes early innate immunity, but can also orchestrate TH immune responses to microbial or allergen exposure. Recent studies have identified an unexpected effector function of ILCs as antigen presenting cells (APCs. Both ILC2s and ILC3s are able to process and present foreign antigens (Ags via major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II, and to induce cognate CD4+ T cell responses. In addition, Ag-stimulated T cells promote ILC activation and effector functions indicating a reciprocal interaction between the adaptive and innate immune system. A fundamental puzzle in ILC function is how ILC/T cell interactions promote host protection and prevent autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, the way in which microenvironmental and inflammatory signals determine the outcome of ILC/T cell immune responses in various tissues is not yet understood. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding the mechanisms that coordinate the collaboration between ILCs and T cells under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. We also discuss the potential roles of T cells and other immune cells to regulate ILC functions and to maintain homeostasis in mucosal tissues.

  7. Neuroimmunotherapies Targeting T Cells: From Pathophysiology to Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Stefan; Wiendl, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic options for multiple sclerosis (MS) have significantly increased over the last few years. T lymphocytes are considered to play a central role in initiating and perpetuating the pathological immune response. Currently approved therapies for MS target T lymphocytes, either in an unspecific manner or directly by interference with specific T-cell pathways. While the concept of "T-cell-specific therapy" implies specificity and selectivity, currently approved approaches come from a general shaping of the immune system towards anti-inflammatory immune responses by non-T-cell-selective immune suppression or immune modulation (e.g., interferons-immune modulation approach) to a depletion of immune cell populations involving T cells (e.g., anti-CD52, alemtuzumab-immune selective depletion approach), or a selective inhibition of distinct molecular pathways in order to sequester leucocytes (e.g., natalizumab-leukocyte sequestration approach). This review will highlight the rationale and results of different T-cell-directed therapeutic approaches coming from basic animal experiments to clinical trials. We will first discuss the pathophysiological rationale for targeting T lymphocytes in MS leading to currently approved treatments acting on T lymphocytes. Furthermore, we will disuss previous promising concepts that have failed to show efficacy in clinical trials or were halted as a result of unexpected adverse events. Learning from the discrepancies between expectations and failures in practical outcomes helps to optimize future research approaches and clinical study designs. As our current view of MS pathogenesis and patient needs is rapidly evolving, novel therapeutic approaches targeting T lymphocytes will also be discussed, including specific molecular interventions such as cytokine-directed treatments or strategies enhancing immunoregulatory mechanisms. Based on clinical experience and novel pathophysiological approaches, T-cell-based strategies will remain a

  8. Nck adapter proteins: functional versatility in T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen Ottmar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nck is a ubiquitously expressed adapter protein that is almost exclusively built of one SH2 domain and three SH3 domains. The two isoproteins of Nck are functionally redundant in many aspects and differ in only few amino acids that are mostly located in the linker regions between the interaction modules. Nck proteins connect receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases to the machinery of actin reorganisation. Thereby, Nck regulates activation-dependent processes during cell polarisation and migration and plays a crucial role in the signal transduction of a variety of receptors including for instance PDGF-, HGF-, VEGF- and Ephrin receptors. In most cases, the SH2 domain mediates binding to the phosphorylated receptor or associated phosphoproteins, while SH3 domain interactions lead to the formation of larger protein complexes. In T lymphocytes, Nck plays a pivotal role in the T cell receptor (TCR-induced reorganisation of the actin cytoskeleton and the formation of the immunological synapse. However, in this context, two different mechanisms and adapter complexes are discussed. In the first scenario, dependent on an activation-induced conformational change in the CD3ε subunits, a direct binding of Nck to components of the TCR/CD3 complex was shown. In the second scenario, Nck is recruited to the TCR complex via phosphorylated Slp76, another central constituent of the membrane proximal activation complex. Over the past years, a large number of putative Nck interactors have been identified in different cellular systems that point to diverse additional functions of the adapter protein, e.g. in the control of gene expression and proliferation.

  9. Glycoprotein IIIa Preparation for T-cell Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR Anani Sarab

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP is an autoimmune disease characterized by antiplatelet autoantibodis. The major target of the anti platelet antibodies is platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb/IIIa. In order to characterize the immunodominant epitopes in the structure of GPIIIa, the extracellular portions of GPIIIa will be expressed and purified. These antigens will be tested for antigenicity in further investigation. The first segment of GPIIIa which was considered for expression as a recombinant glutathion S-transferase (GST fusion proteins included IIIa22-262 which encompass amino acid residue 22-262 of the 762 amino acids of GPIIIa. A segment of GPIIIa complementary DNA (cDNA was subcloned into the 39 end of the Schistosoma japonicum GST gene in the bacterial expression plasmid vector, pGEX 6P-1 (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech. In summary, the expression plasmid vector, pGEX 6P-1 containing segment IIIa22-262 was introduced to E.coli. Saturated overnight culture was used and the bacterial cells were grown to log-phase. IPTG was added to the culture to induce overexpression of fusion protein and the cells were grown for an additional 1-3 hours. Bacterial lysate containing recombinant protein was prepared by sonication. The fusion protein was purified from total cell extract using glutathione-agarose beads. Specificity of the GST-fusion proteins was confirmed on Immunoblot probed with rabbit anti-GST polyclonal antibodies. PreScission Protease was used to remove the GST tag. Protein extract and purified products were analyzed by SDS gel electrophoresis. The recombinant GST-fusion protein IIIa22-262 was successfully expressed and purified in large quantities but the yield of the IIIa22-262 peptide after enzyme treatment was low. When a good yield is fully obtained, the purified protein segment will be used for T-cell stimulation in culture.

  10. Reduced TET2 function leads to T-cell lymphoma with follicular helper T-cell-like features in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TET2 (Ten Eleven Translocation 2) is a dioxygenase that converts methylcytosine (mC) to hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC). TET2 loss-of-function mutations are highly frequent in subtypes of T-cell lymphoma that harbor follicular helper T (Tfh)-cell-like features, such as angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (30–83%) or peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (10–49%), as well as myeloid malignancies. Here, we show that middle-aged Tet2 knockdown (Tet2gt/gt) mice exhibit Tfh-like cell overproduction in the spleen compared with control mice. The Tet2 knockdown mice eventually develop T-cell lymphoma with Tfh-like features after a long latency (median 67 weeks). Transcriptome analysis revealed that these lymphoma cells had Tfh-like gene expression patterns when compared with splenic CD4-positive cells of wild-type mice. The lymphoma cells showed lower hmC densities around the transcription start site (TSS) and higher mC densities at the regions of the TSS, gene body and CpG islands. These epigenetic changes, seen in Tet2 insufficiency-triggered lymphoma, possibly contributed to predated outgrowth of Tfh-like cells and subsequent lymphomagenesis. The mouse model described here suggests that TET2 mutations play a major role in the development of T-cell lymphoma with Tfh-like features in humans

  11. T-cell receptor affinity and avidity defines antitumor response and autoimmunity in T-cell immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shi; Malecek, Karolina; Johnson, Laura A.; Yu, Zhiya; Vega-Saenz de Miera, Eleazar; Darvishian, Farbod; McGary, Katelyn; Huang, Kevin; Boyer, Josh; Corse, Emily; Shao, Yongzhao; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Osman, Iman; Krogsgaard, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    T cells expressing antigen-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) can mediate effective tumor regression, but they often also are accompanied by autoimmune responses. To determine the TCR affinity threshold defining the optimal balance between effective antitumor activity and autoimmunity in vivo, we used a unique self-antigen system comprising seven human melanoma gp100(209–217)-specific TCRs spanning physiological affinities (1–100 μM). We found that in vitro and in vivo T-cell responses are determined by TCR affinity, except in one case that was compensated by substantial CD8 involvement. Strikingly, we found that T-cell antitumor activity and autoimmunity are closely coupled but plateau at a defined TCR affinity of 10 µM, likely due to diminished contribution of TCR affinity to avidity above the threshold. Together, these results suggest that a relatively low-affinity threshold is necessary for the immune system to avoid self-damage, given the close relationship between antitumor activity and autoimmunity. The low threshold, in turn, indicates that adoptive T-cell therapy treatment strategies using in vitro-generated high-affinity TCRs do not necessarily improve efficacy. PMID:23576742

  12. Heterosybtypic T-cell immunity to influenza in humans: challenges for universal T-cell influenza vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya eSridhar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV remains a significant global health issue causing annual epidemics, pandemics and sporadic human infections with highly pathogenic avian or swine influenza viruses. Current inactivated and live vaccines are the mainstay of the public health response to influenza although vaccine efficacy is lower against antigenically distinct viral strains. The first pandemic of the 21st century underlined the urgent need to develop new vaccines capable of protection against a broad range of influenza strains. Such universal influenza vaccines are based on the idea of heterosubtypic immunity wherein immune responses to epitopes conserved across IAV strains can confer protection against subsequent infection and disease. T-cells recognising conserved antigens are a key contributor to reducing viral load and limiting disease severity during heterosubtypic infection in animal models. Recent studies undertaken during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic provided key insights into the role of cross-reactive T-cells in mediating heterosubtypic protection in humans. This review focuses on human influenza to discuss the epidemiological observations that underpin cross-protective immunity, the role of T-cells as key players in mediating heterosubtypic immunity including recent data from natural history cohort studies and the ongoing clinical development of T-cell inducing universal influenza vaccines. The challenges and knowledge gaps for developing vaccines to generate long-lived protective T-cell responses is discussed.

  13. Heterosubtypic T-Cell Immunity to Influenza in Humans: Challenges for Universal T-Cell Influenza Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) remains a significant global health issue causing annual epidemics, pandemics, and sporadic human infections with highly pathogenic avian or swine influenza viruses. Current inactivated and live vaccines are the mainstay of the public health response to influenza, although vaccine efficacy is lower against antigenically distinct viral strains. The first pandemic of the twenty-first century underlined the urgent need to develop new vaccines capable of protecting against a broad range of influenza strains. Such “universal” influenza vaccines are based on the idea of heterosubtypic immunity, wherein immune responses to epitopes conserved across IAV strains can confer protection against subsequent infection and disease. T-cells recognizing conserved antigens are a key contributor in reducing viral load and limiting disease severity during heterosubtypic infection in animal models. Recent studies undertaken during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic provided key insights into the role of cross-reactive T-cells in mediating heterosubtypic protection in humans. This review focuses on human influenza to discuss the epidemiological observations that underpin cross-protective immunity, the role of T-cells as key players in mediating heterosubtypic immunity including recent data from natural history cohort studies and the ongoing clinical development of T-cell-inducing universal influenza vaccines. The challenges and knowledge gaps for developing vaccines to generate long-lived protective T-cell responses is discussed. PMID:27242800

  14. Production of antigen-specific suppressive T cell factor by radiation leukemia virus-transformed suppressor T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hen egg-white lysozyme-specific suppressor T cells induced in C57BL/6 mice have been selected by sequential passage over plates coated with goat anti-mouse Ig and HEL. These suppressor T cells, 80% I-J+, were infected in vitro with radiation leukemia virus and injected intravenously into sublethally irradiated syngeneic recipients. After 4 to 6 months, 6 out of 20 injected mice developed thymic lymphomas, which were maintained by transplantation into histocompatible hosts and subsequently established as permanent cell lines. Cells of these six thymomas were screened for the presence of Thy 1.2, Lyt 1, Lyt 2, I-J/sup b/, and Ig cell surface antigens by direct or indirect immunofluorescence. One tumor was found to express the expected phenotype of suppressor T cells. High-speed supernatants of extracts obtained from L4 cells were able to induce HEL-specific suppression in a T cell proliferative assay, demonstrating the presence of an antigen-specific suppressive T cell factor

  15. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Rearrangement in Digestive Tract Cancer: Implication for Targeted Therapy in Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Ying

    Full Text Available Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK rearrangements define a subgroup of lung cancer which is eligible to targeted kinase inhibition. The aim of this study is to observe the incidence rate of ALK fusion in a large cohort of Chinese digestive tract cancer patients.Tissue microarray (TMA was constructed from 808 digestive tract cancer cases, incl