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Sample records for anaplasma phagocytophilum infected

  1. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and effect on lamb growth

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    Steinshamn Håvard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge in sheep farming during the grazing season along the coast of south-western Norway is tick-borne fever (TBF caused by the bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum that is transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus. Methods A study was carried out in 2007 and 2008 to examine the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum infection and effect on weaning weight in lambs. The study included 1208 lambs from farms in Sunndal Ram Circle in Møre and Romsdal County in Mid-Norway, where ticks are frequently observed. All lambs were blood sampled and serum was analyzed by an indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IFA to determine an antibody status (positive or negative to A. phagocytophilum infection. Weight and weight gain and possible effect of infection were analyzed using ANOVA and the MIXED procedure in SAS. Results The overall prevalence of infection with A. phagocytophilum was 55%. A lower weaning weight of 3% (1.34 kg, p A. phagocytophilum infection compared to seronegative lambs at an average age of 137 days. Conclusions The results show that A. phagocytophilum infection has an effect on lamb weight gain. The study also support previous findings that A. phagocytophilum infection is widespread in areas where ticks are prevalent, even in flocks treated prophylactic with acaricides.

  2. NNDSS - Table II. Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection to Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection to Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of...

  3. Intrauterine Transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Persistently Infected Lambs

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    Snorre Stuen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which causes the disease tick-borne fever (TBF, is the most important tick-borne pathogen in European animals. TBF may contribute to severe welfare challenges and economic losses in the Norwegian sheep industry. The bacterium causes a persistent infection in sheep and several other animal species. The objective of this study was to investigate whether intrauterine transmission occurs in persistently infected sheep. The study included thirteen 5–6-month-old unmated ewes, of which twelve were experimentally infected with A. phagocytophilum (GenBank acc. no. M73220. Four to six weeks later, all ewes were mated, and nine became pregnant. Blood samples were collected from these ewes and their offspring. If the lamb died, tissue samples were collected. The samples were analyzed with real-time PCR (qPCR targeting the msp2 gene. PCR-positive samples were further analyzed by semi-nested PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing. A total of 20 lambs were born, of which six died within two days. Six newborn lambs (30% were PCR-positive (qPCR, of which one was verified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The present study indicates that intrauterine transmission of A. phagocytophilum in persistently infected sheep may occur. The importance of these findings for the epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum needs to be further investigated.

  4. Intrauterine Transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Persistently Infected Lambs.

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    Stuen, Snorre; Okstad, Wenche; Sagen, Anne Mette

    2018-02-28

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which causes the disease tick-borne fever (TBF), is the most important tick-borne pathogen in European animals. TBF may contribute to severe welfare challenges and economic losses in the Norwegian sheep industry. The bacterium causes a persistent infection in sheep and several other animal species. The objective of this study was to investigate whether intrauterine transmission occurs in persistently infected sheep. The study included thirteen 5-6-month-old unmated ewes, of which twelve were experimentally infected with A. phagocytophilum (GenBank acc. no. M73220). Four to six weeks later, all ewes were mated, and nine became pregnant. Blood samples were collected from these ewes and their offspring. If the lamb died, tissue samples were collected. The samples were analyzed with real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting the msp2 gene. PCR-positive samples were further analyzed by semi-nested PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing. A total of 20 lambs were born, of which six died within two days. Six newborn lambs (30%) were PCR-positive (qPCR), of which one was verified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The present study indicates that intrauterine transmission of A. phagocytophilum in persistently infected sheep may occur. The importance of these findings for the epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum needs to be further investigated.

  5. Superinfection occurs in Anaplasma phagocytophilum infected sheep irrespective of infection phase and protection status

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    Bergström Karin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in domestic ruminants is widespread in the coastal areas of southern Norway. The bacteria may persist in mammalian hosts. Several genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum exist. In the present study, we investigate whether superinfection occurs in the acute and persistent phase of the infection. Methods Five-month-old lambs of the Norwegian Dala breed were experimentally infected with two 16S rRNA gene variants of A. phagocytophilum, i.e. A. phagocytophilum variant 1 (GenBank accession number M73220 and variant 2 (GenBank acc. no. AF336220. Eighteen lambs were used, two lambs in each group. Eight groups were experimentally inoculated with either variant 1 or 2 on day 0. Six of these groups were then challenged with the other variant on either days 7, 42 or 84, respectively. One group was left uninfected. The occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in blood samples was determined using semi-nested PCR analysis and gene sequencing. Specific antibodies were measured by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA. Results A. phagocytophilum variant 1 and 2 differed significantly with regards to clinical reaction and cross-immunity in infected lambs. Both variants were found in the blood after challenge. However, variant 1 was detected most frequently. Conclusion The present experiment indicates that superinfection of different genotypes occurs during the acute as well as the persistent phase of an A. phagocytophilum infection, even in lambs protected against the challenged infection.

  6. Infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in a seronegative patient in Sicily, Italy: Case Report

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    Alongi A

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA in humans, which has been recognized as an emerging tick-borne disease in the United States and Europe. Although about 65 cases of HGA have been reported in Europe, some of them do not fulfill the criteria for confirmed HGA. Confirmation of HGA requires A. phagocytophilum isolation from blood, and/or identification of morulae in granulocytes and/or positive PCR results with subsequent sequencing of the amplicons to demonstrate specific rickettsial DNA. Seroconversion or at least fourfold increase in antibody titers to A. phagocytophilum has been used as criteria for confirmed HGA also. Case presentation Infection with A. phagocytophilum was confirmed by PCR in a patient in Sicily, Italy, who had negative serology for A. phagocytophilum. A fragment of A. phagocytophilum 16S rDNA was amplified by two independent laboratories and sequenced from two separate patient's blood samples. The 16S rDNA sequence was identical in both samples and identical to the sequence of the A. phagocytophilum strain USG3 originally obtained from a dog. Conclusion Infection with A. phagocytophilum was confirmed in a patient without a detectable antibody response against the pathogen. The results reported herein documented the first case of confirmed HGA in Sicily, Italy. These results suggested the possibility of human infections with A. phagocytophilum strains that result in clinical symptoms and laboratory findings confirmatory of HGA but without detectable antibodies against the pathogen.

  7. Remodeling of tick cytoskeleton in response to infection withAnaplasma phagocytophilum.

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    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Alberdi, Pilar; Valdes, James J; Villar, Margarita; de la Fuente, Jose

    2017-06-01

    The obligate intracellular pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum infects vertebrate and tick hosts. In this study, a genome-wide search for cytoskeleton components was performed in the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis . The available transcriptomics and proteomics data was then used to characterize the mRNA and protein levels of I. scapularis cytoskeleton components in response to A. phagocytophilum infection. The results showed that cytoskeleton components described in other model organisms were present in the I. scapularis genome. One type of intermediate filaments (lamin), a family of septins that was recently implicated in the cellular response to intracellular pathogens, and several members of motor proteins (kinesins and dyneins) that could be implicated in the cytoplasmic movements of A. phagocytophilum were found. The results showed that levels of tubulin, actin, septin, actin-related proteins and motor proteins were affected by A. phagocytophilum , probably to facilitate infection in I. scapularis . Functional studies demonstrated a role for selected cytoskeleton components in pathogen infection. These results provided a more comprehensive view of the cytoskeletal components involved in the response to A. phagocytophilum infection in ticks.

  8. Reptile infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis.

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    Nieto, Nathan C; Foley, Janet E; Bettaso, Jamie; Lane, Robert S

    2009-10-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) is a potentially fatal tick-borne rickettsial disease that occurs sporadically in the far western United States. We evaluated the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in multiple species of lizards and snakes from enzootic sites in northern California, described the infestation prevalence of its tick vector Ixodes pacificus on reptiles, and conducted an experimental challenge of western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) and Pacific gopher snakes (Pituophis catenifer) with A. phagocytophilum delivered via needle inoculation or tick bite. Both serologically and polymerase-chain reaction (PCR)-positive lizards (seroprevalence = 10.8%, PCR prevalence = 10.2%) and snakes (seroprevalence = 5.8%, PCR prevalence = 11.7%) were detected among wild-caught animals. A DNA sequence of the A. phagocytophilum groESL gene from a PCR-positive snake was 100% homologous to that of the human-derived A. phagocytophilum. Experimental attempts to infect naïve animals were unsuccessful for snakes (n = 2), but 1 of 12 lizards became infected for 1 wk only by tick bite. Xenodiagnostic I. pacificus larvae that fed on a PCR-positive lizard did not acquire or transmit rickettsiae. Our findings suggest that lizards and snakes are exposed to A. phagocytophilum by infected ticks, but that they do not serve as primary reservoir hosts of this rickettsia.

  9. Dexamethasone-induced cytokine changes associated with diminished disease severity in horses infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

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    Davies, R S; Madigan, J E; Hodzic, E; Borjesson, D L; Dumler, J S

    2011-11-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the zoonotic cause of granulocytic anaplasmosis. We hypothesized that immune response, specifically gamma interferon (IFN-γ), plays a role in disease severity. To test this, horses were infected and IFNG expression was pharmacologically downregulated using corticosteroids. Eight horses were infected with A. phagocytophilum; 4 received dexamethasone on days 4 to 8 of infection. Clinical signs, hematologic parameters, and transcription of cytokine/chemokine genes were compared among treated and untreated horses. Infection was quantitated by msp2 real-time PCR and microscopy. As anticipated, there was significantly greater leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia in infected versus uninfected horses. The A. phagocytophilum load was higher for dexamethasone-treated horses. Dexamethasone reduced IFNG transcription by day 12 and IL-8 and IL-18 by days 7 to 9 and increased IL-4 on day 7. The ratio of IL-10 to IFNG was increased by dexamethasone on day 9. There were no hematologic differences between the infected horses. Dexamethasone suppression of proinflammatory response resulted in delayed infection-induced limb edema and decreased icterus, anorexia, and reluctance to move between days 6 and 9 and lower fever on day 7. These results underscore the utility of the equine model of granulocytic anaplasmosis and suggest that Th1 proinflammatory response plays a role in worsening disease severity and that disease severity can be decreased by modulating proinflammatory response. A role for Th1 response and macrophage activation in hematologic derangements elicited by A. phagocytophilum is not supported by these data and remains unproven.

  10. Clinical and molecular features of one case of human infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum from Podlaskie Province in eastern Poland

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    Renata Welc-Falęciak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA caused by [i]Anaplasma phagocytophilum[/i] infection in one of 28 patients (3.6%; n=1/28 tested samples with early Lyme borreliosis. The clinical and laboratory results of a 42-year-old patient fulfilled criteria of confirm anaplasmosis and suggest an acute stage of illness. The described case provides strong presumptive evidence that infection in this patient was acquired with a pathogenic strain of [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] through a tick bite. A positive DNA with PCR for A. phagocytophilum infection was sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Physicians should consider the possibility of anaplasmosis in patients with early Lyme borreliosis, and [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] should be considered as a differential diagnosis in all patients from an endemic region of potential high risk factors for tick-borne diseases.

  11. Clinical and molecular features of one case of human infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum from Podlaskie Province in eastern Poland

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    Renata Welc-Falęciak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in one of 28 patients (3.6%; n=1/28 tested samples with early Lyme borreliosis. The clinical and laboratory results of a 42-year-old patient fulfilled criteria of confirm anaplasmosis and suggest an acute stage of illness. The described case provides strong presumptive evidence that infection in this patient was acquired with a pathogenic strain of A. phagocytophilum through a tick bite. A positive DNA with PCR for A. phagocytophilum infection was sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Physicians should consider the possibility of anaplasmosis in patients with early Lyme borreliosis, and A. phagocytophilum should be considered as a differential diagnosis in all patients from an endemic region of potential high risk factors for tick-borne diseases.

  12. Remodeling of tick cytoskeleton in response to infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Alberdi, P.; Valdés, James J.; Villar, M.; de la Fuente, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, Jun 1 (2017), s. 1830-1844 ISSN 1093-4715 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cytoskeleton * proteomics * transcriptomics * Ixodes scapularis * Anaplasma phagocytophilum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology

  13. Ixodes scapularis Tick Cells Control Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection by Increasing the Synthesis of Phosphoenolpyruvate from Tyrosine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Espinosa, P. J.; Obregon, D. A.; Alberdi, P.; de la Fuente, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, AUG 17 (2017), č. článku 375. ISSN 2235-2988 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : proteomics * transcriptomics * phosphoenolpyruvate * glycerol-3-phosphate * Ixodes scapularis * Anaplasma phagocytophilum Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  14. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection Subverts Carbohydrate Metabolic Pathways in the Tick Vector, Ixodes scapularis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Alberdi, P.; Valdés, James J.; Villar, M.; de la Fuente, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, 7 February (2017), č. článku 23. ISSN 2235-2988 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : proteomics * transcriptomics * glucose metabolism * Ixodes scapularis * Anaplasma phagocytophilum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  15. The first report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and a novel Theileria spp. co-infection in a South African giraffe.

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    Zhang, Yan; Li, Tongyi; Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Jinhong; Lv, Yali; Wang, Rongjun; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Jiantang; Yang, Guangcheng; Ning, Changshen

    2016-08-01

    Organisms of the genera Anaplasma and Theileria are important intracellular bacteria and parasites that cause various tick-borne diseases, threatening the health of numerous animals as well as human beings. In the present study, a 12-month-old male wild South African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) originating from South Africa, and living in Zhengzhou Zoo (located in the urban district of Zhengzhou in the provincial capital of Henan), suddenly developed an unknown fatal disease and died 1day after the onset of the clinical signs. By microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears combined with nested PCR and DNA sequence analysis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis and a novel Theileria spp. were found in the blood of this giraffe. The six other Cervidae animals in the zoo and three ruminants living in the same colony house with them were found to be negative for both Anaplasma and Theileria in their blood specimens. We report on the first case of an A. phagocytophilum infection and the occurrence of a novel Theileria spp. in the blood of a giraffe. This is the first reported case of a multi-infection of A. bovis, A. phagocytophilum and Theileria spp. in a giraffe, as revealed by microscopic examination of blood smears and the results of nested PCR and DNA sequencing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The infection of questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks with Babesia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

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    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Vichová, Bronislavá; Slivinska, Kateryna; Werszko, Joanna; Didyk, Julia; Peťko, Branislav; Stanko, Michal; Akimov, Igor

    2014-08-29

    Tick occurrence was studied in the Chernobyl exclusion zone (CEZ) during the August-October 2009-2012. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected using the flagging method and then screened for infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis by a PCR method incorporating specific primers and sequence analysis. The prevalence of infection with B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum was found to be 3.41% and 25.36%, respectively. The results present the first evidence of B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum in questing D. reticulatus ticks from the Chernobyl exclusion zone. They also reveal the presence of tick-borne disease foci in areas with no human activity, and confirm that they can be maintained in areas after a nuclear disaster with radioactive contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Infection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia spp. in Opossums and Dogs in Campeche, Mexico: The Role of Tick Infestation

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    Edgar Rojero-Vázquez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some tick-borne diseases such as anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis became widespread worldwide, threatening the health of humans, domestic animals and wildlife. The aims of this study were to determine the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis in 102 opossums (Didelphis spp. and 44 owned free-ranging dogs in southeastern Mexico using a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR. A. phagocytophilum was detected in opossums and dogs with a prevalence of 3 and 27%, respectively. E. canis was only present in 7% of dogs, while we didn't detect E. chaffeensis in any host. We report the first evidence of infections of A. phagocytophilum in Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis in Mexico. The infection rates and patterns we found of A. phagocytophilum suggest that dogs are more directly involved in the ecology of this pathogen than opossums. Despite the small prevalence found, our results are of public health concern because of the zoonotic capabilities of A. phagocytophilum, the high tick infestation rates found and because both opossums and free-ranging dogs can achieve high population densities in the region.

  18. An O-Methyltransferase Is Required for Infection of Tick Cells by Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

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    Adela S Oliva Chávez

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA, is an obligately intracellular α-proteobacterium that is transmitted by Ixodes spp ticks. However, the pathogen is not transovarially transmitted between tick generations and therefore needs to survive in both a mammalian host and the arthropod vector to complete its life cycle. To adapt to different environments, pathogens rely on differential gene expression as well as the modification of proteins and other molecules. Random transposon mutagenesis of A. phagocytophilum resulted in an insertion within the coding region of an o-methyltransferase (omt family 3 gene. In wild-type bacteria, expression of omt was up-regulated during binding to tick cells (ISE6 at 2 hr post-inoculation, but nearly absent by 4 hr p.i. Gene disruption reduced bacterial binding to ISE6 cells, and the mutant bacteria that were able to enter the cells were arrested in their replication and development. Analyses of the proteomes of wild-type versus mutant bacteria during binding to ISE6 cells identified Major Surface Protein 4 (Msp4, but also hypothetical protein APH_0406, as the most differentially methylated. Importantly, two glutamic acid residues (the targets of the OMT were methyl-modified in wild-type Msp4, whereas a single asparagine (not a target of the OMT was methylated in APH_0406. In vitro methylation assays demonstrated that recombinant OMT specifically methylated Msp4. Towards a greater understanding of the overall structure and catalytic activity of the OMT, we solved the apo (PDB_ID:4OA8, the S-adenosine homocystein-bound (PDB_ID:4OA5, the SAH-Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCA, and SAM- Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCL X-ray crystal structures of the enzyme. Here, we characterized a mutation in A. phagocytophilum that affected the ability of the bacteria to productively infect cells from its natural vector. Nevertheless, due to the lack of complementation, we cannot rule out secondary

  19. An O-Methyltransferase Is Required for Infection of Tick Cells by Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva Chávez, Adela S; Fairman, James W; Felsheim, Roderick F; Nelson, Curtis M; Herron, Michael J; Higgins, LeeAnn; Burkhardt, Nicole Y; Oliver, Jonathan D; Markowski, Todd W; Kurtti, Timothy J; Edwards, Thomas E; Munderloh, Ulrike G

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA), is an obligately intracellular α-proteobacterium that is transmitted by Ixodes spp ticks. However, the pathogen is not transovarially transmitted between tick generations and therefore needs to survive in both a mammalian host and the arthropod vector to complete its life cycle. To adapt to different environments, pathogens rely on differential gene expression as well as the modification of proteins and other molecules. Random transposon mutagenesis of A. phagocytophilum resulted in an insertion within the coding region of an o-methyltransferase (omt) family 3 gene. In wild-type bacteria, expression of omt was up-regulated during binding to tick cells (ISE6) at 2 hr post-inoculation, but nearly absent by 4 hr p.i. Gene disruption reduced bacterial binding to ISE6 cells, and the mutant bacteria that were able to enter the cells were arrested in their replication and development. Analyses of the proteomes of wild-type versus mutant bacteria during binding to ISE6 cells identified Major Surface Protein 4 (Msp4), but also hypothetical protein APH_0406, as the most differentially methylated. Importantly, two glutamic acid residues (the targets of the OMT) were methyl-modified in wild-type Msp4, whereas a single asparagine (not a target of the OMT) was methylated in APH_0406. In vitro methylation assays demonstrated that recombinant OMT specifically methylated Msp4. Towards a greater understanding of the overall structure and catalytic activity of the OMT, we solved the apo (PDB_ID:4OA8), the S-adenosine homocystein-bound (PDB_ID:4OA5), the SAH-Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCA), and SAM- Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCL) X-ray crystal structures of the enzyme. Here, we characterized a mutation in A. phagocytophilum that affected the ability of the bacteria to productively infect cells from its natural vector. Nevertheless, due to the lack of complementation, we cannot rule out secondary mutations.

  20. Clinicopathological and Molecular Findings in a Case of Canine Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Northern Italy

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    Francesco Dondi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A documented case of canine granulocytic anaplasmosis coupled with the molecular characterization of the etiological agent is reported for the first time in Northern Italy. The patient showed nonspecific clinical signs such as fever and weight loss. The most relevant clinicopathological findings were thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and normal azotemic proteinuria consistent with glomerular diseases. Blood smear examination revealed the presence of intracytoplasmatic inclusions in neutrophils associated with high positive serology for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. PCR analysis and sequencing of the amplicon confirm serological diagnosis of A. phagocytophilum. Phylogenetic analysis evidenced that the detected bacterial strain belongs to the A. phagocytophilum Europe 1 lineage. Data indicates that A. phagocytophilum circulates in natural environments of Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy and its prevalence in dogs could be underestimated because the clinical signs are frequently nonspecific and a certain diagnosis requires the combination of clinicopathological and molecular assays. Pets living in this area should be regularly monitored and treated for ectoparasites to minimize health risks for humans and pets. Also, surveillance of A. phagocytophilum should be improved in Northern Italy and canine anaplasmosis should be considered in differential diagnosis of persistent proteinuria.

  1. Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum in cattle in Tunisia.

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    M'ghirbi, Youmna; Bèji, Marwa; Oporto, Beatriz; Khrouf, Fatma; Hurtado, Ana; Bouattour, Ali

    2016-10-20

    Tick-borne diseases caused by Anaplasma species put serious constraints on the health and production of domestic cattle in tropical and sub-tropical regions. After recovering from a primary infection, cattle typically become persistent carriers of pathogens and play a critical role in the epidemiology of the disease, acting as reservoirs of the Anaplasma spp. In this study a duplex PCR assay was used for the simultaneous detection of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cattle using two primer pairs targeting msp4 and msp2 genes, respectively. We used this method to analyze DNA preparations derived from 328 blood cattle samples that were collected from 80 farms distributed among Tunisia's four bioclimatic zones. The prevalence of the A. marginale infection (24.7 %) was significantly higher and more widespread (in all bioclimatic areas) than that of A. phagocytophilum (0.6 %), which was found in a mixed infection with A. marginale. The duplex PCR assay used proved to be a rapid, specific and inexpensive mean for the simultaneous detection of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cattle blood. It allowed us to report the identification of A. phagocytophilum for the first time in cattle in Tunisia and confirm the presence of A. marginale in cattle from several geographical areas of the country. Further epidemiological studies undertaken using this assay will help improve the surveillance of the associated diseases in the regions where they are endemic.

  2. [Monoinfections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia burgdorferi / Anaplasma phagocytophilum co-infections in forestry workers and farmers].

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    Tokarska-Rodak, Małgorzata; Pańczuk, Anna; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria; Plewik, Dorota; Szepeluk, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The presence of co-infections induced by tick-borne pathogens in humans is an important epidemiological phenomenon. This issue has attracted growing attention of doctors and people working under conditions of an increased risk of being exposed to tick bites. The research group consisted of 93 individuals with current anti-immunoglobulin M/G (IgM/ IgG) Borrelia burgdorferi or IgG anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The respondents were identified during the screening survey in a group of farmers and foresters occupationally exposed to tick bites. The aim of the work was to analyse the frequency of antibodies to specific antigens of B. burgdorferi and the levels of cytokines in forestry workers and farmers with B. burgdorferi monoinfections and B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infections. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi2, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. There is a stronger generation of IgG antibodies to B. burgdorferi antigens in patients with B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infections, such as variable major protein-like sequence expressed (VlsE) (p < 0.05), p19 (p < 0.02), p17 (p < 0.05) and complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 3 (CRASP3) (p < 0.02) compared to persons with B. burgdorferi monoinfections. The discrepancies in the synthesis of cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) have not been found in persons with B. burgdorferi monoinfections and B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infection. The immune response directed against B. burgdorferi is stronger in patients co-infected with B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum than in those with monoinfection. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  3. Monoinfections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia burgdorferi / Anaplasma phagocytophilum co-infections in forestry workers and farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of co-infections induced by tick-borne pathogens in humans is an important epidemiological phenomenon. This issue has attracted growing attention of doctors and people working under conditions of an increased risk of being exposed to tick bites. Material and Methods: The research group consisted of 93 individuals with current anti-immunoglobulin M/G (IgM/ IgG Borrelia burgdorferi or IgG anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The respondents were identified during the screening survey in a group of farmers and foresters occupationally exposed to tick bites. The aim of the work was to analyse the frequency of antibodies to specific antigens of B. burgdorferi and the levels of cytokines in forestry workers and farmers with B. burgdorferi monoinfections and B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infections. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi2, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: There is a stronger generation of IgG antibodies to B. burgdorferi antigens in patients with B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infections, such as variable major protein-like sequence expressed (VlsE (p < 0.05, p19 (p < 0.02, p17 (p < 0.05 and complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 3 (CRASP3 (p < 0.02 compared to persons with B. burgdorferi monoinfections. The discrepancies in the synthesis of cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α have not been found in persons with B. burgdorferi monoinfections and B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infection. Conclusions: The immune response directed against B. burgdorferi is stronger in patients co-infected with B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum than in those with monoinfection. Med Pr 2015;66(5:645–651

  4. Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum.

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    Arathy D S Nair

    Full Text Available Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological

  5. Development and Clinical Validation of a Multiplex Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assay for Human Infection by Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis

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    Megan E. Reller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA, caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME, caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, often present as undifferentiated fever but are not treated by typical empiric regimens for acute febrile illness. Their role as agents of vector-borne febrile disease in tropical regions is more poorly studied than for other rickettsial infections. Limitations in diagnosis have impaired epidemiologic and clinical research and needless morbidity and mortality occur due to untreated illness. Methods: We designed and clinically validated a multiplex real-time quantitative PCR assay for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis using samples confirmed by multiple gold-standard methods. Results: Clinical sensitivity and specificity for A. phagocytophilum were 100% (39/39 and 100% (143/143, respectively, and for E. chaffeensis 95% (20/21 and 99% (159/161, respectively. Conclusions: These assays could support early diagnosis and treatment as well as the high-throughput testing required for large epidemiologic studies.

  6. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale Elicit Different Gene Expression Responses in Cultured Tick Cells

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    Zorica Zivkovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae includes obligate tick-transmitted intracellular organisms, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale that multiply in both vertebrate and tick host cells. Recently, we showed that A. marginale affects the expression of tick genes that are involved in tick survival and pathogen infection and multiplication. However, the gene expression profile in A. phagocytophilum-infected tick cells is currently poorly characterized. The objectives of this study were to characterize tick gene expression profile in Ixodes scapularis ticks and cultured ISE6 cells in response to infection with A. phagocypthilum and to compare tick gene expression responses in A. phagocytophilum- and A. marginale-infected tick cells by microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses. The results of these studies demonstrated modulation of tick gene expression by A. phagocytophilum and provided evidence of different gene expression responses in tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum and A. marginale. These differences in Anaplasma-tick interactions may reflect differences in pathogen life cycle in the tick cells.

  7. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and tick-transmitted bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in one selected goat farm in Slovakia.

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    Čobádiová, Andrea; Reiterová, Katarina; Derdáková, Markéta; Špilovská, Silvia; Turčeková, Ludmila; Hviščová, Ivana; Hisira, Vladimir

    2013-12-01

    Parasitic diseases of livestock together with poor welfare conditions can negatively affect the health status and production of small ruminants. Protozoan parasites and tick-borne infectious agents are common threat of livestock including small ruminants mostly during the pasture season. Therefore the priority of the study was to analyse the circulation and presence of two protozoan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum as well as tick-transmitted bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum in one selected goat farm in Eastern Slovakia. Throughout a three-year study period we have repeatedly screened the sera and blood of goats and dogs from monitored farm. In total, 343 blood serum samples from 116 goats were examined by ELISA. The mean seropositivity for T. gondii was 56.9% (66/116, CI (95%) = 48-66.0) and 15.5% (18/116, CI (95%) = 9.3-22.7) for N. caninum. The permanent occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma and anti-Neospora antibodies was detected in repeatedly examined goats during the whole monitored period. The presence of both parasites in the flock was analysed by PCR. DNA of T. gondii was confirmed in 12 out of 25 Toxoplasma-seropositive goats and N. caninum in 14 samples out of 18 Neospora-seropositive animals; four goats were co-infected with both pathogens. The risk of endogenous transmission of both parasites was pursued by examination of 41 kid's sera, where seropositivity for toxoplasmosis was 31.7% and for neosporosis 14.6%. In dogs 61.1% seropositivity for T. gondii and 38.9% for N. caninum was found, however, their faeces were negative for coccidian oocysts. Eight out of 108 tested animals were infected with A. phagocytophilum, the causative agent of tick-borne fever. Seven of them were simultaneously infected with T. gondii and A. phagocytophilum, out of which four goats were concurrently infected with all three pathogens.

  8. Anaplasma phagocytophilum MSP4 and HSP70 Proteins Are Involved in Interactions with Host Cells during Pathogen Infection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Contreras, M.; Alberdi, P.; Mateos-Hernández, L.; Fernández de Mera, I.G.; García-Pérez, A. L.; Vancová, Marie; Villar, M.; Ayllón, N.; Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Valdés, James J.; Stuen, S.; Gortazar, C.; de la Fuente, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, JUL 5 (2017), č. článku 307. ISSN 2235-2988 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : anaplasmosis * immunology * hl60 * tick * vaccine * sheep * Anaplasma phagocytophilum Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  9. Thrombocyte indices in dogs infected with Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum

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    Funda Özata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In the present study alterations in trombocyte numbers and trombocyte indices were investigated in 51 dogs naturally infected with E. canis and/or A. phagocytophilum. Achieved results were compared to those of 20 healty dogs comprising control group. Materials and methods. Naturally occuring vector borne diseases were diagnosed by use of a canine point-of-care ELISA kit (Snap 4Dx, Idexx. Dogs were enrolled into 3 groups as follows; II. group involved A. phagocytophilum infected dogs (n=10, III. group (n=13 E. canis+ A. phagocytophilum co-infected, and IV. group (n=28 E. canis infected dogs. Healthy controls (n=20 were enrolled in group I. Results. Mean PLT counts were significantly decreased in II., III. and IV. groups (159.6±63.5, 142.3±44.3, 148.7±33.5, respectively in comparison to control group (370.4±28.6 (p≤0.01. Mean PCT values in groups II., III. and IV. (0.1530±0.590, 0.1531±0.0441, 0.1450±0.314, respectively were significantly decreased in contrast to control group (0.3695±0.0283 (p≤0.01. Between PLT and PCT values, statistically significant positive correlation (p≤0.01 (r=0.988, 0.990 and 0.981, respectively was evident among groups II., III. and IV. Conclusions. Infected dogs showed significant alterations (p≤0.01 among mean PLT and PCT values and a positive correlation was evident between those 2 parameters (p≤0.01, whereas alterations on mean MPV and PDWc were not statistically significant. Finally it was suggested that according to the aforimentioned results, PLT and PCT values may be used as valuable parameters for diagnosis and probably for monitorization and prognosis in infected dogs with Ehrlichiosis and/or Anaplasmosis.

  10. Longitudinal field study on bovine Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections during a grazing season in Belgium.

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    Lempereur, Laetitia; Lebrun, Maude; Cuvelier, Pascale; Sépult, Géraldine; Caron, Yannick; Saegerman, Claude; Shiels, Brian; Losson, Bertrand

    2012-04-01

    Anaplasmosis and babesiosis are major tick-borne diseases with a high economic impact but are also a public health concern. Blood samples collected in the spring, summer, and autumn of 2010 from 65 cows in seven different farms in Belgium were monitored with an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test to assess seroprevalence against these pathogens. Seroprevalences to Babesia spp. were measured as 10.7%, 20%, and 12.3% in spring, summer, and autumn, respectively, whereas seroprevalences to Anaplasma phagocytophilum were 30.8%, 77%, and 56.9%, respectively. A total of 805 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected at the same time from both cattle (feeding ticks) and grazed pastures (questing ticks). The infection level of ticks, assessed by PCR assay, for Babesia spp. DNA was 14.6% and 7.9% in feeding and questing ticks, respectively, whereas 21.7% and 3% of feeding and questing ticks were found be positive for A. phagocytophilum cDNA. Fifty-five PCR-positive samples were identified by sequencing as Babesia sp. EU1, of which five from feeding ticks were positive for both A. phagocytophilum and Babesia sp. EU1. The high density of wild cervids in the study area could explain these observations, as deer are considered to be the main hosts for adults of I. ricinus. However, the absence of Babesia divergens both in feeding and questing ticks is surprising, as the study area is known to be endemic for cattle babesiosis. Increasing cervid populations and comorbidity could play an import role in the epidemiology of these tick-borne diseases.

  11. Efficacy of sarolaner in the prevention of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum transmission from infected Ixodes scapularis to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honsberger, Nicole A; Six, Robert H; Heinz, Thomas J; Weber, Angela; Mahabir, Sean P; Berg, Thomas C

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis) to prevent transmission primarily of Borrelia burgdorferi and secondarily of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from infected wild-caught Ixodes scapularis to dogs was evaluated in a placebo-controlled laboratory study. Twenty-four purpose-bred laboratory Beagles seronegative for B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies were allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups: placebo administered orally on Days 0 and 7, or sarolaner at 2mg/kg administered orally on Day 0 (28 days prior to tick infestation) or on Day 7 (21 days prior to tick infestation). On Day 28, each dog was infested with approximately 25 female and 25 male wild caught adult I. scapularis that were determined to have prevalence of 57% for B. burgdorferi and 6.7% for A. phagocytophilum by PCR. In situ tick counts were conducted on Days 29 and 30. On Day 33, all ticks were counted and removed. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated based on the reduction of geometric mean live tick counts in the sarolaner-treated groups compared to the placebo-treated group for each tick count. Blood samples collected from each dog on Days 27, 49, 63, 77, 91 and 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies using the SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) Plus Test, and quantitatively assayed for B. burgdorferi antibodies using an ELISA test. Skin biopsies collected on Day 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi by bacterial culture and PCR. Geometric mean live tick counts for placebo-treated dogs were 14.8, 12.8, and 19.1 on Days 29, 30, and 33, respectively. The percent reductions in mean live tick counts at 1, 2, and 5 days after infestation were 86.3%, 100%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 21 days prior to infestation, and 90.9%, 97.1%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 28 days prior to infestation. Geometric mean live tick counts for both sarolaner-treated groups were significantly lower than those for the

  12. Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum: Rickettsiales pathogens of veterinary and public health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Farhan Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are the most important tick-borne bacteria of veterinary and public health significance in the family Anaplasmataceae. The objective of current review is to provide knowledge on ecology and epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum and compare major similarities and differences of A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum. Bovine anaplasmosis is globally distributed tick-borne disease of livestock with great economic importance in cattle industry. A. phagocytophilum, a cosmopolitan zoonotic tick transmitted pathogen of wide mammalian hosts. The infection in domestic animals is generally referred as tick-borne fever. Concurrent infections exist in ticks, domestic and wild animals in same geographic area. All age groups are susceptible, but the prevalence increases with age. Movement of susceptible domestic animals from tick free non-endemic regions to disease endemic regions is the major risk factor of bovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever. Recreational activities or any other high-risk tick exposure habits as well as blood transfusion are important risk factors of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. After infection, individuals remain life-long carriers. Clinical anaplasmosis is usually diagnosed upon examination of stained blood smears. Generally, detection of serum antibodies followed by molecular diagnosis is usually recommended. There are problems of sensitivity and cross-reactivity with both the Anaplasma species during serological tests. Tetracyclines are the drugs of choice for treatment and elimination of anaplasmosis in animals and humans. Universal vaccine is not available for either A. marginale or A. phagocytophilum, effective against geographically diverse strains. Major control measures for bovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever include rearing of tick-resistant breeds, endemic stability, breeding Anaplasma-free herds, identification of regional vectors, domestic/wild reservoirs and control, habitat modification

  13. Anaplasma phagocytophilum increases the levels of histone modifying enzymes to inhibit cell apoptosis and facilitate pathogen infection in the tick vector Ixodes scapularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Alberdi, Pilar; Ayllón, Nieves; Valdés, James J; Pierce, Raymond; Villar, Margarita; de la Fuente, José

    2016-04-02

    Epigenetic mechanisms have not been characterized in ticks despite their importance as vectors of human and animal diseases worldwide. The objective of this study was to characterize the histones and histone modifying enzymes (HMEs) of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis and their role during Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. We first identified 5 histones and 34 HMEs in I. scapularis in comparison with similar proteins in model organisms. Then, we used transcriptomic and proteomic data to analyze the mRNA and protein levels of I. scapularis histones and HMEs in response to A. phagocytophilum infection of tick tissues and cultured cells. Finally, selected HMEs were functionally characterized by pharmacological studies in cultured tick cells. The results suggest that A. phagocytophilum manipulates tick cell epigenetics to increase I. scapularis p300/CBP, histone deacetylase, and Sirtuin levels, resulting in an inhibition of cell apoptosis that in turn facilitates pathogen infection and multiplication. These results also suggest that a compensatory mechanism might exist by which A. phagocytophilum manipulates tick HMEs to regulate transcription and apoptosis in a tissue-specific manner to facilitate infection, but preserving tick fitness to guarantee survival of both pathogens and ticks. Our study also indicates that the pathogen manipulates arthropod and vertebrate cell epigenetics in similar ways to inhibit the host response to infection. Epigenetic regulation of tick biological processes is an essential element of the infection by A. phagocytophilum and the study of the mechanisms and principal actors involved is likely to provide clues for the development of anti-tick drugs and vaccines.

  14. A comparative study of clinical manifestations, haematological and serological responses after experimental infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in two Norwegian sheep breeds

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    Sandstedt Karin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been questioned if the old native Norwegian sheep breed, Old Norse Sheep (also called Norwegian Feral Sheep, normally distributed on coastal areas where ticks are abundant, is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds due to a continuously high selection pressure on pasture. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis in an experimental infection study. Methods Five-months-old lambs of two Norwegian sheep breeds, Norwegian White (NW sheep and Old Norse (ON sheep, were experimentally infected with a 16S rRNA genetic variant of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (similar to GenBank accession number M73220. The experiment was repeated for two subsequent years, 2008 and 2009, with the use of 16 lambs of each breed annually. Ten lambs of each breed were inoculated intravenously each year with 0.4 ml A. phagocytophilum-infected blood containing approximately 0.5 × 106 infected neutrophils/ml. Six lambs of each breed were used as uninfected controls. Half of the primary inoculated lambs in each breed were re-challenged with the same infectious dose at nine (2008 and twelve (2009 weeks after the first challenge. The clinical, haematological and serological responses to A. phagocytophilum infection were compared in the two sheep breeds. Results The present study indicates a difference in fever response and infection rate between breeds of Norwegian sheep after experimental infection with A. phagocytophilum. Conclusion Although clinical response seems to be less in ON-lambs compared to NW-lambs, further studies including more animals are needed to evaluate if the ON-breed is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds.

  15. Genome-wide Anaplasma phagocytophilum AnkA-DNA interactions are enriched in intergenic regions and gene promoters and correlate with infection-induced differential gene expression.

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    J Stephen Dumler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular prokaryote, infects neutrophils and alters cardinal functions via reprogrammed transcription. Large contiguous regions of neutrophil chromosomes are differentially expressed during infection. Secreted A. phagocytophilum effector AnkA transits into the neutrophil or granulocyte nucleus to complex with DNA in heterochromatin across all chromosomes. AnkA binds to gene promoters to dampen cis-transcription and also has features of matrix attachment region (MAR-binding proteins that regulate three-dimensional chromatin architecture and coordinate transcriptional programs encoded in topologically-associated chromatin domains. We hypothesize that identification of additional AnkA binding sites will better delineate how A. phagocytophilum infection results in reprogramming of the neutrophil genome. Using AnkA-binding ChIP-seq, we showed that AnkA binds broadly throughout all chromosomes in a reproducible pattern, especially at: i intergenic regions predicted to be matrix attachment regions (MARs; ii within predicted lamina-associated domains; and iii at promoters ≤3,000 bp upstream of transcriptional start sites. These findings provide genome-wide support for AnkA as a regulator of cis-gene transcription. Moreover, the dominant mark of AnkA in distal intergenic regions known to be AT-enriched, coupled with frequent enrichment in the nuclear lamina, provides strong support for its role as a MAR-binding protein and genome re-organizer. AnkA must be considered a prime candidate to promote neutrophil reprogramming and subsequent functional changes that belie improved microbial fitness and pathogenicity.

  16. Detection and identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia helvetica in Danish Ixodes ricinus ticks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarphédinsson, Sigurdur; Lyholm, Birgitte Fjendbo; Ljungberg, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Borreliosis is an endemic infection in Denmark. Recent serosurveys have indicated that human anaplasmosis may be equally common. The aim of this study was to look for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and related pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks and estimate their prevalence, compared to Borrelia, using...

  17. The Pathogen-Occupied Vacuoles of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale Interact with the Endoplasmic Reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchan, Hilary K; Cockburn, Chelsea L; Hebert, Kathryn S; Magunda, Forgivemore; Noh, Susan M; Carlyon, Jason A

    2016-01-01

    The genus Anaplasma consists of tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacteria that invade white or red blood cells to cause debilitating and potentially fatal infections. A. phagocytophilum, a human and veterinary pathogen, infects neutrophils to cause granulocytic anaplasmosis. A. marginale invades bovine erythrocytes. Evidence suggests that both species may also infect endothelial cells in vivo. In mammalian and arthropod host cells, A. phagocytophilum and A. marginale reside in host cell derived pathogen-occupied vacuoles (POVs). While it was recently demonstrated that the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole (ApV) intercepts membrane traffic from the trans-Golgi network, it is unclear if it or the A. marginale-occupied vacuole (AmV) interacts with other secretory organelles. Here, we demonstrate that the ApV and AmV extensively interact with the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in endothelial, myeloid, and/or tick cells. ER lumen markers, calreticulin, and protein disulfide isomerase, and the ER membrane marker, derlin-1, were pronouncedly recruited to the peripheries of both POVs. ApV association with the ER initiated early and continued throughout the infection cycle. Both the ApV and AmV interacted with the rough ER and smooth ER. However, only derlin-1-positive rough ER derived vesicles were delivered into the ApV lumen where they localized with intravacuolar bacteria. Transmission electron microscopy identified multiple ER-POV membrane contact sites on the cytosolic faces of both species' vacuoles that corresponded to areas on the vacuoles' lumenal faces where intravacuolar Anaplasma organisms closely associated. A. phagocytophilum is known to hijack Rab10, a GTPase that regulates ER dynamics and morphology. Yet, ApV-ER interactions were unhindered in cells in which Rab10 had been knocked down, demonstrating that the GTPase is dispensable for the bacterium to parasitize the ER. These data establish the ApV and AmV as pathogen-host interfaces that directly

  18. Detection and identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia helvetica in Danish Ixodes ricinus ticks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarphédinsson, Sigurdur; Lyholm, Birgitte Fjendbo; Ljungberg, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Borreliosis is an endemic infection in Denmark. Recent serosurveys have indicated that human anaplasmosis may be equally common. The aim of this study was to look for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and related pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks and estimate their prevalence, compared to Borrelia, using...... Jutland and Funen, while 11% were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi. The Borrelia genotype B. afzelii was most prevalent, followed by B. valaisiana, B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. garinii.A. phagocytophilum was found in 14.5% of nymphs and 40.5% of adult ticks, while Borrelia was found in 13% of nymphs and 8......% of adult ticks. The difference in prevalence between Anaplasma and Borrelia in adult ticks supports the idea that their maintenance cycles in nature may be different. Ticks were also infected with Rickettsia helvetica. Our study indicates that A. phagocytophilum prevalence in ticks in Denmark is as high...

  19. First molecular evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in rodent population of Nanchang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weiqing; Liu, Yangqing; Tao, Huiying; Li, Zifen; Xuan, Xuenan; Liu, Xiaoqing; Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Wu, Yayun; Liu, Wenqing; Chen, Haiying

    2018-02-28

    In this study, systematic surveillance of rodent population in Nanchang of China and determination of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in rodents were performed. Between 2011 and 2015, 110,084 rodent snap traps were set in 4 Counties and the city center of Nanchang, China. Finally, 942 rodents were captured with the relative densities of 0.86%. The densities varied considerably by geographical difference and Anyi was the most rodent-infested County. Frequently captured rodents were sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus), house mice (Mus musculus) and Rattus flavipectus. Anaplasma genera were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 19 live rodents trapped by welded cages in Anyi and 6 were positive based on amplification of 16S rRNA. Sequence analysis revealed three variants of A. phagocytophilum in Nanchang. PCR analysis of the gltA (citrate synthase) gene found one sample positive for A. phagocytophilum infection. The sequence of A. phagocytophilum gltA gene formed a clade with and showed 99% identity to A. phagocytophilum previously described in rodents from south-eastern China. Taken together, our research indicates that commensal rodents are potential hosts for A. phagocytophilum and controlling rodent population may facilitate subsequent preventing HGA in Nanchang, China in the future.

  20. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in North Carolina Eastern Black Bears ( Ursus americanus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, Lori S H; Stoskopf, Michael K; Maggi, Ricardo G

    2016-10-01

    We detected Anaplasma phagocytophilum by DNA amplification in whole blood from free-ranging, hunter-killed American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) from the east coast of North Carolina, US. Molecular prevalence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum was 3% from 68 black bears. No DNA of other Anaplasma or Ehrlichia spp. was identified.

  1. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA in Ixodes ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from Madeira Island and Setubal District, mainland Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana Sofia; Santos-Silva, Maria Margarida; Almeida, Victor Carlos; Bacellar, Fátima; Dumler, John Stephen

    2004-09-01

    A total of 278 Ixodes ticks, collected from Madeira Island and Setubal District, mainland Portugal, were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Six (4%) of 142 Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected in Madeira Island and 1 nymph and 1 male (2%) of 93 I. ventalloi collected in Setubal District tested positive for A. phagocytophilum msp2 genes or rrs. Infection was not detected among 43 I. ricinus on mainland Portugal. All PCR products were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing to be identical or to be most closely related to A. phagocytophilum. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of A. phagocytophilum in ticks from Setubal District, mainland Portugal, and the first documentation of Anaplasma infection in I. ventalloi. Moreover, these findings confirm the persistence of A. phagocytophilum in Madeira Island's I. ricinus.

  2. Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Related Defects in CD8, NKT, and NK Lymphocyte Cytotoxicity

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    Diana G. Scorpio

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, caused by the tick-transmitted Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is not controlled by innate immunity, and induces a proinflammatory disease state with innate immune cell activation. In A. phagocytophilum murine infection models, hepatic injury occurs with production of IFNγ thought to be derived from NK, NKT cells, and CD8 T lymphocytes. Specific A. phagocytophilum ligands that drive inflammation and disease are not known, but suggest a clinical and pathophysiologic basis strikingly like macrophage activation syndrome (MAS and hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS. We studied in vivo responses of NK, NKT, and CD8 T lymphocytes from infected animals for correlates of lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity and examined in vitro interactions with A. phagocytophilum-loaded antigen-presenting cells (APCs. Murine splenocytes were examined and found deficient in cytotoxicity as determined by CD107a expression in vitro for specific CTL effector subsets as determined by flow cytometry. Moreover, A. phagocytophilum-loaded APCs did not lead to IFNγ production among CTLs in vitro. These findings support the concept of impaired cytotoxicity with A. phagocytophilum presentation by APCs that express MHC class I and that interact with innate and adaptive immune cells with or after infection. The findings strengthen the concept of an enhanced proinflammatory phenotype, such as MAS and HPS disease states as the basis of disease and severity with A. phagocytophilum infection, and perhaps by other obligate intracellular bacteria.

  3. Detecting and characterizing mixed infections with genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) by developing an ankA cluster-specific nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouglin, Maggy; Chagneau, Sophie; Faille, Frédéric; Verheyden, Hélène; Bastian, Suzanne; Malandrin, Laurence

    2017-08-07

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-transmitted Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium able to infect a wide variety of wild and domestic animals worldwide. Based on the genetic diversity observed with different molecular markers, several host-specific lineages have been identified. Roe deer is one of the most important reservoirs of this bacterium and hosts different genetic groups sometimes found on domestic animals. We therefore developed an ankA cluster-specific nested PCR (nPCR) to evaluate the prevalence of the three different ankA genetic groups described in roe deer (clusters II, III and IV) at three locations in France and the level of co-infections. The specificity of the three nPCRs was assessed by partially sequencing 35 amplicons of ankA genes obtained from the different nested PCRs. All three genetic lineages were detected in roe deer from all three geographical locations. Of the infected deer population, 60.7% were co-infected by two or three different genetic variants. Co-infections varied from 42.9 to 70.6% of the infected population depending on the local infection prevalences (from 33.3 to 73.9%). All types of mixed infections occurred, suggesting the absence of a strict variant exclusion by another variant. Mixed infections by two or three genetic variants of A. phagocytopilum are a common feature in roe deer. Genetic variants (cluster IV) also found in domestic ruminants (cattle and sheep) were present in all the roe deer populations analyzed, suggesting a shared epidemiological cycle.

  4. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ixodid ticks from equine-inhabited sites in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Dawn M; Fang, Quentin Q

    2012-04-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a vector-borne, obligate intracellular bacterium that invades the neutrophils and eosinophils of infected individuals, causing granulocytic anaplasmosis. Equine cases have previously been reported in the United States from California, Florida, and Connecticut, but limited surveillance studies in the Southeast have been conducted. The objective of this study was to determine A. phagocytophilum prevalence in Ixodes scapularis ticks at southeastern U.S. horse-inhabited sites to evaluate the potential risk for equine exposure to A. phagocytophilum-infected ticks in these areas. Samples of I. scapularis were collected from selected barrier islands and Georgia mainland sites where feral and domestic equine populations are present, respectively. Ticks were individually tested for infection by amplification of the A. phagocytophilum ankA gene. The collective prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in I. scapularis ticks was 20% (n=808).

  5. Diversity of ankA and msp4 genes of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strašek Smrdel, Katja; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Petrovec, Miroslav; Avšič Županc, Tatjana

    2015-03-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis is a tick transmitted emerging disease in Europe and worldwide. The agent, Anaplasma phagocytophilum is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes and causes infections in humans and domestic animals. The analysis of different target genes showed that in nature several genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum were present. The purpose of our study was to genetically characterize A. phagocytophilum strains from eight humans, 16 dogs, 12 wild boars, one bear and 18 tick pools from Slovenia. Therefore, the ankA and msp4 genes of A. phagocytophilum were chosen. The same genetic ankA and msp4 variant of A. phagocytophilum was detected in humans, wild boar and a part of the pooled ticks indicating that it circulates in a zoonotic cycle between wild boar and ticks. In dogs, three ankA variants of A. phagocytophilum were detected. One of them was identical to the one that was found in humans. In contrast, all dogs harboured the same msp4 variant as humans and wild boar. In ticks, numerous ankA and msp4 variants were present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Epigenetic silencing of host cell defense genes enhances intracellular survival of the rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

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    Jose C Garcia-Garcia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacteria have evolved mechanisms that promote survival within hostile host environments, often resulting in functional dysregulation and disease. Using the Anaplasma phagocytophilum-infected granulocyte model, we establish a link between host chromatin modifications, defense gene transcription and intracellular bacterial infection. Infection of THP-1 cells with A. phagocytophilum led to silencing of host defense gene expression. Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1 expression, activity and binding to the defense gene promoters significantly increased during infection, which resulted in decreased histone H3 acetylation in infected cells. HDAC1 overexpression enhanced infection, whereas pharmacologic and siRNA HDAC1 inhibition significantly decreased bacterial load. HDAC2 does not seem to be involved, since HDAC2 silencing by siRNA had no effect on A. phagocytophilum intracellular propagation. These data indicate that HDAC up-regulation and epigenetic silencing of host cell defense genes is required for A. phagocytophilum infection. Bacterial epigenetic regulation of host cell gene transcription could be a general mechanism that enhances intracellular pathogen survival while altering cell function and promoting disease.

  7. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtwig, Vera; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Schulze, Christoph; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Daugschies, Arwid; Dyachenko, Viktor

    2014-04-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular and tick-transmitted bacterium, which causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in animals and humans. Although infection with A. phagocytophilum in domestic animals and vector ticks is documented, there is sparse information on the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in wild animals. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as well as raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are wildlife species highly abundant in certain areas of Germany and represent a potential wildlife reservoir for zoonotic diseases. To obtain data about the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in these animals, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by means of real-time PCR. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 10 out of 122 (8.2%) lungs of red foxes and in 3 out of 13 (23%) lungs of raccoon dogs. To the best of our knowledge, A. phagocytophilum was detected for the first time in red foxes and raccoon dogs in Germany. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Danish sheep: confirmation by DNA sequencing

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    Thamsborg Stig M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an Ixodes ricinus transmitted bacterium, was investigated in two flocks of Danish grazing lambs. Direct PCR detection was performed on DNA extracted from blood and serum with subsequent confirmation by DNA sequencing. Methods 31 samples obtained from clinically normal lambs in 2000 from Fussingø, Jutland and 12 samples from ten lambs and two ewes from a clinical outbreak at Feddet, Zealand in 2006 were included in the study. Some of the animals from Feddet had shown clinical signs of polyarthritis and general unthriftiness prior to sampling. DNA extraction was optimized from blood and serum and detection achieved by a 16S rRNA targeted PCR with verification of the product by DNA sequencing. Results Five DNA extracts were found positive by PCR, including two samples from 2000 and three from 2006. For both series of samples the product was verified as A. phagocytophilum by DNA sequencing. Conclusions A. phagocytophilum was detected by molecular methods for the first time in Danish grazing lambs during the two seasons investigated (2000 and 2006.

  9. The risk of exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Babesia sp. and co-infections in Ixodes ricinus ticks on the territory of Niepołomice forest (southern Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asman, Marek; Nowak, Magdalena; Cuber, Piotr; Strzelczyk, Joanna; Szilman, Ewa; Szilman, Piotr; Trapp, Gizela; Siuda, Krzysztof; Solarz, Krzysztof; Wiczkowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Niepołomice Forest is located about 20 kilometers east of Cracow (Malopolska province, southern Poland). Its natural and touristic values, as well as wide range of hosts occurring within indicate this to be an area of high risk of exposure to Ixodes ricinus and tick-borne diseases it transfers. I. ricinus is a common species in Poland and Europe. Its seasonal activity begins in Poland in the early spring, and ends with late autumn. A total number of 129 specimens of I. ricinus was collected by flagging in Niepołomice Forest. DNA was isolated by ammonia method from 30 randomly-selected individuals. PCR was used to detect tick-borne pathogens with primers specific for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Babesia sp. Molecular studies confirmed the presence of all three pathogens in I. ricinus. A. phagocytophilum was found in 76.7%, Babesia sp., 60%, B. burgdorferi s. l., in 3.3% of studied ticks. A. phagocytophilum co-infection with Babesia sp., was found in 46.7% of the specimens. A co-infection of all three tested pathogens was recorded in one case (3.3%). In Poland the problem of tick-borne diseases is a growing issue, therefore people residing in southern Polish touristic areas should be informed about the prevention and protection against ticks.

  10. Spatial distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolnai, Z; Sréter-Lancz, Z; Sréter, T

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus were reported from Hungary. The aim of the present study was to reveal the spatial distribution pattern of pathogens transmitted by R. sanguineus in a sentinel species, red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary and to analyse the relationship of these patterns with landscape and climate by geographical information systems. Fox carcasses, representing 0.5% of the total fox population were randomly selected out of all the foxes of Hungary. The spleen samples of the animals were tested by real-time PCR for Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli, E. canis and H. canis infection. Positive results were confirmed by conventional PCR followed by sequencing. The prevalence of H. canis infection was 22.2% (95% CI=18.4-26.4%), and this parasite was detected in all areas including the mountain regions of Hungary. These findings indicate that other tick species or other transmission routes (oral and transplacental) might be in the background of the countrywide distribution of H. canis. Anaplasma platys was not found; nevertheless, the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection transmitted by Ixodes ricinus was 12.5% (95% CI=9.7-16.1%) in foxes. B. vogeli and E. canis infection was not detected. There was no correlation between environmental parameter values in the home range of foxes and A. phagocytophilum or H. canis infection, which is in line with that observed in the case of tick species infesting foxes in Hungary. The results of this study indicate that R. sanguineus, if present, might be rare in Hungary. Our baseline study can be used for future evaluation of the effect of climate change on the spreading and emergence of R. sanguineus transmitted pathogens in Hungary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative Genomics Identifies a Potential Marker of Human-Virulent Anaplasma phagocytophilum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khedery, Basima; Barbet, Anthony F.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously described a comparative genome analysis of nine strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum that showed similarity between strains infecting humans and U.S. dogs and a more distant relationship with horse and ruminant strains. This suggested that it may be possible to distinguish human-infective strains using simple DNA sequence-based diagnostic tests. This would be of epidemiologic significance in identifying and tracking the presence of virulent strains in tick vector populations. Further analysis identified a gene that was present in several strains, including U.S. Ap-variant 1 (ruminant), MRK (horse), and European sheep, but was deleted in strains infecting U.S. humans and dogs, suggesting that it could be a useful marker of human virulence. A simple PCR test was developed to identify the presence/absence of this gene. The PCR test discriminated A. phagocytophilum strains from clinically affected humans and U.S. dogs from the strains more distantly related in genome sequence. This warrants further testing of globally diverse A. phagocytophilum strains to examine world-wide conservation of this gene. PMID:25437606

  12. Bioinformatic and mass spectrometry identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum proteins translocated into host cell nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara H. G. Sinclair

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Obligate intracellular bacteria have an arsenal of proteins that alter host cells to establish and maintain a hospitable environment for replication. Anaplasma phagocytophilum secrets Ankyrin A (AnkA, via a type IV secretion system, which translocates to the nucleus of its host cell, human neutrophils. A. phagocytophilum-infected neutrophils have dramatically altered phenotypes in part explained by AnkA-induced transcriptional alterations. However, it is unlikely that AnkA is the sole effector to account for infection-induced transcriptional changes. We developed a simple method combining bioinformatics and iTRAQ protein profiling to identify potential bacterial-derived nuclear-translocated proteins that could impact transcriptional programming in host cells. This approach identified 50 A. phagocytophilum candidate genes or proteins. The encoding genes were cloned to create GFP fusion protein-expressing clones that were transfected into HEK-293T cells. We confirmed nuclear translocation of six proteins: APH_0062, RplE, Hup, APH_0382, APH_0385, and APH_0455. Of the six, APH_0455 was identified as a type IV secretion substrate and is now under investigation as a potential nucleomodulin. Additionally, application of this approach to other obligate intracellular bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia trachomatis and other intracellular bacteria identified multiple candidate genes to be investigated.

  13. The Prostaglandin E2-EP3 Receptor Axis Regulates Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Mediated NLRC4 Inflammasome Activation.

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    Xiaowei Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsial agents are sensed by pattern recognition receptors but lack pathogen-associated molecular patterns commonly observed in facultative intracellular bacteria. Due to these molecular features, the order Rickettsiales can be used to uncover broader principles of bacterial immunity. Here, we used the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to reveal a novel microbial surveillance system. Mechanistically, we discovered that upon A. phagocytophilum infection, cytosolic phospholipase A2 cleaves arachidonic acid from phospholipids, which is converted to the eicosanoid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 via cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 and the membrane associated prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1. PGE2-EP3 receptor signaling leads to activation of the NLRC4 inflammasome and secretion of interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Importantly, the receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (RIPK2 was identified as a major regulator of the immune response against A. phagocytophilum. Accordingly, mice lacking COX2 were more susceptible to A. phagocytophilum, had a defect in IL-18 secretion and exhibited splenomegaly and damage to the splenic architecture. Remarkably, Salmonella-induced NLRC4 inflammasome activation was not affected by either chemical inhibition or genetic ablation of genes associated with PGE2 biosynthesis and signaling. This divergence in immune circuitry was due to reduced levels of the PGE2-EP3 receptor during Salmonella infection when compared to A. phagocytophilum. Collectively, we reveal the existence of a functionally distinct NLRC4 inflammasome illustrated by the rickettsial agent A. phagocytophilum.

  14. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Wolbachia sp. but not Ehrlichia canis in Croatian dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Doroteja; Reil, Irena; Duvnjak, Sanja; Jurković, Daria; Lukačević, Damir; Pilat, Miroslav; Beck, Ana; Mihaljević, Željko; Vojta, Lea; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beck, Relja

    2017-11-01

    The bacteria Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis are tick-borne agents that cause canine vector-borne disease. The prevalence of these pathogens in South Eastern Europe is unknown with the exception of an isolated case of A. platys detected in a dog imported into Germany from Croatia. To gain a better insight into their presence and prevalence, PCR-based screening for these bacterial pathogens was performed on domesticated dogs from different regions of Croatia. Blood samples from 1080 apparently healthy dogs from coastal and continental parts of Croatia as well as tissue samples collected from 63 deceased dogs with a history of anaemia and thrombocytopenia were collected for molecular screening by an Anaplasmataceae-specific 16S rRNA conventional PCR. Positive samples were confirmed using a second Anaplasmataceae-specific PCR assay with the PCR product sequenced for the purpose of bacterial species identification. All sequenced isolates were georeferenced and a kernel intensity estimator was used to identify clusters of greater case intensity. 42/1080 (3.8%; CI 2.7-5.0) of the healthy dogs were PCR positive for bacteria in the Anaplasmataceae. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene amplified from these positive samples revealed the presence of A. platys in 2.5% (CI 1.6-3.4%, 27 dogs), A. phagocytophilum in 0.3% (CI 0-0.6%, 3 dogs) and a Wolbachia endosymbiont in 1.1% (CI 0.4-1.6%, 12 dogs) of dogs screened in this study. Necropsied dogs were free from infection. Notably, no evidence of E. canis infection was found in any animal. This survey represents a rare molecular study of Anaplasmataceae in dogs in South Eastern Europe, confirming the presence of A. platys and A. phagocytophilum but not E. canis. The absence of E. canis was surprising given it has been described in all other Mediterranean countries surveyed and raises questions over the regional vector capacity of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of the emerging zoonosis agent Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Foggie, 1949) in dogs and ixodid ticks in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Huarrisson A; Thomé, Sandra M G; Baldani, Cristiane D; Silva, Claudia B; Peixoto, Maristela P; Pires, Marcus S; Vitari, Gabriela L V; Costa, Renata L; Santos, Tiago M; Angelo, Isabele C; Santos, Leandro A; Faccini, João L H; Massard, Carlos L

    2013-12-11

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging pathogen of humans, dogs and other animals, and it is transmitted by ixodid ticks. The objective of the current study was a) detect A. phagocytophilum in dogs and ixodid ticks using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR); and b) Determine important variables associated to host, environment and potential tick vectors that are related to the presence of A. phagocytophilum in dogs domiciled in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We tested blood samples from 398 dogs and samples from 235 ticks, including 194 Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, 15 Amblyomma cajennense, 8 Amblyomma ovale and 18 pools of Amblyomma sp. nymphs. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied by interviewing each dog owner. Deoxyribonucleic acid obtained from ticks and dog buffy coat samples were amplified by qPCR (msp2 gene). The sequencing of 16S rRNA and groESL heat shock operon genes and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. The multiple logistic regression model was created as a function of testing positive dogs for A. phagocytophilum. Among the 398 blood samples from dogs, 6.03% were positive for A. phagocytophilum. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in one A. cajennense female tick and in five R. sanguineus sensu lato ticks (four males and one female). The partial sequences of the 16S rRNA, and groESL genes obtained were highly similar to strains of A. phagocytophilum isolated from wild birds from Brazil and human pathogenic strains. The tick species collected in positive dogs were R. sanguineus sensu lato and A. cajennense, with A.cajennense being predominant. Tick infestation history (OR = 2.86, CI = 1.98-14.87), dog size (OR = 2.41, IC: 1.51-12.67), the access to forest areas (OR = 3:51, CI: 1.52-16.32), hygiene conditions of the environment in which the dogs lived (OR = 4.35, CI: 1.86-18.63) and Amblyomma sp. infestation (OR = 6.12; CI: 2.11-28.15) were associated with A. phagocytophilum infection in dogs. This is the

  16. Cloning and expression of the gene encoding the major surface protein 5 (MSP5) of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and potential application for serodiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, A Rick; Barbet, Anthony F; Sorenson, Heather L; Strik, Nicole I; Wamsley, Heather L; Wong, Susan J; Chandrashaker, Ramaswamy; Gaschen, Frédéric P; Luckshander, Nicole; Bjöersdorff, Annelli

    2006-12-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly known as the human granulocytic ehrlichia, Ehrlichia equi and Ehrlichia phagocytophila) is an obligate intracellular organism causing clinical disease in humans and various species of domestic animals. The objectives of this investigation were to sequence and clone the major surface protein 5 (MSP5) of A phagocytophilum and to evaluate the suitability of this antigen in the serologic diagnosis of anaplasmosis in humans and dogs. The msp5 gene of A phagocytophilum was sequenced, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The predicted amino acid sequence homology of the various MSP5/major antigenic protein 2 orthologs was compared among various Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species. Recombinant MSP5 of A phagocytophilum was used in an ELISA to detect antibodies in serum samples from humans and dogs infected with the organism. Serum samples from 104 individuals previously diagnosed with A phagocytophilum infection, as well as samples from clinically healthy humans, were tested. In addition, multiple samples from 4 dogs experimentally infected with 2 different geographic isolates of A phagocytophilum and 5 dogs naturally infected with a Swiss isolate were tested using ELISA. Using this group of immunofluorescent antibody test-positive and immunofluorescent antibody test-negative samples, we found the overall agreement between assays to be >90%. These results indicate that recombinant MSP5 has potential for use as a diagnostic test antigen to detect infection with A phagocytophilum in both dogs and humans. However, sequence similarities among orthologs of MSP5 in related species of anaplasma and ehrlichia suggest that cross-reactivity among these pathogens is likely if the entire peptide is used as a test antigen.

  17. Ixodes scapularis saliva mitigates inflammatory cytokine secretion during Anaplasma phagocytophilum stimulation of immune cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, G.; Severo, M. S.; Sohail, M.; Sakhon, O. S.; Wikel, S. K.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2012), s. 229 ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick * Ixodes scapularis * Saliva * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * Rickettsial agent Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.246, year: 2012 http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/5/1/229

  18. A putative marker for human pathogenic strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum correlates with geography and host, but not human tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet; Stephenson, Nicole; Cubilla, Michelle Pires; Qurollo, Barbara; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2016-03-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an Ixodes species tick-transmitted bacterium that is capable of infecting a variety of host species, although there is a diversity of bacterial strains with differing host tropism. Recent analysis of A. phagocytophilum strains suggested that "drhm", a gene locus designated "distantly related to human marker" (drhm), which was predicted to be an integral membrane protein with possible transporter functions was not present in available canine and human isolates. By assessing 117 strains from 14 host species from across the US, we extended this analysis. Phylogenetic clades were associated with geography, but not host species. Additionally, a virulent clade that lacks drhm and infects dogs, horses, and humans in northeastern US was identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation, propagation and preliminary characterisation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in the tick cell line IDE8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Kauffmann, Melanie; Passos, Lygia M F; Pfister, Kurt; Zweygarth, Erich

    2011-12-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium causing granulocytic anaplasmosis in dogs, horses, and humans and tick-borne fever of ruminants. The bacterium has been detected in a variety of other mammals including wild ruminants without overt clinical signs of disease. Isolates in cell culture have been obtained from humans, dogs, horses, sheep, and ticks, but no strain from wild ruminants exists in cell culture in Europe. From September to November 2010, EDTA blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of 19 shot roe deer from a forest in southern Germany. The presence of specific A. phagocytophilum DNA was demonstrated with a real-time PCR targeting the msp2 gene in all 19 animals. Subsequently, blood cells were used to inoculate the tick cell line IDE8. The first infected IDE8 cells were detected in Giemsa-stained smears 57 days post inoculation. Only one roe deer yielded a positive culture which has been propagated for 9 consecutive passages thus far representing 228 days in culture. Further analysis of the A. phagocytophilum strain was performed by PCR followed by sequencing for the partial 16S rRNA, groEL, msp2, and msp4 genes. Phylogenetic topology of groEL and msp4 sequences placed the roe deer isolate in close proximity to sequences available from roe deer and goats from the neighbouring Alpine regions of Austria and Switzerland, and of msp2 with other ruminant species. This represents the first isolation of A. phagocytophilum in a tick cell line directly from an infected wild ruminant reservoir host, Capreolus capreolus, in Europe. The availability of a cultured A. phagocytophilum strain isolated from roe deer will allow us to study the biological characteristics and the pathogenic potential of this strain as well as to compare its host tropism and its genetic and antigenetic properties with those of other A. phagocytophilum strains from other animal species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and mouflon (Ovis musimon) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Melanie; Rehbein, Steffen; Hamel, Dietmar; Lutz, Walburga; Heddergott, Mike; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2017-02-01

    Infections with the tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. can cause febrile disease in several mammalian species, including humans. Wild ruminants in Europe are suggested to serve as reservoir hosts for particular strains or species of these pathogens. The aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and mouflon (Ovis musimon orientalis) in Germany, and the diversity and host association of genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia species. From 2009 to 2010, 364 spleen samples from 153 roe deer, 43 fallow deer and 168 mouflon from 13 locations in Germany were tested for DNA of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. by real-time PCR or conventional PCR, respectively. Variants of A. phagocytophilum were investigated with a nested PCR targeting the partial 16S rRNA gene, and species of piroplasms were identified by sequencing. DNA of A. phagocytophilum was detected in 303 (83.2%) samples: roe deer, 96.1% (147/153); fallow deer, 72.1% (31/43); and mouflon, 74.4% (125/168). Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA-PCR products revealed the presence of nine different genetic variants. DNA of Babesia spp. was found in 113 (31.0%) samples: roe deer, 62.8% (96/153); fallow deer, 16.3% (6/43); and mouflon, 6.5% (11/168). Babesia capreoli, Babesia sp. EU1 (referred to also as B. venatorum), B. odocoilei-like and a Theileria species were identified. Co-infections with A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. were detected in 30.0% of the animals which were tested positive for A. phagocytophilum and/or Babesia spp. Roe deer had a significantly higher percentage of co-infections (60.8%), followed by fallow deer (14.0%) and mouflon (6.5%). Thus, the results suggest that roe deer plays a key role in the endemic cycles of the pathogens investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in patients with erythema migrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulínská, D; Votýpka, J; Vanousová, D; Hercogová, J; Hulínský, V; Drevová, H; Kurzová, Z; Uherková, L

    2009-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been first isolated from the blood of two Czech patients simultaneously with a cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from their erythema migrans lesions. Cultivation of different Borrelia spp. from 12 erythema migrans biopsies, from 2 blood, one liquor and one placenta sample in BSK-H medium was successful. Adapted conventional methods targeting 16S rRNA and OspA genes for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and partial sequencing of these genes together with microscopical examinations of the blood smears provided a direct detection of the B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi, B. garinii, B. valaisiana and B. bissettii in the skin, B. garinii in the blood, placenta and liquor in 24 (36.3 %) patients, and A. phagocytophilum in 10 (15 %) patients with erythema migrans. Positive indirect IgM immunofluorescence against Anaplasma sp. was obtained in 7 cases, specific IgG antibodies were detected in 12 patients. Three women suffering from erythema migrans in the first trimester had positive PCR for Anaplasma and/or for Borrelia in the blood and two of them, later, in the placenta. Interpretation of laboratory data can bring important contribution to establishing the role of Anaplasma sp. in erythema migrans and forming the principle of precaution with laboratory diagnosis during pregnancy which always should be reflected in the resistance of Anaplasma sp. toward penicillins.

  2. Detection of Borrelia lusitaniae, Rickettsia sp. IRS3, Rickettsia monacensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes ricinus collected in Madeira Island, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Isabel Lopes; Milhano, Natacha; Santos, Ana Sofia; Almeida, Victor; Barros, Silvia C; De Sousa, Rita; Núncio, Maria Sofia

    2008-08-01

    A total of 300 Ixodes ricinus ticks were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Sequence analysis demonstrated 8 (2.7%) ticks infected with B. lusitaniae, 60 (20%) with Rickettsia spp., and 1 (0.3%) with A. phagocytophilum. Seven (2.3%) ticks were coinfected with B. lusitaniae and Rickettsia spp., 2 (0.6%) with R. monacensis, and 5 (1.7%) with Rickettsia sp. IRS3. The results of this study suggest simultaneous transmission of multiple tick-borne agents on Madeira Island, Portugal.

  3. Anaplasma phagocytophilum increases the levels of histone modifying enzymes to inhibit cell apoptosis and facilitate pathogen infection in the tick vector Ixodes scapularis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Alberdi, P.; Ayllón, N.; Valdés, James J.; Pierce, R.; Villar, M.; de la Fuente, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2016), s. 303-319 ISSN 1559-2294 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE; European Commission(XE) 316304 - MODBIOLIN Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Anaplasma * epigenetics * histone modifying enzyme * histone * pathogen * tick Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.394, year: 2016

  4. Molecular detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Matei, Ioana Adriana; Ionică, Angela Monica; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; D'Amico, Gianluca; Sikó-Barabási, Sándor; Ionescu, Dan Traian; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-10-08

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are one of the most widespread wild carnivores in the world, being recognized to harbor and transmit a wide range of vector-borne diseases. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato are zoonotic tick-borne pathogens causing emerging diseases. Wild animals play an essential role in the transmission of diseases and pathogens maintenance in nature. Epidemiological studies regarding the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in red foxes are of public health importance, as they may successfully act as a pathogen transmission interface between wildlife, domestic animals and humans. This study included 14 counties from Romania. A total number of 353 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were examined. Heart tissue samples were collected during necropsy and stored at -20 °C. Genomic DNA extraction was performed and all samples were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Specific primers for A. phagocytophilum, A. platys, E. canis and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were used. Sequence analysis was performed (Macrogen Europe, Amsterdam) and obtained sequences are available at GenBank™. Out of the 353 samples, 9 (2.55 %; 95 % CI: 1.25-4.96 %) were positive for A. phagocytophilum. Positive animals originated from 5 counties. In total, 5 out of 353 heart tissue samples (1.42 %; 95 % CI: 0.52-3.47 %) collected from red foxes were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. Red foxes originated from 4 counties. None of the samples were positive for A. platys or E. canis. No co-infection with A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. was found. This first report of A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. in red foxes from Romania suggests a limited role of foxes in the maintenance of the two related pathogens, but may represent a potential risk from a public health perspective.

  5. Prevalence and Diversity among Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains Originating from Ixodes ricinus Ticks from Northwest Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Kristin Tveten

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes great concern for livestock farmers. Tick-borne fever is a widespread disease in Norway, and antibodies have been produced amongst sheep, roe deer, red deer, and moose. The main vector Ixodes ricinus is found along the Norwegian coastline as far north as the Arctic Circle. A total number of 1804 I. ricinus ticks were collected and the prevalence of the pathogen was determined by species-specific qPCR. The overall infection rate varied from 2.83% to 3.32%, but there were no significant differences (p=0.01 in the overall infection rate in 2010, 2011, or 2012. A multilocus sequencing analysis was performed to further characterise the isolates. The genotyping of 27 strains resulted in classification into 19 different sequences types (ST, none of which was found in the MLST database. The nucleotide diversity was for every locus <0.01, and the number of SNPs was between 1 and 2.8 per 100 bp. The majority of SNPs were synonymous. A goeBURST analysis demonstrated that the strains from northwest Norway cluster together with other Norwegian strains in the MLST database and the strains that are included in this study constitute clonal complexes (CC 9, 10, and 11 in addition to the singleton.

  6. Development of a new PCR-based assay to detect Anaplasmataceae and the first report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys in cattle from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmani, Mustapha; Davoust, Bernard; Benterki, Mohamed Seghir; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is a hemoparasitic disease considered as a major constraint to cattle production in many countries. This pathology is at least partially caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma centrale, and Anaplasma bovis. The global threat and emergence of these species in animals require the reliable identification of these bacteria in animal samples. In this study, we developed a new qPCR tool targeting the 23S rRNA gene for the detection of Anaplasmataceae bacteria. The primers and probe for the qPCR reaction had 100% specificity and could identify at least A. phagocytophilum, A. marginale, A. centrale, Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ruminantium, Neorickettisa sennetsu, and Neorickettsia risticii. We used this tool to test samples of bovines from Batna (Algeria), an area from which bovine anaplasmosis have never been reported. We identified three genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum, A. platys and Anaplasma sp. "variant 4". This finding should attract the attention of public authorities to assess the involvement of these pathogens in human and animal health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks, ticks parasitizing rodents and the parasitized rodents--analyzing the host-pathogen-vector interface in a metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Woll, Dietlinde; Hamel, Dietmar; Pfister, Kurt; Mahling, Monia; Pfeffer, Martin

    2012-09-05

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the host-tick-pathogen interface of Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in restored areas in both questing and host-attached Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus and their small mammalian hosts. Questing ticks were collected from 5 sites within the city of Leipzig, Germany, in 2009. Small mammals were trapped at 3 of the 5 sites during 2010 and 2011. DNA extracts of questing and host-attached I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and of several tissue types of small mammals (the majority bank voles and yellow-necked mice), were investigated by PCR followed by sequencing for the occurrence of DNA of Babesia spp. and by real-time PCR for A. phagocytophilum. A selected number of samples positive for A. phagocytophilum were further investigated for variants of the partial 16S rRNA gene. Co-infection with Rickettsia spp. in the questing ticks was additionally investigated. 4.1% of questing I. ricinus ticks, but no D. reticulatus, were positive for Babesia sp. and 8.7% of I. ricinus for A. phagocytophilum. Sequencing revealed B. microti, B. capreoli and Babesia spp. EU1 in Leipzig and sequence analysis of the partial 16S RNA gene of A. phagocytophilum revealed variants either rarely reported in human cases or associated with cervid hosts. The statistical analysis revealed significantly less ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum in a city park in Leipzig as compared to the other sampling sites. A. phagocytophilum-DNA was detected in 2 bank voles, DNA of B. microti in 1 striped field-mouse and of Babesia sp. EU1 in the skin tissue of a mole. Co-infections were detected. Our results show the involvement of small mammals in the natural endemic cycles of tick-borne pathogens. A more thorough understanding of the interactions of ticks, pathogens and hosts is the essential basis for effective preventive control measures.

  8. Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks, ticks parasitizing rodents and the parasitized rodents – Analyzing the host-pathogen-vector interface in a metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silaghi Cornelia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the host-tick-pathogen interface of Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in restored areas in both questing and host-attached Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus and their small mammalian hosts. Methods Questing ticks were collected from 5 sites within the city of Leipzig, Germany, in 2009. Small mammals were trapped at 3 of the 5 sites during 2010 and 2011. DNA extracts of questing and host-attached I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and of several tissue types of small mammals (the majority bank voles and yellow-necked mice, were investigated by PCR followed by sequencing for the occurrence of DNA of Babesia spp. and by real-time PCR for A. phagocytophilum. A selected number of samples positive for A. phagocytophilum were further investigated for variants of the partial 16S rRNA gene. Co-infection with Rickettsia spp. in the questing ticks was additionally investigated. Results 4.1% of questing I. ricinus ticks, but no D. reticulatus, were positive for Babesia sp. and 8.7% of I. ricinus for A. phagocytophilum. Sequencing revealed B. microti, B. capreoli and Babesia spp. EU1 in Leipzig and sequence analysis of the partial 16S RNA gene of A. phagocytophilum revealed variants either rarely reported in human cases or associated with cervid hosts. The statistical analysis revealed significantly less ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum in a city park in Leipzig as compared to the other sampling sites. A. phagocytophilum-DNA was detected in 2 bank voles, DNA of B. microti in 1 striped field-mouse and of Babesia sp. EU1 in the skin tissue of a mole. Co-infections were detected. Conclusion Our results show the involvement of small mammals in the natural endemic cycles of tick-borne pathogens. A more thorough understanding of the interactions of ticks, pathogens and hosts is the essential basis for effective preventive control measures.

  9. Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks, ticks parasitizing rodents and the parasitized rodents – Analyzing the host-pathogen-vector interface in a metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the host-tick-pathogen interface of Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in restored areas in both questing and host-attached Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus and their small mammalian hosts. Methods Questing ticks were collected from 5 sites within the city of Leipzig, Germany, in 2009. Small mammals were trapped at 3 of the 5 sites during 2010 and 2011. DNA extracts of questing and host-attached I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and of several tissue types of small mammals (the majority bank voles and yellow-necked mice), were investigated by PCR followed by sequencing for the occurrence of DNA of Babesia spp. and by real-time PCR for A. phagocytophilum. A selected number of samples positive for A. phagocytophilum were further investigated for variants of the partial 16S rRNA gene. Co-infection with Rickettsia spp. in the questing ticks was additionally investigated. Results 4.1% of questing I. ricinus ticks, but no D. reticulatus, were positive for Babesia sp. and 8.7% of I. ricinus for A. phagocytophilum. Sequencing revealed B. microti, B. capreoli and Babesia spp. EU1 in Leipzig and sequence analysis of the partial 16S RNA gene of A. phagocytophilum revealed variants either rarely reported in human cases or associated with cervid hosts. The statistical analysis revealed significantly less ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum in a city park in Leipzig as compared to the other sampling sites. A. phagocytophilum-DNA was detected in 2 bank voles, DNA of B. microti in 1 striped field-mouse and of Babesia sp. EU1 in the skin tissue of a mole. Co-infections were detected. Conclusion Our results show the involvement of small mammals in the natural endemic cycles of tick-borne pathogens. A more thorough understanding of the interactions of ticks, pathogens and hosts is the essential basis for effective preventive control measures. PMID:22950642

  10. The Prostaglandin E2-EP3 Receptor Axis Regulates Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Mediated NLRC4 Inflammasome Activation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, X.; Shaw, D.K.; Hammond, H.L.; Sutterwala, F.S.; Rayamajhi, M.; Shirey, K.A.; Perkins, D.J.; Bonventre, J.V.; Velayutham, T.S.; Evans, S.M.; Rodino, K.G.; VieBrock, L.; Scanlon, K.M.; Carbonetti, N.H.; Carlyon, J.A.; Miao, E.A.; McBride, J.W.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 8 (2016), č. článku e1005803. E-ISSN 1553-7374 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Rickettsial agents * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * prostaglandin E2-EP3 Receptor Axis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.003, year: 2015

  11. Detection of Babesia venatorum, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ixodes persulcatus ticks from Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnath, Carolin; Obiegala, Anna; Speck, Stephanie; Essbauer, Sandra; Derschum, Henri; Scholz, Holger; Kiefer, Daniel; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Dashdavaa, Otgonbataar; Tsogbadrakh, Nyamdorj; Jigjav, Battsetseg; Pfeffer, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Information about the prevalence and geographical distribution of tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, and Babesia spp. is still rare in Mongolia. We tested 275 Ixodes persulcatus ticks for A. phagocytophilum, Cand. N. mikurensis and Babesia spp. and 125 Dermacentor nuttalli ticks especially for Babesia spp. using different PCR methods. Ticks were collected from three provinces (Selenge, Arkhangai, Khentii) in Mongolia. DNA of A. phagocytophilum, Cand. N. mikurensis and Babesia spp. were found with a prevalence of 6.2%, 1.5% and 3.3% in each case in I. persulcatus ticks. This is the first time Cand. N. mikurensis was found in ticks from Mongolia. Sequence analysis of Babesia spp.-positive amplicons showed exclusively B. venatorum, which had also not been mentioned in Mongolia before. On the contrary, all D. nuttalli ticks tested negatively for Babesia spp. This study demonstrates that all three zoonotic pathogens are present in I. persulcatus ticks in Mongolia, and justify the need for further investigations of a more detailed genetic characterization of these pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Human Exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Two Cities of Northwestern Morocco.

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    Sarah Elhamiani Khatat

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis with extensive increased interest. Epidemiological data are available in several regions of the USA, Europe and Asia in contrast to other parts of the world such as North Africa. Blood samples of 261 healthy individuals divided in two groups i.e., dog handlers and blood donors were analysed. Indirect immunofluorescent assay using a commercial kit was performed to detect specific A. phagocytophilum IgG. Two dilutions were used to assess the prevalence of seroreactive samples. Demographic variables were assessed as potential risk factors using exact logistic regression. Seropositivity rates reached 37% and 27% in dog handlers and 36% and 22% in blood donors. No statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence rates between the two groups. Analysis of risk factors such as gender, age groups, outdoor activities, self-reported previous exposure to ticks, or contact with domestic animals (dogs, cats, ruminants and horses did not shown any significant difference. A. phagocytophilum exposure was common in both high-risk population and blood donors in Morocco.

  13. Human Exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Two Cities of Northwestern Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhamiani Khatat, Sarah; Sahibi, Hamid; Hing, Mony; Alaoui Moustain, Ismail; El Amri, Hamid; Benajiba, Mohammed; Kachani, Malika; Duchateau, Luc; Daminet, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis with extensive increased interest. Epidemiological data are available in several regions of the USA, Europe and Asia in contrast to other parts of the world such as North Africa. Blood samples of 261 healthy individuals divided in two groups i.e., dog handlers and blood donors were analysed. Indirect immunofluorescent assay using a commercial kit was performed to detect specific A. phagocytophilum IgG. Two dilutions were used to assess the prevalence of seroreactive samples. Demographic variables were assessed as potential risk factors using exact logistic regression. Seropositivity rates reached 37% and 27% in dog handlers and 36% and 22% in blood donors. No statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence rates between the two groups. Analysis of risk factors such as gender, age groups, outdoor activities, self-reported previous exposure to ticks, or contact with domestic animals (dogs, cats, ruminants and horses) did not shown any significant difference. A. phagocytophilum exposure was common in both high-risk population and blood donors in Morocco. PMID:27532208

  14. A comparative study of clinical manifestations, haematological and serological responses after experimental infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in two Norwegian sheep breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Stuen, Snorre; Grøva, Lise; Granquist, Erik G; Sandstedt, Karin; Olesen, Ingrid; Steinshamn, Håvard

    2011-01-01

    Background: It has been questioned if the old native Norwegian sheep breed, Old Norse Sheep (also called Norwegian Feral Sheep), normally distributed on coastal areas where ticks are abundant, is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds due to a continuously high selection pressure on pasture. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis in an experimental infection study. Methods: Five-months-old lambs of two Norwegian sheep breeds, Nor...

  15. Prevalence and first molecular characterization of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks attached to dogs from Egypt

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    Mohamed W. Ghafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene integrated with sequence analysis were performed to investigate the prevalence and the molecular identity of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Egyptian Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks attached to dogs. A total of 413 adult and nymphal R. sanguineus ticks were collected while attached to 72 free-roaming dogs from four locations (Imbaba, Boulaq, Haram, Monib in Giza Governorate, Egypt. DNA was successfully extracted from 401 specimens (133 nymphs and 268 adults. The overall prevalence rate was 13.7% and adult ticks showed a significantly higher infection rate (16.4% compared to nymphs (8.3%. Sequence comparisons of 218-bp showed that detected organism belongs to A. phagocytophilum. The sequence showed 99.1% similarity (2 nucleotide differences with some strains described as human pathogens and with that detected in the established tick vectors. Phylogenetic analysis placed the bacteria on a separate branch with that found in R. annulatus from Egypt (DQ379972 (99.5% similarity. Our variant strain was designated as A. phagocytophilum-Ghafar-EGY (AB608266. This report is the first molecular characterization of A. phagocytophilum in R. sanguineus in Egypt, suggesting that this tick species may act as a competent vector for a variant strain of human granulocytic anaplasmosis agent.

  16. Host specificity, pathogen exposure, and superinfections impact the distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum genotypes in ticks, roe deer, and livestock in a fragmented agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastagner, Amélie; Pion, Angélique; Verheyden, Hélène; Lourtet, Bruno; Cargnelutti, Bruno; Picot, Denis; Poux, Valérie; Bard, Émilie; Plantard, Olivier; McCoy, Karen D; Leblond, Agnes; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Bailly, Xavier

    2017-11-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a bacterial pathogen mainly transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe. It infects wild mammals, livestock, and, occasionally, humans. Roe deer are considered to be the major reservoir, but the genotypes they carry differ from those that are found in livestock and humans. Here, we investigated whether roe deer were the main source of the A. phagocytophilum genotypes circulating in questing I. ricinus nymphs in a fragmented agricultural landscape in France. First, we assessed pathogen prevalence in 1837 I. ricinus nymphs (sampled along georeferenced transects) and 79 roe deer. Prevalence was dramatically different between ticks and roe deer: 1.9% versus 76%, respectively. Second, using high-throughput amplicon sequencing, we characterized the diversity of the A. phagocytophilum genotypes found in 22 infected ticks and 60 infected roe deer; the aim was to determine the frequency of co-infections. Only 22.7% of infected ticks carried genotypes associated with roe deer. This finding fits with others suggesting that cattle density is the major factor explaining infected tick density. To explore epidemiological scenarios capable of explaining these patterns, we constructed compartmental models that focused on how A. phagocytophilum exposure and infection dynamics affected pathogen prevalence in roe deer. At the exposure levels predicted by the results of this study and the literature, the high prevalence in roe deer was only seen in the model in which superinfections could occur during all infection phases and when the probability of infection post exposure was above 0.43. We then interpreted these results from the perspective of livestock and human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Serological detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis antibodies and Dirofilaria immitis antigen in a countrywide survey in dogs in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Friederike; Schaper, Roland; Schunack, Bettina; Połozowski, Andrzej; Piekarska, Jolanta; Szwedko, Aleksandra; Jodies, Robert; Kowalska, Dagmara; Schüpbach, Dörte; Pantchev, Nikola

    2014-09-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of attention in the past few years. Nevertheless, in many parts of Europe information on their occurrence is still scarce. In a large study in Poland 3,094 serum samples taken from dogs throughout all 16 Polish provinces were tested using a commercial kit for the detection of circulating antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis and of Dirofilaria immitis antigen. A total of 12.31% (381/3,094; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.18-13.52%) and 3.75% (116/3,094; 95% CI: 3.11-4.48%) of the dogs were positive for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. antibodies, respectively. Furthermore, 0.26% (8/3,094; 95% CI: 0.11-0.51%) were positive for E. canis antibodies and 0.16% (5/3,094; 95% CI: 0.05-0.38%) for D. immitis antigen. The highest percentages of A. phagocytophilum-positive dogs were noted in Lesser Poland, Silesia and Łódź Provinces. For B. burgdorferi s.l., the highest prevalence was recorded in Łódź Province. Co-infections with A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. were recorded in 1.71% of all examined dogs (53/3,094; 95% CI: 1.29-2.23%). One dog even had a triple infection, testing positive for E. canis too. Both A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. have previously been reported in Poland and were confirmed in the present study by positive samples from all 16 provinces. Concerning E. canis and D. immitis travel history or importation cannot be excluded as factors which may have determined the occurrence of these pathogens in the relevant animals. Practitioners in Poland should be aware of the above mentioned CVBDs and of prophylactic measures to protect dogs and their owners.

  18. Are Apodemus spp. mice and Myodes glareolus reservoirs for Borrelia miyamotoi, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Rickettsia helvetica, R. monacensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, C; Schumann, O; Schumann, C; Gern, L

    2014-04-01

    In Europe, in addition to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus, other zoonotic pathogens, like B. miyamotoi, a species related to the relapsing fever spirochaetes, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (N. mikurensis), Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported in the ixodid tick Ixodes ricinus. No study was conducted to identify reservoir hosts for these pathogens. Here, we investigated the role played by wild rodents in the natural transmission cycle of B. miyamotoi, N. mikurensis, R. helvetica, R. monacensis, and A. phagocytophilum in Switzerland. In 2011 and 2012, small mammals were captured in an area where these pathogens occur in questing ticks. Ixodes ricinus ticks infesting captured small mammals were analysed after their moult by PCR followed by reverse line blot to detect the different pathogens. Xenodiagnostic larvae were used to evaluate the role of rodents as reservoirs and analysed after their moult. Most of the 108 captured rodents (95.4%) were infested by I. ricinus ticks; 4.9%, 3.9%, 24.0%, and 0% of the rodents were infested by Borrelia, N. mikurensis, Rickettsia spp., and A. phagocytophilum-infected larvae, respectively. Borrelia afzelii, B. miyamotoi, N. mikurensis, Rickettsia spp., and A. phagocytophilum were detected in 2.8%, 0.17%, 2.6%, 6.8%, and 0% of the ticks attached to rodents, respectively. Borrelia afzelii was transmitted by 4 rodents to 41.2% of the xenodiagnostic ticks, B. miyamotoi by 3 rodents to 23.8%, and N. mikurensis was transmitted by 6 rodents to 41.0% of the xenodiagnostic ticks. None of the tested rodent transmitted Rickettsia spp. or A. phagocytophilum to I. ricinus xenodiagnostic larvae. This study showed that rodents are reservoir hosts for B. miyamotoi and N. mikurensis in Europe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in relation to the density of wild cervids

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    Paulauskas Algimantas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been considered as pathogens in animals and humans. The role of wild cervids in the epidemiology is not clear. We analyzed questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in spring for these pathogens from sites with high (Fjelløyvær and Strøm and low density (Tjore, Hinnebu and Jomfruland of wild cervids to study the spread of the pathogens in questing ticks. Methods For detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum a 77-bp fragment in the msp2 gene was used. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was performed using the FL6 and FL7 primers according to sequences of conserved regions of the fla gene. The OspA gene located on the linear 49-kb plasmid was used as target in multiplex PCR for genotyping. Genospecies-specific primers were used in the PCR for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii and B. garinii. Results Infection rates with Borrelia spp. were significantly lower at Fjelløyvær and Strøm compared to Tjore and Hinnebu; Fjelløyvær vs. Tjore (χ2 = 20.27, p 2 = 24.04, p 2 = 11.47, p = 0.0007 and Strøm vs. Hinnebu (χ2 = 16.63, p Borrelia genospecies were dominated by. B. afzelii (82% followed by B. garinii (9.7% and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (6.9%. B. burgdorferi s.s. was only found on the island of Jomfruland. The infection rate of Anaplasma phagocytophilum showed the following figures; Fjelløyvær vs Hinnebu (χ2 = 16.27, p = 0.0001; Strøm vs. Tjore (χ2 = 13.16, p = 0.0003; Strøm vs. Hinnebu (χ2 = 34.71, p 2 = 3.19, p = 0.0742 and Fjelløyvær vs. Støm (χ2 = 5.06, p = 0.0245. Wild cervids may serve as a reservoir for A. phagocytophilum. Jomfruland, with no wild cervids but high levels of migrating birds and rodents, harboured both B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum in questing I. ricinus ticks. Birds and rodents may play an important role in maintaining the pathogens on Jomfruland. Conclusion The high abundance of roe deer

  20. Association between Anaplasma phagocytophilum seroprevalence in dogs and distribution of Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus ticks in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzina, Inese; Capligina, Valentina; Bormane, Antra; Pavulina, Agne; Baumanis, Viesturs; Ranka, Renate; Granta, Rita; Matise, Ilze

    2013-02-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been detected in ticks in Latvia; however, this is the first study to investigate this pathogen in dogs in Latvia. The aims of this study were: (i) to determine A. phagocytophilum seroprevalence in dogs, (ii) to correlate A. phagocytophilum seroprevalence in dogs with the geographic distribution of the tick species Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus, and (iii) to determine if seroprevalence for A. phagocytophilum is higher in dogs with clinical signs suggestive of canine granulocytic anaplasmosis (CGA). Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 3 dog groups: (i) clinically healthy dogs (HD, n=400), (ii) clinically healthy hunting dogs (HHD, n=41), and (iii) dogs with a clinical suspicion of anaplasmosis (SD, n=29). Sampling was carried out in regions inhabited by I. ricinus (IR), I. persulcatus (IP), and in regions where both tick species were present (M). SNAP 4Dx test (IDEXX) was used to detect antibodies against A. phagocytophilum in the blood of all dogs; nested PCR was performed in selected dogs of the SD group. Seroprevalence for A. phagocytophilum was calculated and correlated with the prevalent tick species in the region. A. phagocytophilum seroprevalence was 11.0% in HD, 12% in HHD, and 17% in SD with no significant differences among groups. In the IR region, seroprevalence was 12.5% (34/272) while seroprevalence in the M region was 17% (13/76), and both were significantly higher than the seroprevalence of 2% in the IP region (2/93; pLatvia is within the range reported from other European countries. CGA should be included in the differential list in Latvian dogs with appropriate clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities, especially in I. ricinus habitat areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of Babesia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in hard ticks collected from meadows of Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern Poland

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    Dzięgiel Beata

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Babesia canis in adult females and males of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, inhabiting meadows near large forest complexes throughout the Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern region of Poland. Ticks were collected using the flagging method. Among 720 ticks collected, 506 were identified as D. reticulatus, and 214 as I. ricinus. DNA of B. canis and B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 21.3% and 0.6% of D. reticulatus ticks, respectively. In I. ricinus ticks, DNA specific to B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum was detected in 5.6% and 10.3%, respectively. Co-infections of B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum were found in two I. ricinus ticks. These results indicate that the Lublin region is an area at risk of tick-borne diseases of humans and animals, which must be considered in clinical practice.

  2. Surveillance for Ixodes pacificus and the tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi in birds from California's Inner Coast Range.

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    Dingler, Regina J; Wright, Stan A; Donohue, Ann M; Macedo, Paula A; Foley, Janet E

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the involvement of birds in the ecology of the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus, and its associated zoonotic bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, at two interior coast-range study sites in northern California. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA), and B. burgdorferi s.s., the agent of Lyme disease (LD), are tick-borne pathogens that are well established in California. We screened blood and ticks from 349 individual birds in 48 species collected in 2011 and 2012 using pathogen-specific PCR. A total of 617 immature I. pacificus was collected with almost three times as many larvae than nymphs. There were 7.5 times more I. pacificus at the Napa County site compared to the Yolo County site. Two of 74 (3%) nymphal pools from an Oregon junco (Junco hyemalis) and a hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) and 4 individual larvae (all from Oregon juncos) were PCR-positive for B. burgdorferi. Blood samples from a golden-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla) and a European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) were positive for A. phagocytophilum DNA at very low levels. Birds that forage on ground or bark and nest on the ground, as well as some migratory species, are at an increased risk for acquiring I. pacificus. Our findings show that birds contribute to the ecologies of LD and GA in California by serving as a blood-meal source, feeding and transporting immature I. pacificus, and sometimes as a source of Borrelia infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection and quantification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in Ixodes ricinus ticks from urban and rural environment, northern Poland, by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

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    Stańczak, Joanna; Cieniuch, Stella; Lass, Anna; Biernat, Beata; Racewicz, Maria

    2015-05-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. are emerging tick-borne pathogens which can threaten human health. A duplex real-time PCR and qPCRs with primers and probes targeting 97 and 116 bp fragments of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes, respectively, were used for qualitative and quantitative detection of both pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks. Altogether 1875 ticks (1084 adults and 791 nymphs) were collected from rural and urban habitats in northern Poland. Of them, at least 0.9% were found to be infected with A. phagocytophilum while 2.5% with Babesia spp. A comparison of the infection rates by the tick stage, the type of area, the collection site, habitats of different tick density and by the month of collection was done. The prevalence of pathogens was significantly lower in nymphs than in adult ticks (p = 0.02) and in rural areas than in urban areas (p = 0.007). Four different 16S rRNA gene variants of A. phagocytophilum were determine, however none of them showed 100% identity with compared sequences isolated from human patients. The dominant Babesia species was B. venatorum. Results of qPCRs with circular and linearized forms of plasmids used as the standards showed significant difference in the pathogen loads (p = 0.001). The copy numbers of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. estimated from the linear plasmids were 28.7 and 5.1 times lower, respectively, when compared with their circular forms, and were accepted as more reliable. The average number of copies of 16S rRNA gene of A. phagocytophilum in the positive I. ricinus samples were 3.39 × 10(5) ± 6.09 × 10(5). The mean copy number of 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp. was ~2.55 × 10(5) ± 1.04 × 10(6). We confirmed the presence of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in I. ricinus in both rural and urban environments. The determined low infection rates suggests, however, that the risk for local population and tourists to acquire infection is also low. Moreover, we confirmed recent findings that serious

  4. Molecular Survey on Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, and Babesia spp. in Ixodes ricinus Ticks Infesting Dogs in Central Italy.

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    Morganti, Giulia; Gavaudan, Stefano; Canonico, Cristina; Ravagnan, Silvia; Olivieri, Emanuela; Diaferia, Manuela; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Antognoni, Maria Teresa; Capelli, Gioia; Silaghi, Cornelia; Veronesi, Fabrizia

    2017-11-01

    Dogs are a common feeding hosts for Ixodes ricinus and may act as reservoir hosts for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) and as carriers of infected ticks into human settings. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of several selected TBPs of significant public health concern by molecular methods in I. ricinus recovered from dogs living in urban and suburban settings in central Italy. A total of 212 I. ricinus specimens were collected from the coat of domestic dogs. DNA was extracted from each specimen individually and tested for Rickettsia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Babesia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, using real-time and conventional PCR protocols, followed by sequencing. Sixty-one ticks (28.8%) tested positive for TBPs; 57 samples were infected by one pathogen, while four showed coinfections. Rickettsia spp. was detected in 39 specimens (18.4%), of which 32 were identified as Rickettsia monacensis and seven as Rickettsia helvetica. Twenty-two samples (10.4%) tested positive for A. phagocytophilum; Borrelia lusitaniae and Borrelia afzelii were detected in two specimens and one specimen, respectively. One tick (0.5%) was found to be positive for Babesia venatorum (EU1). Our findings reveal the significant exposure of dogs to TBPs of public health concern and provide data on the role of dogs in the circulation of I. ricinus-borne pathogens in central Italy.

  5. Tick- and fly-borne bacteria in ungulates: the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, haemoplasmas and rickettsiae in water buffalo and deer species in Central Europe, Hungary.

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    Hornok, Sándor; Sugár, László; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; de la Fuente, José; Horváth, Gábor; Kovács, Tibor; Micsutka, Attila; Gönczi, Enikő; Flaisz, Barbara; Takács, Nóra; Farkas, Róbert; Meli, Marina L; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2018-03-20

    Hunting constitutes an important industry in Europe. However, data on the prevalence of vector-borne bacteria in large game animal species are lacking from several countries. Blood or spleen samples (239 and 270, respectively) were taken from red, fallow and roe deer, as well as from water buffaloes, mouflons and wild boars in Hungary, followed by DNA extraction and molecular analyses for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, haemoplasmas and rickettsiae. Based on blood samples, the prevalence rate of A. phagocytophilum infection was significantly higher in red deer (97.9%) than in fallow deer (72.7%) and roe deer (60%), and in all these compared to mouflons (6.3%). In addition, 39.2% of the spleen samples from wild boars were PCR positive for A. phagocytophilum, but none of the buffalos. Based on blood samples, the prevalence rates of both Mycoplasma wenyonii (Mw) and 'Candidatus M. haemobos' (CMh) infections were significantly higher in buffaloes (Mw: 91.2%; CMh: 73.3%) than in red deer (Mw: 64.6%; CMh: 45.8%), and in both of them compared to fallow deer (Mw: 30.3%; CMh: 9.1%) and roe deer (Mw: 20%; CMh: 1.5%). The prevalence of Mw and CMh infection significantly correlated with the body sizes of these hosts. Furthermore, Mw was significantly more prevalent than CMh in buffaloes, red and roe deer. Mycoplasma ovis was detected in mouflons, M. suis in wild boars, R. helvetica in one fallow deer and one mouflon, and an unidentified Rickettsia sp. in a fallow deer. Forest-dwelling game animal species were found to be important carriers of A. phagocytophilum. In contrast, animals grazing grassland (i.e. buffaloes) were less likely to get infected with this Ixodes ricinus-borne pathogen. Water buffaloes, deer species, mouflons and wild boars harbored haemoplasmas that may affect domestic ungulates. Evaluated animals with larger body size had significantly higher prevalence of infection with haemoplasmas compared to smaller deer species. The above host species rarely carried

  6. Are patients with erythema migrans who have leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum or tick-borne encephalitis virus?

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    Franc Strle

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis (LB, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA are endemic in central part of Slovenia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with erythema migrans (EM from this region, who have leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia (typical findings in HGA and in the initial phase of TBE but not in patients with LB are coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or with TBE virus, i.e. that cytopenia is a result of concomitant HGA or the initial phase of TBE. Comparison of clinical and laboratory findings for 67 patients with EM who disclosed leukopenia/thrombocytopenia with the corresponding results in sex- and age-matched patients with EM and normal blood cell counts revealed no differences. In addition, patients with typical EM and leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia tested negative for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to TBE virus by ELISA as well as for the presence of specific IgG antibodies to A. phagocytophilum antigens by IFA in acute and convalescent serum samples. Thus, none of 67 patients (95% CI: 0 to 5.3% with typical EM (the presence of this skin lesion attests for early Lyme borreliosis and is the evidence for a recent tick bite was found to be coinfected with A. phagocytophilum or had a recent primary infection with TBE virus. The findings in the present study indicate that in Slovenia, and probably in other European countries endemic for LB, TBE and HGA, patients with early LB are rarely coinfected with the other tick-transmitted agents.

  7. Are patients with erythema migrans who have leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum or tick-borne encephalitis virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strle, Franc; Bogovič, Petra; Cimperman, Jože; Maraspin, Vera; Ogrinc, Katarina; Rojko, Tereza; Stupica, Daša; Lusa, Lara; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Smrdel, Katja Strašek; Jelovšek, Mateja; Lotrič-Furlan, Stanka

    2014-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB), tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) are endemic in central part of Slovenia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with erythema migrans (EM) from this region, who have leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia (typical findings in HGA and in the initial phase of TBE but not in patients with LB) are coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or with TBE virus, i.e. that cytopenia is a result of concomitant HGA or the initial phase of TBE. Comparison of clinical and laboratory findings for 67 patients with EM who disclosed leukopenia/thrombocytopenia with the corresponding results in sex- and age-matched patients with EM and normal blood cell counts revealed no differences. In addition, patients with typical EM and leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia tested negative for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to TBE virus by ELISA as well as for the presence of specific IgG antibodies to A. phagocytophilum antigens by IFA in acute and convalescent serum samples. Thus, none of 67 patients (95% CI: 0 to 5.3%) with typical EM (the presence of this skin lesion attests for early Lyme borreliosis and is the evidence for a recent tick bite) was found to be coinfected with A. phagocytophilum or had a recent primary infection with TBE virus. The findings in the present study indicate that in Slovenia, and probably in other European countries endemic for LB, TBE and HGA, patients with early LB are rarely coinfected with the other tick-transmitted agents.

  8. Molecular and serological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Anaplasma spp. infection in goats from Chongqing Municipality, China

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    Zhou Zuoyong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis and anaplasmosis are severe zoonotic diseases, the former caused by Toxoplasma gondii and the latter by Anaplasma spp. In the present study, 332 goat blood samples were randomly collected from Chongqing Municipality, China to screen for T. gondii and Anaplasma spp. We used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect DNA, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to test for T. gondii antibodies. The prevalence of T. gondii and Anaplasma spp. was 38% and 35% respectively by PCR, and 42% for T. gondii antibodies by ELISA. The co-infection rate by T. gondii and Anaplasma was 13%, where the two predominant pathogens co-infecting were Anaplasma phagocytophilum + A. bovis (10%, followed by T. gondii + A. phagocytophilum (9.64%. While co-infection by three pathogens varied ranging from 1.81% to 5.72%, less than 1% of goats were found to be positive for four pathogens. This is the first investigation of T. gondii and Anaplasma spp. infection in goats from Chongqing.

  9. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis potentially reveals the existence of two groups of Anaplasma phagocytophilum circulating in cattle in France with different wild reservoirs

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    Thibaud Dugat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of tick-borne fever, a disease with high economic impact for domestic ruminants in Europe. Epidemiological cycles of this species are complex, and involve different ecotypes circulating in various host species. To date, these epidemiological cycles are poorly understood, especially in Europe, as European reservoir hosts (i.e. vertebrate hosts enabling long-term maintenance of the bacterium in the ecosystem, of the bacterium have not yet been clearly identified. In this study, our objective was to explore the presence, the prevalence, and the genetic diversity of A. phagocytophilum in wild animals, in order to better understand their implications as reservoir hosts of this pathogen. Methods The spleens of 101 wild animals were collected from central France and tested for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by msp2 qPCR. Positive samples were then typed by multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR analysis (MLVA, and compared to 179 previously typed A. phagocytophilum samples. Results Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 82/101 (81.2% animals including 48/49 red deer (98%, 20/21 roe deer (95.2%, 13/29 wild boars (44.8%, and 1/1 red fox. MLVA enabled the discrimination of two A. phagocytophilum groups: group A contained the majority of A. phagocytophilum from red deer and two thirds of those from cattle, while group B included a human strain and variants from diverse animal species, i.e. sheep, dogs, a horse, the majority of variants from roe deer, and the remaining variants from cattle and red deer. Conclusions Our results suggest that red deer and roe deer are promising A. phagocytophilum reservoir host candidates. Moreover, we also showed that A. phagocytophilum potentially circulates in at least two epidemiological cycles in French cattle. The first cycle may involve red deer as reservoir hosts and cattle as accidental hosts for Group A strains, whereas the

  10. Coinfection of western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) and other sciurid rodents with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in California.

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    Nieto, Nathan C; Leonhard, Sarah; Foley, Janet E; Lane, Robert S

    2010-01-01

    Overlapping geographic distributions of tick-borne disease agents utilizing the same tick vectors are common, and coinfection of humans, domestic animals, wildlife, and ticks with both Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been frequently reported. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the prevalence of both B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (hereinafter referred to as B. burgdorferi) and A. phagocytophilum in several species of sciurid rodents from northern California, USA. Rodents were either collected dead as road-kills or live-trapped in four state parks from 13 counties. Thirty-seven western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus), nine nonnative eastern gray squirrels (S. carolinensis) and an eastern fox squirrel (S. niger), four Douglas squirrels (Tamiasciurus douglasii), and two northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serology for evidence of coinfection. Of the 14 individual S. griseus that were PCR-positive for B. burgdorferi, two (14%) also were PCR-positive for A. phagocytophilum and 11 (79%) had serologic evidence of A. phagocytophilum exposure. Two of the four Douglas squirrels were PCR positive for B. burgdorferi and seropositive to A. phagocytophilum. Evidence of coinfection with these zoonotic pathogens in western gray squirrels suggests that both bacteria may be maintained in a similar transmission cycle involving this sciurid and the western black-legged tick Ixodes pacificus, the primary bridging vector to humans in the far-western US.

  11. Anaplasma spp. in dogs and owners in north-western Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhamiani Khatat, Sarah; Daminet, Sylvie; Kachani, Malika; Leutenegger, Christian M; Duchateau, Luc; El Amri, Hamid; Hing, Mony; Azrib, Rahma; Sahibi, Hamid

    2017-04-24

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic pathogen of increased interest worldwide which has been detected in northern Africa. Anaplasma platys is also present in this region and could possibly have a zoonotic potential. However, only one recent article reports on the human esposure to A. phagocytophilum in Morocco and no data are available on canine exposure to both bacteria. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological study aiming to assess both canine and human exposure to Anaplasma spp. in Morocco. A total of 425 dogs (95 urban, 160 rural and 175 working dogs) and 11 dog owners were sampled from four cities of Morocco. Canine blood samples were screened for Anaplasma spp. antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and for A. phagocytophilum and A. platys DNA by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the msp2 gene. Human sera were tested for specific A. phagocytophilum immunoglobulin G (IgG) using a commercial immunofluorescence assay (IFA) kit. Anaplasma spp. antibodies and A. platys DNA were detected in 21.9 and 7.5% of the dogs, respectively. Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was not amplified. Anaplasma platys DNA was significantly more frequently amplified for working dogs. No statistically significant differences in the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. antibodies or A. platys DNA detection were observed between sexes, age classes or in relation to exposure to ticks. A total of 348 Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato) ticks were removed from 35 urban and working dogs. The majority of dog owners (7/10) were seroreactive to A. phagoyctophilum IgG (one sample was excluded because of hemolysis). This study demonstrates the occurrence of Anaplasma spp. exposure and A. platys infection in dogs, and A. phagocytophilum exposure in humans in Morocco.

  12. Rural Residents in China Are at Increased Risk of Exposure to Tick-Borne Pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis

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    Lijuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As emerging tick born rickettsial diseases caused by A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis have become a serious threat to human and animal health throughout the world. In particular, in China, an unusual transmission of nosocomial cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis occurred in Anhui Province in 2006 and more recent coinfection case of A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis was documented in Shandong Province. Although the seroprevalence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (former human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, HGE has been documented in several studies, these data existed on local investigations, and also little data was reported on the seroprevalence of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME in China. In this cross-sectional epidemiological study, indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA proposed by WHO was used to detect A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis IgG antibodies for 7,322 serum samples from agrarian residents from 9 provinces/cities and 819 urban residents from 2 provinces. Our data showed that farmers were at substantially increased risk of exposure. However, even among urban residents, risk was considerable. Seroprevalence of HGA and HME occurred in diverse regions of the country and tended to be the highest in young adults. Many species of ticks were confirmed carrying A. phagocytophilum organisms in China while several kinds of domestic animals including dog, goats, sheep, cattle, horse, wild rabbit, and some small wild rodents were proposed to be the reservoir hosts of A. phagocytophilum. The broad distribution of vector and hosts of the A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis, especially the relationship between the generalized susceptibility of vectors and reservoirs and the severity of the disease’s clinical manifestations and the genetic variation of Chinese HGA isolates in China, is urgently needed to be further investigated.

  13. High Prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in Small Ruminants in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Lbacha, H; Alali, S; Zouagui, Z; El Mamoun, L; Rhalem, A; Petit, E; Haddad, N; Gandoin, C; Boulouis, H-J; Maillard, R

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of infection by Anaplasma spp. (including Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was determined using blood smear microscopy and PCR through screening of small ruminant blood samples collected from seven regions of Morocco. Co-infections of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp, Theileria spp. and Mycoplasma spp. were investigated and risk factors for Anaplasma spp. infection assessed. A total of 422 small ruminant blood samples were randomly collected from 70 flocks. Individual animal (breed, age, tick burden and previous treatment) and flock data (GPS coordinate of farm, size of flock and livestock production system) were collected. Upon examination of blood smears, 375 blood samples (88.9%) were found to contain Anaplasma-like erythrocytic inclusion bodies. Upon screening with a large spectrum PCR targeting the Anaplasma 16S rRNA region, 303 (71%) samples were found to be positive. All 303 samples screened with the A. phagocytophilum-specific PCR, which targets the msp2 region, were found to be negative. Differences in prevalence were found to be statistically significant with regard to region, altitude, flock size, livestock production system, grazing system, presence of clinical cases and application of tick and tick-borne diseases prophylactic measures. Kappa analysis revealed a poor concordance between microscopy and PCR (k = 0.14). Agreement with PCR is improved by considering microscopy and packed cell volume (PCV) in parallel. The prevalence of double infections was found to be 1.7, 2.5 and 24% for Anaplasma-Babesia, Anaplasma-Mycoplasma and Anaplasma-Theileria, respectively. Co-infection with three or more haemoparasites was found in 1.6% of animals examined. In conclusion, we demonstrate the high burden of anaplasmosis in small ruminants in Morocco and the high prevalence of co-infections of tick-borne diseases. There is an urgent need to improve the control of this neglected group of diseases. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. A serological survey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs in North America and the Caribbean as assessed by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. platys, Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and Borrelia burgdorferi species-specific peptides

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    Barbara A. Qurollo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tick-borne pathogens cause a spectrum of disease manifestations in both dogs and humans. Recognizing regional and temporal shifts in exposure are important as tick distributions change. To better delineate regional exposure to canine tick-borne pathogens, an expanded set of species-specific peptides were used to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Aph, Anaplasma platys (Apl, Ehrlichia canis (Ec, Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Ech, Ehrlichia ewingii (Eew, and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb antibodies in canine serum. Methods: Archived canine serum samples (n=6,582 collected during 2008–2010 and in 2012 from the US, Canada, and the Caribbean were retrospectively screened for antibodies against Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species-specific peptides. Overall, regional and temporal seroprevalence rates were determined. Results: Overall Bb and Eew were the most seroprevalent pathogens. During 2008–2010, seroprevalence rates increased overall for Aph and Ech, and regionally, Bb and Aph seroprevalence rates increased in the South. Canada had unexpectedly high seroprevalence rates for Ec and Apl. The most common co-exposures were Eew+Ech, followed by Aph+Bb and Eew+Bb. Conclusions: This study demonstrated significant shifts in canine vector-borne disease seroprevalence rates. The use of specific peptides facilitated improved geographic delineation of tick-borne pathogen distributions among dogs, which may enhance epidemiological surveillance of vector-borne pathogens shared by dogs and humans.

  15. Multiple infections ofAnaplasma platysvariants in Philippine dogs.

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    Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Ybañez, Rochelle Haidee Daclan; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2016-12-01

    Anaplasma platys , the causative agent of infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, is a tick-borne pathogen that also has been implicated as potentially zoonotic. To provide molecular evidence on the multiple infections of A. platys variants in Philippine dogs. DNA fragments of A. platys from infected dogs in the Philippines were molecularly characterized. For screening, 25 dogs suspected to have canine anaplasmosis were tested using a 16S rRNA-based nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Infection was confirmed by sequencing of positive amplicons. Second round PCR targeting a longer 16S rRNA fragment was subsequently performed on the first round PCR amplicons of the positive samples. Further characterization using the heat-shock operon ( groEL ) gene was also performed on the A. platys -positive samples. 10 16S rRNA sequences were obtained and found 99.6-100% identical to each other and 99.6-99.7% identical to the closest registered A. platys sequences. On the other hand, 36 groEL clone sequences were obtained and found to be 85.1-99.8% identical with each other and 85.0-88.9% identical to the closest previously registered A. platys sequences. Four dogs were found coinfected with 2-3 groEL variant sequences. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the detected A. platys in the Philippines may represent unique variants. A. platys variants were detected in Philippine dogs. Coinfection of different A. platys variants in dogs was also demonstrated. The present study may indicate the potential genetic diversity of A. platys in the country.

  16. Multiple infections of Anaplasma platys variants in Philippine dogs

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    Adrian Patalinghug Ybañez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Anaplasma platys, the causative agent of infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, is a tick-borne pathogen that also has been implicated as potentially zoonotic. To provide molecular evidence on the multiple infections of A. platys variants in Philippine dogs. Materials and Methods: DNA fragments of A. platys from infected dogs in the Philippines were molecularly characterized. For screening, 25 dogs suspected to have canine anaplasmosis were tested using a 16S rRNA-based nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Infection was confirmed by sequencing of positive amplicons. Second round PCR targeting a longer 16S rRNA fragment was subsequently performed on the first round PCR amplicons of the positive samples. Further characterization using the heat-shock operon (groEL gene was also performed on the A. platys-positive samples. Results: 10 16S rRNA sequences were obtained and found 99.6-100% identical to each other and 99.6-99.7% identical to the closest registered A. platys sequences. On the other hand, 36 groEL clone sequences were obtained and found to be 85.1-99.8% identical with each other and 85.0-88.9% identical to the closest previously registered A. platys sequences. Four dogs were found coinfected with 2-3 groEL variant sequences. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the detected A. platys in the Philippines may represent unique variants. Conclusion: A. platys variants were detected in Philippine dogs. Coinfection of different A. platys variants in dogs was also demonstrated. The present study may indicate the potential genetic diversity of A. platys in the country.

  17. Identification and Characterization of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Proteins Involved in Infection of the Tick Vector, Ixodes scapularis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Villar, M.; Ayllón, N.; Kocan, K.M.; Bonzón-Kulichenko, E.; Alberdi, P.; Blouin, E.F.; Weisheit, S.; Mateos-Hernández, L.; Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Bell-Sakyi, L.; Vancová, Marie; Bílý, Tomáš; Meyer, D.F.; Štěrba, Ján; Contreras, M.; Rudenko, Natalia; Grubhoffer, Libor; Vázquez, J.; de la Fuente, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 9 (2015), e0137237 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 238511; European Commission(XE) 278976 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : secretion system * outer membrane vesicles * gene expression Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  18. The Tick Salivary Protein Sialostatin L2 Inhibits Caspase-1-Mediated Inflammation during Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, G.; Wang, X.; Sakhon, O. S.; Sohail, M.; Brown, L.J.; Sircar, M.; Snyder, G.A.; Sundberg, E.J.; Ulland, T.K.; Olivier, A.K.; Andersen, J. F.; Zhou, Y.; Shi, G.-P.; Sutterwala, F.S.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 6 (2014), s. 2553-2564 ISSN 0019-9567 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent * Ixodes scapularis * tumor necrosis factor Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.731, year: 2014

  19. Prevalence and genotypes of Anaplasma species and habitat suitability for ticks in a Mediterranean ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torina, Alessandra; Alongi, Angelina; Naranjo, Victoria; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Vicente, Joaquín; Scimeca, Salvatore; Marino, Anna M F; Salina, Felice; Caracappa, Santo; de la Fuente, José

    2008-12-01

    Anaplasma species are tick-transmitted pathogens that impact veterinary and human health. Sicily is one of the locations where these pathogens are endemic. Sicily represents a typical Mediterranean ecosystem to study Anaplasma infection and tick habitat suitability. The aims of this study were (i) to characterize by 16S rRNA and species-specific msp4 gene PCR the prevalence and genotypes of A. marginale, A. phagocytophilum, and A. ovis in the most abundant host species in Sicilian provinces and (ii) to correlate differences between hosts and between western and eastern Sicily with the habitat suitability for ticks in these regions. Differences were found in the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. between different hosts and between western and eastern provinces. The differences in Anaplasma prevalence between different hosts may be explained by pathogen host tropism. The differences between western and eastern provinces correlated with the tick habitat suitability in these regions. The analysis of Anaplasma genotypes suggested a higher host and regional specificity for A. phagocytophilum than for A. marginale and A. ovis strains, a finding probably associated with the broader host range of A. phagocytophilum. The presence of identical A. marginale genotypes in the two regions may reflect cattle movement. The results for A. ovis suggested the possibility of some genotypes being host specific. These results provide information potentially useful for the management of tick-borne diseases caused by Anaplasma spp. in Sicily and other Mediterranean regions and may contribute to the development of models to predict the risks for these tick-borne pathogens.

  20. Adaptive immunity to Anaplasma pathogens and immune dysregulation: implications for bacterial persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Wendy C.

    2012-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale is an obligate intraerythrocytic bacterium that infects ruminants, and notably causes severe economic losses in cattle worldwide. A. phagocytophilum infects neutrophils and causes disease in many mammals, including ruminants, dogs, cats, horses, and humans. Both bacteria cause persistent infectioninfected cattle never clear A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum can also cause persistent infection in ruminants and other animals for several years. This review describes correlates of the protective immune response to these two pathogens as well as subversion and dysregulation of the immune response following infection that likely contribute to long-term persistence. I also compare the immune dysfunction observed with intraerythrocytic A. marginale to that observed in other models of chronic infection resulting in high antigen loads, including malaria, a disease caused by another intraerythrocytic pathogen. PMID:22226382

  1. Infections with Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Cytokine Responses in 2 Persons Bitten by Ticks, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grankvist, Anna; Sandelin, Lisa Labbé; Andersson, Jennie; Fryland, Linda; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Forsberg, Pia

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis infection was determined in 102 persons bitten by ticks in Sweden. Two infected women had erythematous rashes; 1 was co-infected with a Borrelia sp., and the other showed seroconversion for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Both patients had increased levels of Neoehrlichia DNA and serum cytokines for several months. PMID:26197035

  2. Equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the emergence and establishment of equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands, with particular attention to their diagnosis, clinical relevance and treatment. Four tick-borne agents (Borrelia burgdorferi, Theileria equi, Babesia caballi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum)

  3. Cooperation of Pd-1 and LAG-3 contributes to T-cell exhaustion in anaplasma marginale-infected cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CD4+ T-cell response is central for control of Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle. However, the infection induces a functional exhaustion of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in cattle immunized with A. marginale outer membrane proteins or purified outer membranes (OM), which presumably facilit...

  4. Novel Anaplasma and Ehrlichia organisms infecting the wildlife of two regions of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Herbert S; Marcili, Arlei; Barbieri, Amália R M; Minervino, Antonio H H; Malheiros, Antonio F; Gennari, Solange M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2017-10-01

    During 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in the Amazon biome of Brazil. Animal tissues and blood were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting DNA of the bacterial family Anaplasmataceae (genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Wolbachia) and the genus Borrelia. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. All birds and reptiles were negative by all PCR assays, as well as all mammals for the Borrelia PCR assay. Anaplasmataceae agents were searched by PCR assays targeting two different genes, the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene and the protein-coding dsb gene. Three dsb closely related haplotypes were generated from 3 white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari). In a phylogenetic analysis inferred from dsb partial sequences, these haplotypes grouped with previously reported Ehrlichia haplotypes from jaguar (Panthera onca) and horse from Brazil, suggesting that they could all represent a single species, yet to be properly characterized. A unique dsb haplotype was generated from a sloth (Bradypus tridactylus), and could also represent a different Ehrlichia species. All these dsb haplotypes formed a clade sister to the Ehrlichia ruminantium clade. Three distinct 16S rRNA gene haplotypes were generated from a wild guinea pig (Cavia sp.), a woolly mouse opossum (Micoureus demerarae), and two from robust capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp.). In a phylogenetic analysis inferred from 16S rRNA gene partial sequence, these haplotypes grouped within the Wolbachia clade, and are likely to represent Wolbachia organisms that were infecting invertebrate metazoarians (e.g., filarids) associated with the sampled mammals. Two deer (Mazama americana) samples yielded two distinct 16S rRNA gene sequences, one identical to several sequences of Anaplasma bovis, and an unique sequence that grouped in a clade with different Anaplasma species. Our results indicate that a variety of genetically distinct Anaplasmataceae organisms

  5. Association of Anaplasma marginale strain superinfection with infection prevalence within tropical regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Castañeda-Ortiz

    Full Text Available Strain superinfection occurs when a second strain infects a host already infected with and having mounted an immune response to a primary strain. The incidence of superinfection with Anaplasma marginale, a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of domestic and wild ruminants, has been shown to be higher in tropical versus temperate regions. This has been attributed to the higher prevalence of infection, with consequent immunity against primary strains and thus greater selective pressure for superinfection with antigenically distinct strains. However an alternative explanation would be the differences in the transmitting vector, Dermacentor andersoni in the studied temperate regions and Rhipicephalus microplus in the studied tropical regions. To address this question, we examined two tropical populations sharing the same vector, R. microplus, but with significantly different infection prevalence. Using two separate markers, msp1α (one allele per genome and msp2 (multiple alleles per genome, there were higher levels of multiple strain infections in the high infection prevalence as compared to the low prevalence population. The association of higher strain diversity with infection prevalence supports the hypothesis that high levels of infection prevalence and consequent population immunity is the predominant driver of strain superinfection.

  6. Validation of an Anaplasma marginale cELISA for use in the diagnosis of A. ovis infections in domestic sheep and Anaplasma spp. in wild ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoles, Glen A; Goff, Will L; Lysyk, Timothy J; Lewis, Gregory S; Knowles, Donald P

    2008-07-27

    A commercially available (cELISA) kit for diagnosing Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle was validated for diagnosing A ovis infection in sheep using the bovine serum controls as supplied by the manufacturer (BcELISA) and sheep serum controls from pathogen-free sheep (OcELISA). True positives were identified using two previously established assays, a nested PCR (nPCR) test and an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA). The BcELISA was also applied to sera from various species of wild ruminants, comparing the results with the IFA. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the predicted threshold inhibition for the BcELISA was 19.2. The sensitivity for the BcELISA was 98.2% and the specificity was 96.3%. The predicted threshold inhibition decreased to 14.3 for the OcELISA; the sensitivity was 96.5% and the specificity was 98.1%. There was >/=90% concordance between IFA and nPCR, as well as between the BcELISA at 19% inhibition cutoff and either IFA or PCR. Concordance between the cELISA and IFA using sera from elk, mule deer, bighorn sheep, pronghorn antelope, and black-tailed deer ranged from 64% to 100%. This commercially available cELISA test kit can be used very effectively to test domestic sheep for infection with A. ovis using the kit-supplied controls (i.e. the BcELISA) and a 19% inhibition cutoff; the kit may also be useful for detecting intra-erythrocytic Anaplasma infections in wild ruminants.

  7. High infection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. among tick species collected from different geographical locations of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Tajedin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain the prevalence of the Anaplasma/Ehrlichia infections in tick population within four provinces of Iran. Methods: A total of 384 tick specimens were collected from domestic animals inhabiting in four provinces (East Azerbaijan, Gilan, South Khorasan and Yazd. Specimens were identified based on morphological analysis. The detection of Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp. within tick samples was carried out by nested PCR amplification of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene accompanied by DNA sequencing and analysis for verification. Results: A total of 10 tick species were identified as follows: Ornithodoros lahorensis (O. lahorensis (44.8%, Hyalomma dromedarii (15.6%, Dermacentor marginatus (13.5%, Hyalomma anatolicum (11.2%, Hyalomma asiaticum (5.7%, Hyalomma marginatum (4.9%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (2.3%, Hyalomma detritum (1.0%, Dermacentor niveus (0.5% and Argas persicus (0.3%. The percentage distribution of Anaplasma/Ehrlichia was 55.5% (213 across 384 studied ticks. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Anaplasma ovis infection in O. lahorensis in Iran. We also conjecture the prevalence of Ehrlichia spp. in Yazd Province based on sequencing results; also, it is suggested that O. lahorensis is a potential vector in the studied area. This survey highlights the importance of Argasidae family to verify and correlate their threat in causing anaplasmosis and other diseases in animals.

  8. Anaplasma phagocytophilum: deceptively simple or simply deceptive?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Severo, M. S.; Stephens, K. D.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2012), s. 719-731 ISSN 1746-0913 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : obligate intracellular bacterium * rickettsial agents * ticks * vector-borne diseases Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.018, year: 2012

  9. Immunization-induced anaplasma marginale-specific T lymphocyte reponses impaired by A. marginale infection are restored after eliminating the infection with tetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection of cattle with Anaplasma marginale fails to prime sustained effector/memory T-cell responses, and high bacterial load may induce antigen-specific CD4 T exhaustion and deletion. We tested the hypothesis that clearance of persistent infection restores the exhausted T-cell response. We show t...

  10. Longitudinal field study on bovine Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections during a grazing season in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Lempereur, Laetitia; Lebrun, Maude; Cuvelier, Pascale; Sepult, Geraldine; Caron, Yannick; Saegerman, Claude; Shiels, Brian; Losson, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Anaplasmosis and babesiosis are major tick-borne diseases with a high economic impact but are also a public health concern. Blood samples collected in the spring, summer, and autumn of 2010 from 65 cows in seven different farms in Belgium were monitored with an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test to assess seroprevalence against these pathogens. Seroprevalences to Babesia spp. were measured as 10.7%, 20%, and 12.3% in spring, summer, and autumn, respectively, whereas seroprevalences to ...

  11. Transplacental transmission of Anaplasma marginale in beef cattle chronically infected in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Eduardo Gonzalez Grau

    Full Text Available In this study, we have investigated the incidence of transplacental transmission of Anaplasma marginale in chronically infected cows with no history of acute anaplasmosis during gestation. In addition, we evaluated various techniques for detection of transplacental transmission ofA. marginale. Blood samples were collected from 30 cows at three different periods: at the time of artificial insemination, at gestational diagnosis, and after calving. Also, blood was collected from the newborn calves, including one sample before colostrum intake, and another three days after birth. A. marginale-specific antibodies were detected in 100% of the cows with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, and in 97% of them, using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Also, we observed that all of the three-day-old newborn calves were seropositive by IFAT. According to polymerase chain reaction, 63.3% of the cows were carriers of A. marginale, as well as 6.7% of the newborn calves. This represented a transplacental transmission rate of 10.5%. Furthermore, a correlation of 93.3% was observed between the two serodiagnostic techniques, demonstrating that both ELISA and IFAT can be used in epidemiological surveys of A. marginale. These results confirm the occurrence of transplacental transmission of A. marginale in chronically infected cows and suggest the importance of this transmission route in areas of enzootic instability.

  12. Experimental infection and co-infection of dogs with Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis: hematologic, serologic and molecular findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diniz PPVP

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a ubiquitous tick responsible for transmitting Ehrlichia canis and most likely Anaplasma platys to dogs, as either single or co-infections. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of either simultaneous or sequential experimental infections with E. canis and A. platys on hematological and serological parameters, duration of infection, and efficacy of doxycycline therapy in dogs infected with one or both organisms. Six dogs per group were either uninfected, A. platys infected, E. canis infected, A. platys and E. canis co-infected, A. platys infected and E. canis challenged or E. canis infected and A. platys challenged at day 112 post-infection (PI. Doxycycline treatment was initiated at 211 days PI, followed by dexamethasone immunosuppression beginning 410 days PI. Results Initially, transient decreases in hematocrit occurred in all groups infected with E. canis, but the mean hematocrit was significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. All dogs except the controls developed marked thrombocytopenia after initial infection followed by gradually increased platelet counts by 112 days PI in groups with the single infections, while platelet counts remained significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. Both sequential and simultaneous infections of A. platys and E. canis produced an enhanced humoral immune response to A. platys when compared to infection with A. platys alone. Likewise, co-infection with E. canis and A. platys resulted in a more persistent A. platys infection compared to dogs infected with A. platys only, but nearly all A. platys infected dogs became A. platys PCR negative prior to doxycycline treatment. E. canis infected dogs, whether single or co-infected, remained thrombocytopenic and E. canis PCR positive in blood for 420 days. When treated with doxycycline, all E. canis infected dogs became E. canis PCR negative and the

  13. Clinical and laboratory features of canine Anaplasma platys infection in 32 naturally infected dogs in the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzouraa, Tarek; René-Martellet, Magalie; Chêne, Jeanne; Attipa, Charalampos; Lebert, Isabelle; Chalvet-Monfray, Karine; Cadoré, Jean-Luc; Halos, Lenaig; Chabanne, Luc

    2016-10-01

    Since the first description of Anaplasma platys Infection (ApI), the disease has been sporadically reported worldwide. Whereas it is considered a subclinical disease in the United States or in Australia, severe cases are reported in Europe. Thus far, little information is available regarding the clinical and laboratory findings associated with the disease and the implication of co-infections with other vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) in Southern Europe. The purpose of the study was to describe clinical and laboratory findings in PCR-confirmed naturally infected dogs in the Mediterranean Basin, and to assess the potential impact of co-infections with other VBPs. This is a retrospective analysis of medical records from 32 client-owned dogs diagnosed with ApI using PCR-based assays. Anorexia (62.5%) and weight loss (43.8%) were the major changes, whereas lethargy was less frequent (34.4%). Lymphadenomegaly (43.8%), hyperthermia (40.6%) and hemorrhage (37.5%) were frequent clinical abnormalities, whereas cutaneous signs (31.3%), musculoskeletal disorders (21.9%), splenomegaly (15.6%), dehydration and ocular inflammation (12.5%) were less common. Hematological abnormalities included thrombocytopenia (81.0%), anemia (81.0%), leukocytosis (33.3%) and leucopenia (23.8%). Seven dogs (33.3%) were severely thrombocytopenic. Among the 28 dogs with complete testing, 15 and 13 were mono- and co-infected, respectively. Co-infections included Ehrlichia canis (3 dogs), Leishmania infantum (4), Babesia vogeli (2) and Hepatozoon canis (5). One dog was infected concurrently with Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis and Babesia vogeli. The 1-month mortality rate was 23.9% and only 38.1% improved. In the univariate analysis the 15 mono- and the 13 co-infected dogs did not differ regarding the relative frequencies of clinical and laboratory findings. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses suggested the existence of 2 different groups of strains: one of them might have higher pathogenicity. In

  14. Sequence analysis of the msp4 gene of Anaplasma ovis strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, J.; Atkinson, M.W.; Naranjo, V.; Fernandez de Mera, I. G.; Mangold, A.J.; Keating, K.A.; Kocan, K.M.

    2007-01-01

    Anaplasma ovis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) is a tick-borne pathogen of sheep, goats and wild ruminants. The genetic diversity of A. ovis strains has not been well characterized due to the lack of sequence information. In this study, we evaluated bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Montana for infection with A. ovis by serology and sequence analysis of the msp4 gene. Antibodies to Anaplasma spp. were detected in 37% and 39% of bighorn sheep and mule deer analyzed, respectively. Four new msp4 genotypes were identified. The A. ovis msp4 sequences identified herein were analyzed together with sequences reported previously for the characterization of the genetic diversity of A. ovis strains in comparison with other Anaplasma spp. The results of these studies demonstrated that although A. ovis msp4 genotypes may vary among geographic regions and between sheep and deer hosts, the variation observed was less than the variation observed between A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum strains. The results reported herein further confirm that A. ovis infection occurs in natural wild ruminant populations in Western United States and that bighorn sheep and mule deer may serve as wildlife reservoirs of A. ovis. ?? 2006.

  15. Neonatal Anaplasma platys infection in puppies: Further evidence for possible vertical transmission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matei, I.A.; Stuen, S.; Modrý, David; Degan, A.; D'Amico, G.; Mihalca, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 219, 1 January (2017), s. 40-41 ISSN 1090-0233 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Anaplasma platys * canine * vertical transmission Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 1.802, year: 2016

  16. Canine infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in Canada, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Brian H; Peregrine, Andrew S; Goring, Jonas; Beall, Melissa J; Little, Susan E

    2017-05-19

    Canine test results generated by veterinarians throughout Canada from 2013-2014 were evaluated to assess the geographical distribution of canine infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia spp., and Anaplasma spp. The percent positive test results of 115,636 SNAP® 4Dx® Plus tests from dogs tested were collated by province and municipality to determine the distribution of these vector-borne infections in Canada. A total of 2,844/115,636 (2.5%) dogs tested positive for antibody to B. burgdorferi. In contrast, positive test results for D. immitis antigen and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. were low, with less than 0.5% of dogs testing positive for any one of these three agents nationwide. Provincial seroprevalence for antibodies to B. burgdorferi ranged from 0.5% (Saskatchewan)-15.7% (Nova Scotia); the areas of highest percent positive test results were in proximity to regions in the USA considered endemic for Lyme borreliosis, including Nova Scotia (15.7%) and Eastern Ontario (5.1%). These high endemic foci, which had significantly higher percent positive test results than the rest of the nation (P Canada. Using dogs as sentinels for these pathogens can aid in recognition of the public and veterinary health threat that each pose.

  17. Longitudinal analysis of tick densities and Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia infections of Ixodes ricinus ticks in different habitat areas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielinga, P.R.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Fonville, M.; Boer, de A.G.; Vries, de A.; Dimmers, W.J.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.; Schouls, L.M.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2006-01-01

    From 2000 to 2004, ticks were collected by dragging a blanket in four habitat areas in The Netherlands: dunes, heather, forest, and a city park. Tick densities were calculated, and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species was investigated by reverse line blot analysis.

  18. Anaplasma Marginale isolation from infected bovine erythrocytes or from its floating culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canon Q, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Isolation of Anaplasma Marginale is of great importance because this is the cause of anaplasmosis in cattle. Anaplasmosis is a mortal disease and spreads easily. To isolate the anaplasm, four different experiments were developed; in the first experiment, the parasite was isolated from parasitic blood, by means of three methods; osmotic shock, sonic vibration and treatment with hemolisine. In the second experiment, the parasite source was the top of the bacteriologic culture of anaplasma marginale obtained by means of slow centrifugation. In the third experiment, it was used parasitic blood diluted in PBS and liquid nitrogen criopreserved. In the fourth experiment.it was used parasitic blood which was separated by means of sonic oscillation. This method was more adequate to free the parasite from the host cell. Differential centrifugation was the best method to separate parasite of the stroma and ghost cells

  19. Occurrence of Hepatozoon canis (Adeleorina: Hepatozoidae) and Anaplasma spp. (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzhorn, Barend L; Netherlands, Edward C; Cook, Courtney A; Smit, Nico J; Vorster, Ilse; Harrison-White, Robert F; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2018-03-20

    Domestic dogs are not native to sub-Saharan Africa, which may account for their susceptibility to Babesia rossi, of which endemic black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) are natural reservoirs. There is virtually no information on the occurrence of potentially pathogenic haemogregarines (e.g. Hepatozoon canis) or even rickettsial bacteria (e.g. Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp.) in indigenous canids in sub-Saharan Africa. Such organisms could pose a risk to domestic dogs, as well as to populations of endangered indigenous canid species. Genomic DNA extracted from blood samples taken from 126 free-ranging and 16 captive black-backed jackals was subjected to reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay; 82 (57.8%) specimens reacted only with the Ehrlichia/Anaplasma genera-specific probe. Full-length bacterial 16S rRNA gene of five of these specimens was cloned and the recombinants sequenced. The ten 16S rDNA sequences obtained were most closely related, with approximately 99% identity, to Anaplasma sp. South African Dog, various uncultured Anaplasma spp., as well as various Anaplasma phagocytophilum genotypes. Ninety-one specimens were screened for haemogregarines through PCR amplification using the 18S rRNA gene; 20 (21.9%) specimens reacted positively, of which 14 (15.4%) were confirmed positive for Hepatozoon genotypes from within H. canis. Two (2.2%) specimens were found positive for two different Hepatozoon genotypes. Sequence analyses confirmed the presence of 16S rDNA sequences closely related to A. phagocytophilum and Anaplasma sp. South African Dog as well as two H. canis genotypes in both free-ranging and captive black-backed jackals. Distinguishing between closely related lineages may provide insight into differences in pathogenicity and virulence of various Anaplasma and H. canis genotypes. By building up a more comprehensive understanding of the range and diversity of the bacteria and eukaryotic organisms (piroplasms and haemogregarines) in the blood of

  20. Infections and risk factors for livestock with species of Anaplasma, Babesia and Brucella under semi-nomadic rearing in Karamoja Region, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Chiara; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Strona, Paolo; Lappo, Pier Giorgio; Etiang, Patrick; Diverio, Silvana

    2016-03-01

    A survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Anaplasma, Babesia and Brucella spp. infections in cattle, goats and sheep in the Karamoja Region of Uganda and to identify possible risk factors existing in this semi-nomadic and pastoral area. Low cost laboratory tests were used to diagnose infections (Rose Bengal test for Brucella spp. antibodies and direct microscopic examination for Anaplasma and Babesia spp.). Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to identify possible risk factors linked to gender, animal species, age (only for cattle) and districts. A total of 3935 cattle, 729 goats and 306 sheep of five districts of the Karamoja Region were tested. Seroprevalence for Brucella was 9.2 % (CI, 95 %: 8.4-10), for Anaplasma 19.5 % (CI 95 %: 18.4-20.6) and for Babesia 16 % (CI 95 %: 15-17.1). Significant differences in infections prevalence were observed against risk factors associated with districts and species. Cattle were the species with higher risk of the infections. Female gender was identified as at risk only for Brucella spp. infection. Cattle more than one year old had greater likelihood to be Brucella seropositive. Co-infections of Anaplasma and Babesia spp. were statistically associated, especially in goats and sheep. Further studies to identify risk factors related to host species and geographical districts are needed. The influence on the semi-nomadic agro-pastoral system in Karamoja of animal raids and animal mixing should be further investigated. Findings were important to sensitize Karamojong undertaking measures on infection control, especially on cattle, which are their main source of food.

  1. First molecular evidence for the presence of Anaplasma DNA in milk from sheep and goats in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Lv, Yali; Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Jinhong; Cao, Shuxuan; Jian, Fuchun; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Longxian; Ning, Changshen

    2016-07-01

    Anaplasmosis, a disease caused by bacteria in the genus of Anaplasma, imposes economic constraints on animal breeders and also threatens human health. In the present study, we investigated the presence of Anaplasma spp. DNA in milk collected from sheep and goats in China. A total of 120 milk samples and 414 field-sampled blood specimens from sheep and goats were analyzed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Anaplasma ovis was detected in 12 milk samples (three from sheep and nine from goats). The blood specimens corresponding to the A. ovis DNA-positive milk were analyzed for Anaplasma DNA presence, and A. ovis DNA was identified in 10 out of the 12 blood specimens. One goat's milk sample was Anaplasma bovis DNA-positive, as was the corresponding blood sample. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found in a milk sample and blood sample from one goat. One milk sample from Xinmi in Henan province was simultaneously positive for A. bovis and A. phagocytophilum; however, the corresponding blood was negative for both species. DNA sequencing of the PCR products and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the sequences from the milk samples matched those of the corresponding blood samples. This is the first report to detect the Anaplasma DNA in milk samples under natural condition, and represents the first evidence of the presence of A. ovis, A. bovis and A. phagocytophilum DNA in milk from sheep and goats.

  2. Anaplasma marginale infection in a Japanese Black cow 13 years after eradication of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Okinawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooshiro, Mamoru; Zakimi, Satoshi; Matsukawa, Yoshimasa; Yafuso, Makoto; Katagiri, Yoshito; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2009-03-23

    In October 2007, a 15-year-old Japanese Black cow on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa, Japan, was diagnosed with Anaplasma marginale infection based on clinical symptoms, blood examination, smear observation, 16S rRNA and groEL gene sequence analysis, and the result of a CF test. The cow was introduced into the farm from mainland Japan as a calf in 1993, one year before the eradication of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, the main vector of A. marginale in Okinawa Prefecture. It is possible that the cow was first infected with A. marginale as a calf in Ishigaki Island and had been persistently infected since then. This is the first reported clinical case of A. marginale infection of cattle since the eradication of R. microplus in Okinawa Prefecture. Additional analysis of major surface protein 1alpha amino acid sequences revealed that the A. marginale Okinawa strain presented four new repeat forms which were not seen in other strains. This indicates that the Okinawa strain may be a unique geographical variant of A. marginale.

  3. Estimated seroprevalence of Anaplasma spp. and spotted fever group Rickettsia exposure among herders and livestock in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Fricken, Michael E; Lkhagvatseren, Sukhbaatar; Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Nymadawa, Pagbajab; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Baigalmaa, Bekh-Ochir; Anderson, Benjamin D; Reller, Megan E; Lantos, Paul M; Gray, Gregory C

    2018-01-01

    To better understand the epidemiology of tick-borne disease in Mongolia, a comprehensive seroprevalence study was conducted investigating exposure to Anaplasma spp. and spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. in nomadic herders and their livestock across three provinces from 2014 to 2015. Blood was collected from 397 herders and 2370 livestock, including sheep, goats, cattle, horses and camels. Antibodies against Anaplasma spp. and SFG Rickettsia were determined by indirect immunofluorescence using commercially available slides coated with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia rickettsii antigens. Logistic regression was used to determine if the odds of previous exposure differed by gender, location, and species, with or without adjustment for age. To examine the association between seroprevalence and environmental variables we used ArcGIS to circumscribe the five major clusters where human and animal data were collected. Anaplasma spp. exposure was detected in 37.3% (136/365) of humans and 47.3% (1120/2370) of livestock; SFG Rickettsia exposure was detected in 19.5% (73/374) humans and 20.4% (478/2342) livestock. Compared to the southern province (aimag) of Dornogovi, located in the Gobi Desert, humans were significantly more likely to be exposed to Anaplasma spp. and SFG Rickettsia in the northern provinces of Tov (OR=7.3, 95% CI: 3.5, 15.1; OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.7, 7.5), and Selenge (OR=6.9, 95% CI: 3.4, 14.0; OR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 4.8). The high seroprevalence of Anaplasma spp. and SFG Rickettsia in humans and livestock suggests that exposure to tick-borne pathogens may be common in herders and livestock in Mongolia, particularly in the more northern regions of the country. Until more is known about these pathogens in Mongolia, physicians and veterinarians in the countryside should consider testing for Anaplasma and SFG Rickettsia infections and treating clinically compatible cases, while public health authorities should expand surveillance efforts for these

  4. Molecular characterization of Anaplasma platys strains from dogs in Sicily, Italy

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    Alongi Angelina

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic diversity of Anaplasma platys (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae strains is currently poorly defined. The present study was designed to characterize A. patys strains in dogs from Palermo, Sicily, Italy, using a combination of PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA, heat shock operon groESL and citrate synthase (gltA genes. Results Blood was collected from 344 dogs (111 pet dogs, 122 pound dogs and 111 hunting dogs during 2003–2005 in the Province of Palermo, Sicily, Italy. The prevalence of A. platys in dogs in Sicily, as demonstrated by PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA, groESL and gltA genes, was 4%. None of the samples were positive for A. marginale, A. centrale, A. ovis and A. phagocytophilum DNA. Three different gltA genotypes of A. platys were identified in dogs from Sicily. Two of the gltA sequences of Sicilian A. platys strains were different from sequences reported previously. However, one of the gltA, 16S rDNA and groESL sequences were identical to the sequence of A. platys strains from other regions of the world characterized previously. Conclusion At least three different strains of A. platys were identified in dogs from Sicily by PCR and sequence analyses of the 16S rDNA, groESL and gltA genes. The results reported herein suggested that genetic diversity of A. platys strains may be similar to A. ovis, but lower than the diversity reported for A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum. This lower genetic diversity may have resulted from restricted movement of infected hosts compared to A. marginale-infected cattle and/or the limited host range of A. ovis and A. platys as compared with A. phagocytophilum. These results expand our knowledge about A. platys and encourage further research for analysis of the genetic variation of A. platys strains worldwide.

  5. Serological and molecular investigation of Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. in ticks and blood of dogs, in the Thrace Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Handan; Matur, Erdal; Akyazi, İbrahim; Ekiz, Elif Ergul; Aydin, Levent; Toparlak, Mufit

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, tick-borne diseases like ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis became widespread worldwide threatening the health of both human and companion animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs and ticks in the Thrace Region of Turkey. A total of 400 blood samples and 912 ticks were collected from dogs living in shelters that are located in four cities (Istanbul, Edirne, Tekirdag and Kirklareli) of the Thrace Region. Blood and buffy coat smears were prepared for microscopic examination. Hematologic and serologic analyses were performed using cell counter and commercial Snap3Dx test kit, respectively. Eight hundred fifty of collected ticks were classified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 33 as Rhipicephalus turanicus and 29 as Ixodes ricinus. After DNA extraction from blood samples and pooled ticks (127 tick pools, in total), nested PCR was performed to detect the DNA of Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. The seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis was 27.25% (109) by Snap3Dx test and the total molecular positivity was 11.75% (47) in dog blood samples and 21.25% (27) in tick pools by nested PCR. The frequencies of the infected blood samples with E. canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys were detected as 6%, 4% and 6%, respectively. E. canis and A. platys were detected in R. sanguineus pools with a ratio of 15.75% and 0.7%, respectively. In addition, A. platys was also detected in R. turanicus pools (0.7%). A. phagocytophilum was found only in I. ricinus pools (3.93%). Morulae of three species were detected in buffy coat and blood smears. While anemia was observed in dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected (with one or more species), thrombocytopenia was observed only in co-infected dogs. This is the first study providing evidence for the presence of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs and ticks in the Thrace Region of Turkey. Based on the results of the tests used in this study

  6. Investigation of tick-borne bacteria (Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia spp.) in ticks collected from Andean tapirs, cattle and vegetation from a protected area in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquera, Cristina; Portillo, Aránzazu; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A

    2015-01-24

    Ixodid ticks play an important role in the transmission and ecology of infectious diseases. Information about the circulation of tick-borne bacteria in ticks is lacking in Ecuador. Our aims were to investigate the tick species that parasitize Andean tapirs and cattle, and those present in the vegetation from the buffer zone of the Antisana Ecological Reserve and Cayambe-Coca National Park (Ecuador), and to investigate the presence of tick-borne bacteria. Tick species were identified based on morphologic and genetic criteria. Detection of tick-borne bacteria belonging to Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Borrelia genera was performed by PCRs. Our ticks included 91 Amblyomma multipunctum, 4 Amblyomma spp., 60 Rhipicephalus microplus, 5 Ixodes spp. and 1 Ixodes boliviensis. A potential Candidatus Rickettsia species closest to Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia tamurae (designated Rickettsia sp. 12G1) was detected in 3 R. microplus (3/57, 5.3%). In addition, Anaplasma spp., assigned at least to Anaplasma phagocytophilum (or closely related genotypes) and Anaplasma marginale, were found in 2 A. multipunctum (2/87, 2.3%) and 13 R. microplus (13/57, 22.8%). This is the first description of Rickettsia sp. in ticks from Ecuador, and the analyses of sequences suggest the presence of a potential novel Rickettsia species. Ecuadorian ticks from Andear tapirs, cattle and vegetation belonging to Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus genera were infected with Anaplasmataceae. Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were not found in any ticks.

  7. Nuclease Tudor-SN Is Involved in Tick dsRNAMediated RNA Interference and Feeding but Not in Defense against Flaviviral or Anaplasma phagocytophilum Rickettsial Infection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ayllón, N.; Naranjo, V.; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Villar, M.; Galindo, R. C.; Kocan, K.M.; Alberdi, P.; Šíma, Radek; Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Rückert, C.; Bell-Sakyi, L.; Kazimírová, M.; Havlíková, S.; Klempa, B.; Kopáček, Petr; de la Fuente, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 7 (2015), e0133038 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA ČR GP13-12816P EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : disease * proteins * cell lines Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  8. Loss of immunization-induced epitope-specific CD4 T-cell response following anaplasma marginale infection requires presence of the T-cell epitope on the pathogen and is not associated with an increase in lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have shown that in cattle previously immunized with outer membrane proteins, infection with Anaplasma marginale induces a functionally exhausted CD4 T-cell response to the A. marginale immunogen. Furthermore, T-cell responses following infection in nonimmunized cattle had a delayed onset and were...

  9. Knockdown of the rhipicephalus microplus cytochrome c oxidase subunit III gene is associated with a failure of anaplasma marginale transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhipicephalus microplus is an obligate hematophagous ectoparasite of cattle and an important biological vector of Anaplasma marginale in tropical and subtropical regions. The primary determinants for Anaplasma transmission are infection of tick gut epithelial cells followed by infection of salivary ...

  10. First report of Anaplasma platys infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum in foxes from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Luís; Gilad, Matan; Cortes, Helder C E; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Simões, Margarida; Rodrigues, Paula A; Baneth, Gad

    2015-03-23

    The bacteria Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis and the protozoan Leishmania infantum are vector-borne agents that cause canine vector-borne diseases, some of which are zoonotic. The present survey investigated the prevalence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Leishmania in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal by molecular analysis, in order to evaluate the epidemiological role of these canids as reservoirs of infection. Blood and/or bone marrow samples were collected from 78 red foxes obtained in eight districts of northern, central and southern Portugal. Real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCR) amplified a 123 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. and a 265 bp fragment of the L. infantum internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) region of the rRNA operon evaluated by PCR-high resolution melt analysis (PCR-HRM), with sequencing of the DNA products. A phylogenetic analysis was carried out to compare these to other sequences from Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. deposited in GenBank. A. platys was detected in 10 (14.5%) and E. canis in two (2.9%) out of 69 foxes; and L. infantum was detected in one (1.3%) of the 78 foxes. The prevalence of A. platys was significantly different from the prevalence of E. canis (p=0.016) and from that of L. infantum (p=0.002). No co-infections were found in any one of the 78 foxes. No statistically significant differences were found between the type of sample (blood and bone marrow), geographic regions (north/centre and south), age (<2 years and ≥2 years) and gender for any one of the agents. This is the first known report of A. platys in red foxes worldwide, as well as the first molecular evidence of E. canis in foxes from Portugal. The moderate prevalence of A. platys suggests that red foxes may play a role in the epidemiology of infection with this bacterium and serve as a reservoir for domestic dogs.

  11. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys infection in free-roaming dogs and ticks from Kenya and Ivory Coast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matei, I.A.; D'Amico, G.; Yao, P.K.; Ionică, A.M.; Kanyari, P. W. N.; Daskalaki, A.A.; Dumitrache, M.O.; Sándor, A.D.; Gherman, C.M.; Qablan, M.; Modrý, David; Mihalca, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, MAR 16 (2016), č. článku 157. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Africa * Anaplasma platys * carnivores * Kenya * Ivory Coast Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  12. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria

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    Georg G. Duscher

    2015-04-01

    The role of wild ungulates, especially ruminants, as reservoirs for zoonotic disease on the other hand seems to be negligible, although the deer filaroid Onchocerca jakutensis has been described to infect humans. Deer may also harbour certain Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains with so far unclear potential to infect humans. The major role of deer as reservoirs is for ticks, mainly adults, thus maintaining the life cycle of these vectors and their distribution. Wild boar seem to be an exception among the ungulates as, in their interaction with the fox, they can introduce food-borne zoonotic agents such as Trichinella britovi and Alaria alata into the human food chain.

  13. Co-infection and genetic diversity of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Werszko, Joanna; Cydzik, Krystian; Bajer, Anna; Michalik, Jerzy; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2013-05-01

    Wild species are essential hosts for maintaining Ixodes ticks and the tick-borne diseases. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence, the rate of co-infection with Babesia, Bartonella, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and the molecular diversity of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer in Poland. Almost half of the tested samples provided evidence of infection with at least 1 species. A. phagocytophilum (37.3%) was the most common and Bartonella (13.4%) the rarest infection. A total of 18.3% of all positive samples from roe deer were infected with at least 2 pathogens, and one-third of those were co-infected with A. phagocytophilum, Bartonella, and Babesia species. On the basis of multilocus molecular studies we conclude that: (1) Two different genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum, zoonotic and nonzoonotic, are widely distributed in Polish roe deer population; (2) the roe deer is the host for zoonotic Babesia (Bab. venatorum, Bab. divergens), closely related or identical with strains/species found in humans; (3) our Bab. capreoli and Bab. divergens isolates differed from reported genotypes at 2 conserved base positions, i.e., positions 631 and 663; and (4) this is the first description of Bart. schoenbuchensis infections in roe deer in Poland. We present 1 of the first complex epidemiological studies on the prevalence of Babesia, Bartonella, and A. phagocytophilum in naturally infected populations of roe deer. These game animals clearly have an important role as reservoir hosts of tick-borne pathogens, but the pathogenicity and zoonotic potential of the parasite genotypes hosted by roe deer requires further detailed investigation.

  14. Predicting the emergence of tick-borne infections based on climatic changes in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Joon-Seok; Adjemian, Jennifer Zipser; Kim, Heung-Chul; Ko, Sungjin; Klein, Terry A; Foley, Janet

    2008-04-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) and monocytic ehrlichiosis (ME) are maintained in wild rodent reservoirs and tick vectors in the Republic of Korea. This study investigated the prevalence of 2 tick-borne pathogens, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, in wild rodents and ticks in central Korea to identify any significant associations with existing or changing climatic conditions. Specifically, the goal of this study was to develop simple models for the probability of occurrence of an epidemic of GA or ME as a function of climate in an area in a given year. Climatic data from 2 regions, Munsan and Dongducheon, Gyeonggi, in central Korea (between the Demilitarized Zone and Seoul, latitude between 37 degrees N-38 degrees N and longitude between 127 degrees E-128 degrees E), were analyzed with respect to the prevalence of GA and ME in Paju, Yoncheon, Pocheon, and Dongducheon for the period from 2001 to 2005. Rates of A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis decreased as the total yearly precipitation levels and daily humidity increased, and as the daily mean sunshine hours decreased. Rates of A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis from rodent ticks and rodents increased in the fall season. Linear regression analyses evaluating the numbers of positive samples by sample type found that rodent ticks were 6.64 times more likely to be actively infected with A. phagocytophilum than grass ticks or rodents, though the likelihood of any samples testing positive for this pathogen decreased by 0.17 as the annual mean level of precipitation increased by 1 mm. For E. chaffeensis, rodents were 15.67 times more likely to be infected than ticks. Logistic regression analyses evaluating each sample separately found that the odds of infection with A. phagocytophilum were nearly 5 times greater for rodents than ticks. In these analyses, precipitation was one potential factor to account for the prevalence of tickborne diseases.

  15. Prevalence of infections and co-infections with 6 pathogens in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks collected in eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Violetta; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Sawczyn, Anna; Cisak, Ewa; Sroka, Jacek; Kloc, Anna; Zając, Zbigniew; Buczek, Alicja; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Bartosik, Katarzyna

    2017-03-21

    Occurrence of co-infections with various pathogens in ixodid ticks creates a risk of increased severity of tick-borne diseases in humans and animals exposed to bite of the ticks carrying multiple pathogens. Accordingly, co-infections in ticks were subject of numerous analyses, but almost exclusively with regard to Ixodes ricinus complex whereas potential tick vectors belonging to other genera were much less studied. Taking into consideration the role of Dermacentor reticulatus in the transmission of various pathogens, we carried out for the first time the comprehensive statistical analysis of co-infections occurring in this tick species. An attempt was made to determine the significance of the associations between 6 different pathogens occurring in D. reticulatus (Tick-borne encephalitis virus = TBEV, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia raoultii, Borrelia burgdorferi s. l., Babesia spp., Toxoplasma gondii), using 2 statistical methods: determination of Odds Ratios (ORs) and the Fisher's exact test. 634 questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (370 females and 264 males) were collected in 2011- 2013 by flagging the lower vegetation in 3 localities in the area of Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lakeland, situated in the Lublin region of eastern Poland. The presence of individual pathogens was detected by PCR. Ticks were infected most often with Rickettsia raoultii (43.8%), less with TBEV (8.5%), and much less with Babesia spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.5%, 2.1%, 1.6% and 1.1%, respectively). The locality-dependent variability proved to be significant for TBEV (c2=11.063; P=0.004) and Toxoplasma gondii (c2=11.298; P=0.0035), but not for other pathogens. Two hundred seventy (42.6%) of the examined ticks were infected only with a single pathogen, and 54 (8.5%) showed the presence of dual co-infections, each with 2 pathogens. The most common were dual infections with participation of Rickettsia raoultii (7.41%); next, those

  16. Prevalence of infections and co-infections with 6 pathogens in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks collected in eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Zając

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of co-infections with various pathogens in ixodid ticks creates a risk of increased severity of tick-borne diseases in humans and animals exposed to bite of the ticks carrying multiple pathogens. Accordingly, co-infections in ticks were subject of numerous analyses, but almost exclusively with regard to Ixodes ricinus complex whereas potential tick vectors belonging to other genera were much less studied. Taking into consideration the role of Dermacentor reticulatus in the transmission of various pathogens, we carried out for the first time the comprehensive statistical analysis of co-infections occurring in this tick species. An attempt was made to determine the significance of the associations between 6 different pathogens occurring in D. reticulatus (Tick-borne encephalitis virus = TBEV, Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Rickettsia raoultii , Borrelia burgdorferi s. l., Babesia spp., Toxoplasma gondii , using 2 statistical methods: determination of Odds Ratios (ORs and the Fisher’s exact test. 634 questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (370 females and 264 males were collected in 2011– 2013 by flagging the lower vegetation in 3 localities in the area of Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lakeland, situated in the Lublin region of eastern Poland. The presence of individual pathogens was detected by PCR. Ticks were infected most often with Rickettsia raoultii (43.8%, less with TBEV (8.5%, and much less with Babesia spp., Toxoplasma gondii , Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.5%, 2.1%, 1.6% and 1.1%, respectively. The locality-dependent variability proved to be significant for TBEV (χ 2 =11.063; P=0.004 and Toxoplasma gondii (χ 2 =11.298; P=0.0035, but not for other pathogens. Two hundred seventy (42.6% of the examined ticks were infected only with a single pathogen, and 54 (8.5% showed the presence of dual co-infections, each with 2 pathogens. The most common were dual infections with participation of Rickettsia

  17. DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES TO ANAPLASMA, BARTONELLA AND COXIELLA IN RURAL INHABITANTS OF THE CARIBBEAN AREA OF COLOMBIA

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    Salim Máttar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Establecer la seroprevalencia de Bartonella spp, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (antesErlichia y Coexiella burnetii. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron sueros representativos de unsector de la población en el año 2003, recolectados de personas que trabajan en actividades delcampo en los departamentos de Córdoba y Sucre que sirvieron como población base de las muestrasque se obtuvieron. Los trabajadores rurales elegidos a participar tenían entra 16 – 65 años deedad. Los sueros fueron examinados por IFA para detección de anticuerpos contra IgG para Bartonellaspp, Erlichia Anaplasma phagocytophilum y Coexiella burnetii. Resultados. La seroprevalencia deanticuerpos de todos los microorganismos estudiados fue de 56.8%. De 81 muestras de sueroanalizadas el 26.6% fueron seropositivas contra C. burnetii, el 37.7% tuvieron anticuerpos contraBartonella y el 20% de los individuos evaluados fueron seropositivos para Anaplasmaphagocytophilum. Conclusiones. Nuestros datos indican que la prevalencia de anticuerpos contraBartonella, A. phagocytophilum y C. burnetii son altos en nuestra región. Los resultados indicanque estas enfermedades zoonoticas son muy comunes en las personas que residen en el área delcaribe colombiano. Este estudio demuestra por primera vez la presencia de estos microorganismosen Colombia.

  18. The First case of Locally Acquired Tick-Borne Babesia Microti Infection in Canada

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    Jared MP Bullard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A child with a complicated medical history that included asplenia acquired an infection with Babesia microti in the summer of 2013 and had not travelled outside of Manitoba. Although the clinical findings were subtle, astute laboratory work helped to reach a preliminary identification of Babesia species, while reference laboratory testing confirmed the diagnosis. Blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis are known to transmit Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the province; however, the present case represents the first known instance of tick-borne B microti, both in Manitoba and in Canada. The expanding territory of the blacklegged tick increases the relevance of this emerging infection. Clinicians, laboratory medical practitioners and public health officials should be aware of B microti as a potential locally acquired infection in Canada.

  19. Seroprevalence fo Anaplasma marginale in dairy cattle and, studies on the dynamics of natural infection of Holstein calves in Southern Brazil/ Soroprevalência de Anaplasma marginale em bovinos leiteiros e estudos sobre a dinâmica da infecção natural em bezerros holandeses no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora S. Kano

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Sera of 708 animals (cows, heifers and calves from 13 dairy herds in the Londrina region of Paraná, Brazil, were tested for antibodies to Anaplasma marginale by a competitive ELISA assay (cELISA. Ten 2 to 20 days old Holstein calves, from one of the 13 herds studied, were monitored during one year. Blood samples from each calf were collected monthly and tick burden counting was performed every fortnight. Percentage of infected erythrocytes was established by Giemsa-stained smears, and sera samples were examined by cELISA to detect antibodies against A. marginale. In the 13 herds, 92.94% of the animals were seropositive to A. marginale, which indicates that Londrina is an area of enzootic stability. Among the three animal categories (cows, heifers and calves, the rates were 98.29%, 96.64% and 81.25%, respectively. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies to calves was demonstrated by cELISA. From ten calves, nine (90% were seropositive at the first sampling, revealing colostral antibodies anti-A . marginale. These antibodies remained in calves for 2 to 3 months. After this period the calves were infected with ticks, and then all of them were seropositive to Anaplasma. Five 4 to 7 months old calves showed rickettsemia ranging from 0.1% to 3.8%. Two of them were treated with tetracycline. The rickettsemia and clinical signs of anaplasmosis of these calves were coincident with tick burden increase.Soros de 708 animais (vacas, novilhas e bezerros oriundos de 13 propriedades leiteiras da região de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, foram testados para a presença de anticorpos contra Anaplasma marginale pelo teste ELISA competitivo (cELISA. Dez bezerros recém nascidos, pertencentes a um dos 13 rebanhos utilizados no levantamento sorológico, foram monitorados durante um ano. De cada bezerro foram colhidas amostras de sangue mensalmente e a cada quinze dias foi realizada a contagem de carrapatos. A porcentagem de eritrócitos parasitados foi

  20. Infections and Coinfections of Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks by Emerging Zoonotic Pathogens in Western Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommano, Elena; Bertaiola, Luce; Dupasquier, Christèle

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the vector of many pathogens of medical and veterinary relevance, among them Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus, which have been the subject of numerous investigations. Less is known about the occurrence of emerging tick-borne pathogens like Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis,” and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks. In this study, questing nymph and adult I. ricinus ticks were collected at 11 sites located in Western Switzerland. A total of 1,476 ticks were analyzed individually for the simultaneous presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis,” and A. phagocytophilum. B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia spp., and “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” were detected in ticks at all sites with global prevalences of 22.5%, 10.2%, and 6.4%, respectively. Babesia- and A. phagocytophilum-infected ticks showed a more restricted geographic distribution, and their prevalences were lower (1.9% and 1.5%, respectively). Species rarely reported in Switzerland, like Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia lusitaniae, and Rickettsia monacensis, were identified. Infections with more than one pathogenic species, involving mostly Borrelia spp. and Rickettsia helvetica, were detected in 19.6% of infected ticks. Globally, 34.2% of ticks were infected with at least one pathogen. The diversity of tick-borne pathogens detected in I. ricinus in this study and the frequency of coinfections underline the need to take them seriously into consideration when evaluating the risks of infection following a tick bite. PMID:22522688

  1. Molecular Characterization of Anaplasma sp. in Free-Living Gray Brockets (Mazama gouazoubira).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongruel, Anna Claudia Baumel; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; André, Marcos Rogério; Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Seki, Meire Christina

    2017-03-01

    Bacteria in the genus Anaplasma are responsible for diseases in animals and humans. Studies carried out in Brazil have demonstrated that Brazilian deer are able to act as hosts of agents in the family Anaplasmataceae and are possibly potential reservoirs of these pathogens. Molecular and phylogenetic studies have been carried out on samples of two gray brocket specimens (Mazama gouazoubira) from the city of Guarapuava, state of Paraná, Brazil, for the detection of Anaplasma sp. in these animals. Partial nucleotide sequences of the genes 16S rRNA and groESL were used for phylogenetic analyses and compared with other 13 and 17 partial sequences of the respective genes obtained in GenBank. These assessments showed topological incongruence among the trees generated in the phylogenetic analyses. Phylogenetic analysis based on the gene 16S rRNA of the genotypes amplified in the samples of this study was similar to those of A. bovis detected in dogs and wild deer in Japan, whereas studies carried out on gene groESL indicated proximity with sequences of Anaplasma sp. that were also isolated in deer in Japan and allocated in the same clade of partial sequences of A. phagocytophilum. As the 16S rRNA gene is highly conserved, with few polymorphic positions, it may show low reliability for studies on phylogenetic positioning. The present study detected an Anaplasma sp. genotype in two specimens of M. gouazoubira in southern Brazil, which may mean that this agent possibly circulates in deer populations, and demonstrated the need for studies related to the possible role of deer in enzootic cycles of Anaplasmataceae in Brazil.

  2. Occurrence of antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in patients with suspected tick-borne encephalitis

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    Zuzana Kalinová

    2015-09-01

    None of the examined patients with suspected TBE had the disease confirmed. Hoever, as shown by the results, the relative risk of occurrence of anaplasmosis is higher in people examined for some another vector-borne disease (in this case TBE. Therefore, the performance of screening examinations in patients suspected of having any tick-borne disease is very important.

  3. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase 1 Affects Host-Derived Immunopathology during Microbial Colonization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, G.; Severo, M. S.; Sakhon, O. S.; Choy, A.; Herron, M. J.; Felsheim, R. F.; Wiryawan, H.; Liao, J.; Johns, J. L.; Munderloh, U. G.; Sutterwala, F. S.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 9 (2012), s. 3194-3205 ISSN 0019-9567 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ricketsia * microbial colonization * immunopathology * inflammation * signaling pathways Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.074, year: 2012 http://iai.asm.org/content/80/9/3194

  4. Alpha proteobacteria of genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae): Epidemiology and characteristics of Anaplasma species related to veterinary and public health importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Farhan Ahmad

    2016-05-01

    The Anaplasma species are important globally distributed tick-transmitted bacteria of veterinary and public health importance. These pathogens, cause anaplasmosis in domestic and wild animal species including humans. Rhipicephalus, Ixodes, Dermacentor and Amblyomma genera of ticks are the important vectors of Anaplasma. Acute anaplasmosis is usually diagnosed upon blood smear examination followed by antibodies and nucleic acid detection. All age groups are susceptible but prevalence increases with age. Serological cross-reactivity is one of the important issues among Anaplasma species. They co-exist and concurrent infections occur in animals and ticks in same geographic area. These are closely related bacteria and share various common attributes which should be considered while developing vaccines and diagnostic assays. Movement of susceptible animals from non-endemic to endemic regions is the major risk factor of bovine/ovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever. Tetracyclines are currently available drugs for clearance of infection and treatment in humans and animals. Worldwide vaccine is not yet available. Identification, elimination of reservoirs, vector control (chemical and biological), endemic stability, habitat modification, rearing of tick resistant breeds, chemotherapy and tick vaccination are major control measures of animal anaplasmosis. Identification of reservoirs and minimizing the high-risk tick exposure activities are important control strategies for human granulocytic anaplasmosis.

  5. Prevalence of Anaplasma, Bartonella and Borrelia Species in Haemaphysalis longicornis collected from goats in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Smith, W Barney; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, In-Yong; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-06-30

    North Korea is located on the northern part of the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. While tick-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance have been reported from China and South Korea, they have not been reported from North Korea. To screen for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in North Korea, ticks were collected from domestic goats. A total of 292 (27 nymph, 26 male, 239 female) Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis were collected and assayed individually for selected tick-borne pathogens. A total of 77 (26.4%) were positive for Anaplasma bovis, followed by Bartonella (B.) grahamii (15, 5.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (12, 4.1%), Bartonella henselae (10, 3.4%), and Borrelia spp. (3, 1.0%) based on 16S ribosomal RNA and ITS species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction. Using the groEL-based nested PCR, a total of 6 and 1 H. longicornis were positive for B. grahamii and B. henselae, respectively. All products were sequenced and demonstrated 100% identity and homology with previously reported sequences from other countries in GenBank. This is the first report of the detection of tick-borne pathogens in the North Korea and suggests that farm animals may act as reservoirs for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens.

  6. Dynamic of the natural infection by Anaplasma marginale in Holstein cows and calves in the Londrina region, North of Paraná State, Brazil/ Dinâmica da infecção natural pelo Anaplasma marginale em vacas e bezerros da raça Holandesa, na região de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Luz Pereira

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic of the infection by Anaplasma marginale in Holstein cows and calves was studied in two dairy farms (A and B in the Londrina region, North of Paraná. In the farm A the cows were maintained in the tie-stall system and, the calves in collective stall; in the farm B, the cows stayed in freestall system and the calves in individual cages. Every 15 days, blood samples were collected from the dams 45 days before parturition until 60 days post partum, and from their calves at birth until 240 days of age. Tick burden counting was also performed on dams and calves twice a month. Percentage of infected erythrocytes was established by Giemsa-stained smears. Blood and sera samples were examined by Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR and competitive Enzime-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA, respectively. In the cows, the anti-A. marginale antibody levels decreased close to the parturition, showing an adverse behavior among the farms. In the farm A the levels of antibodies increased between 30 and 60 days after the parturition and, in farm B the antibodies stayed in low levels during the accompaniment period of the cows. The anti-A. marginale antibody levels of the calves of the farm A, that were not high in the day of the birth, decreased more until 45 days post parturition and it increased again starting from 60 days, with maximum pick to the 105 days. In the farm B, where the calves presented higher levels of antibodies at the birth day, there was a slower decrease of the antibody levels, reaching the lowest point to the 75 days post parturition and it increased again more tardily, to the 165 days of age. The dams and calves in both farms were exposure to cattle tick Boophilus microplus during almost all period of accompaniment and they showed rickettsemia ranging from 0 to 1%. In conclusion, A. marginale infection after birth was more influenced by maternal antibody levels than tick burden; the differences between animals handling influenced the

  7. Detection of Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Babesia spp. in dogs of Cebu, Philippines

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    Rochelle Haidee D. Ybanez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Babesia spp. are canine pathogens transmitted by the Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick which can cause varied clinical signs. These pathogens have been investigated in the Philippines, but coinfection has not been reported yet. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Ehrlichia/Anaplasma and Babesia spp. in Philippine dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 dogs from seven different veterinary establishments in Cebu, Philippines, were examined for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma and Babesia spp. infection using peripheral blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Inclusion criteria included a history or presence of tick infestation, anemia, and/or thrombocytopenia. Clinical signs were recorded. Statistical analyses were performed between PCR positivity and clinical signs and hematological results. Results: A total of 10 and 18 dogs were found to be positive for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma and Babesia spp., respectively. One animal was PCR positive for both pathogens, which is the first report of coinfection in the country. The most common clinical signs observed include inappetence (89%, lethargy (80%, thrombocytopenia (85%, and anemia (74%. Analyses revealed that inappetence (p=0.044 and weight loss (p=0.028 were found statistically significant with Ehrlichia/Anaplasma infection. Basophil (p=0.001 and eosinophil counts (p=0.000 were also found significantly different between Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp.-positive and -negative dogs. On the other hand, differential monocyte count (p=0.009 was found significantly different between Babesia spp.-positive and -negative dogs. Conclusion: The present study showed low infection rates of canine ehrlichiosis/anaplasmosis and babesiosis and provided additional evidence for the presence of the pathogens in the area.

  8. Anaplasma platys-like strains in ruminants from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; El Mabrouk, Narjesse; Saidani, Mariem; Alberti, Alberto; Zobba, Rosanna; Cherif, Amal; Mahjoub, Tarek; Bouattour, Ali; Messadi, Lilia

    2017-04-01

    Molecular diagnosis of Anaplasma platys and related strains (A. platys-like) in carnivores and ruminants is challenging due to co-infections with cross-reacting strains, and require post-amplification sequencing of the hemi-nested PCR products traditionally generated by targeting the groEL gene. In this study, a Restriction Enzyme Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) assay coupled to hemi-nested groEL PCR was developed to discriminate among A. platys and genetically related strains. This novel approach was used for investigating A. platys-like infection in 963 domesticated ruminants (241 goats, 355 sheep, and 367 cattle) from 22 delegations located in North Tunisia. Overall prevalence rates of A. platys-like were 22.8, 11, and 3.5% in goats, sheep, and cattle, respectively. Alignment, identity comparison, and phylogenetic analysis of the groEL sequence variants obtained in this study confirmed RFLP data suggesting that Tunisian ruminants are infected by novel unclassified Anaplasma strains genetically related to A. platys. Compared to sequencing, RFLP assay allows fast detection of A. platys and A. platys-like pathogens in the same sample and has a potential value especially when screening ticks, cats and ruminants, which can be a common host for these two bacteria. This newly developed molecular technique would provide valuable molecular tool for epidemiological studies related to A. platys as well as remove concern over specificity of serological and molecular methods routinely used to identify diverse Anaplasma strains and species in wild and domestic ruminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Protective immunity induced by immunization with a live, cultured anaplasma marginale strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite significant economic losses resulting from infection with Anaplasma marginale, a tick-transmitted rickettsial disease of cattle, available vaccines provide, at best, only partial protection against clinical disease. The green-fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing mutant of the A. marginale St...

  10. High genetic diversity of Anaplasma marginale detected from Philippine cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Ybañez, Rochelle Haidee D; Claveria, Florencia G; Cruz-Flores, Mary Jane; Xuenan, Xuen; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2014-07-01

    A total of 658 cattle in 6 provinces in the Philippines were screened for Anaplasma marginale infection by using a diagnostic heat-shock operon (groEL) gene-PCR assay. The screening-positive samples were further tested using the major surface antigen protein 1a (Msp1a) gene-PCR assay. Screening PCR results showed 130 cattle (19.8%) were positive for the A. marginale infection. Subsequent amplification using the Msp1a gene only showed 93 samples (14.1%) to be positive. In addition, 37 tandem-repeat structures, including 20 novel structures, and 41 distinct genotypes were identified. Interestingly, multiple infections of 4 different genotypes were also observed in A. marginale-infected cattle. The present study demonstrated the prevalence and characterization of diverse genotypes of A. marginale in the Philippine cattle.

  11. Comparison of three nucleic acid-based tests for detecting Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma centrale in cattle

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    Mamohale E. Chaisi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several nucleic acid-based assays have been developed for detecting Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma centrale in vectors and hosts, making the choice of method to use in endemic areas difficult. We evaluated the ability of the reverse line blot (RLB hybridisation assay, two nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR assays and a duplex real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assay to detect A. marginale and A. centrale infections in cattle (n = 66 in South Africa. The lowest detection limits for A. marginale plasmid DNA were 2500 copies by the RLB assay, 250 copies by the nPCR and qPCR assays and 2500, 250 and 25 copies of A. centrale plasmid DNA by the RLB, nPCR and qPCR assays respectively. The qPCR assay detected more A. marginale- and A. centrale-positive samples than the other assays, either as single or mixed infections. Although the results of the qPCR and nPCR tests were in agreement for the majority (38 of A. marginale-positive samples, 13 samples tested negative for A. marginale using nPCR but positive using qPCR. To explain this discrepancy, the target sequence region of the nPCR assay was evaluated by cloning and sequencing the msp1β gene from selected field samples. The results indicated sequence variation in the internal forward primer (AM100 area amongst the South African A. marginale msp1β sequences, resulting in false negatives. We propose the use of the duplex qPCR assay in future studies as it is more sensitive and offers the benefits of quantification and multiplex detection of both Anaplasma spp.

  12. Associations between coinfection prevalence of Borrelia lusitaniae, Anaplasma sp., and Rickettsia sp. in hard ticks feeding on reptile hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Václav, Radovan; Ficová, Martina; Prokop, Pavol; Betáková, Tatiana

    2011-02-01

    An increasing number of studies reveal that ticks and their hosts are infected with multiple pathogens, suggesting that coinfection might be frequent for both vectors and wild reservoir hosts. Whereas the examination of associations between coinfecting pathogen agents in natural host-vector-pathogen systems is a prerequisite for a better understanding of disease maintenance and transmission, the associations between pathogens within vectors or hosts are seldom explicitly examined. We examined the prevalence of pathogen agents and the patterns of associations between them under natural conditions, using a previously unexamined host-vector-pathogen system--green lizards Lacerta viridis, hard ticks Ixodes ricinus, and Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Rickettsia pathogens. We found that immature ticks infesting a temperate lizard species in Central Europe were infected with multiple pathogens. Considering I. ricinus nymphs and larvae, the prevalence of Anaplasma, Borrelia, and Rickettsia was 13.1% and 8.7%, 12.8% and 1.3%, and 4.5% and 2.7%, respectively. The patterns of pathogen prevalence and observed coinfection rates suggest that the risk of tick infection with one pathogen is not independent of other pathogens. Our results indicate that Anaplasma can play a role in suppressing the transmission of Borrelia to tick vectors. Overall, however, positive effects of Borrelia on Anaplasma seem to prevail as judged by higher-than-expected Borrelia-Anaplasma coinfection rates.

  13. Validation of an improved Anaplasma antibody competitive ELISA for detection of Anaplasma ovis antibody in domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kathleen L; Gonzalez, Michael V; Chung, Chungwon; Mousel, Michelle R; White, Stephen N; Taylor, Joshua B; Scoles, Glen A

    2017-09-01

    An accurate and simple-to-perform new version of a competitive ELISA (cELISA) kit that became commercially available in 2015 for testing of cattle for antibody to Anaplasma marginale was validated for detection of Anaplasma ovis antibody in domestic sheep. True positives and negatives were identified using nested PCR (nPCR) as the gold standard. Negative bovine control sera supplied with the kit were used to calculate % inhibition (%I), designated bovine control ELISA (BcELISA), and this was compared to %I calculated from negative ovine sera derived from hand-raised, pathogen-free sheep, designated ovine control ELISA (OcELISA). The receiver operating characteristics area under the curve was 1.0 with a p value sheep. Furthermore, this work confirmed the historically high infection prevalence (>93%) at the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station (Dubois, Idaho), in spite of efforts to reduce the possibility for iatrogenic transmission there, suggesting high levels of tick-borne transmission.

  14. The Life and Death of Anaplasma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-30

    Dr. Setu Vora, medical director of critical care and physician director of performance improvement at Backus Hospital in Norwich, Connecticut, reads his poem The Life and Death of Anaplasma and discusses the poem’s origins.  Created: 3/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/2/2012.

  15. Systems Biology of Tissue-Specific Response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum Reveals Differentiated Apoptosis in the Tick Vector Ixodes scapularis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ayllón, N.; Villar, M.; Galindo, R. C.; Kocan, K.M.; Šíma, Radek; López, J.A.; Vázquez, J.; Alberdi, P.; Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Kopáček, Petr; de la Fuente, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2015), e1005120 ISSN 1553-7404 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA ČR GP13-12816P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : gene expression * human neutrophils * cancer cells Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 6.661, year: 2015

  16. Ehrlichia sp. infection in carthorses of low-income owners, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Thállitha S; Vieira, Rafael F; Krawczak, Felipe S; Soares, Herbert S; Guimarães, Ana M; Barros-Filho, Ivan R; Marcondes, Mary; Labruna, Marcelo B; Biondo, Alexander W; Vidotto, Odilon

    2016-10-01

    Although well established in dogs, Ehrlichia sp. infection has been scarcely reported in horses. The aim was to perform a comprehensive serological and molecular survey for the detection of Ehrlichia spp. in carthorses from Southern Brazil. Blood samples from 190 carthorses from Paraná State were sampled. Horses were also tested for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Anti-Ehrlichia sp. antibodies were detected by a commercial rapid ELISA, and immunofluorescence antibody assays (IFA) with E. chaffeensis and E. canis as crude antigens. The molecular and phylogenetic analysis of Ehrlichia sp. was based on 16S rRNA and dsb genes. A total of 52 (27.4%), 4 (2.1%), and 3 (1.6%) horses were positive for Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi, respectively, by the commercial rapid ELISA. Thirty-eight (20.0%) and 37 (19.5%) horses showed anti-E. chaffeensis and anti-E. canis antibodies by IFA, respectively. One blood sample that also showed anti-E. chaffeensis antibodies was PCR positive for the 16S rRNA and dsb genes of Ehrlichia spp., showing an identity of>98.0% to the uncultured Ehrlichia sp. previously detected in Brazilian jaguars (Panthera onca). Anti-Ehrlichia sp. antibodies and Ehrlichia DNA were detected in carthorses from Southern Brazil, which may post public health concerns due to intimate contact with low-income owners. This is the first report of a natural infection of this bacteria in horses from South America. Clinical signs and the tick vector remain unknown. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Prevalence of Babesia spp. and Anaplasma marginale in cattle in the municipality of Palma, MG

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    Marluce Aparecida Mattos Paula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Paula M.A.M., Oliveira F.C.R., Melo Jr O.A. & Frazão-Teixeira E. [Prevalence of Babesia spp. and Anaplasma marginale in cattle in the municipality of Palma, MG.] Prevalência de Babesia spp. e Anaplasma marginale em bovinos no município de Palma, MG. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4: 359-365, 2015. Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/ Fiocruz, Avenida Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21040-361, Brasil. E-mail: edwards.teixeira@ioc.fiocruz.br We verified the prevalence of hemoparasites in 40 cattle with ages varying from one month to 12 years old, in two farms of the Municipality of Palma, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Two blood smear samples were collected from each animal: one from the tail tip and another from the ear tip. The smears were fixed, stained and observed under 100X lighted microscope magnifying glass. Twenty- -seven out of 40 animals studied (67.5% had at least one species of hemoparasite. Among these, 21 (52.5% were infected with Babesia spp., 10 (25% with Anaplasma marginale and four (10% parasitized with both hemoparasites. The studied region is potentially enzootic for the detected parasites and there is high risk for clinical cases of tick-borne disease. Both anatomic points, tail and ear tips, are good spots for blood collection and smear confection for hemoparasite investigation.

  18. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscher, Georg G.; Leschnik, Michael; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Austria's mammalian wildlife comprises a large variety of species, acting and interacting in different ways as reservoir and intermediate and definitive hosts for different pathogens that can be transmitted to pets and/or humans. Foxes and other wild canids are responsible for maintaining zoonotic agents, e.g. Echinococcus multilocularis, as well as pet-relevant pathogens, e.g. Hepatozoon canis. Together with the canids, and less commonly felids, rodents play a major role as intermediate and paratenic hosts. They carry viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), bacteria including Borrelia spp., protozoa such as Toxoplasma gondii, and helminths such as Toxocara canis. The role of wild ungulates, especially ruminants, as reservoirs for zoonotic disease on the other hand seems to be negligible, although the deer filaroid Onchocerca jakutensis has been described to infect humans. Deer may also harbour certain Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains with so far unclear potential to infect humans. The major role of deer as reservoirs is for ticks, mainly adults, thus maintaining the life cycle of these vectors and their distribution. Wild boar seem to be an exception among the ungulates as, in their interaction with the fox, they can introduce food-borne zoonotic agents such as Trichinella britovi and Alaria alata into the human food chain. PMID:25830102

  19. Anaplasma marginale attenuated by irradiation: Kinetics of immunity and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, L.A.; Higuera, B.O.; Castro, J.; Chavez, M.; Ruiz, O.

    1988-01-01

    Attempts were made to attenuate Anaplasma marginale by gamma irradiation using a dose of 900 Gy. Parasites were either irradiated once and after infection of an animal isolated and re-irradiated, or irradiated and cultured in vitro for four days and then re-irradiated. In the first two treatments the animals reacted as severely as a control group that received non-irradiated organisms; upon subsequent challenge with a virulent heterologous A. marginale strain, all animals had reasonable levels of protective immunity. The group that received irradiated and cultured organisms twice was not protected upon subsequent challenge and the animals reacted as severely as controls. Antibody responses were monitored. In all instances, after patent parasitaemia, an initial IgM response was followed by an IgG 1 and IgG 2 response. It is concluded that a virulent parasite population suitable for use as a vaccine was not obtained through irradiation and further use of this technique is discouraged. (author). 17 refs, 3 figs

  20. Coinfection of sheep with Anaplasma, Theileria and Babesia species in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneker, S; Abdo, J; Bakheit, M A; Kullmann, B; Beyer, D; Ahmed, J; Seitzer, U

    2013-11-01

    Infections of small ruminants with Anaplasma, Theileria and Babesia species are widely distributed in the old world and are of great economic impact. In Iraq, data on disease occurrence in sheep caused by above-mentioned infectious agents are scarce. This study provides information on various haemoparasitic agents infecting sheep in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq, using molecular diagnostic tools. Altogether, 195 samples originating from three governorates in the Kurdistan Region, namely Duhok, Erbil and Sulaimaniya, were analysed. The following pathogens were identified: Anaplasma ovis (62.6%), Theileria ovis (14.35%), T. lestoquardi (7.7%), T. uilenbergi (5.6%) and Babesia ovis (1.5%). T. uilenbergi is detected for the first time in Iraq. Coinfection of sheep with different pathogens could be observed in this study, and it was found that 45 of 195 (23%) of the samples contained more than one pathogen. Even triple-positive samples were identified in 3% of the investigated animals. In conclusion, we confirm the coinfection of sheep with various haemoparasitic pathogen species in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Further investigations are needed to reveal the epidemiology of the diseases, the respective tick vectors, and, in the case of coinfection, pathogens' interaction and possible cross-protection. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Zoonotic infections among employees from Great Smoky Mountains and Rocky Mountain National Parks, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjemian, Jennifer; Weber, Ingrid B; McQuiston, Jennifer; Griffith, Kevin S; Mead, Paul S; Nicholson, William; Roche, Aubree; Schriefer, Martin; Fischer, Marc; Kosoy, Olga; Laven, Janeen J; Stoddard, Robyn A; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Smith, Theresa; Bui, Duy; Wilkins, Patricia P; Jones, Jeffery L; Gupton, Paige N; Quinn, Conrad P; Messonnier, Nancy; Higgins, Charles; Wong, David

    2012-11-01

    U.S. National Park Service employees may have prolonged exposure to wildlife and arthropods, placing them at increased risk of infection with endemic zoonoses. To evaluate possible zoonotic risks present at both Great Smoky Mountains (GRSM) and Rocky Mountain (ROMO) National Parks, we assessed park employees for baseline seroprevalence to specific zoonotic pathogens, followed by evaluation of incident infections over a 1-year study period. Park personnel showed evidence of prior infection with a variety of zoonotic agents, including California serogroup bunyaviruses (31.9%), Bartonella henselae (26.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (22.2%), Toxoplasma gondii (11.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8.1%), Brucella spp. (8.9%), flaviviruses (2.2%), and Bacillus anthracis (1.5%). Over a 1-year study period, we detected incident infections with leptospirosis (5.7%), B. henselae (5.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (1.5%), T. gondii (1.5%), B. anthracis (1.5%), and La Crosse virus (1.5%) in staff members at GRSM, and with spotted fever group rickettsiae (8.5%) and B. henselae (4.3%) in staff at ROMO. The risk of any incident infection was greater for employees who worked as resource managers (OR 7.4; 95% CI 1.4,37.5; p=0.02), and as law enforcement rangers/rescue crew (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1,36.5; p=0.03), relative to those who worked primarily in administration or management. The results of this study increase our understanding of the pathogens circulating within both parks, and can be used to inform the development of effective guidelines and interventions to increase visitor and staff awareness and help prevent exposure to zoonotic agents.

  2. OBTENÇÃO DE ISOLADO PURO DE Anaplasma marginale EM BEZERROS NEONATOS PRIVADOS DE COLOSTRO Anaplasma marginale PURE ISOLATE OBTAINED IN COLOSTRUM-DEPRIVED NEWBORN CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Carvalho Dias Filho

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo principal de obter isolados autóctones puros de Anaplasma marginale a partir de amostra de sangue de bovino criado em uma área endêmica para a tristeza parasitária bovina no município de Goiânia. Obteve-se o inóculo para o isolamento de A. marginale de animal doador, portador de infecções naturais mistas, após receber tratamento seletivo com dose babesicida esterelizante de dipropionato de imidocarb. Dois dias após esse tratamento, colheu-se dele uma amostra de sangue de 20 mL do animal doador para inoculação em bezerro neonato privado de colostro e livre de infecções por hemoparasitos. Após trinta dias da inoculação, o receptor apresentou febre, apatia e parasitemia patente por A. marginale. Amostras de sangue foram então colhidas e preparadas na forma de estabilizados para serem criopreservadas e, assim, comporem banco de isolados de hemoparasitos autóctones. Realizou-se a comprovação da pureza do isolado, concomitantemente, pela demonstração de soroconversão específica, pela reação de PCR e, ainda, pela subinoculação da amostra criopreservada em bezerro suscetível. Constatou-se ainda que o uso de bezerros neonatos privados de colostro, como animais suscetíveis, pode ser considerado como modelo prático, eficaz e relativamente barato para o isolamento de hemoparasitos em regiões endêmicas.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Anaplasma marginale, anaplasmose bovina, bezerros, isolados.

    This study was conducted with the objective of obtaining pure autochthonous isolates of Anaplasma marginale from blood samples of bovines that have been raised in the tick-borne disease endemic area of the municipality of Goiânia. The inoculum of A. marginale was prepared from a donor animal, known to be natural carrier of hemoparasite mixed infections, after treatment with

  3. Prevalence of Anaplasma marginale in different tick species from Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyumagwa, Robert D; Simmler, Pascale; Meli, Marina L; Hoare, Richard; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2009-04-06

    In 2001, Ngorongoro Crater was infested with high density of ticks on grassland, livestock and wildlife which was also associated with high mortality. Adult ticks were collected, identified, processed for nucleic acids extraction and a molecular analysis was performed to determine the range of tick species harboring Anaplasma marginale. The real-time PCR was used in the amplification of rickettsia DNA in tick pools (n=527) from 11 identified tick species. Six tick species were detected with A. marginale DNA including Amblyomma gemma, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. compositus, R.decoloratus, R. praetextatus and R. pulchellus. The detection rate in each tick species was 3%, 0.7%, 2%, 13%, 1.8%, and 6.2%, respectively. Five of the positive tick species excluding R.decoloratus have previously not been described to transmit A. marginale. High diversity of tick species detected with A. marginale in Ngorongoro Crater is likely to increase a risk to susceptible animals of contracting the infection.

  4. First molecular survey of Anaplasma bovis in small ruminants from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; Karaoud, Maroua; Bousrih, Maha; Yahiaoui, Mouna; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Messadi, Lilia

    2015-09-30

    To date, no information is available regarding the presence of Anaplasma bovis in the South Mediterranean area. In this study, prevalence, risk factors, and genetic diversity of A. bovis were assessed in small ruminants. A total of 563 healthy small ruminants (260 sheep and 303 goats), from 25 randomly selected flocks located in 5 localities from two bioclimatic areas in Tunisia, were investigated for the detection of A. bovis in blood by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assay. The overall infection rates of A. bovis were 42.7 and 23.8% in sheep and goats, respectively. Goats located in a sub-humid area were statistically more infected than those located in a humid area. A. bovis prevalence rate varied significantly according to sheep and goat flocks, and to the sheep breed. Infection with A. bovis was validated by sequencing. Sequence analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that A. bovis from Tunisian goats and sheep clustered with other strain sequences detected from wild and domestic animals and published in GenBank. This study gives the first insight of presence of A. bovis DNA in small ruminants in Tunisia and suggests that these animal species may be playing an important role in the bovine anaplasmosis natural cycle caused by A. bovis in the South Mediterranean ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp. and Rickettsia spp. in ectoparasites collected from domestic animals, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayssa Keren da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of emerging arthropod-borne pathogens Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia infection in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae and fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera collected from dogs and horses within municipality of Itaboraí, Rio de Janeiro State, Southern Brazil. Samples from 280 ticks and two fleas were subjected to family or/and genus specific PCR for Anaplasmataceae, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia, followed by DNA sequencing to ensure pathogen identity. In ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus collected from dogs the DNA of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis was detected in 6.8% and 2.2% samples respectively. In two R. sanguineus confection with two pathogens was observed. In Dermacentor nitens ticks, collected from horses Francisella-like endosymbiont was found in 42.8% samples. DNA of Rickettsia felis and Wolbachia pi-petens was detected in fleas Ctenocephalides canis fleas. No DNA of Rickettsia was found in tested ticks. The findings contribute to our knowledge of tick-borne bacteria, ticks and endosymbionts distribution in Brazil.

  6. Serological detection of antibodies to Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis and of Dirofilaria immitis antigen in dogs from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Víctor M; Bonilla, Marta C; Kaminsky, Darwin; Romero-Zúñiga, Juan José; Siebert, Susanne; Krämer, Friederike

    2017-03-15

    In a study in Costa Rica 314 serum samples from dogs throughout all seven provinces were tested using a commercial kit for the detection of circulating antibodies against Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis, and of circulating antigen of Dirofilaria immitis. A total of 6.4% (20/314) and 38.2% (120/314) were positive for Anaplasma spp. (An) and E. canis (Ec) antibodies. Overall, 8.0% (25/314) were positive for D. immitis (Di) antigen. One single dog reacted positive with B. burgdorferi s.l. (Bb) antigen (0.3%, 1/314). E. canis positive dogs were detected in all provinces (highest percentages in Guanacaste, Puntarenas [both significantly different compared to the overall] and Limón). Guanacaste and Puntarenas also showed the highest prevalences of Anaplasma spp. (both significantly different compared to the overall). The highest prevalence of D. immitis was detected in Puntarenas (significantly different compared to the overall). Double pathogen exposure (Ec plus An; Ec plus Di; Ec plus Bb) were recorded in 8.9% (28/314). Two dogs showed a triple pathogen exposure (0.6%, 2/314; An, Ec and Di). There was a significant difference between male (11.5%, 18/156) and female (4.4%, 7/158) animals for D. immitis positive results. There was also a significant difference between breed and no breed dogs regarding the characteristics of a general positive test, as well as seropositivity to the single pathogens of Anaplasma spp., E. canis and D. immitis. Finally there was a significant difference in the presence of clinical signs again regarding the characteristics of a general positive test, as well as seropositivity to Anaplasma spp., E. canis and D. immitis. Practitioners in Costa Rica should be aware of the canine vector-borne diseases mentioned as dogs are at risk of becoming infected. Concerning the positive B. burgdorferi s.l. dog, an autochthonous occurrence cannot be confirmed due to a history of adoption and an unusual tattoo number

  7. Characterization of Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale Strains by Use of msp1aS Genotyping Reveals a Wildlife Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumalo, Zamantungwa T H; Catanese, Helen N; Liesching, Nicole; Hove, Paidashe; Collins, Nicola E; Chaisi, Mamohale E; Gebremedhin, Assefaw H; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Brayton, Kelly A

    2016-10-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis caused by the intraerythrocytic rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale is endemic in South Africa. Anaplasma marginale subspecies centrale also infects cattle; however, it causes a milder form of anaplasmosis and is used as a live vaccine against A. marginale There has been less interest in the epidemiology of A. marginale subsp. centrale, and, as a result, there are few reports detecting natural infections of this organism. When detected in cattle, it is often assumed that it is due to vaccination, and in most cases, it is reported as coinfection with A. marginale without characterization of the strain. A total of 380 blood samples from wild ruminant species and cattle collected from biobanks, national parks, and other regions of South Africa were used in duplex real-time PCR assays to simultaneously detect A. marginale and A. marginale subsp. centrale. PCR results indicated high occurrence of A. marginale subsp. centrale infections, ranging from 25 to 100% in national parks. Samples positive for A. marginale subsp. centrale were further characterized using the msp1aS gene, a homolog of msp1α of A. marginale, which contains repeats at the 5' ends that are useful for genotyping strains. A total of 47 Msp1aS repeats were identified, which corresponded to 32 A. marginale subsp. centrale genotypes detected in cattle, buffalo, and wildebeest. RepeatAnalyzer was used to examine strain diversity. Our results demonstrate a diversity of A. marginale subsp. centrale strains from cattle and wildlife hosts from South Africa and indicate the utility of msp1aS as a genotypic marker for A. marginale subsp. centrale strain diversity. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Detection and Characterisation of Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Paidashe Hove; Zamantungwa T. H. Khumalo; Mamohale E. Chaisi; Marinda C. Oosthuizen; Kelly A. Brayton; Nicola E. Collins

    2018-01-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is endemic in South Africa and it has a negative economic impact on cattle farming. An improved understanding of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma marginale variety centrale (A. centrale) transmission, together with improved tools for pathogen detection and characterisation, are required to inform best management practices. Direct detection methods currently in use for A. marginale and A. centrale in South Africa are light microscopic examination of tissue and organ smears...

  9. Tick-borne agents in rodents, China, 2004-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Zhan (Lin); W.-C. Cao (Wu-Chun); C.Y. Chu (Chen); B.G. Jiang; F. Zhang (Fang); L.J. Liu (Wei); J.S. Dumler (Stephen); X-M. Wu (Xiao-Ming); S-Q. Zuo (Shu-Qing); H.N. Huang; Q.M. Zhao; N. Jia (Na); H. Yang (Hong); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractA total of 705 rodents from 6 provinces and autonomous regions of mainland People's Republic of China were tested by PCRs for tick-borne agents (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, spotted fever group rickettsiae, and Francisella tularensis). Infection rates were

  10. Effect of climate and land use on the spatio-temporal variability of tick-borne bacteria in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosà, R.; Andreo, V.; Tagliapietra, V.; Baráková, I.; Arnoldi, D.; Hauffe, H. C.; Manica, M.; Rosso, F.; Blaňarová, L.; Bona, M.; Derdáková, M.; Hamšíková, Z.; Kazimírová, M.; Kraljik, J.; Kocianová, E.; Mahríková, L.; Minichová, L.; Mošanský, L.; Slovák, M.; Stanko, M.; Špitalská, E.; Ducheyne, E.; Neteler, M.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Rudolf, Ivo; Venclíková, Kristýna; Silaghi, C.; Overzier, E.; Farkas, R.; Földvári, G.; Hornok, S.; Takács, N.; Rizzoli, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2018), č. článku 732. ISSN 1660-4601 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Keywords : Acarological hazard * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * Density of infected nymphs * Land use * Normalized difference vegetation index * Rickettsia spp Impact factor: 2.101, year: 2016

  11. Molecular epidemiology of Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis and Babesia vogeli in stray dogs in Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Hemoparasitic infections are tick-borne diseases, which affect animals and humans. Considering the importance of canine hemoparasitic infections in veterinary clinics, this study aimed to determine the occurrence of Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis and Babesia vogeli in blood samples from 182 dogs not domiciled in the city of Pato Branco, southwestern region of Paraná State, Brazil, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The prevalence of A. platys and B. vogeli was 32.9% and 10.9% respectively, and A. platys infection prevailed (p<0.001. The number of dogs positive for A. platys was larger in Winter (p<0.05. All blood samples were negative for E. canis. In the dogs, infestation by Amblyomma cajennense predominated over that by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (p<0.001; but there was no significant association between PCR and the variables presence of ticks, sex and age. Dogs infected by A. platys and B. vogeli showed thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and leukocytosis; but there was no correlation between such hematological changes and infection by hemoparasites. This appears to be the first molecular study that demonstrates the existence of A. platys and B. vogeli in dogs from the southwestern region of Paraná.

  12. Knockdown of the Rhipicephalus microplus cytochrome c oxidase subunit III gene is associated with a failure of Anaplasma marginale transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais D Bifano

    Full Text Available Rhipicephalus microplus is an obligate hematophagous ectoparasite of cattle and an important biological vector of Anaplasma marginale in tropical and subtropical regions. The primary determinants for A. marginale transmission are infection of the tick gut, followed by infection of salivary glands. Transmission of A. marginale to cattle occurs via infected saliva delivered during tick feeding. Interference in colonization of either the tick gut or salivary glands can affect transmission of A. marginale to naïve animals. In this study, we used the tick embryonic cell line BME26 to identify genes that are modulated in response to A. marginale infection. Suppression-subtractive hybridization libraries (SSH were constructed, and five up-regulated genes {glutathione S-transferase (GST, cytochrome c oxidase sub III (COXIII, dynein (DYN, synaptobrevin (SYN and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate 3-phosphatase (PHOS} were selected as targets for functional in vivo genomic analysis. RNA interference (RNAi was used to determine the effect of tick gene knockdown on A. marginale acquisition and transmission. Although RNAi consistently knocked down all individually examined tick genes in infected tick guts and salivary glands, only the group of ticks injected with dsCOXIII failed to transmit A. marginale to naïve calves. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that RNAi of a tick gene is associated with a failure of A. marginale transmission.

  13. Occurrence of Leishmania chagasi, Trypanosoma cruzi, Babesia canis vogeli, Anaplasma platys, and Ehrlichia canis in canine blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Augusto Constantino Seabra da Cruz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The transfusion of blood components is common in a veterinary clinic; however, the safety of this therapeutic measure cannot always be guaranteed. Studies show a high risk of haemoparasite transmission during blood transfusion in canines. These parasites include Leishmania chagasi, Anaplasma platys, and Ehrlichia canis, which are endemic to the city of Cuiabá. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of L. chagasi, Trypanosoma cruzi, Babesia (canis vogeli, A. platys, and E. canis in canine blood donor candidates, and identify possible factors associated with the infection of these agents. Sixty-six canines were evaluated using serologic and molecular tests, for the presence of the Leishmania species. While one canine sample showed a positive result for L. chagasi with indirect fluorescent antibody test, with titer of 1:40, and seven canine samples were positive using DPP, all other samples were negative when using PCR and ELISA. All canines were negative for T. cruzi when using PCR. The B. (c. vogeli infection was identified in one canine and A. platys was identified in six canines. E. canis was identified in 17 canines, with a prevalence of 25.7%. There were no significant factors associated with the infection of the pathogens investigated. Given the observation of infection, even in the absence of clinical symptoms, emphasis must be placed on the need for the use of more sensitive and specific diagnostic methods for the screening of donor canines.

  14. Gamma irradiation attenuation of Anaplasma Marginale and its possible use as vaccine against bovine anaplasmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Z, J.; Pupiales T, N.

    1986-01-01

    Bovine Anaplasmosis is one of the limiting in the cattle development at Colombia and others tropical countries. Bovine Anaplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by a microorganism called Anaplasma Marginale, it with invades the red globules producing erythrofagocitosis. In this job, were irradiated with different gamma beam intensity; microorganisms of Anaplasma Marginale, those which were used as innocuous. Animals of the groups (I,II,III) presented good protection against the disease; animals of the Group IV presented mild symptoms with subsequent recovery and strong symptoms

  15. Subdominant outer membrane antigens in anaplasma marginale: conservation, antigenicity, and protective capacity using recombinant protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts or a well- defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are seve...

  16. Knockout of an outer membrane protein operon of anaplasma marginale by transposon mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large amounts of data generated by genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics technologies have increased our understanding of the biology of Anaplasma marginale. However, these data have also led to new assumptions that require testing, ideally through classic genetic mutation. One example is the def...

  17. Detection of genetic diversity of Anaplasma marginale isolates in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pohl, A.E.; Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Ribeiro, M.F.B.; Goncalves da Silvera, J.; Silaghi, C.; Pfister, K.; Friche Passos, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2013), s. 129-135 ISSN 1984-2961 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Anaplasma marginale * MSP1a * DNA sequencing * microsatellites * tandem repeats * Brazil Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.961, year: 2013

  18. Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in ticks of dogs in Cuiaba, Mato GrossoEhrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em carrapatos de cães de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Dutra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diseases transmitted by arthropods such as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, are caused by a spectrum of pathogens. Among these are the canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and cyclical thrombocytopenia with a cosmopolitan distribution. Aiming to verify the presence of DNA of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in ticks R. sanguineus collected in the period 2008 to 2009 of 380 infected dogs. Ticks, after maceration, were subjected to DNA extraction and then nested PCR was performed for amplification of A. platys and E. canis. Of these, 81 (29.7% amplified DNA from ehrlichiais agents, where 38 (17.9% amplified in E. canis and 32 (15.7% for A. platys. The observation of two pathogens, combined with worldwide distribution of the tick R. sanguineus, demonstrates the high risk of infection with these pathogens in dogs in the city of Cuiaba. Doenças transmitidas por artrópodes, como o Rhipicephalus sanguineus, são causadas por um espectro de patógenos. Dentre estas, estão a erliquiose monocítica canina e trombocitopenia cíclica com distribuição cosmopolita. Com o objetivo de verificar a presença de DNA de Anaplasma platys e Ehrlichia canis em carrapatos R. sanguineus coletados no período de 2008 a 2009 de 380 cães infestados. Os carrapatos, após a maceração, foram submetidos a extração de DNA e, em seguida, foi realizada a Nested PCR para a amplificação da espécie A. platys e E. canis. Destes, 81 (29.7% amplificaram o DNA dos agentes ehrlichiais, onde 38 (17.9% amplificaram para E. canis e 32 (15.7% para A. platys. A observação dos dois patógenos, combinado com distribuição mundial do carrapato R. sanguineus, demonstra o elevado risco de infecção por esses patógenos de cães na cidade de Cuiabá.

  19. Survey on tick-borne pathogens in thoroughbred horses in the Hidaka district, Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Sato, Fumio; Nambo, Yasuo; Fukui, Takashi; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Ohashi, Norio; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Kishimoto, Toshio; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2013-01-31

    A total of 87 Thoroughbred horses and 10 ixodid ticks from a ranch in Hidaka district, Hokkaido were tested for tick-borne diseases. Using the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) method, 3.4, 92.0 and 97.7% of the horses showed antibody titers of ≥ 80 against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, and Borrelia garinii, respectively. This is the first report of infection with the 3 pathogens in horses in Japan. Using PCR, DNAs from the peripheral blood of all horses were found negative with any Anaplasma, Rickettsia and Borrelia spp., while those from Haemaphysalis megaspinosa ticks were found positive for Anaplasma sp. closely related to A. phagocytophilum in Japan, and A. bovis. B. japonica was also detected in an H. flava tick for the first time.

  20. Transmisión de Anaplasma marginale por garrapatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Brayton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale, patógeno de distribución mundial, es transmitido por garrapatas Ixódidas. Comprender su complejo desarrollo dentro de la garrapata vector, permitirá la predicción de brotes y ofrecerá oportunidades para controlar su transmisión. En este trabajo se revisa su ciclo básico de desarrollo junto con los estudios recientes acerca de las diferencias de transmisión entre cepas, que delinean aspectos de la interacción patógeno - vector. Bacterias, virus o protozoarios transmitidos por artrópodos causan enfermedades severas, tanto en humanos como en animales. Las enfermedades infecciosas transmitidas por garrapatas, entre las que incluimos a la Anaplasmosis (A. marginale, babesiosis (Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, B. divergens y Theileriosis (Theileria annulata, T. parva, se encuentran entre las más importantes en el ámbito mundial, con pérdidas cercanas a los siete mil millones de dólares anualmente; y, a pesar de su impacto, permanecen escasamente bajo control, basado primordialmente en la aplicación de acaricidas, para interrumpir su transmisión. La aparición de garrapatas resistentes a múltiples sustancias acaricidas, representa una amenaza en este tipo de control y, como resultado, hay un resurgimiento de la investigación para el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias para su control. Nuevas opciones para prevenir la transmisión de patógenos de animales por garrapatas, será el resultado de entender las interacciones garrapata patógeno; proceso que culmina con el desarrollo de la infección y transmisión exitosa. En todos los casos de patógenos transmitidos por garrapatas, el desarrollo de la infección se realiza coordinamente a los momentos de adhesión y alimentación del vector sobre el animal. Esto sucede por la interdependencia en la señalización entre el patógeno y el vector al alimentarse y, por ello, será susceptible de intervención.

  1. Molecular detection and characterization of Anaplasma platys in dogs and ticks in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudia Bezerra da; Santos, Huarrisson Azevedo; Navarrete, Maylín González; Ribeiro, Carla Carolina Dias Uzedo; Gonzalez, Belkis Corona; Zaldivar, Maykelin Fuentes; Pires, Marcus Sandes; Peckle, Maristela; Costa, Renata Lins da; Vitari, Gabriela Lopes Vivas; Massard, Carlos Luiz

    2016-07-01

    Canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, an infectious disease caused by Anaplasma platys is a worldwide dog health problem. This study aimed to detect and characterize A. platys deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in dogs and ticks from Cuba using molecular methods. The study was conducted in four cities of Cuba (Habana del Este, Boyeros, Cotorro and San José de las Lajas). Blood samples were collected from 100 dogs in these cities. The animals were inspected for the detection of tick infestation and specimens were collected. Genomic DNA was extracted from dog blood and ticks using a commercial kit. Genomic DNA samples from blood and ticks were tested by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) to amplify 678 base pairs (bp) from the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of A. platys. Positive samples in nPCR were also subjected to PCR to amplify a fragment of 580bp from the citrate synthase (gltA) gene and the products were sequenced. Only Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) was found on dogs, and 10.20% (n=5/49) of these ticks plus sixteen percent (16.0%, n=16/100) of dogs were considered positive for A. platys by nPCR targeting the 16S rDNA gene. All analyzed gltA and 16S rDNA sequences showed a 99-100% identity with sequences of A. platys reported in around the world. Phylogenetic analysis showed two defined clusters for the 16S rDNA gene and three defined clusters for the gltA gene. Based on the gltA gene, the deduced amino acid sequence showed two mutations at positions 88 and 168 compared with the sequence DQ525687 (GenBank ID from Italian sample), used as a reference in the alignment. A preliminary study on the epidemiological aspects associated with infection by A. platys showed no statistical association with the variables studied (p>0.05). This is the first evidence of the presence of A. platys in dogs and ticks in Cuba. Further studies are needed to evaluate the epidemiological aspects of A. platys infection in Cuban dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  2. Molecular detection and characterization of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria species and Anaplasma marginale isolated from cattle in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Aboge, Gabriel Oluga; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Masatani, Tatsunori; Cao, Shinuo; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Zhou, Mo; Wang, Guanbo; Liu, Mingming; Iguchi, Aiko; Vudriko, Patrick; Ybanez, Adrian Patalinghug; Inokuma, Hisashi; Shirafuji-Umemiya, Rika; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2015-09-30

    Infections with Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria species and Anaplasma marginale are endemic in Kenya yet there is a lack of adequate information on their genotypes. This study established the genetic diversities of the above tick-borne hemoparasites infecting cattle in Kenya. Nested PCR and sequencing were used to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of the above parasites in 192 cattle blood samples collected from Ngong and Machakos farms. B. bovis spherical body protein 4, B. bigemina rhoptry-associated protein 1a, A. marginale major surface protein 5, Theileria spp. 18S rRNA, T. parva p104 and T. orientalis major piroplasm surface protein were used as the marker genes. B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. parva, T. velifera, T. taurotragi, T. mutans and A. marginale were prevalent in both farms, whereas T. ovis, Theileria sp. (buffalo) and T. orientalis were found only in Ngong farm. Co-infections were observed in more than 50 % of positive samples in both farms. Babesia parasites and A. marginale sequences were highly conserved while T. parva and T. orientalis were polymorphic. Cattle-derived T. parva was detected in Machakos farm. However, cattle and buffalo-derived Theileria were detected in Ngong farm suggesting interactions between cattle and wild buffaloes. Generally, the pathogens detected in Kenya were genetically related to the other African isolates but different from the isolates in other continents. The current findings reaffirm the endemicity and co-infection of cattle with tick-borne hemoparasites, and the role of wildlife in pathogens transmission and population genetics in Kenya.

  3. Isolation and attempted cultivation of an Anaplasma marginale strain from Brazilian brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira, Fisher, 1814) in the tick cell line IDE8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Julia A G; Silvestre, Bruna T; Bastos, Camila V; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and establish an Anaplasma marginale strain from Brazilian brown brocket deer, Mazama gouazoubira, in the Ixodes scapularis cell line IDE8. Blood from a free-living adult female M. gouazoubira naturally infected with A. marginale (MGI5) was inoculated intravenously into a splenectomized calf. When A. marginale rickettsemia was 2.5%, blood was collected and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). IDE8 cell cultures were infected with calf blood inoculated with the A. marginale (MG15) isolate. The cultures were monitored by examination of Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears. Light microscopy of stained IDE8 samples revealed the first inclusions of A. marginale (MGI5) at 48days post-inoculation (d.p.i). The IDE8-infected cells contained parasitophorous vacuoles with amorphous material and a few cocci-like organisms. A sample from IDE8-infected cells from the 16th subculture (336 d.p.i.) was analyzed by nPCR, nucleotide sequencing, electron microscopy, and an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The IFAT highlighted some IDE8-infected cells with intense fluorescence in the parasitophorous vacuole, while in other cells, fluorescence was observed only at the periphery. DNA from a culture of the MG15 isolate was amplified with A. marginale msp4 gene primers, and nucleotide sequencing of the PCR product and BLAST software analysis further confirmed 100% identity with the MGI5 blood isolate (GenBank no. JN022558.1). Electron microscopy revealed increased numbers of lysosomes in the cytoplasm of IDE8 cells. Several cells exhibited large vacuoles containing cellular debris and amorphous material. After the 29th subculture, it was not possible to detect compatible Anaplasma structures by light microscopy, and subculture samples tested negative in nPCR. Despite the failure of the attempt to establish A. marginale (MGI5) in IDE8 cells, the results demonstrated the isolate's ability to infect, survive and multiply

  4. Occurrence of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in household dogs from northern Parana Ocorrência de Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em cães domiciliados da região norte do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Cristina Ferreira da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused primarily by Ehrlichia canis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis induced by Anaplasma platys are important emerging zoonotic tick-borne diseases of dogs. There is evidence that these pathogens can also affect humans. This study evaluated the presence of E. canis and A. platys in blood samples collected from 256 domiciled dogs in the municipality of Jataizinho, located in north region of the State of Parana, Brazil, by PCR assay. The occurrence of E. canis and A. platys was 16.4% (42/256 and 19.4% (49/256, respectively; while 5.47% (14/256 of the dogs evaluated were co-infected by these two organisms. The presence of E. canis and A. platys was not significantly associated with the variables evaluated (sex, age, outdoor access, and presence of ticks during blood collection. Infection of dogs by E. canis was associated with anemia and thrombocytopenia, while infection induced by A. platys was related only to thrombocytopenia. Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis should be included in the differential diagnoses when these hematological alterations are observed during routine laboratory evaluation of dogs.Erliquiose monocítica canina, causada principalmente por Ehrlichia canis, e anaplasmose trombocítica canina, devida a infecção com Anaplasma platys, são importantes doenças transmitidas por carrapatos que acometem os cães, com evidências que podem também acometer o homem. O presente estudo avaliou a ocorrência desses agentes em amostras de sangue de 256 cães domiciliados na cidade de Jataizinho, na região Norte do Paraná, Brasil, utilizando a técnica da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR. A ocorrência de E. canis e A. platys foi de 16,4% (42/256 e 19,4% (49/256, respectivamente, com 5,47% (14/256 dos animais apresentando coinfecção. Não foi observada associação significativa com as variáveis sexo, idade, acesso à rua e presença de carrapatos no momento da

  5. Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 CD4+-T-cell epitopes are evenly distributed in conserved and hypervariable regions (HVR), whereas linear B-cell epitopes are predominantly located in the HVR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Guy H; Howard, Chris J; Hope, Jayne C; Brown, Wendy C

    2004-12-01

    Organisms in the genus Anaplasma express an immunodominant major surface protein 2 (MSP2), composed of a central hypervariable region (HVR) flanked by highly conserved regions. Throughout Anaplasma marginale infection, recombination results in the sequential appearance of novel MSP2 variants and subsequent control of rickettsemia by the immune response, leading to persistent infection. To determine whether immune evasion and selection for variant organisms is associated with a predominant response against HVR epitopes, T-cell and linear B-cell epitopes were localized by measuring peripheral blood gamma interferon-secreting cells, proliferation, and antibody binding to 27 overlapping peptides spanning MSP2 in 16 cattle. Similar numbers of MSP2-specific CD4(+) T-cell epitopes eliciting responses of similar magnitude were found in conserved and hypervariable regions. T-cell epitope clusters recognized by the majority of animals were identified in the HVR (amino acids [aa] 171 to 229) and conserved regions (aa 101 to 170 and 272 to 361). In contrast, linear B-cell epitopes were concentrated in the HVR, residing within hydrophilic sequences. The pattern of recognition of epitope clusters by T cells and of HVR epitopes by B cells is consistent with the influence of protein structure on epitope recognition.

  6. Molecular detection of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa in cervids and wild boars from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André; Parreira, Ricardo; Nunes, Mónica; Casadinho, Afonso; Vieira, Maria Luísa; Campino, Lenea; Maia, Carla

    2016-05-10

    Wildlife can act as reservoir of different tick-borne pathogens, such as bacteria, parasites and viruses. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance in cervids and wild boars from the Centre and South of Portugal. One hundred and forty one blood samples from free-ranging ungulates including 73 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 65 wild boars (Sus scrofa) and three fallow deer (Dama dama) were tested for the presence of Anaplasma marginale/A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp., Babesia/Theileria spp., Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) (s.l.), and Rickettsia spp. DNA by PCR. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in 33 (43.4 %) cervids (31 red deer and two fallow deer) and in two (3.1 %) wild boars while Theileria spp. were found in 34 (44.7 %) cervids (32 red deer and two fallow deer) and in three (4.6 %) wild boar blood samples. Sequence analysis of msp4 sequences identified A. marginale, A. ovis, while the analysis of rDNA sequence data disclosed the presence of A. platys and A. phagocytophilum and T. capreoli and Theileria sp. OT3. Anaplasma spp./Theileria spp. mixed infections were found in 17 cervids (22.4 %) and in two wild boars (3.1 %). All samples were negative for Babesia sp., B. burgdorferi (s.l.), Ehrlichia sp. or Rickettsia sp. This is the first detection of Anaplasma marginale, A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, A. platys, Theileria capreoli and Theileria sp. OT3 in cervids and wild boars from Portugal. Further studies concerning the potential pathogenicity of the different species of  Anaplasma and Theileria infecting wild ungulates, the identification of their vector range, and their putative infectivity to domestic livestock and humans should be undertaken.

  7. Molecular identification and characterization of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán, Consuelo; González-Álvarez, Vicente H; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rafael; de la Fuente, José

    2016-03-01

    The tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are the causative agents of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) and canine cyclic thrombocytopenia (CCT). Although molecular evidence of E. canis has been shown, phylogenetic analysis of this pathogen has not been performed and A. platys has not been identified in Mexico, where the tick vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) is common. The aim of this research was to screen, identify and characterize E. canis and A. platys by PCR and phylogenetic analysis in dogs from La Comarca Lagunera, a region formed by three municipalities, Torreon, Gomez-Palacio and Lerdo, in the Northern states of Coahuila and Durango, Mexico. Blood samples and five engorged R. sanguineus s.l. ticks per animal were collected from 43 females and 57 male dogs presented to veterinary clinics or lived in the dog shelter from La Comarca Lagunera. All the sampled dogs were apparently healthy and PCR for Anaplasma 16S rRNA, Ehrlichia 16S rRNA, and E. canis trp36 were performed. PCR products were sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. PCR products were successfully amplified in 31% of the samples using primers for Anaplasma 16S rRNA, while 10% and 4% amplified products using primers for Ehrlichia 16S rRNA and E. canis trp36 respectively. Subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of these products showed that three samples corresponded to A. platys and four to E. canis. Based on the analysis of trp36 we confirmed that the E. canis strains isolated from Mexico belong to a conservative clade of E. canis and are closely related to strains from USA. In conclusion, this is the first molecular identification of A. platys and the first molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of both A. platys and E. canis in dogs in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Cell tropism and molecular epidemiology of Anaplasma platys-like strains in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobba, R; Anfossi, A G; Visco, S; Sotgiu, F; Dedola, C; Pinna Parpaglia, M L; Battilani, M; Pittau, M; Alberti, A

    2015-04-01

    Bacterial species of the genus Anaplasma are tick transmitted pathogens that negatively impact on animal productions and generate veterinary and public health concerns. This paper reports the identification, molecular characterization and phylogeny of novel unclassified A. platys-like strains in cats. Interestingly, these novel strains are closely related to conspecific strains recently identified in ruminants, and significantly differ from A. platys. A. platys-like strains in cats, unlike ruminants strains, show tropism for platelets. Results have implications in the diagnostic scenario of animal anaplasmosis and provide background for reconstructing the evolutionary history of species genetically related to A. platys. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Test of the sheep ked Melophagus ovinus (L) as a vector of Anaplasma ovis Lestoquard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, J L; Coan, M E

    1986-05-01

    The sheep ked Melophagus ovinus was evaluated as a possible vector of Anaplasma ovis. In 4 tests, 45 to 293 keds were transferred from sheep with acute anaplasmosis, low level parasitemia, or carrier state of anaplasmosis to individual splenectomized ewes. Keds were confined in stockinette cages attached to the dorsal midline of the recipient hosts for 10 days. Throughout the 90-day observation periods after the keds were transferred, no clinical, serologic, or hematologic evidence of anaplasmosis was detected in any of the ked-recipient ewes. Results indicate that sheep keds probably are not mechanical or biological vectors of the ovine anaplasmosis organism.

  10. Comparação entre diversos antígenos para o diagnóstico de Anaplasma marginale por ELISA Comparison between several antigens for diagnosis of Anaplasma marginale by ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A.N. Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasmose bovina é uma doença com grande importância nas regiões tropicais e subtropicais do mundo por determinar perdas econômicas devido à mortalidade e redução da produtividade. É causada por Anaplasma marginale, uma riquétsia intraeritrocítica obrigatória cujo controle requer, além de uma vacina eficiente, uma acurada identificação de bovinos cronicamente infectados. Apesar de existirem atualmente diversos métodos de diagnóstico dessa riquétsia, os métodos sorológicos, em particular o ensaio de imunoadsorção enzimática-ELISAs, são os mais utilizados devido à sua versatilidade e praticidade. No entanto, devido ao grande número de antígenos disponíveis, atualmente torna-se necessária uma avaliação para definir quais antígenos apresentam um melhor desempenho no diagnóstico da anaplasmose. Soros de bovinos positivos e negativos para A. marginale por PCR, e soros de animais provenientes do Brasil e Costa Rica, foram testados em ELISAs baseados em MSP1a, MSP2 e MSP5 recombinantes, um pool das três proteínas recombinantes, e antígeno de lisado de corpúsculos iniciais da riquétsia (CI. Utilizando soro de bovinos positivos para A. marginale por PCR, uma maior sensibilidade foi observada no ELISA CI. No entanto, uma maior especificidade, com soro de bovinos negativos a PCR, foi observada com os ELISAs recombinantes. O porcentual de bovinos positivos do Brasil e Costa Rica foi maior com ELISA CI. Razões para essas diferenças são discutidas.Bovine anaplasmosis is a major disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world by determine economical loss due mortality and productive reduction. The disease is caused by Anaplasma marginale, an intraerythrocytic rickettsia whose control requires, besides an efficient vaccine, the accurate identification of chronically infected cattle. Although the existence of diverse methods of diagnosis of this rickettsia, the serological methods, in particular the enzyme

  11. Stray dogs of northern Jordan as reservoirs of ticks and tick-borne hemopathogens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Qablan, M.; Kubelová, M.; Široký, P.; Modrý, David; Amr, Z. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 1 (2012), s. 301-307 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Grant - others:GA CR(CZ) GA524/09/0715 Keywords : ANAPLASMA-PHAGOCYTOPHILUM * GRANULOCYTIC EHRLICHIOSIS * MOLECULAR EVIDENCE * CANINE BABESIOSIS * HEPATOZOON-CANIS * ISRAEL * IXODIDAE * ACARI * COINFECTION * INFECTION Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2012

  12. Flåtbårne infektioner i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bo Bødker; Ocias, Lukas Frans; Andersen, Nanna Skaarup

    2017-01-01

    The castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus, is common in woodlands in most of Denmark. Besides Borrelia burgdorferi, it can harbour a number of pathogenic microorganisms such as tick-borne encephalitis virus, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Francisella tularensis, Candidatus Neoehrlich...... mikurensis, Bartonella spp., Borrelia miyamotoi and Babesia spp. These tick-borne infections should be a differential diagnostic consideration during the tick season in Denmark. We review the distribution, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of these microorganisms....

  13. Life History and Demographic Drivers of Reservoir Competence for Three Tick-Borne Zoonotic Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Ostfeld, Richard S.; Levi, Taal; Jolles, Anna E.; Martin, Lynn B.; Hosseini, Parviez R.; Keesing, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Animal and plant species differ dramatically in their quality as hosts for multi-host pathogens, but the causes of this variation are poorly understood. A group of small mammals, including small rodents and shrews, are among the most competent natural reservoirs for three tick-borne zoonotic pathogens, Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia microti, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, in eastern North America. For a group of nine commonly-infected mammals spanning >2 orders of magnitude in body mass, we as...

  14. Flåtbårne infektioner i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bo Bødker; Ocias, Lukas Frans; Andersen, Nanna Skaarup

    2017-01-01

    The castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus, is common in woodlands in most of Denmark. Besides Borrelia burgdorferi, it can harbour a number of pathogenic microorganisms such as tick-borne encephalitis virus, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Francisella tularensis, Candidatus Neoehrlichia...... mikurensis, Bartonella spp., Borrelia miyamotoi and Babesia spp. These tick-borne infections should be a differential diagnostic consideration during the tick season in Denmark. We review the distribution, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of these microorganisms....

  15. Detection and Characterisation of Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, Paidashe; Khumalo, Zamantungwa T H; Chaisi, Mamohale E; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Brayton, Kelly A; Collins, Nicola E

    2018-03-03

    Bovine anaplasmosis is endemic in South Africa and it has a negative economic impact on cattle farming. An improved understanding of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma marginale variety centrale (A. centrale) transmission, together with improved tools for pathogen detection and characterisation, are required to inform best management practices. Direct detection methods currently in use for A. marginale and A. centrale in South Africa are light microscopic examination of tissue and organ smears, conventional, nested, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, and a reverse line blot hybridisation assay. Of these, qPCR is the most sensitive for detection of A. marginale and A. centrale in South Africa. Serological assays also feature in routine diagnostics, but cross-reactions prevent accurate species identification. Recently, genetic characterisation has confirmed that A. marginale and A. centrale are separate species. Diversity studies targeting Msp1a repeats for A. marginale and Msp1aS repeats for A. centrale have revealed high genetic variation and point to correspondingly high levels of variation in A. marginale outer membrane proteins (OMPs), which have been shown to be potential vaccine candidates in North American studies. Information on these OMPs is lacking for South African A. marginale strains and should be considered in future recombinant vaccine development studies, ultimately informing the development of regional or global vaccines.

  16. Detection and Characterisation of Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paidashe Hove

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine anaplasmosis is endemic in South Africa and it has a negative economic impact on cattle farming. An improved understanding of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma marginale variety centrale (A. centrale transmission, together with improved tools for pathogen detection and characterisation, are required to inform best management practices. Direct detection methods currently in use for A. marginale and A. centrale in South Africa are light microscopic examination of tissue and organ smears, conventional, nested, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assays, and a reverse line blot hybridisation assay. Of these, qPCR is the most sensitive for detection of A. marginale and A. centrale in South Africa. Serological assays also feature in routine diagnostics, but cross-reactions prevent accurate species identification. Recently, genetic characterisation has confirmed that A. marginale and A. centrale are separate species. Diversity studies targeting Msp1a repeats for A. marginale and Msp1aS repeats for A. centrale have revealed high genetic variation and point to correspondingly high levels of variation in A. marginale outer membrane proteins (OMPs, which have been shown to be potential vaccine candidates in North American studies. Information on these OMPs is lacking for South African A. marginale strains and should be considered in future recombinant vaccine development studies, ultimately informing the development of regional or global vaccines.

  17. Anaplasma marginale attenuated by irradiation, its potential use as vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, A.; Pupiales, N.; Castro, J.; Higuera, B.; Orrego, J.

    1986-01-01

    Five groups of 5 calves each were inoculated: group 1 (control) with 5 x 10 8 non-irradiated parasites (day 0) and group 2 with the same dose of irradiated (900 Gy) parasites on day 0. Both groups showed clinical signs of the infection, although group 2 was less severely affected. On day 41 group 3 was inoculated with blood (1 x 10 9 parasites) from an animal in group 2. These parasites were irradiated again (900 Gy) prior to inoculation. On day 59 group 4 was inoculated with blood (1 x 10 9 parasites) from the same animal in group 2. This inoculum was irradiated a second time (900 Gy) and the cells were washed and culture ''IN VITRO'' for 4 days prior to inoculation. Parasitaemia increased abruptly in group 3 (peak = 25%) concomitant with a sudden drop in hematocrit. Two animals died, the others required treatment. Group 4 had a transient and low parasitaemia (peak = 2%) and normal hematocrit values. On day 201 all animals including a new control (group 5) of 5 animals, were inoculated with 2 x 10 9 heterologous parasites. All 5 control animals reached 20% parasitaemia and averaged a -40% hematocrit decrease when treated. In contrast, the remaining animals had from -20% to normal hematocrit values and from 5.6% to non-detectable parasitaemias. All inoculated calves showed high antibody titers which increased once the parasitaemia was overcome, and after challenge. It appears that two (900 Gy) irradiations effectively attenuated A. marginale, conferring an active and long lasting protection. However, inoculum cells had to be washed and cultured to prevent hemolitic shock

  18. Bacterial Profiling Reveals Novel "Ca. Neoehrlichia", Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma Species in Australian Human-Biting Ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W Gofton

    Full Text Available In Australia, a conclusive aetiology of Lyme disease-like illness in human patients remains elusive, despite growing numbers of people presenting with symptoms attributed to tick bites. In the present study, we surveyed the microbial communities harboured by human-biting ticks from across Australia to identify bacteria that may contribute to this syndrome. Universal PCR primers were used to amplify the V1-2 hyper-variable region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in DNA samples from individual Ixodes holocyclus (n = 279, Amblyomma triguttatum (n = 167, Haemaphysalis bancrofti (n = 7, and H. longicornis (n = 7 ticks. The 16S amplicons were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform and analysed in USEARCH, QIIME, and BLAST to assign genus and species-level taxonomies. Nested PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to confirm the NGS data and further analyse novel findings. All 460 ticks were negative for Borrelia spp. by both NGS and nested PCR analysis. Two novel "Candidatus Neoehrlichia" spp. were identified in 12.9% of I. holocyclus ticks. A novel Anaplasma sp. was identified in 1.8% of A. triguttatum ticks, and a novel Ehrlichia sp. was identified in both A. triguttatum (1.2% ticks and a single I. holocyclus (0.6% tick. Further phylogenetic analysis of novel "Ca. Neoehrlichia", Anaplasma and Ehrlichia based on 1,265 bp 16S rRNA gene sequences suggests that these are new species. Determining whether these newly discovered organisms cause disease in humans and animals, like closely related bacteria do abroad, is of public health importance and requires further investigation.

  19. Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Type b) How to Take Your Child's Temperature Impetigo Infant Botulism Infections That Pets Carry Influenza (Flu) ... Herpes Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Hives (Urticaria) Impetigo Infections That Pets Carry Lyme Disease Measles Molluscum ...

  20. Zoonotic tick-borne bacteria among wild boars (Sus scrofa in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to estimate the occurrence of infections by the three zoonotic bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l. and Coxiella burnetii in wild boars (Sus scrofa in Central Italy. The spleen samples from 100 hunted wild boars were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR assays were carried out to detect the three agents. One (1% animal was positive for A. phagocytophilum, and three (3% for B. burgdorferi s.l. No positive reactions were observed for Coxiella burnetii. Wild boars did not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of the three investigated agents. However, the detection of A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. in the spleen of the tested animals showed that wild boars can harbor these pathogens, thus ticked that feeding on infected wild boars are likely to become infected, too, which represents a source of infection for other animals and humans. This is the first detection of A. phagocytophilum in wild boars in Italy.

  1. Epitope-based vaccines with the Anaplasma marginale MSP1a functional motif induce a balanced humoral and cellular immune response in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula S Santos

    Full Text Available Bovine anaplasmosis is a hemoparasitic disease that causes considerable economic loss to the dairy and beef industries. Cattle immunized with the Anaplasma marginale MSP1 outer membrane protein complex presents a protective humoral immune response; however, its efficacy is variable. Immunodominant epitopes seem to be a key-limiting factor for the adaptive immunity. We have successfully demonstrated that critical motifs of the MSP1a functional epitope are essential for antibody recognition of infected animal sera, but its protective immunity is yet to be tested. We have evaluated two synthetic vaccine formulations against A. marginale, using epitope-based approach in mice. Mice infection with bovine anaplasmosis was demonstrated by qPCR analysis of erythrocytes after 15-day exposure. A proof-of-concept was obtained in this murine model, in which peptides conjugated to bovine serum albumin were used for immunization in three 15-day intervals by intraperitoneal injections before challenging with live bacteria. Blood samples were analyzed for the presence of specific IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies, as well as for the rickettsemia analysis. A panel containing the cytokines' transcriptional profile for innate and adaptive immune responses was carried out through qPCR. Immunized BALB/c mice challenged with A. marginale presented stable body weight, reduced number of infected erythrocytes, and no mortality; and among control groups mortality rates ranged from 15% to 29%. Additionally, vaccines have significantly induced higher IgG2a than IgG1 response, followed by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This is a successful demonstration of epitope-based vaccines, and protection against anaplasmosis may be associated with elicitation of effector functions of humoral and cellular immune responses in murine model.

  2. First report of Anaplasma ovis in pupal and adult Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) collected in South Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; He, Bo; Li, Kai-Rui; Li, Fei; Zhang, Lu-Yao; Li, Xian-Qiang; Liu, Yong-Hong

    2018-04-19

    Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) is a blood-feeding ectoparasite that belongs to the family Hippoboscidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) and mainly parasitizes sheep. The life-cycle of M. ovinus consists of three stages: larva, pupa and adult. It has a worldwide distribution and has been found in four provinces of China, especially South Xinjiang. In addition to causing direct damage to animal hosts, M. ovinus serves as a vector for disease transmission. In this study, our aim was to investigate the presence of Anaplasma spp. in pupal and adult M. ovinus. A total of 93 specimens (including eight pupal specimens) of M. ovinus collected in South Xinjiang were selected for isolation of genomic DNA, followed by PCR amplification and sequencing of the msp4 gene of Anaplasma spp. The sequences were analyzed in MEGA 7.0 software and via online BLAST. PCR and sequencing results showed that all the specimens collected in 2013 were free of Anaplasma spp., whereas three and 25 specimens (including five pupal specimens) collected in 2016 and 2017, respectively, tested positive for Anaplasma spp. The analysis of 24 msp4 gene sequences (from four pupal specimens) confirmed the presence of A. ovis in M. ovinus specimens collected in South Xinjiang, China. The detected A. ovis isolates belong to Genotypes II and III. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the detection of A. ovis DNA in pupal M. ovinus, confirming the vertical transmission of A. ovis in M. ovinus and the potential of M. ovinus to serve as a vector for A. ovis.

  3. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and D. immitis in hunting dogs from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantedosi, Diego; Neola, Benedetto; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Santoro, Mario; Pacifico, Laura; Sgroi, Giovanni; Auletta, Luigi; Buch, Jesse; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2017-10-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are caused by a range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods. The present study investigates Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Dirofilaria immitis seroprevalences in hunting dogs from southern Italy. Dogs (no. 1335) were tested using a commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors. Overall, 138/1335 dogs (10.3%) were seroreactive to at least one CVBD pathogen. E. canis, Anaplasma spp., B. burgdorferi s.l., and D. immitis seroprevalences were 7.6, 4.4, 0.3, and 0.2%, respectively. E. canis and Anaplasma spp. co-exposures were found in 30 dogs (2.2%), compared with Anaplasma spp. and B. burgdorferi s.l. co-exposures in 2 dogs (0.1%). Adult age was a risk factor for E. canis (OR 2.35) seroreactivity whereas hunting fur-bearing animals for E. canis (OR 4.75) and Anaplasma spp. (OR 1.87), respectively. The historical presence of tick infestation was identified as a risk factor for positivity to E. canis (OR 2.08) and Anaplasma spp. (OR 2.15). Finally, larger dog pack size was significantly associated with E. canis (OR 1.85) and Anaplasma spp. (OR 2.42) exposures. The results of the present survey indicated that hunting dog populations are at relative risk of CVBDs in southern Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of hunting dogs in the epidemiology of vector-borne organisms due to sharing common environments with wild, sympatric animal populations.

  4. Improved diagnostic performance of a commercial anaplasma antibody competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant major surface protein 5–glutathione S-transferase fusion protein as antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study tested the hypothesis that removal of maltose binding protein from recombinant antigen used for plate coating would improve the specificity of Anaplasma antibody competitive ELISA. Three hundred and eight sera with significant MBP antibody binding (=30%I) in Anaplasma negative herds was 1...

  5. Molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens of the family Anaplasmataceae in Brazilian brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira, Fischer, 1814) and marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus, Illiger, 1815).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, J A G; Rabelo, E M L; Ribeiro, M F B

    2012-08-01

    Deer are important natural reservoir hosts of Anaplasmataceae. The present study used nested PCR and nucleotide sequencing to evaluate the occurrence of Anaplasmataceae species in 23 free-living and six captive specimens of the cervids Mazama gouazoubira and Blastocerus dichotomus in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Blood samples were tested for the presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp. using nPCR assays and sequencing of the msp4, msp1 and 16S rRNA genes. The identity of each sequence was confirmed by comparison with sequences available from GenBank using BLAST software. Of the animals investigated, 93.1% (27/29) were infected with haemoparasites including Anaplasma marginale (79.3%), Ehrlichia chaffeensis (3.4%), Anaplasma bovis (3.4%) and Anaplasma spp. (assigned to A. platys and A. phagocytophilum) (17.2%). Co-infection occurred in 20% (6/29) of the deer examined. Four (13.8%) were infected with A. marginale and Anaplasma sp., one (3.4%) was infected with A. marginale and E. chaffeensis, and one (3.4%) was infected with A. marginale and A. bovis. The results of the present study suggest that cross-protection does not occur in these deer. Immunological cross-reaction occurs when sera are tested diagnostically because these bacteria are closely related taxonomically, reinforcing the importance of molecular diagnosis followed by nucleotide sequencing. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae ). Staphylococcus species is by far the most studied pathogen in musculoskeletal infections and can produce a multilayered biofilm...the immune system and may be involved in both the response to sepsis and malignancy. For example, in neonatal mice, BMP signaling is a normal part of

  7. Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogens in the Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus) from Jeonbuk Province, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Giyong; Han, Yu-Jung; Oh, Sung-Suck; Chae, Joon-Seok; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Jinho; Park, Bae-Keun; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in the Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus). Pathogens were identified using PCR which included Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, and Theileria. Rickettsia was not detected, whereas Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Theileria infections were detected in 4, 2, and 8 animals, respectively. The most prevalent pathogen was Theileria. Of the 8 Theileria-positive animals, 2 were mixed-infected with 3 pathogens (Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Theileria) and another 2 animals showed mixed-infection with 2 pathogens (Anaplasma and Theileria). Sequencing analysis was used to verify the PCR results. The pathogens found in this study were identified as Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Theileria sp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report identifying these 3 pathogens in the Korean water deer. Our results suggest that the Korean water deer may serve as a major reservoir for these tick-borne pathogens, leading to spread of tick-borne diseases to domestic animals, livestock, and humans. Further studies are needed to investigate their roles in this respect.

  8. Immune response of calves inoculated with proteins ofAnaplasma marginale bound to an immunostimulant complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Ribeiro Gasparini

    Full Text Available Despite our current knowledge of the immunology, pathology, and genetics of Anaplasma marginale, prevention in cattle is currently based on old standbys, including live attenuated vaccines, antibiotic treatment, and maintaining enzootic stability in cattle herds. In the present study, we evaluated the use of an immunostimulant complex (ISCOMATRIX adjuvant, associated with a pool of recombinant major surface proteins (rMSP1a, rMSP1b, rMSP4 and rMSP5 to improve the humoral immune response triggered in calves mainly by IgG2. Ten calves were divided in three groups: 4 calves were inoculated with the ISCOMATRIX/rMSPs (G1; 2 calves were inoculated with ISCOMATRIX adjuvant (G2; and 4 calves received saline (G3. Three inoculations were administered at 21-day intervals. In G1, the calves showed significant increases in total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 levels 21 days after the second inoculation, compared to the control group (p < 0.05, and G1 calves remained above the cut-off value 28 days after the third inoculation (p < 0.05. The post-immunized sera from calves in G1 reacted specifically for each of the rMSPs used. In conclusion, the ISCOMATRIX/rMSPs induced antigen-specific seroconversion in calves. Therefore, additional testing to explore the protection induced by rMSPs, both alone and in conjunction with proteins previously identified as subdominant epitopes, is warranted.

  9. Cultivo in vitro de Anaplasma marginale en líneas celulares endoteliales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sarahí Luna-Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale, bacteria intracelular obligada, es el agente causal de la anaplasmosis bovina, caracterizada por anemia progresiva, fiebre, pérdida de peso y ocasionalmente, la muerte. Como alternativa para el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias de prevención se plantea el uso de cultivos celulares para la obtención in vitro de A. marginale. El propósito de este estudio fue ensayar su cultivo in vitro en células nucleadas empleando estirpes de células endoteliales de bovino y de mono, mismas que fueron expuestas a eritrocitos infectados con A. marginale. Para demostrar la invasión de las células endoteliales se emplearon diferentes opciones: tinciones, detección genómica o inmunofluorescencia, con resultados negativos; adicionalmente, tampoco se apreciaron efectos citopatológicos. Sin embargo, cuando se aplicó la metodología de co-cultivo en presencia de las células endoteliales, A. marginale se detectó durante más tiempo que en cultivos con eritrocitos únicamente. Con el supuesto de evidenciar la presencia de la infección, mediante la valoración de las constantes fisiológicas y anticuerpos específicos contra la bacteria, se inocularon bovinos susceptibles con el material biológico de los cultivos. Aún cuando no hubieron signos clínicos de anaplasmosis, en el bovino inoculado con la línea de córnea co-cultivada con eritrocitos infectados, se detectaron anticuerpos específicos contra A. marginale; sin embargo, no se logra dilucidar en este estudio la participación de las células endoteliales.

  10. SEROPREVALENCE OF Trypanosoma vivax, Anaplasma marginale, and Babesia bovis IN DAIRY CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonata de Melo Barbieri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the prevalence of IgG against Trypanosoma vivax, Anaplasma marginale, and Babesia bovis in dairy cattle in southern Minas Gerais, four hundred cows from 40 dairy farms  were randomly selected and distributed in 14 municipalities. Seroprevalence was determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. Interviews were conducted to characterize producers and dairy production. Univariate analysis was carried out using chi-square (x2 or Fisher’s exact test. The multiple model was constructed with variables associated with p ≤ 0.25 by x2 test using generalized estimating equations (GEE. True prevalence at herd level was 49.6% (31.7–67.5, 100% (92.1–100, and 100% (86.5–100 for T. vivax, A. marginale, and B. bovis, respectively. At individual level, true seroprevalence was 9.9% (6.7–13.1, 96.2% (92.1–99.6, and 93.7% (89.4–97.2, respectively, for T. vivax, A. marginale, and B. bovis. Among the factors adjusted by logistic regression GEE  model, “total farm area” (p= 0.021, OR= 0.308, Ic95%= 0.114–0.836 and “fly season” (p= 0.016, OR= 2.133, Ic95%= 1.153–3.948 remained associated with seropositivity for T. vivax. As the State of Minas Gerais is considered non-endemic for T. vivax, producers and veterinarians should be informed about the risk of occurrence of bovine trypanosomiasis. Keywords: anaplasmosis; babesiosis; dairy cattle; enzootic stability; trypanosomiasis.

  11. Analysis of the risk factors related to the immune humoral anti-Anaplasma marginale in dairy cattleAnálise dos fatores de risco relacionados à resposta imune humoral anti-Anaplasma marginale em vacas de leite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent pathogen of cattle transmitted by ticks in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for anaplasmosis in dairy cattle. Fifty dairy cattle from the herd of Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Estado do Rio de Janeiro were selected by proportional stratified sampling. The risk factors evaluated were: physiological state, race pattern, number of lactations, milk production, infestation by Rhipicephalus microplus and animal density. Antibody activity against A. marginale was determined using the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The percentual values of seroprevalence for A. marginale were submitted to χ2 test, and the level of minimum significance, to keep a factor in the model of logistic regression, was fixated in 5%. It was observed that pregnancy and lactation influenced significantly (pAnaplasma marginale é o mais prevalente patógeno de bovinos transmitido por carrapatos em todo o mundo. Este estudo objetivou avaliar os fatores de risco para anaplasmose em vacas de leite. Foram selecionadas por amostragem estratificada proporcional 50 vacas do rebanho da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os fatores de risco avaliados foram: estado fisiologico, padrão racial, número de lactações, produção leiteira, infestação por Rhipicephalus microplus e densidade animal. Atividade de anticorpos contra Anaplasma marginale determinada utilizado o Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimático Indireto. Os valores percentuais de soroprevalêcia para A. marginale foram submetidos ao teste ?2, sendo que o nível de significância mínima para manter um fator no modelo de regressão logística foi fixado em 5%. Observou-se que, tanto a gestação quanto a lactação influenciaram significativamente (p<0.05 na soropositividade dos animais. Animais Bos indicus apresentaram 5,21 vezes mais chance de serem soropositivos do que animais B. taurus. Fêmeas prim

  12. Prevalence of selected infectious disease agents in stray cats in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ravicini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The objective of the current study was to investigate the prevalence rates of the following infectious agents in 116 stray cats in the Barcelona area of Spain: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia felis, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia species, feline calicivirus (FCV, feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species. Methods Serum antibodies were used to estimate the prevalence of exposure to A phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, B burgdorferi, Ehrlichia species and FIV; serum antigens were used to assess for infection by D immitis and FeLV; and molecular assays were used to amplify nucleic acids of Anaplasma species, Bartonella species, C felis, D immitis, Ehrlichia species, FCV, FHV-1, haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species from blood and nasal or oral swabs. Results Of the 116 cats, 63 (54.3% had evidence of infection by Bartonella species, FeLV, FIV or a haemoplasma. Anaplasma species, Ehrlichia species or Rickettsia species DNA was not amplified from these cats. A total of 18/116 cats (15.5% were positive for FCV RNA (six cats, Mycoplasma species DNA (six cats, FHV-1 DNA (three cats or C felis DNA (three cats. Conclusions and relevance This study documents that shelter cats in Catalonia are exposed to many infectious agents with clinical and zoonotic significance, and that flea control is indicated for cats in the region.

  13. Detección por pcr de Anaplasma spp. en caprinos del municipio de Los Santos, Santander‑Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez, Angela; Garcia, Alba; Angulo, Carolina; Gómez, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Mediante pcr semianidada se amplificó una porción de 347 pb del gen msp5 para determinar la presencia de Anaplasma spp. en caprinos de la Mesa de Los Santos, Santander. A partir de 600 individuos se seleccionó una muestra de 99 animales utilizando una afijación proporcional. A cada uno de los caprinos se les realizó un examen semiológico y la extracción de una muestra sanguínea para pcr semi-anidada, medición de hematocrito, hemoglobina, evaluación de la morfología de los glóbulos rojos y obs...

  14. First molecular evidence of Anaplasma ovis and Rickettsia spp. in keds (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) of sheep and wild ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; de la Fuente, José; Biró, Nóra; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Meli, Marina L; Elek, Vilmos; Gönczi, Eniko; Meili, Theres; Tánczos, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the presence of rickettsial agents in hippoboscid flies with molecular methods, 81 sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) were collected from 23 sheep, 144 deer keds (Lipoptena cervi) were caught in the environment, and a further 463 and 59 individuals of the latter species were obtained from fresh carcasses of 29 red deer and 17 roe deer, respectively. DNA was extracted individually or in pools. Anaplasma ovis was demonstrated in all examined sheep keds, and from one pool of free-living deer keds. Rickettsia helvetica or other, unidentified rickettsiae were also present in one pool of sheep keds, and in four pools of deer keds from both red deer and roe deer. This is the first account of polymerase chain reaction positivity of hippoboscid flies for A. ovis and rickettsiae. These results raise the possibility that-apart from cattle and roe deer as already reported-sheep and red deer might also play a reservoir role in the epidemiology of rickettsioses.

  15. The Tick Protein Sialostatin L2 Binds to Annexin A2 and Inhibits NLRC4-Mediated Inflammasome Activation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, X.; Shaw, D.K.; Sakhon, O. S.; Snyder, G.A.; Sundberg, E.J.; Santambrogio, L.; Sutterwala, F.S.; Dumlera, J.S.; Shirey, K.A.; Perkins, D.J.; Richard, K.; Chagas, A. C.; Calvo, E.; Kopecký, J.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 6 (2016), s. 1796-1805 ISSN 0019-9567 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Anaplasma phagocytophilum * bacterial ligands * NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasomes Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.593, year: 2016

  16. Flåtbårne infektioner i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bo Bødker; Ocias, Lukas Frans; Andersen, Nanna Skaarup

    2017-01-01

    The castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus, is common in woodlands in most of Denmark. Besides Borrelia burgdorferi, it can harbour a number of pathogenic microorganisms such as tick-borne encephalitis virus, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Francisella tularensis, Candidatus Neoehrlichia...

  17. Borrelia miyamotoi in host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, K M; Fonville, M; Jahfari, S; Sprong, H; Medlock, J M

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports the first detection of Borrelia miyamotoi in UK Ixodes ricinus ticks. It also reports on the presence and infection rates of I. ricinus for a number of other tick-borne pathogens of public health importance. Ticks from seven regions in southern England were screened for B. miyamotoi, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Neoehrlichia mikurensis using qPCR. A total of 954 I. ricinus ticks were tested, 40 were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l., 22 positive for A. phagocytophilum and three positive for B. miyamotoi, with no N. mikurensis detected. The three positive B. miyamotoi ticks came from three geographically distinct areas, suggesting a widespread distribution, and from two separate years, suggesting some degree of endemicity. Understanding the prevalence of Borrelia and other tick-borne pathogens in ticks is crucial for locating high-risk areas of disease transmission.

  18. The Microbiome of Ehrlichia-Infected and Uninfected Lone Star Ticks (Amblyomma americanum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R T Trout Fryxell

    Full Text Available The Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum, transmits several bacterial pathogens including species of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia. Amblyomma americanum also hosts a number of non-pathogenic bacterial endosymbionts. Recent studies of other arthropod and insect vectors have documented that commensal microflora can influence transmission of vector-borne pathogens; however, little is known about tick microbiomes and their possible influence on tick-borne diseases. Our objective was to compare bacterial communities associated with A. americanum, comparing Anaplasma/Ehrlichia -infected and uninfected ticks. Field-collected questing specimens (n = 50 were used in the analyses, of which 17 were identified as Anaplasma/Ehrlichia infected based on PCR amplification and sequencing of groEL genes. Bacterial communities from each specimen were characterized using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries. There was a broad range in diversity between samples, with inverse Simpson's Diversity indices ranging from 1.28-89.5. There were no statistical differences in the overall microbial community structure between PCR diagnosed Anaplasma/Ehrlichia-positive and negative ticks, but there were differences based on collection method (P < 0.05, collection site (P < 0.05, and sex (P < 0.1 suggesting that environmental factors may structure A. americanum microbiomes. Interestingly, there was not always agreement between Illumina sequencing and PCR diagnostics: Ehrlichia was identified in 16S rRNA gene libraries from three PCR-negative specimens; conversely, Ehrlichia was not found in libraries of six PCR-positive ticks. Illumina sequencing also helped identify co-infections, for example, one specimen had both Ehrlichia and Anaplasma. Other taxa of interest in these specimens included Coxiella, Borrelia, and Rickettsia. Identification of bacterial community differences between specimens of a single tick species from a single geographical site indicates that

  19. Melting pot of tick-borne zoonoses: the European hedgehog contributes to the maintenance of various tick-borne diseases in natural cycles urban and suburban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahfari, Setareh; Ruyts, Sanne C; Frazer-Mendelewska, Ewa; Jaarsma, Ryanne; Verheyen, Kris; Sprong, Hein

    2017-03-07

    European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) are urban dwellers and host both Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus. These ticks transmit several zoonotic pathogens like Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Borrelia miyamotoi and "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis". It is unclear to what extent hedgehogs in (sub) urban areas contribute to the presence of infected ticks in these areas, which subsequently pose a risk for acquiring a tick-borne disease. Therefore, it is important to investigate to what extent hedgehogs contribute to the enzootic cycle of these tick-borne pathogens, and to shed more light at the mechanisms of the transmission cycles involving hedgehogs and both ixodid tick species. Engorged ticks from hedgehogs were collected from (sub) urban areas via rehabilitating centres in Belgium. Ticks were screened individually for presence of Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica and "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" using PCR-based methods. Infection rates of the different pathogens in ticks were calculated and compared to infection rates in questing ticks. Both Ixodes hexagonus (n = 1132) and Ixodes ricinus (n = 73) of all life stages were found on the 54 investigated hedgehogs. Only a few hedgehogs carried most of the ticks, with 6 of the 54 hedgehogs carrying more than half of all ticks (624/1205). Borrelia miyamotoi, A. phagocytophilum, R. helvetica and B. burgdorferi genospecies (Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia bavariensis and Borrelia spielmanii) were detected in both I. hexagonus and I. ricinus. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, R. helvetica, B. afzelii, B. bavariensis and B. spielmanii were found significantly more in engorged ticks in comparison to questing I. ricinus. European hedgehogs seem to contribute to the spread and transmission of tick-borne pathogens in urban areas. The relatively high prevalence of B. bavariensis, B. spielmanii, B

  20. Do leukoreduction filters passively reduce the transmission risk of human granulocytic anaplasmosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Melanie C; Leiby, David A

    2015-06-01

    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, poses an increasing public health risk in the United States. Since 2000, case reports have increased annually; 2782 cases were reported in 2013. Despite the increasing frequency of clinical cases, only eight cases of transfusion-transmitted anaplasmosis (TTA) have been reported. We investigated if current leukoreduction practices impact transfusion risk. Whole blood units (WBUs) with integral red blood cell (RBC) leukoreduction filters were collected and spiked with A. phagocytophilum-infected HL-60 cells equivalent to 0.01, 1, or 5% of total neutrophils. After 24 hours at 4°C WBUs were processed into plasma and RBCs, the latter subsequently leukoreduced (LR RBCs). To evaluate the removal of A. phagocytophilum by filtration, pre- and postfiltration samples were compared by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Compared to Day 0 or Day 1 positive controls, LR RBCs demonstrated reduced levels of A. phagocytophilum by culture and PCR. At 0.01% infection levels LR RBCs yielded no positive cultures and a log reduction of 2.5 by PCR. Similarly, at 1 and 5% infections levels, LR RBCs produced only 44% (4/9) and 56% (5/9) positive cultures, respectively. PCR results were comparable, 3.0 log reduction for 1% and 3.3 log reduction for 5% infection levels. The recent increase in TTA suggests that A. phagocytophilum may represent an emerging blood safety issue. However, the current study indicates that the widespread practice of leukoreduction might passively reduce, but not eliminate, TTA risk. In the absence of viable testing or pathogen inactivation and/or reduction options, leukoreduction may offer some protection from transmission risk. © 2014 AABB.

  1. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from migratory birds in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capligina, Valentina; Salmane, Ineta; Keišs, Oskars; Vilks, Karlis; Japina, Kristine; Baumanis, Viesturs; Ranka, Renate

    2014-02-01

    Migratory birds act as hosts and long-distance vectors for several tick-borne infectious agents. Here, feeding Ixodes ticks were collected from migratory birds during the autumn migration period in Latvia and screened for the presence of epidemiologically important non-viral pathogens. A total of 93 DNA samples of ticks (37 larvae and 56 nymphs) removed from 41 birds (order Passeriformes, 9 species) was tested for Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., and Babesia spp. Borrelia burgdorferi DNA was detected in 18% of the tick samples, and a majority of infected ticks were from thrush (Turdus spp.) birds. Among the infected ticks, Borrelia valaisiana was detected in 41% of cases, Borrelia garinii in 35%, and mixed Bo. valaisiana and Bo. garinii infection in 24%. Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 2% of ticks, R. helvetica in 12%, and Babesia spp. pathogens in 4% of ticks. Among these samples, 3 Babesia species were identified: Ba. divergens, Ba. microti, and Ba. venatorum. Coinfection with different pathogens that included mixed infections with different Borrelia genospecies was found in 20% of nymphal and 3% of larval Ixodes ticks. These results suggest that migratory birds may support the circulation and spread of medically significant zoonoses in Europe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Tickborne Powassan virus infections among Wisconsin residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Diep K Hoang; Staples, J Erin; Sotir, Mark J; Warshauer, David M; Davis, Jeffrey P

    2010-04-01

    Powassan virus (POWV) is a tickborne Flavivirus that causes a rare but potentially life-threatening illness. The first reported case of POWV infection in a Wisconsin resident occurred in 2003. Enhanced surveillance and testing detected 2 additional cases. Patient specimens with a positive or equivocal immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to an arbovirus were sent from commercial laboratories to the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene and forwarded to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for confirmatory testing. Patients with laboratory confirmed POWV infections were interviewed to obtain demographic, clinical, and epidemiologic information. POWV infections were confirmed in 3 adult Wisconsin residents in 2003, 2006, and 2007; illness onsets occurred during May and June. Two patients were hospitalized and all survived. One patient had a dual infection with POWV and Anaplasma phaghocytophilum. Specimens from all 3 patients were initially reported as positive for IgM antibody to either St Louis encephalitis or California serogroup viruses; POWV-specific antibody was detected during confirmatory testing at the CDC. Each patient had exposures to known or likely tick habitats in different counties within 30 days before illness onset. These are the first diagnosed human POWV infections in Wisconsin. Because all 3 patients were initially identified as having other arboviral infections using commercial screening kits, routine confirmatory testing is essential for proper diagnosis of most arboviral infections. Wisconsin residents should be educated regarding risks of acquiring and ways to prevent POWV infection and other tickborne diseases when spending time outdoors.

  3. Detection of Borrelia miyamotoi and other tick-borne pathogens in human clinical specimens and Ixodes scapularis ticks in New York State, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Danielle; Gebhardt, Linda; Prusinski, Melissa A; Meehan, Lisa J; Halse, Tanya A; Musser, Kimberlee A

    2017-03-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi (Bm) is a recently emerging bacterial agent transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks. Diagnosis of Bm infection can be challenging, as the organism is not easily cultivable. We have developed and validated a multiplex real-time PCR to simultaneously identify Bm infection and the agents causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis and human monocytic ehrlichiosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, respectively. The assay is 100% specific; highly sensitive, detecting 11 gene copies of Bm DNA in both whole blood and cerebral spinal fluid; and provides rapid results in less than two hours. A retrospective study of 796 clinical specimens collected between the years 2012 and 2014 and a prospective study of 366 clinical specimens were performed utilizing this novel assay to evaluate the frequency of Bm infection in New York State (NYS). Eight clinical specimens (1%) were found to be positive for Bm, 216 were positive for A. phagocytophilum, and 10 were positive for E. chaffeensis. Additionally, we tested 411 I. scapularis ticks collected in NYS during 2013 and 2014 in a separate multiplex real-time PCR to determine the prevalence of Bm, A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., and Borrelia species. Our results indicated rates of 1.5%, 27%, 19.7%, and 8.8% respectively. The ability to monitor both the frequency and geographic distribution of Bm cases and the prevalence and geographic distribution of Bm in ticks will help create a better understanding of this emerging tick-borne pathogen. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. Prevalence of select vector-borne pathogens in stray and client-owned dogs from Algiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzag, Naouelle; Petit, Elisabeth; Gandoin, Christelle; Bouillin, Corinne; Ghalmi, Farida; Haddad, Nadia; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

    2015-02-01

    Data on the prevalence of vector-borne diseases agents infecting canines in Algeria is currently lacking. The purpose of this study is to assess by serological and molecular methods the prevalence of select arthropod borne-bacterial infections in client-owned and stray dogs. Antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum were the most prevalent at 47.7%, followed by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. at 37.6%, Ehrlichia canis at 30.0%, Bartonella henselae at 32.4% and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii at 27%. Seroprevalence was statistically significantly higher in stray dogs than those owned by clients. Seropositivity was not associated with health status, except for E. canis. Molecular evaluation indicates that 17.8% of the 213 analyzed dogs were positive for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma with a prevalence of 4.2% for E. canis, 14.1% for Anaplama platys and 0% for A. phagocytophilum. Seven (7.1%) of the tested dogs were positive for Bartonella spp. with two characterized as Bartonella rochalimae, four as B. henselae and one as B.v. subsp. berkhoffii. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular identification of Anaplasma marginale in two autochthonous South American wild species revealed an identical new genotype and its phylogenetic relationship with those of bovines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemi, Eliana C; de la Fourniere, Sofía; Orozco, Marcela; Peña Martinez, Jorge; Correa, Elena; Fernandez, Javier; Lopez Arias, Ludmila; Paoletta, Martina; Corona, Belkis; Pinarello, Valérie; Wilkowsky, Silvina E; Farber, Marisa D

    2016-05-26

    Anaplasma marginale is a well-known cattle pathogen of tropical and subtropical world regions. Even though, this obligate intracellular bacterium has been reported in other host species different than bovine, it has never been documented in Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater) or Hippocamelus antisense (taruca), which are two native endangered species. Samples from two sick wild animals: a Myrmecophaga tridactyla (blood) and a Hippocamelus antisense (blood and serum) were studied for the presence of A. marginale DNA through msp5 gene fragment amplification. Further characterization was done through MSP1a tandem repeats analysis and MLST scheme and the genetic relationship among previously characterized A. marginale sequences were studied by applying, eBURST algorithm and AMOVA analysis. Anaplasma marginale DNA was identified in the Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Hippocamelus antisense samples. Through molecular markers, we identified an identical genotype in both animals that was not previously reported in bovine host. The analysis through eBURST and AMOVA revealed no differentiation between the taruca/anteater isolate and the bovine group. In the present publication we report the identification of A. marginale DNA in a novel ruminant (Hippocamelus antisense) and non-ruminant (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) host species. Genotyping analysis of isolates demonstrated the close relatedness of the new isolate with the circulation population of A. marginale in livestock. Further analysis is needed to understand whether these two hosts contribute to the anaplasmosis epidemiology.

  6. Comparison of the serologic tests of Indirect Immunofluorescence, Rapid Conglutination, Indirect ELISA and Competition ELISA for detection of antibodies against Anaplasma marginale in cattle sera from different enzootic areas/ Comparação dos testes sorológicos de Imunofluorescência Indireta, Conglutinação Rápida, ELISA indireto e ELISA por competição para a detecção de anticorpos contra o Anaplasma marginale em soros de bovinos de diferentes áreas enzoóticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luís Garcia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The serological techniques Rapid Conglutination Test (RCT, Indirect ELISA (iELISA and Indirect Immunofluorescent Assay (IFA, using the competition ELISA (cELISA as gold test, were comparatively evaluated to detect antibodies against Anaplasma marginale. A total of 453 sera from vaccinated and non vaccinated cattle and, collected from enzootic stability and instability areas were tested. iELISA, IFA and TCR presented kappa index = 0.77 (substantial; 0.57 and 0.49 (moderate, sensibility of 90.6%; 90.2% and 73.7% and specificity of 86.6%; 62.8%, and 79.3%, respectively. Therefore, iELISA presented better specificity than IFA and RCT, and can be indicated for more detailed serological investigations, detection of persistently infected animals in cattle herds and for monitorating of vaccination programs. IFA and TCR can be used in prevalence studies and to monitor cattle movement between different geographical regions.Os testes sorológicos de Conglutinação Rápida (TCR Imunofluorescência Indireta (IFI e Imunoenzimáticos Indireto (iELISA utilizando ELISA por competição (cELISA, como padrão ouro, foram avaliados comparativamente para a detecção de anticorpos contra o Anaplasma marginale. Foram utilizadas 453 amostras de soros sangüíneos de bovinos vacinados e não-vacinados e de áreas de estabilidade e instabilidade enzoótica. O iELISA, IFI e TCR apresentaram respectivamente, índice kappa=0,77 (substancial, 0,57 e 0,49 (moderado, sensibilidade de 90,6%, 90,2% e 73,7% e especificidade de 86,6%, 62,8%, e 79,3%. O iELISA apresentou o melhor desempenho e maior especificidade, podendo ser indicado na avaliação do perfil sorológico de rebanhos, na detecção de animais persistentemente infectados e de animais submetidos a programas de vacinação. As técnicas de IFI e TCR, mesmo apresentando desempenho inferior, podem ser recomendadas para a realização de inquéritos epidemiológicos e para o monitoramento de animais em trânsito entre

  7. Molecular and serological detection of tick-borne pathogens in donkeys (Equus asinus) in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Fabrizia; Morganti, Giulia; Ravagnan, Silvia; Laus, Fulvio; Spaterna, Andrea; Diaferia, Manuela; Moretti, Annabella; Fioretti, Daniela Piergili; Capelli, Gioia

    2014-10-10

    Donkeys, owing to the frequent outdoor activity, are exposed to a high risk of infection with tick-borne pathogens. This work aimed to detect exposure to Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. of donkeys reared in Central Italy. For this purpose 122 adult donkeys were selected within 11 herds and submitted to blood collection. IgG antibodies to T. equi, B. caballi, A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected by IFAT. Conventional PCRs targeting the genes MSP2 and the flagellin were used for the detection of A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. respectively and a Real Time PCR Sybr Green was used to detect Babesia/Theileria spp…. The species identity was determined by amplicons sequencing. Forty eight (39.3%) and 58 (47.5%) animals tested positive for T. equi and B. caballi antibodies, respectively; nine animals (7.4%) were found positive for antibodies against A. phagocytophilum whereas negative results were obtained for B. burgdorferi s.l. Twenty-six (21.3%) animals showed antibodies for both T. equi and B. caballi. Twenty-three (18.8%) donkeys were positive to Babesia/Theileria spp. PCR assay. Out of 21 sequenced amplicons, 20 were identified as T. equi, belonging to three main groups designated A, B and D and one as B. caballi group A. Neither A. phagocytophilum nor B. burgdorferi PCR results were positive. The study showed a high exposure of donkeys to tick-borne pathogens and provides information on the genetic identity of the T. equi strains circulating in Central Italy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Distribution and prevalence of vector-borne diseases in California chipmunks (Tamias spp..

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    Mary H Straub

    Full Text Available California, with 13 chipmunk (Tamias species, has more than any other state or country, occupying habitats ranging from chaparral to the high peaks of the Sierra Nevada. Chipmunks host zoonotic pathogens including Yersinia pestis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, relapsing fever (RF Borrelia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, and spotted fever group (SFG Rickettsia species. Chipmunk species are often not differentiated by public health workers, yet different species utilize different ecological niches and may have intrinsically different capacities for maintaining vector-borne pathogens and infecting vectors. We surveyed over 700 individuals from nine species of chipmunks throughout California for exposure to and infection by Y. pestis, A. phagocytophilum, RF Borrelia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, and SFG Rickettsia species. DNA of all five pathogens was found and all chipmunks except Merriam's chipmunk (T. merriami were PCR-positive for at least one of the pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was most common (40.0%, 2/5 in Sonoma chipmunks (T. sonomae from Marin county and B. burgdorferi most common (37.5%, 27/72 in redwood chipmunks (T. ochrogenys from Mendocino county. RF Borrelia spp. was detected in 2% (6/297 of redwood chipmunks in Mendocino county and 10% (1/10 of both least (T. minimus and lodgepole (T. speciosus chipmunks in the western Sierra. Exposure to SFG Rickettsia spp. was found in the Northern Coastal region (Del Norte, Humboldt and Mendocino counties and in the northern and western Sierra in several species of chipmunks. Y. pestis infection was found only in the western Sierra-in a yellow-pine (T. amoenus and a long-eared (T. quadrimaculatus chipmunk. Though more data are needed to thoroughly understand the roles that different chipmunk species play in disease transmission, our findings suggest that some chipmunk species may be more important to the maintenance of vector-borne diseases than others within each geographic area.

  9. Evidence of the importance of host habitat use in predicting the dilution effect of wild boar for deer exposure to Anaplasma spp.

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    Agustín Estrada-Peña

    Full Text Available Foci of tick-borne pathogens occur at fine spatial scales, and depend upon a complex arrangement of factors involving climate, host abundance and landscape composition. It has been proposed that the presence of hosts that support tick feeding but not pathogen multiplication may dilute the transmission of the pathogen. However, models need to consider the spatial component to adequately explain how hosts, ticks and pathogens are distributed into the landscape. In this study, a novel, lattice-derived, behavior-based, spatially-explicit model was developed to test how changes in the assumed perception of different landscape elements affect the outcome of the connectivity between patches and therefore the dilution effect. The objective of this study was to explain changes in the exposure rate (ER of red deer to Anaplasma spp. under different configurations of suitable habitat and landscape fragmentation in the presence of variable densities of the potentially diluting host, wild boar. The model showed that the increase in habitat fragmentation had a deep impact on Habitat Sharing Ratio (HSR, a parameter describing the amount of habitat shared by red deer and wild boar, weighted by the probability of the animals to remain together in the same patch (according to movement rules, the density of ticks and the density of animals at a given vegetation patch, and decreased the dilution effect of wild boar on deer Anaplasma ER. The model was validated with data collected on deer, wild boar and tick densities, climate, landscape composition, host vegetation preferences and deer seropositivity to Anaplasma spp. (as a measure of ER in 10 study sites in Spain. However, although conditions were appropriate for a dilution effect, empirical results did not show a decrease in deer ER in sites with high wild boar densities. The model showed that the HSR was the most effective parameter to explain the absence of the dilution effect. These results suggest that host

  10. Presence of Pathogenic Rickettsiae and Protozoan in Samples of Raw Milk from Cows, Goats, and Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisak, Ewa; Zając, Violetta; Sroka, Jacek; Sawczyn, Anna; Kloc, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the presence of various rickettsiae and protozoan in raw milk and the assessment the potential, milk-borne route in the spread of selected zoonotic pathogens. A total of 119 raw milk samples collected randomly from 63 cows, 29 goats, and 27 sheep bred on 34 farms situated on eight communities in eastern Poland were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the presence of pathogenic rickettsiae (Coxiella burnetii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp.) and protozoan (Toxoplasma gondii). The only prevalent pathogen was T. gondii, which was found in 10 samples of cow milk (15.9%), in one sample of goat milk (3.4%), and in one sample of sheep milk (3.7%). One sample of cow milk was positive for C. burnetii; however, the sequence analysis did not confirm any species of Coxiella or Coxiella-like organisms, but showed 100% homology to Psychrobacter alimentarius. None of the examined samples showed the presence of A. phagocytophilum or Rickettsia spp. The results of this study suggest a potential hazard of milk-borne Toxoplasma infection, mostly by consumption of raw cow milk. The milk-borne spread seems to be limited or nonsignificant in the case of C. burnetii, A. phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. The false-positive sample for Coxiella spp. suggests that some care should be taken in the interpretation of the results obtained by using the PCR method.

  11. Bovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne pathogens in cattle of the Galapagos Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, G V; Vinueza, R L; Marsot, M; Devillers, E; Cruz, M; Petit, E; Boulouis, H J; Moutailler, S; Monroy, F; Coello, M A; Gondard, M; Bournez, L; Haddad, N; Zanella, G

    2018-03-22

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the species of Anaplasma spp. and estimate its prevalence in cattle of the three main cattle-producing Galapagos Islands (Santa Cruz, San Cristóbal and Isabela) using indirect PCR assays, genetic sequencing and ELISA. Ticks were also collected from cattle and scanned for 47 tick-borne pathogens in a 48 × 48 real-time PCR chip. A mixed effects logistic regression was performed to identify potential risk factors explaining Anaplasma infection in cattle. A. phagocytophilum was not detected in any of the tested animals. Genetic sequencing allowed detection of A. platys-like strains in 11 (36.7%) of the 30 Anaplasma spp.-positive samples analysed. A. marginale was widespread in the three islands with a global between-herd prevalence of 100% [89; 100] 95% CI and a median within-herd prevalence of 93%. A significant association was found between A. marginale infection and age with higher odds of being positive for adults (OR = 3.3 [1.2; 9.9] 95% Bootstrap CI ). All collected ticks were identified as Rhipicephalus microplus. A. marginale, Babesia bigemina, Borrelia theileri and Francisella-like endosymbiont were detected in tick pools. These results show that the Galapagos Islands are endemic for A. marginale. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Detection of Anaplasma antibodies in wildlife and domestic species in wildlife-livestock interface areas of Kenya by major surface protein 5 competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

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    J.J.N. Ngeranwa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The seroprevalence of Anaplasma antibodies in wildlife (eland, blue wildebeest, kongoni, impala, Thomson's gazelle, Grant's gazelle, giraffe and plains zebra and domestic animal (cattle, sheep and goat populations was studied in wildlife / livestock interface areas of Kenya. Serum samples were analyzed by competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA, using a recombinant antigen (MSP-5 from Anaplasma marginale surface membrane. A monoclonal antibody, FC-16, was used as the primary antibody, while anti-mouse conjugated to horseradish peroxidase was used as the secondary antibody. The results indicate a high seroprevalence in both wildlife and livestock populations, in contrast to earlier reports from Kenya, which indicated a low seroprevalence. The differences are attributed to the accurate analytical method used (CI-ELISA, as compared with agglutination techniques, clinical signs and microscopy employed by the earlier workers.

  13. Studies on the blood parasites of sheep in Ibadan, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Parasites found were Anaplasma, Babesia and Eperythrozoon species. Mixed infections with these parasites were common. Anaplasma sp was the most predominant in WAD sheep carrying single infection. Mixed infections with Anaplasma and Eperythrozoon (AE) species. Anaplasma, Babesia and Eperythrozoon ...

  14. Seroprevalence of canine dirofilariosis, granulocytic anaplasmosis and lyme borreliosis of public health importance in dogs from India’s North East

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    S. K. Borthakur

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Vector-borne infections namely dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis and lyme borreliosis are being recognized as emerging and/or re-emerging problems in dogs and man due to rapid extension of zoogeographical ranges of many causative agents through international tourism and increase mobility of dogs at national and international level towards meeting the demand for companion animals in the present day society. Anticipating such situation, a serological study was conducted in dogs from North East India to estimate the prevalence of zoonotically important Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi along with Ehrlichia canis. Materials and Methods: Serological study was carried out using enzyme immunoassay in commercial SNAP 4DX® test kit (Idexx Laboratories, USA. The study was conducted in 191 dogs comprising 82 pets, 57 stray and 52 working dogs owned by defence organizations. Results: The study revealed seroprevalence of mosquito-borne D. immitis (17.80%, tick-borne E. canis (22.51% and A. phagocytophilum (4.71% with an overall 41.88% prevalence of pathogens in single or co-infection. Serological evidence of tick-borne lyme borreliosis due to B. burgdorferi could not be established in dogs in the present study. Of the zoonotic species, highest prevalence of D. immitis was found in the stray dogs (22.80% and that of A. phagocytophilum in pet dogs (6.09%. Conclusion: The results of the present serological study serve as baseline information on the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in dogs reported for the first time in India and reaffirmation on the high prevalence of D. immitis and E. canis in the North East India.

  15. Ecological factors characterizing the prevalence of bacterial tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks in pastures and woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halos, Lénaïg; Bord, Séverine; Cotté, Violaine; Gasqui, Patrick; Abrial, David; Barnouin, Jacques; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Vourc'h, Gwenaël

    2010-07-01

    Ecological changes are recognized as an important driver behind the emergence of infectious diseases. The prevalence of infection in ticks depends upon ecological factors that are rarely taken into account simultaneously. Our objective was to investigate the influences of forest fragmentation, vegetation, adult tick hosts, and habitat on the infection prevalence of three tick-borne bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia sp. of the spotted fever group, in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, taking into account tick characteristics. Samples of questing nymphs and adults were taken from 61 pastures and neighboring woodlands in central France. The ticks were tested by PCR of pools of nymphs and individual adults. The individual infection prevalence was modeled using multivariate regression. The highest infection prevalences were found in adult females collected in woodland sites for B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum (16.1% and 10.7%, respectively) and in pasture sites for Rickettsia sp. (8.7%). The infection prevalence in nymphs was lower than 6%. B. burgdorferi sensu lato was more prevalent in woodlands than in pastures. Forest fragmentation favored B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum prevalence in woodlands, and in pastures, the B. burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence was favored by shrubby vegetation. Both results are probably because large amounts of edges or shrubs increase the abundance of small vertebrates as reservoir hosts. The Rickettsia sp. prevalence was maximal on pasture with medium forest fragmentation. Female ticks were more infected by B. burgdorferi sensu lato than males and nymphs in woodland sites, which suggests an interaction between the ticks and the bacteria. This study confirms the complexity of the tick-borne pathogen ecology. The findings support the importance of small vertebrates as reservoir hosts and make a case for further studies in Europe on the link between the

  16. Immunogenicity of Outer Membrane Proteins VirB9-1 and VirB9-2, a Novel Nanovaccine against Anaplasma marginale.

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    Liang Zhao

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent tick-borne livestock pathogen and poses a significant threat to cattle industry. In contrast to currently available live blood-derived vaccines against A. marginale, alternative safer and better-defined subunit vaccines will be of great significance. Two proteins (VirB9-1 and VirB9-2 from the Type IV secretion system of A. marginale have been shown to induce humoral and cellular immunity. In this study, Escherichia coli were used to express VirB9-1 and VirB9-2 proteins. Silica vesicles having a thin wall of 6 nm and pore size of 5.8 nm were used as the carrier and adjuvant to deliver these two antigens both as individual or mixed nano-formulations. High loading capacity was achieved for both proteins, and the mouse immunisation trial with individual as well as mixed nano-formulations showed high levels of antibody titres over 107 and strong T-cell responses. The mixed nano-formulation also stimulated high-level recall responses in bovine T-cell proliferation assays. These results open a promising path towards the development of efficient A. marginale vaccines and provide better understanding on the role of silica vesicles to deliver multivalent vaccines as mixed nano-formulations able to activate both B-cell and T-cell immunity, for improved animal health.

  17. Frequency of Anaplasma marginale (Theiler 1910 and Babesia sp in mestizo bovine Zebu, in the Municipality of Ixiamas county Abel Iturralde Department of The La Paz, Bolivia

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    Mercado Alvaro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work one carries out in the Municipality of Ixiamas County Abel Iturralde of the department of Peace-Bolivia, between May and August of 2010. The objective was to determine the presence of Anaplama sp and Babesia sp, through sanguine smear, they took 160 samples of blood, 40 bovine of the four areas they have been evaluated. The results indicate the presence of Anaplasma sp 6,90%, 6,20% in females and 9,70% in males, this represents 2,50% for the area TO, 5,00% area B, 17,50% area C and 2,50% area D. According to the category 12,50% in calves, 0,00% in torillos, 4,80% in bulls, 6,20% in cows and 14,30% in heifers. The presence of Babesia sp 3,13%, with relationship to the sex 3,10% in females and 3,22% in males, being observed 2,50% in the area TO, 5,00% in the area B, 5,00% in the area C and 0,00% in the area D, according to the category 0,00% in calves, torillos 4,80% bulls, 2,73% vacates and 7,14% in heifers.

  18. Acute upper airway obstruction due to retropharyngeal hematoma in a dog with Anaplasma species: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Vieitez, Verónica; Martín-Cuervo, María; López-Ramis, Víctor; Ezquerra, Luis Javier

    2015-01-01

    Background Retropharyngeal hematoma is a rare condition that is difficult to diagnose and may progress rapidly to airway obstruction. The authors report the first known case of acute upper airway obstruction resulting from retropharyngeal hematoma in a dog. Documented causes in human medicine have included coagulopathic states, trauma, infection, parathyroid adenoma rupture, and foreign body ingestion. Vague symptoms in humans such as sore throat, shortness of breath, dysphonia, dysphagia, an...

  19. Estudios genómicos y funcionales en Anaplasma marginale y en bacterias intracelulares de la clase alfa-proteobacteria y su relación con la reducción del genoma

    OpenAIRE

    Nuñez, Pablo Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    La subdivisión α- de la clase proteobacteria representa un grupo sumamente diverso y heterogéneo de bacterias con una gran variabilidad en sus características genómicas, biológicas y ecológicas. Dentro de esta subdivisión se encuentra el orden Rickettsiales que ha cobrado gran importancia durante los últimos años por agrupar a diversos patógenos emergentes que resultan relevantes para la salud pública y salud animal. Entre ellos, se destaca Anaplasma marginale, causante de la Anaplasmosis bov...

  20. Determination of the Nucleotide Sequences of Heat Shock Operon groESL and the Citrate Synthase Gene (gltA) of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) platys for Phylogenetic and Diagnostic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuma, Hisashi; Fujii, Kaori; Okuda, Masaru; Onishi, Takafumi; Beaufils, Jean-Pierre; Raoult, Didier; Brouqui, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    The 1,670-bp nucleotide sequence of the heat shock operon groESL and the 1,236-bp sequence of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) platys were determined. The topology of the groEL- and gltA-based phylogenetic tree was similar to that derived from 16S rRNA gene analyses with distances. Both groESL- and gltA-based PCRs specific to A. platys were also developed based upon the alignment data. PMID:12204973

  1. Molecular survey on zoonotic tick-borne bacteria and chlamydiae in feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Mani, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    To determine the presence of zoonotic tick-borne bacteria in feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) from urban areas. Spleen samples from 84 feral pigeons, found dead with traumatic injuries in urban areas, were examined by PCR to detect DNA of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia spp., and Chlamydophila spp. Twenty (23.8%) pigeons were infected by tick-borne agents, in particular 2 (2.38%) animals resulted positive for Bartonella spp., 5 (5.95%) for C. burnetii, 5 (5.95%) for Rickettsia spp., 13 (15.47%) for B. burgdorferi sensu lato. All birds scored negative for A. phagocytophilum. Moreover, 17 (20.23%) pigeons were positive for Chlamydophila spp. and among them 10 (11.9%) for Chlamydophila psittaci. Mixed infections by two or three agents were detected in 8 (9.52%) animals. Feral pigeons living in urban and periurban areas are a hazard for the human health as source of several pathogens. The obtained results confirm pigeons as reservoirs of chlamydial agents and suggest that they may be involved in the epidemiology of zoonotic tick-borne infections too. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nanoparticle-Based Delivery of Anaplasma marginale Membrane Proteins; VirB9-1 and VirB10 Produced in the Pichia pastoris Expression System

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    Bing Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine anaplasmosis or cattle-tick fever is a tick-borne haemolytic disease caused by the rickettsial haemoparasite Anaplasma marginale in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. While difficult to express, the proteins VirB9-1 and VirB10 are immunogenic components of the outer membrane type IV secretion system that have been identified as candidate antigens for vaccines targeting of A. marginale. Soluble VirB9-1 and VirB10 were successfully expressed using Pichia pastoris. When formulated with the self-adjuvanting silica vesicles, SV-100 (diameter: 50 nm, and pore entrance size: 6 nm, 200 µg of VirB9-1 and VirB10 were adsorbed per milligram of nanoparticle. The VirB9-1 and VirB10, SV-100 formulations were shown to induce higher antibody responses in mice compared to the QuilA formulations. Moreover, intracellular staining of selected cytokines demonstrated that both VirB9-1 and VirB10 formulations induced cell-mediated immune responses in mice. Importantly, the SV-100 VirB9-1 and VirB10 complexes were shown to specifically stimulate bovine T-cell linages derived from calves immunised with A. marginale outer membrane fractions, suggesting formulations will be useful for bovine immunisation and protection studies. Overall this study demonstrates the potential of self-adjuvanting silica vesicle formulations to address current deficiencies in vaccine delivery applications.

  3. Novel Babesia and Hepatozoon agents infecting non-volant small mammals in the Brazilian Pantanal, with the first record of the tick Ornithodoros guaporensis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Rafael William; Aragona, Mônica; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Pinto, Leticia Borges; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Braga, Isis Assis; Costa, Jackeliny dos Santos; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Marcili, Arlei; Pacheco, Richard de Campos; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2016-04-01

    Taking into account the diversity of small terrestrial mammals of the Pantanal, the present study aimed to verify the occurrence of infection by Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Babesia spp. and parasitism by ticks in non-volant small mammals collected in the Brazilian Pantanal. Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected from 64 captured animals, 22 marsupials and 42 rodents. Pathogen detection was performed by the use of genus-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. Ticks collected from the animals consisted of Amblyomma sculptum and Amblyomma triste nymphs, and Ornithodoros guaporensis larvae. None of the vertebrate samples (blood, liver, or spleen) yielded detectable DNA of Rickettsia spp. or Ehrlichia spp. The blood of the rodent Hylaeamys megacephalus yielded an Anaplasma sp. genotype (partial 16S rRNA gene) 99% similar to multiple Anaplasma spp. genotypes around the world. The blood of three rodents of the species Calomys callosus were positive for a novel Hepatozoon sp. agent, phylogenetically related (18S rDNA gene) to distinct Hepatozoon genotypes that have been detected in rodents from different parts of the world. One marsupial (Monodelphis domestica) and three rodents (Thrichomys pachyurus) were positive to novel piroplasmid genotypes, phylogenetically (18S rDNA gene) related to Theileria bicornis, Cytauxzoon manul, and Cytauxzoon felis. The present study provides the first molecular detection of Hepatozoon sp. and piroplasmids in small mammals in Brazil. Additionally, we expanded the distribution of O. guaporensis to Brazil, since this tick species was previously known to occur only in Bolivia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Demographic characteristics and infectious diseases of a population of American black bears in Humboldt County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Nicole; Higley, J Mark; Sajecki, Jaime L; Chomel, Bruno B; Brown, Richard N; Foley, Janet E

    2015-02-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) are common, widely distributed, and broad-ranging omnivorous mammals in northern California forests. Bears may be susceptible to pathogens infecting both domestic animals and humans. Monitoring bear populations, particularly in changing ecosystems, is important to understanding ecological features that could affect bear population health and influence the likelihood that bears may cause adverse impacts on humans. In all, 321 bears were captured between May, 2001, and October, 2003, and blood samples were collected and tested for multiple zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. We found a PCR prevalence of 10% for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and a seroprevalence of 28% for Toxoplasma gondii, 26% for Borrelia burgdorferi, 26% for A. phagocytophilum, 8% for Trichinella spiralis, 8% for Francisella tularensis and 1% for Yersinia pestis. In addition, we tested bears for pathogens of domestic dogs and found a seroprevalence of 15% for canine distemper virus and 0.6% for canine parvovirus. Our findings show that black bears can become infected with pathogens that are an important public health concern, as well as pathogens that can affect both domestic animals and other wildlife species.

  5. Acute upper airway obstruction due to retropharyngeal hematoma in a dog with Anaplasma species: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieitez, Verónica; Martín-Cuervo, María; López-Ramis, Víctor; Ezquerra, Luis Javier

    2015-10-09

    Retropharyngeal hematoma is a rare condition that is difficult to diagnose and may progress rapidly to airway obstruction. The authors report the first known case of acute upper airway obstruction resulting from retropharyngeal hematoma in a dog. Documented causes in human medicine have included coagulopathic states, trauma, infection, parathyroid adenoma rupture, and foreign body ingestion. Vague symptoms in humans such as sore throat, shortness of breath, dysphonia, dysphagia, and neck swelling may precede lethal airway obstruction. The authors report a case of an 18-month-old, intact female water spaniel with thrombocytopenia that developed a massive retropharyngeal hematoma and symptoms of airway compromise. The dog required tracheal intubation followed by surgical tracheostomy. Lateral cervical radiography and magnetic resonance imaging of the neck was consistent with a retropharyngeal hematoma compromising the airway. The retropharyngeal hematoma was managed conservatively. Retropharyngeal hematoma should be considered in patients presenting with abrupt respiratory distress. Magnetic resonance imaging allowed specific diagnosis of a rare condition that is otherwise difficult to diagnose.

  6. Prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Lindsay A; Newton, Kassie; Brunker, Jill; Crowdis, Kelly; Edourad, Emile Jean Pierre; Meneus, Pedro; Little, Susan E

    2016-07-15

    Canine vector-borne pathogens are common on some Caribbean islands, but survey data in Haiti are lacking. To determine the prevalence of selected vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Haiti, we tested blood samples collected from 210 owned dogs, 28 (13.3%) of which were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks at the time of blood collection. No other tick species were identified on these dogs. A commercially available ELISA identified antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in 69 (32.9%), antibodies to Anaplasma spp. in 37 (17.6%), and antigen of Dirofilaria immitis in 55 (26.2%); antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi were not detected in any sample. Molecular assays of whole blood from 207 of the dogs confirmed infection with Ehrlichia canis (15; 7.2%), Anaplasma platys (13; 6.3%), D. immitis (46; 22.2%), Wolbachia spp. (45; 21.7%), Babesia vogeli (16; 7.7%), and Hepatozoon canis (40; 19.3%), but Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia canis, Babesia rossi, Babesia gibsoni, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or Hepatozoon americanum were not detected. Co-infection with two or more vector-borne pathogens was detected by serology in 42 (20.0%) dogs and by molecular assays in 22 (10.6%) dogs; one dog was co-infected with B. vogeli and E. canis as detected by PCR with D. immitis detected by serology (antigen). Overall, evidence of past or current infection with at least one vector-borne pathogen was identified in 142/210 (67.6%) dogs in this study, underscoring the common nature of these pathogens, some of which are zoonotic, in Haiti. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Staphylococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staph is short for Staphylococcus, a type of bacteria. There are over 30 types, but Staphylococcus aureus causes most staph infections (pronounced "staff infections"), including Skin infections Pneumonia ...

  8. Tick-Pathogen Ensembles: Do Molecular Interactions Lead Ecological Innovation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Estrada-Peňa, A.; Rego, Ryan O. M.; de la Fuente, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, 13 March (2017), č. článku 74. ISSN 2235-2988 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-pathogen interactions * transcriptional reprogramming * epigenetics * ecological adaptation * Anaplasma phagocytophilum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  9. Tick-borne zoonotic pathogens in ticks feeding on the common nightingale including a novel strain of Rickettsia sp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubská, L.; Literák, I.; Kverek, P.; Roubalová, Eva; Kocianova, E.; Taragelova, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2012), s. 265-268 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia garinii * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * Rickettsia helvetica * Babesia sp. EU1 * Common nightingale Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877959X12000556

  10. Rickettsiae in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Venclíková, Kristýna; Rudolf, Ivo; Mendel, Jan; Betášová, Lenka; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2014), s. 135-138 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * Rickettsia spp. * Rickettsia helvetica * Rickettsia monacensis * Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  11. Neglected tick-borne pathogens in the Czech Republic, 2011–2014

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Venclíková, Kristýna; Mendel, Jan; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; Jedličková, Petra; Straková, Petra; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Rudolf, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2016), s. 107-112 ISSN 1877-959X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Rickettsia spp. * Candidatus N. mikurensis * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * Babesia spp. Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 3.230, year: 2016

  12. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Costa Rica: first molecular description of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections with a high prevalence of monocytic ehrlichiosis and the manifestations of co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Alicia; Rojas, Diana; Montenegro, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Baneth, Gad

    2014-01-31

    Infection with canine vector-borne pathogens was evaluated in dogs from four different regions of Costa Rica by PCR. Demographic data, clinical signs, packed cell volume values, and the presence of tick infestation were recorded for each dog. Forty seven percent (69/146) of the dogs were infected with at least one pathogen and 12% were co-infected with two pathogens. Ehrlichia canis was detected in 34%, Anaplasma platys in 10%, Babesia vogeli in 8%, and Hepatozoon canis in 7.5% of the blood samples. No infection was detected with Leishmania spp. in blood, skin scrapings or conjunctival swabs. Thirty percent of the dogs presented at least one clinical sign compatible with vector-borne disease, and of those, 66% were infected with a pathogen. Subclinical infections were determined in 58% of the infected dogs including 82% (9/11), 58% (29/50), 42% (5/12) and 36% (5/14) of the dogs with H. canis, E. canis, B. vogeli and A. platys infections, respectively. A distinct relationship was found between infection and anemia. The mean PCV values were 34.4% in dogs with no infection, 31.5% in those who had a single infection and 23% in those with co-infection. Co-infected dogs had significantly lower PCV values compared to non-infected and single-infected dogs (pCosta Rica as well as in Central America. The results of this study indicate that multiple vector-borne pathogens responsible for severe diseases infect dogs in Costa Rica and therefore, increased owner and veterinarian awareness are needed. Moreover, prevention of tick infestation is recommended to decrease the threat of these diseases to the canine population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Zoonotic vector-borne bacterial pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor), 1987-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Yvette A; Swift, Pamela; Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Fleer, Katryna; Foley, Janet E; Torres, Steven G; Johnson, Christine K

    2012-11-01

    Sera collected from 442 mountain lions in 48 California counties between the years of 1987 and 2010 were tested using immunofluorescence assays and agglutination tests for the presence of antibodies reactive to Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Bartonella henselae, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum antigens. Data were analyzed for spatial and temporal trends in seropositivity. Seroprevalences for B. burgdorferi (19.9%) and B. henselae (37.1%) were relatively high, with the highest exposure in the Central Coast region for B. henselae. B. henselae DNA amplified in mountain lion samples was genetically similar to human-derived Houston-1 and domestic cat-derived U4 B. henselae strains at the gltA and ftsZ loci. The statewide seroprevalences of Y. pestis (1.4%), F. tularensis (1.4%), and A. phagocytophilum (5.9%), were comparatively low. Sera from Y. pestis- and F. tularensis-seropositive mountain lions were primarily collected in the Eastern and Western Sierra Nevada, and samples reactive to Y. pestis antigen were collected exclusively from adult females. Adult age (≥ 2 years) was a risk factor for B. burgdorferi exposure. Over 70% of tested animals were killed on depredation permits, and therefore were active near areas with livestock and human residential communities. Surveillance of mountain lions for these bacterial vector-borne and zoonotic agents may be informative to public health authorities, and the data are useful for detecting enzootic and peridomestic pathogen transmission patterns, particularly in combination with molecular characterization of the infecting organisms.

  14. Emergence of bovine ehrlichiosis in Belgian cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Hugues; Ramery, Eve; O'Grady, Luke; Sandersen, Charlotte; Rollin, Frédéric

    2011-06-01

    Bovine ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne rickettsial disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The disease can also be transmitted to humans. Outbreaks in cattle have been described in many European countries. In Belgium, infections caused by A. phagocytophilum have been reported in humans and dogs; however, this paper details the first report of ehrlichiosis in cattle herds in Belgium. The first case described was in a dairy herd located in eastern Belgium. Clinical signs included hyperthermia, polypnea, and swelling of the limbs. The other case was diagnosed in a second, mixed purpose herd in western Belgium. Within the second herd, all of the affected animals came from the same pasture. All animals in that pasture showed recurrent hyperthermia, and some also showed signs of mastitis and late-term abortions. Blood smears and serology revealed the presence of A. phagocytophilum in the majority of animals with pyrexia. Furthermore, the presence of leptospirosis, Neospora caninum, and Q fever antibodies was tested by serological analysis, but all results were negative. Paired serology for Adenovirus, BHV-4, BHV-1, BVD, PI3, and RSV-B did not show any significant seroconversion. Milk samples from cows affected by mastitis revealed minor pathogens. Fecal testing for the presence of Dictyocaulus viviparus in the first herd was negative. Recurrent pyrexia in pastured cattle is a non-specific sign, and can be related to several different pathogens. Bovine ehrlichiosis is transmitted by the tick species Ixodes ricinus which is known to be present throughout Belgium. Belgian practitioners should include ehrlichiosis in their differential diagnosis when confronted with pastured cattle suffering from recurrent pyrexia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), in questing ticks (Ixodes ricinus), and in ticks infesting roe deer in southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overzier, Evelyn; Pfister, Kurt; Herb, Ingrid; Mahling, Monia; Böck, Georg; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2013-06-01

    The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is the most common tick in Central Europe and plays an important role as a vector of several pathogens. In the complex life cycles of these pathogens, the role of wild animals as natural reservoirs has been discussed. The aims of this study were to investigate the role of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) as a potential reservoir host for Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. Therefore, we explored the differences in the infection rates of roe deer and engorged and questing ticks with these pathogens from a single forest site with special attention to coinfection. Blood, spleen, and skin samples of a total of 95 roe deer individuals were screened by molecular methods for these pathogens from September 2010 to January 2012 in the 'Angelberger Forst' (Bavaria, Germany). Moreover, 331 engorged ticks from 44 roe deer individuals and 199 host-seeking ticks from the same area were screened. Altogether, the following prevalence rates and a high diversity of species were detected for the respective pathogens in individual animals and ticks: (i) Babesia spp.: roe deer, 89.5%; engorged ticks, 7.3%; questing ticks: adults, 2.5%, nymphs, 3.3%. Sequencing revealed B. venatorum, B. capreoli, and B. microti. (ii) A. phagocytophilum: roe deer 98.9%; engorged ticks, 86.1%; questing ticks: adults, 8.9%, nymphs, 0.8%. (iii) Rickettsia spp.: roe deer, 0%; engorged ticks, 16.6%; questing ticks: adults, 13.9%, nymphs, 17.5%. Sequencing revealed R. helvetica. Furthermore, several coinfections were detected in both roe deer and ticks. The high prevalence rates of B. capreoli and A. phagocytophilum in roe deer support their role as reservoir hosts for these pathogens, but no evidence for a role of roe deer in the life cycle of R. helvetica could be provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Postpartum infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnfeldt-Mollerup, Peder; Petersen, Line Kirkeby; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    % of all women had experienced one or more self-reported episode of infection. Breast infections (12%) were most frequent, followed by wound (3%), airway (3%), vaginal (3%) and urinary tract infections (3%), endometritis (2%) and "other infections" (2%). Of the women with an infection, 66% (265 of 395...

  17. Pinworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinworm infection Overview Pinworm infection is the most common type of intestinal worm infection in the United States and one of the most common worldwide. Pinworms are thin and white, measuring about 1/4 ...

  18. Odontogenic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Orrett E

    2017-04-01

    The pathogenesis of odontogenic infection is polymicrobial, consisting of various facultative and strict anaerobes. The dominant isolates are strictly anaerobic gram-negative rods and gram-positive cocci. The periapical infection is the most common form of odontogenic infection. Although odontogenic infections are usually confined to the alveolar ridge vicinity, they can spread into deep fascial spaces. Cavernous sinus thrombosis, brain abscess, airway obstruction, and mediastinitis are possible complications of dental infections. The most important element in treating odontogenic infections is elimination of the primary source of the infection with antibiotics as adjunctive therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Frequency of antibodies to Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax and Borrelia burdgorferi in cattle from the northeastern region of the state of Pará, Brazil Freqüência de anticorpos para Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax e Borrelia burgdorferi em bovinos do nordeste do Estado do Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Guedes Junior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Babesiosis, anaplasmosis, and trypanosomosis are relevant diseases, potentially causing morbidity in cattle, leading to economic losses. Borreliosis is import as a potential zoonosis. The objective of this study was to determine, by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, the frequency of seropositive cattle to Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax and Borrelia burgdorferi in cattle from the Northeastern region of Pará, Brazil. Sera samples from 246 female adult cattle from municipalities of Castanhal and São Miguel do Guamá were used. Crude antigens ELISAs were used to detect antibodies to all agents, except to A. marginale, to which an indirect ELISA with recombinant major surface 1a protein (MSP1a antigen was used. Overall frequencies of seropositive animals were: B. bigemina - 99.2%; B. bovis - 98.8%; A. marginale - 68.3%; T. vivax - 93.1% and B. burgdorferi - 54.9%. The frequencies of seropositive cattle to B. bovis and B. bigemina suggest a high rate of transmission of these organisms by tick in the studied region, which can be classified as enzootically stable to these hemoprotozoans. The low frequency of seropositive cattle to A. marginale may be attributed to a lower sensitivity of the recombinant antigen ELISA utilized or a distinct rate of inoculation of this rickettsia by ticks, as compared with Babesia sp. transmission. The high frequency of seropositive cattle to T. vivax indicates that this hemoprotozoan is prevalent in herds from the Northeastern region of Pará. The rate of animal that showed homologues antibodies to B. burgdorferi indicates the presence of the tickborne spirochaetal agent in the cattle population in the studied region.A babesiose, a anaplasmose e a tripanossomose são enfermidades relevantes, potencialmente causadoras de morbidade em bovinos, levando a perdas econômicas. A borreliose assume importância como zoonose potencial. O objetivo desse estudo foi determinar

  20. HAEMATOLOGICAL IMPACT OF NATURALLY OCCURING TICK BORNE HAEMOPARASITIC INFECTIONS IN CATTLE OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Debbarma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemoparasites reduces productivity and may lead to high mortality among animals. The present study was carried out to evaluate the heamotological change in cattle of different districts in West Bengal, India affected with naturally occurring tick- borne haemoparasitic diseases (TBHD. A total of 310 cattle blood samples were screened for the presence of haemoparasites from July, 2015 to June, 2016. The blood samples were examined for haemoparasites by making thin blood smear and staining with Giemsa’s stain. The result showed that108 (34.84% cattle were found positive with TBHD, out of which 22.9% were Theileria sp, 5.8% were Babesia sp., 11.93% Anaplasma sp., and 5.8% were having mixed infection, respectively. The positive samples were subjected to estimations of haematological parameters i. e. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, total erythrocyte count (TEC and Total leucocytes count (TLC using standard protocol. The haematological analysis showed statistically a significant (p<0.01 decreased levels of Hb, PCV, TEC and TLC in infected groups of cattle compared to infection free group cattle. This is probably the first systematic report in West Bengal, India. The result showed the haemoparasites have a negative impact on haematological parameters. This study may be useful in disease epidemiological map preparation, parasitic control policy preparation of the study areas.

  1. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You usually get it from eating contaminated food, especially raw ... You can also get it from drinking contaminated water or raw milk, or handling infected animal feces ( ...

  2. Staphylococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arthritis), and a number of skin infections (eg, impetigo, pimples, boils). Staphylococcus aureus also causes toxin-related ... cases clear up in 7 to 10 days. Impetigo is a common and contagious skin infection in ...

  3. Rotavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotavirus is a virus that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all ... the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...

  4. Vaginal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around your vagina , or a problem with your vaginal discharge (fluid). If you've had sexual contact with ... discharge Types of vaginal infections Ways to avoid vaginal infections Abnormal discharge top You may wonder if the fluid, or ...

  5. Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fungal Infections KidsHealth / For Kids / Fungal Infections What's in this ...

  6. Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    as being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections...

  7. Survey of Ixodes pacificus Ticks in California Reveals a Diversity of Microorganisms and a Novel and Widespread Anaplasmataceae Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Eshoo

    Full Text Available Ixodes pacificus ticks can harbor a wide range of human and animal pathogens. To survey the prevalence of tick-borne known and putative pathogens, we tested 982 individual adult and nymphal I. pacificus ticks collected throughout California between 2007 and 2009 using a broad-range PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS assay designed to detect a wide range of tick-borne microorganisms. Overall, 1.4% of the ticks were found to be infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, 2.0% were infected with Borrelia miyamotoi and 0.3% were infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In addition, 3.0% were infected with Babesia odocoilei. About 1.2% of the ticks were co-infected with more than one pathogen or putative pathogen. In addition, we identified a novel Anaplasmataceae species that we characterized by sequencing of its 16S rRNA, groEL, gltA, and rpoB genes. Sequence analysis indicated that this organism is phylogenetically distinct from known Anaplasma species with its closest genetic near neighbors coming from Asia. The prevalence of this novel Anaplasmataceae species was as high as 21% at one site, and it was detected in 4.9% of ticks tested statewide. Based upon this genetic characterization we propose that this organism be called 'Candidatus Cryptoplasma californiense'. Knowledge of this novel microbe will provide awareness for the community about the breadth of the I. pacificus microbiome, the concept that this bacterium could be more widely spread; and an opportunity to explore whether this bacterium also contributes to human or animal disease burden.

  8. TORCH infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Natalie; Duchon, Jennifer; Zachariah, Philip

    2015-03-01

    TORCH infections classically comprise toxoplasmosis, Treponema pallidum, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus, hepatitis viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, and other infections, such as varicella, parvovirus B19, and enteroviruses. The epidemiology of these infections varies; in low-income and middle-income countries, TORCH infections are major contributors to prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal morbidity and mortality. Evidence of infection may be seen at birth, in infancy, or years later. For many of these pathogens, treatment or prevention strategies are available. Early recognition, including prenatal screening, is key. This article covers toxoplasmosis, parvovirus B19, syphilis, rubella, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Anemia and mechanism of erythrocyte destruction in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.

    1968-01-01

    In the anemia which accompanies infection by Leucocytozoon simondi in Pekin ducks there was a far greater loss of erythrocytes than could be accounted for as a result of direct physical rupture by the parasite. Erythrocyte loss began at the same time the 1st parasites appeared in the blood and was severest just prior to maximum parasitemia. Blood replacement and parasite loss occurred simultaneously. Examination of the spleen and bone marrow revealed that erythrophagocytosis was not the cause of anemia as reported for infections of Plasmodium, Babesia and Anaplasma. An anti-erythrocyte (A-E) factor was found in the serum of acutely infected ducks which agglutinated and hemolyzed normal untreated duck erythrocytes as well as infected cells. This A-E factor appeared when the 1st red cell loss was detected and reached its maximum titer just prior to the greatest red cell loss. Titers of the A-E factor were determined using normal uninfected erythrocytes at temperatures between 4 and 42 C. Cells agglutinated below 25 C and hemolyzed at 37 and 42 C. These results indicated that the A-E factor could be responsible for loss of cells other than those which were infected and could thus produce an excess loss of red cells. Attempts to implicate the A-E factor as an autoantibody were all negative. The A-E factor was present in the gamma fraction of acute serum but no anamnestic response could be detected when recovered ducks were reinfected. Anemia was never as severe in reinfections as in primary infections. The A-E factor also never reached as high a titer and was removed from the circulation very rapidly in reinfected ducks. It is concluded that red cell loss in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon disease results from intravascular hemolysis rather than erythrophagocytosis. The A-E factor responsible for hemolysis is more likely a parasite product rather than autoantibody.

  10. Anaplasmataceae in wild ungulates and carnivores in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, A L; Oporto, B; Espí, A; del Cerro, A; Barral, M; Povedano, I; Barandika, J F; Hurtado, A

    2016-03-01

    Wild vertebrates are essential hosts for tick-borne diseases but data on the prevalence and diversity of Anaplasma spp. in wildlife are scarce. In this study, we used real-time PCR to investigate the distribution of Anaplasma species in spleen samples collected from 625 wild animals (137 cervids, 227 wild boar, and 261 carnivores) in two regions in northern Spain. A first generic real-time PCR assay was used to screen for the presence of Anaplasma spp. followed by a second species-specific multiplex real-time PCR or partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for species identification. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was highly prevalent in cervids (64.2%), but it was absent from wild boar and carnivores. Interestingly, Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma ovis were not detected in cervids, but Anaplasma centrale was identified in 1 roe deer and 1 red deer, A. bovis in 4 roe deer, and a novel Ehrlichia sp. in one badger. These findings were highly associated with the tick burden identified in the different hosts. Thus, Ixodes ricinus, the recognized vector of A. phagocytophilum in Europe, was the main tick species parasitizing cervids (93.5%, 1674/1791), whereas Dermacentor reticulatus was the most abundant in wild boar (76.1%, 35/46) and Ixodes hexagonus in carnivores (58.4%, 265/454). More investigations are needed to assess the impact of the different Anaplasma species in wildlife and the risk of transmission to domestic animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Humans with Tick Bites and Erythema Migrans, in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Jahfari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases in Europe. Knowledge on the incidence and clinical presentation of other tick-borne diseases than Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis is minimal, despite the high human exposure to these pathogens through tick bites. Using molecular detection techniques, the frequency of tick-borne infections after exposure through tick bites was estimated.Ticks, blood samples and questionnaires on health status were collected from patients that visited their general practitioner with a tick bite or erythema migrans in 2007 and 2008. The presence of several tick-borne pathogens in 314 ticks and 626 blood samples of this cohort were analyzed using PCR-based methods. Using multivariate logistic regression, associations were explored between pathogens detected in blood and self-reported symptoms at enrolment and during a three-month follow-up period.Half of the ticks removed from humans tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Borrelia miyamotoi and several Babesia species. Among 92 Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. positive ticks, 33% carried another pathogen from a different genus. In blood of sixteen out of 626 persons with tick bites or erythema migrans, DNA was detected from Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (n = 7, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (n = 5, Babesia divergens (n = 3, Borrelia miyamotoi (n = 1 and Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. (n = 1. None of these sixteen individuals reported any overt symptoms that would indicate a corresponding illness during the three-month follow-up period. No associations were found between the presence of pathogen DNA in blood and; self-reported symptoms, with pathogen DNA in the corresponding ticks (n = 8, reported tick attachment duration, tick engorgement, or antibiotic treatment at enrolment.Based on molecular detection techniques, the

  12. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Humans with Tick Bites and Erythema Migrans, in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahfari, Setareh; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Fonville, Manoj; van der Giessen, Joke; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Sprong, Hein

    2016-10-01

    Tick-borne diseases are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases in Europe. Knowledge on the incidence and clinical presentation of other tick-borne diseases than Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis is minimal, despite the high human exposure to these pathogens through tick bites. Using molecular detection techniques, the frequency of tick-borne infections after exposure through tick bites was estimated. Ticks, blood samples and questionnaires on health status were collected from patients that visited their general practitioner with a tick bite or erythema migrans in 2007 and 2008. The presence of several tick-borne pathogens in 314 ticks and 626 blood samples of this cohort were analyzed using PCR-based methods. Using multivariate logistic regression, associations were explored between pathogens detected in blood and self-reported symptoms at enrolment and during a three-month follow-up period. Half of the ticks removed from humans tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Borrelia miyamotoi and several Babesia species. Among 92 Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. positive ticks, 33% carried another pathogen from a different genus. In blood of sixteen out of 626 persons with tick bites or erythema migrans, DNA was detected from Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (n = 7), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (n = 5), Babesia divergens (n = 3), Borrelia miyamotoi (n = 1) and Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. (n = 1). None of these sixteen individuals reported any overt symptoms that would indicate a corresponding illness during the three-month follow-up period. No associations were found between the presence of pathogen DNA in blood and; self-reported symptoms, with pathogen DNA in the corresponding ticks (n = 8), reported tick attachment duration, tick engorgement, or antibiotic treatment at enrolment. Based on molecular detection techniques, the probability of

  13. Detection of Parasites and Parasitic Infections of Free-Ranging Wildlife on a Game Ranch in Zambia: A Challenge for Disease Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor M.; Munyeme, Musso; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo

    2012-01-01

    Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37% (n = 95) with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus); Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus) and puku (Kobus vardonii) for the first time in Zambia. The majority of worm species isolated from bovids were not detected in equids and, vice versa. Our findings intimate ecological and behavioural patterns of some animals as deterministic to exposure. Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) had the widest range of worm species with more infected organs than other animals suggesting their semi aquatic nature contributory to prolonged worm exposure compared to other animals. On the other hand, Kafue lechwe had the least tick infections attributable more to shorter attachment periods as they spend prolonged periods submerged in water. Our findings indicate the vital role that wildlife plays in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. To reduce the infection burden, control measures should be focused on reducing transmission to highly susceptible animal species as described herein. PMID:22701163

  14. Detection of Parasites and Parasitic Infections of Free-Ranging Wildlife on a Game Ranch in Zambia: A Challenge for Disease Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37% (n=95 with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus; Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus and puku (Kobus vardonii for the first time in Zambia. The majority of worm species isolated from bovids were not detected in equids and, vice versa. Our findings intimate ecological and behavioural patterns of some animals as deterministic to exposure. Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis had the widest range of worm species with more infected organs than other animals suggesting their semi aquatic nature contributory to prolonged worm exposure compared to other animals. On the other hand, Kafue lechwe had the least tick infections attributable more to shorter attachment periods as they spend prolonged periods submerged in water. Our findings indicate the vital role that wildlife plays in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. To reduce the infection burden, control measures should be focused on reducing transmission to highly susceptible animal species as described herein.

  15. Prevalence of Lyme borrelia in Ixodes persulcatus ticks from an area with a confirmed case of Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Yusuke; Konnai, Satoru; Githaka, Naftaly; Hidano, Arata; Taylor, Kyle; Ito, Takuya; Takano, Ai; Ando, Shuji; Kawabata, Hiroki; Tsubota, Toshio; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the prevalence of Borrelia infections in Ixodes ticks from a site in Hokkaido, Japan, with confirmed cases of Lyme disease was determined by a PCR method capable of detecting and differentiating between strains of pathogenic Borrelia, with particular emphasis on Borrelia garinii (B. garinii) and Borrelia afzelli (B. afzelli), using tick-derived DNA extracts as template. A total of 338 ticks, inclusive of 284 Ixodes persulcatus (I. persulcatus), were collected by flagging vegetation in mid-spring. Ninety-eight (34.5%) of I. persulcatus tested positive for Borrelia species DNA, whereas the overall prevalence of Borrelia species in Ixodes ovatus and Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks was 19.5 and 7.7%, respectively. PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of Borrelia rrf(5S)-rrl(23S) intergenic spacer DNA amplicons indicated that they originated from three different Borrelia species namely, B. garinii, B. afzelii and B. japonica. Among the I. persulcatus species, which is a known vector of human borreliosis, 86 were mono-infected with B. garinii, 2 ticks were mono-infected with B. afzelii and whereas 12 ticks had dual infections. Most significant, 11 of the I. persulcatus ticks were coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and B. garinii. The difference between the number of obtained and expected co-infections was significant (χ(2)=4.32, P=0.038).

  16. Survey of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, haemotropic mycoplasmas and other arthropod-borne pathogens in cats from Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Albania is a country on the western part of the Balkan Peninsula. The Mediterranean climate is favourable for the stable development of many arthropod species, which are incriminated as vectors for various agents. Recently, several papers have reported on epidemiological aspects of parasitic diseases including vector-borne disease agents of dogs with zoonotic characteristics in Albania. However, data on the epidemiology of feline parasitic and bacterial agents in Albania is scarce. Methods Serum and EDTA-blood samples collected from 146 domestic cats from Tirana during 2008 through 2010 were examined for exposure to Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Leishmania infantum, and Anaplasma spp. with IFAT, for infection with L. infantum, A. phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp. and haemotropic mycoplasmas with conventional PCR and real-time PCR and for Dirofilaria immitis with antigen ELISA. Additionally blood smear microscopy was carried out for detection of blood-borne pathogens. Results Antibodies to T. gondii (titre ≥1:100) were demonstrated in 91 cats (62.3%). Antibodies to N. caninum (titre ≥1:100), L. infantum (titre ≥1:64) and Anaplasma spp. (titre ≥1:100) were found in the serum of 15 (10.3%), 1 (0.7%) or 3 (2.1%) cats, respectively. DNA of haemotropic mycoplasmas was detected in the blood of 45 cats (30.8%), namely Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum (21.9%), Mycoplasma haemofelis (10.3%), and Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis (5.5%), with ten cats harbouring co-infections of two mycoplasmas each; blood from one cat was PCR positive for Bartonella henselae. No DNA of Leishmania spp. and A. phagocytophilum or circulating D. immitis antigen was detected in any cat sample. The overall prevalence of haemotropic mycoplasmas was significantly higher in male compared to female cats (40.6% vs. 24.1%, p = 0.0444); and age was associated positively with the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii (p = 0.0008) and the percentage of haemotropic

  17. Kidney Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms. If you're being treated for a urinary tract infection but your signs and symptoms aren't improving, make an appointment. Severe kidney ... Seek immediate medical attention if you have kidney infection symptoms combined with ... that enter your urinary tract through the tube that carries urine from ...

  18. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity ... Body Campylobacter are a type of bacteria that produce infections in the GI tract. They are a major bacterial cause of diarrheal sickness among children in the United States. You may hear ...

  19. Giardia infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia, or giardiasis, is an infection of the small intestine. A tiny parasite called Giardia lamblia causes it. ... from some of the medicines used to treat giardia are: Metallic ... used to treat the infection can be harmful to the unborn baby.

  20. [Intrauterine infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobovits, Akos

    2006-09-10

    A broad variety of microorganisms are capable of causing fetal infections. Among viral agents prominent are the human cytomegaly virus (HCMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), human immundeficiency virus (HIV), varicella, herpes zooster, rubella, parvovirus B19, measles and the hepatitis B and C viruses. Protozoa such as toxoplasma and spirocheta pallida, causing congenital syphilis are equally important. Bacterial infections are responsible for in uterus aquired listeriosis, tuberculosis, and group B streptococcus infections. Fungi including candida albicans complete the circle of infections pathogens. Infectious microrganisms may reach the fetus through the placenta are may ascend through the birth canal. The quoted pathological agents threaten the health and life of the fetus directly by the biological derangements they cause and also by inducing abortion or premature birth. The clinical manifestations include retarded growth, central nervous system damage and skin lesions. The invariable therapeutic measures vary but in general, are limited value in cases of in utero acquired infections.

  1. Investigação molecular de Ehrlichia spp. e Anaplasma platys em felinos domésticos: alterações clínicas, hematológicas e bioquímicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete S Correa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia sp. e Anaplasma platys são micro-organismos Gram negativos, parasitos intracelulares obrigatórios, residindo em vacúolos citoplasmáticos de leucócitos e plaquetas, encontrados no sangue periférico ou em tecidos. Poucos relatos têm sido feitos sobre erliquiose e anaplasmose em gatos no Brasil, os quais são baseados na presença de mórulas em leucócitos e plaquetas, ou pela detecção de anticorpos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a infecção natural por Ehrlichia sp. e A.platys em gatos no Município de Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ, através da hematoscopia e pela detecção do DNA desses agentes. Foram utilizadas amostras de sangue total e de soro de 91 gatos, independente de raça, sexo e idade. Realizaram-se hemograma, bioquímica sérica e PCR, utilizando oligonucleotídes para Ehrlichia sp. e A.platys. Os dados de hematoscopia mostraram que 9,89% dos gatos apresentaram mórulas em macroplaquetas. O DNA de A.platys foi detectado em 13,18% dos 91 animais e em 44,44% das amostras positivas à hematoscopia. O DNA de Ehrlichia sp. não foi detectado em nenhuma amostra. Nenhuma alteração foi observada nos sinais clínicos nem nos resultados laboratoriais nos animais estudados. Os dados sugerem que os felinos domésticos podem atuar como potenciais reservatórios para A. platys, como forma não sintomática das enfermidades relacionadas

  2. Prevalence of tick-borne haemoparasites in small ruminants in Turkey and diagnostic sensitivity of single-PCR and RLB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, Huseyin Bilgin; Bakırcı, Serkan; Kose, Onur; Unlu, Ahmet Hakan; Hacılarlıoglu, Selin; Eren, Hasan; Weir, William; Karagenc, Tulin

    2017-04-27

    Tick-borne haemoparasitic diseases (TBHDs), caused by Theileria, Babesia, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia, are common in regions of the world where the distributions of host, pathogen and vector overlap. Many of these diseases threaten livestock production and some also represent a concern to human public health. The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the above-mentioned pathogens in a large number of blood samples (n = 1979) collected from sheep (n = 1727) and goats (n = 252) in Turkey. A secondary aim was to assess the diagnostic sensitivity of a number of species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests and the reverse line blotting (RLB) assay. DNA samples were screened using species-specific PCR for the presence of Theileria ovis, Theileria sp. MK, T. lestoquardi, T. uilenbergi, T. luwenshuni, Babesia ovis, Anaplasma ovis and A. phagocytophilum while RLB was undertaken to test for the presence of all known Theileria, Babesia, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species. The diagnostic sensitivity of these two approaches was then compared in terms of their ability to detect single species and mixed infections. Overall, 84 and 74.43% of the small ruminants sampled were identified as hosting one or more pathogen(s) by species-specific PCR and RLB respectively. The presence of Theileria sp. OT1, T. luwenshuni and T. uilenbergi in Turkey was revealed for the first time while the presence of Babesia motasi, B. crassa and T. separata in Turkish small ruminants was confirmed using molecular methods. A high prevalence of mixed infection was evident, with PCR and RLB approaches indicating that 52.24 and 35.42% of animals were co-infected with multiple species, respectively. More than 80% of the mixed infections contained T. ovis and/or A. ovis. The RLB approach was found to be capable of detecting mixed infections with species such as Theileria sp. OT1, Theileria sp. OT3, T. separata, B. crassa and Babesia spp. The results indicated that

  3. Neorickettsia sennetsu as a Neglected Cause of Fever in South-East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Dittrich

    Full Text Available Neorickettsia sennetsu infection is rarely recognized, with less than 100 globally reported patients over the last 50 years. The disease is thought to be contracted by eating raw fish, a staple of many South-East Asian cuisines. In 2009, the first patient with sennetsu was identified in the Lao PDR (Laos, raising the question as to how common this organism and related species are in patients presenting with fever. We investigated the frequency of N. sennetsu infection at hospitals in diverse areas of Laos. Consenting febrile hospital inpatients from central (Vientiane: n = 1,013, northern (Luang Namtha: n = 453 and southern (Salavan: n = 171 Laos were screened by PCR for N. sennetsu, if no previous positive direct diagnostic test was available. A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was developed to differentiate between N. sennetsu, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. To allow more detailed studies of N. sennetsu, culture was successfully established using a reference strain (ATCC VR-367, identifying a canine-macrophage cell line (DH82 to be most suitable to visually identify infection. After screening, N. sennetsu was identified and sequence confirmed in four (4/1,637; 0.2% Lao patients. Despite the previously identified high seroprevalence of N. sennetsu antibodies in the Lao population (~17%, acute N. sennetsu infection with sufficient clinical signs to prompt hospitalization appears to be rare. The reservoir, zoonotic cycle and pathogenicity of N. sennetsu remain unclear and require further investigations.

  4. Rotavirus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sue E.; Ramani, Sasirekha; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Svensson, Lennart; Hagbom, Marie; Franco, Manuel A.; Greenberg, Harry B.; O’Ryan, Miguel; Kang, Gagandeep; Desselberger, Ulrich; Estes, Mary K.

    2017-01-01

    Rotavirus infections are a leading cause of severe, dehydrating gastroenteritis in children rotavirus over a decade ago, rotavirus infections still result in >200,000 deaths annually, mostly in low-income countries. Rotavirus primarily infects enterocytes and induces diarrhoea through the destruction of absorptive enterocytes (leading to malabsorption), intestinal secretion stimulated by rotavirus non-structural protein 4 and activation of the enteric nervous system. In addition, rotavirus infections can lead to antigenaemia (which is associated with more severe manifestations of acute gastroenteritis) and viraemia, and rotavirus can replicate in systemic sites, although this is limited. Reinfections with rotavirus are common throughout life, although the disease severity is reduced with repeat infections. The immune correlates of protection against rotavirus reinfection and recovery from infection are poorly understood, although rotavirus-specific immunoglobulin A has a role in both aspects. The management of rotavirus infection focuses on the prevention and treatment of dehydration, although the use of antiviral and anti-emetic drugs can be indicated in some cases. PMID:29119972

  5. Nail infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, K T; Bonar, P L

    1989-04-01

    Nail infections are and will continue to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to all foot physicians. Attention to basic concepts of accurate detailed history and physical examination will aid in the determination of the etiology of these infections. Following basic guidelines of incision and drainage, gram stain, soaks, and antibiotics will be the cornerstone of initial treatment of pyogenic infections. Upon resolution of the acute infection a permanent treatment plan can be constituted based on the etiology. Nail infections of mycotic nature require an understanding by both patient and doctor as to the difficulty and resistance to treatment of this problem. It is the authors' opinion that aggressive persistent treatment will provide the best long-term result when dealing with mycotic infections. This may require nail removal, local and systemic treatment as well as change in shoe environment. As we have seen and is stated throughout this text, the nail and its pathologic processes can be a mirror of systemic disease. Many times a dystrophic infected nail may be the initial clinical presentation of a much more involved disease process. It is the responsibility and duty of all foot physicians to have a total understanding of knowledge of normal and pathologic process that affect the nail plates, nail bed, and surrounding nail proper. I hope this article will stimulate the foot physician to approach the disease of the nail with a high index of suspicion and respect.

  6. Prevalence and Diversity of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Eastern National Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tammi L; Graham, Christine B; Boegler, Karen A; Cherry, Cara C; Maes, Sarah E; Pilgard, Mark A; Hojgaard, Andrias; Buttke, Danielle E; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2017-05-01

    Tick-borne pathogens transmitted by Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), also known as the deer tick or blacklegged tick, are increasing in incidence and geographic distribution in the United States. We examined the risk of tick-borne disease exposure in 9 national parks across six Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States and the District of Columbia in 2014 and 2015. To assess the recreational risk to park visitors, we sampled for ticks along frequently used trails and calculated the density of I. scapularis nymphs (DON) and the density of infected nymphs (DIN). We determined the nymphal infection prevalence of I. scapularis with a suite of tick-borne pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti. Ixodes scapularis nymphs were found in all national park units; DON ranged from 0.40 to 13.73 nymphs per 100 m2. Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, was found at all sites where I. scapularis was documented; DIN with B. burgdorferi ranged from 0.06 to 5.71 nymphs per 100 m2. Borrelia miyamotoi and A. phagocytophilum were documented at 60% and 70% of the parks, respectively, while Ba. microti occurred at just 20% of the parks. Ixodes scapularis is well established across much of the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States, and our results are generally consistent with previous studies conducted near the areas we sampled. Newly established I. scapularis populations were documented in two locations: Washington, D.C. (Rock Creek Park) and Greene County, Virginia (Shenandoah National Park). This research demonstrates the potential risk of tick-borne pathogen exposure in national parks and can be used to educate park visitors about the importance of preventative actions to minimize tick exposure. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Tick-borne pathogens in ticks feeding on migratory passerines in Western part of Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Leivits, Agu; Järvekülg, Lilian; Golovljova, Irina

    2013-07-01

    During southward migration in the years 2006-2009, 178 migratory passerines of 24 bird species infested with ticks were captured at bird stations in Western Estonia. In total, 249 nymphal ticks were removed and analyzed individually for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The majority of ticks were collected from Acrocephalus (58%), Turdus (13%), Sylvia (8%), and Parus (6%) bird species. Tick-borne pathogens were detected in nymphs removed from Acrocephalus, Turdus, and Parus bird species. TBEV of the European subtype was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph removed from A. palustris. B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA was found in 11 ticks (4.4%) collected from Turdus and Parus species. Bird-associated B. garinii and B. valaisiana were detected in I. ricinus nymphs removed from T. merula. Rodent-associated B. afzelii was detected in 3 I. ricinus nymphs from 2 P. major birds. One of the B. afzelii-positive nymphs was infected with a mix of 2 B. afzelii strains, whereas 1 of these strains was also detected in another nymph feeding on the same great tit. The sharing of the same B. afzelii strain by 2 nymphs indicates a possible transmission of B. afzelii by co-feeding on a bird. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph feeding on a T. iliacus. The results of the study confirm the possible role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks infected with tick-borne pathogens along the southward migration route via Estonia.

  8. Emerging incidence of Lyme borreliosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, and granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayne PJ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Peter J MayneInternational Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USABackground: Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease (LD, and Babesia, Bartonella, and Ehrlichia species (spp. are recognized tick-borne pathogens in humans worldwide. Using serology and molecular testing, the incidence of these pathogens was investigated in symptomatic patients from Australia.Methods: Sera were analyzed by an immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA followed by immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM Western blot (WB assays. Both whole blood and sera were analyzed for detection of specific Borrelia spp. DNA using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing. Simultaneously, patients were tested for Babesia microti, Babesia duncani, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Bartonella henselae infection by IgG and IgM IFA serology, PCR, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH.Results: Most patients reported symptom onset in Australia without recent overseas travel. 28 of 51 (55% tested positive for LD. Of 41 patients tested for tick-borne coinfections, 13 (32% were positive for Babesia spp. and nine (22% were positive for Bartonella spp. Twenty-five patients were tested for Ehrlichia spp. and (16% were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum while none were positive for Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Among the 51 patients tested for LD, 21 (41% had evidence of more than one tick-borne infection. Positive tests for LD, Babesia duncani, Babesia microti, and Bartonella henselae were demonstrated in an individual who had never left the state of Queensland. Positive testing for these pathogens was found in three others whose movements were restricted to the east coast of Australia.Conclusion: The study identified a much larger tick-borne disease (TBD burden within the Australian community than hitherto reported. In particular, the first cases of endemic human Babesia and Bartonella disease in Australia with coexisting Borrelia infection are

  9. Norovirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you experience severe vomiting, bloody stools, abdominal pain or dehydration. Causes Noroviruses are highly contagious and are shed in the feces of infected humans and animals. Methods of transmission include: Eating contaminated food Drinking ...

  10. MRSA Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Runny nose MRSA infection Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  11. Pinworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and vomiting Pinworm infection Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  12. Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your bloodstream. (You may have heard the term bacterial endocarditis , subacute bacterial endocarditis , or SBE. These terms are used for endocarditis ... to repair or replace the damaged valve. Tags: bacterial endocarditis , endocardium , infection of the heart , subacute bacterial endocarditis ( ...

  13. Staph Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Impetigo (pronounced: im-puh-TIE-go) is a superficial skin infection that mostly happens in young children, ... and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours ...

  14. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tur) bacteria live in the intestines of many wild and domestic animals. They can pass to humans ... matter (poop) from an infected person (especially a child in diapers). Household pets can carry and spread ...

  15. Anaerobic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a dental infection or procedure such as a tooth extraction or oral surgery or after trauma to the ... diagnosed, your doctor may treat it with intravenous antibiotics (eg, penicillin, ampicillin) for 4 to 6 weeks, ...

  16. Spinal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis ... by bacteria or fungal organisms. Spinal infections may occur following surgery or spontaneously in patients with certain risk factors. ...

  17. Tapeworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tapeworm (Taenia solium) is greater in areas of Latin America, China, sub-Saharan Africa or Southeast Asia where ... as well as seizures, meningitis, hydrocephalus or dementia. Death can occur in severe cases of infection. Organ ...

  18. Hookworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intestinal wall and suck blood, which results in iron deficiency anemia and protein loss. Adult worms and larvae are ... problems that may result from hookworm infection include: Iron deficiency anemia , caused by loss of blood Nutritional deficiencies Severe ...

  19. Spinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tali, E. Turgut; Gueltekin, Serap

    2005-01-01

    Spinal infections have an increasing prevalence among the general population. Definitive diagnosis based solely on clinical grounds is usually not possible and radiological imaging is used in almost all patients. The primary aim of the authors is to present an overview of spinal infections located in epidural, intradural and intramedullary compartments and to provide diagnostic clues regarding different imaging modalities, particularly MRI, to the practicing physicians and radiologists. (orig.)

  20. Protozoan Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    definitive hosts. Felines are required to maintain the life cycle in nature, since incidental hosts do not excrete the parasite in their faeces . Humans ...PROTOZOA WITH NON-SPECIFIC DEFENCES IV. IMMUNOTHERAPEUTIC APPROACHES V. CONCLUSION REFERENCES I. INTRODUCTION Numerous genera of protozoa infect humans ...aetiologic agents of human disease in tropical and subtropical regions. Small animals serve as reservoirs of infection; the organism is transmitted between

  1. Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ticks Feeding on Migratory Passerines in Western Part of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Leivits, Agu; Järvekülg, Lilian; Golovljova, Irina

    2013-01-01

    During southward migration in the years 2006–2009, 178 migratory passerines of 24 bird species infested with ticks were captured at bird stations in Western Estonia. In total, 249 nymphal ticks were removed and analyzed individually for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The majority of ticks were collected from Acrocephalus (58%), Turdus (13%), Sylvia (8%), and Parus (6%) bird species. Tick-borne pathog...

  2. Saliva, Salivary Gland, and Hemolymph Collection from Ixodes scapularis Ticks

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, Toni G.; Dietrich, Gabrielle; Brandt, Kevin; Dolan, Marc C.; Piesman, Joseph; Gilmore, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Ticks are found worldwide and afflict humans with many tick-borne illnesses. Ticks are vectors for pathogens that cause Lyme disease and tick-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia spp.), Rocky Mountain Spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. equi), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), encephalitis (tick-borne encephalitis virus), babesiosis (Babesia spp.), Colorado tick fever (Coltivirus), and tularemia (Francisella tularensis) 1-8. To be properly tran...

  3. Imported and travelling dogs as carriers of canine vector-borne pathogens in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz Susanne

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the import of pets and pets taken abroad, arthropod-borne diseases have increased in frequency in German veterinary practices. This is reflected by 4,681 dogs that have been either travelled to or relocated from endemic areas to Germany. The case history of these dogs and the laboratory findings have been compared with samples collected from 331 dogs living in an endemic area in Portugal. The various pathogens and the seroprevalences were examined to determine the occurrence of, and thus infection risk, for vector-borne pathogens in popular travel destinations. Results 4,681 dogs were examined serological for Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis. Buffy coats were detected for Hepatozoon canis and blood samples were examined for microfilariae via the Knott's test. The samples were sent in from animal welfare organizations or private persons via veterinary clinics. Upon individual requests, dogs were additionally examined serological for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Rickettsia conorii. Overall B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen detected by antibody titers (23.4%, followed by L. infantum (12.2% and E. canis (10.1%. Microfilariae were detected in 7.7% and H. canis in 2.7% of the examined dogs. In 332/1862 dogs A. phagocytophilum, in 64/212 B. burgdorferi and in 20/58 R. conorii was detected. Of the 4,681 dogs, in total 4,226 were imported to Germany from endemic areas. Eighty seven dogs joined their owners for a vacation abroad. In comparison to the laboratory data from Germany, we examined 331 dogs from Portugal. The prevalence of antibodies/pathogens we detected was: 62.8% to R. conorii, 58% to B. canis, 30.5% to A. phagocytophilum, 24.8% to E. canis, 21.1% to H. canis (via PCR, 9.1% to L. infantum and 5.3% to microfilariae. Conclusions The examination of 4,681 dogs living in Germany showed pathogens like L. infantum that are non-endemic in Germany. Furthermore, the German

  4. Imported and travelling dogs as carriers of canine vector-borne pathogens in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menn, Brigitte; Lorentz, Susanne; Naucke, Torsten J

    2010-04-08

    With the import of pets and pets taken abroad, arthropod-borne diseases have increased in frequency in German veterinary practices. This is reflected by 4,681 dogs that have been either travelled to or relocated from endemic areas to Germany. The case history of these dogs and the laboratory findings have been compared with samples collected from 331 dogs living in an endemic area in Portugal. The various pathogens and the seroprevalences were examined to determine the occurrence of, and thus infection risk, for vector-borne pathogens in popular travel destinations. 4,681 dogs were examined serological for Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis. Buffy coats were detected for Hepatozoon canis and blood samples were examined for microfilariae via the Knott's test. The samples were sent in from animal welfare organizations or private persons via veterinary clinics. Upon individual requests, dogs were additionally examined serological for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Rickettsia conorii. Overall B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen detected by antibody titers (23.4%), followed by L. infantum (12.2%) and E. canis (10.1%). Microfilariae were detected in 7.7% and H. canis in 2.7% of the examined dogs. In 332/1862 dogs A. phagocytophilum, in 64/212 B. burgdorferi and in 20/58 R. conorii was detected. Of the 4,681 dogs, in total 4,226 were imported to Germany from endemic areas. Eighty seven dogs joined their owners for a vacation abroad. In comparison to the laboratory data from Germany, we examined 331 dogs from Portugal. The prevalence of antibodies/pathogens we detected was: 62.8% to R. conorii, 58% to B. canis, 30.5% to A. phagocytophilum, 24.8% to E. canis, 21.1% to H. canis (via PCR), 9.1% to L. infantum and 5.3% to microfilariae. The examination of 4,681 dogs living in Germany showed pathogens like L. infantum that are non-endemic in Germany. Furthermore, the German data are similar in terms of multiple pathogen infection to

  5. Molecular detection and characterization of zoonotic and veterinary pathogens in ticks from northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases are considered as emerging infectious diseases in humans and animals in China. In this study, Ixodes persulcatus (n=1699, Haemaphysalis concinna (n=412, Haemaphysalis longicornis (n=390, Dermacentor nuttalli (n=253, and Dermacentor silvarum (n=204 ticks were collected by flagging from northeastern China, and detected for infection with Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Babesia, and Hepatozoon spp. by using nested polymerase chain reaction assays and sequencing analysis. A. phagocytophilum was detected in all tick species, i.e., I. persulcatus (9.4%, H. longicornis (1.9%, H. concinna (6.5%, D. nuttalli (1.7%, and D. silvarum (2.3%; A. bovis was detected in H. longicornis (0.3% and H. concinna (0.2%; E. muris was detected in I. persulcatus (2.5% and H. concinna (0.2%; Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis was only detected in I. persulcatus (0.4%. The Ehrlichia variant (GenBank access number KU921424, closely related to E. ewingii, was found in H. longicornis (0.8% and H. concinna (0.2%. I. persulcatus was infected with B. venatorum (1.2%, B. microti (0.6%, and B. divergens (0.6%. Additionally, four Babesia sequence variants (GenBank access numbers 862303–862306 were detected in I. persulcatus, H. longicornis, and H. concinna, which belonged to the clusters formed by the parasites of dogs, sheep and cattle (B. gibsoni, B. motasi, and B. crassa. Two Hepatozoon spp. (GenBank access numbers KX016028 and KX016029 associated with hepatozoonosis in Japanese martens were found in the collected ticks (0.1–3.1%. These findings showed the genetic variability of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Babesia, and Hepatozoon spp. circulating in ticks in northeastern China, highlighting the necessity for further research of these tick-associated pathogens and their role in human and animal diseases.

  6. Subolesin/Akirin vaccines for the control of arthropod vectors and vectorborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, J; Moreno-Cid, J A; Galindo, R C; Almazan, C; Kocan, K M; Merino, O; Perez de la Lastra, J M; Estrada-Peña, A; Blouin, E F

    2013-11-01

    Diseases transmitted by arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks and sand flies greatly impact human and animal health, and therefore, their control is important for the eradication of vectorborne diseases (VBD). Vaccination is an environmentally friendly alternative for vector control that allows control of several VBD by targeting their common vector. Recent results have suggested that subolesin (SUB) and its orthologue in insects, akirin (AKR) are good candidate antigens for the control of arthropod vector infestations and pathogen infection. SUB was discovered as a tick-protective antigen in Ixodes scapularis. Vaccination trials with recombinant SUB/AKR demonstrated effective control of arthropod vector infestations in various hard and soft tick species, mosquitoes, sand flies, poultry red mites and sea lice by reducing their numbers, weight, oviposition, fertility and/or moulting. SUB/AKR vaccination also reduced tick infection with tickborne pathogens, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. marginale, Babesia bigemina and Borrelia burgdorferi. The effect of vaccination on different hosts, vector species, developmental stages and vectorborne pathogen infections demonstrated the feasibility of SUB/AKR universal vaccines for the control of multiple vector infestations and for reduction in VBD. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes ricinus from Moldova collected in 1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movila, Alexandru; Toderas, Ion; Uspenskaia, Inga; Conovalov, Jurii

    2013-06-01

    This study is the first report about the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens, as well as their (co-)infection rates, in the museum-archived I. ricinus female ticks collected in Moldova in 1960. A total of 16.7% (21/126) ticks was mono-infected. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was revealed as the most abundant species (4.8%) followed by B. garinii (1.6%), B. afzelii (0.8%), B. valaisiana (0.8%), and B. lusitaniae (0.8%). DNA of Rickettsia helvetica (2.4%), R. monacensis (2.4%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.4%), 'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis' (0.8%), and Babesia microti (0.8%) were also detected, indicating the occurrence of these emerging tick-borne microorganisms in Moldova since 1960 at least. In this study, we detected a co-infection (0.8%; 1/126 tested ticks) between B. microti and R. helvetica. Additional investigations are warranted to further characterize a historical snapshot of the distribution of tick-borne pathogens in Europe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular epidemiological survey and genetic analysis of vector-borne infections of cattle in Luzon Island, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochirkhuu, Nyamsuren; Konnai, Satoru; Mingala, Claro N; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Villanueva, Marvin; Pilapil, Flor Marie Immanuelle R; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-09-15

    In the Philippines, vector-borne disease is one of the important problems in the livestock industry. To elucidate the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases in cattle on Luzon Island, the Philippines, the prevalence of five protozoan agents was assessed by polymerase chain reaction. Out of the 339 samples, 324 (95.5%), 154 (45.4%), 209 (61.6%), 140 (41.3%), and 2 (0.6%) were positive for Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, Theileria spp., and Trypanosoma evansi infections, respectively. Mixed infections were detected in 290 (85.5%) samples, of which 115 (33.9%) had two pathogens, 144 (42.5%) had three pathogens, and 31 (9.1%) had four kinds of pathogens. 16S rRNA gene was 100% identical in A. marginale compared with the same lineage across the world. B. bovis RAP-1 and B. bigemina AMA-1 genes were identical with 92.27%-100% and 97.07%-100% sequences, respectively, in the database (Asian isolates). MPSP genes of Theileria spp. were 83.51%-100% identical with the one another. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they belong to the groups of T. sergenti and T. buffeli. Positive rates of the tick-borne pathogens were extremely high in this area. These findings provide vital information that can be used for the planning and execution of effective control measures for vector-borne diseases in the Philippine cattle industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cerebral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karampekios, Spyros [University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Hesselink, John [UCSD, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Despite the development of many effective antibiotic therapies and the general improvement in hygiene and health care systems all over the world, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection has increased significantly in the past 15 years. This can be attributed primarily to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its devastating effect on the immune system and secondarily to various immunosuppressive agents that are being used in aggressive cancer treatment and in organ transplantations. The brain particularly is protected from infection by the calvarium, meninges and blood brain barrier. However, different types of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, can reach the brain hematogenously or, less likely, by direct extension from an adjacent infected focus. The early detection and specific diagnosis of infection are of great importance, since brain infections are potentially treatable diseases. Imaging studies play a crucial role in the diagnostic process, along with the history (exposure to infectious agents), host factors (open head trauma, CSF leak, sinusitis, otitis, immune status), physical examination and laboratory analysis of CSF. (orig.)

  10. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections > A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections (PDF, ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are most often caused ...

  11. Spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tali, E. Turgut E-mail: turguttali@gazi.edu.tr

    2004-05-01

    Spinal infections can be thought of as a spectrum of disease comprising spondylitis, discitis, spondylodiscitis, pyogenic facet arthropathy, epidural infections, meningitis, polyradiculopathy and myelitis. Radiological evaluations have gained importance in the diagnosis, treatment planning, treatment and treatment monitoring of the spinal infections. Conventional radiographs are usually the initial imaging study. The sensitivity and specificity of the plain radiographs are very low. The sensitivity of CT is higher while it lacks of specificity. Conventional CT has played minor role for the diagnosis of early spondylitis and disc space infection and for follow-up, researches are going on the value of MDCT. MRI is as sensitive, specific and accurate as combined nuclear medicine studies and the method of choice for the spondylitis. Low signal areas of the vertebral body, loss of definition of the end plates and interruption of the cortical continuity, destruction of the cortical margins are typical on T1WI whereas high signal of affected areas of the vertebral body and disc is typical on T2WI. Contrast is mandatory and increases conspicuity, specificity, and observer confidence in the diagnosis and facilitates the treatment planning. Contrast enhancement is the earliest sign and pathognomonic in the acute inflammatory episode and even in the subtle infection then persists to a varying degree for several weeks or months. The outcome of the treatment is influenced by the type of infection and by the degree of neurologic compromise before treatment. There is an increasing move away from surgical intervention towards conservative therapy, percutaneous drainage of abscess or both. It is therefore critical to monitor treatment response, particularly in the immuno-deficient population.

  12. Caracterização da imunogenicidade das proteínas recombinantes Virb9, Virb10 e fator termo instável de Elongação de Peptídeos de Anaplasma marginale em camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Canevari Castelão

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Considerando as limitações dos atuais métodos de controle contra a anaplasmose bovina, o desenvolvimento de uma vacina efetiva se faz necessário. A partir do advento da análise genômica e proteômica, novas proteínas de membrana de Anaplasma marginale foram identificadas como possíveis candidatas a componentes de uma vacina, tais como, VirB9,VirB10 e Fator Termo Instavél de Elongação de Peptídeos (EF-Tu. Embora estas proteínas ainda não estejam bem caracterizadas na membrana de A. marginale, a produção destas na forma recombinante (rVirB 9, rVirB10 e rEF-Tutem sido realizada, mas as mesmas ainda não foram exploradas em formulações vacinais. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se ouso de rVirB9, rVirB10 e rEF-Tu emulsionadas em adjuvante Montanide em camundongos. Nas condições testadas, verificou-se a indução de forte resposta imune humoral com a produção de IgG1 e IgG2a, sendo que as proporções dos níveis de produção destas subclasses indicam predomínio de IgG1. Entretanto, esplenócitos de animais, que foram injetados com rVirB9 ou rVirB10, produziram interferon-gama acima do limite de detecção do ensaio após estimulação in vitro, sinalizando assim resposta celular específica. Assim, novas avaliações serão realizadas com a finalidade de modular o perfil de resposta imune obtido em bovinos e avaliar a proteção contra A. marginale.

  13. Harvested white-tailed deer as sentinel hosts for early establishing Ixodes scapularis populations and risk from vector-borne zoonoses in southeastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, C; Leighton, P A; Beauchamp, G; Nguon, S; Trudel, L; Milord, F; Lindsay, L R; Bélanger, D; Ogden, N H

    2013-03-01

    Due to recent establishment of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, in southeastern Canada, tick-borne zoonoses (Lyme disease, human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis) are of growing concern for public health. Using white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) culled in southwestern Quebec during 2007-2008, we investigated whether hunter-killed deer could act as sentinels for early establishing tick populations and for tick-borne pathogens. Accounting for environmental characteristics of culling sites, and age and sex of deer, we investigated whether their tick infestation levels could identify locations of known tick populations detected in active surveillance, presumed tick populations detected by passive surveillance, or both. We also used spatial cluster analyses to identify spatial patterns of tick infestation and occurrence of tick-borne zoonoses infection in ticks collected from the deer. Adult ticks were found on 15% of the 583 deer examined. Adult male deer had the greatest number (approximately 90%) of adult ticks. Overall, 3, 15, and 0% of the ticks collected were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti, respectively. Our statistical analyses suggest that sex and age of deer, temperature, precipitation, and an index of tick dispersion by migratory birds were significantly associated with tick infestation levels. Cluster analysis identified significant clusters of deer carrying ticks PCR-positive for A. phagocytophilum, and for deer carrying two or more I. scapularis. Our study suggests that hunter-killed deer may be effective as sentinels for emerging areas of tick-borne anaplasmosis. They may have limited use as sentinels for early emerging I. scapularis tick populations and emerging Lyme disease risk.

  14. Baylisascaris Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing baylisascariasis and on providing patients at risk of Baylisascaris infection with prevention messages.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  15. Metapneumovirus infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT), an acute upper respiratory tract infection of turkeys, and is also associated with swollen head syndrome (SHS) in chickens and egg production losses in layers. Since the first TRT reported in the late 1970s in South Africa, the virus...

  16. Hand Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treated early enough, soaks and oral antibiotics may cure the infection. If pus has formed under the skin, surgery to drain the pus is needed. Chronic paronychia is caused by fungus; this usually occurs in people whose hands are frequently wet (such as dishwashers). The cuticle ...

  17. Geographic range of vector-borne infections and their vectors: the role of African wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, M; Penzhorn, B L

    2015-04-01

    The role of African wildlife in the occurrence of vector-borne infections in domestic animals has gained renewed interest as emerging and re-emerging infections occur worldwide at an increasing rate. In Africa, biodiversity conservation and the expansion of livestock production have increased the risk of transmitting vector-borne infections between wildlife and livestock. The indigenous African pathogens with transboundary potential, such as Rift Valley fever virus, African horse sickness virus, bluetongue virus, lumpy skin disease virus, African swine fever virus, and blood-borne parasites have received the most attention. There is no evidence for persistent vector-borne viral infections in African wildlife. For some viral infections, wildlife may act as a reservoir through the inter-epidemic circulation of viruses with mild or subclinical manifestations. Wildlife may also act as introductory or transporting hosts when moved to new regions, e.g. for lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus. Wildlife may also act as amplifying hosts when exposed to viruses in the early part of the warm season when vectors are active, with spillover to domestic animals later in the season, e.g. with bluetongue and African horse sickness. Some tick species found on domestic animals are more abundant on wildlife hosts; some depend on wildlife hosts to complete their life cycle. Since the endemic stability of a disease depends on a sufficiently large tick population to ensure that domestic animals become infected at an early age, the presence of wildlife hosts that augment tick numbers may be beneficial. Many wild ungulate species are reservoirs of Anaplasma spp., while the role of wildlife in the epidemiology of heartwater (Ehrlichia ruminantium infection) has not been elucidated. Wild ungulates are not usually reservoirs of piroplasms that affect livestock; however, there are two exceptions: zebra, which are reservoirs of Babesia caballi and Theileria

  18. Canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy: current situation and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Italy, dogs and cats are at risk of becoming infected by different vector-borne pathogens, including protozoa, bacteria, and helminths. Ticks, fleas, phlebotomine sand flies, and mosquitoes are recognized vectors of pathogens affecting cats and dogs, some of which (e.g., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dipylidium caninum, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens are of zoonotic concern. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of fleas as vectors of pathogens of zoonotic relevance (e.g., Rickettsia felis in this country. While some arthropod vectors (e.g., ticks and fleas are present in certain Italian regions throughout the year, others (e.g., phlebotomine sand flies are most active during the summer season. Accordingly, control strategies, such as those relying on the systematic use of acaricides and insecticides, should be planned on the basis of the ecology of both vectors and pathogens in different geographical areas in order to improve their effectiveness in reducing the risk of infection by vector-borne pathogens. This article reviews the current situation and perspectives of canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy.

  19. Borrelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raileanu, Cristian; Moutailler, Sara; Pavel, Ionuţ; Porea, Daniela; Mihalca, Andrei D; Savuta, Gheorghe; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2017-01-01

    Identifying Borrelia burgdorferi as the causative agent of Lyme disease in 1981 was a watershed moment in understanding the major impact that tick-borne zoonoses can have on public health worldwide, particularly in Europe and the USA. The medical importance of tick-borne diseases has long since been acknowledged, yet little is known regarding the occurrence of emerging tick-borne pathogens such as Borrelia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., " Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis", and tick-borne encephalitis virus in questing ticks in Romania, a gateway into Europe. The objective of our study was to identify the infection and co-infection rates of different Borrelia genospecies along with other tick-borne pathogens in questing ticks collected from three geographically distinct areas in eastern Romania. We collected 557 questing adult and nymph ticks of three different species (534 Ixodes ricinus , 19 Haemaphysalis punctata , and 4 Dermacentor reticulatus ) from three areas in Romania. We analyzed ticks individually for the presence of eight different Borrelia genospecies with high-throughput real-time PCR. Ticks with Borrelia were then tested for possible co-infections with A. phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., " Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis", and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Borrelia spp. was detected in I. ricinus ticks from all sampling areas, with global prevalence rates of 25.8%. All eight Borrelia genospecies were detected in I. ricinus ticks: Borrelia garinii (14.8%), B. afzelii (8.8%), B. valaisiana (5.1%), B. lusitaniae (4.9%), B. miyamotoi (0.9%), B. burgdorferi s.s (0.4%), and B. bissettii (0.2%). Regarding pathogen co-infection 64.5% of infected I. ricinus were positive for more than one pathogen. Associations between different Borrelia genospecies were detected in 9.7% of ticks, and 6.9% of I. ricinus ticks tested positive for co-infection of Borrelia spp. with other tick-borne pathogens. The most

  20. Ear infection - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... blocked, fluid can build up. When this happens, infection can occur. A chronic ear infection develops when ...

  1. Giardia Infection (Giardiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia infection (giardiasis) Overview Giardia infection is an intestinal infection marked by abdominal cramps, bloating, nausea and bouts of watery diarrhea. Giardia infection is caused by a microscopic parasite ...

  2. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  3. Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.

  4. Infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sénior, Juan Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is a disease caused by colonization and proliferation of infectious agents on the endothelial surface of the heart. Its clinical presentation is variable, depending upon conditions of the patient, such as immunosuppression, presence of prosthetic material, intravenous drug use, and the etiologic agent. Diagnosis is usually established through the addition of elements such as medical history, physical examination, results of blood cultures, echocardiography and other aids. We present the case of an adult male who came to the hospital with fever and symptoms and signs of acute heart failure. The presence of a systolic murmur was documented in the aortic area, and the echocardiogram revealed severe valve regurgitation and a vegetating lesion on the bicuspid aortic valve. He required valve replacement and completed antibiotic treatment based on the sensitivity of the Streptococcus mitis strain that was demonstrated in the blood cultures.

  5. Arenavirus Infections

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    Salim Mattar V

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The infectious syndromes associated with arenaviruses in South America are four: febrile syndrome of viral origin; Haemorrhagic fevers with or without neurological involvement; Aseptic meningitis and meningo-encephalitis. Among the Arenavirus of the new world is the Tacaribe complex where the viruses are found: Junín (Argentina, Guanarito (Venezuela, Machupo (Bolivia and Sabiá (Brazil, which are characterized by hemorrhagic fevers. In Colombia the arenavirus Pichindé was isolated in 1965, from the rodent Oryzomys albigularis, in the valley of Pichindé (Valle del Cauca. This arenavirus produces a persistent infection in its host and is not pathogenic for the man. There is evidence of the circulation of the Guanarito virus in rodents from Córdoba, but there are no cases diagnosed in humans; In Colombia, the genome of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was detected in the brains of rodents Mus musculus. The diagnosis is based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and the suspicion of a patient with fever in endemic areas, where infections such as malaria, dengue and leptospirosis, sepsis of bacterial origin and rickectomy have been excluded. Virus isolation in the feverish period is the gold standart, but it implies contact with the virus that is highly infectious, which represents a public health problem. Serology has been used for diagnosis, but there is no commercial evidence and only research groups and large public health laboratories have these tests. Most of the patients present a moderate severity, which needs adequate hydration, antipyretics and anti-inflammatories. All patients with severe signs should be aggressively treated. The use of drugs has not demonstrated a decrease in mortality but a significant reduction in viremia.

  6. Occurrence and diversity of arthropod-transmitted pathogens in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in western Austria, and possible vertical (transplacental) transmission of Hepatozoon canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodžić, Adnan; Mrowietz, Naike; Cézanne, Rita; Bruckschwaiger, Pia; Punz, Sylvia; Habler, Verena Elisabeth; Tomsik, Valentina; Lazar, Judit; Duscher, Georg G; Glawischnig, Walter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2018-03-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most abundant wild canid species in Austria, and it is a well-known carrier of many pathogens of medical and veterinary concern. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and diversity of protozoan, bacterial and filarial parasites transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods in a red fox population in western Austria. Blood (n = 351) and spleen (n = 506) samples from foxes were examined by PCR and sequencing and the following pathogens were identified: Babesia canis, Babesia cf. microti (syn. Theileria annae), Hepatozoon canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. and Bartonella rochalimae. Blood was shown to be more suitable for detection of Babesia cf. microti, whilst the spleen tissue was better for detection of H. canis than blood. Moreover, extremely low genetic variability of H. canis and its relatively low prevalence rate observed in this study may suggest that the parasite has only recently been introduced in the sampled area. Furthermore, the data presented here demonstrates, for the first time, the possible vertical transmission of H. canis from an infected vixen to the offspring, and this could explain the very high prevalence in areas considered free of its main tick vector(s).

  7. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in urban and suburban areas of Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne P. Oechslin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout Europe, Ixodes ricinus transmits numerous pathogens. Its widespread distribution is not limited to rural but also includes urbanized areas. To date, comprehensive data on pathogen carrier rates of I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Switzerland is lacking. Results Ixodes ricinus ticks sampled at 18 (sub- urban collection sites throughout Switzerland showed carrier rates of 0% for tick-borne encephalitis virus, 18.0% for Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato, 2.5% for Borrelia miyamotoi, 13.5% for Rickettsia spp., 1.4% for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, 6.2% for "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis", and 0.8% for Babesia venatorum (Babesia sp., EU1. Site-specific prevalence at collection sites with n > 45 ticks (n = 9 significantly differed for B. burgdorferi (s.l., Rickettsia spp., and "Ca. N. mikurensis", but were not related to the habitat type. Three hundred fifty eight out of 1078 I. ricinus ticks (33.2% tested positive for at least one pathogen. Thereof, about 20% (71/358 were carrying two or three different potentially disease-causing agents. Using next generation sequencing, we could detect true pathogens, tick symbionts and organisms of environmental or human origin in ten selected samples. Conclusions Our data document the presence of pathogens in the (sub- urban I. ricinus tick population in Switzerland, with carrier rates as high as those in rural regions. Carriage of multiple pathogens was repeatedly observed, demonstrating the risk of acquiring multiple infections as a consequence of a tick bite.

  8. Ehrlichiosis, Babesiosis, Anaplasmosis and Hepatozoonosis in Dogs from St. Kitts, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick J.; Xu, Chuanling; Lucas, Helene; Loftis, Amanda; Abete, Jamie; Zeoli, Frank; Stevens, Audrey; Jaegersen, Kirsten; Ackerson, Kate; Gessner, April; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Wang, Chengming

    2013-01-01

    Background Although tick-borne diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in dogs in tropical areas, there is little information on the agents causing these infections in the Caribbean. Methodology We used PCRs to test blood from a cross-section of dogs on St Kitts for Ehrlichia (E.) canis, Babesia (B.) spp., Anaplasma (A.) spp. and Hepatozoon (H.) spp. Antibodies against E. canis and A. phagocytophilum/platys were detected using commercial immunochromatography tests. Records of the dogs were examined retrospectively to obtain clinical and laboratory data. Principal findings There was serological and/or PCR evidence of infections of dogs with E. canis (27%; 46/170), Babesia spp. (24%; 90/372) including B. canis vogeli (12%; 43/372) and B. gibsoni (10%; 36/372), A. platys (11%; 17/157) and H. canis (6%; 15/266). We could not identify the Babesia sp. detected in nine dogs. There was evidence of multiple infections with dual infections with E. canis and B. canis vogeli (8%; 14/179) or B. gibsoni (7%; 11/170) being the most common. There was agreement between immunochromatography and PCR test results for E. canis for 87% of dogs. Only 13% of exposed dogs had signs of a tick-borne disease and 38% had laboratory abnormalities. All 10 dogs presenting for a recheck after treatment of E. canis with doxycycline were apparently healthy although all remained seropositive and six still had laboratory abnormalities despite an average of two treatments with the most recent being around 12 months previously. Infections with Babesia spp. were also mainly subclinical with only 6% (4/67) showing clinical signs and 13% (9/67) having laboratory abnormalities. Similarly, animals with evidence of infections with A. platys and H. canis were largely apparently healthy with only occasional laboratory abnormalities. Conclusions Dogs are commonly infected with tick-borne pathogens in the Caribbean with most having no clinical signs or laboratory abnormalities. PMID:23335965

  9. Ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, anaplasmosis and hepatozoonosis in dogs from St. Kitts, West Indies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Kelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although tick-borne diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in dogs in tropical areas, there is little information on the agents causing these infections in the Caribbean. METHODOLOGY: We used PCRs to test blood from a cross-section of dogs on St Kitts for Ehrlichia (E. canis, Babesia (B. spp., Anaplasma (A. spp. and Hepatozoon (H. spp. Antibodies against E. canis and A. phagocytophilum/platys were detected using commercial immunochromatography tests. Records of the dogs were examined retrospectively to obtain clinical and laboratory data. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There was serological and/or PCR evidence of infections of dogs with E. canis (27%; 46/170, Babesia spp. (24%; 90/372 including B. canis vogeli (12%; 43/372 and B. gibsoni (10%; 36/372, A. platys (11%; 17/157 and H. canis (6%; 15/266. We could not identify the Babesia sp. detected in nine dogs. There was evidence of multiple infections with dual infections with E. canis and B. canis vogeli (8%; 14/179 or B. gibsoni (7%; 11/170 being the most common. There was agreement between immunochromatography and PCR test results for E. canis for 87% of dogs. Only 13% of exposed dogs had signs of a tick-borne disease and 38% had laboratory abnormalities. All 10 dogs presenting for a recheck after treatment of E. canis with doxycycline were apparently healthy although all remained seropositive and six still had laboratory abnormalities despite an average of two treatments with the most recent being around 12 months previously. Infections with Babesia spp. were also mainly subclinical with only 6% (4/67 showing clinical signs and 13% (9/67 having laboratory abnormalities. Similarly, animals with evidence of infections with A. platys and H. canis were largely apparently healthy with only occasional laboratory abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Dogs are commonly infected with tick-borne pathogens in the Caribbean with most having no clinical signs or laboratory abnormalities.

  10. Babesia spp. in ticks and wildlife in different habitat types of Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamšíková, Zuzana; Kazimírová, Mária; Haruštiaková, Danka; Mahríková, Lenka; Slovák, Mirko; Berthová, Lenka; Kocianová, Elena; Schnittger, Leonhard

    2016-05-20

    Babesiosis is an emerging and potentially zoonotic disease caused by tick-borne piroplasmids of the Babesia genus. New genetic variants of piroplasmids with unknown associations to vectors and hosts are recognized. Data on the occurrence of Babesia spp. in ticks and wildlife widen the knowledge on the geographical distribution and circulation of piroplasmids in natural foci. Questing and rodent-attached ticks, rodents, and birds were screened for the presence of Babesia-specific DNA using molecular methods. Spatial and temporal differences of Babesia spp. prevalence in ticks and rodents from two contrasting habitats of Slovakia with sympatric occurrence of Ixodes ricinus and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks and co-infections of Candidatus N. mikurensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Babesia spp. were detected in 1.5 % and 6.6 % of questing I. ricinus and H. concinna, respectively. Prevalence of Babesia-infected I. ricinus was higher in a natural than an urban/suburban habitat. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Babesia spp. from I. ricinus clustered with Babesia microti, Babesia venatorum, Babesia canis, Babesia capreoli/Babesia divergens, and Babesia odocoilei. Babesia spp. amplified from H. concinna segregated into two monophyletic clades, designated Babesia sp. 1 (Eurasia) and Babesia sp. 2 (Eurasia), each of which represents a yet undescribed novel species. The prevalence of infection in rodents (with Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus prevailing) with B. microti was 1.3 % in an urban/suburban and 4.2 % in a natural habitat. The majority of infected rodents (81.3 %) were positive for spleen and blood and the remaining for lungs and/or skin. Rodent-attached I. ricinus (accounting for 96.3 %) and H. concinna were infected with B. microti, B. venatorum, B. capreoli/B. divergens, Babesia sp. 1 (Eurasia), and Babesia sp. 2 (Eurasia). All B. microti and B. venatorum isolates were identical to known zoonotic strains from Europe. Less than 1

  11. Hantavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Guzmán T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the causative agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in humans in the Americas; The primary reservoirs are in the rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae. In South America, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome caused by numerous viral genotypes have been diagnosed. In Colombia, different serological studies have reported the circulation of hantavirus in humans and rodents. These viruses act in an intimate association with a rodent species that serves as a reservoir and have a distribution around the wild rodent, being limited to a specific geographic region. In South America, the first HPS-associated hantavirus was described in 1993 in Brazil and was called Juquitiva and from 1993 to 2012, more than 1400 cases had been identified in Brazil. This syndrome should be suspected in all patients with respiratory distress syndrome of unclear etiology, in areas endemic for the disease, especially if accompanied by fever, marked leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia and bilateral interstitial infiltrates. Hemorrhagic febrile syndrome has not yet been described in the Americas. There are no clinical or laboratory signs that are pathognomonic of hantavirus infection. The treatment is based on adequate hydration, use of antipyretics and anti-inflammatories and patients with signs of severity should establish a more aggressive management. Triage is indispensable, patients with co-morbidities have a higher mortality risk and therefore should be hospitalized. Future research in Colombia should be directed to multidisciplinary studies that include viral isolation, different clinical forms of case presentation, epidemiological differences, risk factors, and taxonomy of viruses and rodents.

  12. [Rotavirus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    Rotaviruses are genetically highly variable, non-enveloped viruses with a double-stranded, segmented ribonucleic acid genome. They are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. In children aged less than 5 years, they are the most frequent agent of severe acute diarrheal illnesses. In less developed countries, rotavirus diseases are one of the most frequent causes of death in infants and little children. Typically, symptomatic rotavirus diseases in infants (70 years) arise with sudden onset of watery diarrhoea with high risk of dehydration, accompanied by vomiting and, in several cases, unspecific respiratory symptoms such as cold and sore throat. In adults aged less than 70 years, illnesses due to rotavirus appear generally mild or as travel diarrhoea. Although rotavirus infections are considered to by systemic, extraintestinal manifestations such as rotavirus central nervous system diseases are relatively rare. Rotaviruses are transmitted primarily from person-to-person by the faecal-oral route. Treatment of rotavirus diarrhoea is usually symptomatic and comprises a sufficient fluid and electrolyte substitution. Although nitazoxanide and some other drugs show high efficacy against rotavirus in vitro and in vivo, there is currently no recommended specific antiviral therapy. For prophylaxis, special attention should be paid to adequate hygienic rules. Because of the high stability of rotaviruses to changing environmental conditions, disinfection should be performed applying disinfectants with proven activity against rotaviruses. In Germany, two efficient and secure live vaccines against rotaviruses have been approved. Their application, however, is not generally recommended.

  13. Metabolic Imaging of Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawal, Ismaheel; Zeevaart, JanRijn; Ebenhan, Thomas; Ankrah, Alfred; Vorster, Mariza; Kruger, Hendrik G.; Govender, Thavendran; Sathekge, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic imaging has come to occupy a prominent place in the diagnosis and management of microbial infection. Molecular probes available for infection imaging have undergone a rapid evolution starting with nonspecific agents that accumulate similarly in infection, sterile inflammation, and

  14. Infections and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    During pregnancy, some common infections like the common cold or a skin infection do not usually cause serious problems. ... of the infections that can be dangerous during pregnancy include Bacterial vaginosis (BV) Group B strep (GBS) ...

  15. Ear infection - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Family history of ear infections Not being breastfed Pacifier use Recent ear infection Recent illness of any ... lead to fewer ear infections. DO NOT use pacifiers. Breastfeed -- this makes a child much less prone ...

  16. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000521.htm Urinary tract infection - adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary ...

  17. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000505.htm Urinary tract infection - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. This ...

  18. Listeria Infection (Listeriosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria infection Overview Listeria infection is a foodborne bacterial illness that can be very serious for pregnant women and people with impaired immune systems. Listeria infection is most commonly contracted by eating improperly ...

  19. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Enterobiasis (also known as Pinworm Infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk ...

  20. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Enterobiasis (also known as Pinworm Infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk ...

  1. Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity ... ) haemolyticum is an organism that most often causes infections and illnesses in teenagers and young adults. The infection is spread from person to person, ...

  2. [Hantavirus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strady, C; Jaussaud, R; Remy, G; Penalba, C

    2005-03-12

    Hantaviruses are cosmopolite anthropozoonosis considered as an emerging disease. Four pathogenic types for humans and part of the Bunyaviridae species are hosted by rodents and have been isolated: the Sin nombre virus responsible for the severe American respiratory form; the Hantaan and Seoul viruses responsible for hemorrhagic fevers with renal syndrome (HFRS) of severe to moderate expression in Asia and also in the Balkans; the Puumala virus responsible for HFRS of moderate expression or the socalled nephropathia epidemica in Europe. The Puumala virus is responsible for a minor form of the disease that is observed in areas of the Occidental sector of the ex-URSS, in Scandinavia and in the rest of Europe, notably in the North-East of France. The epidemic episodes occur every three years. They follow the proliferation of rodents, notably russet voles, the reservoir hosts, and their degree of infection. The concept of an occupation at risk in 20 to 49 year-old men (working in forests, agriculture, living near a forest, contact with wood) in an endemic area has not always been found. Its clinical form can vary greatly in its presentation. Basically it is a severe algic influenza syndrome accompanied by acute myopia in 38% of cases, but is nearly pathognomonic in the context. Respiratory involvement is frequent but benign. The initial syndrome can suggest an abdominal or urological surgical emergency, which is source of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. Early biological examination reveals thrombopenia and proteinuria. Then more or less severe acute kidney failure appears in slightly more than 50% of cases. Although it usually regresses with symptomatic treatment, after effects remain in some patients. The environmental changes, the geographical distribution depending on the biotope, the dynamics and behaviour of rodents and the viral circulation between them and its transmission to human beings and its risk factors must continue to be studied in order to gain

  3. Fungus Infections: Preventing Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fungus Infections: Preventing Recurrence Share | Doctors have excellent treatments for skin fungus infections that occur on the feet, nails, groin, ...

  4. Pityrosporum Infection In HIV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviarasan P K

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An increased colonization of Malassezia furfur organism has been reported in patients with HIV infection. Pityriasis versicolour and pityrosporum folliculitis arise from overgrowth of M. furfur. It is also thought to have a significant role in the pathogenesis of seborrhoeic dermatitis and is one of the earliest clinical markers of HIV infection. The present study was to note the occurrence and significance of these infections in HIV infected patients. The present study was to note the occurrence and significance of these infections in HIV infected patients. The occurrence of pityrosporum infection was 13.5% (25 cases amongst 185 HIV serpositive patients in HIV infected cases in our study. Mean age of the affected patients was 31.7 years and male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The main mode of acquisition of HIV infection was heterosexual (19 cases. Tinea versicolour was seen in 10 (40% cases, seborrhoeic was found to be more explosive in onset and involving extensive areas with severe inflammation. Extensive tinea versicolour and seborrhoeic dermatitis were seen in three cases with pityrosporum infections. Nine of the pityrosporum infections were observed in HIV group IV, which is equivalent of AIDS. To conclude, seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS may have some unique features and may be used as a clinical marker of AIDS.

  5. Salivary gland infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections will return. Complications are not common. Possible Complications Complications may include: Abscess of salivary gland Infection returns ... cases, salivary gland infections cannot be prevented. Good oral hygiene may prevent some cases of bacterial infection. ... BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  6. Fungal toenail infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 12% of people.Infection can cause discomfo...

  7. Fungal toenail infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 5% of people.Infection can cause discomfor...

  8. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, C.L.F.; Griffith, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented

  9. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: c8681@yahoo.com; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.

  10. Clinical determinants of Lyme borreliosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, anaplasmosis, and ehrlichiosis in an Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis. This spirochete, along with Babesia, Bartonella, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and the Rickettsia spp. are recognized tick-borne pathogens. In this study, the clinical manifestation of these zoonoses in Australia is described. The clinical presentation of 500 patients over the course of 5 years was examined. Evidence of multisystem disease and cranial nerve neuropathy was sought. Supportive laboratory evidence of infection was examined. Patients from every state of Australia presented with a wide range of symptoms of disease covering multiple systems and a large range of time intervals from onset. Among these patients, 296 (59%) were considered to have a clinical diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis and 273 (54% of the 500) tested positive for the disease, the latter not being a subset of the former. In total, 450 (90%) had either clinical evidence for or laboratory proof of borrelial infection, and the great majority of cases featured neurological symptoms involving the cranial nerves, thus mimicking features of the disease found in Europe and Asia, as distinct from North America (where extracutaneous disease is principally an oligoarticular arthritis). Only 83 patients (17%; number [n]=492) reported never leaving Australia. Of the 500 patients, 317 (63%) had clinical or laboratory-supported evidence of coinfection with Babesia or Bartonella spp. Infection with A. phagocytophilum was detected in three individuals, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis was detected in one individual who had never traveled outside Australia. In the cohort, 30 (11%; n=279) had positive rickettsial serology. The study suggests that there is a considerable presence of borreliosis in Australia, and a highly significant burden of coinfections accompanying borreliosis transmission. The concept sometimes advanced of a "Lyme-like illness" on the continent needs to be re-examined as the clinical interplay between all these infections. Evidence is

  11. To Be or Not to Be Associated: Power study of four statistical modeling approaches to identify parasite associations in cross-sectional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise eVaumourin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies are reporting simultaneous infections by parasites in many different hosts. The detection of whether these parasites are significantly associated is important in medicine and epidemiology. Numerous approaches to detect associations are available, but only a few provide statistical tests. Furthermore, they generally test for an overall detection of association and do not identify which parasite is associated with which other one. Here, we developed a new approach, the association screening approach, to detect the overall and the detail of multi-parasite associations. We studied the power of this new approach and of three other known ones (i.e. the generalized chi-square, the network and the multinomial GLM approaches to identify parasite associations either due to parasite interactions or to confounding factors. We applied these four approaches to detect associations within two populations of multi-infected hosts: 1 rodents infected with Bartonella sp., Babesia microti and Anaplasma phagocytophilum and 2 bovine population infected with Theileria sp. and Babesia sp.. We found that the best power is obtained with the screening model and the generalized chi-square test. The differentiation between associations, which are due to confounding factors and parasite interactions was not possible. The screening approach significantly identified associations between Bartonella doshiae and B. microti, and between T. parva, T. mutans and T. velifera. Thus, the screening approach was relevant to test the overall presence of parasite associations and identify the parasite combinations that are significantly over- or under-represented. Unravelling whether the associations are due to real biological interactions or confounding factors should be further investigated. Nevertheless, in the age of genomics and the advent of new technologies, it is a considerable asset to speed up researches focusing on the mechanisms driving interactions

  12. Surgical wound infection - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hours There are different levels of wound infections: Superficial -- the infection is in the skin area only ... the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should ...

  13. Learn About Cronobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Learn About Cronobacter Infection Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... but infections in young infants can be deadly. Learn what steps you can take to protect your ...

  14. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  15. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Carpal tunnel syndrome Depression Irritable bowel syndrome Migraine Thyroid disease Urinary tract infections All A-Z health topics ... Carpal tunnel syndrome Depression Irritable bowel syndrome Migraine Thyroid disease Urinary tract infections All A-Z health topics ...

  16. Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Carpal tunnel syndrome Depression Irritable bowel syndrome Migraine Thyroid disease Urinary tract infections All A-Z health topics ... Carpal tunnel syndrome Depression Irritable bowel syndrome Migraine Thyroid disease Urinary tract infections All A-Z health topics ...

  17. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... touching the infected area. Diagnosis Skin scrapings or cultures Doctors may suspect a fungal infection when they ...

  18. Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Salmonella Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  19. Prevent Infections in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... birth. Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly (a birth defect where a baby’s head and ... CMV) can cause problems for some babies, including microcephaly and hearing loss. A woman who is infected ...

  20. Infection After Hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Hemsell

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic prophylaxis and advances in technology have reduced operative site infections after hysterectomy to a minimum. Pelvic infections are the most common infection type and respond promptly to a variety of parenteral single-agent and combination antibiotic regimens. Oral antibiotic regimens following parenteral therapy are unnecessary. Abdominal incision infections are less common than pelvic infections, less common than seromas or hematomas, and usually do not require antimicrobial therapy. Abscesses or infected hematomas require parenteral antimicrobial therapy, and drainage of those located above the cuff will predictably shorten therapy time. With early discharge from the hospital, many infections will not become evident until after the patient is home. For that reason, it is important that the patient's discharge instructions outline symptoms and signs associated with these infections so she can present for care at the earliest possible time.

  1. Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotavirus Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  2. Fungus Infections: Tinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fungus Infections Share | Tinea is the name given to ... Most people will develop some resistance to skin fungus after being infected. Others appear to have a ...

  3. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000682.htm Asymptomatic HIV infection To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Asymptomatic HIV infection is a phase of HIV/AIDS during which ...

  4. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of increasing importance, with more patients infected, increasing frequency of health-care associated infections and increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistances. The typical clinical presentation is a subacute course with fever...... or ceftriaxone. E. faecalis infective endocarditis continues to be a very serious disease with considerable percentages of high-level gentamicin resistant strains and in-hospital mortality around 20%. Strategies to prevent E. faecalis IE, improve diagnostics, optimize treatment and reduce morbidity...

  5. Pleural Infection and Empyema

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Yong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Increasing incidence of pleural infection has been reported worldwide in recent decades. The pathogens responsible for pleural infection are changing and differ from those in community acquired pneumonia. The main treatments for pleural infection are antibiotics and drainage of infected pleural fluid. The efficacy of intrapleural fibrinolytics remains unclear, although a recent randomized control study showed that the novel combination of tissue plasminogen activator and deoxyribonuclease had...

  6. Brucella Infection in HIV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.

  7. Dermatophilus congolensis human infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towersey, L; Martins, E de C; Londero, A T; Hay, R J; Soares Filho, P J; Takiya, C M; Martins, C C; Gompertz, O F

    1993-08-01

    Four cases of human dermatophilosis observed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are reported. Data that suggest nail infection by Dermatophilus congolensis are presented. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranged from an asymptomatic infection to a pustular eruption. Our findings suggest that epidermal Langerhans cells play a role in the pathogenesis of the infection.

  8. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Bundgaard, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Because of the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides, the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in January 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients...... with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations....

  9. Cutaneous infections in wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eugene K; Deweber, Kevin; Berry, James W; Wilckens, John H

    2013-09-01

    Cutaneous infections are common in wrestlers. Although many are simply a nuisance in the everyday population, they can be problematic to wrestlers because such infections may result in disqualification from practice or competition. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are therefore important. Medline and PubMed databases, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and UpToDate were searched through 2012 with the following keywords in various combinations: skin infections, cutaneous infections, wrestlers, athletes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, skin and soft tissue infections, tinea corporis, tinea capitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster, molluscum contagiosum, verruca vulgaris, warts, scabies, and pediculosis. Relevant articles found in the primary search, and selected references from those articles were reviewed for pertinent clinical information. The most commonly reported cutaneous infections in wrestlers are herpes simplex virus infections (herpes gladiatorum), bacterial skin and soft tissue infections, and dermatophyte infections (tinea gladiatorum). The clinical appearance of these infections can be different in wrestlers than in the community at large. For most cutaneous infections, diagnosis and management options in wrestlers are similar to those in the community at large. With atypical presentations, testing methods are recommended to confirm the diagnosis of herpes gladiatorum and tinea gladiatorum. There is evidence to support the use of prophylactic medications to prevent recurrence of herpes simplex virus and reduce the incidence of dermatophyte infections in wrestlers.

  10. Fungal toenail infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3-5% of people.Infection can cause discomfort in...

  11. Cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Karl Oliver; Hamprecht, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    Due to the severe risk of long-term sequelae, prenatal cytomegalovirus infection is of particular importance amongst intrauterine viral infections. This review summarizes the current knowledge about CMV infection in pregnancy. A search of the Medline and Embase database was done for articles about CMV infection in pregnany. We performed a detailed review of the literature in view of diagnosis, epidemiology and management of CMV infection in pregnancy. The maternal course of the infection is predominantly asymptomatic; the infection often remains unrecognized until the actual fetal manifestation. Typical ultrasound signs that should arouse suspicion of intrauterine CMV infection can be distinguished into CNS signs such as ventriculomegaly or microcephaly and extracerebral infection signs such as hepatosplenomegaly or hyperechogenic bowel. Current treatment strategies focus on hygienic measures to prevent a maternal CMV infection during pregnancy, on maternal application of hyperimmunoglobulines to avoid materno-fetal transmission in case of a maternal seroconversion, and on an antiviral therapy in case the materno-fetal transmission have occurred. CMV infection in pregnancy may result in a severe developmental disorder of the newborn. This should be taken into account in the treatment of affected and non-affected pregnant women.

  12. Understanding Anaplasmataceae pathogenesis using ‘Omics’ approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic ePruneau

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how Omics approaches improve our understanding of Anaplasmataceae pathogenesis, through a global and integrative strategy to identify genes and proteins involved in biochemical pathways key for pathogen-host-vector interactions.The Anaplasmataceae family comprises obligate intracellular bacteria mainly transmitted by arthropods. These bacteria are responsible for major human and animal endemic and emerging infectious diseases with important economic and public health impacts. In order to improve disease control strategies, it is essential to better understand their pathogenesis. Our work focused on four Anaplasmataceae, which cause important animal, human and zoonotic diseases: Anaplasma marginale, A. phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. ruminantium. Wolbachia spp. an endosymbiont of arthropods was also included in this review as a model of a non-pathogenic Anaplasmataceae.A gap analysis on Omics approaches on Anaplasmataceae was performed, which highlighted a lack of studies on the genes and proteins involved in the infection of hosts and vectors. Furthermore, most of the studies have been done on the pathogen itself, mainly on infectious free-living forms and rarely on intracellular forms. In order to perform a transcriptomic analysis of the intracellular stage of development, researchers developed methods to enrich bacterial transcripts from infected cells. These methods are described in this paper. Bacterial genes encoding outer membrane proteins, post-translational modifications, eukaryotic repeated motif proteins, proteins involved in osmotic and oxidative stress and hypothetical proteins have been identified to play a key role in Anaplasmataceae pathogenesis. Further investigations on the function of these outer membrane proteins and hypothetical proteins will be essential to confirm their role in the pathogenesis. Our work underlines the need for further studies in this domain and on host and vector responses

  13. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato detected in the blood of Norwegian patients with erythema migrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarsten, H; Grankvist, A; Høyvoll, L; Myre, I B; Skarpaas, T; Kjelland, V; Wenneras, C; Noraas, S

    2017-08-01

    The most common tick-borne human disease in Norway is Lyme borreliosis. Ticks in Norway also harbour less known disease-causing agents such as Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Borrelia miyamotoi and Rickettsia helvetica. However, human infections caused by these pathogens have never been described in Norway. The main aims of the study were to evaluate the contribution of several tick-borne bacterial agents, other than Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, to zoonotic diseases in Norway and to determine their clinical pictures. Blood samples from 70 symptomatic tick-bitten adults from the Agder counties in southern Norway were screened for seven tick-borne pathogens by using a commercial multiplex PCR-based method and by singleplex real-time PCR protocols. Most patients (65/70) presented with a rash clinically diagnosed as erythema migrans (EM). The most frequently detected pathogen DNA was from Ca. N. mikurensis and was found in the blood of 10% (7/70) of the patients. The Ca. N. mikurensis-infected patients presented with an EM-like rash as the only symptom. B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA was present in the blood of 4% (3/70) of the study participants. None had detectable Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Rickettsia typhus group or spotted fever group, Francisella tularensis, Coxiella burnetii or Bartonella spp. DNA in the blood. The commercially available multiplex PCR bacteria flow chip system failed to identify half of the infected patients detected by corresponding real-time PCR protocols. The recovery of Ca. N. mikurensis DNA was higher in the pellet/plasma fraction of blood than from whole blood. To conclude, Ca. N. mikurensis appeared to be the etiological agent in patients with EM in a surprisingly large fraction of tick-bitten persons in the southern part of Norway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Survey of selected tick-borne diseases in dogs in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Vera, Cristina; Kapiainen, Suvi; Junnikkala, Sami; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Spillmann, Thomas; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-06-23

    Due to climate changes during the last decades, ticks have progressively spread into higher latitudes in northern Europe. Although some tick borne diseases are known to be endemic in Finland, to date there is limited information with regard to the prevalence of these infections in companion animals. We determined the antibody and DNA prevalence of the following organisms in randomly selected client-owned and clinically healthy hunting dogs living in Finland: Ehrlichia canis (Ec), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap), Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) and Bartonella. Anti-Ap, -Bb and -Ec antibodies were determined in 340 Finnish pet dogs and 50 healthy hunting dogs using the 4DX Snap®Test (IDEXX Laboratories). In addition, PCRs for the detection of Ap and Bartonella DNA were performed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity to a vector borne agent. The overall seroprevalence was highest for Ap (5.3%), followed by Bb (2.9%), and Ec (0.3%). Seropositivities to Ap and Bb were significantly higher in the Åland Islands (p dogs, seropositivity rates of 4% (2/50) and 2% (1/50) were recorded for Ap and Bb, respectively. One client-owned dog and one hunting dog, both healthy, were infected with Ap as determined by PCR, while being seronegative. For Bartonella spp., none of the dogs tested was positive by PCR. This study represents the first data of seroprevalence to tick borne diseases in the Finnish dog population. Our results indicate that dogs in Finland are exposed to vector borne diseases, with Ap being the most seroprevalent of the diseases tested, followed by Bb. Almost 50% of dogs living in Åland Islands were Ap seropositive. This finding suggests the possibility of a high incidence of Ap infection in humans in this region. Knowing the distribution of seroprevalence in dogs may help predict the pattern of a tick borne disease and may aid in diagnostic and prevention efforts.

  15. Infecção natural por hemoparasitos em bezerros submetidos à quimio-profilaxia aos 30 dias de idade Natural infection by hemoparasites in calves submitted to chemo -prophylaxis wonder 30 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela A. Da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O complexo Tristeza Parasitária acarreta grandes prejuízos à pecuária bovina nacional. Os principais agentes etiológicos são Babesia bigemina, B. bovis e Anaplasma marginale, sendo o carrapato Boophilus microplus o principal vetor. Este trabalho relata a ocorrência de infecção natural por hemoparasitos da tristeza parasitária bovina em 36 bezerros com alta infestação natural por carrapatos e submetidos à quimioprofilaxia aos 30 dias de idade. Babesia bigemina (33,3%, B. bovis (11,1% e A. marginale (13,9% foram detectados em esfregaços sangüíneos de 16 animais (44,4% de diferentes idades. Seis bezerros apresentaram sintomas (16,7% e um morreu (2,8%. O número de casos clínicos foi decorrente de uma associação de fatores, destacando-se a alta infestação precoce por carrapatos e a baixa imunidade passiva em período em que os bezerros ainda não haviam desenvolvido imunidade ativa suficiente.The tick-borne disease (TBD brings great damages to cattle breeding. The most important etiologic agents are Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma marginale, being the tick Boophilus microplus the main vector. This work reports the occurrence of natural infection by hemoparasites of TBD in 36 calves with high ticks natural infestation submitted to chemoprophylaxis with 30 days year-old. The blood smears from animals of different ages were analized and were found B. bigemina (33.3%, B. bovis (11.1% and A. marginale (13.9%. Six animals had clinical symptoms (16.7% and one dead (2.8%. The number of clinical cases ocurred in consequence of an association of factors as high infestation of ticks and low passive immunity in period that calves had not developed enough active immunity.

  16. Periprosthetic Joint Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia L. Lima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of joint prostheses is becoming increasingly common, especially for the hip and knee. Infection is considered to be the most devastating of prosthesis-related complications, leading to prolonged hospitalization, repeated surgical intervention, and even definitive loss of the implant. The main risk factors to periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs are advanced age, malnutrition, obesity, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection at an advanced stage, presence of distant infectious foci, and antecedents of arthroscopy or infection in previous arthroplasty. Joint prostheses can become infected through three different routes: direct implantation, hematogenic infection, and reactivation of latent infection. Gram-positive bacteria predominate in cases of PJI, mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. PJIs present characteristic signs that can be divided into acute and chronic manifestations. The main imaging method used in diagnosing joint prosthesis infections is X-ray. Computed tomography (CT scan may assist in distinguishing between septic and aseptic loosening. Three-phase bone scintigraphy using technetium has high sensitivity, but low specificity. Positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET presents very divergent results in the literature. Definitive diagnosis of infection should be made by isolating the microorganism through cultures on material obtained from joint fluid puncturing, surgical wound secretions, surgical debridement procedures, or sonication fluid. Success in treating PJI depends on extensive surgical debridement and adequate and effective antibiotic therapy. Treatment in two stages using a spacer is recommended for most chronic infections in arthroplasty cases. Treatment in a single procedure is appropriate in carefully selected cases.

  17. Obesity and nosocomial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, R; Karppelin, M; Syrjänen, J

    2013-09-01

    The prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) is a major goal in modern healthcare. Intrinsic, patient-related factors may contribute to the risk of HCAIs. To review the association between obesity and the risk and outcome of HCAIs. A PubMed search of relevant studies on obesity and nosocomial infections and obesity and dosing of antimicrobials. Search terms were: 'obesity', 'infection', 'nosocomial infection', 'surgical site infection', 'critical care unit', 'bacteremia', 'urinary tract infection', 'health care associated infection'. Obesity has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of HCAIs in several studies. The association is most clear in cardiac, vascular, orthopaedic and gastrointestinal surgery. Body mass index (BMI) data are frequently recorded in patients undergoing surgical and invasive procedures. The recording of BMI data is not systematic in the literature and in many studies median BMI of the control group or reference group (normal weight) also indicates overweight or obesity. Thus, clear BMI cut-offs for increased infection risk cannot be determined. Obesity is frequently associated with underdosing of antimicrobials in both prophylaxis and treatment of HCAIs. Studies indicate that obesity affects the pharmacokinetics of antimicrobial drugs. However, there are no dosing recommendations for antimicrobial use in obesity. Obesity increases the risk of nosocomial infections and is frequently associated with underdosing of antimicrobials in both prophylaxis and treatment of HCAIs. A challenge in future hospital hygiene prevention lies in our capacity to combat obesity epidemics. © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Blood parasites infections in domiciled dogs in an animal health service in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Daniel Sant’Anna Leal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Leal P.D.S., Moraes M.I.M.R., Barbosa L.L. deO. & Lopes C.W.G. [Blood parasites infections in domiciled dogs in an animal health service in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.] Infecção por hematozoários nos cães domésticos atendidos em serviço de saúde animal, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:55-62, 2015. Curso de Pós-Graduação de Ciências Veterinárias, Anexo 1, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Campus Seropédica, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-970, Brasil. E-mail: pauloleal@ctiveterinario.com.br The vector-borne diseases in dogs are caused by pathogens with different biological behaviors that result in different clinical and laboratory findings presentations. The diagnosis of these diseases is a challenge for veterinarians and those caused by obligate intracellular blood parasites of blood cells constitute vogeli of Babesia canis, Anaplasma platys, Erhlichia canis and Mycoplasma canis. This paper looks at the frequency of these parasites in 204 laboratory results dogs treated at the Intensive Care Unit and Emergency Veterinary through CBC and research of blood parasites in blood estiraço and concentrate platelets and leukocytes. There was one or more species of haemoparasites in 132 dogs (64.7% through blood samples. They were observed: 7 (5.3% dogs for B. c. vogeli, 64 (48.5% for A. platys, 16 (12.2% for M. canis, A. platys and E. canis in one (0.7%, A. platys and M. canis in 36 dogs (27.3%, M. canis and B. c. vogeli five (3.8%, M. canis and E. canis one (0.7%, A. platys, B. c. vogeli and M. canis in two (1.50%, confirming thus the high frequency of blood parasites in pet dogs in an urban environment, treated in the routine, the importance of viewing parasitic inclusions in leukocytes, platelets and red blood cells, It thus demonstrating the need for greater attention to the diagnosis of multiple infections by different parasitic

  19. Imaging of hepatic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, D.J.; Hanbidge, A.E.; O'Malley, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented

  20. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  1. Characterization of the tick-pathogen interface by functional genomics and proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Ayllón Peña, María Nieves

    2017-01-01

    El aumento del uso de la tierra por parte del hombre a través de la ganadería y la agricultura, así como por sus actividades recreativas en la naturaleza, ha incrementado la incidencia de enfermedades transmitidas a través de la picadura de artrópodos hematófagos como son las garrapatas [1]. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, agente causante de la anaplasmosis granulocítica humana (HGA), es uno de los patógenos transmitidos por garrapata que afecta a un amplio rango de hospedadores vertebrados incluy...

  2. Survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and tick-borne pathogens in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russart, Nathan M; Dougherty, Michael W; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2014-09-01

    Ticks were sampled at nine locations throughout North Dakota during early summer of 2010, using flagging techniques and small mammals trapping. In total, 1,762 ticks were collected from eight of the nine locations. The dominant species were Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (82%), found throughout the state, and Ixodes scapularis Say (17%), found in northeastern counties. A few nymphal and adult I. scapularis tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi (3%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8%). This is the first report of I. scapularis and associated pathogens occurring in North Dakota and provides evidence for continued westward expansion of this important vector tick species in the United States.

  3. Imaging of Periprosthetic Infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carty, Fiona

    2013-05-22

    Periprosthetic infection is one of the most challenging and difficult complications in orthopaedics. It can result in significant patient distress and disability, with repeated surgeries, increased cost and utilization of medical resources, and in rare cases even mortality. The biggest challenge to date is the correct diagnosis of periprosthetic infection and implementation of effective treatment regimens capable of eradicating the organism. This article reviews the various modalities used in the imaging of periprosthetic and post-arthroplasty infection.

  4. Pregnancy and HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mete Sucu; Cihan Cetin; Mehmet Ozsurmeli; Ghanim Khatib; Ceren Cetin; Cuneyt Evruke

    2016-01-01

    The management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is progressing rapidly. In developed countries, the perinatal transmission rates have decreased from 20-30% to 1-2% with the use of antiretroviral therapy and cesarean section. Interventions for the prevention of prenatal transmission has made the prenatal care of pregnant patients with HIV infection more complex. Rapid development of standard care and continuing increase in the distribution of HIV infection has required clinician...

  5. Pets and Pasteurella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present in some children, including an infection of the joints ( arthritis ), bones (osteomyelitis), and tendons (tenosynovitis). Less frequently, youngsters may have pneumonia , urinary tract ...

  6. Metabolic Imaging of Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Ismaheel; Zeevaart, JanRijn; Ebenhan, Thomas; Ankrah, Alfred; Vorster, Mariza; Kruger, Hendrik G; Govender, Thavendran; Sathekge, Mike

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic imaging has come to occupy a prominent place in the diagnosis and management of microbial infection. Molecular probes available for infection imaging have undergone a rapid evolution starting with nonspecific agents that accumulate similarly in infection, sterile inflammation, and neoplastic tissue and then extending to more targeted probes that seek to identify specific microbial species. This focus review describes the metabolic and molecular imaging techniques currently available for clinical use in infection imaging and those that have demonstrated promising results in preclinical studies with the potential for clinical applications. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  7. HIV infections in otolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzewnicki, Ireneusz; Olszewska, Ewa; Rogowska-Szadkowska, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    Summary HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection may produce no clinical symptoms for 10 years on average. However, after many years of infection most people develop symptoms that indicate progression of the disease. There are no regular characteristic symptoms or early stage, and no logical sequence of AIDS indicator disorders has been observed. People who are not aware of the infection are referred to physicians of various specializations, including otolaryngologists. It is on their knowledge about HIV infections, among other factors, that early diagnosis of the disease depends. Appropriate and quick introduction of anti-retroviral drugs may let a person with HIV live decades longer. PMID:22367140

  8. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  9. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  10. Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S.A.; Novak, Z.; Pati, S.; Boppana, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is recognized as the most common congenital viral infection in humans and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. This recognition of the clinical importance of invasive CMV disease in the setting of immunodeficiency and in children with congenital CMV infection has led to the development of new diagnostic procedures for the rapid identification of immunocompromised individuals with CMV disease, as well as fetuses and infants with congenital infection. Diagnosis of acute maternal CMV infection by the presence of IgM and low IgG avidity requires confirmation of fetal infection which is typically performed by CMV PCR of the amniotic fluid. Viral culture of the urine and saliva obtained within the first two weeks of life continue to be the gold standard for diagnosis of congenitally infected infants. PCR assays of dried blood spots from infants have not been shown to have sufficient sensitivity for the identification of most infants with congenital CMV infection. However, saliva PCR assays are currently being assessed as a useful screening method for congenital CMV infection. In the immunocompromised host, newer rapid diagnostic assays such as pp65 antigenemia and real-time CMV PCR of blood or plasma have allowed for preemptive treatment reducing morbidity and mortality. However, lack of standardized real-time PCR protocols hinders the comparison of the data across different centers and the development of uniform guidelines for the management of invasive CMV infections in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:21827433

  11. Corneal ulcers and infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial keratitis; Fungal keratitis; Acanthamoeba keratitis; Herpes simplex keratitis ... infection with bacteria, viruses, fungi, or a parasite. Acanthamoeba keratitis occurs in contact lens users. It is ...

  12. Comparative genomics of emerging human ehrlichiosis agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie C Dunning Hotopp

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Neorickettsia (formerly Ehrlichia sennetsu are intracellular vector-borne pathogens that cause human ehrlichiosis, an emerging infectious disease. We present the complete genome sequences of these organisms along with comparisons to other organisms in the Rickettsiales order. Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. display a unique large expansion of immunodominant outer membrane proteins facilitating antigenic variation. All Rickettsiales have a diminished ability to synthesize amino acids compared to their closest free-living relatives. Unlike members of the Rickettsiaceae family, these pathogenic Anaplasmataceae are capable of making all major vitamins, cofactors, and nucleotides, which could confer a beneficial role in the invertebrate vector or the vertebrate host. Further analysis identified proteins potentially involved in vacuole confinement of the Anaplasmataceae, a life cycle involving a hematophagous vector, vertebrate pathogenesis, human pathogenesis, and lack of transovarial transmission. These discoveries provide significant insights into the biology of these obligate intracellular pathogens.

  13. The pCS20 PCR assay for Ehrlichia ruminantium does not cross-react with the novel deer ehrlichial agent found in white-tailed deer in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mahan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available White-tailed deer are susceptible to heartwater (Ehrlichia [Cowdria] ruminantium infection and are likely to suffer high mortality if the disease spreads to the United States. It is vital, therefore, to validate a highly specific and sensitive detection method for E. ruminantium infection that can be reliably used in testing white-tailed deer, which are reservoirs of antigenically or genetically related agents such as Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Anaplasma (Ehrlichia phagocytophilum (HGE agent and Ehrlichia ewingii. Recently, a novel but as yet unnamed ehrlichial species, the white-tailed deer ehrlichia (WTDE, has been discovered in deer populations in the United States. Although the significance of WTDE as a pathogen is unknown at present, it can be distinguished from other Ehrlichia spp. based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In this study it was differentiated from E. ruminantium by the use of the pCS20 PCR assay which has high specificity and sensitivity for the detection of E. ruminantium. This assay did not amplify DNA from the WTDE DNA samples isolated from deer resident in Florida, Georgia and Missouri, but amplified the specific 279 bp fragment from E. ruminantium DNA. The specificity of the pCS20 PCR assay for E. ruminantium was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Similarly, the 16S PCR primers (nested that amplify a specific 405-412 bp fragment from the WTDE DNA samples, did not amplify any product from E. ruminantium DNA. This result demonstrates that it would be possible to differentiate between E. ruminantium and the novel WTDE agent found in white tailed deer by applying the two respective PCR assays followed by Southern hybridizations. Since the pCS20 PCR assay also does not amplify any DNA products from E. chaffeensis or Ehrlichia canis DNA, it is therefore the method of choice for the detection of E. ruminantium in these deer and other animal hosts.

  14. Travelers' Health: HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mucous membranes or nonintact skin (see Chapter 8, Health Care Workers ). EPIDEMIOLOGY HIV infection occurs worldwide. As of the end of 2014, an estimated 37 million people were living with HIV infection. Although sub-Saharan Africa has experienced a substantial decline in the number ...

  15. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  16. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worldwide and affects persons of all ages and socioeconomic levels. It is the most common worm infection ... spread? Pinworm infection is spread by the fecal-oral route, that is by the ... medications. A health care provider should be consulted before treating a ...

  17. Infections complicating cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Salvatore; Brocca, Alessandra; Mareso, Sara; Angeli, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    Patients with cirrhosis have a high risk of bacterial infections. Bacterial infections induce systemic inflammation that may lead to organ failure and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) resulting in a high risk of short term mortality. The early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections is essential to improve the patient's prognosis. However, in recent years, the spread of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections has reduced the efficacy of commonly used antibiotics such as third generation cephalosporins. In patients at high risk of MDR bacteria, such as those with nosocomial infections, the early administration of broad spectrum antibiotics has been shown to improve the prognosis. However, early de-escalation of antibiotics is recommended to reduce a further increase in antibiotic resistance. Strategies to prevent acute kidney injury and other organ failures should be implemented. Although prophylaxis of bacterial infections with antibiotics improves the prognosis in selected patients, their use should be limited to patients at high risk of developing infections. In this article, we review the pathogenesis and management of bacterial infections in patients with cirrhosis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the development of SSI. Complications associated with surgical site infections7. • Longer hospital stay with risk of acquiring other hospital acquired infections like pneumonia. • Require more surgical procedures. • Risk for development of resistance to antibiotics. • Risk for development of necrotizing fasciitis with skin loss.

  19. Ear Infection (Middle Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... back of the nose believed to play a role in immune system activity. This function may make them particularly vulnerable to infection, inflammation and swelling. Because adenoids are near the ... likely to play a role in ear infections in children because children have ...

  20. Pulmonary infections after tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauser Jabeen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Limited diagnostic and therapeutic capacities compounded by nonavailability of essential antimicrobials in most high-TB-burden countries pose great challenges to physicians involved in the management of these infections. These infections affect the overall outcome and lead to high cost for public health systems.

  1. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic

  2. Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection - UTI) in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Urinary Tract & How It Works Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection—UTI) in Adults View or Print All Sections ... Bladder infections are the most common type of urinary tract infection (UTI), but any part of your urinary tract ...

  3. Abundance of questing ticks and molecular evidence for pathogens in ticks in three parks of Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Aureli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. Infectious and parasitic diseases transmitted by ticks, such as Lyme diseases, granulocytic anaplasmosis and piroplasmosis, have been frequently reported in Europe, with increasing attention to them as an emerging zoonotic problem. The presented study was performed to assess the distribution and the density of questing ticks in three regional parks of Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy, and to seek molecular evidence of potential human pathogens in tick populations. Materials and Methods. In the period April-October 2010, 8,139 questing ticks were collected: 6,734 larvae, 1,344 nymphs and only a few adults – 28 females and 33 males. The abundance of[i] Ixodes ricinus[/i] questing ticks was compared among different sampling sites and related to microclimate parameters. 1,544 out of 8,139 ticks were examined for the presence of pathogens: PCR was used to detect piroplasms DNA and Real time Taqman PCR for [i]Anaplasma phagocytophilum[/i] and [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] s.l. Results. The predominant species was [i]I. ricinus[/i] (overall abundance 1,075.9/100 m[sup]2[/sup] ; more rarely, [i]Dermacentor marginatus[/i] (n = 37 – 0.45%, [i]Scaphixodes frontalis[/i] (n = 13 – 0.16%, [i]Hyalomma[/i] spp. (n = 6 – 0.07% and [i]Ixodes acuminatus[/i] (n = 3 – 0.04% were also found. 28 out of 324 (8.6% samples of ticks were PCR-positive for piroplasm DNA. 11 amplicons of 18S rRNA gene were identical to each other and had 100% identity with[i] Babesia[/i] EU1 ([i]Babesia venatorum[/i] using BLAST analysis. Real time Taqman PCR gave positive results for [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] in 23 out of 292 samples (7.9%, and for [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. in 78 out of 292 samples (26.7%. [i]I. ricinu[/i]s was the only species found positive for pathogens by molecular analysis; 16 tick samples were co-infected with at least 2 pathogens. Discussion. The peak of nymph presence was in May, and the higher prevalence of pathogens

  4. HPV Infection in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Palefsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed.

  5. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection ...

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. O’Connell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Etiology, transmission and protection: Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI globally. However, C. trachomatis also causes trachoma in endemic areas, mostly Africa and the Middle East, and is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The World Health Organization estimates 131 million new cases of C. trachomatis genital infection occur annually. Globally, infection is most prevalent in young women and men (14-25 years, likely driven by asymptomatic infection, inadequate partner treatment and delayed development of protective immunity. Pathology/Symptomatology: C. trachomatis infects susceptible squamocolumnar or transitional epithelial cells, leading to cervicitis in women and urethritis in men. Symptoms are often mild or absent but ascending infection in some women may lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID, resulting in reproductive sequelae such as ectopic pregnancy, infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Complications of infection in men include epididymitis and reactive arthritis. Molecular mechanisms of infection: Chlamydiae manipulate an array of host processes to support their obligate intracellular developmental cycle. This leads to activation of signaling pathways resulting in disproportionate influx of innate cells and the release of tissue damaging proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Treatment and curability: Uncomplicated urogenital infection is treated with azithromycin (1 g, single dose or doxycycline (100 mg twice daily x 7 days. However, antimicrobial treatment does not ameliorate established disease. Drug resistance is rare but treatment failures have been described. Development of an effective vaccine that protects against upper tract disease or that limits transmission remains an important goal.

  7. Infection with Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, D Y; Kerimoglu, U; Oto, A; Erguven, S; Arslan, S; Unal, S; Batman, F; Bayraktar, Y

    2005-11-01

    Fascioliasis, caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, is an infection that occurs worldwide, although humans are accidental hosts. F. hepatica infection comprises two stages, hepatic and biliary, with different signs and symptoms. Stool examination and ELISA can be used for the initial diagnosis. Radiographic techniques, such as computerised tomography and ultrasonography, as well as magnetic resonance imaging, are used widely for confirmation and follow-up of the disease. Invasive techniques, such as percutaneous cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and liver biopsy, may aid in the diagnosis but are not essential. Triclabendazole is recommended as the first-line agent for the treatment of F. hepatica infection, with bithionol as an alternative.

  8. Pregnancy and Toxoplasma Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Cetin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoa named Toxoplasma gondii. It is a very important disease because it is related to fetal anomalies and poor perinatal outcomes like abortus and stillbirth. It spreads via uncooked meat and contaminated food. Timely and appropriate treatment and management of this infection prenatally reduces the risk of serious neurological sequelae. Therefore it is crucial that clinician who takes care of pregnant women know this infection deeply. In this review we aimed to summarize the prenatal diagnosis, complications and treatment of toxoplasma infection. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 457-466

  9. Prosthetic Joint Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tande, Aaron J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a tremendous burden for individual patients as well as the global health care industry. While a small minority of joint arthroplasties will become infected, appropriate recognition and management are critical to preserve or restore adequate function and prevent excess morbidity. In this review, we describe the reported risk factors for and clinical manifestations of PJI. We discuss the pathogenesis of PJI and the numerous microorganisms that can cause this devastating infection. The recently proposed consensus definitions of PJI and approaches to accurate diagnosis are reviewed in detail. An overview of the treatment and prevention of this challenging condition is provided. PMID:24696437

  10. Submandibular space infection: a potentially lethal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo-Rizzo, Paolo; Da Mosto, Maria Cristina

    2009-05-01

    The aims of this study were to review the clinical characteristics and management of submandibular space infections and to identify the predisposing factors of life-threatening complications. This was a retrospective study at a tertiary academic center. We retrieved and evaluated the records of all patients admitted to the University of Padua Otolaryngology Clinic at Treviso Regional Hospital with the diagnosis of submandibular space infection for the period 1998-2006. The following variables were reviewed: demographic data, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, associated systemic diseases, bacteriology, imaging studies, medical and surgical treatment, and complications. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was undertaken using a forward stepwise technique. Multivariate analysis identified four risk factors for complications. Anterior visceral space involvement (odds ratio (OR) 54.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.80-511.22) and diabetes mellitus (OR 17.46; 95% CI 2.10-145.29) were the most important predictive factors in the model. Logistic regression analysis also confirmed other comorbidities (OR 11.66; 95% CI 1.35-100.10) and bilateral submandibular swelling (OR 10.67; 95% CI 2.73-41.75) as independent predictors for life-threatening complications. Airway obstruction and spread of the infection to the mediastinum are the most troublesome complications of submandibular space infections. Therefore, the maintenance of a secure airway is paramount. Patients with cellulitis and small abscesses can respond to antibiotics alone. Surgical drainage should be performed in patients with larger abscesses, Ludwig's angina, anterior visceral space involvement, and in those who do not respond to antibiotic treatment. Moreover, the clinical assessment in patients with comorbidities, especially diabetes mellitus, requires a high level of suspicion for potential life-threatening complications. Early surgical drainage should always be considered in these patients, even in

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs ...

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs ...

  14. Neuroinvasive flavivirus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sips, Gregorius J.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    Flaviviruses, including Dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and Tick-borne encephalitis virus, are major emerging human pathogens, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Many clinically important flaviviruses elicit CNS diseases in infected hosts, including traditional "hemorrhagic"

  15. Healthcare Associated Infections - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - state data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  16. Healthcare Associated Infections - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - national data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  17. Bacterial Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other immune disorders, or hepatitis People who are undergoing chemotherapy or treatment with other drugs that suppress the immune system Skin that is inflamed or damaged by sunburn, scratching, or other trauma is more likely to become infected. In fact, ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discomfort Frequent, painful urination Blood in urine Urethra (urethritis) Burning with urination Discharge When to see a ... opening to the bladder. Infection of the urethra (urethritis). This type of UTI can occur when GI ...

  19. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary ... Pneumoniae Infections Page Content Article Body When you hear the word chlamydia, you might think of the sexually transmitted disease (STD) by that ...

  20. Ear Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ear Infection in Children - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section Middle ...

  1. INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS: MODERN COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Vinogradova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristic features of the modern course of infective endocarditis. Unresolved questions of classification of diseaseand drug therapy are discussed. Clearly defined indications for surgical treatment of endocarditis.

  2. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  3. Immunity to parasitic infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Tracey J

    2012-01-01

    ... may be manipulated to develop therapeutic interventions against parasitic infection. For easy reference, the most commonly studied parasites are examined in individual chapters written by investigators at the forefront of their field...

  4. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Toxoplasmosis General Information Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & ...

  5. Pediatric HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Ayesha; Rathore, Mobeen H

    2012-01-01

    As this article was written, celebrating another World AIDS Day, which falls on December 1 each year, was just days away. Not only is this a time to reflect on all the success with the treatment and management of HIV infection, in particular MTCT but also a time to reflect on the challenges ahead. As champions of children, pediatricians need to be more vocal in educating patients, families, and their communities about the risks of sexually transmitted infections and HIV infection and the need for testing as part of routine primary care. This needs to be the norm rather than the exception. All persons should be aware of their HIV status; until and unless this approach is taken, new infections will continue to be seen in young people, and even those who are aware of their status will continue to be wary of seeking care.

  6. Chlamydial infections - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Chlamydial infections - male URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  7. Giardia Infection (Giardiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wash your hands. This is the simplest and best way to prevent most kinds of infection. Wash your ... supply is likely to be unsafe, drink and brush your teeth with bottled water that you open yourself. Don' ...

  8. Healthcare Associated Infections - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI) measures - provider data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  9. Healthcare Associated Infections - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - state data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  10. Small Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.

  11. Testing for TB Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Studies Consortium Research Projects Publications TB Trials Consortium Study Descriptions Background Behavioral & Social Science Research Infection Control TB in Specific Populations African-American Community Stop TB in the African-American ...

  12. Viruses infecting bivalve molluscs

    OpenAIRE

    Renault, Tristan; Novoa, Beatriz

    2004-01-01

    Bivalve molluscs are filter feeders and as a consequence they may bioaccumulate in their tissues viruses that infect humans and higher vertebrates. However, there have also been described mortalities of bivalve molluscs associated with viruses belonging to different families. Mass mortalities of adult Portuguese oysters, Crassostrea angulata, among French livestocks (between 1967 and 1973) were associated with irido-like virus infections. Herpesviruses were reported in the eastern oyster, Pac...

  13. An Infected Mediastinal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M Lawson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a 43-year-old patient who had a mediastinal mass that became infected after a transbronchial needle aspirate biopsy. A paraspinal, extrapleural window with a saline-lidocaine mixture was created that allowed the placement of a percutaneous drainage catheter into the infected lesion. This procedure resulted in an excellent clinical outcome, and obviated the need for a thoracotomy and more invasive surgical management.

  14. Fungal Burn Wound Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Aspergillus), Blasto- T he use of effective topical chemotherapeutic agents to myces (Candida), and Zygomycetes (Mucor, Rhizopus ).6 reduce...below the infected burn wound . If the infection was controlled by these measures and the patient’s condition permit- ted, the involved area was...species, 18%; Mucor species and Rhizopus species, acetate in the morning and silver sulfadiazine in the evening. Prophy- 9.1%; and Microspora species and

  15. Probiotics and Gastrointestinal Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Britton, Robert A.; Versalovic, James

    2008-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The use of probiotics to prevent and treat a variety of diarrheal diseases has gained favor in recent years. Examples where probiotics have positively impacted gastroenteritis will be highlighted. However, the overall efficacy of these treatments and the mechanisms by which probiotics ameliorate gastrointestinal infections are mostly unknown. We will discuss possible m...

  16. Biophysics of Biofilm Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines a likely basis of the tenacity of biofilm infections that has received relatively little attention: the resistance of biofilms to mechanical clearance. One way that a biofilm infection persists is by withstanding the flow of fluid or other mechanical forces that work to wash or sweep microorganisms out of the body. The fundamental criterion for mechanical persistence is that the biofilm failure strength exceeds the external applied stress. Mechanical failure of the biofi...

  17. Nonprimary Cytomegalovirus Fetal Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sofia; Gonçalves, Daniela; Taipa, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Maria do Céu

    2016-04-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common congenital viral infection, causing hearing, visual and psychomotor impairment. Preexisting maternal CMV immunity substantially reduces, but not eliminates, the risk of fetal infection and affectation. This article is about a case of nonprimary maternal CMV infection during pregnancy, with vertical transmission, resulting in severe fetal affectation. Preconceptional analysis indicated maternal CMV past infection. Pregnancy progressed uneventfully until the 20th week ultrasound (US), which revealed cerebral abnormalities: thin and hyperechogenic cerebral cortex with prominent lateral ventricles, bilateral periventricular hyperechogenicities, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and absent corpus callosum. The MRI suggested these findings were compatible with congenital infection rather than primary brain malformation.The fetal karyotype was normal. The title of CMV's IgG antibodies almost tripled. Since the first semester, analysis of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for CMV DNA in the amniotic fluid was negative. The pregnancy was terminated at 23 weeks. Neuropathological findings at autopsy showed severe brain lesions associated with CMV infection. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  18. Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE Nicolle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs other than HIV have reappeared as an important public health problem in developed countries (1. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, research and treatment of the 'classic' STIs - gonorrhea, syphilis and chlamydia - were a major focus of infectious diseases practice and research. There were large outbreaks of syphilis in parts of Canada (2, penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae was a concern (3, and high rates of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with complications of pelvic inflammatory disease and ectopic pregnancy were being reported (4,5. Then, HIV infection emerged, with its spectre of a wasting, early death. There was no effective treatment, and safe sexual practices were embraced and adhered to by high-risk populations as the only effective way to avoid infection. These practices effectively prevented other STIs; rates of syphilis, gonorrhea and chlamydia infection plummeted in developed countries (5. For at least a decade, it appeared that HIV might be an end to all STIs, at least for some parts of the world. STIs continued unabated in developing countries, as many epidemiological and therapeutic studies explored the association of STIs with HIV infection.

  19. Sternal mycobacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shi-Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sternal mycobacterial infections are rare. Due to the rarity, its clinical characteristics, diagnoses, and regular management strategies are still scanty. A total of 76 articles on this topic were obtained by a comprehensive literature collection. The clinical features, diagnosis, management strategies and prognosis were carefully analyzed. There were totally 159 patients including 152 (95% cases of tuberculosis (TB and seven (5% cases of non-TB sternal infections. Sternal mycobacterial infections can be categorized into three types: Primary, secondary, and postoperative, according to the pathogenesis; and categorized into isolated, peristernal, and multifocal, according to the extent of the lesions. Microbiological investigation is more sensitive than medical imaging and Mantoux tuberculin skin test in the diagnosis of sternal infections. Most patients show good responses to the standard four-drug regimen and a surgical intervention was necessary in 28.3% patients. The prognoses of the patients are good with a very low mortality. A delayed diagnosis of sternal mycobacterial infections may bring about recurrent sternal infections and sustained incurability. An early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic regimens may significantly improve the patients' outcomes.

  20. Bilateral simultaneous infective keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    On Annie, Lai Hiu; Ray, Manotosh

    2017-08-01

    To analyze the demographics, risk factors, clinical and microbiological characteristics of cases of bilateral simultaneous infective keratitis. In this retrospective case series, patients with clinical evidence of bilateral simultaneous infective keratitis were identified from January 1, 2011 to August 31, 2016. Demographics, risk factors, clinical and microbiological characteristics, and treatment outcomes were analyzed. Five patients (ten eyes) with bilateral simultaneous infective keratitis were identified. The mean age was 32.8 years (SD,±8.8; range, 24-44). All the patients were disposable soft contact lens wearers before presentation. The average size of the infiltrate was 4.76mm 2 (SD±9.0; range, 0.2-31.34). A total of 4 types of bacteria were isolated, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most frequently isolated bacteria involving 5 eyes of four patients. Infection resolved with medical treatment in 9 eyes, 1 patient required therapeutic corneal transplantation for impending corneal perforation. The average time taken for infection to resolve was 6.7days (SD±4.5; range, 2-16). In this case series, the most common risk factor of bilateral simultaneous microbial keratitis was use of soft disposable contact lens and the most commonly isolated bacteria was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bilateral simultaneous infective keratitis is uncommon and is a serious complication of contact lens use in immunocompetent adult patients. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Bacterial biofilms and infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, I; Del Pozo, J L; Penadés, J R; Leiva, J

    2005-01-01

    In developed countries we tend to think of heart disease and the numerous forms of cancer as the main causes of mortality, but on a global scale infectious diseases come close, or may even be ahead: 14.9 million deaths in 2002 compared to cardiovascular diseases (16.9 million deaths) and cancer (7.1 million deaths) (WHO report 2004). The infectious agents responsible for human mortality have evolved as medical techniques and hygienic measures have changed. Modern-day acute infectious diseases caused by specialized bacterial pathogens such as diphtheria, tetanus, cholera, plague, which represented the main causes of death at the beginning of XX century, have been effectively controlled with antibiotics and vaccines. In their place, more than half of the infectious diseases that affect mildly immunocompromised patients involve bacterial species that are commensal with the human body; these can produce chronic infections, are resistant to antimicrobial agents and there is no effective vaccine against them. Examples of these infections are the otitis media, native valve endocarditis, chronic urinary infections, bacterial prostatitis, osteomyelitis and all the infections related to medical devices. Direct analysis of the surface of medical devices or of tissues that have been foci of chronic infections shows the presence of large numbers of bacteria surrounded by an exopolysaccharide matrix, which has been named the "biofilm". Inside the biofilm, bacteria grow protected from the action of the antibodies, phagocytic cells and antimicrobial treatments. In this article, we describe the role of bacterial biofilms in human persistent infections.

  2. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Goebel, Cristine; de Mattos Oliveira, Flávio; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ubiquitous yeast widely used in industry and it is also a common colonizer of the human mucosae. However, the incidence of invasive infection by these fungi has significantly increased in the last decades. To evaluate the infection by S. cerevisiae in a hospital in southern Brazil during a period of 10 years (2000-2010). Review of medical records of patients infected by this fungus. In this period, 6 patients were found to be infected by S. cerevisiae. The age range of the patients was from 10 years to 84. Urine, blood, ascitic fluid, peritoneal dialysis fluid, and esophageal biopsy samples were analyzed. The predisposing factors were cancer, transplant, surgical procedures, renal failure, use of venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, hospitalization in Intensive Care Unit, diabetes mellitus, chemotherapy, corticosteroid use, and parenteral nutrition. Amphotericin B and fluconazole were the treatments of choice. Three of the patients died and the other 3 were discharged from hospital. We must take special precautions in emerging infections, especially when there are predisposing conditions such as immunosuppression or patients with serious illnesses. The rapid and specific diagnosis of S. cerevisiae infections is important for therapeutic decision. Furthermore, epidemiological and efficacy studies of antifungal agents are necessary for a better therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Postoperative spine infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Domenico Parchi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative spinal wound infection is a potentially devastating complication after operative spinal procedures. Despite the utilization of perioperative prophylactic antibiotics in recent years and improvements in surgical technique and postoperative care, wound infection continues to compromise patients’ outcome after spinal surgery. In the modern era of pending health care reform with increasing financial constraints, the financial burden of post-operative spinal infections also deserves consideration. The aim of our work is to give to the reader an updated review of the latest achievements in prevention, risk factors, diagnosis, microbiology and treatment of post-operative spinal wound infections. A review of the scientific literature was carried out using electronic medical databases Pubmed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus for the years 1973-2012 to obtain access to all publications involving the incidence, risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, treatment of postoperative spinal wound infections. We initially identified 119 studies; of these 60 were selected. Despite all the measures intended to reduce the incidence of surgical site infections in spine surgery, these remain a common and potentially dangerous complication.

  4. Necrotizing soft tissue infections - a multicentre, prospective observational study (INFECT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, M.B.; Skrede, S.; Bruun, T.; Arnell, P.; Rosén, A.; Nekludov, M.; Karlsson, Y.; Bergey, F.; Saccenti, E.; Martins dos Santos, V.A.P.; Perner, A.; Norrby-Teglund, A.; Hyldegaard, O.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The INFECT project aims to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs). The INFECT observational study is part of the INFECT project with the aim of studying the clinical profile of patients with NSTIs and correlating

  5. CIED infection with either pocket or systemic infection presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Møller-Hansen, Michael; Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    -up no relapses and two cases of new infections were noted (2.8%). CONCLUSIONS: CIED infection with systemic or pocket infection was difficult to distinguish in clinical presentation and outcome. Complete device removal and antibiotic treatment of long duration was safe and without relapses....... infection during the period from 2005 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. CIED infections were categorized as systemic or pocket infections. Treatment included complete removal of the device, followed by antibiotic treatment of six weeks. RESULTS: Seventy-one device removals due to infection (32 systemic...

  6. Effect of milk production system on the enzootic stability to Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bovis in calves in the Campo das Vertentes region of Minas Gerais state, BrazilEfeito do sistema de produção de leite sobre a estabilidade enzoótica para Anaplasma marginale e Babesia bovis em bezerras na região do Campo das Vertentes de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães Rocha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a cross-sectional observational study, in order to determine the frequency of anti-A. marginale and anti-B. bovis antibodies in calves from four to 12 months of age from ten farms that producing B type milk and an equal number that produce raw milk refrigerated, located in the Campo das Vertentes region of Minas Gerais state, in the period September 2008 to August 2009. Blood smears were performed, serologic testing by indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFAT, given the packed cell volume, rickettsemia, and the clinical scores of animals infected by A. marginale. In the farms that produce B type milk, the overall average frequency of seropositive calves was 94.47% (166/176 and 89.20% (157/176 for A. marginale and B. bovis, respectively. Already on the farms that produce raw milk refrigerated, the overall average frequency of A. marginale was 92.59% (149/161 and for B. bovis from 86.30% (139/161, and there was no significant difference (p > 0.05 in the frequency of calves infected for both hemoparasitic between the two systems of milk production. Statistically significant (p 0.05 among calves from properties that produce B type milk and raw milk refrigerated. The results of this study indicate that, in the Campos das Vertentes region of Minas Gerais, the production system does not interfere with the enzootic stability for A. marginale and B. bovis in calves from dairy farms B milk or raw milk refrigerated, with low probability of anaplasmosis and/or babesiosis in adults animals.Foi realizado um estudo observacional do tipo transversal, com o objetivo de determinar a frequência de anticorpos anti-A. marginale e B. bovis em 337 bezerras com idade entre quatro a 12 meses, oriundas de dez propriedades produtoras de leite B e igual número de fazendas de leite cru refrigerado (leite C, na região do Campo das Vertentes de Minas Gerais, no período de setembro de 2008 a agosto de 2009. Foram realizados esfregaços sangu

  7. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  8. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Med 1998;24:206-16. Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics ... 25:201-25. Zilberberg MD, Shorr AF. Fungal infections in the ICU. Infect Dis ... D. Nosocomial aspergillosis and building construction. Med Mycol 2009;47 ...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Urinary Tract Infections What's in ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is the ...

  10. Detection of human bacterial pathogens in ticks collected from Louisiana black bears (Ursus americanus luteolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydet, Brian F; Liang, Fang-Ting

    2013-04-01

    There are 4 major human-biting tick species in the northeastern United States, which include: Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis. The black bear is a large mammal that has been shown to be parasitized by all the aforementioned ticks. We investigated the bacterial infections in ticks collected from Louisiana black bears (Ursus americanus subspecies luteolus). Eighty-six ticks were collected from 17 black bears in Louisiana from June 2010 to March 2011. All 4 common human-biting tick species were represented. Each tick was subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting select bacterial pathogens and symbionts. Bacterial DNA was detected in 62% of ticks (n=53). Rickettsia parkeri, the causative agent of an emerging spotted fever group rickettsiosis, was identified in 66% of A. maculatum, 28% of D. variabilis, and 11% of I. scapularis. The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, was detected in 2 I. scapularis, while one A. americanum was positive for Borrelia bissettii, a putative human pathogen. The rickettsial endosymbionts Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, rickettsial endosymbiont of I. scapularis, and Rickettsia amblyommii were detected in their common tick hosts at 21%, 39%, and 60%, respectively. All ticks were PCR-negative for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp., and Babesia microti. This is the first reported detection of R. parkeri in vector ticks in Louisiana; we also report the novel association of R. parkeri with I. scapularis. Detection of both R. parkeri and B. burgdorferi in their respective vectors in Louisiana demands further investigation to determine potential for human exposure to these pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Life history and demographic drivers of reservoir competence for three tick-borne zoonotic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostfeld, Richard S; Levi, Taal; Jolles, Anna E; Martin, Lynn B; Hosseini, Parviez R; Keesing, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Animal and plant species differ dramatically in their quality as hosts for multi-host pathogens, but the causes of this variation are poorly understood. A group of small mammals, including small rodents and shrews, are among the most competent natural reservoirs for three tick-borne zoonotic pathogens, Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia microti, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, in eastern North America. For a group of nine commonly-infected mammals spanning >2 orders of magnitude in body mass, we asked whether life history features or surrogates for (unknown) encounter rates with ticks, predicted reservoir competence for each pathogen. Life history features associated with a fast pace of life generally were positively correlated with reservoir competence. However, a model comparison approach revealed that host population density, as a proxy for encounter rates between hosts and pathogens, generally received more support than did life history features. The specific life history features and the importance of host population density differed somewhat between the different pathogens. We interpret these results as supporting two alternative but non-exclusive hypotheses for why ecologically widespread, synanthropic species are often the most competent reservoirs for multi-host pathogens. First, multi-host pathogens might adapt to those hosts they are most likely to experience, which are likely to be the most abundant and/or frequently bitten by tick vectors. Second, species with fast life histories might allocate less to certain immune defenses, which could increase their reservoir competence. Results suggest that of the host species that might potentially be exposed, those with comparatively high population densities, small bodies, and fast pace of life will often be keystone reservoirs that should be targeted for surveillance or management.

  12. Body lice of homeless people reveal the presence of several emerging bacterial pathogens in northern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louni, Meriem; Mana, Nassima; Bitam, Idir; Dahmani, Mustapha; Parola, Philippe; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2018-04-17

    Human lice, Pediculus humanus, are obligate blood-sucking parasites. Body lice, Pediculus h. humanus, occur in two divergent mitochondrial clades (A and D) each exhibiting a particular geographic distribution. Currently, the body louse is recognized as the only vector for louse-borne diseases. In this study, we aimed to study the genetic diversity of body lice collected from homeless populations in three localities of northern Algeria, and to investigate louse-borne pathogens in these lice. In this study, 524 body lice specimens were collected from 44 homeless people in three localities: Algiers, Tizi Ouzou and Boumerdès located in northern Algeria. Duplex clade specific real-time PCRs (qPCR) and Cytochrome b (cytb) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis were performed in order to identify the mitochondrial clade. Screening of louse-borne pathogens bacteria was based on targeting specific genes for each pathogen using qPCR supplemented by sequencing. All body lice belong to clade A. Through amplification and sequencing of the cytb gene we confirmed the presence of three haplotypes: A5, A9 and A63, which is novel. The molecular investigation of the 524 body lice samples revealed the presence of four human pathogens: Bartonella quintana (13.35%), Coxiella burnetii (10.52%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (0.76%) and Acinetobacter species (A. baumannii, A. johnsonii, A. berezeniae, A. nosocomialis and A. variabilis, in total 46.94%). To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to show the genetic diversity and presence of several emerging pathogenic bacteria in homeless' body lice from Algeria. We also report for the first time, the presence of several species of Acinetobacter in human body lice. Our results highlight the fact that body lice may be suspected as being a much broader vector of several pathogenic agents than previously thought. Nevertheless, other studies are needed to encourage epidemiological investigations and surveys of louse-associated infections.

  13. Life history and demographic drivers of reservoir competence for three tick-borne zoonotic pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S Ostfeld

    Full Text Available Animal and plant species differ dramatically in their quality as hosts for multi-host pathogens, but the causes of this variation are poorly understood. A group of small mammals, including small rodents and shrews, are among the most competent natural reservoirs for three tick-borne zoonotic pathogens, Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia microti, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, in eastern North America. For a group of nine commonly-infected mammals spanning >2 orders of magnitude in body mass, we asked whether life history features or surrogates for (unknown encounter rates with ticks, predicted reservoir competence for each pathogen. Life history features associated with a fast pace of life generally were positively correlated with reservoir competence. However, a model comparison approach revealed that host population density, as a proxy for encounter rates between hosts and pathogens, generally received more support than did life history features. The specific life history features and the importance of host population density differed somewhat between the different pathogens. We interpret these results as supporting two alternative but non-exclusive hypotheses for why ecologically widespread, synanthropic species are often the most competent reservoirs for multi-host pathogens. First, multi-host pathogens might adapt to those hosts they are most likely to experience, which are likely to be the most abundant and/or frequently bitten by tick vectors. Second, species with fast life histories might allocate less to certain immune defenses, which could increase their reservoir competence. Results suggest that of the host species that might potentially be exposed, those with comparatively high population densities, small bodies, and fast pace of life will often be keystone reservoirs that should be targeted for surveillance or management.

  14. Infected nonunion of tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Madhav Chaudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infected nonunions of tibia pose many challenges to the treating surgeon and the patient. Challenges include recalcitrant infection, complex deformities, sclerotic bone ends, large bone gaps, shortening, and joint stiffness. They are easy to diagnose and difficult to treat. The ASAMI classification helps decide treatment. The nonunion severity score proposed by Calori measures many parameters to give a prognosis. The infection severity score uses simple clinical signs to grade severity of infection. This determines number of surgeries and allows choice of hardware, either external or internal for definitive treatment. Co-morbid factors such as smoking, diabetes, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and hypovitaminosis D influence the choice and duration of treatment. Thorough debridement is the mainstay of treatment. Removal of all necrotic bone and soft tissue is needed. Care is exercised in shaping bone ends. Internal fixation can help achieve union if infection was mild. Severe infections need external fixation use in a second stage. Compression at nonunion site achieves union. It can be combined with a corticotomy lengthening at a distant site for equalization. Soft tissue deficit has to be covered by flaps, either local or microvascular. Bone gaps are best filled with the reliable technique of bone transport. Regenerate bone may be formed proximally, distally, or at both sites. Acute compression can fill bone gaps and may need a fibular resection. Gradual reduction of bone gap happens with bone transport, without need for fibulectomy. When bone ends dock, union may be achieved by vertical or horizontal compression. Biological stimulus from iliac crest bone grafts, bone marrow aspirate injections, and platelet concentrates hasten union. Bone graft substitutes add volume to graft and help fill defects. Addition of rh-BMP-7 may help in healing albeit at a much higher cost. Regeneration may need stimulation and augmentation. Induced

  15. [Atherosclerosis and infection?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, K

    2006-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is guided by chronicle inflammation process. In the last decades of the 20th century, studies considering infection another possible risk factor of atherosclerosis development were written. Helicobacter pylori, Porphyromas gingivalis, some viruses but most frequently Chlamydia pneumonie are infection agens mentioned in these studies. Some of them emphasize also combined infections caused by more pathogenic factors having influence on vascular inflammation. Serological, epidemiological, histological and imunological studies show the pathogenic influence of acute or chronic infections. Many studies selected makrolid antibiotics as treatment in patients with ischaemic heart disease. However, existing experience with antibiotics did not bring clear results. These studies have mentioned the fact antibiotics have not been indicated as treatment in patients with acute or chronic vascular system infliction by atherosclerosis. Since the experimental and clinical research of influence of inflammations on the development of atherosclerosis moved forward a lot, no exact evidence of this complicated pathogenic mechanism was given. It will obviously take some time to confirm whether the relation between infections and artherosclerosis is causal, i.e. initiating the pathogenic process, accelerating it or keeping it alive.

  16. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  17. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Agnese Latino

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t. infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in Europe and in developed countries. The main biological features and pathogenic mechanisms of C.t. infection are summarized in this review. It usually occurs without symptoms and often goes undiagnosed. If untreated, it can cause severe consequences for women, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility. Several studies have found that Chlamydia is more common among young women <25 years old, with multiple sexual partners within six months and non protected intercourses. Because re-infection rates are high, complications may be reduced if partners are treated and women re-tested. This paper emphasizes the importance of counselling and prevention programs and underlines that selective screening of high-risk population remains an essential component of C.t. control. In the last years, the detection of C.t. infection has been improved in sensitivity and specificity.We describe the main diagnostic techniques, from culture, enzyme immunoassay (EIA, direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA to the new DNA-based test systems. Actually, NAATs (nucleic acid amplification tests are regarded as the gold standard diagnostic techniques for chlamydial infections.

  18. [Atypical mycobacterial infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautzenberg, B; Mercat, A

    1994-10-22

    Infrequent and forgotten before the advent of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections are now often encountered, predominately in patients positive for the human immune deficiency virus (HIV). In non-AIDS patients, Mycobacterium kansasii, M. avium and M. xenopi are the most common causal agents of pulmonary mycobacterial infections. Nodes and skin diseases are less frequent. M. kansasii infections are treated for 12 months with a standard combination of rifampin, isoniazid and ethambutol. The treatment for M. xenopi and M. avium infections have not yet been standardized. The AIDS epidemia has modified the epidemiology of these disease and there has been a 10-fold increase in incidence. Disseminated M. avium infections occur in 15% of patients at end-stage AIDS. This new epidemia has triggered research leading to the discovery of new diagnostic procedure including blood culture media for mycobacteria, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and new active drugs. New active macrolides such as clarithromycine and azithromycine are active against M. avium and new rifampicin-related drugs such as rifabutine and new quinolones are under investigation.

  19. [Clinically documented fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakeya, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2008-12-01

    Proven fungal infections are diagnosed by histological/microbiological evidence of fungi at the site of infection and positive blood culture (fungemia). However, invasive diagnosing examinations are not always applied for all of immunocompromised patients. Clinically documented invasive fungal infections are diagnosed by typical radiological findings such as halo sign on chest CT plus positive serological/molecular evidence of fungi. Serological tests of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen and beta-glucan for aspergillosis and cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan antigen for cryptococcosis are useful. Hence, none of reliable serological tests for zygomycosis are available so far. In this article, risk factors, sign and symptoms, and diagnostic methods for clinically documented cases of invasive aspergillosis, pulmonary cryptococcosis, and zygomycosis with diabates, are reviewed.

  20. Pregnancy and HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Sucu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection is progressing rapidly. In developed countries, the perinatal transmission rates have decreased from 20-30% to 1-2% with the use of antiretroviral therapy and cesarean section. Interventions for the prevention of prenatal transmission has made the prenatal care of pregnant patients with HIV infection more complex. Rapid development of standard care and continuing increase in the distribution of HIV infection has required clinicians taking care of pregnants to have current information. Therefore, in our review we aimed to summarize the prenatal course, treatment and preventive methods for perinatal transmission of HIV. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 522-535

  1. Apoptosis in Pneumovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinout A. Bem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumovirus infections cause a wide spectrum of respiratory disease in humans and animals. The airway epithelium is the major site of pneumovirus replication. Apoptosis or regulated cell death, may contribute to the host anti-viral response by limiting viral replication. However, apoptosis of lung epithelial cells may also exacerbate lung injury, depending on the extent, the timing and specific location in the lungs. Differential apoptotic responses of epithelial cells versus innate immune cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages during pneumovirus infection can further contribute to the complex and delicate balance between host defense and disease pathogenesis. The purpose of this manuscript is to give an overview of the role of apoptosis in pneumovirus infection. We will examine clinical and experimental data concerning the various pro-apoptotic stimuli and the roles of apoptotic epithelial and innate immune cells during pneumovirus disease. Finally, we will discuss potential therapeutic interventions targeting apoptosis in the lungs.

  2. Superficial fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan P

    2012-04-01

    Tinea capitis, tinea corporis, and pityriasis versicolor are common superficial fungal infections in the pediatric population. • Tinea capitis is the most common dermatophyte infection worldwide. In North America, the cause is almost exclusively T tonsurans. Diagnosis of tinea capitis usually can be made by clinical features alone, especially when occipital or postauricular lymphadenopathy is present. Skin scrapings prepared with potassium hydroxide for microscopic examination, or a cotton swab for fungal culture, usually are diagnostic. • Treatment of tinea capitis requires systemic antifungal therapy. Terbinafine and griseofulvin are both effective against T tonsurans and are FDA-approved for this indication in children. • Adjunctive topical therapy for the patient and household contacts decreases transmission of this infection. • Topical antifungal therapy usually is effective for tinea corporis and pityriasis versicolor. However, recurrences of pityriasis versicolor are common.

  3. Zika virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laval, F; Leparc-Goffart, I; Meynard, J-B; Daubigny, H; Simon, F; Briolant, S

    2016-05-01

    Since its discovery in 1947 in Uganda, the Zika virus (ZIKV) remained in the shadows emerging in 2007 in Micronesia, where hundreds of dengue-like syndromes were reported. Then, in 2013-2014, it was rife in French Polynesia, where the first neurological effects were observed. More recently, its arrival in Brazil was accompanied by an unusually high number of children with microcephaly born to mothers infected with ZIKV during the first trimester of pregnancy. In 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be a public health emergency and now talks about a ZIKV pandemic. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about ZIKV infection, successively addressing its transmission, epidemiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention before discussing some perspectives.

  4. Imaging spinal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Acharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection involving the vertebral column, including the bone, intervertebral disk, and paravertebral soft tissues is critical and early diagnosis and directed treatment is paramount. Different infectious organisms present with variable imaging characteristics, which when examined in conjunction with the clinical history, can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately prevent patient morbidity and mortality. This article discusses the pathophysiology of infection of the vertebral column, as well as the imaging findings of bacterial, tuberculous, and fungal spondylitis/spondylodiskitis. We review the imaging findings utilizing plain radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as a discussion regarding advanced imaging techniques.

  5. Surgical infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious extra...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma.......Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious...

  6. Dipylidium caninum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Raúl Romero; Ruiz, Aurora Candil; Feregrino, Raul Romero; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Feregrino, Rodrigo Romero; Zavala, Jorge Tay

    2011-11-15

    Dipylidium caninum is a cestode that requires from the participation of an arthropod in its life cycle. This parasitosis occurs in dogs and cats, and occasionally in human beings. Human cases of D caninum infection have been reported in Europe, Philippines, China, Japan, Latin America and the United States; mostly children, one third of them being infants under 6 months old. The diagnosis of this disease is done by the parasitological study of the feces, observing the characteristics of the gravid proglottids. The treatment is performed by administering broad-spectrum anthelmintics. The authors report a case of a rare infection in a Mexican child.

  7. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  8. Imaging of Odontogenic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardini, Shaza; Gohel, Anita

    2018-01-01

    Odontogenic infections represent a common clinical problem in patients of all ages. The presence of teeth enables the direct spread of inflammatory products from dental caries, trauma, and/or periodontal disease into the maxilla and mandible. The radiographic changes seen depend on the type and duration of the inflammatory process and host body response. Imaging plays a central role in identifying the source of infection and the extent of the disease spread and in detecting any complications. Many different imaging modalities can be used. The radiographic features associated with acute and chronic inflammatory processes are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Apoptose na infecção experimental de cães domésticos com Ehrlichia canis Apoptosis in experimental infection with Ehrlichia canis in domestic dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Ximena Barbosa Sanchez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A Erliquiose canina é uma zoonose causada pela Ehrlichia canis, bactéria Gram negativa de distribuição mundial. Alguns cães com erliquiose se tornam portadores assintomáticos enquanto outros desenvolvem uma doença aguda com morte rápida. A apoptose pode ser importante na eliminação de patógenos intracelulares, podendo, nas infecções por Ehrlichia sp. e Anaplasma sp., ocorrer modulação da apoptose celular para prolongar a sobrevivência desses organismos. Para avaliação do papel da apoptose na erliquiose canina, sete cães foram distribuídos em dois grupos. No Grupo inoculado, realizou-se a infecção por via intravenosa com sangue infectado com E. canis (isolado Jaboticabal, sendo realizada a inoculação com PBS estéril nos animais pertencentes ao Grupo Controle. Semanalmente e até 35 dias pós-inoculação, amostras de sangue foram coletadas e submetidas a n-PCR e reação de imunofluorescência (RIFI para confirmação da infecção. No 36° dia pós-inoculação, os animais foram eutanasiados, sendo as amostras de baço, linfonodo, rim e fígado coletadas e processadas para as técnicas de TUNEL e imunohistoquímica (Bcl-2, Bax. Verificou-se pela n-PCR que os animais inoculados se tornaram positivos para E. canis a partir da segunda semana. Pela RIFI, verificou-se animais com sorologia positiva a partir da terceira semana pós-inoculação. No grupo controle, todos os testes realizados foram negativos para E. canis. Apesar da reação de TUNEL mostrar maior incidência de apoptose no Grupo Inoculado, sendo o baço e os linfonodos os órgãos que apresentaram maior marcação, os resultados da imunohistoquímica para Bcl-2 e Bax indicam que a via intrínseca de apoptose não é importante nos órgãos analisados.Some dogs infected with Ehrlichia canis become asymptomatic while others develop an acute illness followed by quick death. Apoptosis may be an important mechanism for elimination of intracellular pathogens. Also

  10. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS AND CERVICAL CYTOLOGY IN HIV INFECTED WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasuki Shanmugam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND As on 2015 Human immunodeficiency virus estimations in India, people living with HIV are 21.17 lakhs, women with HIV constituting 2/5th of the total. The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and malignancy are more in HIV infected people. Cervical cancer is one of the leading cancers among Indian women. HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections, Human Papilloma Virus infection in particular act synergistic in predisposing to cervical neoplasia. Undetected cervical cancer may increase the mortality of HIV infected women. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a case control study done at STI clinic of tertiary hospital of South India involving 100 HIV infected women and 50 HIV uninfected women as control. STI screening and cervical cytology was done for both the group. RESULTS Sociodemographic profile was similar for both the groups pertaining to Age, Occupation, Literacy. 80% of women in study group and control group were married and monogamous. 34% of HIV infected women had early sexual debut because of early marriage (P value .006. 86% of HIV infected and 40% of HIV uninfected women had sexually transmitted infections. (P value .000.Abnormal cervical cytology was found more in HIV infected women. Inflammatory smear was found in 65% of HIV infected women and in 42% of HIV uninfected women. Epithelial cell abnormalities were found in 25% of HIV infected women and in 2% of control group. High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was found in 4% of study group and none in control group. CONCLUSION Prevalence of STI and abnormal cervical cytology are more common in HIV infected women. Sexually transmitted infections, HIV and HPV in particular, are the proven risk factors of cervical malignancy .So prevention of cervical cancer lies in controlling STI and preventing HPV infection by early vaccination. Screening for STI and periodic Pap smear screening should be ideally done for all HIV infected women as per NACO guidelines.

  11. Mycobacterium ulcerans infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, TS; van der Graaf, WTA; Tappero, JW; Asiedu, K

    1999-01-01

    After tuberculosis and leprosy, Buruli-ulcer disease (caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans) is the third most common mycobacterial disease in immunocompetent people. Countries in which the disease is endemic have been identified, predominantly in areas of tropical rain forest; the

  12. (HLB) infected citrus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... Citrus grown in Malaysia have been infected since 1990 and large areas of citrus orchards had to be eradicated. The pathogen belongs to the genus Candi- datus Liberibacter. It is a phloem limited and fastidious bacteria. HLB pathogen is transmitted by citrus psyllid. Diaphorina citri in Asia and America, ...

  13. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides ; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients- Candida , Pneumocystis , and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  14. Wound Infections PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-25

    This 30 second public service announcement is about how to avoid a wound infection after a disaster.  Created: 10/25/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/25/2017.

  15. Mycoplasma genitalium Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-02-08

    Dr. Lisa Manhart, a professor of Epidemiology and Global Health with the Center for AIDS and STD at the University of Washington, discusses Mycoplasma genitalium Infections.  Created: 2/8/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/8/2018.

  16. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of peptic ulcers, and it can also cause gastritis and stomach cancer. About 30 to 40 percent of people in the United States get an H. pylori infection. Most people get it as a child. ... This can lead to gastritis or a peptic ulcer. Researchers aren't sure ...

  17. Infections and endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Tymen T.; Mairuhu, Albert T. A.; de Kruif, Martijn D.; Klein, Saskia K.; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; ten Cate, Hugo; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; Levi, Marcel; van Gorp, Eric C. M.

    2003-01-01

    Systemic infection by various pathogens interacts with the endothelium and may result in altered coagulation, vasculitis and atherosclerosis. Endothelium plays a role in the initiation and regulation of both coagulation and fibrinolysis. Exposure of endothelial cells may lead to rapid activation of

  18. Vitamin C and Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-03-29

    In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose-response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6-8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3-4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  19. Investigating Shigella sonnei Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-17

    Dr. Nancy Strockbine, Chief of the Escherichia and Shigella Reference Unit at CDC, discusses Shigella sonnei infections.  Created: 11/17/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/21/2011.

  20. Sexually transmitted infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Sexually transmitted infections: Prevalence, knowledge and treatment practices among female sex workers in a cosmopolitan city in Nigeria. Adekemi O Sekoni*, Oluwakemi O Odukoya, Adebayo T Onajole, Kofoworola A Odeyemi. Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  2. Vitamin C and Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Hemilä

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  3. Psychogenic "HIV infection"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sno, H. N.; Storosum, J. G.; Wortel, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    The case of a man who falsely represented himself as being HIV positive is reported. In less than one year he was admitted twice with symptoms suggestive of HIV infection. The diagnoses malingering and factitious disorder were consecutively made. Early recognition of Factitious Disorder is essential

  4. Metabolic Effects of Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    P., Jr.- ystemic and regional arterioveno shunting in 9:181, 1977. endotoxic m septic shock in dogs . Surg Forum :55, 1976. Weisel, R. D., Vito, L...proteins, accelera- L., and Nichols. B. L. (eds.): Symposium on Impact of Infection on tion of hepatic gluconeogenesis , ureagenesis and Nutritional Status of

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    the use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  6. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  7. Middle Ear Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to develop a serious illness. What if a child with a middle ear infection is in great pain and discomfort? The mainstay of pain management for AOM is medications such as acetominophen ... before the child's bedtime. Fortunately, by 24 hours about 60 percent ...

  8. Odontogenic Orofacial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertossi, Dario; Barone, Antonio; Iurlaro, Antonio; Marconcini, Simone; De Santis, Daniele; Finotti, Marco; Procacci, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    Acute dental abscess is a frequent and sometimes underestimated disease of the oral cavity. The acute dental abscess usually occurs secondary to caries, trauma, or failed endodontic treatment. After the intact pulp chamber is opened, colonization of the root canals takes place with a variable set of anaerobic bacteria, which colonize the walls of the necrotic root canals forming a specialized mixed anaerobic biofilm. Asymptomatic necrosis is common. However, abscess formation occurs when these bacteria and their toxic products breach into the periapical tissues through the apical foramen and induce acute inflammation and pus formation. The main signs and symptoms of the acute dental abscess (often referred to as a periapical abscess or infection) are pain, swelling, erythema, and suppuration usually localized to the affected tooth, even if the abscess can eventually spread causing a severe odontogenic infection which is characterized by local and systemic involvement culminating in sepsis syndrome. The vast majority of dental abscesses respond to antibiotic treatment, however, in some patients surgical management of the infection may be indicated. In the present work, a retrospective analysis of the patients with dental orofacial infections referred to the Unit of Dentistry and Maxillofacial Surgery of the University of Verona from 1991 to 2011 has been performed.

  9. Diagnosis of bacterial infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rapid and easy-to-use test for bacterial infections. Clearly, this is a very ... detect antigens or specific antibodies, e.g. group A streptococcal antigen testing can be employed to reduce antibiotic use. Culture-based tests are often ... White blood cell count 12 000 cells/mm³; or the presence of >10% ...

  10. Viral infection of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheik, A.R.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Lavik, G.; Foster, R.A.; Musat, N.; Adam, B.; Kuypers, M.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Phaeocystis globosa is an ecologically important bloom-forming phytoplankton, which sequesters substantial amounts of inorganic carbon and can form carbon-enriched chitinous star-like structures. Viruses infecting P.globosa (PgVs) play a significant regulatory role in population dynamics of the host

  11. Varicella zoster virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Anne A.; Breuer, Judith; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gershon, Michael D.; Gilden, Don; Grose, Charles; Hambleton, Sophie; Kennedy, Peter G. E.; Oxman, Michael N.; Seward, Jane F.; Yamanishi, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chickenpox), which can be severe in immunocompromised individuals, infants and adults. Primary infection is followed by latency in ganglionic neurons. During this period, no virus particles are produced and no obvious neuronal damage occurs. Reactivation of the virus leads to virus replication, which causes zoster (shingles) in tissues innervated by the involved neurons, inflammation and cell death — a process that can lead to persistent radicular pain (postherpetic neuralgia). The pathogenesis of postherpetic neuralgia is unknown and it is difficult to treat. Furthermore, other zoster complications can develop, including myelitis, cranial nerve palsies, meningitis, stroke (vasculopathy), retinitis, and gastroenterological infections such as ulcers, pancreatitis and hepatitis. VZV is the only human herpesvirus for which highly effective vaccines are available. After varicella or vaccination, both wild-type and vaccine-type VZV establish latency, and long-term immunity to varicella develops. However, immunity does not protect against reactivation. Thus, two vaccines are used: one to prevent varicella and one to prevent zoster. In this Primer we discuss the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of VZV infections, with an emphasis on the molecular events that regulate these diseases. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/14×VI1 PMID:27188665

  12. Salmonella Infections in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bula-Rudas, Fernando J; Rathore, Mobeen H; Maraqa, Nizar F

    2015-08-01

    Salmonella are gram-negative bacilli within the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Animals (pets) are an important reservoir for nontyphoidal Salmonella, whereas humans are the only natural host and reservoir for Salmonella Typhi. Salmonella infections are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. They account for an estimated 2.8 billion cases of diarrheal disease each year. The transmission of Salmonella is frequently associated with the consumption of contaminated water and food of animal origin, and it is facilitated by conditions of poor hygiene. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infections have a worldwide distribution, whereas most typhoidal Salmonella infections in the United States are acquired abroad. In the United States, Salmonella is a common agent for food-borne–associated infections. Several outbreaks have been identified and are most commonly associated with agricultural products. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection is usually characterized by a self-limited gastroenteritis in immunocompetent hosts in industrialized countries, but it may also cause invasive disease in vulnerable individuals (eg, children less than 1 year of age, immunocompromised). Antibiotic treatment is not recommended for treatment of mild to moderate gastroenteritis by nontyphoidal Salmonella in immunocompetent adults or children more than 1 year of age. Antibiotic treatment is recommended for nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in infants less than 3 months of age, because they are at higher risk for bacteremia and extraintestinal complications. Typhoid (enteric) fever and its potential complications have a significant impact on children, especially those who live in developing countries. Antibiotic treatment of typhoid fever has become challenging because of the emergence of Salmonella Typhi strains that are resistant to classically used first-line agents: ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol. The

  13. Effect of owner-controlled acaricidal treatment on tick infestation and immune response to tick-borne pathogens in naturally infested dogs from Eastern Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschnik, Michael; Feiler, Andrea; Duscher, Georg G; Joachim, Anja

    2013-03-09

    Tick-borne infections resulting from regular tick infestation in dogs are a common veterinary health problem all over the world. The application of repellent and acaricidal agents to prevent transmission of pathogens is a major protection strategy and has been proven to be highly effective in several trials under laboratory and natural conditions in dogs. Despite such promising results, many dog owners still report tick infestation in their dogs although acaricidal agents are used. Information about the current infection status and changes of the infection status regarding tick-borne diseases (TBD) in dogs treated by the owner's controlled acaricide application is lacking. In this study 30 dogs were each treated with permethrin, fipronil + S-methoprene, or served as untreated controls. Application of the acaricide was performed by the owner who decided when and how often to use the spot on preparation. Over a period of 11 months, dogs were clinically examined and sampled for antibody responses against Babesia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi s. l., and TBE virus before the study started, 6 months later and at the end of the investigation period. The permethrin acaricide was applied on average 3.40 times within the examination period, whereas the fipronil + S-methoprene medication was applied 3.03 times. Approximately 2/3 of all dogs, independent of the group, had a positive immune response to one or more pathogens. Three dogs developed clinical symptoms of canine babesiosis, all other dogs remained healthy. Individual number of ticks per dog or number of infections per dog did not correlate with the application rate, and the number of ticks per dog did not influence the number of infections per dog. As owners did not apply the acaricides regularly no influence on the number of infections could be documented although the number of ticks was clearly reduced by the application of the spot-on drugs. Clinical disease in dogs exposed to tick

  14. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligio Pizzigallo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.. However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious. Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse

  15. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ...

  16. HIV/AIDS and Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having HIV/AIDS weakens your body's immune system. It destroys the white blood cells that fight infection. This puts ... such as crypto (cryptosporidiosis) and toxo (toxoplasmosis) Having HIV/AIDS can make infections harder to treat. People ...

  17. Infective endocarditis, 1984 through 1993

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Hagelskjaer, L H; Tvede, M

    1997-01-01

    To characterize the epidemiology and the clinical and microbiological spectrum of infective endocarditis in a Danish population.......To characterize the epidemiology and the clinical and microbiological spectrum of infective endocarditis in a Danish population....

  18. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Soil-transmitted helminth infections Fact sheet Updated September 2017 Key facts Soil-transmitted helminth infections are caused by different species ...

  19. Side Effects: Infection and Neutropenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection and neutropenia can be serious side effects during cancer treatment. Chemotherapy can increase your risk. Learn how to prevent infection during treatment. Find out what signs and symptoms to call the doctor about.

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infection before anyone else can see there's anything wrong with you. That's why it's important to talk ... kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. What Will the Doctor Do? First, your ...