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Sample records for anaplasma phagocytophilum exploits

  1. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in White-tailed Deer

    OpenAIRE

    Massung, Robert F.; Courtney, Joshua W.; Hiratzka, Shannon L.; Virginia E. Pitzer; Smith, Gary; Dryden, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the reservoir potential of white-tailed deer for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Results suggest that white-tailed deer harbor a variant strain not associated with human infection, but contrary to published reports, white-tailed deer are not a reservoir for strains that cause human disease. These results will affect surveillance studies of vector and reservoir populations.

  2. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks in Slovenia

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    Knap Nataša

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ticks act as vectors of many pathogens of domestic animals and humans. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Europe is transmitted by the ixodid tick vector Ixodes ricinus. A. phagocytophilum causes a disease with diverse clinical signs in various hosts. A great genetic diversity of the groESL operon of A. phagocytophilum has been found in ticks elsewhere. In Slovenia, the variety of the groESL operon was conducted only on deer samples. In this study, the prevalence of infected ticks was estimated and the diversity of A. phagocytophilum was evaluated. On 8 locations in Slovenia, 1924 and 5049 (6973 I. ricinus ticks were collected from vegetation in the years 2005 and 2006, respectively. All three feeding stages of the tick's life cycle were examined. The prevalence of ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum in the year 2005 and in the year 2006 was 0.31% and 0.63%, respectively, and it did not differ considerably between locations. The similarity among the sequences of groESL ranged from 95.6% to 99.8%. They clustered in two genetic lineages along with A. phagocytophilum from Slovenian deer. One sequence formed a separate cluster. According to our study, the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in ticks is comparable to the findings in other studies in Europe, and it does not vary considerably between locations and tick stages. According to groESL operon analysis, two genetic lineages have been confirmed and one proposed. Further studies on other genes would be useful to obtain more information on genetic diversity of A. phagocytophilum in ticks in Slovenia.

  3. Lessons from Anaplasma phagocytophilum: Chromatin Remodeling by Bacterial Effectors

    OpenAIRE

    Rennoll-Bankert, Kristen E.; Dumler, J. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens can alter global host gene expression via histone modifications and chromatin remodeling in order to subvert host responses, including those involved with innate immunity, allowing for bacterial survival. Shigella flexneri, Listeria monocytogenes, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum express effector proteins that modify host histones and chromatin structure. A. phagocytophilum modulates granulocyte respiratory burst in part by dampening transcription of se...

  4. Circulation of four Anaplasma phagocytophilum ecotypes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahfari, Setareh; Coipan, E Claudia; Fonville, Manoj; van Leeuwen, Arieke Docters; Hengeveld, Paul; Heylen, Dieter; Heyman, Paul; van Maanen, Cees; Butler, Catherine M; Földvári, Gábor; Szekeres, Sándor; van Duijvendijk, Gilian; Tack, Wesley; Rijks, Jolianne M; van der Giessen, Joke; Takken, Willem; van Wieren, Sipke E; Takumi, Katsuhisa; Sprong, Hein

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the etiological agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and animals. Wild animals and ticks play key roles in the enzootic cycles of the pathogen. Potential ecotypes of A. phagocytophilum have been characterized genetically, but their host range, zoonoti

  5. Circulation of four Anaplasma phagocytophilum ecotypes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahfari, S.; Coipan, E.C.; Fonville, M.; Leeuwen, van A.D.; Hengeveld, P.; Heylen, D.; Heyman, P.; Maanen, van C.; Butler, C.M.; Foldvari, G.; Szekeres, S.; Duijvendijk, van L.A.G.; Tack, W.; Rijks, J.M.; Giessen, van der J.; Takken, W.; Wieren, van S.E.; Takumi, K.; Sprong, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the etiological agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and animals. Wild animals and ticks play key roles in the enzootic cycles of the pathogen. Potential ecotypes of A. phagocytophilum have been characterized genetically, but their host range, zoonoti

  6. The natural history of Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldehiwet, Zerai

    2010-02-10

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the recently designated name replacing three species of granulocytic bacteria, Ehrlichia phagocytophila, Ehrlichia equi and the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, after the recent reorganization of the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales. Tick-borne fever (TBF), which is caused by the prototype of A. phagocytophilum, was first described in 1932 in Scotland. A similar disease caused by a related granulocytic agent was first described in horses in the USA in 1969; this was followed by the description of two distinct granulocytic agents causing similar diseases in dogs in the USA in 1971 and 1982. Until the discovery of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) in the USA in 1994, these organisms were thought to be distinct species of bacteria infecting specific domestic animals and free-living reservoirs. It is now widely accepted that the agents affecting different animal hosts are variants of the same Gram-negative obligatory intracellular bacterium, which is transmitted by hard ticks belonging to the Ixodes persulcatus complex. One of its fascinating features is that it infects and actively grows in neutrophils by employing an array of mechanisms to subvert their bactericidal activity. It is also able to survive within an apparently immune host by employing a complex mechanism of antigenic variation. Ruminants with TBF and humans with HGA develop severe febrile reaction, bacteraemia and leukopenia due to neutropenia, lymphocytopenia and thrombocytopenia within a week of exposure to a tick bite. Because of the severe haematological disorders lasting for several days and other adverse effects on the host's immune functions, infected animals and humans are more susceptible to other infections. PMID:19811878

  7. Natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in ticks from a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    G Javkhlan; B Enkhtaivan; B Baigal; Myagmarsuren, P.; Battur, B.; Battsetseg, B

    2014-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic agent of public health importance, infecting both humans and animals. An investigation of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum as well as Anaplasma platys was conducted in a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia, where ticks are widely distributed and tick-borne diseases are highly endemic. Ticks were collected and tested using polymerase chain reaction based on groEL methodology. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 14 (6%) of Ixodes pers...

  8. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and effect on lamb growth

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    Steinshamn Håvard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge in sheep farming during the grazing season along the coast of south-western Norway is tick-borne fever (TBF caused by the bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum that is transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus. Methods A study was carried out in 2007 and 2008 to examine the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum infection and effect on weaning weight in lambs. The study included 1208 lambs from farms in Sunndal Ram Circle in Møre and Romsdal County in Mid-Norway, where ticks are frequently observed. All lambs were blood sampled and serum was analyzed by an indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IFA to determine an antibody status (positive or negative to A. phagocytophilum infection. Weight and weight gain and possible effect of infection were analyzed using ANOVA and the MIXED procedure in SAS. Results The overall prevalence of infection with A. phagocytophilum was 55%. A lower weaning weight of 3% (1.34 kg, p A. phagocytophilum infection compared to seronegative lambs at an average age of 137 days. Conclusions The results show that A. phagocytophilum infection has an effect on lamb weight gain. The study also support previous findings that A. phagocytophilum infection is widespread in areas where ticks are prevalent, even in flocks treated prophylactic with acaricides.

  9. Natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in ticks from a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Javkhlan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic agent of public health importance, infecting both humans and animals. An investigation of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum as well as Anaplasma platys was conducted in a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia, where ticks are widely distributed and tick-borne diseases are highly endemic. Ticks were collected and tested using polymerase chain reaction based on groEL methodology. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 14 (6% of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and four (1% Dermacentor nuttalli ticks; infection of Anaplasma platys was detected in 1% of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and 10% of Dermacentor nuttalli ticks. The phylogenetic tree showed that the Anaplasma phagocytophilum clustered with the Russian group, most likely due to similar geographical locations. This finding is significant for both veterinary and public health officials given that these agents can cause both animal and human illness.

  10. Molecular characterization reveals distinct genospecies of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from diverse North American hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Rejmanek, Daniel; Bradburd, Gideon; Foley, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne pathogen that infects humans, domestic animals and wildlife throughout the Holarctic. In the far-western United States, multiple rodent species have been implicated as natural reservoirs for A. phagocytophilum. However, the presence of multiple A. phagocytophilum strains has made it difficult to determine which reservoir hosts pose the greatest risk to humans and domestic animals. Here we characterized three genetic markers (23S–5S rRNA inte...

  11. The pathogen-occupied vacuoles of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale interact with the endoplasmic reticulum

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    Hilary Kay Truchan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Anaplasma consists of tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacteria that invade white or red blood cells to cause debilitating and potentially fatal infections. A. phagocytophilum, a human and veterinary pathogen, infects neutrophils to cause granulocytic anaplasmosis. A. marginale invades bovine erythrocytes. Evidence suggests that both species may also infect endothelial cells in vivo. In mammalian and arthropod host cells, A. phagocytophilum and A. marginale reside in host cell derived pathogen-occupied vacuoles (POVs. While it was recently demonstrated that the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole (ApV intercepts membrane traffic from the trans-Golgi network, it is unclear if it or the A. marginale-occupied vacuole (AmV interacts with other secretory organelles. Here, we demonstrate that the ApV and AmV extensively interact with the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER in endothelial, myeloid, and/or tick cells. ER lumen markers, calreticulin and protein disulfide isomerase, and the ER membrane marker, derlin-1, were pronouncedly recruited to the peripheries of both POVs. ApV association with the ER initiated early and continued throughout the infection cycle. Both the ApV and AmV interacted with the rough ER and smooth ER. However, only derlin-1-positive rough ER derived vesicles were delivered into the ApV lumen where they localized with intravacuolar bacteria. Transmission electron microscopy identified multiple ER-POV membrane contact sites on the cytosolic faces of both species’ vacuoles that corresponded to areas on the vacuoles’ lumenal faces where intravacuolar Anaplasma organisms closely associated. A. phagocytophilum is known to hijack Rab10, a GTPase that regulates ER dynamics and morphology. Yet, ApV-ER interactions were unhindered in cells in which Rab10 had been knocked down, demonstrating that the GTPase is dispensable for the bacterium to parasitize the ER. These data establish the ApV and AmV as pathogen

  12. SERUM ANTIBODIES TO BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM, AND BABESIA MICROTI IN RECAPTURED WHITE-FOOTED MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Magnarelli, Louis A.; Williams, Scott C.; Norris, Steven J; Fikrig, Erol

    2013-01-01

    A mark-release-recapture study was conducted during 2007 through 2010 in six, tick-infested sites in Connecticut, United States to measure changes in antibody titers for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti in Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mice). There was an overall recapture rate of 40%, but only four tagged mice were caught in ≥2 yr. Sera from 561 mice were analyzed for total antibodies to B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum by using whol...

  13. Expression and Immunogenicity of Recombinant Immunoreactive Surface Protein 2 of Anaplasma phagocytophilum

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Qiang; Chen, Chuang-Fu; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Li-Juan

    2012-01-01

    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic disease throughout the world. The first HGA cases in China were documented in 2008, and the greatest challenge posed by the disease is rapid and accurate diagnosis during the acute phage of illness. In this study, we successfully cloned and expressed an A. phagocytophilum immunoreactive surface protein (major surface protein 2 [MSP2]) and demonstrated that this recombinant protein ha...

  14. Nidicolous ticks of small mammals in Anaplasma phagocytophilum-enzootic sites in northern California

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Janet; Rejmanek, Daniel; Fleer, Katryna; Nieto, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Ixodes spp. tick-borne zoonotic diseases are present across the Holarctic in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Small mammals are reservoirs for the rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum and tick vectors may include catholic-feeding bridge vectors as well as host-specialist or nidicolous ticks. Far western North American communities in which A. phagocytophilum is maintained are complex ecologically, with multiple reservoir host and tick species, multiple strains of the bacterial...

  15. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Dirofilaria immitis among dogs in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Villeneuve, Alain; Goring, Jonas; Marcotte, Lynne; Overvelde, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    The seropositivity of dogs to Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia canis antibodies, and Dirofilaria immitis antigen was assessed in Canada. Borrelia burgdorferi had the highest seroprevalence, while that of Dirofilaria immitis has not changed significantly in the past 20 y. The risk for these vector-borne infectious agents in Canadian dogs is low but widespread with foci of higher prevalence.

  16. Detection and identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia helvetica in Danish Ixodes ricinus ticks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarphédinsson, Sigurdur; Lyholm, Birgitte Fjendbo; Ljungberg, Marianne;

    2007-01-01

    % of adult ticks. The difference in prevalence between Anaplasma and Borrelia in adult ticks supports the idea that their maintenance cycles in nature may be different. Ticks were also infected with Rickettsia helvetica. Our study indicates that A. phagocytophilum prevalence in ticks in Denmark is as high...

  17. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Small Mammal Hosts of Ixodes Ticks, Western United States

    OpenAIRE

    Janet E. Foley; Nieto, Nathan C.; Adjemian, Jennifer; Dabritz, Haydee; Brown, Richard N.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 2,121 small mammals in California were assessed for Anaplasma phagocytophilum from 2006 through 2008. Odds ratios were >1 for 4 sciurids species and dusky-footed woodrats. High seroprevalence was observed in northern sites. Ten tick species were identified. Heavily infested rodent species included meadow voles, woodrats, deer mice, and redwood chipmunks.

  18. Molecular surveillance of Theileria equi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in horses from Ukraine, Poland and Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slivinska, Kateryna; Víchová, Bronislava; Werszko, Joanna; Szewczyk, Tomasz; Wróblewski, Zbigniew; Peťko, Branislav; Ragač, Ondrej; Demeshkant, Vitaliy; Karbowiak, Grzegorz

    2016-01-15

    A survey was undertaken to assess the prevalence of Theileria equi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in some regions of Ukraine, Poland and Slovakia. Using a specific PCR assays, blood samples from 215 horses were tested. The prevalence of T. equi and A. phagocytophilum infection was 13.95% and 1.4%, respectively. BLAST analysis showed the isolates closest to the T. equi 18S rRNA and A. phagocytophilum msp4 gene sequences in GenBank with a similarity of ≥99%. No significant association was found between the T. equi PCR positivity and the age or sex of the horses. There was a significant association between the origin of horses and T. equi-PCR positivity. No significant association was found between the A. phagocytophilum-PCR positivity and the age, sex or origin.

  19. Seroprevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum among healthy dogs and horses in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, O; Waner, T; Baneth, G; Keysary, A; Bruchim, Y; Silverman, J; Harrus, S

    2006-03-01

    The presence of reacting antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum has previously been demonstrated in Israel, both in humans and the golden jackal (Canis aureus syriacus). This study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of A. phagocytophilum antibodies in two additional potential hosts, domestic dogs and horses in order to investigate the possibility of exposure to the organism in Israel. Of 195 dogs tested, 9% were seroreactive with A. phagocytophilum antigen and 30% were seroreactive to Ehrlichia canis. Twenty-nine percent of the dogs seropositive for E. canis were also reactive to A. phagocytophilum. Two dogs had immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) antibody titres for A. phagocytophilum greater than E. canis. The equine serological survey (n = 300) revealed no seroreactive horses. The results presented in this study suggest that dogs in Israel could have been accidentally exposed to A. phagocytophilum, for example by ticks carried on migrating birds, however, the possibility of cross-reaction with E. canis should also be considered. In spite of the high prevalence of ticks on horses in Israel during the summer months, no evidence for exposure to A. phagocytophilum was apparent. PMID:16626404

  20. Superinfection occurs in Anaplasma phagocytophilum infected sheep irrespective of infection phase and protection status

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    Bergström Karin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in domestic ruminants is widespread in the coastal areas of southern Norway. The bacteria may persist in mammalian hosts. Several genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum exist. In the present study, we investigate whether superinfection occurs in the acute and persistent phase of the infection. Methods Five-month-old lambs of the Norwegian Dala breed were experimentally infected with two 16S rRNA gene variants of A. phagocytophilum, i.e. A. phagocytophilum variant 1 (GenBank accession number M73220 and variant 2 (GenBank acc. no. AF336220. Eighteen lambs were used, two lambs in each group. Eight groups were experimentally inoculated with either variant 1 or 2 on day 0. Six of these groups were then challenged with the other variant on either days 7, 42 or 84, respectively. One group was left uninfected. The occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in blood samples was determined using semi-nested PCR analysis and gene sequencing. Specific antibodies were measured by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA. Results A. phagocytophilum variant 1 and 2 differed significantly with regards to clinical reaction and cross-immunity in infected lambs. Both variants were found in the blood after challenge. However, variant 1 was detected most frequently. Conclusion The present experiment indicates that superinfection of different genotypes occurs during the acute as well as the persistent phase of an A. phagocytophilum infection, even in lambs protected against the challenged infection.

  1. Understanding the human ehrlichiosisis and standing out a causal agent: anaplasma phagocytophilum

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Ayazo Helí; Marien-Clarete Said

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligatory intracytoplasmatic bacteriathat belong to Rickettsiales order and that has been recognized as a cause of humandisease. Most of symptomatic patients report exposure to ticks (vector) one or twoweeks before the beginning of the disease. They present a febrile disease, however theclinical status extends since asymptomatic infection until fatal disease.Clinical case: Male patient with prolonged fever and with negative proofs in the searchof...

  2. Reservoir Competence of the Redwood Chipmunk (Tamias Ochrogenys) for Anaplasma Phagocytophilum

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto, Nathan C.; Janet E. Foley

    2009-01-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) is an emerging tick-transmitted disease that persists in rodent- Ixodes ricinus-complex tick cycles across the Holarctic. Although the putative reservoir for anaplasmosis in the western United States is the dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes), this rodent was not shown reservoir-competent because of failure of infection from woodrats to other animals via ticks. Redwood chipmunks are common in habitats where Anaplasma phagocytophilum is common, have high PCR-...

  3. Sp110 transcription is induced and required by Anaplasma phagocytophilum for infection of human promyelocytic cells

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    Naranjo Victoria

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tick-borne intracellular pathogen, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis after infection of polymorphonuclear leucocytes. The human Sp110 gene is a member of the nuclear body (NB components that functions as a nuclear hormone receptor transcriptional coactivator and plays an important role in immunoprotective mechanisms against pathogens in humans. In this research, we hypothesized that Sp110 may be involved in the infection of human promyelocytic HL-60 cells with A. phagocytophilum. Methods The human Sp110 and A. phagocytophilum msp4 mRNA levels were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR in infected human HL-60 cells sampled at 0, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post-infection. The effect of Sp110 expression on A. phagocytophilum infection was determined by RNA interference (RNAi. The expression of Sp110 was silenced in HL-60 cells by RNAi using pre-designed siRNAs using the Nucleofector 96-well shuttle system (Amaxa Biosystems, Gaithersburg, MD, USA. The A. phagocytophilum infection levels were evaluated in HL-60 cells after RNAi by real-time PCR of msp4 and normalizing against human Alu sequences. Results While Sp110 mRNA levels increased concurrently with A. phagocytophilum infections in HL-60 cells, the silencing of Sp110 expression by RNA interference resulted in decreased infection levels. Conclusion These results demonstrated that Sp110 expression is required for A. phagocytophilum infection and multiplication in HL-60 cells, and suggest a previously undescribed mechanism by which A. phagocytophilum modulates Sp110 mRNA levels to facilitate establishment of infection of human HL-60 cells.

  4. Integrated Metabolomics, Transcriptomics and Proteomics Identifies Metabolic Pathways Affected by Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Tick Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Margarita; Ayllón, Nieves; Alberdi, Pilar; Moreno, Andrés; Moreno, María; Tobes, Raquel; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Weisheit, Sabine; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; de la Fuente, José

    2015-12-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. These intracellular bacteria establish infection by affecting cell function in both the vertebrate host and the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. Previous studies have characterized the tick transcriptome and proteome in response to A. phagocytophilum infection. However, in the postgenomic era, the integration of omics datasets through a systems biology approach allows network-based analyses to describe the complexity and functionality of biological systems such as host-pathogen interactions and the discovery of new targets for prevention and control of infectious diseases. This study reports the first systems biology integration of metabolomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics data to characterize essential metabolic pathways involved in the tick response to A. phagocytophilum infection. The ISE6 tick cells used in this study constitute a model for hemocytes involved in pathogen infection and immune response. The results showed that infection affected protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and glucose metabolic pathways in tick cells. These results supported tick-Anaplasma co-evolution by providing new evidence of how tick cells limit pathogen infection, while the pathogen benefits from the tick cell response to establish infection. Additionally, ticks benefit from A. phagocytophilum infection by increasing survival while pathogens guarantee transmission. The results suggested that A. phagocytophilum induces protein misfolding to limit the tick cell response and facilitate infection but requires protein degradation to prevent ER stress and cell apoptosis to survive in infected cells. Additionally, A. phagocytophilum may benefit from the tick cell's ability to limit bacterial infection through PEPCK inhibition leading to decreased glucose metabolism, which also results in the inhibition of cell apoptosis that increases infection of tick cells. These results

  5. Gene expression profile suggests that pigs (Sus scrofa are susceptible to Anaplasma phagocytophilum but control infection

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    Galindo Ruth C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum infects a wide variety of hosts and causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans, horses and dogs and tick-borne fever in ruminants. Infection with A. phagocytophilum results in the modification of host gene expression and immune response. The objective of this research was to characterize gene expression in pigs (Sus scrofa naturally and experimentally infected with A. phagocytophilum trying to identify mechanisms that help to explain low infection prevalence in this species. Results For gene expression analysis in naturally infected pigs, microarray hybridization was used. The expression of differentially expressed immune response genes was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR in naturally and experimentally infected pigs. Results suggested that A. phagocytophilum infection affected cytoskeleton rearrangement and increased both innate and adaptive immune responses by up regulation of interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1, T-cell receptor alpha chain (TCR-alpha, thrombospondin 4 (TSP-4 and Gap junction protein alpha 1 (GJA1 genes. Higher serum levels of IL-1 beta, IL-8 and TNF-alpha in infected pigs when compared to controls supported data obtained at the mRNA level. Conclusions These results suggested that pigs are susceptible to A. phagocytophilum but control infection, particularly through activation of innate immune responses, phagocytosis and autophagy. This fact may account for the low infection prevalence detected in pigs in some regions and thus their low or no impact as a reservoir host for this pathogen. These results advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the host-pathogen interface and suggested a role for newly reported genes in the protection of pigs against A. phagocytophilum.

  6. Identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in tick populations in Estonia, the European part of Russia and Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katargina, O; Geller, J; Alekseev, A; Dubinina, H; Efremova, G; Mishaeva, N; Vasilenko, V; Kuznetsova, T; Järvekülg, L; Vene, S; Lundkvist, A; Golovljova, I

    2012-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is associated with diseases of goats, sheep, cattle, dogs and horses. In the beginning of the 1990s it was identified as a human pathogen, causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) in the USA, Europe and the far east of Russia. A. phagocytophilum is maintained in nature in an enzootic cycle including ticks as the main vector and a wide range of mammalian species as reservoirs. Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks were collected in Estonia, Belarus and the European part of Russia and screened for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by real-time PCR. Positive samples were found only among I. ricinus, in 13.4% in the European part of Russia, 4.2% in Belarus, 1.7% in mainland Estonia and 2.6% on Saaremaa Island. Positive samples were sequenced for partial 16S rRNA, groESL and ankA genes and phylogenetic analyses were performed. The results showed that A. phagocytophilum circulating in Eastern Europe belongs to different groESL lineages and 16S rRNA gene variants and also consists of variable numbers of repetitive elements within the ankA gene.

  7. Prevalence of Human-Active and Variant 1 Strains of the Tick-Borne Pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Hosts and Forests of Eastern North America

    OpenAIRE

    Keesing, Felicia; McHenry, Diana J.; Hersh, Michelle; Tibbetts, Michael; Jesse L Brunner; Killilea, Mary; LoGiudice, Kathleen; Kenneth A Schmidt; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    Anaplasmosis is an emerging infectious disease caused by infection with the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In the eastern United States, A. phagocytophilum is transmitted to hosts through the bite of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. We determined the realized reservoir competence of 14 species of common vertebrate hosts for ticks by establishing the probability that each species transmits two important strains of A. phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum human-active, which causes ...

  8. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtwig, Vera; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Schulze, Christoph; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Daugschies, Arwid; Dyachenko, Viktor

    2014-04-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular and tick-transmitted bacterium, which causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in animals and humans. Although infection with A. phagocytophilum in domestic animals and vector ticks is documented, there is sparse information on the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in wild animals. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as well as raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are wildlife species highly abundant in certain areas of Germany and represent a potential wildlife reservoir for zoonotic diseases. To obtain data about the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in these animals, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by means of real-time PCR. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 10 out of 122 (8.2%) lungs of red foxes and in 3 out of 13 (23%) lungs of raccoon dogs. To the best of our knowledge, A. phagocytophilum was detected for the first time in red foxes and raccoon dogs in Germany.

  9. Genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from 14 equine granulocytic anaplasmosis cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfister Kurt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Equine Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (EGA is caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a tick-transmitted, obligate intracellular bacterium. In Europe, it is transmitted by Ixodes ricinus. A large number of genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum circulate in nature and have been found in ticks and different animals. Attempts have been made to assign certain genetic variants to certain host species or pathologies, but have not been successful so far. The purpose of this study was to investigate the causing agent A. phagocytophilum of 14 cases of EGA in naturally infected horses with molecular methods on the basis of 4 partial genes (16S rRNA, groEL, msp2, and msp4. Results All DNA extracts of EDTA-blood samples of the horses gave bands of the correct nucleotide size in all four genotyping PCRs. Sequence analysis revealed 4 different variants in the partial 16S rRNA, groEL gene and msp2 genes, and 3 in the msp4 gene. One 16S rRNA gene variant involved in 11 of the 14 cases was identical to the "prototype" variant causing disease in humans in the amplified part [GenBank: U02521]. Phylogenetic analysis revealed as expected for the groEL gene that sequences from horses clustered separately from roe deer. Sequences of the partial msp2 gene from this study formed a separate cluster from ruminant variants in Europe and from all US variants. Conclusions The results show that more than one variant of A. phagocytophilum seems to be involved in EGA in Germany. The comparative genetic analysis of the variants involved points towards different natural cycles in the epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum, possibly involving different reservoir hosts or host adaptation, rather than a strict species separation.

  10. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Manipulates Host Cell Apoptosis by Different Mechanisms to Establish Infection

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    Pilar Alberdi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes human and animal granulocytic anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever of ruminants. This obligate intracellular bacterium evolved to use common strategies to establish infection in both vertebrate hosts and tick vectors. Herein, we discuss the different strategies used by the pathogen to modulate cell apoptosis and establish infection in host cells. In vertebrate neutrophils and human promyelocytic cells HL-60, both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic factors have been reported. Tissue-specific differences in tick response to infection and differential regulation of apoptosis pathways have been observed in adult female midguts and salivary glands in response to infection with A. phagocytophilum. In tick midguts, pathogen inhibits apoptosis through the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT pathway, while in salivary glands, the intrinsic apoptosis pathways is inhibited but tick cells respond with the activation of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. In Ixodes scapularis ISE6 cells, bacterial infection down-regulates mitochondrial porin and manipulates protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and cell glucose metabolism to inhibit apoptosis and facilitate infection, whereas in IRE/CTVM20 tick cells, inhibition of apoptosis appears to be regulated by lower caspase levels. These results suggest that A. phagocytophilum uses different mechanisms to inhibit apoptosis for infection of both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts.

  11. First molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea.

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    Lee, Sukyee; Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Kim, Neung-Hee; Kim, Kyoo-Tae; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Rhee, Man Hee; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the status of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection was assessed in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea, with PCR and phylogenetic analyses. Nested PCR on 1058 collected blood samples revealed only one A. phagocytophilum positive sample (female, age genetic variability of A. phagocytophilum was evaluated by genotyping, using the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 gene sequences of the positive sample. BLASTn analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 genes had 99.6%, 99.9%, and 100% identity with the following sequences deposited in GenBank: a cat 16S rRNA sequence from Korea (KR021166), a rat groEL sequence from Korea (KT220194), and a water deer msp2 sequence from Korea (HM752099), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses classified the groEL gene into two distinct groups (serine and alanine), whereas the msp2 gene showed a general classification into two groups (USA and Europe) that were further subgrouped according to region. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the molecular diagnosis of A. phagocytophilum in dogs reared in Korea. In addition, the high genetic identity of the 16S rRNA and groEL sequences between humans and dogs from the same region suggests a possible epidemiological relation. Given the conditions of climate change, tick ecology, and recent incidence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Korea, the findings of this study underscore the need to establish appropriate control programs for tick-borne diseases in Korea. PMID:27130537

  12. Clinical and molecular features of one case of human infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum from Podlaskie Province in eastern Poland

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    Renata Welc-Falęciak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA caused by [i]Anaplasma phagocytophilum[/i] infection in one of 28 patients (3.6%; n=1/28 tested samples with early Lyme borreliosis. The clinical and laboratory results of a 42-year-old patient fulfilled criteria of confirm anaplasmosis and suggest an acute stage of illness. The described case provides strong presumptive evidence that infection in this patient was acquired with a pathogenic strain of [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] through a tick bite. A positive DNA with PCR for A. phagocytophilum infection was sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Physicians should consider the possibility of anaplasmosis in patients with early Lyme borreliosis, and [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] should be considered as a differential diagnosis in all patients from an endemic region of potential high risk factors for tick-borne diseases.

  13. Essential domains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum invasins utilized to infect mammalian host cells.

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    David Seidman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes granulocytic anaplasmosis, an emerging disease of humans and domestic animals. The obligate intracellular bacterium uses its invasins OmpA, Asp14, and AipA to infect myeloid and non-phagocytic cells. Identifying the domains of these proteins that mediate binding and entry, and determining the molecular basis of their interactions with host cell receptors would significantly advance understanding of A. phagocytophilum infection. Here, we identified the OmpA binding domain as residues 59 to 74. Polyclonal antibody generated against a peptide spanning OmpA residues 59 to 74 inhibited A. phagocytophilum infection of host cells and binding to its receptor, sialyl Lewis x (sLe(x-capped P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1. Molecular docking analyses predicted that OmpA residues G61 and K64 interact with the two sLe(x sugars that are important for infection, α2,3-sialic acid and α1,3-fucose. Amino acid substitution analyses demonstrated that K64 was necessary, and G61 was contributory, for recombinant OmpA to bind to host cells and competitively inhibit A. phagocytophilum infection. Adherence of OmpA to RF/6A endothelial cells, which express little to no sLe(x but express the structurally similar glycan, 6-sulfo-sLe(x, required α2,3-sialic acid and α1,3-fucose and was antagonized by 6-sulfo-sLe(x antibody. Binding and uptake of OmpA-coated latex beads by myeloid cells was sensitive to sialidase, fucosidase, and sLe(x antibody. The Asp14 binding domain was also defined, as antibody specific for residues 113 to 124 inhibited infection. Because OmpA, Asp14, and AipA each contribute to the infection process, it was rationalized that the most effective blocking approach would target all three. An antibody cocktail targeting the OmpA, Asp14, and AipA binding domains neutralized A. phagocytophilum binding and infection of host cells. This study dissects OmpA-receptor interactions and demonstrates the effectiveness of binding

  14. Understanding the human ehrlichiosisis and standing out a causal agent: anaplasma phagocytophilum

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    Hernández-Ayazo Helí

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligatory intracytoplasmatic bacteriathat belong to Rickettsiales order and that has been recognized as a cause of humandisease. Most of symptomatic patients report exposure to ticks (vector one or twoweeks before the beginning of the disease. They present a febrile disease, however theclinical status extends since asymptomatic infection until fatal disease.Clinical case: Male patient with prolonged fever and with negative proofs in the searchof hepatitis, malaria, dengue, leptospirosis and typhoid disease. In the peripheralblood smear with Wright’s stain, there were found granulocytes with intracytoplasmatic vacuoles called morulae (microcolonies of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Diagnosticimpression was Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA. Treatment with tetracyclinewas done and good evolution was reported.Conclusion: HGA should be a disease to have present in patients with prolonged febrileprofile. A detailed clinical history with information about exposure to ticks should begotten. It is important an early diagnosis to establish the differences with other similarinfections and to apply promptly indicated antibiotic therapy. Rev.cienc.biomed.2013;4(1:165-169RESUMEN:Introducción: Anaplasma phagocytophilum es una bacteria intracitoplasmática obligadaque pertenece al orden Rickettsiales, reconocido como causante de enfermedaden humanos. Pacientes sintomáticos reportan exposición a las garrapatas (vector unao dos semanas antes del inicio de la enfermedad. Presentan una enfermedad febril, noobstante el rango clínico se extiende desde infección asintomática hasta enfermedadfatal.Caso clínico: paciente masculino con cuadro febril prolongado. Pruebas negativas enla búsqueda de hepatitis, paludismo, dengue, leptospirosis y enfermedad tifoidea. Enel extendido de sangre periférica, con tinción de Wright se encontraron granulocitoscon vacuolas intracitoplasmáticas llamadas mórulas (microcolonias

  15. The first report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and a novel Theileria spp. co-infection in a South African giraffe.

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    Zhang, Yan; Li, Tongyi; Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Jinhong; Lv, Yali; Wang, Rongjun; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Jiantang; Yang, Guangcheng; Ning, Changshen

    2016-08-01

    Organisms of the genera Anaplasma and Theileria are important intracellular bacteria and parasites that cause various tick-borne diseases, threatening the health of numerous animals as well as human beings. In the present study, a 12-month-old male wild South African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) originating from South Africa, and living in Zhengzhou Zoo (located in the urban district of Zhengzhou in the provincial capital of Henan), suddenly developed an unknown fatal disease and died 1day after the onset of the clinical signs. By microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears combined with nested PCR and DNA sequence analysis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis and a novel Theileria spp. were found in the blood of this giraffe. The six other Cervidae animals in the zoo and three ruminants living in the same colony house with them were found to be negative for both Anaplasma and Theileria in their blood specimens. We report on the first case of an A. phagocytophilum infection and the occurrence of a novel Theileria spp. in the blood of a giraffe. This is the first reported case of a multi-infection of A. bovis, A. phagocytophilum and Theileria spp. in a giraffe, as revealed by microscopic examination of blood smears and the results of nested PCR and DNA sequencing. PMID:27109775

  16. Mechanisms of infection by pathogens transmitted by ticks on the example of bacteria: Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi

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    Paula Wróblewska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases are transmission diseases belonging to the group of zoonoses but carried by ticks. These diseases are a major public health problem but also a problem for groups occupationally exposed to tick bites. Ixodes ricinus is a species of ticks which is the most common reservoir and the vector of a large number of microorganisms pathogenic to humans. It transfers, among others, bacteria of the species: Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi. The article discusses the mechanisms of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum for both ticks as well as for animals and humans. The two microorganisms discussed have developed many characteristics and mechanisms of adaptation to the environment, as well as defense mechanisms against the body's immune response. Understanding the biology of ticks and the function of proteins produced by ticks and pathogenic microorganisms is the key in the development of effective treatments and prevention of Lyme disease and anaplasmosis.

  17. The Prostaglandin E2-EP3 Receptor Axis Regulates Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Mediated NLRC4 Inflammasome Activation.

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    Wang, Xiaowei; Shaw, Dana K; Hammond, Holly L; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S; Rayamajhi, Manira; Shirey, Kari Ann; Perkins, Darren J; Bonventre, Joseph V; Velayutham, Thangam S; Evans, Sean M; Rodino, Kyle G; VieBrock, Lauren; Scanlon, Karen M; Carbonetti, Nicholas H; Carlyon, Jason A; Miao, Edward A; McBride, Jere W; Kotsyfakis, Michail; Pedra, Joao H F

    2016-08-01

    Rickettsial agents are sensed by pattern recognition receptors but lack pathogen-associated molecular patterns commonly observed in facultative intracellular bacteria. Due to these molecular features, the order Rickettsiales can be used to uncover broader principles of bacterial immunity. Here, we used the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to reveal a novel microbial surveillance system. Mechanistically, we discovered that upon A. phagocytophilum infection, cytosolic phospholipase A2 cleaves arachidonic acid from phospholipids, which is converted to the eicosanoid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) via cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and the membrane associated prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1). PGE2-EP3 receptor signaling leads to activation of the NLRC4 inflammasome and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Importantly, the receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (RIPK2) was identified as a major regulator of the immune response against A. phagocytophilum. Accordingly, mice lacking COX2 were more susceptible to A. phagocytophilum, had a defect in IL-18 secretion and exhibited splenomegaly and damage to the splenic architecture. Remarkably, Salmonella-induced NLRC4 inflammasome activation was not affected by either chemical inhibition or genetic ablation of genes associated with PGE2 biosynthesis and signaling. This divergence in immune circuitry was due to reduced levels of the PGE2-EP3 receptor during Salmonella infection when compared to A. phagocytophilum. Collectively, we reveal the existence of a functionally distinct NLRC4 inflammasome illustrated by the rickettsial agent A. phagocytophilum. PMID:27482714

  18. The Prostaglandin E2-EP3 Receptor Axis Regulates Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Mediated NLRC4 Inflammasome Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowei; Shaw, Dana K.; Hammond, Holly L.; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S.; Rayamajhi, Manira; Shirey, Kari Ann; Perkins, Darren J.; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Velayutham, Thangam S.; Evans, Sean M.; Rodino, Kyle G.; VieBrock, Lauren; Scanlon, Karen M.; Carbonetti, Nicholas H.; Carlyon, Jason A.; Miao, Edward A.; McBride, Jere W.; Kotsyfakis, Michail

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsial agents are sensed by pattern recognition receptors but lack pathogen-associated molecular patterns commonly observed in facultative intracellular bacteria. Due to these molecular features, the order Rickettsiales can be used to uncover broader principles of bacterial immunity. Here, we used the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to reveal a novel microbial surveillance system. Mechanistically, we discovered that upon A. phagocytophilum infection, cytosolic phospholipase A2 cleaves arachidonic acid from phospholipids, which is converted to the eicosanoid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) via cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and the membrane associated prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1). PGE2-EP3 receptor signaling leads to activation of the NLRC4 inflammasome and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Importantly, the receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (RIPK2) was identified as a major regulator of the immune response against A. phagocytophilum. Accordingly, mice lacking COX2 were more susceptible to A. phagocytophilum, had a defect in IL-18 secretion and exhibited splenomegaly and damage to the splenic architecture. Remarkably, Salmonella-induced NLRC4 inflammasome activation was not affected by either chemical inhibition or genetic ablation of genes associated with PGE2 biosynthesis and signaling. This divergence in immune circuitry was due to reduced levels of the PGE2-EP3 receptor during Salmonella infection when compared to A. phagocytophilum. Collectively, we reveal the existence of a functionally distinct NLRC4 inflammasome illustrated by the rickettsial agent A. phagocytophilum. PMID:27482714

  19. Infection of Ixodes spp. tick cells with different Anaplasma phagocytophilum isolates induces the inhibition of apoptotic cell death.

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    Alberdi, Pilar; Ayllón, Nieves; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Zweygarth, Erich; Stuen, Snorre; de la Fuente, José

    2015-09-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an intracellular rickettsial pathogen transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks, which causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans, horses and dogs and tick-borne fever (TBF) in ruminants. In the United States, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is highly prevalent while TBF has not been reported. However, in Europe the situation is the opposite, with high prevalence for TBF in sheep and low prevalence of HGA. The origin of these differences has not been identified and our hypothesis is that different A. phagocytophilum isolates impact differently on tick vector capacity through inhibition of apoptosis to establish infection of the tick vector. In this study we used three different isolates of A. phagocytophilum of human, canine and ovine origin to infect the Ixodes ricinus-derived cell line IRE/CTVM20 and the Ixodes scapularis-derived cell line ISE6 in order to characterize the effect of infection on the level of tick cell apoptosis. Inhibition of apoptosis was observed by flow cytometry as early as 24h post-infection for both tick cell lines and all three isolates of A. phagocytophilum, suggesting that pathogen infection inhibits apoptotic pathways to facilitate infection independently of the origin of the A. phagocytophilum isolate and tick vector species. However, infection with A. phagocytophilum isolates inhibited the intrinsic apoptosis pathway at different levels in I. scapularis and I. ricinus cells. These results suggested an impact of vector-pathogen co-evolution on the adaptation of A. phagocytophilum isolates to grow in tick cells as each isolate grew better in the tick cell line derived from its natural vector species. These results increase our understanding of the mechanisms of A. phagocytophilum infection and multiplication and suggest that multiple mechanisms may affect disease prevalence in different geographical regions.

  20. An O-Methyltransferase Is Required for Infection of Tick Cells by Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

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    Adela S Oliva Chávez

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA, is an obligately intracellular α-proteobacterium that is transmitted by Ixodes spp ticks. However, the pathogen is not transovarially transmitted between tick generations and therefore needs to survive in both a mammalian host and the arthropod vector to complete its life cycle. To adapt to different environments, pathogens rely on differential gene expression as well as the modification of proteins and other molecules. Random transposon mutagenesis of A. phagocytophilum resulted in an insertion within the coding region of an o-methyltransferase (omt family 3 gene. In wild-type bacteria, expression of omt was up-regulated during binding to tick cells (ISE6 at 2 hr post-inoculation, but nearly absent by 4 hr p.i. Gene disruption reduced bacterial binding to ISE6 cells, and the mutant bacteria that were able to enter the cells were arrested in their replication and development. Analyses of the proteomes of wild-type versus mutant bacteria during binding to ISE6 cells identified Major Surface Protein 4 (Msp4, but also hypothetical protein APH_0406, as the most differentially methylated. Importantly, two glutamic acid residues (the targets of the OMT were methyl-modified in wild-type Msp4, whereas a single asparagine (not a target of the OMT was methylated in APH_0406. In vitro methylation assays demonstrated that recombinant OMT specifically methylated Msp4. Towards a greater understanding of the overall structure and catalytic activity of the OMT, we solved the apo (PDB_ID:4OA8, the S-adenosine homocystein-bound (PDB_ID:4OA5, the SAH-Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCA, and SAM- Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCL X-ray crystal structures of the enzyme. Here, we characterized a mutation in A. phagocytophilum that affected the ability of the bacteria to productively infect cells from its natural vector. Nevertheless, due to the lack of complementation, we cannot rule out secondary

  1. An O-Methyltransferase Is Required for Infection of Tick Cells by Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva Chávez, Adela S; Fairman, James W; Felsheim, Roderick F; Nelson, Curtis M; Herron, Michael J; Higgins, LeeAnn; Burkhardt, Nicole Y; Oliver, Jonathan D; Markowski, Todd W; Kurtti, Timothy J; Edwards, Thomas E; Munderloh, Ulrike G

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA), is an obligately intracellular α-proteobacterium that is transmitted by Ixodes spp ticks. However, the pathogen is not transovarially transmitted between tick generations and therefore needs to survive in both a mammalian host and the arthropod vector to complete its life cycle. To adapt to different environments, pathogens rely on differential gene expression as well as the modification of proteins and other molecules. Random transposon mutagenesis of A. phagocytophilum resulted in an insertion within the coding region of an o-methyltransferase (omt) family 3 gene. In wild-type bacteria, expression of omt was up-regulated during binding to tick cells (ISE6) at 2 hr post-inoculation, but nearly absent by 4 hr p.i. Gene disruption reduced bacterial binding to ISE6 cells, and the mutant bacteria that were able to enter the cells were arrested in their replication and development. Analyses of the proteomes of wild-type versus mutant bacteria during binding to ISE6 cells identified Major Surface Protein 4 (Msp4), but also hypothetical protein APH_0406, as the most differentially methylated. Importantly, two glutamic acid residues (the targets of the OMT) were methyl-modified in wild-type Msp4, whereas a single asparagine (not a target of the OMT) was methylated in APH_0406. In vitro methylation assays demonstrated that recombinant OMT specifically methylated Msp4. Towards a greater understanding of the overall structure and catalytic activity of the OMT, we solved the apo (PDB_ID:4OA8), the S-adenosine homocystein-bound (PDB_ID:4OA5), the SAH-Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCA), and SAM- Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCL) X-ray crystal structures of the enzyme. Here, we characterized a mutation in A. phagocytophilum that affected the ability of the bacteria to productively infect cells from its natural vector. Nevertheless, due to the lack of complementation, we cannot rule out secondary mutations

  2. Systems biology of tissue-specific response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum reveals differentiated apoptosis in the tick vector Ixodes scapularis.

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    Nieves Ayllón

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging pathogen that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Infection with this zoonotic pathogen affects cell function in both vertebrate host and the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. Global tissue-specific response and apoptosis signaling pathways were characterized in I. scapularis nymphs and adult female midguts and salivary glands infected with A. phagocytophilum using a systems biology approach combining transcriptomics and proteomics. Apoptosis was selected for pathway-focused analysis due to its role in bacterial infection of tick cells. The results showed tissue-specific differences in tick response to infection and revealed differentiated regulation of apoptosis pathways. The impact of bacterial infection was more pronounced in tick nymphs and midguts than in salivary glands, probably reflecting bacterial developmental cycle. All apoptosis pathways described in other organisms were identified in I. scapularis, except for the absence of the Perforin ortholog. Functional characterization using RNA interference showed that Porin knockdown significantly increases tick colonization by A. phagocytophilum. Infection with A. phagocytophilum produced complex tissue-specific alterations in transcript and protein levels. In tick nymphs, the results suggested a possible effect of bacterial infection on the inhibition of tick immune response. In tick midguts, the results suggested that A. phagocytophilum infection inhibited cell apoptosis to facilitate and establish infection through up-regulation of the JAK/STAT pathway. Bacterial infection inhibited the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in tick salivary glands by down-regulating Porin expression that resulted in the inhibition of Cytochrome c release as the anti-apoptotic mechanism to facilitate bacterial infection. However, tick salivary glands may promote apoptosis to limit bacterial infection through induction of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. These dynamic

  3. Detection and prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus ticks in seven study areas in Sweden

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    Falk Kerstin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tick-borne Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. are considered to be emerging human pathogens, but only limited data are available on their occurrence in Sweden. Two real-time PCR assays followed by nested PCR and sequence analysis were carried out to investigate the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum and spotted fever rickettsiae in ticks from seven areas in Sweden. Results In 139 pooled samples, representing a total of 1245 Ixodes ricinus ticks (204 larvae, 963 nymphs, 38 males, 40 females, the overall positive mean infection prevalence was 1.3-15.0% for A. phagocytophilum and 1.5-17.3% for R. helvetica. A. phagocytophilum was only detected in nymphs (1.7-19.4%, whereas R. helvetica was detected in all three tick stages. Support for vertical and transstadial transmission was only obtained for R. helvetica. Both agents showed similar infection rates across study areas, although infection rates were greater in coastal areas. Conclusions The results show that both pathogens occurred in all seven locations, indicating that they are prevalent in Sweden and should be considered etiological agents in patients recently bitten by ticks.

  4. Monoinfections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia burgdorferi / Anaplasma phagocytophilum co-infections in forestry workers and farmers

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    Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of co-infections induced by tick-borne pathogens in humans is an important epidemiological phenomenon. This issue has attracted growing attention of doctors and people working under conditions of an increased risk of being exposed to tick bites. Material and Methods: The research group consisted of 93 individuals with current anti-immunoglobulin M/G (IgM/ IgG Borrelia burgdorferi or IgG anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The respondents were identified during the screening survey in a group of farmers and foresters occupationally exposed to tick bites. The aim of the work was to analyse the frequency of antibodies to specific antigens of B. burgdorferi and the levels of cytokines in forestry workers and farmers with B. burgdorferi monoinfections and B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infections. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi2, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: There is a stronger generation of IgG antibodies to B. burgdorferi antigens in patients with B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infections, such as variable major protein-like sequence expressed (VlsE (p < 0.05, p19 (p < 0.02, p17 (p < 0.05 and complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 3 (CRASP3 (p < 0.02 compared to persons with B. burgdorferi monoinfections. The discrepancies in the synthesis of cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α have not been found in persons with B. burgdorferi monoinfections and B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infection. Conclusions: The immune response directed against B. burgdorferi is stronger in patients co-infected with B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum than in those with monoinfection. Med Pr 2015;66(5:645–651

  5. Genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in wild caprine and cervid ungulates from the Alps in Tyrol, Austria.

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    Silaghi, Cornelia; Hamel, Dietmar; Thiel, Claudia; Pfister, Kurt; Passos, Lygia Maria Friche; Rehbein, Steffen

    2011-04-01

    The occurrence of genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum was studied in wild ungulates from the northern and central eastern Alps in Tyrol, Austria. For this purpose, spleen samples collected from 53 game animals during the hunting season 2008/2009 (16 roe deer [Capreolus capreolus], 10 red deer [Cervus elaphus], 16 Alpine chamois [Rupicapra r. rupicapra], 7 Alpine ibex [Capra i. ibex], and 4 European mouflons [Ovis orientalis musimon]) were analyzed. Thirty-five animals originated from the Karwendel mountains, 12 from the Kaunertal area (Ötztal Alps), and the remaining from other mountainous areas in Tyrol. DNA extracts were screened with a real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting the msp2 gene of A. phagocytophilum. A total of 23 (43.4%) samples, from all ungulate species studied, were A. phagocytophilum positive. As of the date of this article, A. phagocytophilum has not been reported in the Alpine ibex. The positive samples were investigated further with polymerase chain reactions for amplification of the partial 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp4 genes. Sequence analysis using forward and reverse primers revealed seven different 16S rRNA gene variants. No variant could be attributed to any particular ungulate species. The groEL gene revealed 11 different variants, which grouped in the phylogenetic analysis into two distinct clusters: one cluster contained the sequences from roe deer, whereas the sequences of the other species formed the second cluster. The msp4 gene showed a high degree of variability in the amplified part with a total of 10 different sequence types. The results show that the wild mountain ungulates were infected to a considerable extent with various variants of A. phagocytophilum. The pathogenicity of the variants and the reservoir competence of the species investigated in this study deserve further attention in future studies.

  6. Evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldehiwet, Z; Yavari, C

    2012-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ovine serum samples was evaluated. The assay used purified A. phagocytophilum grown in tick cell cultures as antigen. Serum samples were diluted 1 in 200 and binding was detected with anti-sheep IgG conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. All tests were carried out in the presence of positive and negative control samples. Optical density (OD) values obtained for each test sample at 490 nm were used to calculate percentage positivity (PP) of each sample based on the ratio of the OD of the test sample that of the positive reference sample. Known negative samples (n=69) obtained from uninfected sheep bred and maintained in a tick-free environment and subsequently shown to be susceptible to A. phagocytophilum were used to establish the cut-off point between negative and positive samples and to establish the specificity of the test. Serum samples obtained from 92 animals 14-21 days after infection were used to establish the sensitivity of the test. Using a cut-off point of 20PP (mean+2 standard deviations of the PP of 69 control samples) the test was shown to have a sensitivity of 84.8% and a specificity of 95.7%. Lowering the cut-off point to 15PP increased the sensitivity to 94.6%, but reduced the specificity to 92.8%.

  7. Molecular Survey of Anaplasma Species in Small Ruminants Reveals the Presence of Novel Strains Closely Related to A. phagocytophilum in Tunisia.

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    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; Alberti, Alberto; Zobba, Rosanna; Bousrih, Maha; Yahiaoui, Mouna; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Mamlouk, Aymen; Gharbi, Mohamed; Messadi, Lilia

    2015-10-01

    A survey of Anaplasma species in small ruminants is still lacking in North African countries. In this study, the presence of A. phagocytophilum, A. phagocytophilum-related species, and A. ovis was investigated in a total of 563 healthy small ruminants (303 goats and 260 sheep), from 25 randomly selected flocks sampled in Tunisia. Anaplasma spp. and A. ovis overall infection rates were 95.0% and 93.8% in sheep and 69.6% and 65.3% in goats, respectively. A. phagocytophilum was not detected in any of tested animals. A total of 20 sheep (7.7%) and 144 goats (47.5%) were infected by Anaplasma strains genetically related to A. phagocytophilum. Both in sheep and goats A. ovis prevalence was higher in adults (≥2 years) than in young (rams (p = 0.010). The A. ovis infection rate was significantly lower in goats of the local breed (p = 0.049) and it was higher in goats infested by ticks than in not infested animals (p = 0.005). Genetic analysis of the msp4 gene of A. ovis indicated the presence of strains shared by Tunisian sheep and goats. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic studies on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene provided evidence for the circulation of at least two different potentially novel species genetically related to A. phagocytophilum in Tunisian small ruminants. These findings cause concern about specificity of serological tests used for detection of A. phagocytophilum in ruminants and provide additional information for elucidating pathogenesis and molecular epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum and related species. PMID:26394065

  8. Prevalence of Rickettsiales (Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp.) in hard ticks (Ixodes ricinus) in the city of Hamburg, Germany.

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    May, Kathrin; Strube, Christina

    2014-06-01

    To narrow the gap of missing knowledge on Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in ticks in northwestern Germany and, at the same time, to provide first prevalence data on these pathogens in the city of Hamburg, a total of 1,400 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected at ten different public green areas from April until October 2011. Ticks were examined using probe-based quantitative real-time PCR. A percentage of 3.6% (51/1,400) ticks were tested positive for A. phagocytophilum infections divided into 2.1% (3/141) adults [1.7% (1/60) females and 2.5% (2/81) males] and 3.8% (48/1,259) nymphs. The percentage of infected ticks per sampling site varied statistically significantly from 0.7% (1/140) to 12.1% (17/140), whereas between sampling months, no statistically significant differences were observed (2.0-6.5%, 4-13/140). The overall Rickettsia spp. infection rate was 52.5% (735/1,400). In adult ticks, Rickettsia spp. infection rate was 56% (79/141) divided into 61.7% (37/60) infected females and 51.9% (42/81) infected males. Nymphs showed an infection rate of 52.1% (656/1,259). In contrast to A. phagocytophilum infections, no statistically significant differences in Rickettsia spp. infection rates among sampling sites (44.3-63.6%, 62-89/140) were observed, whereas seasonal variations were obvious: the percentage of Rickettsia-positive ticks was significantly lower in April (36.5%, 73/200) and May (29.5%, 59/200) compared to the summer and fall months (55.0-64.5%, 110-129/200). Rickettsia species differentiation via real-time pyrosequencing revealed Rickettsia helvetica as the only occurring species. Co-infections with both Rickettsia spp. and A. phagocytophilum were detected in 2.0% (28/1,400) of the ticks. The present study revealed that in the city of Hamburg, the tick infection rate with A. phagocytophilum is comparable with other German data, whereas the Rickettsia spp. infection rate of 52.5% is by far the highest prevalence detected in

  9. Efficacy of sarolaner in the prevention of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum transmission from infected Ixodes scapularis to dogs.

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    Honsberger, Nicole A; Six, Robert H; Heinz, Thomas J; Weber, Angela; Mahabir, Sean P; Berg, Thomas C

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis) to prevent transmission primarily of Borrelia burgdorferi and secondarily of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from infected wild-caught Ixodes scapularis to dogs was evaluated in a placebo-controlled laboratory study. Twenty-four purpose-bred laboratory Beagles seronegative for B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies were allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups: placebo administered orally on Days 0 and 7, or sarolaner at 2mg/kg administered orally on Day 0 (28 days prior to tick infestation) or on Day 7 (21 days prior to tick infestation). On Day 28, each dog was infested with approximately 25 female and 25 male wild caught adult I. scapularis that were determined to have prevalence of 57% for B. burgdorferi and 6.7% for A. phagocytophilum by PCR. In situ tick counts were conducted on Days 29 and 30. On Day 33, all ticks were counted and removed. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated based on the reduction of geometric mean live tick counts in the sarolaner-treated groups compared to the placebo-treated group for each tick count. Blood samples collected from each dog on Days 27, 49, 63, 77, 91 and 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies using the SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) Plus Test, and quantitatively assayed for B. burgdorferi antibodies using an ELISA test. Skin biopsies collected on Day 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi by bacterial culture and PCR. Geometric mean live tick counts for placebo-treated dogs were 14.8, 12.8, and 19.1 on Days 29, 30, and 33, respectively. The percent reductions in mean live tick counts at 1, 2, and 5 days after infestation were 86.3%, 100%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 21 days prior to infestation, and 90.9%, 97.1%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 28 days prior to infestation. Geometric mean live tick counts for both sarolaner-treated groups were significantly lower than those for the

  10. Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum.

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    Arathy D S Nair

    Full Text Available Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological

  11. Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks, ticks parasitizing rodents and the parasitized rodents – Analyzing the host-pathogen-vector interface in a metropolitan area

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    Silaghi Cornelia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the host-tick-pathogen interface of Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in restored areas in both questing and host-attached Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus and their small mammalian hosts. Methods Questing ticks were collected from 5 sites within the city of Leipzig, Germany, in 2009. Small mammals were trapped at 3 of the 5 sites during 2010 and 2011. DNA extracts of questing and host-attached I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and of several tissue types of small mammals (the majority bank voles and yellow-necked mice, were investigated by PCR followed by sequencing for the occurrence of DNA of Babesia spp. and by real-time PCR for A. phagocytophilum. A selected number of samples positive for A. phagocytophilum were further investigated for variants of the partial 16S rRNA gene. Co-infection with Rickettsia spp. in the questing ticks was additionally investigated. Results 4.1% of questing I. ricinus ticks, but no D. reticulatus, were positive for Babesia sp. and 8.7% of I. ricinus for A. phagocytophilum. Sequencing revealed B. microti, B. capreoli and Babesia spp. EU1 in Leipzig and sequence analysis of the partial 16S RNA gene of A. phagocytophilum revealed variants either rarely reported in human cases or associated with cervid hosts. The statistical analysis revealed significantly less ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum in a city park in Leipzig as compared to the other sampling sites. A. phagocytophilum-DNA was detected in 2 bank voles, DNA of B. microti in 1 striped field-mouse and of Babesia sp. EU1 in the skin tissue of a mole. Co-infections were detected. Conclusion Our results show the involvement of small mammals in the natural endemic cycles of tick-borne pathogens. A more thorough understanding of the interactions of ticks, pathogens and hosts is the essential basis for effective preventive control measures.

  12. Tissue-Specific Signatures in the Transcriptional Response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus Tick Cell Lines

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    Alberdi, Pilar; Mansfield, Karen L.; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Cook, Charlotte; Ayllón, Nieves; Villar, Margarita; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R.; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum are transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks and have become one of the most common and relevant tick-borne pathogens due to their impact on human and animal health. Recent results have increased our understanding of the molecular interactions between Ixodes scapularis and A. phagocytophilum through the demonstration of tissue-specific molecular pathways that ensure pathogen infection, development and transmission by ticks. However, little is known about the Ixodes ricinus genes and proteins involved in the response to A. phagocytophilum infection. The tick species I. scapularis and I. ricinus are evolutionarily closely related and therefore similar responses are expected in A. phagocytophilum-infected cells. However, differences may exist between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cells associated with tissue-specific signatures of these cell lines. To address this hypothesis, the transcriptional response to A. phagocytophilum infection was characterized by RNA sequencing and compared between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cell lines. The transcriptional response to infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells resembled that of tick hemocytes while the response in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells was more closely related to that reported previously in infected tick midguts. The inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum appears to be a key adaptation mechanism to facilitate infection of both vertebrate and tick cells and was used to investigate further the tissue-specific response of tick cell lines to pathogen infection. The results supported a role for the intrinsic pathway in the inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells. In contrast, the results in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells were similar to those obtained in tick midguts and suggested a role for the JAK/STAT pathway in the inhibition of apoptosis in tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum. Nevertheless, tick

  13. Tissue-Specific Signatures in the Transcriptional Response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus Tick Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, Pilar; Mansfield, Karen L; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Cook, Charlotte; Ayllón, Nieves; Villar, Margarita; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum are transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks and have become one of the most common and relevant tick-borne pathogens due to their impact on human and animal health. Recent results have increased our understanding of the molecular interactions between Ixodes scapularis and A. phagocytophilum through the demonstration of tissue-specific molecular pathways that ensure pathogen infection, development and transmission by ticks. However, little is known about the Ixodes ricinus genes and proteins involved in the response to A. phagocytophilum infection. The tick species I. scapularis and I. ricinus are evolutionarily closely related and therefore similar responses are expected in A. phagocytophilum-infected cells. However, differences may exist between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cells associated with tissue-specific signatures of these cell lines. To address this hypothesis, the transcriptional response to A. phagocytophilum infection was characterized by RNA sequencing and compared between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cell lines. The transcriptional response to infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells resembled that of tick hemocytes while the response in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells was more closely related to that reported previously in infected tick midguts. The inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum appears to be a key adaptation mechanism to facilitate infection of both vertebrate and tick cells and was used to investigate further the tissue-specific response of tick cell lines to pathogen infection. The results supported a role for the intrinsic pathway in the inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells. In contrast, the results in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells were similar to those obtained in tick midguts and suggested a role for the JAK/STAT pathway in the inhibition of apoptosis in tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum. Nevertheless, tick

  14. Host, habitat and climate preferences of Ixodes angustus (Acari: Ixodidae) and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in California, USA.

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    Stephenson, Nicole; Wong, Johnny; Foley, Janet

    2016-10-01

    The Holarctic tick Ixodes angustus is a competent vector for Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, and possibly Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the etiologic agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, as well. From 2005 to 2013, we collected host-feeding I. angustus individuals from live-trapped small mammals and by flagging vegetation from 12 study sites in northern and central California, and tested for B. burgdorferi sensu lato, A. phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. DNA by real-time PCR. Among 261 I. angustus collected (259 from hosts and two by flagging), the most common hosts were tree squirrels (20 % of ticks) and chipmunks (37 %). The PCR-prevalence for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi in ticks was 2 % and zero, respectively. The minimum infection prevalence on pooled DNA samples was 10 % for Rickettsia spp. DNA sequencing of the ompA gene identified this rickettsia as Candidatus Rickettsia angustus, a putative endosymbiont. A zero-inflated negative binomial mixed effects model was used to evaluate geographical and climatological predictors of I. angustus burden. When host species within study site and season within year were included in the model as nested random effects, all significant variables revealed that I. angustus burden increased as temperature decreased. Together with published data, these findings suggest that I. angustus is a host generalist, has a broad geographic distribution, is more abundant in areas with lower temperature within it's range, and is rarely infected with the pathogens A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi.

  15. Prevalence and first molecular characterization of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks attached to dogs from Egypt

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    Mohamed W. Ghafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene integrated with sequence analysis were performed to investigate the prevalence and the molecular identity of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Egyptian Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks attached to dogs. A total of 413 adult and nymphal R. sanguineus ticks were collected while attached to 72 free-roaming dogs from four locations (Imbaba, Boulaq, Haram, Monib in Giza Governorate, Egypt. DNA was successfully extracted from 401 specimens (133 nymphs and 268 adults. The overall prevalence rate was 13.7% and adult ticks showed a significantly higher infection rate (16.4% compared to nymphs (8.3%. Sequence comparisons of 218-bp showed that detected organism belongs to A. phagocytophilum. The sequence showed 99.1% similarity (2 nucleotide differences with some strains described as human pathogens and with that detected in the established tick vectors. Phylogenetic analysis placed the bacteria on a separate branch with that found in R. annulatus from Egypt (DQ379972 (99.5% similarity. Our variant strain was designated as A. phagocytophilum-Ghafar-EGY (AB608266. This report is the first molecular characterization of A. phagocytophilum in R. sanguineus in Egypt, suggesting that this tick species may act as a competent vector for a variant strain of human granulocytic anaplasmosis agent.

  16. Whole genome transcription profiling of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in human and tick host cells by tiling array analysis

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    Chavez Adela

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap is an obligate intracellular bacterium and the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, an emerging tick-borne disease. Ap alternately infects ticks and mammals and a variety of cell types within each. Understanding the biology behind such versatile cellular parasitism may be derived through the use of tiling microarrays to establish high resolution, genome-wide transcription profiles of the organism as it infects cell lines representative of its life cycle (tick; ISE6 and pathogenesis (human; HL-60 and HMEC-1. Results Detailed, host cell specific transcriptional behavior was revealed. There was extensive differential Ap gene transcription between the tick (ISE6 and the human (HL-60 and HMEC-1 cell lines, with far fewer differentially transcribed genes between the human cell lines, and all disproportionately represented by membrane or surface proteins. There were Ap genes exclusively transcribed in each cell line, apparent human- and tick-specific operons and paralogs, and anti-sense transcripts that suggest novel expression regulation processes. Seven virB2 paralogs (of the bacterial type IV secretion system showed human or tick cell dependent transcription. Previously unrecognized genes and coding sequences were identified, as were the expressed p44/msp2 (major surface proteins paralogs (of 114 total, through elevated signal produced to the unique hypervariable region of each – 2/114 in HL-60, 3/114 in HMEC-1, and none in ISE6. Conclusion Using these methods, whole genome transcription profiles can likely be generated for Ap, as well as other obligate intracellular organisms, in any host cells and for all stages of the cell infection process. Visual representation of comprehensive transcription data alongside an annotated map of the genome renders complex transcription into discernable patterns.

  17. Anaplasma phagocytophilum increases the levels of histone modifying enzymes to inhibit cell apoptosis and facilitate pathogen infection in the tick vector Ixodes scapularis.

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    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Alberdi, Pilar; Ayllón, Nieves; Valdés, James J; Pierce, Raymond; Villar, Margarita; de la Fuente, José

    2016-04-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms have not been characterized in ticks despite their importance as vectors of human and animal diseases worldwide. The objective of this study was to characterize the histones and histone modifying enzymes (HMEs) of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis and their role during Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. We first identified 5 histones and 34 HMEs in I. scapularis in comparison with similar proteins in model organisms. Then, we used transcriptomic and proteomic data to analyze the mRNA and protein levels of I. scapularis histones and HMEs in response to A. phagocytophilum infection of tick tissues and cultured cells. Finally, selected HMEs were functionally characterized by pharmacological studies in cultured tick cells. The results suggest that A. phagocytophilum manipulates tick cell epigenetics to increase I. scapularis p300/CBP, histone deacetylase, and Sirtuin levels, resulting in an inhibition of cell apoptosis that in turn facilitates pathogen infection and multiplication. These results also suggest that a compensatory mechanism might exist by which A. phagocytophilum manipulates tick HMEs to regulate transcription and apoptosis in a tissue-specific manner to facilitate infection, but preserving tick fitness to guarantee survival of both pathogens and ticks. Our study also indicates that the pathogen manipulates arthropod and vertebrate cell epigenetics in similar ways to inhibit the host response to infection. Epigenetic regulation of tick biological processes is an essential element of the infection by A. phagocytophilum and the study of the mechanisms and principal actors involved is likely to provide clues for the development of anti-tick drugs and vaccines.

  18. Anaplasma phagocytophilum APH0032 Is Exposed on the Cytosolic Face of the Pathogen-Occupied Vacuole and Co-opts Host Cell SUMOylation

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    Oki, Aminat T.; Huang, Bernice; Beyer, Andrea R.; May, Levi J.; Truchan, Hilary K.; Walker, Naomi J.; Galloway, Nathan L.; Borjesson, Dori L.; Carlyon, Jason A.

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a member of the family Anaplasmataceae and the obligate intracellular bacterium that causes granulocytic anaplasmosis, resides in a host cell-derived vacuole. Bacterial proteins that localize to the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole membrane (AVM) are critical host-pathogen interfaces. Of the few bacterial AVM proteins that have been identified, the domains responsible for AVM localization and the host cell pathways that they co-opt are poorly defined. APH0032 is an effector that is expressed and localizes to the AVM late during the infection cycle. Herein, the APH0032 domain that is essential for associating with host cell membranes was mapped. Immunofluorescent labeling of infected cells that had been differentially permeabilized confirmed that APH0032 is exposed on the AVM's cytosolic face, signifying its potential to interface with host cell processes. SUMOylation is the covalent attachment of a member of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) family of proteins to lysines in target substrates. Previous work from our laboratory determined that SUMOylation is important for A. phagocytophilum survival and that SUMOylated proteins decorate the AVM. Algorithmic prediction analyses identified APH0032 as a candidate for SUMOylation. Endogenous APH0032 was precipitated from infected cells using a SUMO affinity matrix, confirming that the effector co-opts SUMOylation during infection. APH0032 pronouncedly colocalized with SUMO1, but not SUMO2/3 moieties on the AVM. Ectopic expression of APH0032 in A. phagocytophilum infected host cells significantly boosted the bacterial load. This study delineates the first domain of any Anaplasmataceae protein that is essential for associating with the pathogen-occupied vacuole membrane, demonstrates the importance of APH0032 to infection, and identifies it as the second A. phagocytophilum effector that co-opts SUMOylation, thus underscoring the relevance of this post-translational modification to

  19. Are Apodemus spp. mice and Myodes glareolus reservoirs for Borrelia miyamotoi, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Rickettsia helvetica, R. monacensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum?

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    Burri, C; Schumann, O; Schumann, C; Gern, L

    2014-04-01

    In Europe, in addition to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus, other zoonotic pathogens, like B. miyamotoi, a species related to the relapsing fever spirochaetes, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (N. mikurensis), Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported in the ixodid tick Ixodes ricinus. No study was conducted to identify reservoir hosts for these pathogens. Here, we investigated the role played by wild rodents in the natural transmission cycle of B. miyamotoi, N. mikurensis, R. helvetica, R. monacensis, and A. phagocytophilum in Switzerland. In 2011 and 2012, small mammals were captured in an area where these pathogens occur in questing ticks. Ixodes ricinus ticks infesting captured small mammals were analysed after their moult by PCR followed by reverse line blot to detect the different pathogens. Xenodiagnostic larvae were used to evaluate the role of rodents as reservoirs and analysed after their moult. Most of the 108 captured rodents (95.4%) were infested by I. ricinus ticks; 4.9%, 3.9%, 24.0%, and 0% of the rodents were infested by Borrelia, N. mikurensis, Rickettsia spp., and A. phagocytophilum-infected larvae, respectively. Borrelia afzelii, B. miyamotoi, N. mikurensis, Rickettsia spp., and A. phagocytophilum were detected in 2.8%, 0.17%, 2.6%, 6.8%, and 0% of the ticks attached to rodents, respectively. Borrelia afzelii was transmitted by 4 rodents to 41.2% of the xenodiagnostic ticks, B. miyamotoi by 3 rodents to 23.8%, and N. mikurensis was transmitted by 6 rodents to 41.0% of the xenodiagnostic ticks. None of the tested rodent transmitted Rickettsia spp. or A. phagocytophilum to I. ricinus xenodiagnostic larvae. This study showed that rodents are reservoir hosts for B. miyamotoi and N. mikurensis in Europe. PMID:24582511

  20. Prevalence of Babesia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in hard ticks collected from meadows of Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern Poland

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    Dzięgiel Beata

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Babesia canis in adult females and males of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, inhabiting meadows near large forest complexes throughout the Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern region of Poland. Ticks were collected using the flagging method. Among 720 ticks collected, 506 were identified as D. reticulatus, and 214 as I. ricinus. DNA of B. canis and B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 21.3% and 0.6% of D. reticulatus ticks, respectively. In I. ricinus ticks, DNA specific to B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum was detected in 5.6% and 10.3%, respectively. Co-infections of B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum were found in two I. ricinus ticks. These results indicate that the Lublin region is an area at risk of tick-borne diseases of humans and animals, which must be considered in clinical practice.

  1. Assessment of antibodies against surface and outer membrane proteins of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis paediatric patients.

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    Krbková, L; Homola, L; Hlaváčová, A; Mikolášek, P; Bednářová, J; Čermáková, Z

    2016-09-01

    To examine evidence of positive antibodies against immunogenic proteins of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in patients with other tick-borne infections and to diagnose possible co-infections, 412 serum specimens were tested by immunoblotting using three specific Anaplasma antigens: surface proteins p44 and Asp62 and outer membrane protein A (OmpA). In total, 284 serum samples from children with Lyme borreliosis and 12 serum samples from children with tick-borne encephalitis were tested. Sera from patients with viral aseptic meningitis (n = 47) and from blood donors (n = 69) were used as controls. Among all serum specimens from patients with tick-borne infections submitted for this study, six samples (2·0%) showed positive IgM reactions and seven samples (2·4%) were IgG positive for A. phagocytophilum by immunoblot. Borderline reactivity was found in 30 samples (10·14%) for IgM and 36 samples (12·2%) for IgG. The difference between patients and blood donors was statistically significant for IgM (P = 0·006) and for IgG (P = 0·0007) antibodies. A statistically significant result was obtained for IgG (P = 0·02) but not for IgM between patients and children with aseptic meningitis. Immunoblot using three specific antigens provides novel information about the positivity of antibodies to A. phagocytophilum in children with other tick-borne infections. Taking into account clinical and laboratory findings of children despite antibody positivity, no case of human granulocytic anaplasmosis was demonstrated. PMID:27180603

  2. A comparative study of clinical manifestations, haematological and serological responses after experimental infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in two Norwegian sheep breeds

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    Sandstedt Karin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been questioned if the old native Norwegian sheep breed, Old Norse Sheep (also called Norwegian Feral Sheep, normally distributed on coastal areas where ticks are abundant, is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds due to a continuously high selection pressure on pasture. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis in an experimental infection study. Methods Five-months-old lambs of two Norwegian sheep breeds, Norwegian White (NW sheep and Old Norse (ON sheep, were experimentally infected with a 16S rRNA genetic variant of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (similar to GenBank accession number M73220. The experiment was repeated for two subsequent years, 2008 and 2009, with the use of 16 lambs of each breed annually. Ten lambs of each breed were inoculated intravenously each year with 0.4 ml A. phagocytophilum-infected blood containing approximately 0.5 × 106 infected neutrophils/ml. Six lambs of each breed were used as uninfected controls. Half of the primary inoculated lambs in each breed were re-challenged with the same infectious dose at nine (2008 and twelve (2009 weeks after the first challenge. The clinical, haematological and serological responses to A. phagocytophilum infection were compared in the two sheep breeds. Results The present study indicates a difference in fever response and infection rate between breeds of Norwegian sheep after experimental infection with A. phagocytophilum. Conclusion Although clinical response seems to be less in ON-lambs compared to NW-lambs, further studies including more animals are needed to evaluate if the ON-breed is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds.

  3. Serological survey of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia canis infections in rural and urban dogs in Central Italy

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    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[i][/i][/b][i]. Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (s.l. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are well known zoonotic pathogens, whereas[i] Ehrlichia canis[/i] is usually considered to be of veterinary concern, although on the basis of recent reports it also seems to be able to infect humans. [b]objective[/b]. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of [i]B. burgdorferi [/i]s.l., A. phagocytophilum and [i]E. canis[/i] in an Italian canine population, and to verify if there are differences between dogs living in urban areas and those from a rural environment. [b]materials and method.[/b] Blood sera of 1,965 dogs, 1,235 from cities and 730 from rural areas, were tested by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFAT. [b]results[/b]. The overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (7.07%, followed by [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] (4.68%, and [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. (1.47%. Rural dogs showed the highest seroprevalence to [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. and [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i]. No significant differences were observed between rural and urban [i]E. canis[/i]-positive dogs. A low percentage (1.32% of dogs with dual seropositivity was detected, and no triple positive reactions were observed. No significant differences were detected in the seroprevalence of the three agents in relationship to the age and gender of the dogs. Seroprevalence in the five years considered were not statistically different, except for the lowest rate for [i]E. canis[/i] observed in 2012. [b]conclusions[/b]. The results confirm the presence of [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l., [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] and [i]E. canis[/i] in Italian dogs in both urban and rural areas. Monitoring pet dogs, which share the same environment with their owners, is useful for identifying the presence of tick-borne disease agents of both veterinary and public health significance

  4. Are patients with erythema migrans who have leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum or tick-borne encephalitis virus?

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    Franc Strle

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis (LB, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA are endemic in central part of Slovenia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with erythema migrans (EM from this region, who have leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia (typical findings in HGA and in the initial phase of TBE but not in patients with LB are coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or with TBE virus, i.e. that cytopenia is a result of concomitant HGA or the initial phase of TBE. Comparison of clinical and laboratory findings for 67 patients with EM who disclosed leukopenia/thrombocytopenia with the corresponding results in sex- and age-matched patients with EM and normal blood cell counts revealed no differences. In addition, patients with typical EM and leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia tested negative for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to TBE virus by ELISA as well as for the presence of specific IgG antibodies to A. phagocytophilum antigens by IFA in acute and convalescent serum samples. Thus, none of 67 patients (95% CI: 0 to 5.3% with typical EM (the presence of this skin lesion attests for early Lyme borreliosis and is the evidence for a recent tick bite was found to be coinfected with A. phagocytophilum or had a recent primary infection with TBE virus. The findings in the present study indicate that in Slovenia, and probably in other European countries endemic for LB, TBE and HGA, patients with early LB are rarely coinfected with the other tick-transmitted agents.

  5. Rural Residents in China Are at Increased Risk of Exposure to Tick-Borne Pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis

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    Lijuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As emerging tick born rickettsial diseases caused by A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis have become a serious threat to human and animal health throughout the world. In particular, in China, an unusual transmission of nosocomial cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis occurred in Anhui Province in 2006 and more recent coinfection case of A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis was documented in Shandong Province. Although the seroprevalence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (former human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, HGE has been documented in several studies, these data existed on local investigations, and also little data was reported on the seroprevalence of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME in China. In this cross-sectional epidemiological study, indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA proposed by WHO was used to detect A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis IgG antibodies for 7,322 serum samples from agrarian residents from 9 provinces/cities and 819 urban residents from 2 provinces. Our data showed that farmers were at substantially increased risk of exposure. However, even among urban residents, risk was considerable. Seroprevalence of HGA and HME occurred in diverse regions of the country and tended to be the highest in young adults. Many species of ticks were confirmed carrying A. phagocytophilum organisms in China while several kinds of domestic animals including dog, goats, sheep, cattle, horse, wild rabbit, and some small wild rodents were proposed to be the reservoir hosts of A. phagocytophilum. The broad distribution of vector and hosts of the A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis, especially the relationship between the generalized susceptibility of vectors and reservoirs and the severity of the disease’s clinical manifestations and the genetic variation of Chinese HGA isolates in China, is urgently needed to be further investigated.

  6. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. infections in hard ticks (Ixodes ricinus) in the city of Hanover (Germany): revisited.

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    Tappe, Julia; Strube, Christina

    2013-09-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Rickettsiales (A. phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp.) in 2100 I. ricinus ticks collected at 10 different sampling sites every month during the tick season 2010 in the city of Hanover, northern Germany. At the same time, the results served as a fifth-year-follow-up study to monitor whether changes or stagnation of tick infection rates - possibly due to climate change--were obvious or not. To detect infections with A. phagocytophilum and/or Rickettsia spp., tick samples were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Differentiation of Rickettsia species was accomplished using real-time pyrosequencing technology. Overall, 4.5% (94/2100) of the collected ticks were tested positive for A. phagocytophilum and 26.2% (551/2100) were positive for Rickettsia spp. infections. Species differentiation of Rickettsia-positive ticks via real-time pyrosequencing was possible in 48.6% (268/551) of samples, which were all identified as R. helvetica. Coinfections with both pathogens were found in 1.0% (20/2100) of ticks. Statistically significant seasonal fluctuations between sampling months as well as local differences between sampling sites were detected for Rickettsia spp. infection rates. For A. phagocytophilum infections, only significant seasonal variations were found. When comparing infection rates of Hanoverian ticks in 2010 to those in 2005, infection rates of A. phagocytophilum-infected nymphs increased statistically significant (P=0.008, power: 0.762) from 2.3% in 2005 (Schicht et al., 2011) to 4.5% in 2010. Rickettsia spp. infections in female ticks decreased significantly (P=0.049, power: 0.491) from 41.8% in 2005 (Schicht et al., 2012) to 32.4% in 2010. Comparison of the remaining tick stages showed no statistically significant differences.

  7. Retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory findings in hunting dogs with serologic reactions to tick-borne pathogens (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Ricketsia conorii

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    Spasojević-Kosić Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seroprevalence of tick-borne infections in endemic areas could be high. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence of tick-borne pathogens (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Rickettsia conorii in hunting dogs, naturally infected with one or more pathogens. Serological test results of the investigated animals were compared to those from clinical examination, as well as from haematological and biochemical analyses. A total of 74.14% dogs were seropositive (R.conorii 44.83%, B. canis 32.76%, B. burgdorferi 25.86%, E. canis 13.79%, A. phagocytophilum 8.47%, with 25.86% of dogs seropositive to two pathogens, 15.52% seropositive to three pathogens, and 1.72% of dogs seropositive to four pathogens. Among all registered clinical signs, only pyrexia (p<0.05 and arrhythmia (p<0.05 were significant in seropositive dogs. There was no significant difference between seropositive and seronegative dogs regarding the majority of haematological and biochemical parameters. Statistically significant difference was registered for particular haematological (number of red blood cells and seroreactivity to B. burgdorferi and biochemical parameters (albumin concentration and seroreactivity to E. canis, and AST and seroreactivity to R. conorii but these values were not clinically significant. The high exposure to tick-borne pathogens suggests that ectoparasitic profilactic treatment is not adequate in examined population of hunting dogs. Clinical finding of pyrexia need to be further investigated and explained etiologically, which means that molecular diagnosis should be used in order to identify larger number of pathogens because of the possibility of coinfection. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31084

  8. Occurrence of ticks and prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in three types of urban biotopes: forests, parks and cemeteries.

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    Hornok, Sándor; Meli, Marina L; Gönczi, Enikő; Halász, Edina; Takács, Nóra; Farkas, Róbert; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare different urban biotopes for the occurrence of ixodid tick species, for the population density of Ixodes ricinus and for the prevalence rates of two emerging, zoonotic pathogens. Altogether 2455 ticks were collected from the vegetation on 30 places (forests, parks, cemeteries) of Budapest, Hungary. I. ricinus and Haemaphysalis concinna were collected in all three biotope types, but Dermacentor reticulatus only in parks and forests, and D. marginatus only in a forest. Highest population density of I. ricinus was observed in neglected parts of cemeteries. In females of this tick species the prevalence rates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were significantly lower in cemeteries, than in parks or forests. In conclusion, risks associated with the presence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens may be high in a city, but this depends on biotope types, due to habitat-related differences in the vegetation, as well as in the availability of tick hosts and pathogen reservoirs.

  9. Seroprevalence against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and occurence of antibody co-expression with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs in Latvia

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    Berzina, Inese; Matise, Ilze

    2013-01-01

    Background Lyme disease is commonly diagnosed in humans in Latvia, but up to date no studies have been performed to investigate its prevalence in dogs. The aim of this study was to evaluate if seroprevalence against B. burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l.) and co-expression of antibodies against B.burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum is higher in dogs with clinical suspicion of tick-borne diseases compared to healthy dogs. Findings Venous blood was taken from healthy dogs (n=441) an...

  10. Nuclease Tudor-SN Is Involved in Tick dsRNA-Mediated RNA Interference and Feeding but Not in Defense against Flaviviral or Anaplasma phagocytophilum Rickettsial Infection.

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    Nieves Ayllón

    Full Text Available Tudor staphylococcal nuclease (Tudor-SN and Argonaute (Ago are conserved components of the basic RNA interference (RNAi machinery with a variety of functions including immune response and gene regulation. The RNAi machinery has been characterized in tick vectors of human and animal diseases but information is not available on the role of Tudor-SN in tick RNAi and other cellular processes. Our hypothesis is that tick Tudor-SN is part of the RNAi machinery and may be involved in innate immune response and other cellular processes. To address this hypothesis, Ixodes scapularis and I. ricinus ticks and/or cell lines were used to annotate and characterize the role of Tudor-SN in dsRNA-mediated RNAi, immune response to infection with the rickettsia Anaplasma phagocytophilum and the flaviviruses TBEV or LGTV and tick feeding. The results showed that Tudor-SN is conserved in ticks and involved in dsRNA-mediated RNAi and tick feeding but not in defense against infection with the examined viral and rickettsial pathogens. The effect of Tudor-SN gene knockdown on tick feeding could be due to down-regulation of genes that are required for protein processing and blood digestion through a mechanism that may involve selective degradation of dsRNAs enriched in G:U pairs that form as a result of adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing. These results demonstrated that Tudor-SN plays a role in tick RNAi pathway and feeding but no strong evidence for a role in innate immune responses to pathogen infection was found.

  11. A serological survey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs in North America and the Caribbean as assessed by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. platys, Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and Borrelia burgdorferi species-specific peptides

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    Barbara A. Qurollo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tick-borne pathogens cause a spectrum of disease manifestations in both dogs and humans. Recognizing regional and temporal shifts in exposure are important as tick distributions change. To better delineate regional exposure to canine tick-borne pathogens, an expanded set of species-specific peptides were used to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Aph, Anaplasma platys (Apl, Ehrlichia canis (Ec, Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Ech, Ehrlichia ewingii (Eew, and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb antibodies in canine serum. Methods: Archived canine serum samples (n=6,582 collected during 2008–2010 and in 2012 from the US, Canada, and the Caribbean were retrospectively screened for antibodies against Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species-specific peptides. Overall, regional and temporal seroprevalence rates were determined. Results: Overall Bb and Eew were the most seroprevalent pathogens. During 2008–2010, seroprevalence rates increased overall for Aph and Ech, and regionally, Bb and Aph seroprevalence rates increased in the South. Canada had unexpectedly high seroprevalence rates for Ec and Apl. The most common co-exposures were Eew+Ech, followed by Aph+Bb and Eew+Bb. Conclusions: This study demonstrated significant shifts in canine vector-borne disease seroprevalence rates. The use of specific peptides facilitated improved geographic delineation of tick-borne pathogen distributions among dogs, which may enhance epidemiological surveillance of vector-borne pathogens shared by dogs and humans.

  12. Molecular characteristics of emerging spotted fever group Rickettsiae and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Hebei province, China%河北新发斑点热及人粒细胞无形体病实验室调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙印旗; 王勇; 姜霞; 姚娜; 钱振宇; 刘晓丽; 陈创夫; 张丽娟

    2015-01-01

    目的:对河北省新发蜱传斑点热群立克次体及人粒细胞无形体进行分子流行病学特征分析。方法对2009-2012年在河北省辛集、迁安及定州市收集的101份临床可疑立克次体病病例急性期血液DNA样本,采用2套巢氏PCR法分别扩增斑点热群立克次体热休克蛋白基因(groEL)和人粒细胞无形体16S rRNA基因并测序,序列采用NCBI网站进行Blast分析后,选择不同地区、不同宿主来源相应基因,使用DNAStar MegAlign同源分析。结果10.9%(11/101)的病例groEL扩增阳性,同源分析当地斑点热群立克次体groEL基因分为2个序列型,尽管有限片段无法区别立克次体种,但PCR阳性病例血清与我国常见黑龙江立克次体、西伯利亚立克次体、海南斑点热群立克次体及蚤传斑点热立克次体无抗原抗体反应,提示可能为新发斑点热。人粒细胞无形体16S rRNA基因扩增阳性率为8.9%(9/101),且病例急性期血清人粒细胞无形体IgM抗体全部阳性,其中3例急性期与恢复期血清发生IgG抗体转换。16S rRNA基因测序成功的9个序列(341 bp)100%同源,并且与该地区无形体病例分离株CZ-HGA-2100%同源。结论河北地区可能存在新发蜱传人粒细胞无形体病例及新发斑点热。加强立克次体实验室诊断及鉴别诊断、进一步开展病原学、相关媒介及宿主流行病学调查均具有重要的临床及公共卫生意义。%Objective To better understand the molecular epidemiological characteristics of emerging spotted fever group Rickettsiae and Anaplasma phagocytophilum identified in Hebei province. Methods One hundred and one clinical probable cases of typhus were collected from Xinji city, Qianan city and Dingzhou city, Hebei province during 2009-2012 and 101 acute stage and 17 convalescence blood samples were collected. Sera separated from blood were used for detecting the IgM and IgG antibodies against

  13. A Molecular survey of Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia canis and Babesia microti in foxes and fleas from Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torina, A; Blanda, V; Antoci, F; Scimeca, S; D'Agostino, R; Scariano, E; Piazza, A; Galluzzo, P; Giudice, E; Caracappa, S

    2013-11-01

    Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are obligate bloodsucking insects, which parasitize birds and mammals, and are distributed throughout the world. Several species have been implicated in pathogen transmission. This study aimed to monitor red foxes and the fleas isolated from them in the Palermo and Ragusa provinces of Sicily, Italy, as these organisms are potential reservoirs and vectors of pathogens. Thirteen foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 110 fleas were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect DNA of the pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Babesia microti, Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma ovis. In the foxes, A. ovis was detected in only one animal, whereas the prevalence of the E. canis pathogen was 31%. B. microti and Rickettsia spp. were not detected. Of all of the collected fleas, 75 belonged to the species Xenopsylla cheopis, 32 belonged to Ctenocephalides canis, two belonged to Ctenocephalides felis and one belonged to Cediopsylla inaequalis. In the fleas, the following pathogens were found: A. ovis (prevalence 25%), A. marginale (1%), A. phagocytophilum (1%), Rickettsia felis (2%) and E. canis (3%). X. cheopis was the flea species most frequently infected with Anaplasma, in particular A. ovis (33%), A. marginale (1%) and A. phagocytophilum (1%). Both C. felis exemplars were positive for R. felis. E. canis was found in the lone C. inaequalis and also in 3% of the X. cheopis specimens. No fleas were positive for B. microti or A. platys. As foxes often live in proximity to domestic areas, they may constitute potential reservoirs for human and animal parasites. Further studies should be performed on fleas to determine their vectorial capacity.

  14. Prevalence of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. in Ticks Collected from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Bae-Keun; Park, Jinho; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-02-01

    Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings. PMID:26951985

  15. Detection of Babesia and Anaplasma species in rabbits from Texas and Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J; Romines, Janean; Nettles, Victor F

    2006-01-01

    Rabbits have been shown to harbor a suite of zoonotic organisms, including a Babesia species, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In this study, we conducted a molecular survey for various tick-borne pathogens in three species of rabbits from Texas and Georgia. Of 18 black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) tested from Texas, six (28%) were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for Babesia, and nucleotide sequencing revealed two distinct species or strains. Two jackrabbits were infected with a Babesia species or strain (Babesia sp. A) that was nearly identical (99.9%) to a piroplasm previously detected in humans from Washington state, and the remaining four jackrabbits were infected with a Babesia species (Babesia sp. B) that was most similar (99.7%) to a Babesia species detected in cottontail rabbits from Massachusetts and humans from Kentucky and Missouri. Eleven (61%) black-tailed jackrabbits were positive for A. bovis, and one was positive for A. phagocytophilum. Two of four desert cottontails (Sylvilagus audubonii) from Texas were positive for the Babesia sp. B, and one desert cottontail each was positive for A. bovis and A. phagocytophilum. One of these desert cottontails was coinfected with the Babesia sp. B and A. phagocytophilum, and five jackrabbits were coinfected with Babesia species and A. bovis. Of 19 eastern cottontails (S. floridanus) from Georgia, only one (5.3%) was positive for A. phagocytophilum, and three (15.8%) were positive for A. bovis. No rabbits from Texas or Georgia were positive for Borrelia species. The only tick species detected on the Texas and Georgia rabbits was the rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris. These data extend the geographic and host range of these pathogens, and because both the Babesia species and A. phagocytophilum are potential zoonotic pathogens, it is important to be aware that these organisms are enzootic in parts of the southern United States. PMID:16584322

  16. Migratory and carnivorous birds in Brazil: reservoirs for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério; Werther, Karin; de Sousa, Eliane; Gavioli, Fernando Antônio; Alves Junior, José Roberto Ferreira

    2012-08-01

    In order to investigate new hosts for Anaplasmataceae agents in Brazil, we collected blood samples from 21 wild birds. Using molecular techniques, we detected the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and an Ehrlichia species closely related to Ehrlichia canis in carnivorous avian blood samples. In addition, an Ehrlichia species closely related to an Ehrlichia species found in wild felines in Brazil was also detected in a goose blood sample. Wild birds may play a role as carriers of Anaplasmataceae agents in Brazil. PMID:22607070

  17. DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES TO ANAPLASMA, BARTONELLA AND COXIELLA IN RURAL INHABITANTS OF THE CARIBBEAN AREA OF COLOMBIA

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    Salim Máttar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Establecer la seroprevalencia de Bartonella spp, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (antesErlichia y Coexiella burnetii. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron sueros representativos de unsector de la población en el año 2003, recolectados de personas que trabajan en actividades delcampo en los departamentos de Córdoba y Sucre que sirvieron como población base de las muestrasque se obtuvieron. Los trabajadores rurales elegidos a participar tenían entra 16 – 65 años deedad. Los sueros fueron examinados por IFA para detección de anticuerpos contra IgG para Bartonellaspp, Erlichia Anaplasma phagocytophilum y Coexiella burnetii. Resultados. La seroprevalencia deanticuerpos de todos los microorganismos estudiados fue de 56.8%. De 81 muestras de sueroanalizadas el 26.6% fueron seropositivas contra C. burnetii, el 37.7% tuvieron anticuerpos contraBartonella y el 20% de los individuos evaluados fueron seropositivos para Anaplasmaphagocytophilum. Conclusiones. Nuestros datos indican que la prevalencia de anticuerpos contraBartonella, A. phagocytophilum y C. burnetii son altos en nuestra región. Los resultados indicanque estas enfermedades zoonoticas son muy comunes en las personas que residen en el área delcaribe colombiano. Este estudio demuestra por primera vez la presencia de estos microorganismosen Colombia.

  18. Sequence analysis of the msp4 gene of Anaplasma ovis strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, J.; Atkinson, M.W.; Naranjo, V.; Fernandez de Mera, I. G.; Mangold, A.J.; Keating, K.A.; Kocan, K.M.

    2007-01-01

    Anaplasma ovis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) is a tick-borne pathogen of sheep, goats and wild ruminants. The genetic diversity of A. ovis strains has not been well characterized due to the lack of sequence information. In this study, we evaluated bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Montana for infection with A. ovis by serology and sequence analysis of the msp4 gene. Antibodies to Anaplasma spp. were detected in 37% and 39% of bighorn sheep and mule deer analyzed, respectively. Four new msp4 genotypes were identified. The A. ovis msp4 sequences identified herein were analyzed together with sequences reported previously for the characterization of the genetic diversity of A. ovis strains in comparison with other Anaplasma spp. The results of these studies demonstrated that although A. ovis msp4 genotypes may vary among geographic regions and between sheep and deer hosts, the variation observed was less than the variation observed between A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum strains. The results reported herein further confirm that A. ovis infection occurs in natural wild ruminant populations in Western United States and that bighorn sheep and mule deer may serve as wildlife reservoirs of A. ovis. ?? 2006.

  19. Vector-Borne Diseases in Stray Dogs in Peninsular Malaysia and Molecular Detection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. from Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Fui Xian; Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani; Tay, Sun Tee

    2016-01-01

    Little data are available on the prevalence and transmission of vector-borne diseases in stray dogs in Peninsular Malaysia. This study was designed to determine the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens in Malaysian stray dogs using serological and molecular approaches. In total, 48 dog blood samples were subjected to serological analysis using SNAP 4Dx kit (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, ME). The presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma DNA in the dog blood samples and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) ticks was detected using nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Positive serological findings against Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were obtained in 17 (39.5%) and four (9.3%) of 43 dog samples, respectively. None of the dog blood samples were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis. DNA of E. canis and A. phagocytophilum was detected in 12 (25.5%) and two (4.3%) of 47 dog blood samples, and 17 (51.5%) and one (3.0%) of 33 R. sanguineus ticks, respectively. Additionally, DNA of Ehrlichia spp. closely related to Ehrlichia chaffeensis was detected in two (6.1%) R. sanguineus ticks. This study highlights the prevalence of anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in dogs in Malaysia. Due to the zoonotic potential of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp., appropriate measures should be instituted for prevention and control of vector-borne diseases in dogs.

  20. Prevalence of Anaplasma, Bartonella and Borrelia Species in Haemaphysalis longicornis collected from goats in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Smith, W Barney; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, In-Yong; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-06-30

    North Korea is located on the northern part of the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. While tick-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance have been reported from China and South Korea, they have not been reported from North Korea. To screen for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in North Korea, ticks were collected from domestic goats. A total of 292 (27 nymph, 26 male, 239 female) Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis were collected and assayed individually for selected tick-borne pathogens. A total of 77 (26.4%) were positive for Anaplasma bovis, followed by Bartonella (B.) grahamii (15, 5.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (12, 4.1%), Bartonella henselae (10, 3.4%), and Borrelia spp. (3, 1.0%) based on 16S ribosomal RNA and ITS species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction. Using the groEL-based nested PCR, a total of 6 and 1 H. longicornis were positive for B. grahamii and B. henselae, respectively. All products were sequenced and demonstrated 100% identity and homology with previously reported sequences from other countries in GenBank. This is the first report of the detection of tick-borne pathogens in the North Korea and suggests that farm animals may act as reservoirs for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens. PMID:26645342

  1. Serological and molecular investigation of Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. in ticks and blood of dogs, in the Thrace Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Handan; Matur, Erdal; Akyazi, İbrahim; Ekiz, Elif Ergul; Aydin, Levent; Toparlak, Mufit

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, tick-borne diseases like ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis became widespread worldwide threatening the health of both human and companion animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs and ticks in the Thrace Region of Turkey. A total of 400 blood samples and 912 ticks were collected from dogs living in shelters that are located in four cities (Istanbul, Edirne, Tekirdag and Kirklareli) of the Thrace Region. Blood and buffy coat smears were prepared for microscopic examination. Hematologic and serologic analyses were performed using cell counter and commercial Snap3Dx test kit, respectively. Eight hundred fifty of collected ticks were classified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 33 as Rhipicephalus turanicus and 29 as Ixodes ricinus. After DNA extraction from blood samples and pooled ticks (127 tick pools, in total), nested PCR was performed to detect the DNA of Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. The seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis was 27.25% (109) by Snap3Dx test and the total molecular positivity was 11.75% (47) in dog blood samples and 21.25% (27) in tick pools by nested PCR. The frequencies of the infected blood samples with E. canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys were detected as 6%, 4% and 6%, respectively. E. canis and A. platys were detected in R. sanguineus pools with a ratio of 15.75% and 0.7%, respectively. In addition, A. platys was also detected in R. turanicus pools (0.7%). A. phagocytophilum was found only in I. ricinus pools (3.93%). Morulae of three species were detected in buffy coat and blood smears. While anemia was observed in dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected (with one or more species), thrombocytopenia was observed only in co-infected dogs. This is the first study providing evidence for the presence of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs and ticks in the Thrace Region of Turkey. Based on the results of the tests used in this study

  2. The Life and Death of Anaplasma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-30

    Dr. Setu Vora, medical director of critical care and physician director of performance improvement at Backus Hospital in Norwich, Connecticut, reads his poem The Life and Death of Anaplasma and discusses the poem’s origins.  Created: 3/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/2/2012.

  3. Molecular Characterization of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Species in Different Cattle Breeds and Age Groups in Mbarara District (Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhanguzi Dennis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma and Ehrlichia sp. (AEs cause significant economic losses to the livestock sector in Uganda. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of AEs in cattle from Kashaari county-Mbarara district (Uganda so as to compare the prevalence of AEs in different cattle breeds, age groups, sub county of origin and management systems and predictor(s of infection with AEs. Such information is deemed necessary to direct future tick-borne disease control programs. A single pair of primers w as used to am plify a 492-498bp fragment of the 16SRNA gene spanning the V1 region conserved for both AEs. PCR products were transferred onto the Reverse Line Blot (RLB membrane and AEs amplicons in the PCR products allowed to hybridize with AE species-specific oligonucleotides. The prevalence of Ehrlichia sp. was 5.1% (CI = 95%, 2.9-7.3% whereas that of Anaplasma species was 5.3 % (C I = 95%, 3-7.6%. Individual AEs detected include; A. bovis (5.1%, CI = 95%, 2.9-7.3%, E. ruminantium (4.5% , CI = 95%, 2.4-6.6%, A. marginale (3.7%, CI = 95%, 1.8-5.6%, A. (E. phagocytophilum (2.7%, CI = 95%, 1.1-4.3% , E. ovina/canis (2.7%, CI = 95%; 1.1-4.3%, E. sp. (omatjenne(1.9%, CI = 95 %, 0.5-3.3%. Cattle breed was found to be the best predictor of infection. To further understand bovine tick-borne parasites in Uganda, we recommend that studies covering a wider area and over longer periods, investigation of breed as a predictor of infection, molecular genetic characterization, transmission and pathogenicity studies on the different strains of AEs be carried out.

  4. Detection of Rickettsia and Anaplasma from hard ticks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaisri, Premnika; Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2015-12-01

    We collected a total of 169 adult hard ticks and 120 nymphs from under the leaves of plants located along tourist nature trails in ten localities. The results present data examining the vector competence of ticks of different genera and the presence of Rickettsia and Anaplasma species. The ticks belonged to three genera, Amblyomma, Dermacentor, and Haemaphysalis, comprising 11 species. Rickettsia bacteria were detected at three collection sites, while Anaplasma bacteria were detected at only one site. Phylogenetic analysis revealed new rickettsia genotypes from Thailand that were closely related to Rickettsia tamurae, Rickettsia monacensis, and Rickettsia montana. This study was also the first to show that Anaplasma bacteria are found in Haemaphysalis shimoga ticks and are closely related evolutionarily to Anaplasma bovis. These results provide additional information for the geographical distribution of tick species and tick-borne bacteria in Thailand and can therefore be applied for ecotourism management. PMID:26611960

  5. Detection of Rickettsia and Anaplasma from hard ticks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaisri, Premnika; Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2015-12-01

    We collected a total of 169 adult hard ticks and 120 nymphs from under the leaves of plants located along tourist nature trails in ten localities. The results present data examining the vector competence of ticks of different genera and the presence of Rickettsia and Anaplasma species. The ticks belonged to three genera, Amblyomma, Dermacentor, and Haemaphysalis, comprising 11 species. Rickettsia bacteria were detected at three collection sites, while Anaplasma bacteria were detected at only one site. Phylogenetic analysis revealed new rickettsia genotypes from Thailand that were closely related to Rickettsia tamurae, Rickettsia monacensis, and Rickettsia montana. This study was also the first to show that Anaplasma bacteria are found in Haemaphysalis shimoga ticks and are closely related evolutionarily to Anaplasma bovis. These results provide additional information for the geographical distribution of tick species and tick-borne bacteria in Thailand and can therefore be applied for ecotourism management.

  6. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Rickettsia monacensis in dogs from Maio Island of Cape Verde archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzi, Stefania; Maia, João P; Epis, Sara; Marcos, Ricardo; Pereira, Cristina; Luzzago, Camilla; Santos, Marta; Puente-Payo, Pablo; Giordano, Alessia; Pajoro, Massimo; Sironi, Giuseppe; Faustino, Augusto

    2016-07-01

    Tick-borne diseases are emerging worldwide and have an important zoonotic relevance. Dogs play an important role in the epidemiology of several zoonotic tick-borne pathogens acting as sentinels and/or reservoirs. This study focused on the molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in blood samples of 153 autochthonous asymptomatic dogs in Maio Island, Cape Verde archipelago. Eighty-four (54.9%) dogs were positive for one or more pathogens. Fifty-five (35.9%) dogs were infected with Hepatozoon canis, 53 (34.6%) with Anaplasma platys, five (3.3%) with Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia monacensis, an emerging human pathogen, was also identified in a single dog (0.7%). The former three pathogens cause important canine tick-borne diseases that are transmitted or potentially transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., the only hard tick identified in Cape Verde. Furthermore, Wolbachia spp. was amplified from the blood of one dog. None of the dogs were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Midichloria mitochondrii, Bartonella spp., Babesia spp. or Theileria spp. Fifty-four (35.3%) animals showed single infections and 30 (19.6%) co-infections, with A. platys and H. canis co-infection being the most frequent (28 dogs, 18.3%). The frequency of E. canis infection was statistically different among age groups (P=0.017), being higher among dogs older than 4 years compared to younger dogs. Infection by A. platys was also statistically different among age groups (P=0.031), being higher in dogs younger than 2 years compared to older dogs. The statistical analyses showed no significant association of PCR positivity with gender or location. The frequency of tick-borne pathogens detected in dogs in Maio Island, including R. monacensis, highlights the need to improve diagnosis and control in order to prevent the risk of transmission of these pathogens among dogs and humans living in or travelling to this touristic island.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale is a naturally attenuated subtype that has been used as a vaccine for a century. We sequenced the genome of this organism and compared it to those of virulent senso stricto A. marginale strains. The comparison markedly narrows the number of outer membrane protein ...

  8. Genetic diversity of anaplasma species major surface proteins and implications for anaplasmosis serodiagnosis and vaccine development

    OpenAIRE

    de la Fuente, J.; Lew, A.; Lutz, H.; Meli, M. L.; Hofmann-Lehmann, R.; Shkap, V; Molad, T; Mangold, A J; Almazán, C; Naranjo, V.; Gortázar, C.; Torina, A; Caracappa, S.; García-Pérez, A. L.; Barral, M.

    2005-01-01

    The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) includes several pathogens of veterinary and human medical importance. An understanding of the diversity of Anaplasma major surface proteins (MSPs), including those MSPs that modulate infection, development of persistent infections, and transmission of pathogens by ticks, is derived in part, by characterization and phylogenetic analyses of geographic strains. Information concerning the genetic diversity of Anaplasma spp. MSPs will likely in...

  9. Exploiting Exploitation Cinema: an Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, David

    2016-01-01

    What is exploitation cinema? Exploitation cinema is not a genre; it is an industry with a specific mode of production. Exploitation films are made cheap for easy profit. “Easy” because they are almost always genre films relying on time-tried formulas (horror, thillers, biker movies, surfer movies, women-in-prison films, martial arts, subgenres like gore, rape-revenge, slashers, nazisploitation, etc.). “Easy” because they offer audiences what they can’t get elsewhere: sex, violence and taboo t...

  10. Anaplasma marginale and Theileria annulata in questing ticks from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, S; Ferrolho, J; Domingues, N; Santos, A S; Santos-Silva, M M; Domingos, A

    2016-09-01

    Ticks are ubiquitous arthropods and vectors of several pathogenic agents in animals and humans. Monitoring questing ticks is of great importance to ascertain the occurrence of pathogens and the potential vector species, offering an insight into the risk of disease transmission in a given area. In this study 428 host-seeking ticks, belonging to nine species of Ixodidae and collected from 17 of the 23 Portuguese mainland subregions, were screened for several tick-borne agents with veterinary relevance: Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma centrale, Babesia spp., Coxiella burnetii and Theileria spp. Prevalence was assessed by PCR and amplified amplicons sequenced for validation of results. Twenty ticks, in a total of 428, were found positive: one Ixodes ventalloi for Theileria annulata and four Dermacentor marginatus, one Haemaphysalis punctata, five Ixodes ricinus, five I. ventalloi, and four Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato for A. marginale. According to the reviewed literature, this is the first report of A. marginale and T. annulata detection in I. ventalloi. Furthermore, the amplification of A. marginale DNA in several tick species suggests a broad range for this agent in Portugal that might include other uncommon species as R. sanguineus s.l. This work provides new data towards a better understanding of tick-pathogen associations and also contributes to the surveillance of tick-borne agents in geographic areas with limited information. PMID:27394441

  11. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Rickettsia monacensis in dogs from Maio Island of Cape Verde archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzi, Stefania; Maia, João P; Epis, Sara; Marcos, Ricardo; Pereira, Cristina; Luzzago, Camilla; Santos, Marta; Puente-Payo, Pablo; Giordano, Alessia; Pajoro, Massimo; Sironi, Giuseppe; Faustino, Augusto

    2016-07-01

    Tick-borne diseases are emerging worldwide and have an important zoonotic relevance. Dogs play an important role in the epidemiology of several zoonotic tick-borne pathogens acting as sentinels and/or reservoirs. This study focused on the molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in blood samples of 153 autochthonous asymptomatic dogs in Maio Island, Cape Verde archipelago. Eighty-four (54.9%) dogs were positive for one or more pathogens. Fifty-five (35.9%) dogs were infected with Hepatozoon canis, 53 (34.6%) with Anaplasma platys, five (3.3%) with Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia monacensis, an emerging human pathogen, was also identified in a single dog (0.7%). The former three pathogens cause important canine tick-borne diseases that are transmitted or potentially transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., the only hard tick identified in Cape Verde. Furthermore, Wolbachia spp. was amplified from the blood of one dog. None of the dogs were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Midichloria mitochondrii, Bartonella spp., Babesia spp. or Theileria spp. Fifty-four (35.3%) animals showed single infections and 30 (19.6%) co-infections, with A. platys and H. canis co-infection being the most frequent (28 dogs, 18.3%). The frequency of E. canis infection was statistically different among age groups (P=0.017), being higher among dogs older than 4 years compared to younger dogs. Infection by A. platys was also statistically different among age groups (P=0.031), being higher in dogs younger than 2 years compared to older dogs. The statistical analyses showed no significant association of PCR positivity with gender or location. The frequency of tick-borne pathogens detected in dogs in Maio Island, including R. monacensis, highlights the need to improve diagnosis and control in order to prevent the risk of transmission of these pathogens among dogs and humans living in or travelling to this touristic island. PMID:27177475

  12. Molecular study on infection rates of Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma marginale in sheep and cattle in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noaman, Vahid; Bastani, Davood

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the presence and frequency of Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma marginale in sheep and dairy cattle in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran. A total number of 200 blood samples were randomly collected via the jugular vein from apparently healthy cattle (100) and sheep (100). The extracted DNA from blood cells was screened using genus-specific (Anaplasma spp.) nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on 16S rRNA gene primer sets. Species-specific PCR was set up using major surface protein 4 (MSP4) gene primer set. None of cattle blood samples were positive for Anaplasma spp. by the first nested PCR. Five samples among the 100 sheep blood samples were both positive in the first nested PCR and A. ovis -specific PCR, based on MSP4 gene. In total, 5.00% of animals were A. ovis positive. This study identified a low prevalence of A. ovis in the blood of apparently healthy sheep in West Azerbaijan province. PMID:27482362

  13. Comparative study of Anaplasma parasites in tick carrying buffaloes and cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAJPUT Z.I.; HU Song-hua; ARIJO A.G.; HABIB M.; KHALID M.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study on the prevalence of Anaplasma parasite was conducted on ticks carrying buffaloes and cattle.Five hundred blood samples of both animals (250 of each) were collected during February, March and April. Thin blood smears on glass slides were made, fixed in 100% methyl alcohol and examined. Microscopic examination revealed that 205 (41%) animals had Anaplasma parasites, out of which 89, 44 and 72 animals had Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma centrale and mixed infection respectively. Infected buffaloes and cattle were 75 and 130 respectively. The infection in female was 53 and 92 in buffaloes and cattle respectively. Twenty-two and 92 blood samples of male were found positive in buffaloes and cattle respectively. Comparative study revealed that the cattle were 26.82% more susceptible than buffaloes. The parasite prevailing percentage in female of both animals was slightly higher than that of the male. This investigation was aimed at studying the comparative prevalence of Anaplasma parasite in tick carrying buffaloes and cattle.

  14. 新疆和硕地区荒漠景观中无形体感染的流行病学调查%Prevalence of Anaplasma spp. infection in a desert landscape region of Heshuo, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂林; 孙响; 赵焱; 刘晓明; 郑重; 孙毅; 刘然

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence ot Anaptasmosts among human,domestic sheep and tick population in Heshuo area,southern Xinjiang and to investigate the diversity of Anaplasma species.Methods Ticks were captured from wild field and blood samples were collected from healthy residents and their domestic sheep.Indirect fluorescent assay was carried out to determine the presence of Anaplasma specific IgG antibodies in blood sample of human and goats,respectively.Nested PCR and sequence alignment of Anaplasma partial 16S rDNA were used to investigate the diversity of Anaplasma species.Results 43.31% (55/127) of human beings and 27.50% (55/200) of the goats were found positive forAnaplasma specific IgG.In total,367 ticks were captured,including 3 genus and 4 species,which mainly consisting of dominate Hyalomma (H.)asiaticum (47.41%) and Rhipicephalus (R.)pumilio (37.60%).5.00% (18/360) of the questing ticks and 4.49% (7/156) of the goat blood samples were found to have had 16S rDNA,representing Anaplasma sp.by nested PCR,but none was found from human beings.Results from sequencial alignment revealed that the positive amplicons were identified to be Anaplasma phagocytophilum (99.2% GU046565,99.5% GU064897 and 99.5% AB196721)and Anaplasma central (99.2%GU064903).Conclusion Human and zoonotic anaplasmosis,which were probably transmitted by H.asiaticum and R.pumilio,were co-circulating in the desert landscape of Heshuo area,Xinjiang.%目的 明确无形体病在新疆南部和硕地区人群、山羊与媒介蜱种群中流行状况,探明该地区无形体种属多样性.方法 采集当地健康人和山羊的血液样本,捕捉蜱样本;利用间接免疫荧光方法检测血清无形体特异性IgG抗体;通过巢式PCR方法检测无形体16S rDNA基因片段,通过序列比对分析确定无形体种属特征.结果 和硕地区农牧民、山羊血清中无形体特异性IgG抗体阳性率分别为43.31%(55/127)和27.50%(55/200)

  15. The Ethics of Exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Paul McLaughlin

    2008-01-01

    Philosophical inquiry into exploitation has two major deficiencies to date: it assumes that exploitation is wrong by definition; and it pays too much attention to the Marxian account of exploitation. Two senses of exploitation should be distinguished: the ‘moral’ or pejorative sense and the ‘non-moral’ or ‘non-prejudicial’ sense. By demonstrating the conceptual inadequacy of exploitation as defined in the first sense, and by defining exploitation adequately in the latter sense, we seek to dem...

  16. The Indian Athlete: Exploiting or Exploited?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael A.

    It is the purpose of this paper to examine the nineteenth century Canadian Indian lacrosse player to determine whether or not he was exploited by his European counterparts, and if so, the manner in which this exploitation occurred. Caucasian lacrosse enthusiasts sought to promote "their" game by arranging for Indian demonstrations to be staged…

  17. Identification of Anaplasma marginale type IV secretion system effector proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Lockwood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaplasma marginale, an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium in the order Rickettsiales, is a tick-borne pathogen and the leading cause of anaplasmosis in cattle worldwide. Complete genome sequencing of A. marginale revealed that it has a type IV secretion system (T4SS. The T4SS is one of seven known types of secretion systems utilized by bacteria, with the type III and IV secretion systems particularly prevalent among pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The T4SS is predicted to play an important role in the invasion and pathogenesis of A. marginale by translocating effector proteins across its membrane into eukaryotic target cells. However, T4SS effector proteins have not been identified and tested in the laboratory until now. RESULTS: By combining computational methods with phylogenetic analysis and sequence identity searches, we identified a subset of potential T4SS effectors in A. marginale strain St. Maries and chose six for laboratory testing. Four (AM185, AM470, AM705 [AnkA], and AM1141 of these six proteins were translocated in a T4SS-dependent manner using Legionella pneumophila as a reporter system. CONCLUSIONS: The algorithm employed to find T4SS effector proteins in A. marginale identified four such proteins that were verified by laboratory testing. L. pneumophila was shown to work as a model system for A. marginale and thus can be used as a screening tool for A. marginale effector proteins. The first T4SS effector proteins for A. marginale have been identified in this work.

  18. Investigation of Anaplasma marginale Seroprevalence in a Traditionally Managed Large California Beef Herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations by stakeholders suggested that ecosystem changes may be driving an increased incidence of bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis, resulting in a reemerging cattle disease in California. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to estimate the incidence of Anaplasma marginale infection using seroconversion in a northern California beef cattle herd. A total of 143 Black Angus cattle (106 prebreeding heifers and 37 cows) were enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected to determine Anaplasma marginale seroprevalence using a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit. Repeat sampling was performed in seronegative animals to determine the incidence density rate from March through September (2013). Seroprevalence of heifers was significantly lower than that of cows at the beginning of the study (P < 0.001) but not at study completion (P = 0.075). Incidence density rate of Anaplasma marginale infection was 8.17 (95% confidence interval: 6.04, 10.81) cases per 1000 cow-days during the study period. Study cattle became Anaplasma marginale seropositive and likely carriers protected from severe clinical disease that might have occurred had they been first infected as mature adults. No evidence was found within this herd to suggest increased risk for clinical bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis. PMID:27656312

  19. The Ethics of Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul McLaughlin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Philosophical inquiry into exploitation has two major deficiencies to date: it assumes that exploitation is wrong by definition; and it pays too much attention to the Marxian account of exploitation. Two senses of exploitation should be distinguished: the ‘moral’ or pejorative sense and the ‘non-moral’ or ‘non-prejudicial’ sense. By demonstrating the conceptual inadequacy of exploitation as defined in the first sense, and by defining exploitation adequately in the latter sense, we seek to demonstrate the moral complexity of exploitation. We contend, moreover, that moral evaluation of exploitation is only possible once we abandon a strictly Marxian framework and attempt, in the long run, to develop an integral ethic along Godwinian lines.

  20. Anthropology of sexual exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Velibor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors observe sexual exploitation from an anthropological perspective. They analyze the rational, ethical, emotional and mythological dimensions of human sexuality. Consequently, after setting the phenomenon in a social and historical context, sexual exploitation is closely observed in the contemporary age. Based on thoughts of relevant thinkers, they make the conclusion that the elimination of sexual exploitation is not an utterly legal issue, but political and economical issues as well. Namely, legal norms are not sufficient to overcome sexual exploitation, but, political and economical relationships in contemporary societies, which will be based on sincere equal opportunities must be established.

  1. Investigation of Anaplasma marginale Seroprevalence in a Traditionally Managed Large California Beef Herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations by stakeholders suggested that ecosystem changes may be driving an increased incidence of bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis, resulting in a reemerging cattle disease in California. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to estimate the incidence of Anaplasma marginale infection using seroconversion in a northern California beef cattle herd. A total of 143 Black Angus cattle (106 prebreeding heifers and 37 cows) were enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected to determine Anaplasma marginale seroprevalence using a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit. Repeat sampling was performed in seronegative animals to determine the incidence density rate from March through September (2013). Seroprevalence of heifers was significantly lower than that of cows at the beginning of the study (P mature adults. No evidence was found within this herd to suggest increased risk for clinical bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis. PMID:27656312

  2. EXPLOITATION OF GRANITE BOULDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cotman

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The processes of forming, petrography, features, properties and exploitation of granite boulders are described. The directional drilling and black powder blasting is the succesful method in exploitation of granite boulders (boulder technology (the paper is published in Croatian.

  3. First case of Anaplasma platys infection in a dog from Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyachenko Viktor

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that Anaplasma (A. platys, the causative agent of infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, is endemic in countries of the Mediterranean basin. However, few reports are available from the Balkans. This case report describes a dog, which was imported from Croatia to Germany in May 2010. One month later the dog was presented to a local veterinarian in Germany due to intermittent/recurrent diarrhoea. Diagnostic tests were performed to identify infections caused by Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Hepatozoon canis, Babesia spp., Leishmania spp., Borrelia burgdorferi and/or Dirofilaria immitis. Findings Haematological examination of a blood smear revealed basophilic inclusions in thrombocytes, which were confirmed as A. platys with a species-specific real-time PCR. Additionally, an infection with Babesia (B. vogeli was also detected (PCR and serology. No specific antibodies against Anaplasma antigen were detectable. Although the dog showed no specific clinical signs, thrombocytopenia, anaemia and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP were observed. Sequencing of a 1,348-bp partial ribosomal RNA gene revealed highest homology to A. platys sequences from Thailand, Japan and France. Conclusions A. platys was detected for first time in a dog imported from Croatia. As the dog was also co-infected by B. vogeli, unique serological and haematological findings were recorded. Thrombocytopenia, anaemia and elevated values of C-reactive protein were the laboratory test abnormalities observed in this case. A. platys infections should be considered in dogs coming from Croatia and adjacent regions.

  4. Investigation of Anaplasma marginale Seroprevalence in a Traditionally Managed Large California Beef Herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Thomas R; Aly, Sharif S; Maas, John; Davy, Josh S; Foley, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations by stakeholders suggested that ecosystem changes may be driving an increased incidence of bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis, resulting in a reemerging cattle disease in California. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to estimate the incidence of Anaplasma marginale infection using seroconversion in a northern California beef cattle herd. A total of 143 Black Angus cattle (106 prebreeding heifers and 37 cows) were enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected to determine Anaplasma marginale seroprevalence using a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit. Repeat sampling was performed in seronegative animals to determine the incidence density rate from March through September (2013). Seroprevalence of heifers was significantly lower than that of cows at the beginning of the study (P cow-days during the study period. Study cattle became Anaplasma marginale seropositive and likely carriers protected from severe clinical disease that might have occurred had they been first infected as mature adults. No evidence was found within this herd to suggest increased risk for clinical bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis. PMID:27656312

  5. Comparison of the Efficiency of Biological Transmission of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) by Dermacentor andersoni Stiles (Acari: Ixodidae) with Mechanical Transmission by the Horse Fly, Tabanus fuscicos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanical transmission of Anaplasma marginale by horse flies (Tabanidae) is thought to be epidemiologically significant in some areas of the US. We compared the relative efficiencies of mechanical transmission of Anaplasma marginale by the horse fly, Tabanus fuscicostatus Hine during acute infectio...

  6. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation What is child pornography? Federal law (18 U.S.C. §2256(8)) defines ... person under the age of 18. Is child pornography a crime? It is a federal crime to ...

  7. Evaluation de la participation d'Anaplasma phagocytophilum dans le syndrome "fièvre des montagnes" ou Belar Joa des ovins du Pays Basque français

    OpenAIRE

    Razimbaud, Fabrice

    2006-01-01

    Après une présentation des principales hémoparasitoses ovines, les méthodes de diagnostic épidémio-clinique et de laboratoire sont développées. L'impact des conditions climatiques et écologiques du milieu sur l'abondance des tiques vectrices d'hémoparasites est abordé. Le Belar Joa (en basque) ou "fièvre des montagnes" correspond à une maladie touchant les Ovins lors de leur première estive. Cette maladie est connue depuis longtemps par les bergers, mais son origine n'a jamais été élucidée....

  8. Survey of Ticks Collected from Tennessee Cattle and Their Pastures for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompo, K; Mays, S; Wesselman, C; Paulsen, D J; Fryxell, R T Trout

    2016-02-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the causative agent for bovine anaplasmosis (BA) and Ehrlichia ruminantium is the causative agent for heartwater, 2 devastating diseases of cattle. BA is common in the United States and frequently reported in western Tennessee cattle; however, cases of heartwater are not yet established in the continental United States. Because both pathogens are transmitted via the bites of infected ticks, the objective of this study was to survey cattle and pastures for ticks and for each pathogen. University of Tennessee AgResearch has 7 research and education centers (REC) located throughout the state at which they manage cattle. Ticks were collected from selected cattle (every fourth to sixth animal) and pastures (via dragging) associated with the herd from each REC during the summer of 2013. A total of 512 ticks were collected from cattle (n = 386) and pastures (n = 126) and were PCR-screened for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia using genus-specific primers. Collections consisted of 398 (77.7%) Amblyomma americanum, 84 (16.4%) Amblyomma maculatum, and 30 (5.9%) Dermacentor variabilis. Ticks were not recovered from pastures or cattle east of the Tennessee Plateau. The North American vectors for An. marginale and E. ruminantium were identified (D. variabilis and A. maculatum, respectively), but neither pathogen was recovered. A large proportion of ticks were collected from cattle and, of these, a majority were attached to their host (compared to questing on their host or engorged on the host). Four A. americanum were positive for Ehrlichia spp. (Ehrlichia ewingii, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Panola Mountain Ehrlichia), all in western Tennessee. With the identification of a few Ehrlichia infections in cattle-associated ticks and current A. marginale rates in Tennessee beef cattle nearing 11%, additional research is needed to establish baseline tick, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia data for future management studies.

  9. Dissemination and Exploitation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten;

    of Technology in Sweden, Politecnico di Torino in Italy, and Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. The project is partially funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme (project no. RI-283746). This report describes the final dissemination and exploitation strategy...... for project Virtual Campus Hub. A preliminary dissemination and exploitation plan was setup early in the project as described in the deliverable D6.1 Dissemination strategy paper - preliminary version. The plan has been revised on a monthly basis during the project’s lifecycle in connection with the virtual...

  10. First Molecular Characterization of Anaplasma marginale in Cattle and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Ticks in Cebu, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    YBAÑEZ, Adrian Patalinghug; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; YBAÑEZ, Rochelle Haidee Daclan; RATILLA, Jowarren Catingan; PEREZ, Zandro Obligado; GABOTERO, Shirleny Reyes; Hakimi, Hassan; KAWAZU, Shin-Ichiro; MATSUMOTO, Kotaro; Yokoyama, Naoaki; INOKUMA, Hisashi; 河津, 信一郎; 松本, 高太郎; 横山, 直明; 猪熊,壽

    2013-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale has been detected in the Philippines only by peripheral blood smear examination and serological methods. This study generally aimed to molecularly detect and characterize A. marginale in cattle and ticks in Cebu, Philippines. A total of 12 bovine blood samples and 60 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were collected on the Cebu Island in 2011. 16S rRNA-based screening-PCR and DNA sequencing revealed 8 cattle (66.7%) and 8 ticks (13.3%) to be positive for A. marginal...

  11. Coinfection of sheep with Anaplasma, Theileria and Babesia species in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneker, S; Abdo, J; Bakheit, M A; Kullmann, B; Beyer, D; Ahmed, J; Seitzer, U

    2013-11-01

    Infections of small ruminants with Anaplasma, Theileria and Babesia species are widely distributed in the old world and are of great economic impact. In Iraq, data on disease occurrence in sheep caused by above-mentioned infectious agents are scarce. This study provides information on various haemoparasitic agents infecting sheep in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq, using molecular diagnostic tools. Altogether, 195 samples originating from three governorates in the Kurdistan Region, namely Duhok, Erbil and Sulaimaniya, were analysed. The following pathogens were identified: Anaplasma ovis (62.6%), Theileria ovis (14.35%), T. lestoquardi (7.7%), T. uilenbergi (5.6%) and Babesia ovis (1.5%). T. uilenbergi is detected for the first time in Iraq. Coinfection of sheep with different pathogens could be observed in this study, and it was found that 45 of 195 (23%) of the samples contained more than one pathogen. Even triple-positive samples were identified in 3% of the investigated animals. In conclusion, we confirm the coinfection of sheep with various haemoparasitic pathogen species in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Further investigations are needed to reveal the epidemiology of the diseases, the respective tick vectors, and, in the case of coinfection, pathogens' interaction and possible cross-protection.

  12. Molecular characterization of two different strains of haemotropic mycoplasmas from a sheep flock with fatal haemolytic anaemia, concomitant Anaplasma ovis infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hornok, Sándor; Meli, Marina L; Erdős, András; Hajtós, István; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2009-01-01

    Molecular characterization of two different strains of haemotropic mycoplasmas from a sheep flock with fatal haemolytic anaemia, concomitant Anaplasma ovis infection HUNGARY (Hornok, Sandor) HUNGARY Received: 2008-08-03 Revised: 2008-10-27 Accepted: 2008-10-29

  13. Hacking the art of exploitation

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Jon

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction to the techniques of exploitation and creative problem-solving methods commonly referred to as "hacking," Hacking: The Art of Exploitation is for both technical and non-technical people who are interested in computer security. It shows how hackers exploit programs and write exploits, instead of just how to run other people's exploits. Unlike many so-called hacking books, this book explains the technical aspects of hacking, including stack based overflows, heap based overflows, string exploits, return-into-libc, shellcode, and cryptographic attacks on 802.11b.

  14. First identification of Anaplasma platys in the blood of dogs from French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmani, Mustapha; Marié, Jean-Lou; Mediannikov, Oleg; Raoult, Didier; Davoust, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    Anaplasma platys is the causative agent of infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia in dogs. This infection is worldwide and reported with a higher incidence in tropical and subtropical areas such as South America. Until now, there has been no report of this bacterium in French Guiana. The aim of this study was molecular investigation of A. platys occurrence in the blood of autochthonous dogs in this region. A total 65 blood samples were taken from the shelter dogs in the cities of Cayenne and Kourou, and from dogs of private owners in the city of Cayenne. The results show that at least 15.38% (10/65) were positive to this pathogen. The strain identified in this study has been reported worldwide. These findings should be considered in the way that local veterinarians handle suspected cases of canine anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis.

  15. Exploitative Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies...... and learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry......, it is predominantly the marketing-related investment decisions associated with starting to export that lead to increases in firm productivity. We conclude that learning-by-exporting might be more properly characterized as ?learning about and exploiting new markets? rather than ?learning about new technologies...

  16. Biotechnological exploitation of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Doris; Zedler, Julie A Z; Rajakumar, Priscilla D; Martinez, Erick M Ramos; Riseley, Anthony; Włodarczyk, Artur; Purton, Saul; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Howe, Christopher J; Jensen, Poul Erik; Robinson, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Microalgae are a diverse group of single-cell photosynthetic organisms that include cyanobacteria and a wide range of eukaryotic algae. A number of microalgae contain high-value compounds such as oils, colorants, and polysaccharides, which are used by the food additive, oil, and cosmetic industries, among others. They offer the potential for rapid growth under photoautotrophic conditions, and they can grow in a wide range of habitats. More recently, the development of genetic tools means that a number of species can be transformed and hence used as cell factories for the production of high-value chemicals or recombinant proteins. In this article, we review exploitation use of microalgae with a special emphasis on genetic engineering approaches to develop cell factories, and the use of synthetic ecology approaches to maximize productivity. We discuss the success stories in these areas, the hurdles that need to be overcome, and the potential for expanding the industry in general. PMID:26400987

  17. Exploitation by Economic Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian F. Braekkan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study develops and tests a model that proposes economic necessity moderates the relationship between psychological contract violations (PCVs and organizational commitment and trust in the employing organization among non-unionized manufacturing workers (N = 226. Moderated regression analyses revealed that there was a significant interaction between PCV and economic necessity in predicting both outcomes. Specifically, the findings indicated that individuals experiencing high PCV and high economic necessity did not decrease their organizational commitment like their counterparts who endorsed lower economic necessity. They did, however, experience significantly decreased trust in their employer. The findings suggest that individuals who are forced to sell their labor power and obtain what they need through the market are more likely to continue to be exploited by their employer, as they have no other options than to continue the relationship. The importance of the findings is discussed, and recommendations for future research are provided.

  18. Chile exploits LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    Simultaneously with its exploitation of offshore hydrocarbon reservoirs Chile is developing the production and selling of LNG. Chile produces a large quantity of associated gas from its reservoirs at Megallanes and processes it at the Manantiales, Cullen and Posesion plants recovering propane, butane and natural gas liguids. The stripped gas is reinjected for pressure maintenance operations. With the completion of the LNG program full use of the gas will be achieved. It will totally meet the needs of combustible liquids for the central and northern parts of the country, a volume of 2200 million cu m/yr. For its treatment natural gas is sent through gas pipelines to the LNG plant at Cabo Negro. By means of a cooling process, the gas is cooled to -160 C where it becomes a liquid and its volume is reduced by a factor of 600. It is then stored in tanks at atmospheric pressure.

  19. The Geohazards Exploitation Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laur, Henri; Casu, Francesco; Bally, Philippe; Caumont, Hervé; Pinto, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The Geohazards Exploitation Platform, or Geohazards TEP (GEP), is an ESA originated R&D activity of the EO ground segment to demonstrate the benefit of new technologies for large scale processing of EO data. This encompasses on-demand processing for specific user needs, systematic processing to address common information needs of the geohazards community, and integration of newly developed processors for scientists and other expert users. The platform supports the geohazards community's objectives as defined in the context of the International Forum on Satellite EO and Geohazards organised by ESA and GEO in Santorini in 2012. The GEP is a follow on to the Supersites Exploitation Platform (SSEP) an ESA initiative to support the Geohazards Supersites & Natural Laboratories initiative (GSNL). Today the GEP allows to exploit 70+ Terabyte of ERS and ENVISAT archive and the Copernicus Sentinel-1 data available on line. The platform has already engaged 22 European early adopters in a validation activity initiated in March 2015. Since September, this validation has reached 29 single user projects. Each project is concerned with either integrating an application, running on demand processing or systematically generating a product collection using an application available in the platform. The users primarily include 15 geoscience centres and universities based in Europe: British Geological Survey (UK), University of Leeds (UK), University College London (UK), ETH University of Zurich (CH), INGV (IT), CNR-IREA and CNR-IRPI (IT), University of L'Aquila (IT), NOA (GR), Univ. Blaise Pascal & CNRS (FR), Ecole Normale Supérieure (FR), ISTERRE / University of Grenoble-Alpes (FR). In addition, there are users from Africa and North America with the University of Rabat (MA) and the University of Miami (US). Furthermore two space agencies and four private companies are involved: the German Space Research Centre DLR (DE), the European Space Agency (ESA), Altamira Information (ES

  20. Image exploitation for MISAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, N.; Edrich, M.; Saur, G.; Krüger, W.

    2007-04-01

    The miniature SAR-system MiSAR has been developed by EADS Germany for lightweight UAVs like the LUNASystem. MiSAR adds to these tactical UAV-systems the all-weather reconnaissance capability, which is missing until now. Unlike other SAR sensors, that produce large strip maps at update rates of several seconds, MiSAR generates sequences of SAR images with approximately 1 Hz frame rate. photo interpreters (PI) of tactical drones, now mainly experienced with visual interpretation, are not used to SARimages, especially not with SAR-image sequence characteristics. So they should be supported to improve their ability to carry out their task with a new, demanding sensor system. We have therefore analyzed and discussed with military PIs in which task MiSAR can be used and how the PIs can be supported by special algorithms. We developed image processing- and exploitation-algorithms for such SAR-image sequences. A main component is the generation of image sequence mosaics to get more oversight. This mosaicing has the advantage that also non straight /linear flight-paths and varying squint angles can be processed. Another component is a screening-component for manmade objects to mark regions of interest in the image sequences. We use a classification based approach, which can be easily adapted to new sensors and scenes. These algorithms are integrated into an image exploitation system to improve the image interpreters ability to get a better oversight, better orientation and helping them to detect relevant objects, especially considering long endurance reconnaissance missions.

  1. Comparison of Microscopy and PCR-RFLP for detection of Anaplasma marginale in carrier cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Shayan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In Iran, anaplasmosis is normally diagnosed with traditional Giemsa staining method. This is not applicable for identification of the carrier animals. The aim of this study was to compare the detection of Anaplasma marginale in two different numbers of microscopic fields (50 and 100 using conventional Giemsa staining method compared with the PCR-RFLP technique."nMaterials and Methods: In this study, examinations were performed on 150 blood samples from cattle without clinical signs. Sensitivity and specificity of two microscopic fields (50 and 100 fields were compared with A. marginale specific PCR-RFLP. The degree of agreement between PCR-RFLP and the two microscopic tests was determined by Kappa (κ values with 95% confidence intervals."nResults: PCR-RFLP showed that 58 samples were A. marginale, while routine microscopy showed erythrocytes harboring Anaplasma like structures in 16 and 75 blood samples determined in 50 and 100 microscopic fields respectively. Examination of 50 and 100 microscopic fields showed 25.8% and 91.4% sensitivity and 99% and 76.1% specificity compared to 100% sensitivity and specificity by PCR-RFLP. The Kappa coefficient between PCR-RFLP and Microscopy (50 fields indicated a fair level of agreement (0.29. The Kappa coefficient between PCR-RFLP and Microscopy (100 fields indicated a good level of agreement (0.64"nConclusion: Our results showed that the microscopic examination remains the convenient technique for day-to-day diagnosis of clinical cases in the laboratory but for the detection of carrier animal with low bacteremia, microscopy with 100 fields is preferable to Microscopy with 50 fields and molecular methods such as PCR-RFLP can be used as a safe method for identifying cattle persistently infected with A. marginale.

  2. Learning Metasploit exploitation and development

    CERN Document Server

    Balapure, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    A practical, hands-on tutorial with step-by-step instructions. The book will follow a smooth and easy-to-follow tutorial approach, covering the essentials and then showing the readers how to write more sophisticated exploits.This book targets exploit developers, vulnerability analysts and researchers, network administrators, and ethical hackers looking to gain advanced knowledge in exploitation development and identifying vulnerabilities. The primary goal is to take readers wishing to get into more advanced exploitation discovery and reaching the next level.Prior experience exploiting basic st

  3. Molecular evidence of potential novel spotted fever group rickettsiae, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species in Amblyomma ticks parasitizing wild snakes

    OpenAIRE

    Kho, Kai Ling; Koh, Fui Xian; Tay, Sun Tee

    2015-01-01

    Background Amblyomma ticks parasitize a wide range of animals in tropical regions. This study describes the identification of Amblyomma ticks from wild snakes in Malaysia and the detection of potential human pathogens such as Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and bartonellae in the ticks. Findings Twenty one adult ticks (twelve A. varanense and nine Amblyomma helvolum ticks) identified from seven Python molurus snakes in Sepang and a pool of six A. helvolum ticks from a Naja sumatrana snake in...

  4. Exploitation of Labour and Exploitation of Commodities: A "New Interpretation"

    OpenAIRE

    Veneziani, Roberto; Yoshihara, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    In the standard Okishio-Morishima approach, the existence of profits is proved to be equivalent to the exploitation of labour. Yet, it can also be proved that the existence of profits is equivalent to the ‘exploitation’ of any good. Labour and commodity exploitation are just different numerical representations of the productiveness of the economy. This paper presents an alternative approach to exploitation theory which is related to the New Interpretation (Duménil 1980; Foley 1982). In this a...

  5. AMU NEXRAD Exploitation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winifred C.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Applied Meteorology Unit's NEXRAD Exploitation Task. The objectives of this task are to determine what radar signatures are present prior to and at the time of convection initiation, and to determine radar signatures which will help distinguish whether the ensuing convection will become severe. Radar data from the WSR-88D radar located at NWS Melbourne (WSR-88D/KMLB) were collected between June and September 1995, and 16 convective case studies were analyzed for which the radar was operating during the entire period of interest. All WSR-88D/KMLB products were scrutinized for their utility in detecting convection initiation and severe storm signatures. Through process of elimination, it was found that the 0.5 deg reflectivity product with the lowest reflectivity values displayed is the best product to monitor for convection initiation signatures. Seven meteorological features associated with the initiation of deep convection were identified: the Merritt Island and Indian River convergence zones, interlake convergence, horizontal convective rolls, the sea breeze, storm outflow boundaries, and fires. Their reflectivity values ranged from -5 to 20 dBZ. Of the three severe weather phenomena (winds greater than or equal to 50 kts, tornado, 3/4 inch hail), high wind events due to microbursts were most common in the data set. It was found that the values and trends of composite reflectivity, vertically integrated liquid, and core aspect ratio were key indicators of the potential of a cell to produce a microburst. The data were not analyzed for the other two severe weather phenomena because they rarely occurred during the data collection period. This report also includes suggestions for new WSR-88D products, summaries of ongoing research aimed at creating new products, and explicit recommended procedures for detecting convection initiation and severe storm signatures in the radar data using the currently available technology.

  6. Exploitation and the class struggle

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Cuestas; Bruce Philp

    2010-01-01

    This paper contributes to our understanding of the determinants and dynamics of Marxian exploitation using quarterly UK data, 1955-2008. Initially a simple model is introduced for the purpose of defining exploitation and its component parts, before elaborating on theoretical issues which are important in estimating the rate of exploitation. In the empirical analysis we seek to explain the effect of class struggle, for the UK economy, using quarterly data. Attention is paid to three forces whi...

  7. Heap spray exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Παπαντωνίου, Ιωάννης Δ.

    2012-01-01

    Η διπλωματική αυτή εργασία έχει ως σκοπό την παρουσίαση και ανάλυση τεχνικών heap spray exploitation σε περιβάλλον λειτουργικού συστήματος Windows. Αναλύει τη λειτουργία του heap memory segment και τους τρόπους χρήσης του, με σκοπό την υλοποίηση heap spray επιθέσεως. Επίσης αναλύει μεθόδους και εργαλεία εντοπισμού και αντιμετώπισης των heap spray τεχνικών. Τέλος παρουσιάζονται τέσσερις μελέτες περίπτωσεων heap spray επιθέσεων για την εφαρμογή Internet Explorer (εκδόσεις 6,9,10)....

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of an inactivated vaccine from Anaplasma marginale derived from tick cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasmar, Pedro Veloso Facury; Carvalho, Antônio Último de; Facury Filho, Elias Jorge; Bastos, Camila Valgas; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    The protective efficacy of an inactivated vaccine from Anaplasma marginale that was cultured in tick cells (IDE8) for use against bovine anaplasmosis was evaluated. Five calves (Group 1) were inoculated subcutaneously, at 21-day intervals, with three doses of vaccine containing 3 × 10(9) A. marginale initial bodies. Five control calves received saline solution alone (Group 2). Thirty-two days after the final inoculation, all the calves were challenged with approximately 3 × 10(5) erythrocytes infected with A. marginale high-virulence isolate (UFMG2). The Group 1 calves seroconverted 14 days after the second dose of vaccine. After the challenge, all the animals showed patent rickettsemia. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the Group 1 and 2 calves during the incubation period, patency period or convalescence period. All the animals required treatment to prevent death. The results suggest that the inactivated vaccine from A. marginale produced in IDE8 induced seroconversion in calves, but was not effective for preventing anaplasmosis induced by the UFMG2 isolate under the conditions of this experiment. PMID:22832750

  9. Association of Anaplasma marginale strain superinfection with infection prevalence within tropical regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Castañeda-Ortiz

    Full Text Available Strain superinfection occurs when a second strain infects a host already infected with and having mounted an immune response to a primary strain. The incidence of superinfection with Anaplasma marginale, a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of domestic and wild ruminants, has been shown to be higher in tropical versus temperate regions. This has been attributed to the higher prevalence of infection, with consequent immunity against primary strains and thus greater selective pressure for superinfection with antigenically distinct strains. However an alternative explanation would be the differences in the transmitting vector, Dermacentor andersoni in the studied temperate regions and Rhipicephalus microplus in the studied tropical regions. To address this question, we examined two tropical populations sharing the same vector, R. microplus, but with significantly different infection prevalence. Using two separate markers, msp1α (one allele per genome and msp2 (multiple alleles per genome, there were higher levels of multiple strain infections in the high infection prevalence as compared to the low prevalence population. The association of higher strain diversity with infection prevalence supports the hypothesis that high levels of infection prevalence and consequent population immunity is the predominant driver of strain superinfection.

  10. Detection and phylogenetic characterization of Theileria spp. and Anaplasma marginale in Rhipicephalus bursa in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrolho, Joana; Antunes, Sandra; Santos, Ana S; Velez, Rita; Padre, Ludovina; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Santos-Silva, Maria Margarida; Domingos, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Ticks are obligatory blood-sucking arthropod (Acari:Ixodida) ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals as well as humans. The incidence of tick-borne diseases is rising worldwide, challenging our approach toward diagnosis, treatment and control options. Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanzago, 1877, a two-host tick widely distributed in the Palearctic Mediterranean region, is considered a multi-host tick that can be commonly found on sheep, goats and cattle, and occasionally on horses, dogs, deer and humans. R. bursa is a species involved in the transmission of several tick-borne pathogens with a known impact on animal health and production. The aim of this study was to estimate R. bursa prevalence in Portugal Mainland and circulating pathogens in order to contribute to a better knowledge of the impact of this tick species. Anaplasma marginale and Theileria spp. were detected and classified using phylogenetic analysis. This is the first report of Theileria annulata and Theileria equi detection in R. bursa ticks feeding on cattle and horses, respectively, in Portugal. This study contributes toward the identification of currently circulating pathogens in this tick species as a prerequisite for developing future effective anti-tick control measures. PMID:26797395

  11. Introduction to the alpha-proteobacteria: Wolbachia and Bartonella, Rickettsia, Brucella, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Dwight D

    2011-11-01

    Wolbachia is an obligate intracellular endosymbiont and likely mutualist living within the heartworm Dirofilaria immitis and a number of other filarial nematodes in the family Onchocercidae. The bacterial infection is passed from worm to worm transovarially; the organisms are in ovarian cells, the developing microfilariae, and multiply and persist in all later developmental stages through the mosquito and into the next host. Besides being present in the ovaries of the adult worms, they also are present in large numbers within the hypodermal tissues of the nematode. It is now know that these bacteria that were first observed in heartworms more than 30 years ago are actually related to similar Wolbachia bacteria that are found in arthropods. Wolbachia is an alpha-proteobacteria, and this group includes a number of important arthropod-transmitted bacterial agents of dogs and cats: Rickettsia rickettsii, R. felis, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, and E. ewingii. Alpha-proteobacteria are also important as obligate intracellular mutualists in plants in which they are responsible for nitrogen fixation. Recent work on the treatment of heartworms in dogs with doxycycline stems from related work with the human filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus that causes river blindness in people. PMID:22152604

  12. First molecular survey of Anaplasma bovis in small ruminants from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; Karaoud, Maroua; Bousrih, Maha; Yahiaoui, Mouna; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Messadi, Lilia

    2015-09-30

    To date, no information is available regarding the presence of Anaplasma bovis in the South Mediterranean area. In this study, prevalence, risk factors, and genetic diversity of A. bovis were assessed in small ruminants. A total of 563 healthy small ruminants (260 sheep and 303 goats), from 25 randomly selected flocks located in 5 localities from two bioclimatic areas in Tunisia, were investigated for the detection of A. bovis in blood by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assay. The overall infection rates of A. bovis were 42.7 and 23.8% in sheep and goats, respectively. Goats located in a sub-humid area were statistically more infected than those located in a humid area. A. bovis prevalence rate varied significantly according to sheep and goat flocks, and to the sheep breed. Infection with A. bovis was validated by sequencing. Sequence analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that A. bovis from Tunisian goats and sheep clustered with other strain sequences detected from wild and domestic animals and published in GenBank. This study gives the first insight of presence of A. bovis DNA in small ruminants in Tunisia and suggests that these animal species may be playing an important role in the bovine anaplasmosis natural cycle caused by A. bovis in the South Mediterranean ecosystem. PMID:26088935

  13. Detección de Anaplasma spp. en Garrapatas de Myrmecophaga tridactyla de Vida Libre en la Sabana Inundable de Casanare‚ Colombia -resumen-

    OpenAIRE

    César Rojano-Bolaño; V Contreras-Cogollo; L Miranda-Cortés; R Ávila-Avilán; Jorge Miranda-Regino; Laura Hernández-Fernández; Salim Mattar-Velilla; Santiago Monsalve-Buriticá

    2014-01-01

    La anaplasmosis es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por rickettsias del género Anaplasma spp. Su relevancia esta principalmente determinada por el grado de afectación endémica en el ganado doméstico. Una amplia variedad de mamíferos silvestres también son susceptibles a la infección. Las bacterias pueden ser intracitoplasmáticas‚ dañando las estructuras de las células pudiendo causar anemia e ictericia. Algunas especies de Anaplasma spp han sido reportadas como microorganismos potencialmente...

  14. The efficacy of three chlortetracycline regimens in the treatment of persistent Anaplasma marginale infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbold, James B; Coetzee, Johann F; Hollis, Larry C; Nickell, Jason S; Riegel, Casey; Olson, K C; Ganta, Roman R

    2010-09-28

    Chemosterilization is reported in cattle fed chlortetracycline hydrochloride (CTC) at dosages ranging from 1.1mg/kg for 120 days to 11 mg/kg for 30-60 days. The relationship between plasma CTC drug concentration and carrier clearance has not been described. Chronic carrier status was established in 21 steers with a Virginia isolate of Anaplasma marginale and confirmed by cELISA and an A. marginale-specific RT-PCR. Four negative, splenectomized steers served as active disease transmission sentinels. Steers were randomized to receive 4.4 mg/kg/day (LD); 11 mg/kg/day (MD); or 22 mg/kg/day (HD) of oral chlortetracycline; or placebo (CONTROL) for 80 days. The LD, MD and HD treatment groups consisted of 5 infected steers and 1 splenectomized steer; CONTROL group had six infected steers and 1 splenectomized steer. The daily treatments and ration were divided equally and fed twice daily. Blood samples were collected semi-weekly for determining plasma drug concentration by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry method and assessment of disease status by both cELISA and RT-PCR. Mean (CV%) chlortetracycline plasma drug concentrations in the LD, MD, and HD groups were 85.3 (28%), 214.5 (32%) and 518.9 (40%)ng/mL during days 4 through 53 of treatment. A negative RT-PCR assay result was confirmed in all CTC-treated groups within 49 days of treatment; however, cELISA required an additional 49 to 88 days before similar results. Subinoculation of splenectomized steers confirmed chemosterilization. These results are important for influencing future chemosterilization strategies and impacting free trade policy among countries and regions of contrasting endemicity.

  15. Longitudinal analysis of tick densities and Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia infections of Ixodes ricinus ticks in different habitat areas in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielinga, Peter R; Gaasenbeek, Cor; Fonville, Manoj; Boer, Albert de; Vries, Ankje de; Dimmers, Wim; Akkerhuis Op Jagers, Gerard; Schouls, Leo M; Borgsteede, Fred; Giessen, Joke W B van der

    2006-01-01

    From 2000 to 2004, ticks were collected by dragging a blanket in four habitat areas in The Netherlands: dunes, heather, forest, and a city park. Tick densities were calculated, and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species was investigated by reverse line blot analysis.

  16. Longitudinal analysis of tick densities and Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia infections of Ixodes ricinus ticks in different habitat areas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielinga, P.R.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Fonville, M.; Boer, de A.G.; Vries, de A.; Dimmers, W.J.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.; Schouls, L.M.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2006-01-01

    From 2000 to 2004, ticks were collected by dragging a blanket in four habitat areas in The Netherlands: dunes, heather, forest, and a city park. Tick densities were calculated, and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species was investigated by reverse line blot analysis.

  17. Immunization-induced anaplasma marginale-specific T lymphocyte reponses impaired by A. marginale infection are restored after eliminating the infection with tetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection of cattle with Anaplasma marginale fails to prime sustained effector/memory T-cell responses, and high bacterial load may induce antigen-specific CD4 T exhaustion and deletion. We tested the hypothesis that clearance of persistent infection restores the exhausted T-cell response. We show t...

  18. Independence of Anaplasma marginale Strains with High and Low Transmission Efficiencies in the Tick Vector following Simultaneous Acquisition by Feeding on a Superinfected Mammalian Reservoir Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain superinfection occurs when a second pathogen strain infects a host already carrying a primary strain. Anaplasma marginale superinfection occurs when the second strain encodes a unique variant surface repertoire as compared to the primary strain and the epidemiologic consequences depend on th...

  19. Anaplasma marginale infection with persistent high-load bacteremia induces a dysfunctional memory CD4+ T lymphocyte response but sustained high IgG titers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of blood-borne infections is dependent on antigen-specific effector and memory T cells and high-affinity IgG responses. In chronic infections characterized by a high antigen load, it has been shown that antigen-specific T and B cells are vulnerable to downregulation and apoptosis. Anaplasma ...

  20. Molecular characterization of Rickettsia massiliae and Anaplasma platys infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and domestic dogs, Buenos Aires (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; Brambati, Diego F; Rodríguez Eugui, Juan I; Lebrero, Cecilia González; De Salvo, María N; Beltrán, Fernando J; Gury Dohmen, Federico E; Jado, Isabel; Anda, Pedro

    2014-09-01

    Rickettsioses, ehrlichioses and anaplasmoses are emerging diseases that are mainly transmitted by arthropods and that affect humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to use molecular techniques to detect and characterize those pathogens in dogs and ticks from Buenos Aires city. We studied 207 Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and 52 canine blood samples from poor neighborhoods of Buenos Aires city. The samples were molecularly screened for the genera Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma by PCR and sequencing. DNA of Rickettsia massiliae (3.4%) and Anaplasma platys (13.5%) was detected in ticks and blood samples, respectively. For characterization, the positive samples were subjected to amplification of a fragment of the 190-kDa outer membrane protein gene (spotted fever group rickettsiae) and a fragment of the groESL gene (specific for A. platys). A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining method, revealing that the sequences were closely related to those of strains from other geographic regions. The results indicate that human and animal pathogens are abundant in dogs and their ticks in Buenos Aires city and portray the potentially high risk of human exposure to infection with these agents, especially in poor neighborhoods, where there is close contact with animals in an environment of poor health conditions.

  1. Detection of Anaplasma antibodies in wildlife and domestic species in wildlife-livestock interface areas of Kenya by major surface protein 5 competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    OpenAIRE

    J.J.N. Ngeranwa; S.P. Shompole; E.H. Venter; Wambugu, A.; J.E. Crafford; Penzhorn, B.L.

    2008-01-01

    The seroprevalence of Anaplasma antibodies in wildlife (eland, blue wildebeest, kongoni, impala, Thomson's gazelle, Grant's gazelle, giraffe and plains zebra) and domestic animal (cattle, sheep and goat) populations was studied in wildlife / livestock interface areas of Kenya. Serum samples were analyzed by competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA), using a recombinant antigen (MSP-5) from Anaplasma marginale surface membrane. A monoclonal antibody, FC-16, was ...

  2. Preventing the Sexual Exploitation of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventing the Sexual Exploitation of Children The words sexual exploitation evoke a number of reactions and feelings. Perhaps one of the most devastating ... Exploited Children ® (NCMEC) is working to bring sexual exploitation to the forefront; raise awareness about this issue; ...

  3. ECOLOGY AFFECTED IN OIL EXPLOITATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Mingren; Zeng Dezhang; Zhang Shiquan; Shi Lifeng

    1997-01-01

    @@ Introduction During the Eighth Five-Year Plan period(1991-1995), a study about crude impacts on ecology in oil exploitation was conducted in seven representative onshore oil fields of China. The study discusses crude pollutant's impacts on ecology in terms of its production,movement, transformation and concentration in the ecological system,as well as its toxicity and damage degree on living things , by means of investigation on the spot, test analysis and analogue test.

  4. Exploiting mutagenesis for wheat improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical mutagen, ethylmethanesulphonate, is being used to introduce into wheat novel variation that can be exploited for crop improvement. We have created mutagenised populations of diploid (Einkorn), tetraploid (Durum) and hexaploid (bread) wheat. The forward genetic approach enables the identification of high yielding or novel phenotypes that can be exploited in conventional breeding programmes. A powerful reverse genetic strategy, TILLING (Targetting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes), allows the detection of induced point mutations in the populations of mutagenised individuals and allows gene function to be examined. Genetic redundancy in the tetraploid and hexaploid species allows them to tolerate a high level of mutation (up to one mutation per 25kbp). This mutation frequency makes it relatively easy to identify lesions in each homeologue of a particular gene which can then be combined for crop improvement or functional genomics. Novel variation created can be exploited without the regulatory restrictions imposed on genetically modified organisms. Gene targets have been selected in relation to plant architecture, primary metabolism, disease resistance and stress tolerance and over 50 TILLING mutants have so been identified, including mis-sense, non-sense and splice site mutations (author)

  5. Cepas atenuadas de Babesia bovis e Babesia bigemina e de Anaplasma centrale como imunógenos no controle da tristeza parasitária bovina Attenuated strains of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina and of Anaplasma centrale as immunogens for tick borne disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Sastre Sacco

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram avaliadas cepas atenuadas de Babesia bovis e B. bigemina e Anaplasma centrale como imunógenos a serem utilizados no controle da Tristeza Parasitária Bovina. O processo de imunização demonstrou ser inócuo, imunogênico e eficiente, pelo menos no que diz respeito às babesias, pois protegeu os animais vacinados frente ao desafio com cepas heterólogas virulentas a campo, que provocou doença clínica e morte nos animais do grupo controle. O desafio a campo pelo Anaplasma marginale não se mostrou muito virulento ou patogênico, não sendo possível concluir que a imunização com A. centrale proteja os animais contra anaplasmose.Attenuated strains of Babesia bovis and B. bigemina and a strain of Anaplasma centrale were evaluated as immunogens against tick-borne disease. The immunization process was shown to be inocuous, immunogenic and efficient to protect cattle, at least against the babesias. Vaccinated animals proved to be protected when naturally challenged with heterologous and virulent strains, in contrast to control animals that showed clinical symptoms of the disease and had to be treated. The Anaplasma marginale challenge was not efficient since treatment was not necessary in the control animals, therefore it was not possible to conclude that immunization with A. centrale protected animals against anaplasmosis.

  6. The ESA Geohazard Exploitation Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, Philippe; Laur, Henri; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Pinto, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes represent one of the world's most significant hazards in terms both of loss of life and damages. In the first decade of the 21st century, earthquakes accounted for 60 percent of fatalities from natural disasters, according to the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). To support mitigation activities designed to assess and reduce risks and improve response in emergency situations, satellite EO can be used to provide a broad range of geo-information services. This includes for instance crustal block boundary mapping to better characterize active faults, strain rate mapping to assess how rapidly faults are deforming, soil vulnerability mapping to help estimate how the soil is behaving in reaction to seismic phenomena, geo-information to assess the extent and intensity of the earthquake impact on man-made structures and formulate assumptions on the evolution of the seismic sequence, i.e. where local aftershocks or future main shocks (on nearby faults) are most likely to occur. In May 2012, the European Space Agency and the GEO Secretariat convened the International Forum on Satellite EO for Geohazards now known as the Santorini Conference. The event was the continuation of a series of international workshops such as those organized by the Geohazards Theme of the Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership. In Santorini the seismic community has set out a vision of the EO contribution to an operational global seismic risk program, which lead to the Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories (GSNL) initiative. The initial contribution of ESA to suuport the GSNL was the first Supersites Exploitation Platform (SSEP) system in the framework of Grid Processing On Demand (GPOD), now followed by the Geohazard Exploitation Platform (GEP). In this presentation, we will describe the contribution of the GEP for exploiting satellite EO for geohazard risk assessment. It is supporting the GEO Supersites and has been further

  7. Routing Algorithm Exploits Spatial Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okino, Clayton; Jennings, Esther

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed routing algorithm for broadcasting in an ad hoc wireless communication network takes account of, and exploits, the spatial relationships among the locations of nodes, in addition to transmission power levels and distances between the nodes. In contrast, most prior algorithms for discovering routes through ad hoc networks rely heavily on transmission power levels and utilize limited graph-topology techniques that do not involve consideration of the aforesaid spatial relationships. The present algorithm extracts the relevant spatial-relationship information by use of a construct denoted the relative-neighborhood graph (RNG).

  8. Prospects of geothermal resource exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of geothermal energy to generate electricity has only occurred during the past 50 years by drilling wells in aquifers close to magmas and producing either dry steam or hot water. The world's production of electricity from geothermal energy is over 6000 MWe and is still growing. The direct use of geothermal energy for major urban communities has been developed recently by exploitation of aquifers in sedimentary basins under large towns. Scaling up the extraction of heat implies the exploitation of larger and better located fields requiring an appropriate method of extraction; the objective of present attempts in USA, Japan and Europe is to create heat exchangers by the circulation of water between several deep wells. Two field categories are considered: the extension of classical geothermal fields beyond the aquifer areas, and areas favoured by both a high geothermal gradient, fractures inducing a natural permeability at large scale, and good commercial prospects (such as in the Rhenan Graben). Hot dry rocks concept has gained a large interest. 1 fig., 5 tabs., 11 refs

  9. Infections and risk factors for livestock with species of Anaplasma, Babesia and Brucella under semi-nomadic rearing in Karamoja Region, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Chiara; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Strona, Paolo; Lappo, Pier Giorgio; Etiang, Patrick; Diverio, Silvana

    2016-03-01

    A survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Anaplasma, Babesia and Brucella spp. infections in cattle, goats and sheep in the Karamoja Region of Uganda and to identify possible risk factors existing in this semi-nomadic and pastoral area. Low cost laboratory tests were used to diagnose infections (Rose Bengal test for Brucella spp. antibodies and direct microscopic examination for Anaplasma and Babesia spp.). Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to identify possible risk factors linked to gender, animal species, age (only for cattle) and districts. A total of 3935 cattle, 729 goats and 306 sheep of five districts of the Karamoja Region were tested. Seroprevalence for Brucella was 9.2 % (CI, 95 %: 8.4-10), for Anaplasma 19.5 % (CI 95 %: 18.4-20.6) and for Babesia 16 % (CI 95 %: 15-17.1). Significant differences in infections prevalence were observed against risk factors associated with districts and species. Cattle were the species with higher risk of the infections. Female gender was identified as at risk only for Brucella spp. infection. Cattle more than one year old had greater likelihood to be Brucella seropositive. Co-infections of Anaplasma and Babesia spp. were statistically associated, especially in goats and sheep. Further studies to identify risk factors related to host species and geographical districts are needed. The influence on the semi-nomadic agro-pastoral system in Karamoja of animal raids and animal mixing should be further investigated. Findings were important to sensitize Karamojong undertaking measures on infection control, especially on cattle, which are their main source of food.

  10. OCORRÊNCIA DE Anaplasma bovis (Donatien & Lestoquard, 1936, Dumler et al. 2001) NA REGIÃO DE BOM JESUS DO ITABAPOANA, RJ

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando Augusto Melo Junior; Antonio Peixoto Albernaz; José Tarcisio de Lima Thiebaut; Farlen Jose Bebber Miranda; Josias Alves Machado; Antonio Carlos Faber da Silva

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, 400 capillary blood smears collected from the ear and the tail of 200 bovines were microscopically examinedfor the presence of hemoparasites. The diagnosis was based on the direct research, semonstrating the etiologic agent inclusions. Eleven bovines (5.5%) were considered infected by Anaplasma bovis, confirming the presence of this hemoparasite in the city of Bom Jesus do Itabapoana, the first city of the northwesten region of the state of Rio de Janeiro to register suc...

  11. Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Rickettsia‚ Ehrlichia y Anaplasma en Fauna Silvestre ex situ e in situ de algunas Regiones de Colombia -resumen-

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Monsalve-Buriticá; César Rojano-Bolaño; Jorge Miranda-Regino; Lizeth Quintana-Diosa; Laura Hernandez-Fernandez; M J Loaiza-Escobar; Luz Dary Acevedo-Cendales; Salim Mattar-Velilla; J Londoño-Londoño; J D Rodas-González

    2014-01-01

    Las enfermedades causadas por bacterias del orden de los Rickettsiales son trasmitidas por ectoparásitos originados en vida silvestre‚ sin embargo‚ en Colombia no existe una línea base del conocimiento en este sentido. Estos microorganismos intracelulares son causantes de enfermedades transmisibles en pacientes humanos; convirtiéndolas en zoonosis de tipo emergente. Este estudio ha permitido determinar la presencia de microorganismos del orden de los Rickettsiales (Ehrlichia spp.‚ Anaplasma s...

  12. Infections and risk factors for livestock with species of Anaplasma, Babesia and Brucella under semi-nomadic rearing in Karamoja Region, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Chiara; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Strona, Paolo; Lappo, Pier Giorgio; Etiang, Patrick; Diverio, Silvana

    2016-03-01

    A survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Anaplasma, Babesia and Brucella spp. infections in cattle, goats and sheep in the Karamoja Region of Uganda and to identify possible risk factors existing in this semi-nomadic and pastoral area. Low cost laboratory tests were used to diagnose infections (Rose Bengal test for Brucella spp. antibodies and direct microscopic examination for Anaplasma and Babesia spp.). Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to identify possible risk factors linked to gender, animal species, age (only for cattle) and districts. A total of 3935 cattle, 729 goats and 306 sheep of five districts of the Karamoja Region were tested. Seroprevalence for Brucella was 9.2 % (CI, 95 %: 8.4-10), for Anaplasma 19.5 % (CI 95 %: 18.4-20.6) and for Babesia 16 % (CI 95 %: 15-17.1). Significant differences in infections prevalence were observed against risk factors associated with districts and species. Cattle were the species with higher risk of the infections. Female gender was identified as at risk only for Brucella spp. infection. Cattle more than one year old had greater likelihood to be Brucella seropositive. Co-infections of Anaplasma and Babesia spp. were statistically associated, especially in goats and sheep. Further studies to identify risk factors related to host species and geographical districts are needed. The influence on the semi-nomadic agro-pastoral system in Karamoja of animal raids and animal mixing should be further investigated. Findings were important to sensitize Karamojong undertaking measures on infection control, especially on cattle, which are their main source of food. PMID:26888206

  13. Designing for Geometrical Symmetry Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Yamba Yamba

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Symmetry-exploiting software based on the generalized Fourier transform (GFT is presented from a practical design point of view. The algorithms and data structures map closely to the relevant mathematical abstractions, which primarily are based upon representation theory for groups. Particular care has been taken in the design of the data layout of the performance-sensitive numerical data structures. The use of a vanilla strategy is advocated for the design of flexible mathematical software libraries: An efficient general-purpose routine should be supplied, to obtain a practical and useful system, while the possibility to extend the library and replace the default routine with a special-purpose – even more optimized – routine should be supported. Compared with a direct approach, the performance results show the superiority of the GFT-based approach for so-called dense equivariant systems. The GFT application is found to be well suited for parallelism.

  14. The Exploitation of Evolving Resources

    CERN Document Server

    McGlade, Jacqueline; Law, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The impact of man on the biosphere is profound. Quite apart from our capacity to destroy natural ecosystems and to drive species to extinction, we mould the evolution of the survivors by the selection pressures we apply to them. This has implications for the continued health of our natural biological resources and for the way in which we seek to optimise yield from those resources. Of these biological resources, fish stocks are particularly important to mankind as a source of protein. On a global basis, fish stocks provide the major source of protein for human consumption from natural ecosystems, amounting to some seventy million tonnes in 1970. Although fisheries management has been extensively developed over the last century, it has not hitherto considered the evolutionary consequences of fishing activity. While this omission may not have been serious in the past, the ever increasing intensity of exploitation and the deteriorating health of fish stocks has generated an urgent need for a better understanding...

  15. Energy for lunar resource exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1992-01-01

    Humanity stands at the threshold of exploiting the known lunar resources that have opened up with the access to space. America's role in the future exploitation of space, and specifically of lunar resources, may well determine the level of achievement in technology development and global economic competition. Space activities during the coming decades will significantly influence the events on Earth. The 'shifting of history's tectonic plates' is a process that will be hastened by the increasingly insistent demands for higher living standards of the exponentially growing global population. Key to the achievement of a peaceful world in the 21st century, will be the development of a mix of energy resources at a societally acceptable and affordable cost within a realistic planning horizon. This must be the theme for the globally applicable energy sources that are compatible with the Earth's ecology. It is in this context that lunar resources development should be a primary goal for science missions to the Moon, and for establishing an expanding human presence. The economic viability and commercial business potential of mining, extracting, manufacturing, and transporting lunar resource based materials to Earth, Earth orbits, and to undertake macroengineering projects on the Moon remains to be demonstrated. These extensive activities will be supportive of the realization of the potential of space energy sources for use on Earth. These may include generating electricity for use on Earth based on beaming power from Earth orbits and from the Moon to the Earth, and for the production of helium 3 as a fuel for advanced fusion reactors.

  16. Detección de Anaplasma spp. en Garrapatas de Myrmecophaga tridactyla de Vida Libre en la Sabana Inundable de Casanare‚ Colombia -resumen-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Rojano-Bolaño

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La anaplasmosis es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por rickettsias del género Anaplasma spp. Su relevancia esta principalmente determinada por el grado de afectación endémica en el ganado doméstico. Una amplia variedad de mamíferos silvestres también son susceptibles a la infección. Las bacterias pueden ser intracitoplasmáticas‚ dañando las estructuras de las células pudiendo causar anemia e ictericia. Algunas especies de Anaplasma spp han sido reportadas como microorganismos potencialmente zoonóticos‚ por lo tanto‚ la anaplasmosis‚ como otras enfermedades transmitidas por garrapatas‚ ha tomado una especial relevancia en la salud pública. El objetivo de este estudio fue detectar la presencia de Anaplasma spp.‚ en garrapatas colectadas en nueve osos palmeros (Myrmecophaga tridactyla de vida libre en el municipio de Pore‚ Casanare‚ entre los años 2013 y 2014‚ capturados con el método de búsqueda activa‚ y posteriormente fueron anestesiados utilizando un dardo con Ketamina (12 mg/kg y Xilacina (0‚5 mg/kg por vía intramuscular. Las garrapatas fueron colectadas directamente de los individuos‚ con ayuda de pinzas. En total se obtuvieron 204 ectoparásitos‚ que fueron almacenados en alcohol al 70%‚ y posteriormente fueron identificados como pertenecientes a la especie Amblyomma cajennense. Para este estudio se seleccionaron 55 pool de tres individuos y fueron analizadas por medio de la técnica de PCR en tiempo real. Se detectaron 2 pool de garrapatas positivos a este microorganismo (3‚6 % pertenecientes a dos osos palmeros. Los resultados preliminares de este estudio demuestran que Anaplasma spp. podría estar circulante entre garrapatas A. cajennense de animales silvestres en la sabana inundable del municipio de Pore‚ Casanare. Se hace necesario realizar nuevos muestreos para analizar un mayor número de garrapatas y determinar la especie de Anaplasma spp. presente.

  17. Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against Anaplasma marginale in cattle from south Mozambique Soroprevalência de anticorpos de classe IgG contra Anaplasma marginale em bovinos da região Sul de Moçambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Amélia Mucalane Tembue

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to Anaplasma marginale in cattle from Maputo, Gaza and Inhambane provinces, south Mozambique. A total of 809 serum samples from cattle were obtained and tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA. The chi-square test at 5% significance was used to assess the association between seroprevalence and the variables gender, age and geographic origin of animals. The overall seropositivity was 76.5% (n = 619 and anti-A. marginale antibodies were detected in 89.1% (n = 156, 68.4% (n = 308 and 84.2% (n = 155 of the animals in the provinces of Maputo, Gaza and Inhambane, respectively. A significant association (p 12 and 24 and 36 months, respectively. These results indicate that in southern Mozambique there are areas of enzootic stability to A. marginale. Thus, epidemiological monitoring is required to monitor the immune status of animals in the region.O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a soroprevalência de anticorpos da classe IgG contra Anaplasma marginale em bovinos de corte da região Sul de Moçambique. Para esse efeito, 809 amostras de soro foram coletadas e avaliadas pelo ensaio imunoadsorção enzimático indireto (ELISA-i. O teste Qui-Quadrado, a 5% de significância, foi utilizado para avaliar a associação entre a soroprevalência e as variáveis sexo, idade e origem geográfica dos animais. A soropositividade geral foi de 76,5% (n = 619, e anticorpos anti-A. marginale foram detectados em 89,1% (n = 156, 68,4% (n = 308 e 84,2% (n = 155 dos animais nas províncias de Maputo, Gaza e Inhambane, respectivamente. Uma associação significativa (p 12 a 24 36 meses, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstram que, no Sul de Moçambique, existem áreas de estabilidade enzoótica para A. marginale, em animais maiores de 12 meses. Assim, monitoramento epidemiológico deve ser realizado para o acompanhamento do status imunológico dos animais na região.

  18. Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in ticks of dogs in Cuiaba, Mato GrossoEhrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em carrapatos de cães de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Dutra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diseases transmitted by arthropods such as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, are caused by a spectrum of pathogens. Among these are the canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and cyclical thrombocytopenia with a cosmopolitan distribution. Aiming to verify the presence of DNA of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in ticks R. sanguineus collected in the period 2008 to 2009 of 380 infected dogs. Ticks, after maceration, were subjected to DNA extraction and then nested PCR was performed for amplification of A. platys and E. canis. Of these, 81 (29.7% amplified DNA from ehrlichiais agents, where 38 (17.9% amplified in E. canis and 32 (15.7% for A. platys. The observation of two pathogens, combined with worldwide distribution of the tick R. sanguineus, demonstrates the high risk of infection with these pathogens in dogs in the city of Cuiaba. Doenças transmitidas por artrópodes, como o Rhipicephalus sanguineus, são causadas por um espectro de patógenos. Dentre estas, estão a erliquiose monocítica canina e trombocitopenia cíclica com distribuição cosmopolita. Com o objetivo de verificar a presença de DNA de Anaplasma platys e Ehrlichia canis em carrapatos R. sanguineus coletados no período de 2008 a 2009 de 380 cães infestados. Os carrapatos, após a maceração, foram submetidos a extração de DNA e, em seguida, foi realizada a Nested PCR para a amplificação da espécie A. platys e E. canis. Destes, 81 (29.7% amplificaram o DNA dos agentes ehrlichiais, onde 38 (17.9% amplificaram para E. canis e 32 (15.7% para A. platys. A observação dos dois patógenos, combinado com distribuição mundial do carrapato R. sanguineus, demonstra o elevado risco de infecção por esses patógenos de cães na cidade de Cuiabá.

  19. Human Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Stephen Dumler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A description of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma agents that have been linked to human disease is presented. A particular emphasis is given to Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia canis. The clinical features associated with each agent, as well as the corresponding diagnosis and treatment are also described.

  20. Molecular detection and genetic identification of Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis and Anaplasma marginale in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mo; Cao, Shinuo; Sevinc, Ferda; Sevinc, Mutlu; Ceylan, Onur; Moumouni, Paul Franck Adjou; Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Iguchi, Aiko; Vudriko, Patrick; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2016-02-01

    Babesia spp., Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. are significant tick-borne pathogens of livestock globally. In this study, we investigated the presence and distribution of Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis and Anaplasma marginale in cattle from 6 provinces of Turkey using species-specific PCR assays. The PCR were conducted using the primers based on the B. bigemina rhoptry-associated protein 1a (BbiRAP-1a), T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 (Tams-1), T. orientalis major piroplasm surface protein (ToMPSP) and A. marginale major surface protein 4 (AmMSP4) genes, respectively. Fragments of B. bigemina internal transcribed spacer (BbiITS), T. annulata internal transcribed spacer (TaITS), ToMPSP and AmMSP4 genes were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. PCR results revealed that the overall infections of A. marginale, T. annulata, B. bigemina and T. orientalis were 29.1%, 18.9%, 11.2% and 5.6%, respectively. The co-infection of two or three pathogens was detected in 29/196 (15.1%) of the cattle samples. The results of sequence analysis indicated that BbiRAP-1a, BbiITS, Tams-1, ToMPSP and AmMSP4 were conserved among the Turkish samples, with 99.76%, 99-99.8%, 99.34-99.78%, 96.9-99.61% and 99.42-99.71% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Turkish TaITS gene sequences were relatively diverse with 92.3-96.63% identity values. B. bigemina isolates from Turkey were found in the same clade as the isolates from other countries in phylogenetic analysis. On the other hand, phylogenetic analysis based on T. annulata ITS sequences revealed significant differences in the genotypes of T. annulata isolates from Turkey. Additionally, the T. orientalis isolates from Turkish samples were classified as MPSP type 3 genotype. This is the first report of type 3 MPSP in Turkey. Moreover, AmMSP4 isolates from Turkey were found in the same clade as the isolates from other countries. This study provides important data for understanding the

  1. Exploiting dual otoacoustic emission sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Carolina; Kalluri, Radha

    2015-12-01

    Two distinct processes generate otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Reflection-source emissions, here recorded as stimulus frequency OAEs, are optimally informative at low sound levels and are more sensitive to slight hearing loss; they have been linked to cochlear amplifier gain and tuning. Distortion-source emissions are strongest at moderate-high sound levels and persist despite mild hearing loss; they likely originate in the nonlinear process of hair cell transduction. In this preliminary study, we exploit the unique features of each by generating a combined reflection-distortion OAE profile in normal hearing and hearing-impaired ears. Distortion-product (DP) and stimulus-frequency (SF) OAEs were recorded over a broad range of stimulus levels and frequencies. Individual I/O and transfer functions were generated for both emission types in each ear, and OAE peak strength, compression threshold, and rate of compression were calculated. These combined SFOAE and DPOAE features in normal and hearing-impaired ears may provide a potentially informative and novel index of hearing loss. This is an initial step toward utilizing OAE source in characterizing cochlear function and dysfunction.

  2. Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a directs cell surface display of tick BM95 immunogenic peptides on Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Mario; Almazán, Consuelo; Pérez de la Lastra, José M; de la Fuente, José

    2008-07-31

    The surface display of heterologous proteins on live Escherichia coli using anchoring motifs from outer membranes proteins has impacted on many areas of biochemistry, molecular biology and biotechnology. The Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a (MSP1a) contains N-terminal surface-exposed repeated peptides (28-289 amino acids) that are involved in pathogen interaction with host cell receptors and is surface-displayed when the recombinant protein is expressed in E. coli. Therefore, it was predicted that MSP1a would surface display on E. coli peptides inserted in the N-terminal repeats region of the protein. The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus BM86 and BM95 glycoproteins are homologous proteins that protect cattle against tick infestations. In this study, we demonstrated that a recombinant protein comprising tick BM95 immunogenic peptides fused to the A. marginale MSP1a N-terminal region is displayed on the E. coli surface and is recognized by anti-BM86 and anti-MSP1a antibodies. This system provides a novel approach to the surface display of heterologous antigenic proteins on live E. coli and suggests the possibility to use the recombinant bacteria for immunization studies against cattle tick infestations. PMID:18582976

  3. Packaging of Sin Goods - Commitment or Exploitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia

    to such self-control problems, and possibly exploit them, by offering different package sizes. In a competitive market, either one or three (small, medium and large) packages are offered. In contrast to common intuition, the large, and not the small package is a commitment device. The latter serves to exploit...

  4. Localized appropriability: Percuniary externalities in knowledge exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Antonelli, Cristiano

    2008-01-01

    Pecuniary externalities are crucial in shaping the strategies to value the distinctive competences and the economic success of innovative firms. The analysis of conditions for localized knowledge appropriation and exploitation makes it possible to identify idiosyncratic production factors. The introduction of directed technological change biased towards intensive usage provides the opportunity for the exploitation of technological knowledge.

  5. Exploration, Exploitation, and Organizational Coordination Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Popadiuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical relationship among exploration, exploitation, and organizational coordination mechanisms, classified as the centralization of decision-making, formalization, and connectedness. In order to analyze the findings of this survey, we used two techniques: Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Partial Least Squares Path Modeling (PLS-PM. Our analysis was supported by 249 answers from managers of companies located in Brazil (convenience sampling. Contrary to expectations, centralization and exploitation were negatively associated. Our data supports the research hypothesis that formalization is positively associated with exploitation. Although the relationship between formalization and exploration were significant, the result is contrary to the research hypothesis that we made. The relationships among connectedness and exploitation, and connectedness and exploration were both positive and significant. This relationship means that the more connectedness increases, the higher the likelihood of exploitation and exploration.

  6. Occurrence of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in household dogs from northern Parana Ocorrência de Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em cães domiciliados da região norte do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Cristina Ferreira da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused primarily by Ehrlichia canis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis induced by Anaplasma platys are important emerging zoonotic tick-borne diseases of dogs. There is evidence that these pathogens can also affect humans. This study evaluated the presence of E. canis and A. platys in blood samples collected from 256 domiciled dogs in the municipality of Jataizinho, located in north region of the State of Parana, Brazil, by PCR assay. The occurrence of E. canis and A. platys was 16.4% (42/256 and 19.4% (49/256, respectively; while 5.47% (14/256 of the dogs evaluated were co-infected by these two organisms. The presence of E. canis and A. platys was not significantly associated with the variables evaluated (sex, age, outdoor access, and presence of ticks during blood collection. Infection of dogs by E. canis was associated with anemia and thrombocytopenia, while infection induced by A. platys was related only to thrombocytopenia. Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis should be included in the differential diagnoses when these hematological alterations are observed during routine laboratory evaluation of dogs.Erliquiose monocítica canina, causada principalmente por Ehrlichia canis, e anaplasmose trombocítica canina, devida a infecção com Anaplasma platys, são importantes doenças transmitidas por carrapatos que acometem os cães, com evidências que podem também acometer o homem. O presente estudo avaliou a ocorrência desses agentes em amostras de sangue de 256 cães domiciliados na cidade de Jataizinho, na região Norte do Paraná, Brasil, utilizando a técnica da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR. A ocorrência de E. canis e A. platys foi de 16,4% (42/256 e 19,4% (49/256, respectivamente, com 5,47% (14/256 dos animais apresentando coinfecção. Não foi observada associação significativa com as variáveis sexo, idade, acesso à rua e presença de carrapatos no momento da

  7. Comparação entre diversos antígenos para o diagnóstico de Anaplasma marginale por ELISA Comparison between several antigens for diagnosis of Anaplasma marginale by ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A.N. Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasmose bovina é uma doença com grande importância nas regiões tropicais e subtropicais do mundo por determinar perdas econômicas devido à mortalidade e redução da produtividade. É causada por Anaplasma marginale, uma riquétsia intraeritrocítica obrigatória cujo controle requer, além de uma vacina eficiente, uma acurada identificação de bovinos cronicamente infectados. Apesar de existirem atualmente diversos métodos de diagnóstico dessa riquétsia, os métodos sorológicos, em particular o ensaio de imunoadsorção enzimática-ELISAs, são os mais utilizados devido à sua versatilidade e praticidade. No entanto, devido ao grande número de antígenos disponíveis, atualmente torna-se necessária uma avaliação para definir quais antígenos apresentam um melhor desempenho no diagnóstico da anaplasmose. Soros de bovinos positivos e negativos para A. marginale por PCR, e soros de animais provenientes do Brasil e Costa Rica, foram testados em ELISAs baseados em MSP1a, MSP2 e MSP5 recombinantes, um pool das três proteínas recombinantes, e antígeno de lisado de corpúsculos iniciais da riquétsia (CI. Utilizando soro de bovinos positivos para A. marginale por PCR, uma maior sensibilidade foi observada no ELISA CI. No entanto, uma maior especificidade, com soro de bovinos negativos a PCR, foi observada com os ELISAs recombinantes. O porcentual de bovinos positivos do Brasil e Costa Rica foi maior com ELISA CI. Razões para essas diferenças são discutidas.Bovine anaplasmosis is a major disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world by determine economical loss due mortality and productive reduction. The disease is caused by Anaplasma marginale, an intraerythrocytic rickettsia whose control requires, besides an efficient vaccine, the accurate identification of chronically infected cattle. Although the existence of diverse methods of diagnosis of this rickettsia, the serological methods, in particular the enzyme

  8. Global Climate Responses to Anthropogenic Groundwater Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Xie, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a groundwater exploitation scheme is incorporated into the earth system model, Community Earth System Model 1.2.0 (CESM1.2.0), which is called CESM1.2_GW, and the climatic responses to anthropogenic groundwater withdrawal are then investigated on global scale. The scheme models anthropogenic groundwater exploitation and consumption, which are then divided into agricultural irrigation, industrial use and domestic use. A group of 41-year ensemble groundwater exploitation simulations with six different initial conditions, and a group of ensemble control simulations without exploitation are conducted using the developed model CESM1.2_GW with water supplies and demands estimated. The results reveal that the groundwater exploitation and water consumption cause drying effects on soil moisture in deep layers and wetting effects in upper layers, along with a rapidly declining groundwater table in Central US, Haihe River Basin in China and Northern India and Pakistan where groundwater extraction are most severe in the world. The atmosphere also responds to anthropogenic groundwater exploitation. Cooling effects on lower troposphere appear in large areas of North China Plain and of Northern India and Pakistan. Increased precipitation occurs in Haihe River Basin due to increased evapotranspiration from irrigation. Decreased precipitation occurs in Northern India because water vapor here is taken away by monsoon anomalies induced by anthropogenic alteration of groundwater. The local reducing effects of anthropogenic groundwater exploitation on total terrestrial water storage evinces that water resource is unsustainable with the current high exploitation rate. Therefore, a balance between slow groundwater withdrawal and rapid human economic development must be achieved to maintain a sustainable water resource, especially in over-exploitation regions such as Central US, Northern China, India and Pakistan.

  9. Prokaryotic expression and immunogenicity of recombinant AnkA protein from 3 Anaplasma phagocytophilum isolates%3株嗜吞噬细胞无形体AnkA蛋白原核表达及免疫原性差异性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚娜; 陈创夫; 于强; 张丽娟

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the immunogenicity of recombinant AnkA proteins from 3 A. phagocytophilujn isolates, the partial ankA fragments of its strain Webster, strain Slovenia 1 567, and strain 96HK58 were amplified by PCR respectively and then inserted into the vector pET-30a and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 to express with IPTG induction. The amino acid sequences of the expression products were identified by mass spectrum analysis. Polyclonal antibodies a-gainst the 3 recombinant AnkA proteins were produced by immuned mouse with the purified fusion proteins. The immunoreac-tivity of the 3 AnkA recombinant proteins was analyzed by Western blot using the serum from immunized mouse and HGA positive serum from human. The recombinant AnkA proteins were efficiently expressed. High titer antibodies against the 3 AnkA recombinant proteins were successfully produced and cross reacted among the 3 AnkA recombinant proteins and their corresponding antibodies. Apparent reaction was also observed among the 3 AnkA recombinant proteins and Chinese human HGA positive serum. Here we concluded that there was no immunogenicity difference among the 3 recombinant AnkA proteins of A. phagocylophilum strain Webster, strain Slovenia 1 567, and strain 96HE58.%目的 研究分析3株嗜吞噬细胞无形体AnkA蛋白的免疫原性.方法 利用原核表达PCR扩增了嗜吞噬细胞无形体Webster株,斯洛文尼亚1 567株,美国96HE58株ankA 基因部分序列,构建pET-30a-AnkA表达载体,转化至大肠杆菌BL21中,以IPTG诱导高效表达融合蛋白,经飞行质谱鉴定氨基酸序列,免疫BALB/c小鼠制备多克隆抗体.Western blot分析3株菌AnkA重组蛋白与免疫小鼠血清抗体相互间的免疫反应以及交叉反应性.同时检测3株菌AnkA重组蛋白与我国无形体病人血清抗体反应性.结果 表达的重组蛋白主要以可溶性形式存在,小鼠免疫获得高效价抗AnkA IgG抗体,3株菌重组蛋白免疫抗体间存在免疫交叉.3株菌重组蛋白与我国无形体病人血清抗体存在免疫反应.结论 成功原核表达并纯化了3株嗜吞噬细胞无形体AnkA蛋白,重组蛋白与我国无形体病人阳性血清存在免疫反应.3株嗜吞噬细胞无形体AnkA重组蛋白与免疫小鼠多克隆抗体间存在交叉反应.

  10. Silencing of genes involved in Anaplasma marginale-tick interactions affects the pathogen developmental cycle in Dermacentor variabilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almazán Consuelo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle pathogen, Anaplasma marginale, undergoes a developmental cycle in ticks that begins in gut cells. Transmission to cattle occurs from salivary glands during a second tick feeding. At each site of development two forms of A. marginale (reticulated and dense occur within a parasitophorous vacuole in the host cell cytoplasm. However, the role of tick genes in pathogen development is unknown. Four genes, found in previous studies to be differentially expressed in Dermacentor variabilis ticks in response to infection with A. marginale, were silenced by RNA interference (RNAi to determine the effect of silencing on the A. marginale developmental cycle. These four genes encoded for putative glutathione S-transferase (GST, salivary selenoprotein M (SelM, H+ transporting lysosomal vacuolar proton pump (vATPase and subolesin. Results The impact of gene knockdown on A. marginale tick infections, both after acquiring infection and after a second transmission feeding, was determined and studied by light microscopy. Silencing of these genes had a different impact on A. marginale development in different tick tissues by affecting infection levels, the densities of colonies containing reticulated or dense forms and tissue morphology. Salivary gland infections were not seen in any of the gene-silenced ticks, raising the question of whether these ticks were able to transmit the pathogen. Conclusion The results of this RNAi and light microscopic analyses of tick tissues infected with A. marginale after the silencing of genes functionally important for pathogen development suggest a role for these molecules during pathogen life cycle in ticks.

  11. Development of a multilocus sequence typing scheme for the study of Anaplasma marginale population structure over space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemi, Eliana C; Ruybal, Paula; Lia, Verónica; Gonzalez, Sergio; Lew, Sergio; Zimmer, Patricia; Lopez Arias, Ludmila; Rodriguez, Jose L; Rodriguez, Sonia Y; Frutos, Roger; Wilkowsky, Silvina E; Farber, Marisa D

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale is a worldwide disease prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions where Rhipicephalus microplus is considered the most significant biological vector. Molecular markers previously applied for A. marginale typing are efficient for isolate discrimination but they are not a suitable tool for studying population structure and dynamics. Here we report the development of an MLST scheme based on the study of seven genes: dnaA, ftsZ, groEl, lipA, recA, secY and sucB. Five annotated genomes (Saint Maries, Florida, Mississippi, Puerto Rico and Virginia) and 53 bovine blood samples from different world regions were analyzed. High nucleotide diversity and a large proportion of synonymous substitutions, indicative of negative selection resulted from DnaSP 5.00.02 package application. Recombination events were detected in almost all genes, this evidence together with the coexistence of more than one A. marginale strain in the same sample might suggest the superinfection phenomena as a potential source of variation. The allelic profile analysis performed through GoeBURST shown two main CC that did not support geography. In addition, the AMOVA test confirmed the occurrence of at least two main genetically divergent groups. The composition of the emergent groups reflected the impact of both historical and environmental traits on A. marginale population structure. Finally, a web-based platform "Galaxy MLST-Pipeline" was developed to automate DNA sequence editing and data analysis that together with the Data Base are freely available to users. The A. marginale MLST scheme developed here is a valuable tool with a high discrimination power, besides PCR based strategies are still the better choice for epidemiological intracellular pathogens studies. Finally, the allelic profile describe herein would contribute to uncover the mechanisms in how intracellular pathogens challenge virulence paradigm.

  12. Development of a multilocus sequence typing scheme for the study of Anaplasma marginale population structure over space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemi, Eliana C; Ruybal, Paula; Lia, Verónica; Gonzalez, Sergio; Lew, Sergio; Zimmer, Patricia; Lopez Arias, Ludmila; Rodriguez, Jose L; Rodriguez, Sonia Y; Frutos, Roger; Wilkowsky, Silvina E; Farber, Marisa D

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale is a worldwide disease prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions where Rhipicephalus microplus is considered the most significant biological vector. Molecular markers previously applied for A. marginale typing are efficient for isolate discrimination but they are not a suitable tool for studying population structure and dynamics. Here we report the development of an MLST scheme based on the study of seven genes: dnaA, ftsZ, groEl, lipA, recA, secY and sucB. Five annotated genomes (Saint Maries, Florida, Mississippi, Puerto Rico and Virginia) and 53 bovine blood samples from different world regions were analyzed. High nucleotide diversity and a large proportion of synonymous substitutions, indicative of negative selection resulted from DnaSP 5.00.02 package application. Recombination events were detected in almost all genes, this evidence together with the coexistence of more than one A. marginale strain in the same sample might suggest the superinfection phenomena as a potential source of variation. The allelic profile analysis performed through GoeBURST shown two main CC that did not support geography. In addition, the AMOVA test confirmed the occurrence of at least two main genetically divergent groups. The composition of the emergent groups reflected the impact of both historical and environmental traits on A. marginale population structure. Finally, a web-based platform "Galaxy MLST-Pipeline" was developed to automate DNA sequence editing and data analysis that together with the Data Base are freely available to users. The A. marginale MLST scheme developed here is a valuable tool with a high discrimination power, besides PCR based strategies are still the better choice for epidemiological intracellular pathogens studies. Finally, the allelic profile describe herein would contribute to uncover the mechanisms in how intracellular pathogens challenge virulence paradigm. PMID:25550150

  13. Prevalence and haemato-biochemical profile ofAnaplasma marginale infection in dairy animals of Punjab (India)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashuma; Amrita Sharma; Lachhman Das Singla; Paramjit Kaur; Mandeep Singh Bal; Balwinder Kaur Batth; Prayag Dutt Juyal

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To do the systematic comparison of prevalence of anaplasmosis byPCR andGiemsa stained thin blood smear (GSTBS) based parasitological assays in dairy cattle ofPunjab, which has not been reported yet.To analyse the haematobiochemical alterations in infected animals to arrive at the conclusion regarding the pathogenicity induced byAnaplasma marginale (A. marginale) in latent and patent infection.Methods:Study was conducted on320 animals (236 cows,62 calves and22 buffaloes) ofPunjab,India.PCR on genome ofA. marginale was performed by targeting msp1β gene using specific primersBAP-2/AL34S, amplifies products of size407 bp.Questionnaires based data on the characteristics of the infected animals and management strategies of the farm were collected and correlated.Results:Higher prevalence and more significant association was observed in thePCR based molecular diagnosis (P=0.00012) as compared to that inGSTBS (P=0.0288) based diagnosis with various regions under study.With respect to the regions, highest prevalence was recorded inFerozepur byPCR based diagnosis, while that inJalandhar byGSTBS examination.Similar marked significant association of thePCR based diagnosis with the age of the animals under study (P=0.00013) was observed elucidating no inverse age resistance toA. marginale in cow calves.Haematobiochemical profile of infected animals revealed marked anemia, liver dysfunction and increase globulin concentrate indicating rise in immunoglobulin level to counteract infection.Conclusions:PCR is far more sensitive in detecting the disease even in latent infection which may act as nidus for spread of anaplasmosis to susceptible animals in endemic areas.Severity of anaemia and liver dysfunction were comparable both in patent as well as latent infection indicating pathogenicity of both.

  14. Molecular biological identification of Babesia, Theileria, and Anaplasma species in cattle in Egypt using PCR assays, gene sequence analysis and a novel DNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashker, Maged; Hotzel, Helmut; Gwida, Mayada; El-Beskawy, Mohamed; Silaghi, Cornelia; Tomaso, Herbert

    2015-01-30

    In this preliminary study, a novel DNA microarray system was tested for the diagnosis of bovine piroplasmosis and anaplasmosis in comparison with microscopy and PCR assay results. In the Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt, 164 cattle were investigated for the presence of piroplasms and Anaplasma species. All investigated cattle were clinically examined. Blood samples were screened for the presence of blood parasites using microscopy and PCR assays. Seventy-one animals were acutely ill, whereas 93 were apparently healthy. In acutely ill cattle, Babesia/Theileria species (n=11) and Anaplasma marginale (n=10) were detected. Mixed infections with Babesia/Theileria spp. and A. marginale were present in two further cases. A. marginale infections were also detected in apparently healthy subjects (n=23). The results of PCR assays were confirmed by DNA sequencing. All samples that were positive by PCR for Babesia/Theileria spp. gave also positive results in the microarray analysis. The microarray chips identified Babesia bovis (n=12) and Babesia bigemina (n=2). Cattle with babesiosis were likely to have hemoglobinuria and nervous signs when compared to those with anaplasmosis that frequently had bloody feces. We conclude that clinical examination in combination with microscopy are still very useful in diagnosing acute cases of babesiosis and anaplasmosis, but a combination of molecular biological diagnostic assays will detect even asymptomatic carriers. In perspective, parallel detection of Babesia/Theileria spp. and A. marginale infections using a single microarray system will be a valuable improvement.

  15. Experimental infection and co-infection of dogs with Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis: hematologic, serologic and molecular findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diniz PPVP

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a ubiquitous tick responsible for transmitting Ehrlichia canis and most likely Anaplasma platys to dogs, as either single or co-infections. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of either simultaneous or sequential experimental infections with E. canis and A. platys on hematological and serological parameters, duration of infection, and efficacy of doxycycline therapy in dogs infected with one or both organisms. Six dogs per group were either uninfected, A. platys infected, E. canis infected, A. platys and E. canis co-infected, A. platys infected and E. canis challenged or E. canis infected and A. platys challenged at day 112 post-infection (PI. Doxycycline treatment was initiated at 211 days PI, followed by dexamethasone immunosuppression beginning 410 days PI. Results Initially, transient decreases in hematocrit occurred in all groups infected with E. canis, but the mean hematocrit was significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. All dogs except the controls developed marked thrombocytopenia after initial infection followed by gradually increased platelet counts by 112 days PI in groups with the single infections, while platelet counts remained significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. Both sequential and simultaneous infections of A. platys and E. canis produced an enhanced humoral immune response to A. platys when compared to infection with A. platys alone. Likewise, co-infection with E. canis and A. platys resulted in a more persistent A. platys infection compared to dogs infected with A. platys only, but nearly all A. platys infected dogs became A. platys PCR negative prior to doxycycline treatment. E. canis infected dogs, whether single or co-infected, remained thrombocytopenic and E. canis PCR positive in blood for 420 days. When treated with doxycycline, all E. canis infected dogs became E. canis PCR negative and the

  16. L'exploitation des algues en Bretagne

    OpenAIRE

    Arzel, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Les algues sont exploitées sur les côtes de Bretagne. Le potentiel y est varié et riche. Depuis plusieurs siècles, cette exploitation fournit de la matière première à l'industrie. Les besoins élevés tant de l'industrie que de l'agriculture ont conduit les administrations impliquées à imposer des règles strictes d'exploitation. Ces mesures ont été complétées de tout temps par des us et coutumes qui visaient à mieux organiser les campagnes de récolte. Aujourd'hui, la récolte porte sur un...

  17. Rethinking exploitation: a process-centered account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A; Wall, Steven

    2013-12-01

    Exploitation has become an important topic in recent discussions of biomedical and research ethics. This is due in no small measure to the influence of Alan Wertheimer's path-breaking work on the subject. This paper presents some objections to Wertheimer's account of the concept. The objections attempt to show that his account places too much emphasis on outcome-based considerations and too little on process-based considerations. Building on these objections, the paper develops an alternative process-centered account of the concept. This alternative account of exploitation takes as its point of departure the broadly Kantian notion that it is wrong to use another as an instrument for the advancement of one's own ends. It sharpens this slippery notion and adds a number of refinements to it. The paper concludes by arguing that process-centered accounts of exploitation better illuminate the ethical challenges posed by research on human subjects than outcome-centered accounts. PMID:24552077

  18. Oil exploitation and the environmental Kuznets curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim; Abdollahzadeh, Negar [Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Fars (Iran)

    2009-01-15

    This study refers to a panel estimation of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for oil to determine the factors most affecting oil exploitation in 38 oil-producing countries during 1990-2000. Control variables such as oil reserves, oil price, population, political rights, and the Gini index were used to determine its contribution to the main EKC model. The empirical results fully support the existence of an EKC for oil exploitation. Furthermore, the result indicates that the proved oil reserves has a significant and positive role in oil production, but oil price and population do not significantly affect crude oil production. Also, increased freedoms and a better income distribution will reduce the rate of oil exploitation. Thus, policies aiming at enhancing democratic society and better income distribution would be more compatible with sustainability. (author)

  19. Exploiting Surrounding Text for Retrieving Web Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Noah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Web documents contain useful textual information that can be exploited for describing images. Research had been focused on representing images by means of its content (low level description such as color, shape and texture, little research had been directed to exploiting such textual information. The aim of this research was to systematically exploit the textual content of HTML documents for automatically indexing and ranking of images embedded in web documents. A heuristic approach for locating and assigning weight surrounding web images and a modified tf.idf weighting scheme was proposed. Precision-recall measures of evaluation had been conducted for ten queries and promising results had been achieved. The proposed approach showed slightly better precision measure as compared to a popular search engine with an average of 0.63 and 0.55 relative precision measures respectively.

  20. Exploitation Cinema and the Lesbian Imagination

    OpenAIRE

    Crémieux, Anne

    2016-01-01

    À leur sortie, les films d’exploitation ont été critiqués pour leur représentation des femmes et des homosexuelles. Cependant, le recul du temps et les transformations de la société permettent aux publics féministes de s’approprier des films et leurs curieux personnages queer qu’ils peuvent désormais apprécier non seulement comme traces du passé, mais aussi comme des personnages véritablement subversifs. Cet article évoque des films d’exploitation comme Faster Pussycat! Kill! Kill! (1965) ou ...

  1. PUNISHMENT FOR SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF THE CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    B. P. Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Sexual Exploitation of the children for any country is worst than other offence against children. It is not only the duty of state to protect the dignity of the women but, Article 51 A(e) of the constitution imposes the duty on every citizen of India in mandatory from which says that “It shall be the duty of every citizen of India, to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.” The Sexual Exploitation of children is a social disease that denies a child their basic rights as ...

  2. Randomized Heuristics for Exploiting Jacobian Scarcity

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Andrew; Safro, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    Griewank and Vogel introduced the notion of Jacobian scarcity, which generalizes the properties of sparsity and rank to capture a kind of deficiency in the degrees of freedom of the Jacobian matrix $F'(mathbf{x}).$ We describe new randomized heuristics that exploit scarcity for the optimized evaluation of collections of Jacobian-vector or Jacobian-transpose-vector products.

  3. The Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2014-01-01

    This essay discusses the involvement of organized crime in natural resource exploitation and trade. This is accomplished by examining case studies from different tropical regions in the world: Africa (Liberia, Sierra Leone, and DR Congo), Southeast Asia (Indonesia), and Latin America (Brazilian Amaz

  4. End of the Jouac mines exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Society of Jouac Mines (SMJ) works the uranium deposit of Bernardan since 1978. The document presents the management of this deposit exploitation end. The historical and social aspects, the site remedial, the wastes storage and the economic aspect of the project are provided. (A.L.B.)

  5. Electromagnetic Optimization Exploiting Aggressive Space Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandler, J. W.; Biernacki, R.; Chen, S.;

    1995-01-01

    We propose a significantly improved space mapping (SM) strategy for electromagnetic (EM) optimization. Instead of waiting for upfront EM analyses at several base points, our new approach aggressively exploits every available EM analysis, producing dramatic results right from the first step. We...

  6. Exploiting multilevel preconditioning techniques in eigenvalue computations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleijpen, Gerard L.G.; Wubs, Fred W.

    2003-01-01

    In the Davidson method, any preconditioner can be exploited for the iterative computation of eigenpairs. However, the convergence of the eigenproblem solver may be poor for a high quality preconditioner. Theoretically, this counter-intuitive phenomenon with the Davidson method is remedied by the Jac

  7. Dynamics and exploitation of unstable percid populations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijse, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    The gill net fishery on perch (Perca fluviatilis) and especially the highly valued pikeperch (Stizostedion lucioperca) in Lake IJssel is characterised by large variations in the yield. These variations are caused by variations in yearclass strength in combination with the high exploitation rate. In

  8. Trolling may intensify exploitation in crappie fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meals, K. O.; Dunn, A. W.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2012-01-01

    In some parts of the USA, anglers targeting crappies Pomoxis spp. are transitioning from mostly stationary angling with a single pole around submerged structures to using multiple poles while drifting with the wind or under power. This shift in fishing methods could result in a change in catch efficiency, possibly increasing exploitation rates to levels that would be of concern to managers. We studied the catch statistics of anglers fishing while trolling with multiple poles (trollers) and those fishing with single poles (polers) in Mississippi reservoirs. Specifically, we tested whether (1) various catch statistics differed between trollers and polers, (2) catch rates of trollers were related to the number of poles fished, and (3) trollers could raise exploitation rates to potentially unsustainable levels. Results showed that participation in the crappie fisheries was about equally split between polers and trollers. In spring, 90% of crappie anglers were polers; in summer, 85% of crappie anglers were trollers. The size of harvested crappies was similar for the two angler groups, but the catch per hour was almost three times higher for trollers than for polers. Catch rates by trollers were directly correlated to the number of poles fished, although the relationship flattened as the number of poles increased. The average harvest rate for one troller fishing with three poles was similar to the harvest rate obtained by one poler. Simulations predicted that at the existing mix of about 50% polers and 50% trollers and with no restrictions on the number of poles used by trollers, exploitation of crappies is about 1.3 times higher than that in a polers-only fishery; under a scenario in which 100% of crappie anglers were trollers, exploitation was forecasted to increase to about 1.7 times the polers-only rate. The efficiency of trolling for crappies should be of concern to fishery managers because crappie fisheries are mostly consumptive and may increase exploitation

  9. Detection of Anaplasma antibodies in wildlife and domestic species in wildlife-livestock interface areas of Kenya by major surface protein 5 competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J.N. Ngeranwa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The seroprevalence of Anaplasma antibodies in wildlife (eland, blue wildebeest, kongoni, impala, Thomson's gazelle, Grant's gazelle, giraffe and plains zebra and domestic animal (cattle, sheep and goat populations was studied in wildlife / livestock interface areas of Kenya. Serum samples were analyzed by competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA, using a recombinant antigen (MSP-5 from Anaplasma marginale surface membrane. A monoclonal antibody, FC-16, was used as the primary antibody, while anti-mouse conjugated to horseradish peroxidase was used as the secondary antibody. The results indicate a high seroprevalence in both wildlife and livestock populations, in contrast to earlier reports from Kenya, which indicated a low seroprevalence. The differences are attributed to the accurate analytical method used (CI-ELISA, as compared with agglutination techniques, clinical signs and microscopy employed by the earlier workers.

  10. Detection of Anaplasma antibodies in wildlife and domestic species in wildlife-livestock interface areas of Kenya by major surface protein 5 competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeranwa, J J N; Shompole, S P; Venter, E H; Wambugu, A; Crafford, J E; Penzhorn, B L

    2008-09-01

    The seroprevalence of Anaplasma antibodies in wildlife (eland, blue wildebeest, kongoni, impala, Thomson's gazelle, Grant's gazelle, giraffe and plains zebra) and domestic animal (cattle, sheep and goat) populations was studied in wildlife/livestock interface areas of Kenya. Serum samples were analyzed by competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA), using a recombinant antigen (MSP-5) from Anaplasma marginale surface membrane. A monoclonal antibody, FC-16, was used as the primary antibody, while anti-mouse conjugated to horseradish peroxidase was used as the secondary antibody. The results indicate a high seroprevalence in both wildlife and livestock populations, in contrast to earlier reports from Kenya, which indicated a low seroprevalence. The differences are attributed to the accurate analytical method used (CI-ELISA), as compared with agglutination techniques, clinical signs and microscopy employed by the earlier workers. PMID:19040134

  11. Exploration vs Exploitation in Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jalali, Ali; Fern, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    The problem of optimizing unknown costly-to-evaluate functions has been studied for a long time in the context of Bayesian Optimization. Algorithms in this field aim to find the optimizer of the function by asking only a few function evaluations at locations carefully selected based on a posterior model. In this paper, we assume the unknown function is Lipschitz continuous. Leveraging the Lipschitz property, we propose an algorithm with a distinct exploration phase followed by an exploitation phase. The exploration phase aims to select samples that shrink the search space as much as possible. The exploitation phase then focuses on the reduced search space and selects samples closest to the optimizer. Considering the Expected Improvement (EI) as a baseline, we empirically show that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms EI.

  12. Sustainable exploitation and management of aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Köster, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    DTU Aqua conducts research, provides advice,educates at university level and contributes toinnovation in sustainable exploitation andmanagement of aquatic resources. The vision of DTUAqua is to enable ecologically and economicallysustainable exploitation of aquatic resourcesapplying an integrated...... management. Marineecosystems aims at understanding the mechanisms that govern the interaction between individuals,species and populations in an ecosystem enabling us to determine the stability and flexibility of theecosystem.Marine living resources looks at the sustainable utilization of fish and shellfish...... habitats – from the North Atlantic Oceanand European shelf areas to coastal areas and innerDanish waters, ecosystems in lakes and streams as well as aquaculture. European shelf seas, Danish coastalareas and freshwaters are our main working areas, but we also work on Arctic and sub-Arctic waters...

  13. Exploiting log files in video retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Hopfgartner, F.; Urruty, T.; Villa, R.; Gildea, N.; Jose, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    While research into user-centered text retrieval is based on mature evaluation methodologies, user evaluation in multimedia retrieval is still in its infancy. User evaluations can be expensive and are also often non-repeatable. An alternative way of evaluating such systems is the use of simulations. In this poster, we present an evaluation methodology which is based on exploiting log files recorded from a user-study we conducted.

  14. Exploiting tag correlations to improve multilabel learning

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Brent

    2011-01-01

    This thesis looks at applying tags to musical songs as a multilabeling problem. We focus on the CAL500 dataset which summarizes 1704 student reviews into tags for 502 songs. This summarization loses information, so we create the CAL1700 dataset which uses each of the student reviews to generate a single multilabel. We develop a two-layer technique to exploit tag correlations. The first layer makes tag predictions based on data features. The second layer applies correlation information to thes...

  15. Exploitation of Folksonomies in Subject Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Παπαθεοδώρου, Χρήστος; Κακάλη, Κωνσταντία

    2010-01-01

    Social tagging is one of the most popular of social media applications and has attracted the interest of a number of libraries and museums, which have developed services that facilitate user-community collaboration. This paper presents a methodology for the exploitation of social tagging in subject indexing, and explores that method through a case study in an academic library setting. The findings reveal the characteristics of users' tagging behavior, which mainly enhances the subject descrip...

  16. Geothermal energy exploitation in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The essential factors, human and technical, which control the operation of geothermal systems, particularly those which allow prediction of behavior during and after exploitation, are sketched. The strategy and co-ordination involved in using New Zealand's geothermal resources for power production are considered. The broader aspects of the technical matters involved in the design of the parasitic plant reservoir system are described. (MHR)

  17. Objectivist versus Subjectivist Approaches to the Marxian Theory of Exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Veneziani, Roberto; Yoshihara, Naoki

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses two central issues in exploitation theory. First, the appropriate definition of individual and aggregate measures of exploitation is discussed. Second, the relation between profits and exploitation (the so-called Fundamental Marxian Theorem) is analysed. A general framework for the analysis of exploitation in the context of convex cone economies is proposed and various alternative equilibrium concepts are discussed. The limits of subjectivist approaches to exploitation, wh...

  18. Exploitation of subsea gas hydrate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas hydrates are considered to be a potential energy resource in the future. They occur in permafrost areas as well as in subsea sediments and are stable at high pressure and low temperature conditions. According to estimations the amount of carbon bonded in natural gas hydrates worldwide is two times larger than in all known conventional fossil fuels. Besides technical challenges that have to be overcome climate and safety issues have to be considered before a commercial exploitation of such unconventional reservoirs. The potential of producing natural gas from subsea gas hydrate deposits by various means (e.g. depressurization and/or injection of carbon dioxide) is numerically studied in the frame of the German research project »SUGAR«. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into a numerical model. The physics of the process leads to strong non-linear couplings between hydraulic fluid flow, hydrate dissociation and formation, hydraulic properties of the sediment, partial pressures and seawater solution of components and the thermal budget of the system described by the heat equation. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the recent development regarding the production of natural gas from subsea gas hydrate reservoirs. It aims at giving a broad insight into natural gas hydrates and covering relevant aspects of the exploitation process. It is focused on the thermodynamic principles and technological approaches for the exploitation. The effects occurring during natural gas production within hydrate filled sediment layers are identified and discussed by means of numerical simulation results. The behaviour of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is described and compared for different strategies. The simulations are complemented by calculations for different safety relevant problems.

  19. Exploiting Polyhedral Symmetries in Social Choice

    CERN Document Server

    Schürmann, Achill

    2011-01-01

    A large amount of literature in social choice theory deals with quantifying the probability of certain election outcomes. One way of computing the probability of a specific voting situation under the impartial anonymous culture is via counting integral points in polyhedra. Here, Ehrhart theory can help, but unfortunately the dimension and complexity of the involved polyhedra grows rapidly with the number of candidates. However, if we exploit available polyhedral symmetries, some computations become possible that previously were infeasible. We show this in three well known examples: Condorcet's paradox, Condorcet efficiency of plurality voting and in Plurality voting vs Plurality Runoff.

  20. Geothermal resources: exploration and exploitation. A bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    This comprehensive bibliography contains 5476 citations of foreign and domestic research reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books concerned with the exploration and exploitation of geothermal resources. The coverage dates back as far as useful references could be obtained and extends through June 1976. References are arranged in broad subject categories and are made up of complete bibliographic citations. These are followed by a listing of subject descriptors used to describe the subject content of each reference. Four indexes are included: Corporate, Personal Author, Subject, and Report Number. Also included is a list of journals from which articles were selected. (LBS)

  1. Dissecting and Exploiting Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Tao SHEN; Xiu-Lan CHEN; Cai-Yun SUN; Yu-Zhong ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    A large number of therapeutically useful cyclic and linear peptides of bacteria or fungal origin are synthesized via a template-directed, nucleic-acid-independent nonribosomal mechanism. This process is carried out by mega-enzymes called nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). NRPSs contain repeated coordinated groups of active sites called modules, and each module is composed of several domains with different catalytic activities. The familiarity to these domains lays base for the future genetic engineering of NRPSs to generate entirely "unnature" Products. The details about NRPSs domain structures and the exploitation of NRPSs are described in this review.

  2. Exploiting citation contexts for physics retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabrowska, Anna; Larsen, Birger

    2015-01-01

    The text surrounding citations within scientific papers may contain terms that usefully describe cited documents and can benefit retrieval. We present a preliminary study that investigates appending ci- tation contexts from citing documents to cited documents in the iSearch test collection. We...... examine the effect on information retrieval perfor- mance of a range of citation context sizes and their variable weighting. We find that relatively short citation contexts with moderate weights can improve retrieval performance, and demonstrate the feasibility of identi- fying citation contexts...... in a large collection of physics papers, paving the way for future research that exploits citation contexts for retrieval....

  3. Liposomal cancer therapy: exploiting tumor characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field: More than 10 million people worldwide are diagnosed with cancer each year, and the development of effective cancer treatments is consequently of great significance. Cancer therapy is unfortunately hampered by severe dose-limiting side effects that reduce the efficacy...... an overview of current strategies for improving the different stages of liposomal cancer therapy, which involve transporting drug-loaded liposomes through the bloodstream, increasing tumor accumulation, and improving drug release and cancer cell uptake after accumulation at the tumor target site. What...... of new liposomal drug delivery systems that better exploit tumor characteristic features is likely to result in more efficacious cancer treatments....

  4. Exploiting Semiconductor Properties for Hardware Trojans

    CERN Document Server

    Shiyanovskii, Y; Papachristou, C; Weyer, D; Clay, W

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible introduction of hidden reliability defects during CMOS foundry fabrication processes that may lead to accelerated wearout of the devices. These hidden defects or hardware Trojans can be created by deviation from foundry design rules and processing parameters. The Trojans are produced by exploiting time-based wearing mechanisms (HCI, NBTI, TDDB and EM) and/or condition-based triggers (ESD, Latchup and Softerror). This class of latent damage is difficult to test due to its gradual degradation nature. The paper describes life-time expectancy results for various Trojan induced scenarios. Semiconductor properties, processing and design parameters critical for device reliability and Trojan creation are discussed.

  5. Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Rickettsia‚ Ehrlichia y Anaplasma en Fauna Silvestre ex situ e in situ de algunas Regiones de Colombia -resumen-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Monsalve-Buriticá

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades causadas por bacterias del orden de los Rickettsiales son trasmitidas por ectoparásitos originados en vida silvestre‚ sin embargo‚ en Colombia no existe una línea base del conocimiento en este sentido. Estos microorganismos intracelulares son causantes de enfermedades transmisibles en pacientes humanos; convirtiéndolas en zoonosis de tipo emergente. Este estudio ha permitido determinar la presencia de microorganismos del orden de los Rickettsiales (Ehrlichia spp.‚ Anaplasma spp.‚ y Rickettsia spp. en ejemplares silvestres de centros de conservación ex situ (Zoológicos‚ CAV y CAVR y en algunas regiones en condiciones in situ del país. De igual manera se identifica la infección de estos microorganismos en ectoparásitos vectores relacionados. Por medio de la técnica PCRrt‚ se detectó la presencia de Rickettsia spp.‚ Anaplasma spp.‚ y Ehrlichia spp.‚ en suero obtenido de mamíferos‚ y garrapatas colectadas de reptiles y mamíferos del Centro de Atención y Valoración de Fauna silvestre de la Corporación Autónoma Regional de los Valles del Sinú y San Jorge CAV-CVS en Montería (Córdoba‚ en osos hormigueros (Myrmecophaga tridactyla en Pore (Casanare‚ y en garrapatas obtenidas en ejemplares de titi gris (Saguinus leucopus y su hábitat en la vereda La Parroquia en Mariquita (Tolima. En Montería‚ los resultados obtenidos en mamíferos demostraron la ausencia de Rickettsia spp. en 72 muestras de suero‚ sin embargo se detectó un pool de garrapatas de la especie Amblyomma ovale positivo a este microorganismo‚ siendo el primer reporte en Colombia de ectoparásitos de Puma concolor positivos a Rickettsia spp.‚ mientras que en reptiles se detectaron 18 pools de garrapatas positivos a Rickettsia spp (90 %. En las garrapatas colectadas de nueve osos palmeros (Myrmecophaga tridactyla de vida libre se detectaron 12 pool de garrapatas positivos a este microorganismo (17‚6 %‚ y en ejemplares de

  6. Exploiting Reference Images in Exposing Geometrical Distortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimba Whidiana Ciptasari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, image alteration in the mainstream mediahas become common. The degree of manipulation isfacilitated by image editing software. In the pasttwo decades the number indicating manipulation ofimages rapidly grows. Hence, there are many outstanding images which have no provenance informationor certainty of authenticity. Therefore, constructing a scientific and automatic way for evaluating imageauthenticity is an important task, which is the aimof this paper. In spite of having outstandingperformance, all the image forensics schemes developed so far have not provided verifiable informationabout source of tampering. This paper aims to propose a different kind of scheme, by exploiting a group ofsimilar images, to verify the source of tampering.First, we define our definition with regard to tamperedimage. The distinctive features are obtained by exploiting Scale- Invariant Feature Transform (SIFTtechnique. We then proposed clustering technique toidentify the tampered region based on distinctivekeypoints. In contrast to k-means algorithm, our technique does not require the initialization of k value. Theexperimental results over and beyond the dataset indicate the efficacy of our proposed scheme.

  7. ROUNDTABLE - SESSION 2 EXPLOITATION, CONSERVATION AND LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDSMAN L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between socioeconomics and conservation and the role of legislation in conservation work was discussed in the group with participants from nine European countries. Interest and knowledge among the general public, stakeholders and managers is the key to successful conservation of native crayfish species. Exploitation and conservation do not necessarily exclude each other. A controlled fishery, where it can be sustained, may be an essential tool for conservation by increasing the general awareness and involving more people in the task of protecting the native crayfish species. This strategy is mainly possible for the noble crayfish in the northern part of its distribution, where strong traditions connected to crayfish also exist. A balance between utilisation and overexploitation has to be found and local guidelines for sustainable exploitation produced. Media, the Internet and educational material aimed at schools and stakeholders are excellent ways of reaching a wide audience with information. Universal objectives, rules and regulations at the European level are desirable and the noble crayfish and the stone crayfish should be included in Annex II of the Habitat Directive. Based on this framework detailed regulations are best worked out at the national level, considering the specific crayfish situation in the country. Information about the legislation, the purpose of the legislation and the consequences when not obeying it should be distributed. Stricter regulation of the trade with live alien crayfish is vital because of the associated risk of introducing new diseases and species.

  8. PROBA-V Mission Exploitation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Goor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As an extension of the PROBA-Vegetation (PROBA-V user segment, the European Space Agency (ESA, de Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO, and partners TRASYS and Spacebel developed an operational Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP to drastically improve the exploitation of the PROBA-V Earth Observation (EO data archive, the archive from the historical SPOT-VEGETATION mission, and derived products by researchers, service providers, and thematic users. The analysis of the time series of data (petabyte range is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of the complete archive, including near real-time data. The platform consists of a private cloud environment, a Hadoop-based processing environment and a data manager. Several applications are released to the users, e.g., a full resolution viewing service, a time series viewer, pre-defined on-demand processing chains, and virtual machines with powerful tools and access to the data. After an initial release in January 2016 a research platform was deployed gradually, allowing users to design, debug, and test applications on the platform. From the PROBA-V MEP, access to, e.g., Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 data will be addressed as well.

  9. Ultrasonic Flaw Imaging via Multipath Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin D. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider ultrasonic imaging for the visualization of flaws in a material. Ultrasonic imaging is a powerful nondestructive testing (NDT tool which assesses material conditions via the detection, localization, and classification of flaws inside a structure. We utilize reflections of ultrasonic signals which occur when encountering different media and interior boundaries. These reflections can be cast as direct paths to the target corresponding to the virtual sensors appearing on the top and bottom side of the target. Some of these virtual sensors constitute a virtual aperture, whereas in others, the aperture changes with the transmitter position. Exploitations of multipath extended virtual array apertures provide enhanced imaging capability beyond the limitation of traditional multisensor approaches. The waveforms observed at the physical as well as the virtual sensors yield additional measurements corresponding to different aspect angles, thus allowing proper multiview imaging of flaws. We derive the wideband point spread functions for dominant multipaths and show that fusion of physical and virtual sensor data improves the flaw perimeter detection and localization performance. The effectiveness of the proposed multipath exploitation approach is demonstrated using real data.

  10. Large size space construction for space exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Space exploitation is impossible without large space structures. We need to make sufficient large volume of pressurized protecting frames for crew, passengers, space processing equipment, & etc. We have to be unlimited in space. Now the size and mass of space constructions are limited by possibility of a launch vehicle. It limits our future in exploitation of space by humans and in development of space industry. Large-size space construction can be made with using of the curing technology of the fibers-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied directly in free space. For curing the fabric impregnated with a liquid matrix (prepreg) is prepared in terrestrial conditions and shipped in a container to orbit. In due time the prepreg is unfolded by inflating. After polymerization reaction, the durable construction can be fitted out with air, apparatus and life support systems. Our experimental studies of the curing processes in the simulated free space environment showed that the curing of composite in free space is possible. The large-size space construction can be developed. A project of space station, Moon base, Mars base, mining station, interplanet space ship, telecommunication station, space observatory, space factory, antenna dish, radiation shield, solar sail is proposed and overviewed. The study was supported by Humboldt Foundation, ESA (contract 17083/03/NL/SFe), NASA program of the stratospheric balloons and RFBR grants (05-08-18277, 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011).

  11. Eficácia do dipropionato de imidocarb, da enrofloxacina e do cloridrato de oxitetraciclina no tratamento de bovinos naturalmente infectados por Anaplasma marginale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Alberton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available O agente de maior importância, em relação à anaplasmose bovina, é o Anaplasma marginale. Os principais sinais clínicos dessa enfermidade são anemia hemolítica, icterícia, dispneia, taquicardia, febre, fadiga, lacrimejamento, sialorreia, micção frequente, anorexia, perda de peso, aborto e morte. A terapia antimicrobiana é o principal protocolo terapêutico. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia do dipropionato de imidocarb, da enrofloxacina e do cloridrato de oxitetraciclina no tratamento de bovinos leiteiros naturalmente infectados por Anaplasma marginale. Para isso, foram avaliados 48 zebuínos mestiços que apresentavam os sinais clínicos sugestivos da doença. Os animais foram submetidos à coleta de sangue para a realização de hemograma e à extração de DNA para a confirmação da presença de A. marginale, por meio da reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos experimentais, para realização dos protocolos terapêuticos, utilizando-se dipropionato de imidocarb, oxitetraciclina e enrofloxacina. Trinta e seis animais (75% apresentaram reação positiva ao PCR. Os animais positivos não apresentaram diferenças significativas quanto ao hemograma e ao leucograma quando comparados com os negativos, no entanto os níveis de proteínas séricas foram inferiores nos animais positivos (P<0,05. Os três protocolos terapêuticos foram capazes de reduzir a infecção ao longo do tratamento (P<0,01, porém, após cinco dias de tratamento, a enrofloxacina apresentou maior efetividade em relação aos demais (P<0,01. Após o final do tratamento, nenhum protocolo foi capaz de eliminar totalmente a infecção pelo A. marginale em bovinos naturalmente infectados e manejados a campo.

  12. Real time polymerase chain reaction to diagnose Anaplasma marginale in cattle and deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus leucogaster of the Brazilian Pantanal Reação da polimerase em cadeia tempo real para diagnóstico de Anaplasma marginale em bovino e veado campeiro do Pantanal brasileiro Ozotoceros bezoarticus leucogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Picoloto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Epizootiological study of Anaplasma marginale in regions that contain various reservoir hosts, co-existence of rickettsia pathogens, and common vectors is a complicated task. To achieve diagnosis of this rickettsia in cattle and campeiro deer of Brazilian Pantanal, a comparison was made between a real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR with intercalating Sybr Green fluorochrome and primers based on msp5 gene of A. marginale; a conventional PCR (C-PCR; and parasitological examination using thin blood smear stained with Giemsa-MayGrunwald. Both PCRs showed good performance in the diagnosis of A. marginale in cattle, and were superior to the parasitological exam. The RT-PCR detected seven positive campeiro deer (16.3%. This rate was significantly higher compared to C-PCR, which identified one animal as positive (2.3%, and also compared to parasitological diagnosis, which did not find any positive animals. The dissociation temperature average of positive reactions in cattle (81.72 ºC ± 0.20 was identical to dissociation temperature found in the cervids (81.72 ºC ± 0.12, suggesting that both animal species were infected with A. marginale. We concluded that RT-PCR can be used for A. marginale diagnosis and in epizootiological studies of cattle and cervids; in spite of the small number of campeiro deer samples, the results indicated that this wildlife species has importance in the Anaplasma epizootiology in the Brazilian Pantanal.O estudo epizootiológico de Anaplasma marginale em regiões que existem vários reservatórios, co-existência de espécies de riquétsias patógenas e vetores comuns é uma tarefa complicada. Com o objetivo de obter o diagnóstico dessa riquétsia em bovinos e veado campeiro do Pantanal brasileiro foi avaliada uma reação da polimerase em cadeia em tempo real (PCR-TR com o fluoróforo intercalante de fita dupla de DNA Sybr Green e iniciadores baseados na seqüência do gene msp5 de A. marginale comparando-a a uma

  13. Total exploitation of an ornamental granite quarry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taboada, J.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a methodology to estimate the recovery percentage for each of the products which can be obtained from the exploitation of an ornamental granite quarry: block, semiblock, masonry-transverse stone, and the smaller materials that can be used to obtain construction aggregates. This methodology ensures that quarry exploitation is exhaustive, thereby minimising the production of spoils and the consequent negative impact on the environment. The analysis is based on a detailed and exhaustive compilation of discontinuity data from the research fronts, which are then interpreted statistically and projected over the three weakness planes that are a particular feature of ornamental granite deposits. Using this information, and bearing in mind the minimum commercially viable sizes for each kind of granite, the corresponding recovery rates are calculated for each material in each plane. The results are then integrated using spatial techniques, and the result is an evaluation of quarry contents with a view to total exploitation. This methodology was applied to a quarry in the opening phase in order to carry out an a priori assessment of the economic feasibility of the quarry.

    En este trabajo se propone una metodología para estimar el porcentaje de recuperación de cada uno de los productos que se pueden obtener en la explotación de una cantera de granito ornamental: bloque, semibloque, manpostería y per piaños, y material restante destinado a la obtención de áridos. De esta manera se logra un aprovechamiento integral de la cantera, evitándose la generación de estériles y el subsiguiente impacto ambiental producido por éstos. La metodología de análisis se basa en la recopilación detallada y exhaustiva de datos de discontinuidades en los frentes de investigación, que se interpretan estadísticamente y se proyectan sobre los tres planos de debilidad propios del granito ornamental. Con esta información, y las

  14. Exploiting data redundancy in computational optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Peter R T

    2015-11-30

    We present an algorithm which exploits data redundancy to make computational, coherent, optical imaging more computationally efficient. This algorithm specifically addresses the computation of how light scattered by a sample is collected and coherently detected. It is of greatest benefit in the simulation of broadband optical systems employing coherent detection, such as optical coherence tomography. Although also amenable to time-harmonic data, the algorithm is designed to be embedded within time-domain electromagnetic scattering simulators such as the psuedo-spectral and finite-difference time domain methods. We derive the algorithm in detail as well as criteria which ensure accurate execution of the algorithm. We present simulations that verify the developed algorithm and demonstrate its utility. We expect this algorithm to be important to future developments in computational imaging.

  15. Social network analysis realization and exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Jack H.; Nolan, James J.

    2015-05-01

    Intelligence analysts demand rapid information fusion capabilities to develop and maintain accurate situational awareness and understanding of dynamic enemy threats in asymmetric military operations. The ability to extract meaning in relationships between people, objects, and locations from a variety of unstructured text datasets is critical to proactive decision making. Additionally, the ability to automatically cluster text documents about entities and discover connections between those documents allows the analyst to navigate an extremely large collection of documents. Analysts also demand a temporal understanding of the extracted relationships between entities and connections between documents. We describe approaches to automatically realize the social networks via concept extraction, relationship extraction, and document connection algorithms; we also describe approaches to exploit the network by visualizing the results to the analyst such that changes over time are evident.

  16. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION IN ARCTIC CIRCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  17. Exploiting Genetic Interference for Antiviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Elizabeth J; Kirkegaard, Karla A; Weinberger, Leor S

    2016-05-01

    Rapidly evolving viruses are a major threat to human health. Such viruses are often highly pathogenic (e.g., influenza virus, HIV, Ebola virus) and routinely circumvent therapeutic intervention through mutational escape. Error-prone genome replication generates heterogeneous viral populations that rapidly adapt to new selection pressures, leading to resistance that emerges with treatment. However, population heterogeneity bears a cost: when multiple viral variants replicate within a cell, they can potentially interfere with each other, lowering viral fitness. This genetic interference can be exploited for antiviral strategies, either by taking advantage of a virus's inherent genetic diversity or through generating de novo interference by engineering a competing genome. Here, we discuss two such antiviral strategies, dominant drug targeting and therapeutic interfering particles. Both strategies harness the power of genetic interference to surmount two particularly vexing obstacles-the evolution of drug resistance and targeting therapy to high-risk populations-both of which impede treatment in resource-poor settings.

  18. Exploiting novel molecular targets in gastrointestinal cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Novel molecular targets are being discovered as we learn more about the aberrant processes underlying various cancers. Efforts to translate this knowledge are starting to impact on the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancers. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway and angiogenesis have been targeted successfully in colorectal cancer with cetuximab, panitunumab and bevacizumab. Similarly, EGFR-targeting with erlotinib yielded significant survival benefit in pancreatic cancer when combined with gemcitabine. The multi-targeting approach with sorafenib has made it the first agent to achieve significant survival benefit in hepatocellular carcinoma. Efforts to exploit the dysregulated Akt/mTOR pathway in GI cancer therapy are ongoing. These molecular targets can be disrupted by various approaches, including the use of monoclonal antibody to intercept extracellular ligands and disrupt receptor-ligand binding, and small molecule inhibitors that interrupt the activation of intracellular kinases.

  19. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Hung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols.

  20. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Li-Ling; Luo, Yung-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN) is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols.

  1. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Li-Ling; Luo, Yung-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN) is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols. PMID:27005624

  2. Exploitation of host cells by Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark P; Galyov, Edouard E

    2004-04-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved mechanisms to enter and exit eukaryotic cells using the power of actin polymerisation and to subvert the activity of cellular enzymes and signal transduction pathways. The proteins deployed by bacteria to subvert cellular processes often mimic eukaryotic proteins in their structure or function. Studies on the exploitation of host cells by the facultative intracellular pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei are providing novel insights into the pathogenesis of melioidosis, a serious invasive disease of animals and humans that is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas. B. pseudomallei can invade epithelial cells, survive and proliferate inside phagocytes, escape from endocytic vesicles, form actin-based membrane protrusions and induce host cell fusion. Here we review current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes.

  3. Explosives Detection: Exploitation of the Physical Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, David

    2010-10-01

    Explosives based terrorism is an ongoing threat that is evolving with respect to implementation, configuration and materials used. There are a variety of devices designed to detect explosive devices, however, each technology has limitations and operational constraints. A full understanding of the signatures available for detection coupled with the array of detection choices can be used to develop a conceptual model of an explosives screening operation. Physics based sensors provide a robust approach to explosives detection, typically through the identification of anomalies, and are currently used for screening in airports around the world. The next generation of detectors for explosives detection will need to be more sensitive and selective, as well as integrate seamlessly with devices focused on chemical signatures. An appreciation for the details of the physical signature exploitation in cluttered environments with time, space, and privacy constraints is necessary for effective explosives screening of people, luggage, cargo, and vehicles.

  4. Mineral exploitation and development in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    for the Greenlandic society. This point to a need for plans and the organisation of mineral exploitations that operate based on coupling local settlements and resources with mining and other forms of activities. This demands new perspectives on the content of social impact assessments as well as new criteria......The key question of the paper is how to plan and organize mining projects in Greenland in ways that involve local workforce and develop business as well as settlement potentials. The paper outlines a concept of flexible settlements with the aim to build a socio-economic sustainable future...... extraction based on a workforce that is working temporarily at the mining sites poses a threat to employment in Greenland. At the same time, attracting mineral resource based industries is key to overcome the economic challenges. Mining companies envisage potentials for a fast extraction of the resources...

  5. Redesigning the exploitation of wheat genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, C Friedrich H; Reif, Jochen C

    2014-10-01

    More than half a million wheat genetic resources are resting in gene banks worldwide. Unlocking their hidden favorable genetic diversity for breeding is pivotal for enhancing grain yield potential, and averting future food shortages. Here, we propose exploiting recent advances in hybrid wheat technology to uncover the masked breeding values of wheat genetic resources. The gathered phenotypic information will enable a targeted choice of accessions with high value for pre-breeding among this plethora of genetic resources. We intend to provoke a paradigm shift in pre-breeding strategies for grain yield, moving away from allele mining toward genome-wide selection to bridge the yield gap between genetic resources and elite breeding pools. PMID:25052155

  6. Iron and Zinc Exploitation during Bacterial Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Terwilliger, Austen; Maresso, Anthony W.

    2016-01-01

    Ancient bacteria originated from metal-rich environments. Billions of years of evolution directed these tiny single cell creatures to exploit the versatile properties of metals in catalyzing chemical reactions and biological responses. The result is an entire metallome of proteins that use metal co-factors to facilitate key cellular process that range from the production of energy to the replication of DNA. Two key metals in this regard are iron and zinc, both abundant on Earth but not readily accessible in a human host. Instead, pathogenic bacteria must employ clever ways to acquire these metals. In this review we describe the many elegant ways these bacteria mine, regulate, and craft the use of two key metals (iron and zinc) to build a virulence arsenal that challenges even the most sophisticated immune response. PMID:26497057

  7. Exploiting epigenetic vulnerabilities for cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Barbara; Kubicek, Stefan; Nijman, Sebastian M B

    2014-03-01

    Epigenetic deregulation is a hallmark of cancer, and there has been increasing interest in therapeutics that target chromatin-modifying enzymes and other epigenetic regulators. The rationale for applying epigenetic drugs to treat cancer is twofold. First, epigenetic changes are reversible, and drugs could therefore be used to restore the normal (healthy) epigenetic landscape. However, it is unclear whether drugs can faithfully restore the precancerous epigenetic state. Second, chromatin regulators are often mutated in cancer, making them attractive drug targets. However, in most instances it is unknown whether cancer cells are addicted to these mutated chromatin proteins, or whether their mutation merely results in epigenetic instability conducive to the selection of secondary aberrations. An alternative incentive for targeting chromatin regulators is the exploitation of cancer-specific vulnerabilities, including synthetic lethality, caused by epigenetic deregulation. We review evidence for the hypothesis that mechanisms other than oncogene addiction are a basis for the application of epigenetic drugs, and propose future research directions.

  8. Redressing China's Strategy of Water Resource Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Lishan; Lu, Xi Xi

    2013-03-01

    China, with the confrontation of water-related problems as an element of its long history, has been investing heavily in water engineering projects over the past few decades based on the assumption that these projects can solve its water problems. However, the anticipated benefits did not really occur, or at least not as large as expected. Instead, the results involved additional frustrations, such as biodiversity losses and human-induced disasters (i.e., landslides and earthquakes). Given its inherent shortcomings, the present engineering-dominated strategy for the management of water resources cannot help solve China's water problems and achieve its goal of low-carbon transformation. Therefore, the present strategy for water resources exploitation needs to be reevaluated and redressed. A policy change to achieve better management of Chinese rivers is urgently needed.

  9. High-throughput screening of tick-borne pathogens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelet, Lorraine; Delannoy, Sabine; Devillers, Elodie;

    2014-01-01

    was conducted on 7050 Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected from France, Denmark, and the Netherlands using a powerful new high-throughput approach. This advanced methodology permitted the simultaneous detection of 25 bacterial, and 12 parasitic species (including; Borrelia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia......, Bartonella, Candidatus Neoehrlichia, Coxiella, Francisella, Babesia, and Theileria genus) across 94 samples. We successfully determined the prevalence of expected (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Babesia divergens, Babesia...

  10. Characterization of two strains of Anaplasma marginale isolated from cattle in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, after propagation in tick cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baêta, Bruna A; Ribeiro, Carla C D U; Teixeira, Rafaella C; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Passos, Lygia M F; Zweygarth, Erich; Fonseca, Adivaldo H

    2015-03-01

    IDE8 tick cell cultures have been used for the isolation and propagation of several isolates of Anaplasma marginale. The genetic heterogeneity of A. marginale strains in cattle is diverse in endemic regions worldwide and the analyses of msp1α (major surface protein 1 alpha) gene sequences have allowed the identification of different strains. This study reports the isolation and propagation of two new isolates of A. marginale in IDE8 cells from blood of two cattle and their morphological and molecular characterization using light microscopy and the msp1α gene, respectively. Small colonies were observed in cytospin smears of each of the isolates 60 days after culture initiation. Based on msp1α sequence variation, the two isolates were found to be separate strains and were named AmRio1 and AmRio2. Analysis of msp1α microsatellite in both strains resulted in a single genotype, genotype E. The amino acid sequence of one MSP1α tandem repeat from the strain AmRio1 resulted in a new sequence (named 162) with one amino acid change. The results of these phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that A. marginale strains from Brazil and Argentina formed two large clusters of which one was less divergent that the other.

  11. Frequency of Anaplasma marginale (Theiler 1910 and Babesia sp in mestizo bovine Zebu, in the Municipality of Ixiamas county Abel Iturralde Department of The La Paz, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercado Alvaro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work one carries out in the Municipality of Ixiamas County Abel Iturralde of the department of Peace-Bolivia, between May and August of 2010. The objective was to determine the presence of Anaplama sp and Babesia sp, through sanguine smear, they took 160 samples of blood, 40 bovine of the four areas they have been evaluated. The results indicate the presence of Anaplasma sp 6,90%, 6,20% in females and 9,70% in males, this represents 2,50% for the area TO, 5,00% area B, 17,50% area C and 2,50% area D. According to the category 12,50% in calves, 0,00% in torillos, 4,80% in bulls, 6,20% in cows and 14,30% in heifers. The presence of Babesia sp 3,13%, with relationship to the sex 3,10% in females and 3,22% in males, being observed 2,50% in the area TO, 5,00% in the area B, 5,00% in the area C and 0,00% in the area D, according to the category 0,00% in calves, torillos 4,80% bulls, 2,73% vacates and 7,14% in heifers.

  12. Mission Exploitation Platform PROBA-V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goor, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    VITO and partners developed an end-to-end solution to drastically improve the exploitation of the PROBA-V EO-data archive (http://proba-v.vgt.vito.be/), the past mission SPOT-VEGETATION and derived vegetation parameters by researchers, service providers and end-users. The analysis of time series of data (+1PB) is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of near real-time data. From November 2015 an operational Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP) PROBA-V, as an ESA pathfinder project, will be gradually deployed at the VITO data center with direct access to the complete data archive. Several applications will be released to the users, e.g. - A time series viewer, showing the evolution of PROBA-V bands and derived vegetation parameters for any area of interest. - Full-resolution viewing services for the complete data archive. - On-demand processing chains e.g. for the calculation of N-daily composites. - A Virtual Machine will be provided with access to the data archive and tools to work with this data, e.g. various toolboxes and support for R and Python. After an initial release in January 2016, a research platform will gradually be deployed allowing users to design, debug and test applications on the platform. From the MEP PROBA-V, access to Sentinel-2 and landsat data will be addressed as well, e.g. to support the Cal/Val activities of the users. Users can make use of powerful Web based tools and can self-manage virtual machines to perform their work on the infrastructure at VITO with access to the complete data archive. To realise this, private cloud technology (openStack) is used and a distributed processing environment is built based on Hadoop. The Hadoop ecosystem offers a lot of technologies (Spark, Yarn, Accumulo, etc.) which we integrate with several open-source components. The impact of this MEP on the user community will be high and will completely change the way of working with the data and hence open the large time series to a larger

  13. War, plague and exploitation in DR Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimčevska Antoaneta K.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Late in autumn 2006 one of the headlines in world media was the first democratic elections in DR Congo. They took place after 30 years of Mobutu Sese Seko’s dictatorship and bloody civil wars in the period 1996-2002. These conflicts, which took approximately 4 million human lives, are called "The First African World War". Elections were held but they did not guarantee the end of trouble for the divided and tormented people in the northeast of Congo, the real scene of bloodshed. The area is still turbulent because it abounds in mineral wealth - gold, diamonds and raw materials for nuclear technology. For a whole decade, unscrupulous actors of the African crisis were fighting there, for illegal profits (achievable in the chaos of bloodshed rather than for democracy, defense of tribal interests, security, etc. as they claimed. In the mines of Eastern Congo unprecedented exploitation of people is still going on, especially of children, victims of conflicts, who suffer in great numbers from violence, starvation and diseases. These slaves of the crisis make local "warlords" and their mentors rich. The looting of the mines has stabilized the crisis because it makes possible enormous accumulation of wealth among armed decision-makers - which also includes availability of countless slaves-miners who have lost everything except their bare lives. Eastern Congo is, however, one of world’s three old focuses of plague; wild exploitation of ores in the area of this endemic disease has activated a sleepy focus and added pneumonic plague to the burdens suffered by the population of the rich but ill-fated region. This was to be expected because endemic plague in the gold-bearing evil circumstances impedes safe mining - and this will be the crucial challenge in the future of Congo. This article is an anthropological outline of the area where gold, plague, weapons and incomparable suffering of people merge together just because of cynic greed producing abuse

  14. GOCE Exploitation for Moho Modeling and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampierto, D.

    2011-07-01

    New ESA missions dedicated to the observation of the Earth from space, like the gravity-gradiometry mission GOCE and the radar altimetry mission CRYOSAT 2, foster research, among other subjects, also on inverse gravimetric problems and on the description of the nature and the geographical location of gravimetric signals. In this framework the GEMMA project (GOCE Exploitation for Moho Modeling and Applications), funded by the European Space Agency and Politecnico di Milano, aims at estimating the boundary between Earth's crust and mantle (the so called Mohorovičić discontinuity or Moho) from GOCE data in key regions of the world. In the project a solution based on a simple two layer model in spherical approximation is proposed. This inversion problem based on the linearization of the Newton's gravitational law around an approximate mean Moho surface will be solved by exploiting Wiener-Kolmogorov theory in the frequency domain where the depth of the Moho discontinuity will be treated as a random signal with a zero mean and its own covariance function. The algorithm can be applied in a numerically efficient way by using the Fast Fourier Transform. As for the gravity observations, we will consider grids of the anomalous gravitational potential and its second radial derivative at satellite altitude. In particular this will require first of all to elaborate GOCE data to obtain a local grid of the gravitational potential field and its second radial derivative and after that to separate the gravimetric signal due to the considered discontinuity from the gravitational effects of other geological structures present into the observations. The first problem can be solved by applying the so called space- wise approach to GOCE observations, while the second one can be achieved by considering a priori models and geophysical information by means of an appropriate Bayesan technique. Moreover other data such as ground gravity anomalies or seismic profiles can be combined, in an

  15. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Rickettsiales in Goats and Sheep from Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yan; Yin, Hongmei; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Pan, Weiqing; Yin, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Members from Rickettsiales such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and some spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsiae are important tick-borne pathogens. One hundred goats and sheep from southeastern China were examined for the presence of Anaplasma, E. chaffeensis, and SFG Rickettsiae by PCR. A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis, and Anaplasma centrale were detected in 15, 49, and 16 samples, respectively. The A. phagocytophilum and A. centrale were highly homologous to strains from Japanese sika deer and Japanese cattle, respectively, whereas a diversity of A. bovis sequences were detected. New genetic variants of Anaplasma close to A. centrale have been revealed. No Ehrlichia was detected in this study. The presence of SFG Rickettsiae was determined in 26 samples. The coinfection with more than two pathogens tested in this study was as high as 29%. This study has molecularly characterized the circulation of Anaplasma and Rickettsiae in goats and sheep in southeastern China, which highlights the risk of contracting the pathogens upon tick exposure. PMID:26872274

  16. Synthetic aperture radar imaging exploiting multiple scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we consider an imaging scenario, where a bi-static synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system is used in a multiple scattering environment. We consider a ray-theoretic approximation to the Green function to model a multiple scattering environment. This allows us to incorporate the multiple paths followed by the transmitted signal, thereby providing different views of the object to be imaged. However, the received signal from the multiple paths and additive thermal noise may interfere and produce artifacts when standard backprojection-based reconstruction algorithms are used. We use microlocal analysis in a statistical setting to develop a novel filtered-backprojection type image reconstruction method that not only exploits the multi-paths leading to enhancement of the reconstructed image but also suppresses the artifacts due to interference. We assume a priori knowledge of the second-order statistics of the target and noise to suppress the artifacts due to interference in a mean-square error sense. We present numerical simulations to demonstrate the performance of our image reconstruction method. While the focus of this paper is on radar applications, our image formation method is also applicable to other problems arising in fields such as acoustic, geophysical and medical imaging

  17. Exploiting Virtualization and Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harald Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Benjamin, Doug; De, Kaushik; Gable, Ian; Hendrix, Val; Panitkin, Sergey; Paterson, Michael; De Silva, Asoka; van der Ster, Daniel; Taylor, Ryan; Vitillo, Roberto A.; Walker, Rod

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS Computing Model was designed around the concept of grid computing; since the start of data-taking, this model has proven very successful in the federated operation of more than one hundred Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) sites for offline data distribution, storage, processing and analysis. However, new paradigms in computing, namely virtualization and cloud computing, present improved strategies for managing and provisioning IT resources that could allow ATLAS to more flexibly adapt and scale its storage and processing workloads on varied underlying resources. In particular, ATLAS is developing a “grid-of-clouds” infrastructure in order to utilize WLCG sites that make resources available via a cloud API. This work will present the current status of the Virtualization and Cloud Computing R&D project in ATLAS Distributed Computing. First, strategies for deploying PanDA queues on cloud sites will be discussed, including the introduction of a “cloud factory” for managing cloud VM instances. Next, performance results when running on virtualized/cloud resources at CERN LxCloud, StratusLab, and elsewhere will be presented. Finally, we will present the ATLAS strategies for exploiting cloud-based storage, including remote XROOTD access to input data, management of EC2-based files, and the deployment of cloud-resident LCG storage elements.

  18. Exploiting Virtualization and Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS Computing Model was designed around the concept of grid computing; since the start of data-taking, this model has proven very successful in the federated operation of more than one hundred Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) sites for offline data distribution, storage, processing and analysis. However, new paradigms in computing, namely virtualization and cloud computing, present improved strategies for managing and provisioning IT resources that could allow ATLAS to more flexibly adapt and scale its storage and processing workloads on varied underlying resources. In particular, ATLAS is developing a “grid-of-clouds” infrastructure in order to utilize WLCG sites that make resources available via a cloud API. This work will present the current status of the Virtualization and Cloud Computing R and D project in ATLAS Distributed Computing. First, strategies for deploying PanDA queues on cloud sites will be discussed, including the introduction of a “cloud factory” for managing cloud VM instances. Next, performance results when running on virtualized/cloud resources at CERN LxCloud, StratusLab, and elsewhere will be presented. Finally, we will present the ATLAS strategies for exploiting cloud-based storage, including remote XROOTD access to input data, management of EC2-based files, and the deployment of cloud-resident LCG storage elements.

  19. Fostering the Exploitation of Open Educational Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Richter

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The central concept behind Open Educational Resources (OER is opening up the access to educational resources for stakeholders who are not the usual target user group. This concept must be perceived as innovative because it describes a general economic and social paradigm shift: Education, which formerly was limited to a specific group of learners, now, is promoted as a public good. However, despite very good intentions, internationally agreed quality standards, and the availability of the required technological infrastructure, the critical threshold is not yet met. Due to several reasons, the usefulness of OER is often limited to the originally targeted context. Questions arise if the existing quality standards for Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL actually meet the specific requirements within the OER value chain, if the existing quality standards are applicable to OER in a meaningful way, and under which conditions related standards generally could support the exploitation of OER.We analyze quality standards for TEL and contrast the life cycle model of commercial learning resources against the life cycle model of OER. We investigate special demands on quality from the context of OER and, taking the former results into account, derive emergent quality criteria for OER. The paper concludes with recommendations for the design of OER and a future standard development.

  20. Exploiting range imagery: techniques and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Walter

    2009-07-01

    Practically no applications exist for which automatic processing of 2D intensity imagery can equal human visual perception. This is not the case for range imagery. The paper gives examples of 3D laser radar applications, for which automatic data processing can exceed human visual cognition capabilities and describes basic processing techniques for attaining these results. The examples are drawn from the fields of helicopter obstacle avoidance, object detection in surveillance applications, object recognition at high range, multi-object-tracking, and object re-identification in range image sequences. Processing times and recognition performances are summarized. The techniques used exploit the bijective continuity of the imaging process as well as its independence of object reflectivity, emissivity and illumination. This allows precise formulations of the probability distributions involved in figure-ground segmentation, feature-based object classification and model based object recognition. The probabilistic approach guarantees optimal solutions for single images and enables Bayesian learning in range image sequences. Finally, due to recent results in 3D-surface completion, no prior model libraries are required for recognizing and re-identifying objects of quite general object categories, opening the way to unsupervised learning and fully autonomous cognitive systems.

  1. Exploiting Microbeams for Membrane Protein Structure Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Anna J; Axford, Danny; Paterson, Neil G; Owen, Robin L

    2016-01-01

    A reproducible, and sample independent means of predictably obtaining large, well-ordered crystals has proven elusive in macromolecular crystallography. In the structure determination pipeline, crystallisation often proves to be a rate-limiting step, and the process of obtaining even small or badly ordered crystals can prove time-consuming and laborious. This is particularly true in the field of membrane protein crystallography and this is reflected in the limited number of unique membrane protein structures deposited in the protein data bank (less than 650 by June 2016 - http://blanco.biomol.uci.edu/mpstruc ). Over recent years the requirement for, and time and cost associated with obtaining, large crystals has been partially alleviated through the development of beamline instrumentation allowing data collection, and structure solution, from ever-smaller crystals. Advances in several areas have led to a step change in what might be considered achievable during a synchrotron trip over the last decade. This chapter will briefly review the current status of the field, the tools available to ease data collection and processing, and give some examples of exploitation of these for membrane protein microfocus macromolecular crystallography. PMID:27553238

  2. Understanding Online Child Sexual Exploitation Offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Thanh; Murphy, Lisa; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2016-08-01

    In the past three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the worldwide availability of Internet access and devices that are able to access online materials. This literature review investigated whether increased accessibility of Internet child pornography (CP) increases the risk of in-person child sexual exploitation. The current review found little to no evidence that availability of the Internet has increased the worldwide incidence or prevalence of in-person child sexual abuse. In fact, during the time period in which the Internet has flourished, international crime statistics have shown a steady decrease of in-person child sexual abuse. The only exception to this trend is an increase in Internet child pornography or luring offenses (e.g., Stats Can, 2014), which involves child abuse by definition. This article reviews the impact of the Internet on child sexual abuse. It also reviews the characteristics of online CP offenders. Treatment of these offenders and prevention of such offenses is also discussed. PMID:27325170

  3. Exploiting Genetic Interference for Antiviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Elizabeth J; Kirkegaard, Karla A; Weinberger, Leor S

    2016-05-01

    Rapidly evolving viruses are a major threat to human health. Such viruses are often highly pathogenic (e.g., influenza virus, HIV, Ebola virus) and routinely circumvent therapeutic intervention through mutational escape. Error-prone genome replication generates heterogeneous viral populations that rapidly adapt to new selection pressures, leading to resistance that emerges with treatment. However, population heterogeneity bears a cost: when multiple viral variants replicate within a cell, they can potentially interfere with each other, lowering viral fitness. This genetic interference can be exploited for antiviral strategies, either by taking advantage of a virus's inherent genetic diversity or through generating de novo interference by engineering a competing genome. Here, we discuss two such antiviral strategies, dominant drug targeting and therapeutic interfering particles. Both strategies harness the power of genetic interference to surmount two particularly vexing obstacles-the evolution of drug resistance and targeting therapy to high-risk populations-both of which impede treatment in resource-poor settings. PMID:27149616

  4. Exploiting tumor epigenetics to improve oncolytic virotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Forbes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses (OVs comprise a versatile and multi-mechanistic therapeutic platform in the growing arsenal of anticancer biologics. These replicating therapeutics find favorable conditions in the tumor niche, characterized among others by increased metabolism, reduced anti-tumor/antiviral immunity, and disorganized vasculature. Through a self-amplification that is dependent on multiple cancer-specific defects, these agents exhibit remarkable tumor selectivity. With several OVs completing or entering Phase III clinical evaluation, their therapeutic potential as well as the challenges ahead are increasingly clear. One key hurdle is tumor heterogeneity, which results in variations in the ability of tumors to support productive infection by OVs and to induce adaptive anti-tumor immunity. To this end, mounting evidence suggests tumor epigenetics may play a key role. This review will focus on the epigenetic landscape of tumors and how it relates to OV infection. Therapeutic strategies aiming to exploit the epigenetic identity of tumors in order to improve OV therapy are also discussed.

  5. Against Permitted Exploitation in Developing World Research Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, Danielle M

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines the moral force of exploitation in developing world research agreements. Taking for granted that some clinical research which is conducted in the developing world but funded by developed world sponsors is exploitative, it asks whether a third party would be morally justified in enforcing limits on research agreements in order to ensure more fair and less exploitative outcomes. This question is particularly relevant when such exploitative transactions are entered into voluntarily by all relevant parties, and both research sponsors and host communities benefit from the resulting agreements. I show that defenders of the claim that exploitation ought to be permitted rely on a mischaracterization of certain forms of interference as unjustly paternalistic and two dubious empirical assumptions about the results of regulation. The view I put forward is that by evaluating a system of constraints on international research agreements, rather than individual transaction-level interference, we can better assess the alternatives to permitting exploitative research agreements.

  6. Exploiting spatial descriptions in visual scene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Leon; Johannsen, Katrin; Swadzba, Agnes; De Ruiter, Jan P; Wachsmuth, Sven

    2012-08-01

    The reliable automatic visual recognition of indoor scenes with complex object constellations using only sensor data is a nontrivial problem. In order to improve the construction of an accurate semantic 3D model of an indoor scene, we exploit human-produced verbal descriptions of the relative location of pairs of objects. This requires the ability to deal with different spatial reference frames (RF) that humans use interchangeably. In German, both the intrinsic and relative RF are used frequently, which often leads to ambiguities in referential communication. We assume that there are certain regularities that help in specific contexts. In a first experiment, we investigated how speakers of German describe spatial relationships between different pieces of furniture. This gave us important information about the distribution of the RFs used for furniture-predicate combinations, and by implication also about the preferred spatial predicate. The results of this experiment are compiled into a computational model that extracts partial orderings of spatial arrangements between furniture items from verbal descriptions. In the implemented system, the visual scene is initially scanned by a 3D camera system. From the 3D point cloud, we extract point clusters that suggest the presence of certain furniture objects. We then integrate the partial orderings extracted from the verbal utterances incrementally and cumulatively with the estimated probabilities about the identity and location of objects in the scene, and also estimate the probable orientation of the objects. This allows the system to significantly improve both the accuracy and richness of its visual scene representation. PMID:22806654

  7. Exploiting Untapped Information Resources in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Fox, P. A.; Kempler, S.; Maskey, M.

    2015-12-01

    One of the continuing challenges in any Earth science investigation is the amount of time and effort required for data preparation before analysis can begin. Current Earth science data and information systems have their own shortcomings. For example, the current data search systems are designed with the assumption that researchers find data primarily by metadata searches on instrument or geophysical keywords, assuming that users have sufficient knowledge of the domain vocabulary to be able to effectively utilize the search catalogs. These systems lack support for new or interdisciplinary researchers who may be unfamiliar with the domain vocabulary or the breadth of relevant data available. There is clearly a need to innovate and evolve current data and information systems in order to improve data discovery and exploration capabilities to substantially reduce the data preparation time and effort. We assert that Earth science metadata assets are dark resources, information resources that organizations collect, process, and store for regular business or operational activities but fail to utilize for other purposes. The challenge for any organization is to recognize, identify and effectively utilize the dark data stores in their institutional repositories to better serve their stakeholders. NASA Earth science metadata catalogs contain dark resources consisting of structured information, free form descriptions of data and pre-generated images. With the addition of emerging semantic technologies, such catalogs can be fully utilized beyond their original design intent of supporting current search functionality. In this presentation, we will describe our approach of exploiting these information resources to provide novel data discovery and exploration pathways to science and education communities

  8. Epitope-based vaccines with the Anaplasma marginale MSP1a functional motif induce a balanced humoral and cellular immune response in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula S Santos

    Full Text Available Bovine anaplasmosis is a hemoparasitic disease that causes considerable economic loss to the dairy and beef industries. Cattle immunized with the Anaplasma marginale MSP1 outer membrane protein complex presents a protective humoral immune response; however, its efficacy is variable. Immunodominant epitopes seem to be a key-limiting factor for the adaptive immunity. We have successfully demonstrated that critical motifs of the MSP1a functional epitope are essential for antibody recognition of infected animal sera, but its protective immunity is yet to be tested. We have evaluated two synthetic vaccine formulations against A. marginale, using epitope-based approach in mice. Mice infection with bovine anaplasmosis was demonstrated by qPCR analysis of erythrocytes after 15-day exposure. A proof-of-concept was obtained in this murine model, in which peptides conjugated to bovine serum albumin were used for immunization in three 15-day intervals by intraperitoneal injections before challenging with live bacteria. Blood samples were analyzed for the presence of specific IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies, as well as for the rickettsemia analysis. A panel containing the cytokines' transcriptional profile for innate and adaptive immune responses was carried out through qPCR. Immunized BALB/c mice challenged with A. marginale presented stable body weight, reduced number of infected erythrocytes, and no mortality; and among control groups mortality rates ranged from 15% to 29%. Additionally, vaccines have significantly induced higher IgG2a than IgG1 response, followed by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This is a successful demonstration of epitope-based vaccines, and protection against anaplasmosis may be associated with elicitation of effector functions of humoral and cellular immune responses in murine model.

  9. Simulation of subsea gas hydrate exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2014-05-01

    The recovery of methane from gas hydrate layers that have been detected in several subsea sediments and permafrost regions around the world is a promising perspective to overcome future shortages in natural gas supply. Being aware that conventional natural gas resources are limited, research is going on to develop technologies for the production of natural gas from such new sources. Thus various research programs have started since the early 1990s in Japan, USA, Canada, India, and Germany to investigate hydrate deposits and develop required technologies. In recent years, intensive research has focussed on the capture and storage of CO2 from combustion processes to reduce climate impact. While different natural or man-made reservoirs like deep aquifers, exhausted oil and gas deposits or other geological formations are considered to store gaseous or liquid CO2, the storage of CO2 as hydrate in former methane hydrate fields is another promising alternative. Due to beneficial stability conditions, methane recovery may be well combined with CO2 storage in the form of hydrates. Regarding technological implementation many problems have to be overcome. Especially mixing, heat and mass transfer in the reservoir are limiting factors causing very long process times. Within the scope of the German research project »SUGAR« different technological approaches for the optimized exploitation of gas hydrate deposits are evaluated and compared by means of dynamic system simulations and analysis. Detailed mathematical models for the most relevant chemical and physical processes are developed. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into simulation programs. Simulations based on geological field data have been carried out. The studies focus on the potential of gas production from turbidites and their fitness for CO2 storage. The effects occurring during gas production and CO2 storage within

  10. Exploiting Laboratory and Heliophysics Plasma Synergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Dahlburg

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in space-based heliospheric observations, laboratory experimentation, and plasma simulation codes are creating an exciting new cross-disciplinary opportunity for understanding fast energy release and transport mechanisms in heliophysics and laboratory plasma dynamics, which had not been previously accessible. This article provides an overview of some new observational, experimental, and computational assets, and discusses current and near-term activities towards exploitation of synergies involving those assets. This overview does not claim to be comprehensive, but instead covers mainly activities closely associated with the authors’ interests and reearch. Heliospheric observations reviewed include the Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO mission, the first instrument to provide remote sensing imagery observations with spatial continuity extending from the Sun to the Earth, and the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS on the Japanese Hinode spacecraft that is measuring spectroscopically physical parameters of the solar atmosphere towards obtaining plasma temperatures, densities, and mass motions. The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO and the upcoming Solar Orbiter with the Heliospheric Imager (SoloHI on-board will also be discussed. Laboratory plasma experiments surveyed include the line-tied magnetic reconnection experiments at University of Wisconsin (relevant to coronal heating magnetic flux tube observations and simulations, and a dynamo facility under construction there; the Space Plasma Simulation Chamber at the Naval Research Laboratory that currently produces plasmas scalable to ionospheric and magnetospheric conditions and in the future also will be suited to study the physics of the solar corona; the Versatile Toroidal Facility at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology that

  11. Nanostructures Exploit Hybrid-Polariton Resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured devices that exploit the hybrid-polariton resonances arising from coupling among photons, phonons, and plasmons are subjects of research directed toward the development of infrared-spectroscopic sensors for measuring extremely small quantities of molecules of interest. The spectroscopic techniques in question are surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA). An important intermediate goal of this research is to increase the sensitivity achievable by these techniques. The basic idea of the approach being followed in this research is to engineer nanostructured devices and thereby engineer their hybrid-polariton resonances to concentrate infrared radiation incident upon their surfaces in such a manner as to increase the absorption of the radiation for SEIRA and measure the frequency shifts of surface vibrational modes. The underlying hybrid-polariton-resonance concept is best described by reference to experimental devices that have been built and tested to demonstrate the concept. The nanostructure of each such device includes a matrix of silicon carbide particles of approximately 1 micron in diameter that are supported on a potassium bromide (KBr) or poly(tetrafluoroethylene) [PTFE] window. These grains are sputter-coated with gold grains of 40-nm size (see figure). From the perspective of classical electrodynamics, in this nanostructure, that includes a particulate or otherwise rough surface, the electric-field portion of an incident electromagnetic field becomes concentrated on the particles when optical resonance conditions are met. Going beyond the perspective of classical electrodynamics, it can be seen that when the resonance frequencies of surface phonons and surface plasmons overlap, the coupling of the resonances gives rise to an enhanced radiation-absorption or -scattering mechanism. The sizes, shapes, and aggregation of the particles determine the frequencies of the resonances. Hence, the task of

  12. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  13. Natural infection of calves by Anaplasma marginale in dairy herds of the Metalúrgica Region, Minas Gerais Infecção natural por Anaplasma marginale em bezerras de fazendas leiteiras da região Metalúrgica de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska S.P. Melo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic of natural infections by Anaplasma marginale in calves was evaluated during a period of one year on two farms located in the Metalúrgica Region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Blood samples were collected weekly for rickettsemia and packed cell volume (PCV determination. The animals born from March to July suffered the infection in October and November, independently of their age, whilst calves born from September to December acquired the infection during the first days of life. These animals presented patent rickettsemia from 30 days of life. During the patent period PCV decreased after one week of infection, ranging from 20 to 23%. It was concluded, that in the region studied, the transmission of A. marginale is influenced by climatic conditions, and that calves born during the dry season are more likely to acquire the infection when they are exposed to high transmission levels during the subsequent raining season.Realizou-se um estudo da dinâmica de infecções naturais por Anaplasma marginale, durante o período de um ano, em duas propriedades localizadas na Região Metalúrgica do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram realizados esfregaços sangüíneos e determinação do volume globular (VG. Os animais que nasceram no período de março a julho sofreram a infecção em outubro e novembro, independentemente da idade, enquanto os que nasceram no período de setembro a dezembro adquiriram a infecção nos primeiros dias de vida, com parasitemia patente a partir de 30 dias de idade. Durante o período patente, o VG reduziu na primeira semana de infecção, variando entre 20 a 23%. Concluiu-se que a ocorrência da primo-infecção sofre influência das estações do ano e que bezerros nascidos na estação seca apresentam maior risco de infecção, quando expostos às condições de elevada transmissão durante a estação chuvosa subseqüente.

  14. Evaluating the effectiveness of an inactivated vaccine from Anaplasma marginale derived from tick cell culture Avaliação da eficácia de uma vacina inativada de Anaplasma marginale derivada de cultura de células de carrapato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Veloso Facury Lasmar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The protective efficacy of an inactivated vaccine from Anaplasma marginale that was cultured in tick cells (IDE8 for use against bovine anaplasmosis was evaluated. Five calves (Group 1 were inoculated subcutaneously, at 21-day intervals, with three doses of vaccine containing 3 × 10(9 A. marginale initial bodies. Five control calves received saline solution alone (Group 2. Thirty-two days after the final inoculation, all the calves were challenged with approximately 3 × 10(5 erythrocytes infected with A. marginale high-virulence isolate (UFMG2. The Group 1 calves seroconverted 14 days after the second dose of vaccine. After the challenge, all the animals showed patent rickettsemia. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 between the Group 1 and 2 calves during the incubation period, patency period or convalescence period. All the animals required treatment to prevent death. The results suggest that the inactivated vaccine from A. marginale produced in IDE8 induced seroconversion in calves, but was not effective for preventing anaplasmosis induced by the UFMG2 isolate under the conditions of this experiment.Foi avaliada a eficácia de uma vacina protetora para Anaplasma marginale cultivada em células de carrapato (IDE8 para uso contra a anaplasmose bovina. Cinco bezerros (Grupo 1 foram inoculados por via subcutânea com três doses, intervalados de 21 dias, de vacina contendo 3 × 10(9 corpúsculos iniciais de A. marginale inicial. Cinco bezerros do grupo controle receberam apenas solução salina (Grupo 2. Trinta e dois dias após a inoculação final, todos os bezerros foram desafiados com aproximadamente 3 × 10(5 eritrócitos infectados com isolado de A. marginale alta virulência (UFMG2. Os bezerros do Grupo 1 soroconverteram-se 14 dias após a segunda dose da vacina. Após o desafio, todos os animais mostraram riquestsemia patente. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 entre bezerros do Grupo 1 e 2 em período de incuba

  15. Exploiting for medical and biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giano, Michael C.

    Biotherapeutics are an emerging class of drug composed of molecules ranging in sizes from peptides to large proteins. Due to their poor stability and mucosal membrane permeability, biotherapeutics are administered by a parenteral method (i.e., syringe, intravenous or intramuscular). Therapeutics delivered systemically often experience short half-lives. While, local administration may involve invasive surgical procedures and suffer from poor retention at the site of application. To compensate, the patient receives frequent doses of highly concentrated therapeutic. Unfortunately, the off-target side effects and discomfort associated with multiple injections results in poor patient compliance. Therefore, new delivery methods which can improve therapeutic retention, reduce the frequency of administration and may aid in decreasing the off-target side effects is a necessity. Hydrogels are a class of biomaterials that are gaining interests for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Hydrogel materials are defined as porous, 3-dimensional networks that are primarily composed of water. Generally, they are mechanically rigid, cytocompatible and easily chemically functionalized. Collectively, these properties make hydrogels fantastic candidates to perform as drug delivery depots. Current hydrogel delivery systems physically entrap the target therapeutic which is then subsequently released over time at the site of administration. The swelling and degradation of the material effect the diffusion of the therapy from the hydrogel, and therefore should be controlled. Although these strategies provide some regulation over therapeutic release, full control of the delivery is not achieved. Newer approaches are focused on designing hydrogels that exploit known interactions, covalently attach the therapy or respond to an external stimulus in an effort to gain improved control over the therapy's release. Unfortunately, the biotherapeutic is typically required to be chemically

  16. Self-Report Measure of Financial Exploitation of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to improve the measurement of financial exploitation (FE) by testing psychometric properties of the older adult financial exploitation measure (OAFEM), a client self-report instrument. Design and Methods: Rasch item response theory and traditional validation approaches were used. Questionnaires were administered by…

  17. A Descriptive Study on Sexually Exploited Children in Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twill, Sarah E.; Green, Denise M.; Traylor, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Sexual exploitation and prostitution of children and adolescents is a multibillion dollar industry in the United States (Estes and Weiner in "Medical, legal & social science aspects of child sexual exploitation: A comprehensive review of pornography, prostitution, and internet crimes, vol I," G.W. Medical Publishing, Inc, St Louis, 2005; Milloy in…

  18. Exploit and ignore the consequences: A mother of planetary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, K.

    2016-07-01

    Many environmental and planetary issues are due to an exploitation strategy based on exploit, consume and ignore the consequences. As many natural and environmental resources are limited in time and space, such exploitation approach causes important damages on earth, in the sea and maybe soon in the space. To sustain conditions under which humans and other living species can coexist in productive and dynamic harmony with their environments, terrestrial and space exploration programs may need to be based on 'scrutinize the consequences, prepare adequate solutions and then, only then, exploit'. Otherwise, the exploitation of planetary resources may put the environmental stability and sustainability at a higher risk than it is currently predicted. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Ecotourism exploitation model in Bita Lake Natural Reserve of Yunnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G; Wang, Y; Zhong, L

    2000-12-01

    Bita lake provincial natural reserve is located in Shangri-La region of North-western Yunnan, and was set as a demonstrating area for ecotourism exploitation in 1998. After a year's exploitation construction and half a year's operation as a branch of the 99' Kunming International Horticulture Exposition to accept tourists, it was proved that the ecotourism demonstrating area attained four integrated functions of ecotourism, i.e., tourism, protection, poverty clearing and environment education. Five exploitation and management models including function zoned exploitation model, featured tourism communication model signs system designing model, local Tibetan family reception model and environmental monitoring model, were also successful, which were demonstrated and spreaded to the whole province. Bita lake provincial natural reserve could be a good sample for the ecotourism exploitation natural reserves of the whole country.

  20. Seroprevalence of selected infectious agents in a free-ranging, low-density lion population in the Central Kalahari Game Reserves in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsauer, S; Bay, G.; Meli, M; Hofmann-Lehmann, R.; Lutz, H.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-one free-ranging Central Kalahari lions (Panthera leo) exhibited a high prevalence rate of feline herpesvirus (100%) and feline immunodeficiency virus (71.4%). Canine distemper virus and feline calicivirus occurred with a low prevalence. All individuals tested negative for feline coronavirus, feline parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

  1. Equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the emergence and establishment of equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands, with particular attention to their diagnosis, clinical relevance and treatment. Four tick-borne agents (Borrelia burgdorferi, Theileria equi, Babesia caballi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum) appe

  2. Human anaplasmosis: the first Spanish case confirmed by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J C; Núñez, M J; Castro, B; Fraile, F J; López, A; Mella, M C; Blanco, A; Sieira, C; Loureiro, E; Portillo, A; Oteo, J A

    2006-10-01

    We report a case of human anaplasmosis (HA) fulfilling the confirmation criteria: epidemiologic data and clinical picture compatible with HA; presence of a morulae within polymorphonuclear leukocyte; and positive PCR assay for Anaplasma phagocytophilum: This case report shows the presence of HA in Spain. PMID:17114773

  3. The Haunted World of El Superbeasto (Rob Zombie, 2009): An Animated Exploitation of Exploitation Cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Floquet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Le film de Rob Zombie, sorti en 2009 dans la lignée des films d’exploitation, non seulement se veut transgressif, mais aussi s’appuie sur des sujets scabreux, sinon provocants, afin de viser des publics niches. Son intention est-elle d’exprimer un point de vue politique qui susciterait la controverse en mettant en images la face cachée d’une culture qu’Hollywood étale dans ses films, d’animation ou directs ? Ou bien demeure-t-il une simple expérience distanciée et animée, sans suite dans la c...

  4. Uncertainty of exploitation estimates made from tag returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.; Brock, R.E.; Dorr, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    Over 6,000 crappies Pomoxis spp. were tagged in five water bodies to estimate exploitation rates by anglers. Exploitation rates were computed as the percentage of tags returned after adjustment for three sources of uncertainty: postrelease mortality due to the tagging process, tag loss, and the reporting rate of tagged fish. Confidence intervals around exploitation rates were estimated by resampling from the probability distributions of tagging mortality, tag loss, and reporting rate. Estimates of exploitation rates ranged from 17% to 54% among the five study systems. Uncertainty around estimates of tagging mortality, tag loss, and reporting resulted in 90% confidence intervals around the median exploitation rate as narrow as 15 percentage points and as broad as 46 percentage points. The greatest source of estimation error was uncertainty about tag reporting. Because the large investments required by tagging and reward operations produce imprecise estimates of the exploitation rate, it may be worth considering other approaches to estimating it or simply circumventing the exploitation question altogether.

  5. Information source exploitation/exploration and NPD decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    The purpose of this study is to examine how the exploration/exploitation continuum is applied by decision-makers in new product gate decision-making. Specifically, we analyze at gate decision-points how the evaluation of a new product project is affected by the information source exploitation/exp...... information search behavior at either end of the exploitation/exploration continuum. Additionally, we find that overexploitation and overexploration is caused by managerial bias. This creates managerial misbehavior at gate decision-points of the NPD process....

  6. Meaning, function and methods of the recultivation in mining exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Ljatifi, Ejup

    2015-01-01

    With the exploitation of mineral resources is performed degradation and deformation of the relief and the general part of surface of the Earth's crust. Depending on the type of open pit mine, this degradation can be expressed to a lesser or greater extent, and sometimes in several square kilometers. The exploitation of mineral resources is with unbreakable link with the environment. Very often it is said that mining is „enemy No. 1“ for environment. With exploitation comes to degradation of h...

  7. 77 FR 36491 - Request for Information Regarding Senior Financial Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... Americans'') seeks information on consumer financial products and services, financial literacy efforts, and... to seniors; (c) senior certification and designation information sources; (d) financial literacy... PROTECTION Request for Information Regarding Senior Financial Exploitation AGENCY: Bureau of...

  8. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM) - maturation, exploitation and implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads

    This thesis introduces the Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulator ”Little Helper”, a robotic co-worker which extends the potential of industrial robotics by combining locomotion and manipulation capabilities. The thesis presents promising findings for industrial maturation, exploitation...

  9. NUMERICAL ANALYSES OF THE UNDERGROUND EXPLOITATION OF DIMENSION STONE

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Underground exploitation of dimension stone is spreading lately for three main reasons; economy, organisation and environment. Moreover, underground openings can be used for many purposes. Underground exploitation is different from surface quarrying only in the first stage, the removal of top slice, descending slices are worked as in conventional quarries. In underground stone quarries, stability problems require adequate studies in order to avoid expensive artificial support measures, ...

  10. D1.2_Final Dissemination and Exploitation Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Garavelli, Sara; Jones, Bob; Amsaghrou Rachida

    2016-01-01

    The following summary outlines the major assets and sustainability strategy that PICSE has produced during its eighteen month activity. This second iteration, which is the present report, combines the final strategy of the communication plan as well as addressing the exploitation of the project itself. The PICSE project, in its timeframe produced: Four PICSE Major Sustainable and Exploitable Assets PICSE Roadmap, highlighting the existing challenges, barriers and trends in ...

  11. Exploiting sparsity and sharing in probabilistic sensor data models

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, S

    2008-01-01

    Probabilistic sensor models defined as dynamic Bayesian networks can possess an inherent sparsity that is not reflected in the structure of the network. Classical inference algorithms like variable elimination and junction tree propagation cannot exploit this sparsity. Also, they do not exploit the opportunities for sharing calculations among different time slices of the model. We show that, using a relational representation, inference expressions for these sensor models can be rewritten to m...

  12. Sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeeping operations in contemporary Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rudén, Fanny; Utas, Mats

    2009-01-01

    In international peacekeeping operations (PKOs) some individuals are involved in sexual exploitation and abuse of the host country’s population, buying of sexual services and trafficking of prostitutes. Far from being a new phenomenon it goes back a long time, and reports on the issue have increased over the years. All too frequently we read about peacekeepers visiting prostitutes, committing rape, or in other ways sexually exploiting host populations. Some peacekeepers are taking advantage o...

  13. Exploiting symmetries in SDP-relaxations for polynomial optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Riener, Cordian; Theobald, Thorsten; Andrén, Lina Jansson; Lasserre, Jean B.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study various approaches for exploiting symmetries in polynomial optimization problems within the framework of semi definite programming relaxations. Our special focus is on constrained problems especially when the symmetric group is acting on the variables. In particular, we investigate the concept of block decomposition within the framework of constrained polynomial optimization problems, show how the degree principle for the symmetric group can be computationally exploited...

  14. Micro and nanotechnology commercialization: balance between exploration and exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    WHC Knol

    2005-01-01

    Innovative materials, components, and systems based on micro and nanotechnologies are recognized as promising growth innovators. The coming years the commercialization of micro and nanotechnology will be extended, but in order to commercialize micro and nanotechnology successfully, besides exploration a parallel focus should be aimed at exploitation. This paper presents in a brief and non-exhaustive manor a theoretical introduction and two company introductions related to exploitation and exp...

  15. UK Coal resource for new exploitation technologies. Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, N. S.; Holloway, S.; Creedy, D.P.; Gamer, K.; Smith, N.J.P.; Browne, M.A.E.; S. Durucan

    2004-01-01

    This focus of this report are the UK coal resources available for exploitation by the new technologies of Underground Coal Gasification, Coalbed Methane production and Carbon Dioxide Sequestration. It also briefly considers the potential for further underground and opencast mining and the extraction of methane from working and closed mines. The potential for mining was mainly considered because it has a bearing on the scope for the new exploitation technologies rather than to identify resourc...

  16. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in apparently healthy and CVBD-suspect dogs in Portugal - a national serological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Luís

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are caused by a wide range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods including ticks and insects. Many CVBD-agents are of zoonotic concern, with dogs potentially serving as reservoirs and sentinels for human infections. The present study aimed at assessing the seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in dogs in Portugal. Methods Based on 120 veterinary medical centres from all the regions of mainland and insular Portugal, 557 apparently healthy and 628 CVBD-suspect dogs were sampled. Serum, plasma or whole blood was tested for qualitative detection of D. immitis antigen and antibodies to E. canis, B. burgdorferi s. l., Anaplasma spp. and L. infantum with two commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Odds ratios (OR were calculated by logistic regression analysis to identify independent risk factors of exposure to the vector-borne agents. Results Total positivity levels to D. immitis, E. canis, B. burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., L. infantum, one or more agents and mixed agents were 3.6%, 4.1%, 0.2%, 4.5%, 4.3%, 14.0% and 2.0% in the healthy group, and 8.9%, 16.4%, 0.5%, 9.2%, 25.2%, 46.3% and 11.6% in the clinically suspect group, respectively. Non-use of ectoparasiticides was a risk factor for positivity to one or more agents both in the apparently healthy (OR = 2.1 and CVBD-suspect (OR = 1.5 dogs. Seropositivity to L. infantum (OR = 7.6, E. canis (OR = 4.1 and D. immitis (OR = 2.4 were identified as risk factors for the presence of clinical signs compatible with CVBDs. Positivity to mixed agents was not found to be a risk factor for disease. Conclusions Dogs in Portugal are at risk of becoming infected with vector-borne pathogens, some of which are of zoonotic concern. CVBDs should be considered by practitioners and prophylactic measures must be put in

  17. From Exploitation to Industry: Definitions, Risks, and Consequences of Domestic Sexual Exploitation and Sex Work Among Women and Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Gerassi, Lara

    2015-01-01

    In the last 15 years, terms such as prostitution, sex trafficking, sexual exploitation, modern-day slavery, and sex work have elicited much confusion and debate as to their definitions. Consequently several challenges have emerged for both law enforcement in the prosecution of criminals and practitioners in service provision. This article reviews the state of the literature with regard to domestic, sexual exploitation among women and girls in the United States and seeks to (1) provide definit...

  18. Comparação de nested-PCR com o diagnóstico direto na detecção de Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em cães Comparison of nested-PCR with blood smear examination in detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. N. Ramos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os sinais clínicos das infecções por Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys são similares, e o diagnóstico desses patógenos feito por esfregaços sanguíneos corados é difícil devido à sensibilidade e especificidade. Por outro lado, os diagnósticos moleculares são altamente sensíveis e específicos, e nested-PCRs têm sido otimizadas para o diagnóstico preciso desses patógenos em cães. Em um Hospital Veterinário Escola, amostras de sangue total com EDTA foram obtidas de 100 cães, e esfregaços foram feitos das amostras de sangue para busca dos parasitos intracelulares. Para cada amostra, DNA foi extraído e submetido à nPCR para detecção de E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados dos esfregaços sanguíneos mostraram que 9% dos animais foram positivos para E. canis e 21% para A. platys. Com relação à nPCR, 57 e 55% dos cães foram positivos para E. canis e A. platys, respectivamente. Quando comparados com a nPCR, os esfregaços sanguíneos corados revelaram resultados falso-negativos para E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados indicam que a nPCR é altamente sensível e específica para detecção de ambos os patógenos, e os diagnósticos moleculares podem ser mais úteis nos Hospitais Veterinários.The clinical signs of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys infection are similar, and the diagnosis of these pathogens made by stained blood smears is poor due sensibility and specificity. On the other hand, the molecular diagnosis is highly sensitive and specific and nested-PCR have been optimized for accurate diagnosis these pathogens in dogs. At the veterinary teaching hospital, whole-blood samples with EDTA were obtained from 100 dogs and smears were made from blood samples for evaluation for intracellular parasites. For each sample, DNA was extracted and submitted to nPCR analysis for detection of E. canis and A. platys. The results of stained blood smears showed 9% of the animals were positive for E. canis and 21% for A. platys

  19. Investigação molecular de Ehrlichia spp. e Anaplasma platys em felinos domésticos: alterações clínicas, hematológicas e bioquímicas

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabete S Correa; Giane R. Paludo; Scalon, Marcela C.; Josias A Machado; Ana Carolina Q Lima; Anderson Teixeira B Pinto; José Tarcísio L Thiebaut; Antônio P Albernaz

    2011-01-01

    Ehrlichia sp. e Anaplasma platys são micro-organismos Gram negativos, parasitos intracelulares obrigatórios, residindo em vacúolos citoplasmáticos de leucócitos e plaquetas, encontrados no sangue periférico ou em tecidos. Poucos relatos têm sido feitos sobre erliquiose e anaplasmose em gatos no Brasil, os quais são baseados na presença de mórulas em leucócitos e plaquetas, ou pela detecção de anticorpos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a infecção natural por Ehrlichia sp. e A.platys ...

  20. Exploitation and Utilization of Oilfield Geothermal Resources in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shejiao Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is a clean, green renewable resource, which can be utilized for power generation, heating, cooling, and could effectively replace oil, gas, and coal. In recent years, oil companies have put more efforts into exploiting and utilizing geothermal energy with advanced technologies for heat-tracing oil gathering and transportation, central heating, etc., which has not only reduced resource waste, but also improved large-scale and industrial resource utilization levels, and has achieved remarkable economic and social benefits. Based on the analysis of oilfield geothermal energy development status, resource potential, and exploitation and utilization modes, the advantages and disadvantages of harnessing oilfield geothermal resource have been discussed. Oilfield geothermal energy exploitation and utilization have advantages in resources, technical personnel, technology, and a large number of abandoned wells that could be reconstructed and utilized. Due to the high heat demand in oilfields, geothermal energy exploitation and utilization can effectively replace oil, gas, coal, and other fossil fuels, and has bright prospects. The key factors limiting oilfield geothermal energy exploitation and utilization are also pointed out in this paper, including immature technologies, lack of overall planning, lack of standards in resource assessment, and economic assessment, lack of incentive policies, etc.

  1. NUMERICAL ANALYSES OF THE UNDERGROUND EXPLOITATION OF DIMENSION STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kovačević-Zelić

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Underground exploitation of dimension stone is spreading lately for three main reasons; economy, organisation and environment. Moreover, underground openings can be used for many purposes. Underground exploitation is different from surface quarrying only in the first stage, the removal of top slice, descending slices are worked as in conventional quarries. In underground stone quarries, stability problems require adequate studies in order to avoid expensive artificial support measures, The article presents numerical analyses of an underground stone quarry made using of the finite difference code FLAC (the paper is published in Croatian.

  2. Influence of Machine Exploitation Effectiveness on Furniture Production Quality Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasiak-Betlejewska Renata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors determining the company‘s capacity to produce high quality products is the level of machinery operation effectiveness. Companies having modern machinery are characterized by high productivity. To obtain a high quality product, the equipment should be properly used, without any failure, which contributes significantly to the exploitation level increase. The modernity level and the exploitation effectiveness level for chosen machine producing furniture components in relation to the product quality level were analysed in the paper. As a result of the research findings analysis, proposals for corrective actions with regard to machinery maintenance and production processes were presented.

  3. Insider Trading in Germany - Do Corporate Insiders Exploit Inside Information?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn M. Dymke

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study focuses on the question whether corporate insiders in Germany exploit inside information while trading in their company’s stock. In contrast to prior international studies, which are not able to link insider transactions to a formal definition of inside information, we relate insider transactions to subsequent releases of inside information via ad-hoc news disclosures. We find evidence that corporate insiders as a group seem to trade on inside information. Moreover, members of the supervisory board seem to be most active in exploiting inside information, since they realize exceptionally high profits with their frequent front-running transactions.

  4. Exploring, exploiting and evolving diversity of aquatic ecosystem models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Annette B. G.; Arhonditsis, George B.; Beusen, Arthur;

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a community perspective on how to explore, exploit and evolve the diversity in aquatic ecosystem models. These models play an important role in understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, filling in observation gaps and developing effective strategies for water quality...... management. In this spirit, numerous models have been developed since the 1970s. We set off to explore model diversity by making an inventory among 42 aquatic ecosystem modellers, by categorizing the resulting set of models and by analysing them for diversity. We then focus on how to exploit model diversity...

  5. Exploitation of Natural Resources and the Public Sector in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    This paper considers the role of the public sector in future exploitation of non-renewable resources, especially minerals, in Greenland. The focus is on fiscal sustainability, principles for public sector involvement and the form of government take from mining activities. At present, the public...... to GDP. Hence, fiscal policy is quite far from being sustainable. Apart from a need for reforms, these facts also constrain the possible role of the public sector in future resource exploitation. In any case, the government should preferably adhere to strict principles when developing the mineral sector...

  6. Short-term price overreaction: Identification, testing, exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Gil-Alana, Luis; Plastun, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines short-term price reactions after one-day abnormal price changes and whether they create exploitable profit opportunities in various financial markets. A t-test confirms the presence of overreactions and also suggests that there is an “inertia anomaly”, i.e. after an overreaction day prices tend to move in the same direction for some time. A trading robot approach is then used to test two trading strategies aimed at exploiting the detected anomalies to make abnormal profits...

  7. Short-Term Price Overreactions: Identification, Testing, Exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Luis A. Gil-Alana; Plastun, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines short-term price reactions after one-day abnormal price changes and whether they create exploitable profit opportunities in various financial markets. A t-test confirms the presence of overreactions and also suggests that there is an “inertia anomaly”, i.e. after an overreaction day prices tend to move in the same direction for some time. A trading robot approach is then used to test two trading strategies aimed at exploiting the detected anomalies to make abnormal profits...

  8. Manipulation and exploitation of the tumour environment for therapeutic benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe aspects of the tumour microenvironment that are available as targets for manipulation. In particular, the question asked is whether hypoxia in tumours is a problem to be overcome, or a physiological abnormality to be exploited? Bioreductive drugs require metabolic reduction to generate cytotoxic metabolites. This process is facilitated by appropriate reductases and the lower oxygen conditions present in solid tumours compared with normal tissues. Because of their specificity, bioreductive drugs are used to help answer this question. Other aspects of tumour physiology and biochemistry that may be exploited include tissue dependent reductase expression, pH and angiogenesis. (author)

  9. On species preservation and Non-Cooperative Exploiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    cases where several non-cooperative exploiters are involved in mixed fisheries. This paper is targeting biodiversity preservation by setting up a two species model with the aim of ensuring both species survive harvesting of exploiters adapting a non-cooperative behaviour. The model starts out as a multi......-species model without biological dependency and is then modified to include also biological dependency. We contribute to the literature by analytically finding the limits on the number of players preserving both species including the conditions to be satisfied. For visual purposes we simulate a two species...

  10. From Exploitation to Industry: Definitions, Risks, and Consequences of Domestic Sexual Exploitation and Sex Work Among Women and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerassi, Lara

    2015-01-01

    In the last 15 years, terms such as prostitution, sex trafficking, sexual exploitation, modern-day slavery, and sex work have elicited much confusion and debate as to their definitions. Consequently several challenges have emerged for both law enforcement in the prosecution of criminals and practitioners in service provision. This article reviews the state of the literature with regard to domestic, sexual exploitation among women and girls in the United States and seeks to (1) provide definitions and describe the complexity of all terms relating to domestic sexual exploitation of women and girls in the United States, (2) explore available national prevalence data according to the definitions provided, and (3) review the evidence of mental health, social, and structural risk factors at the micro-, mezzo-, and macrolevels. PMID:26726289

  11. The forecast effectiveness of mining exploitation effects on the exploited area conducted with the use of Bialek`s formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwat, Justyna

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the results of numerical calculations conducted with the use of a computer programme EDN - OPN for forecasting permanent deformations of a mining area being the result of the underground exploitation of coal deposits. The theoretical values of basic deformation indicators (decreases, inclinations, curvatures, displacements and horizontal strains) were determined with the use of Bialek`s formulas. They were subsequently juxtaposed with the practical values obtained thanks to the geodetic measurements conducted in the years 2001-2011 on the established observation line. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the conducted forecast of effects of the mining exploitation was carried out on this basis.

  12. Exploiting synergies between nonproliferation verification regimes: A pragmatic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the potential for expanding interaction and exploiting synergies between different multilateral disarmament and nonproliferation regimes. It concludes that although there are political barriers to high-level and pervasive synergization, there are opportunities for pragmatic, functional steps to be taken as a way of building confidence and experience. (author)

  13. Hitch-hiking parasitic wasp learns to exploit butterfly antiaphrodisiac

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huigens, M.E.; Pashalidou, F.G.; Qian, M.H.; Bukovinszky, T.; Smid, H.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2009-01-01

    Many insects possess a sexual communication system that is vulnerable to chemical espionage by parasitic wasps. We recently discovered that a hitch-hiking (H) egg parasitoid exploits the antiaphrodisiac pheromone benzyl cyanide (BC) of the Large Cabbage White butterfly Pieris brassicae. This pheromo

  14. Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser exploiting intracavity polarization inhomogeneity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Simultaneous multiwavelength lasing is demonstrated exploiting intracavity polarization inhomogeneity in an erbium-doped fiber laser. Experiments indicate that polarization hole burning can be enhanced by the changes of optical MQW waveguide bias current and the polarization states in the laser cavity. Ten wavelengths with 0.9 nm spacing are generated at room temperature.

  15. Six scenarios of exploiting an ontology based, mobilized learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Kismihók; I. Szabó; R. Vas

    2012-01-01

    In this article, six different exploitation possibilities of an educational ontology based, mobilized learning management system are presented. The focal point of this system is the educational ontology model. The first version of this educational ontology model serves as a foundation for curriculum

  16. Simultaneously Exploiting Two Formulations: an Exact Benders Decomposition Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon

    linear programs and propose an approach based on Benders decomposition to exploit the advantages of two different formulations when solving a problem. We propose to apply Benders decomposition to a combined formulation,comprised of two separate formulations, augmented with linking constraints to ensure...

  17. Exploitation of commercial remote sensing images: reality ignored?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Paul C.

    1999-12-01

    The remote sensing market is on the verge of being awash in commercial high-resolution images. Market estimates are based on the growing numbers of planned commercial remote sensing electro-optical, radar, and hyperspectral satellites and aircraft. EarthWatch, Space Imaging, SPOT, and RDL among others are all working towards launch and service of one to five meter panchromatic or radar-imaging satellites. Additionally, new advances in digital air surveillance and reconnaissance systems, both manned and unmanned, are also expected to expand the geospatial customer base. Regardless of platform, image type, or location, each system promises images with some combination of increased resolution, greater spectral coverage, reduced turn-around time (request-to- delivery), and/or reduced image cost. For the most part, however, market estimates for these new sources focus on the raw digital images (from collection to the ground station) while ignoring the requirements for a processing and exploitation infrastructure comprised of exploitation tools, exploitation training, library systems, and image management systems. From this it would appear the commercial imaging community has failed to learn the hard lessons of national government experience choosing instead to ignore reality and replicate the bias of collection over processing and exploitation. While this trend may be not impact the small quantity users that exist today it will certainly adversely affect the mid- to large-sized users of the future.

  18. The Sexual Exploitation of Missing Children: A Research Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotaling, Gerald T.; Finkelhor, David

    This paper evaluates current knowledge about the prevalence, dynamics, and short- and long-term effects of sexual exploitation among missing children. It is based upon empirical research findings from books, papers presented at professional meetings, doctoral dissertations, works in progress, and more than 75 articles in professional journals.…

  19. Exploiting Patient Labour at Kew Cottages, Australia, 1887-1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Lee-Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the exploitation of patient labour at Kew Cottages, Australia's first purpose-built state institution for people with learning disabilities. Analysing historical evidence for the period 1887-1950 shows that unpaid patient labour contributed significantly to the economy of the Cottages and so to the government department of…

  20. Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser exploiting intracavity polarization inhomogeneity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙军强; 丘军林; 黄德修

    2000-01-01

    Simultaneous multiwavelength lasing is demonstrated exploiting intracavity polarization in-homogeneity in an erbium-doped fiber laser. Experiments indicate that polarization hole burning can be enhanced by the changes of optical MQW waveguide bias current and the polarization states in the laser cavity. Ten wavelengths with 0.9 nm spacing are generated at room temperature.

  1. Assisting children born of sexual exploitation and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Rumble

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The UN Secretary-General has issued a strategy tosupport victims of sexual exploitation and abuse by UNstaff. It includes a controversial proposal to introduceDNA sampling for all UN staff. Unless this suggestionis adopted, an important opportunity to implementa truly survivor-centred approach may be lost.

  2. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the School Nurse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Lisa Goldblatt; Starck, Maureen; Potenza, Jane; Kenney, Patricia A.; Sheetz, Anne H.

    2012-01-01

    As trusted health professionals in the school setting, school nurses are well positioned to identify students who may be victims of commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC). However, until recently this issue has been clouded by lack of awareness, stigma, and/or denial. Since nationally the average age of entry for girls into the…

  3. Some aspects concerning the exploitation, maintenance and repair of shearers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koronka, F.

    1991-01-01

    The main aspects analysed by the author are: the keeping of the shearer in exploitation at the given parameters; the avoidance of accidental stops; the utilization of maintenance and repair system which should lead to an elimination of accident risks as well as the minimising of maintenance and repair costs. 3 refs.

  4. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Perceived Exploitation of College Athletes Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rheenen, Derek; Atwood, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of college athletes has been a topic of controversy within American higher education for over half of a century. Especially in the revenue-generating sports of men's basketball and football, critics have highlighted the surplus gains expropriated by colleges and universities on the backs of these young men, who are…

  5. Human trafficking for labour exploitation: Interpreting the crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coster van Voorhout, J.E.B.

    2007-01-01

    The definition of human trafficking for labour exploitation, as follows from the European Council Framework Decision, proves to be unclear. Literal interpretation does not suffice, because it does not clarify all elements of what is deemed to be criminal behaviour, and hermeneutical interpretation a

  6. Bats track and exploit changes in insect pest populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator’s ability to exploit available prey in space and time. Using a qPCR faecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consumin...

  7. Exploiting Network Topology Information to Mitigate Ambiguities in VMP Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2011-01-01

    We investigate an extension to the probabilistic model of a wireless sensor network (WSN) in the variational message passing localization algorithm. This extension exploits network topology information to mitigate ambiguities in WSN localization schemes. In a simulation case study we show...

  8. Grooming Cybervictims: The Psychosocial Effects of Online Exploitation for Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Ilene R.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an overview of the benefits and risks of Web-based interactions for youth. Discusses, as an illustrative example, the psychosocial effects of online "grooming" practices that are designed to lure and exploit children by enticing them, typically in a nonsexual way, toward a sexual encounter. Suggests constructive solutions and a plan for…

  9. Geographical aspects of exploitation of nuclear energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic of exploitation of nuclear energy is becoming increasingly actual in the present time in connection with frequently discussed question of 'renaissance of nuclear energetics'. The work is aimed at research of geographical aspects of exploitation of nuclear energy for military and civil purposes on the territory of Europe. The base of work represents the analysis of theoretical aspects of research of energy, mainly of nuclear energy. The work examines the historical development of exploitation of nuclear energy since its discovery, through development of military nuclear industry in Europe, big attention is paid to spreading of nuclear energetics on the territory of Europe from its beginnings up to the present time. The main part of the work represents the analysis of the present situation of exploitation of nuclear energy for civil purposes in Europe. The attention is paid to so-called nuclear fuel cycle as complex chain of several reciprocally interconnected operations of nuclear fuel treatment. The monitoring of spatial relations among individual countries within their nuclear fuel cycles is emphasised. The analysis of historical development and of the present state of nuclear energetics finished up in the outline of the perspectives of its further development in Europe. The analysis of the tendencies of evolution of world energetic economy mentions on the trend of growth of energy consumption in the world and Europe, as well as on the important position of nuclear energy in the structure of energy sources. Summary in English language is included. (author)

  10. Exploiting endobiotic metabolic pathways to target xenobiotic antioxidants to mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, M W

    2013-09-01

    Oxidative stress plays a role in a range of human disease entities. Hence, strategies to target antioxidants to mitochondria are an active area of investigation. Triphenylphosphonium cation-based antioxidants and SS-peptides have been described and show significant uptake by mitochondria and effectiveness in animal models of conditions linked to oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that the mitochondrial β-oxidation pathway could be exploited to activate the antioxidant phenolic and methimazole prodrugs. Most compounds studied underwent mitochondrial biotransformation to release their antioxidant moieties, and some were cytoprotective in a hypoxia-reoxygenation model in rat cardiomyocytes. These results demonstrate the feasibility of exploiting mitochondrial bioactivation reactions for targeted drug delivery.

  11. Relativistic Quantum Metrology: Exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Friis, Nicolai; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory (QFT). QFT properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in QFT including proper times and acce...

  12. Evaluating Maximum Wind Energy Exploitation in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siano, Pierluigi; Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe;

    2010-01-01

    The increased spreading of distributed and renewable generation requires moving towards active management of distribution networks. In this paper, in order to evaluate maximum wind energy exploitation in active distribution networks, a method based on a multi-period optimal power flow (OPF...... distribution system, confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method in evaluating the optimal applications of active management schemes to increase wind energy harvesting without costly network reinforcement for the connection of wind generation.......) analysis is proposed. Active network management schemes such as coordinated voltage control, energy curtailment and power factor control are integrated in the method in order to investigate their impacts on the maximization of wind energy exploitation. Some case studies, using real data from a Danish...

  13. Lunar Resource Exploitation with Team Hakuto Swarm Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Kyle

    2016-07-01

    While much research has been done on the exploration, extraction and utilization of the Moon's resources, little attention has been given to exploring the economic opportunities that exist in the exploitation of those resources with the use of swam rovers. In order to develop a holistic view of lunar resources, this paper will first investigate the most important volatiles and minerals that are known to exist on the Moon. Next, Google Lunar XPRIZE Team Hakuto's technology and current robotic set up will be given. Finally, TEAM HAKUTO's 2017 Lunar mission plan will be outlined, providing an overview of future architectures using future swarm robotics to search for, map and eventually exploit the resources and volatiles.

  14. Exploiting the Errors: A Simple Approach for Improved Volatility Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Patton, Andrew J.; Quaedvlieg, Rogier

    We propose a new family of easy-to-implement realized volatility based forecasting models. The models exploit the asymptotic theory for high-frequency realized volatility estimation to improve the accuracy of the forecasts. By allowing the parameters of the models to vary explicitly with the (est......We propose a new family of easy-to-implement realized volatility based forecasting models. The models exploit the asymptotic theory for high-frequency realized volatility estimation to improve the accuracy of the forecasts. By allowing the parameters of the models to vary explicitly...... with the (estimated) degree of measurement error, the models exhibit stronger persistence, and in turn generate more responsive forecasts, when the measurement error is relatively low. Implementing the new class of models for the S&P500 equity index and the individual constituents of the Dow Jones Industrial Average...

  15. Strategies of exploitation of mammalian reservoirs by Bartonella species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Hongkuan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerous mammal species, including domestic and wild animals such as ruminants, dogs, cats and rodents, as well as humans, serve as reservoir hosts for various Bartonella species. Some of those species that exploit non-human mammals as reservoir hosts have zoonotic potential. Our understanding of interactions between bartonellae and reservoir hosts has been greatly improved by the development of animal models for infection and the use of molecular tools allowing large scale mutagenesis of Bartonella species. By reviewing and combining the results of these and other approaches we can obtain a comprehensive insight into the molecular interactions that underlie the exploitation of reservoir hosts by Bartonella species, particularly the well-studied interactions with vascular endothelial cells and erythrocytes.

  16. Infomax strategies for an optimal balance between exploration and exploitation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Gautam; Vergassola, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Proper balance between exploitation and exploration is what makes good decisions, which achieve high rewards like payoff or evolutionary fitness. The Infomax principle postulates that maximization of information directs the function of diverse systems, from living systems to artificial neural networks. While specific applications are successful, the validity of information as a proxy for reward remains unclear. Here, we consider the multi-armed bandit decision problem, which features arms (slot-machines) of unknown probabilities of success and a player trying to maximize cumulative payoff by choosing the sequence of arms to play. We show that an Infomax strategy (Info-p) which optimally gathers information on the highest mean reward among the arms saturates known optimal bounds and compares favorably to existing policies. The highest mean reward considered by Info-p is not the quantity actually needed for the choice of the arm to play, yet it allows for optimal tradeoffs between exploration and exploitation.

  17. EXPLOITING RHETORICAL RELATIONS TO MULTIPLE DOCUMENTS TEXT SUMMARIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Adilah Hanin Zahri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many of previous research have proven that the usage of rhetorical relations is capable to enhance many applications such as text summarization, question answering and natural language generation. This work proposes an approach that expands the benefit of rhetorical relations to address redundancy problem for cluster-based text summarization of multiple documents. We exploited rhetorical relations exist between sentences to group similar sentences into multiple clusters to identify themes of common information. The candidate summary were extracted from these clusters. Then, cluster-based text summarization is performed using Conditional Markov Random Walk Model to measure the saliency scores of the candidate summary. We evaluated our method by measuring the cohesion and separation of the clusters constructed by exploiting rhetorical relations and ROUGE score of generated summaries. The experimental result shows that our method performed well which shows promising potential of applying rhetorical relation in text clustering which benefits text summarization of multiple documents

  18. Frequency of antibodies to Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax and Borrelia burdgorferi in cattle from the northeastern region of the state of Pará, Brazil Freqüência de anticorpos para Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax e Borrelia burgdorferi em bovinos do nordeste do Estado do Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Guedes Junior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Babesiosis, anaplasmosis, and trypanosomosis are relevant diseases, potentially causing morbidity in cattle, leading to economic losses. Borreliosis is import as a potential zoonosis. The objective of this study was to determine, by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, the frequency of seropositive cattle to Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax and Borrelia burgdorferi in cattle from the Northeastern region of Pará, Brazil. Sera samples from 246 female adult cattle from municipalities of Castanhal and São Miguel do Guamá were used. Crude antigens ELISAs were used to detect antibodies to all agents, except to A. marginale, to which an indirect ELISA with recombinant major surface 1a protein (MSP1a antigen was used. Overall frequencies of seropositive animals were: B. bigemina - 99.2%; B. bovis - 98.8%; A. marginale - 68.3%; T. vivax - 93.1% and B. burgdorferi - 54.9%. The frequencies of seropositive cattle to B. bovis and B. bigemina suggest a high rate of transmission of these organisms by tick in the studied region, which can be classified as enzootically stable to these hemoprotozoans. The low frequency of seropositive cattle to A. marginale may be attributed to a lower sensitivity of the recombinant antigen ELISA utilized or a distinct rate of inoculation of this rickettsia by ticks, as compared with Babesia sp. transmission. The high frequency of seropositive cattle to T. vivax indicates that this hemoprotozoan is prevalent in herds from the Northeastern region of Pará. The rate of animal that showed homologues antibodies to B. burgdorferi indicates the presence of the tickborne spirochaetal agent in the cattle population in the studied region.A babesiose, a anaplasmose e a tripanossomose são enfermidades relevantes, potencialmente causadoras de morbidade em bovinos, levando a perdas econômicas. A borreliose assume importância como zoonose potencial. O objetivo desse estudo foi determinar

  19. Online users of child sexual exploitation material (CSEM)

    OpenAIRE

    Kettleborough, Danielle; Merdian, Hannah Lena; Roberts, Amanda; Perkins, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen a substantial increase in the number of individuals engaging in offences relating to the online use of child sexual exploitation material (CSEM), to the point that UK police forces have stated that they “cannot arrest their way out of the problem”. Current movements are shifting the focus towards primary and secondary prevention efforts through public health campaigns, yet our knowledge of this typology of offending still remains somewhat limited. As such, a research pr...

  20. Enhanced surrogate models for statistical design exploiting space mapping technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawek; Bandler, John W.; Mohamed, Achmed S.;

    2005-01-01

    We present advances in microwave and RF device modeling exploiting Space Mapping (SM) technology. We propose new SM modeling formulations utilizing input mappings, output mappings, frequency scaling and quadratic approximations. Our aim is to enhance circuit models for statistical analysis...... and yield-driven design. We illustrate our results using a capacitively-loaded two-section impedance transformer, a single-resonator waveguide filter and a six-section H-plane waveguide filter....

  1. How to Exploit Domain Knowledge in Multiple Software Product Lines?

    OpenAIRE

    Urli, Simon; Mosser, Sébastien; Blay-Fornarino, Mireille; Collet, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    International audience As Software Product Lines (SPL) are inevitably moving towards a multiple form to tackle issues of reuse and complexity, variability management across the composed SPLs is still addressed with basic inter-constraints. Based on two disjoint case studies (digital signage and cloud computing), we identified this challenging problem for the SPL community. In this paper we describe how the domain knowledge needs to be exploited to support a more complete definition of Mult...

  2. Register Based Research Exploiting a Goldmine of Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Thaulow, Ivan; Thygesen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Part 10: Short Summaries International audience Researchers in Denmark have for many years had outstanding opportunities for exploiting data from a wide range of registers. They can carry out research based on a goldmine of information on social and demographic characteristics of the population, labour market participation, health data and medical treatment, and more. All these data can be combined, and longitudinal analysis can be made.

  3. Organizational Ambidexterity : Balancing Exploitation and Exploration in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Yigit, Mert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate necessity of ambidexterity for organizations. The main interest of this thesis is to investigate why organizations should be ambidextrous and how organizations can reach ambidexterity under the pressure of limited resources and competitive market condition. Findings: This thesis explored relations and tensions between exploitation and exploration in organizational and individual aspects. Findings in the research show that communication skill of the subu...

  4. Exploitation de la faune en République Centrafricaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardouin, J.

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of wildlife in Central African Republic. Potentialities of wildlife and tourism in the area of Bamangui-Bangoran are high, but local population has been omitted from the development programmes. Hunting economy has always been in force. A better use of the local production is possible. Fight against commercial poaching should be intensified. Scientific observations must be regularly organized to avoid destruction of a most interesting renewable natural resource.

  5. Exploitation de la faune en République Centrafricaine

    OpenAIRE

    Hardouin, J.

    1983-01-01

    Exploitation of wildlife in Central African Republic. Potentialities of wildlife and tourism in the area of Bamangui-Bangoran are high, but local population has been omitted from the development programmes. Hunting economy has always been in force. A better use of the local production is possible. Fight against commercial poaching should be intensified. Scientific observations must be regularly organized to avoid destruction of a most interesting renewable natural resource.

  6. Catch and release: Rab1 exploitation by Legionella pneumophila

    OpenAIRE

    Machner, Matthias P.; Chen, Yang

    2011-01-01

    The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila exploits host cell vesicular transport by manipulating the activity of the small GTPase Rab1. Bacterial proteins, so called effectors, that are delivered into the infected cell play a key role in this process. Here, we summarize recent developments in our quest to understand the molecular function of these effectors, and describe how L. pneumophila employs post-translational modification in a reversible manner to manipulate the activity of Rab...

  7. HUMAN TRAFFICKING. TRAFFICKING IN CHILDREN. PRACTICAL ASPECTS REGARDING CHILDREN EXPLOITATION

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca-Ioana Rosu

    2010-01-01

    900 thousand children are working in their own households and 70 thousand were victims of worst forms of child labor, including sexual exploitation, forced work, trafficking in children, involvement in criminal activities and risk exposure. Also, approximately 3 thousand street children were involved in: products selling in the street, beggary or windshields washing. In Roma communities, the work of young children (even of 5 years old) is still a frequent practice. Isolated cases of girls inv...

  8. Exploiting Child-Robot Aesthetic Interaction for a Social Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Jae-Joon Lee; Dae-Won Kim; Bo-Yeong Kang

    2012-01-01

    A social robot interacts and communicates with humans by using the embodied knowledge gained from interactions with its social environment. In recent years, emotion has emerged as a popular concept for designing social robots. Several studies on social robots reported an increase in robot sociability through emotional imitative interactions between the robot and humans. In this paper conventional emotional interactions are extended by exploiting the aesthetic theories that the sociability of ...

  9. Anisotropic Assembly of Colloidal Nanoparticles: Exploiting Substrate Crystallinity

    OpenAIRE

    Hayton, JA; Pauliac-Vaujour, E.; Moriarty, P.

    2007-01-01

    We show that the crystal structure of a substrate can be exploited to drive the anisotropic assembly of colloidal nanoparticles. Pentanethiol-passivated Au particles of approximately 2 nm diameter deposited from toluene onto hydrogen-passivated Si(111) surfaces form linear assemblies (rods) with a narrow width distribution. The rod orientations mirror the substrate symmetry, with a high degree of alignment along principal crystallographic axes of the Si(111) surface. There is a strong prefere...

  10. The exploitation of small cetaceans in Coastal Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Read, A J; Van Waerebeek, K.; Reyes, J.C.; McKinnon, J.S.; Lehman, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    Several species of small cetaceans are captured by fishermen in Peruvian coastal waters and used for human consumption. A large directed fishery exists for one species, the dusky dolphin Lagenorhynchus obscurus. In addition, two other species, the Burmeister's porpoise Phocoena spinipinnis and bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus, are commonly taken in both directed fisheries and incidentally to other fishing operations. To examine the exploitation of these species in detail, we monitored th...

  11. Compressed Sensing MR Image Reconstruction Exploiting TGV and Wavelet Sparsity

    OpenAIRE

    Di Zhao; Huiqian Du; Yu Han; Wenbo Mei

    2014-01-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) based methods make it possible to reconstruct magnetic resonance (MR) images from undersampled measurements, which is known as CS-MRI. The reference-driven CS-MRI reconstruction schemes can further decrease the sampling ratio by exploiting the sparsity of the difference image between the target and the reference MR images in pixel domain. Unfortunately existing methods do not work well given that contrast changes are incorrectly estimated or motion compensation is inac...

  12. Endangered Species and Natural Resource Exploitation: Extinction vs. Coexistence

    OpenAIRE

    Tsur, Yacov; Zemel, Amos

    1994-01-01

    The threat on the survival of animal species due to intensive use of natural resources is incorporated within resource management models, paying special attention to uncertainty regarding the conditions that lead to extinction. The manner in which the potential benefits forgone due to the species extinction (denoted extinction penalty) induce more conservative exploitation policies is studied in detail. When the extinction penalty is ignored, the optimal policy is to drive the resource stock ...

  13. Exploitation and Utilization of Oilfield Geothermal Resources in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shejiao Wang; Jiahong Yan; Feng Li,; Junwen Hu; Kewen Li

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal energy is a clean, green renewable resource, which can be utilized for power generation, heating, cooling, and could effectively replace oil, gas, and coal. In recent years, oil companies have put more efforts into exploiting and utilizing geothermal energy with advanced technologies for heat-tracing oil gathering and transportation, central heating, etc., which has not only reduced resource waste, but also improved large-scale and industrial resource utilization levels, and has ac...

  14. Exploiting Innocuous Activity for Correlating Users Across Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Goga, Oana; Lei, Howard; Parthasarathi, Sree Hari Krishnan; Friedland, Gerald; Sommer, Robin; Teixeira, Renata

    2013-01-01

    International audience We study how potential attackers can identify accounts on different social network sites that all belong to the same user, exploiting only innocuous activity that inherently comes with posted content. We examine three specific features on Yelp, Flickr, and Twitter: the geo-location attached to a user's posts, the timestamp of posts, and the user's writing style as captured by language models. We show that among these three features the location of posts is the most po...

  15. A Trainable Neuromorphic Integrated Circuit that Exploits Device Mismatch

    OpenAIRE

    Thakur, Chetan Singh; Wang, Runchun; Hamilton, Tara Julia; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Random device mismatch that arises as a result of scaling of the CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semi-conductor) technology into the deep submicron regime degrades the accuracy of analogue circuits. Methods to combat this increase the complexity of design. We have developed a novel neuromorphic system called a Trainable Analogue Block (TAB), which exploits device mismatch as a means for random projections of the input to a higher dimensional space. The TAB framework is inspired by the princip...

  16. Architectures for intelligent robots in the age of exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E. L.; Ali, S. M. Alhaj; Ghaffari, M.; Liao, X.; Sarkar, Saurabh; Mathur, Kovid; Tennety, Srinivas

    2009-01-01

    History shows that problems that cause human confusion often lead to inventions to solve the problems, which then leads to exploitation of the invention, creating a confusion-invention-exploitation cycle. Robotics, which started as a new type of universal machine implemented with a computer controlled mechanism in the 1960's, has progressed from an Age of Over-expectation, a Time of Nightmare, an Age of Realism, and is now entering the Age of Exploitation. The purpose of this paper is to propose architecture for the modern intelligent robot in which sensors permit adaptation to changes in the environment are combined with a "creative controller" that permits adaptive critic, neural network learning, and a dynamic database that permits task selection and criteria adjustment. This ideal model may be compared to various controllers that have been implemented using Ethernet, CAN Bus and JAUS architectures and to modern, embedded, mobile computing architectures. Several prototypes and simulations are considered in view of peta-computing. The significance of this comparison is that it provides some insights that may be useful in designing future robots for various manufacturing, medical, and defense applications.

  17. Pork and Carcasses Quality in Swine Exploited in Family Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Heber

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Maximum values of dry matter and fat (% of the carcass weight is achieved in swine exploited on small private family farms at 137 kg of dry matter and 115 kg of protein. Slaughtering swine at higher weight results in an increase of the dry matter and of the caloric value because of the increase of the amount of fat in the muscular fibber; thus, pork is of low quality because of the massive accumulation fat substance and the economic efficiency of producing pork is improper, with supplementary expenses on feed. Fattening swine on small family exploitations up to over 11 kg results in changes of the meat /fat ratio, detrimental to pork meat because of both thickening of lard on the animals' back and of fat depositions in the muscular fibber; though this improves pork quality, it is done with high expenses of energy, resulting in inefficient exploitation on private family farms that in most cases only supply for their families and rarely sell extra production.

  18. Neanderthal exploitation of ibex and chamois in southwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yravedra, José; Cobo-Sánchez, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that Neanderthals had a diverse and flexible diet. They exploited a wide range of resources from large proboscideans to small animals like turtles, rabbits, and marine species. Here, we discuss the importance of ibex and chamois in Neanderthal hunting strategies. The exploitation of both animals has traditionally been regarded as typical of Homo sapiens hunting behavior but was not a feature of Neanderthal behavior, which was thought to have focused on other kinds of game like deer, horses or large bovids. Our analysis of an extensive sample of Middle Paleolithic sites with faunal remains in the Iberian Peninsula reveals that Iberian ibex and chamois were frequently present throughout this period. Statistical analyses allowed us to assess the conditions that might have favored the presence or absence of these animals in the sites, while the taphonomic analyses enabled us to address the issue of whether ibex and chamois were indeed hunted by Neanderthals in the Iberian Peninsula. Our results indicate a better representation of both species in rocky and mountainous areas. The taphonomy of some sites reveals that chamois and ibex were hunted by Neanderthals, who showed great adaptive capacities to a wide variety of environments, including mountainous habitats. In contrast, other sites with favorable ecological conditions for ibex and chamois where these animals were not exploited by Neanderthals, who chose to hunt other species like deer, horses or aurochs, suggest behavioral complexity and large versatility. PMID:25481629

  19. Distinct Urban Mines: Exploiting secondary resources in unique anthropogenic spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D; Whitlock, G

    2015-11-01

    Fear of scarcity of resources highlight the need to exploit secondary materials from urban mines in the anthroposphere. Analogous to primary mines rich in one type of material (e.g. copper, gold, etc.), some urban mines are unique/distinct. We introduce, illustrate and discuss the concept of Distinct Urban Mines (DUM). Using the example of a university DUM in the UK, analogous to a primary mine, we illustrate potential product/material yields in respect of size, concentration and spatial location of the mine. Product ownership and replacement cycles for 17 high-value electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) among students showed that 20 tonnes of valuable e-waste were in stockpile in this DUM and a further 87 tonnes would 'soon' be available for exploitation. We address the opportunities and challenges of exploiting DUMs and conclude that they are readily available reservoirs for resource recovery. Two original contributions arise from this work: (i) a novel approach to urban mining with a potential for maximising resource recovery within the anthroposphere is conceptualised; and (ii) previously unavailable data for high-value products for a typical university DUM are presented and analysed. PMID:26066575

  20. Exploitative and hierarchical antagonism in a cooperative bacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Social organisms that cooperate with some members of their own species, such as close relatives, may fail to cooperate with other genotypes of the same species. Such noncooperation may take the form of outright antagonism or social exploitation. Myxococcus xanthus is a highly social prokaryote that cooperatively develops into spore-bearing, multicellular fruiting bodies in response to starvation. Here we have characterized the nature of social interactions among nine developmentally proficient strains of M. xanthus isolated from spatially distant locations. Strains were competed against one another in all possible pairwise combinations during starvation-induced development. In most pairings, at least one competitor exhibited strong antagonism toward its partner and a majority of mixes showed bidirectional antagonism that decreased total spore production, even to the point of driving whole populations to extinction. Differential response to mixing was the primary determinant of competitive superiority rather than the sporulation efficiencies of unmixed populations. In some competitive pairings, the dominant partner sporulated more efficiently in mixed populations than in clonal isolation. This finding represents a novel form of exploitation in bacteria carried out by socially competent genotypes and is the first documentation of social exploitation among natural bacterial isolates. Patterns of antagonistic superiority among these strains form a highly linear dominance hierarchy. At least some competition pairs construct chimeric, rather than segregated, fruiting bodies. The cooperative prokaryote M. xanthus has diverged into a large number of distinct social types that cooperate with clone-mates but exhibit intense antagonism toward distinct social types of the same species. Most lengthy migration events in nature may thus result in strong antagonism between migratory and resident populations, and this antagonism may have large effects on local

  1. Epidemiology and control of human granulocytic anaplasmosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongtao; Wei, Feng; Liu, Quan; Qian, Jun

    2012-04-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis worldwide. The obligate intracellular pathogen is transmitted by Ixodes ticks and infects neutrophils in humans and animals, resulting in clinical symptoms ranging from asymptomatic seroconversion to mild, severe, or fatal disease. Since the initial description of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) in the United States in 1990, HGA has been increasingly recognized in America, Europe, and Asia. This review describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of HGA and provides background information on the potential vectors and reservoirs of A. phagocytophilum. PMID:22217177

  2. Human collective intelligence under dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Toyokawa

    Full Text Available The exploration-exploitation dilemma is a recurrent adaptive problem for humans as well as non-human animals. Given a fixed time/energy budget, every individual faces a fundamental trade-off between exploring for better resources and exploiting known resources to optimize overall performance under uncertainty. Colonies of eusocial insects are known to solve this dilemma successfully via evolved coordination mechanisms that function at the collective level. For humans and other non-eusocial species, however, this dilemma operates within individuals as well as between individuals, because group members may be motivated to take excessive advantage of others' exploratory findings through social learning. Thus, even though social learning can reduce collective exploration costs, the emergence of disproportionate "information scroungers" may severely undermine its potential benefits. We investigated experimentally whether social learning opportunities might improve the performance of human participants working on a "multi-armed bandit" problem in groups, where they could learn about each other's past choice behaviors. Results showed that, even though information scroungers emerged frequently in groups, social learning opportunities reduced total group exploration time while increasing harvesting from better options, and consequentially improved collective performance. Surprisingly, enriching social information by allowing participants to observe others' evaluations of chosen options (e.g., Amazon's 5-star rating system in addition to choice-frequency information had a detrimental impact on performance compared to the simpler situation with only the choice-frequency information. These results indicate that humans groups can handle the fundamental "dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas" successfully, and that social learning about simple choice-frequencies can help produce collective intelligence.

  3. Human collective intelligence under dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Wataru; Kim, Hye-rin; Kameda, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    The exploration-exploitation dilemma is a recurrent adaptive problem for humans as well as non-human animals. Given a fixed time/energy budget, every individual faces a fundamental trade-off between exploring for better resources and exploiting known resources to optimize overall performance under uncertainty. Colonies of eusocial insects are known to solve this dilemma successfully via evolved coordination mechanisms that function at the collective level. For humans and other non-eusocial species, however, this dilemma operates within individuals as well as between individuals, because group members may be motivated to take excessive advantage of others' exploratory findings through social learning. Thus, even though social learning can reduce collective exploration costs, the emergence of disproportionate "information scroungers" may severely undermine its potential benefits. We investigated experimentally whether social learning opportunities might improve the performance of human participants working on a "multi-armed bandit" problem in groups, where they could learn about each other's past choice behaviors. Results showed that, even though information scroungers emerged frequently in groups, social learning opportunities reduced total group exploration time while increasing harvesting from better options, and consequentially improved collective performance. Surprisingly, enriching social information by allowing participants to observe others' evaluations of chosen options (e.g., Amazon's 5-star rating system) in addition to choice-frequency information had a detrimental impact on performance compared to the simpler situation with only the choice-frequency information. These results indicate that humans groups can handle the fundamental "dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas" successfully, and that social learning about simple choice-frequencies can help produce collective intelligence. PMID:24755892

  4. Widespread exploitation of the honeybee by early Neolithic farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Regert, Martine; Evershed, Richard P; Outram, Alan K; Cramp, Lucy J E; Decavallas, Orestes; Dunne, Julie; Gerbault, Pascale; Mileto, Simona; Mirabaud, Sigrid; Pääkkönen, Mirva; Smyth, Jessica; Šoberl, Lucija; Whelton, Helen L; Alday-Ruiz, Alfonso; Asplund, Henrik; Bartkowiak, Marta; Bayer-Niemeier, Eva; Belhouchet, Lotfi; Bernardini, Federico; Budja, Mihael; Cooney, Gabriel; Cubas, Miriam; Danaher, Ed M; Diniz, Mariana; Domboróczki, László; Fabbri, Cristina; González-Urquijo, Jesus E; Guilaine, Jean; Hachi, Slimane; Hartwell, Barrie N; Hofmann, Daniela; Hohle, Isabel; Ibáñez, Juan J; Karul, Necmi; Kherbouche, Farid; Kiely, Jacinta; Kotsakis, Kostas; Lueth, Friedrich; Mallory, James P; Manen, Claire; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Maurice-Chabard, Brigitte; Mc Gonigle, Martin A; Mulazzani, Simone; Özdoğan, Mehmet; Perić, Olga S; Perić, Slaviša R; Petrasch, Jörg; Pétrequin, Anne-Marie; Pétrequin, Pierre; Poensgen, Ulrike; Pollard, C Joshua; Poplin, François; Radi, Giovanna; Stadler, Peter; Stäuble, Harald; Tasić, Nenad; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Vuković, Jasna B; Walsh, Fintan; Whittle, Alasdair; Wolfram, Sabine; Zapata-Peña, Lydia; Zoughlami, Jamel

    2015-11-12

    The pressures on honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations, resulting from threats by modern pesticides, parasites, predators and diseases, have raised awareness of the economic importance and critical role this insect plays in agricultural societies across the globe. However, the association of humans with A. mellifera predates post-industrial-revolution agriculture, as evidenced by the widespread presence of ancient Egyptian bee iconography dating to the Old Kingdom (approximately 2400 BC). There are also indications of Stone Age people harvesting bee products; for example, honey hunting is interpreted from rock art in a prehistoric Holocene context and a beeswax find in a pre-agriculturalist site. However, when and where the regular association of A. mellifera with agriculturalists emerged is unknown. One of the major products of A. mellifera is beeswax, which is composed of a complex suite of lipids including n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and fatty acyl wax esters. The composition is highly constant as it is determined genetically through the insect's biochemistry. Thus, the chemical 'fingerprint' of beeswax provides a reliable basis for detecting this commodity in organic residues preserved at archaeological sites, which we now use to trace the exploitation by humans of A. mellifera temporally and spatially. Here we present secure identifications of beeswax in lipid residues preserved in pottery vessels of Neolithic Old World farmers. The geographical range of bee product exploitation is traced in Neolithic Europe, the Near East and North Africa, providing the palaeoecological range of honeybees during prehistory. Temporally, we demonstrate that bee products were exploited continuously, and probably extensively in some regions, at least from the seventh millennium cal BC, likely fulfilling a variety of technological and cultural functions. The close association of A. mellifera with Neolithic farming communities dates to the early onset of agriculture and may provide

  5. Enhancing data exploitation through DTN-based data transmission protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglis, Ioannis A.; Tsaoussidis, Vassilis; Rontogiannis, Athanasios; Balasis, Georgios; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Paronis, Dimitrios; Sykioti, Olga; Tsinganos, Antonios

    2014-05-01

    Data distribution and data access are major issues in space sciences and geosciences as they strongly influence the degree of data exploitation. Processing and analysis of large volumes of Earth observation and space/planetary data face two major impediments: limited access capabilities due to narrow connectivity windows between spacecraft and ground receiving stations and lack of sufficient communication and dissemination mechanisms between space data receiving centres and the end-user community. Real-time data assimilation that would be critical in a number of forecasting capabilities is particularly affected by such limitations. The FP7-Space project "Space-Data Routers" (SDR) has the aim of allowing space agencies, academic institutes and research centres to disseminate/share space data generated by single or multiple missions, in an efficient, secure and automated manner. The approach of SDR relies on space internetworking - and in particular on Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN), which marks the new era in space communications, unifies space and earth communication infrastructures and delivers a set of tools and protocols for space-data exploitation. The project includes the definition of limitations imposed by typical space mission scenarios in which the National Observatory of Athens is currently involved, including space and planetary exploration, as well as satellite-supported geoscience applications. In this paper, we present the mission scenarios, the SDR-application and the evaluation of the associated impact from the space-data router enhancements. The work leading to this paper has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2010-1) under grant agreement no. 263330 for the SDR (Space-Data Routers for Exploiting Space Data) collaborative research project. This paper reflects only the authors' views and the Union is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

  6. Exploiting the Potential of Data Centers in the Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yu-An; Liu, Xiaojing; Cao, Tengfei

    As the number of cloud computing data centers grows rapidly in recent years, from the perspective of smart grid, they are really large and noticeable electric load. In this paper, we focus on the important role and the potential of data centers as controllable loads in the smart grid. We reviewed relevant research in the area of letting data centers participate in the ancillary services market and demand response programs of the grid, and further investigate the possibility of exploiting the impact of data center placement on the grid. Various opportunities and challenges are summarized, which could provide more chances for researches to explore this field.

  7. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element, first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Pinnock, Simon; Foumelis, Michael; Ramoino, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan is established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. During 2015 SEOM, Science users consultation workshops have been organized for Sentinel1/3/5P ( Fringe, S3 Symposium and Atmospheric science respectively) , new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels have been launched ( S3 for Science SAR Altimetry and Ocean Color , S2 for Science,) , open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been launched (in particular the SNAP/S1-2-3 Toolbox). In addition two advanced international training courses have been organized in Europe to exploit the new S1-A and S2-A data for Land and Ocean remote sensing (over 120 participants from 25 countries) as well as activities for promoting the first scientific results ( e.g. Chili Earthquake) . In addition the First EO Open Science 2.0 was organised at ESA in October 2015 with 225 participants from 31 countries bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. During the conference precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation were presented, while developing a Roadmap preparing for future ESA scientific exploitation activities. Within the conference, the first

  8. Nonlinear Cherenkov difference-frequency generation exploiting birefringence of KTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter, we demonstrate the realization of nonlinear Cherenkov difference-frequency generation (CDFG) exploiting the birefringence property of KTiOPO4 (KTP) crystal. The pump and signal waves were set to be along different polarizations, thus the phase-matching requirement of CDFG, which is, the refractive index of the pump wave should be smaller than that of the signal wave, was fulfilled. The radiation angles and the intensity dependence of the CDFG on the pump wave were measured, which agreed well with the theoretical ones

  9. Cyber-Herding: Exploiting Islamic Extremists Use of the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, David B.

    2007-01-01

    The internet has many characteristics that support extremists' information operations, such as being able to reach large audiences. Yet the internet also has inherent weaknesses that can be exploited. One of these weaknesses is the ambiguous nature of the net. You trust that when you go to a website that it is legitimate. If it looks professional, you tend to believe that the site is real. However, criminals or terrorists could just as easily be running that website. The same is true when you...

  10. VCSELs and silicon light sources exploiting SOI grating mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    In this talk, novel vertical-cavity laser structure consisting of a dielectric Bragg reflector, a III-V active region, and a high-index-contrast grating made in the Si layer of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer will be presented. In the Si light source version of this laser structure, the SOI...... the Bragg reflector. Numerical simulations show that both the silicon light source and the VCSEL exploiting SOI grating mirrors have superior performances, compared to existing silicon light sources and long wavelength VCSELs. These devices are highly adequate for chip-level optical interconnects as well...

  11. On the Exploitation of Sensitivity Derivatives for Improving Sampling Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanzhao; Hussaini, M. Yousuff; Zang, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    Many application codes, such as finite-element structural analyses and computational fluid dynamics codes, are capable of producing many sensitivity derivatives at a small fraction of the cost of the underlying analysis. This paper describes a simple variance reduction method that exploits such inexpensive sensitivity derivatives to increase the accuracy of sampling methods. Three examples, including a finite-element structural analysis of an aircraft wing, are provided that illustrate an order of magnitude improvement in accuracy for both Monte Carlo and stratified sampling schemes.

  12. Cues That Language Users Exploit to Segment Speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冰茹

    2015-01-01

    <正>The capability to segment words from fluent speech is an important step for learning and acquiring a language(Jusczyk,1999).Therefore,a number of researches and studies have focused on various cues that language learners exploit to locate word boundaries.During the half century,it has been discussed that there are mainly four crucial cues can be used by listeners to segment words in speech.Particularly,they are:(1)Prosody(Echols et al.1997;Jusczyk et al.1996):(2)Statistical and distributional regularities(Brent et al.1996;Saffran et al.1996);(3)Phonotactics(Brent et al.1996;Myers et al.1996);

  13. Exploiting Maximum Parallelism in Loop Using Heterogeneous Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Guosun

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present the defini-tion of maximum loop speedup, which is the metricof parallelism hidden in loop body. We also studythe classes of Do-loop and their dependence as wellas the parallelism they contain. How to exploit suchparallelism under heterogeneous computing environ-ment? The paper proposes several approaches, whichare eliminating serial bottleneck by means of heteroge-neous computing, heterogeneous Do-all-loop schedul-ing, heterogeneous Do-a-cross scheduling. We findthat, not only on theoretical analysis but also on ex-perimental results, these schemes acquire better per-formance than in homogeneous computing.

  14. Cheating by exploitation of developmental prestalk patterning in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Khare

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative developmental system of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is susceptible to exploitation by cheaters-strains that make more than their fair share of spores in chimerae. Laboratory screens in Dictyostelium have shown that the genetic potential for facultative cheating is high, and field surveys have shown that cheaters are abundant in nature, but the cheating mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we describe cheater C (chtC, a strong facultative cheater mutant that cheats by affecting prestalk differentiation. The chtC gene is developmentally regulated and its mRNA becomes stalk-enriched at the end of development. chtC mutants are defective in maintaining the prestalk cell fate as some of their prestalk cells transdifferentiate into prespore cells, but that defect does not affect gross developmental morphology or sporulation efficiency. In chimerae between wild-type and chtC mutant cells, the wild-type cells preferentially give rise to prestalk cells, and the chtC mutants increase their representation in the spore mass. Mixing chtC mutants with other cell-type proportioning mutants revealed that the cheating is directly related to the prestalk-differentiation propensity of the victim. These findings illustrate that a cheater can victimize cooperative strains by exploiting an established developmental pathway.

  15. Exploiting first-class arrays in Fortran for accelerator programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerging architectures for high performance computing often are well suited to a data parallel programming model. This paper presents a simple programming methodology based on existing languages and compiler tools that allows programmers to take advantage of these systems. We will work with the array features of Fortran 90 to show how this infrequently exploited, standardized language feature is easily transformed to lower level accelerator code. Our transformations are based on a mapping from Fortran 90 to C++ code with OpenCL extensions. The sheer complexity of programming for clusters of many or multi-core processors with tens of millions threads of execution make the simplicity of the data parallel model attractive. Furthermore, the increasing complexity of todays applications (especially when convolved with the increasing complexity of the hardware) and the need for portability across hardware architectures make a higher-level and simpler programming model like data parallel attractive. The goal of this work has been to exploit source-to-source transformations that allow programmers to develop and maintain programs at a high-level of abstraction, without coding to a specific hardware architecture. Furthermore these transformations allow multiple hardware architectures to be targeted without changing the high-level source. It also removes the necessity for application programmers to understand details of the accelerator architecture or to know OpenCL.

  16. Exploiting first-class arrays in Fortran for accelerator programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Craig E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weseloh, Wayne N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Robey, Robert W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Matthew, Sottile J [GALORIS, INC.; Quinlan, Daniel [LLNL; Overbye, Jeffrey [INDIANA UNIV.

    2010-12-15

    Emerging architectures for high performance computing often are well suited to a data parallel programming model. This paper presents a simple programming methodology based on existing languages and compiler tools that allows programmers to take advantage of these systems. We will work with the array features of Fortran 90 to show how this infrequently exploited, standardized language feature is easily transformed to lower level accelerator code. Our transformations are based on a mapping from Fortran 90 to C++ code with OpenCL extensions. The sheer complexity of programming for clusters of many or multi-core processors with tens of millions threads of execution make the simplicity of the data parallel model attractive. Furthermore, the increasing complexity of todays applications (especially when convolved with the increasing complexity of the hardware) and the need for portability across hardware architectures make a higher-level and simpler programming model like data parallel attractive. The goal of this work has been to exploit source-to-source transformations that allow programmers to develop and maintain programs at a high-level of abstraction, without coding to a specific hardware architecture. Furthermore these transformations allow multiple hardware architectures to be targeted without changing the high-level source. It also removes the necessity for application programmers to understand details of the accelerator architecture or to know OpenCL.

  17. Exploitation of induced 2n-gametes for plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Adnan; Hwang, Yoon-Jung; Lim, Ki-Byung

    2014-02-01

    Unreduced gamete formation derived via abnormal meiotic cell division is an important approach to polyploidy breeding. This process is considered the main driving force in spontaneous polyploids formation in nature, but the potential application of these gametes to plant breeding has not been fully exploited. An effective mechanism for their artificial induction is needed to attain greater genetic variation and enable efficient use of unreduced gametes in breeding programs. Different approaches have been employed for 2n-pollen production including interspecific hybridization, manipulation of environmental factors and treatment with nitrous oxide, trifluralin, colchicine, oryzalin and other chemicals. These chemicals can act as a stimulus to produce viable 2n pollen; however, their exact mode of action, optimum concentration and developmental stages are still not known. Identification of efficient methods of inducing 2n-gamete formation will help increase pollen germination of sterile interspecific hybrids for inter-genomic recombination and introgression breeding to develop new polyploid cultivars and increase heterozygosity among plant populations. Additionally, the application of genomic tools and identification and isolation of genes and mechanisms involved in the induction of 2n-gamete will enable increased exploitation in different plant species, which will open new avenues for plant breeding. PMID:24311154

  18. Are shale gas exploitation and water resources security compatible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shale gas- or more precisely gas from source rock- is a potential resource, diffused and largely distributed. The exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons raises issues even if most techniques are well known and properly controlled: drilling, casing cementing, the development of natural rock discontinuities for gas or oil production. The most worrying repercussions will be on the surface: multiple boreholes, usage conflicts, linear production infrastructures, access paths and safety of aging constructions. The potential impacts on groundwater at the depth it is traditionally exploited are more indirect than direct. The impacts in depth will be presumably less threatening due to a lack of elements at stake. The cost of projects at such a depth will impose to combine exploration and experimentation in real size. The potential resource is only known through the American administration's indirect and approximate assessment: France would appear to be the second country (after Poland) with the largest quantity in Europe. France must engage in producing its own assessment. The 'code for mines' yet referred to is no more adapted for non-conventional resources, thus minimizing the WFD objectives, the French law on water and the code for the environment, without involving the stake holders. Recently, the administration decided to ban the hydraulic fracturing technique, though in practice since a long time, thus penalizing a professional branch. Policies, regulation, communication, decision process, validation of techniques and security checks on works should be improved. (author)

  19. Exploiting SCADA vulnerabilities using a Human Interface Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoris Tzokatziou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems are used to control and monitor critical national infras-tructure functions like electricity, gas, water and railways. Field devices such as PLC’s (Programmable Logic Controllers are one of the most critical components of a control system. Cyber-attacks usually target valuable infrastructures assets, taking advantage of architectural/technical vulnerabilities or even weaknesses in the defense systems. Even though novel intrusion detection systems are being implemented and used for defending cyber-attacks, certain vulnerabilities of SCADA systems can still be exploited. In this article we present an attack scenario based on a Human Interface Device (HID device which is used as a means of communication/exploitation tool to compromise SCADA systems. The attack, which is a normal series of commands that are sent from the HID to the PLC cannot be detected through current intrusion detection mechanisms. Finaly we provide possible counter measures and defense mechanisms against this kind of cyber attacks.

  20. Coordinating Exploration and Exploitation To Construct Genetic Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江瑞; 罗予频; 胡东成; 司徒国业

    2002-01-01

    A new genetic algorithm is proposed based on the careful coordination of the exploration in the solution space of the given problem and the exploitation of the information from the previous search. In the new algorithm architecture, the population in each generation consists of three sub-populations: a preserved part, a reproduced part, and a randomized part. Two parameters are incorporated into the algorithm to efficiently control the percentage of each sub-population to achieve good balance between the exploration and exploitation processes during the optimization. By modeling the algorithm as a homogeneous finite Markov chain, the new genetic algorithm is shown to converge towards the global optimum of the problem at hand. Experiments were designed to test the algorithm using the Rastrigin function, the Griewangk function, and the Schaffer function. Data analyses using the average success ratio, the average objective calculating number, the average first passage time to solution, and the standard deviation of the first passage time were compared with those of the canonical genetic algorithm, the elitist genetic algorithm, and the steady genetic algorithm. The results show strong evidence that our algorithm is superior in performance in terms of economy, robustness and efficiency.

  1. Exploiting GPUs in Virtual Machine for BioCloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeseung Jo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, biological applications start to be reimplemented into the applications which exploit many cores of GPUs for better computation performance. Therefore, by providing virtualized GPUs to VMs in cloud computing environment, many biological applications will willingly move into cloud environment to enhance their computation performance and utilize infinite cloud computing resource while reducing expenses for computations. In this paper, we propose a BioCloud system architecture that enables VMs to use GPUs in cloud environment. Because much of the previous research has focused on the sharing mechanism of GPUs among VMs, they cannot achieve enough performance for biological applications of which computation throughput is more crucial rather than sharing. The proposed system exploits the pass-through mode of PCI express (PCI-E channel. By making each VM be able to access underlying GPUs directly, applications can show almost the same performance as when those are in native environment. In addition, our scheme multiplexes GPUs by using hot plug-in/out device features of PCI-E channel. By adding or removing GPUs in each VM in on-demand manner, VMs in the same physical host can time-share their GPUs. We implemented the proposed system using the Xen VMM and NVIDIA GPUs and showed that our prototype is highly effective for biological GPU applications in cloud environment.

  2. Exploitation of Clustering Techniques in Transactional Healthcare Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Ahmad Mahoto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare service centres equipped with electronic health systems have improved their resources as well as treatment processes. The dynamic nature of healthcare data of each individual makes it complex and difficult for physicians to manually mediate them; therefore, automatic techniques are essential to manage the quality and standardization of treatment procedures. Exploratory data analysis, patternanalysis and grouping of data is managed using clustering techniques, which work as an unsupervised classification. A number of healthcare applications are developed that use several data mining techniques for classification, clustering and extracting useful information from healthcare data. The challenging issue in this domain is to select adequate data mining algorithm for optimal results. This paper exploits three different clustering algorithms: DBSCAN (Density-Based Clustering, agglomerative hierarchical and k-means in real transactional healthcare data of diabetic patients (taken as case study to analyse their performance in large and dispersed healthcare data. The best solution of cluster sets among the exploited algorithms is evaluated using clustering quality indexes and is selected to identify the possible subgroups of patients having similar treatment patterns

  3. Film-induced, steps for a Real Exploitation in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco di Cesare

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible ways to enhance Europe visibility, its entirety rather than a set of destinations, is implementing cooperation between the Member States especially in creating and developing trans-border thematic tourist products and experiences. One of them could be the film-induced tourism. In looking back over the past two cycles of European programming it is possible to find some examples, described in the article, in which the theme of audiovisual productions in their shooting phase in European locations has been the subject of EU attention.This article refers to some previous research results reminding how movie-induced tourism seems to be used just through sporadic attempts and therefore not developed and exploited in a strategic way. Whether from demand-side is clear what potential is inherent in the relationship between movie and tourism, on the supply side there is still much to do.As the current EC funding period (2014-2020 is favouring, at least in the first calls for proposal that came out, SMEs projects and being aware of the apparent lack of such activities developed by private businesses, the article explores new opportunities to be gathered suggesting a new exploitation path.

  4. Salmonella Typhimurium exploits inflammation to its own advantage in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eChirullo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium is responsible for foodborne zoonotic infections that, in humans, induce self-limiting gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the wild-type strain S. Typhimurium (STM14028 is able to exploit inflammation fostering an active infection.Due to the similarity between human and porcine diseases induced by S. Typhimurium, we used piglets as a model for salmonellosis and gastrointestinal research. This study showed that STM14028 is able to efficiently colonize in vitro porcine mono-macrophages and intestinal columnar epithelial (IPEC-J2 cells, and that the colonization significantly increases with LPS pre-treatment. This increase was then reversed by inhibiting the LPS stimulation through LPS antagonist, confirming an active role of LPS stimulation in the STM14028-intracellular colonization. Moreover, LPS in vivo treatment induces increased cytokines blood level and body temperature at 4 hours post infection, which is consistent with an acute inflammatory stimulus, capable to influence the colonization of STM14028 in different organs and tissues. The present study proves for the first time that in acute enteric salmonellosis, S.Typhimurium exploits inflammation for its benefit in piglets.

  5. The exploration-exploitation dilemma: a multidisciplinary framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded Berger-Tal

    Full Text Available The trade-off between the need to obtain new knowledge and the need to use that knowledge to improve performance is one of the most basic trade-offs in nature, and optimal performance usually requires some balance between exploratory and exploitative behaviors. Researchers in many disciplines have been searching for the optimal solution to this dilemma. Here we present a novel model in which the exploration strategy itself is dynamic and varies with time in order to optimize a definite goal, such as the acquisition of energy, money, or prestige. Our model produced four very distinct phases: Knowledge establishment, Knowledge accumulation, Knowledge maintenance, and Knowledge exploitation, giving rise to a multidisciplinary framework that applies equally to humans, animals, and organizations. The framework can be used to explain a multitude of phenomena in various disciplines, such as the movement of animals in novel landscapes, the most efficient resource allocation for a start-up company, or the effects of old age on knowledge acquisition in humans.

  6. Human trafficking for labour exploitation: Interpreting the crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill E.B. Coster van Voorhout

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of human trafficking for labour exploitation, as follows from the European Council Framework Decision, proves to be unclear. Literal interpretation does not suffice, because it does not clarify all elements of what is deemed to be criminal behaviour, and hermeneutical interpretation also falls short discouraging the aim of this legislation, namely harmonisation. Hence, another solution is required. This article does so by firstly challenging assumptions about human trafficking for labour exploitation that are generally pertinent, but nonetheless untrue. This accurate appraisal of the crime’s nature is followed by a synopsis of national legislation and adjudication in three Member States, so as to also focus on these actualities regarding the crime that are commonly not conceived. This article examines two countries that have implemented the Framework Decision, namely Belgium and the Netherlands, and one that has not yet done so, the United Kingdom. Thereafter remaining unexplained elements of the Framework Decision’s definition are interpreted with use of international, pan-European and European legislation and adjudication. Based upon all this, a suggested interpretation of the Framework Decision’s definition is provided so as to overcome all identified difficulties with it.

  7. A case study of exploiting enterprise resource planning requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Nan; Jin, Mingzhou; Cheng, Jing-Ru C.

    2011-05-01

    The requirements engineering (RE) processes have become a key to conceptualising corporate-wide integrated solutions based on packaged enterprise resource planning (ERP) software. The RE literature has mainly focused on procuring the most suitable ERP package. Little is known about how an organisation exploits the chosen ERP RE model to frame the business application development. This article reports an exploratory case study of a key tenet of ERP RE adoption, namely that aligning business applications to the packaged RE model leads to integral practices and economic development. The case study analysed a series interrelated pilot projects developed for a business division of a large IT manufacturing and service company, using Oracle's appl1ication implementation method (AIM). The study indicated that AIM RE improved team collaboration and project management experience, but needed to make hidden assumptions explicit to support data visibility and integrity. Our study can direct researchers towards rigorous empirical evaluations of ERP RE adoption, collect experiences and lessons learned for practitioners, and help generate more effective and mature processes when exploiting ERP RE methods.

  8. Infomax Strategies for an Optimal Balance Between Exploration and Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gautam; Celani, Antonio; Vergassola, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Proper balance between exploitation and exploration is what makes good decisions that achieve high reward, like payoff or evolutionary fitness. The Infomax principle postulates that maximization of information directs the function of diverse systems, from living systems to artificial neural networks. While specific applications turn out to be successful, the validity of information as a proxy for reward remains unclear. Here, we consider the multi-armed bandit decision problem, which features arms (slot-machines) of unknown probabilities of success and a player trying to maximize cumulative payoff by choosing the sequence of arms to play. We show that an Infomax strategy (Info-p) which optimally gathers information on the highest probability of success among the arms, saturates known optimal bounds and compares favorably to existing policies. Conversely, gathering information on the identity of the best arm in the bandit leads to a strategy that is vastly suboptimal in terms of payoff. The nature of the quantity selected for Infomax acquisition is then crucial for effective tradeoffs between exploration and exploitation.

  9. The control of coal mine gas and coordinated exploitation of coal bed methane in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-zhong

    2009-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of the coalfield geology and the distribution of coal bed methane (CBM) in China, the geological conditions for exploiting the CBM and drain-ing the coal mine gas were analyzed, as well as the characteristics of CBM production. By comparing the current situation of CBM exploitation in China with that in the United States, the current technology and characteristics of the CBM exploitation in China were summa-rized and the major technical problems of coal mine gas control and CBM exploitation analyzed. It was emphasized that the CBM exploitation in China should adopt the coal mine gas drainage method coordinated with coal mine exploitation as the main model. It was proposed that coal mine gas control should be coordinated with coal mine gas ex-ploitation. The technical countermeasure should be integrating the exploitation of coal and CBM and draining gas before coal mining.

  10. Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation: Guest Editor’s Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Salter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most unnerving aspects of child sexual abuse is that it is constantly manifesting in unexpected ways. The current Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse has collected testimony of abuse in churches, schools, out-of-home care, hospitals and religious communities, demonstrating the breadth of institutional arrangements whose structures and cultures have facilitated child sexual abuse. Cases of serious and prolonged sexual abuse in family contexts have been excluded from the terms of reference of the Royal Commission but nonetheless continue to surface in media reports. In 2013, twelve children were permanently removed from an extended family living in rural NSW in what has been described as one of the worst cases of child abuse in Australia, involving intergenerational incest going back at least three generations (Auebach 2014. Another recent high-profile case involved the use of the Internet to facilitate the sexual exploitation of an adopted child by his parents in Queensland (Ralston 2013. These cases challenge the received wisdom that child sexual abuse is characterised by the victimisation of one child by one opportunistic offender. Such incidents suggest instead that child sexual abuse takes varied and systemic forms, and can operate to perpetuate and entrench toxic cultures and power structures.   This special issue on Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation is a timely contribution to ongoing efforts to understand the multiplicity of child sexual abuse. It is an interdisciplinary collection of insights drawn from criminology, sociology, psychiatry, psychology and psychoanalysis, and includes papers from academic researchers alongside academic practitioners whose writing is grounded in their work with affected individuals and communities. A key aim of the special issue is to contextualise the diversity of child sexual abuse socially, politically and historically, recognising the dynamic and iterative

  11. The community structure of a tropical intertidal mudflat under human exploitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de W.F.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2002-01-01

    The impact of human exploitation on the community structure of intertidal mudflats was investigated in an exploited and unexploited control area at Inhaca Island, Mozambique. An increase in the species richness in the exploited area, as expected by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, was not co

  12. 25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled? Reported child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases and...

  13. The Illusions and Juxtapositions of Commercial Sexual Exploitation among Youth: Identifying Effective Street-Outreach Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holger-Ambrose, Beth; Langmade, Cheree; Edinburgh, Laurel D.; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    To explore sexually exploited youths' perspectives of how street outreach workers can effectively provide outreach and connections to services, we conducted qualitative interviews with 13 female participants, ages 14 to 22, in a Midwest U.S. city. Participants reported multiple types of exploitation, most first exploited by age 13, plus…

  14. Schistosoma mansoni cercariae exploit an elastohydrodynamic coupling to swim efficiently

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnamurthy, Deepak; Bhargava, Arjun; Prakash, Manu

    2016-01-01

    The motility of many parasites is critical for the infection process of their host, as exemplified by the transmission cycle of the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. In their human infectious stage, immature, submillimetre-scale forms of the parasite known as cercariae swim in freshwater and infect humans by penetrating through the skin. This infection causes Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease that is comparable to malaria in its global socio-economic impact. Given that cercariae do not feed and hence have a finite lifetime of around 12 hours, efficient motility is crucial for the parasite's survival and transmission of Schistosomiasis. However, a first-principles understanding of how cercariae swim is lacking. Via a combined experimental, theoretical and robotics based approach, we demonstrate that cercariae propel themselves against gravity by exploiting a unique elastohydrodynamic coupling. We show that cercariae beat their tail in a periodic fashion while maintaining a fixed flexibility near their poster...

  15. Exploiting Structural Complexity for Robust and Rapid Hyperspectral Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ely, Gregory; Miller, Eric L

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents several strategies for spectral de-noising of hyperspectral images and hypercube reconstruction from a limited number of tomographic measurements. In particular we show that the non-noisy spectral data, when stacked across the spectral dimension, exhibits low-rank. On the other hand, under the same representation, the spectral noise exhibits a banded structure. Motivated by this we show that the de-noised spectral data and the unknown spectral noise and the respective bands can be simultaneously estimated through the use of a low-rank and simultaneous sparse minimization operation without prior knowledge of the noisy bands. This result is novel for for hyperspectral imaging applications. In addition, we show that imaging for the Computed Tomography Imaging Systems (CTIS) can be improved under limited angle tomography by using low-rank penalization. For both of these cases we exploit the recent results in the theory of low-rank matrix completion using nuclear norm minimization.

  16. Exploiting digital systems technology to improve nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear plant designers in the 1990's have exceptional opportunities to exploit rapidly evolving computer and information system technology to make significant improvements in public safety. CANDU reactors have utilized extensive computer automation for reactor control for 20 years. A direct consequence is that the frequencies for forced outages and spurious protection system trips have been among the lowest for all reactor types. Historically, CANDU was among the first commercial power reactor to utilize computers to implement protection system. System functions with the PDC's (Programmable Digital Comparators) used in the CANDU 600 reactors. PDC's were used to implement the trip decision logic for the process trip parameters. The paper provides detail on safety benefits that have been realized from the use of digital automation for control and protection. The paper describes how accident risk reduction can be achieved in other ways with digital systems

  17. Microbial biosurfactants: challenges and opportunities for future exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2012-11-01

    The drive for industrial sustainability has pushed biosurfactants to the top of the agenda of many companies. Biosurfactants offer the possibility of replacing chemical surfactants, produced from nonrenewable resources, with alternatives produced from cheap renewable feedstocks. Biosurfactants are also attractive because they are less damaging to the environment yet are robust enough for industrial use. The most promising biosurfactants at the present time are the glycolipids, sophorolipids produced by Candida yeasts, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) produced by Pseudozyma yeasts, and rhamnolipids produced by Pseudomonas. Despite the current enthusiasm for these compounds several residual problems remain. This review highlights remaining problems and indicates the prospects for imminent commercial exploitation of a new generation of microbial biosurfactants. PMID:22901730

  18. Information Acquisition and Exploitation in Multichannel Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Guha, Sudipto; Sarkar, Saswati

    2008-01-01

    A wireless system with multiple channels is considered, where each channel has several transmission states. A user learns about the instantaneous state of an available channel by transmitting a control packet in it. Since probing all channels consumes significant energy and time, a user needs to determine what and how much information it needs to acquire about the instantaneous states of the available channels so that it can maximize its transmission rate. This motivates the study of the trade-off between the cost of information acquisition and its value towards improving the transmission rate. A simple model is presented for studying this information acquisition and exploitation trade-off when the channels are multi-state, with different distributions and information acquisition costs. The objective is to maximize a utility function which depends on both the cost and value of information. Solution techniques are presented for computing near-optimal policies with succinct representation in polynomial time. Th...

  19. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and State Child Welfare Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, Dawn; Julion, Wrenetha A; Delaney, Kathleen R

    2015-01-01

    In several states, commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is now a reportable child abuse offense. Illinois has taken the lead in tackling the issue and the Illinois experience illuminates valuable lessons. This article delineates the protection, practice, and policy implications that evolve when CSEC falls under a state child welfare system. The specific aims are to (a) discuss CSEC, its victims, risks, harms, and challenges inherent in providing effective care; (b) use Illinois as an exemplar to explicate the consequences and implementation challenges of establishing a state reporting system that frames CSEC as a child welfare issue; (c) recommend strategies for developing effective state reporting models, and (d) demonstrate how nurses are well poised to advocate for victims of human trafficking on both state and national levels. Recommendations for improving the identification of CSEC victims and overcoming challenges to state implementation are offered. PMID:25908664

  20. Exploration and Exploitation of Victorian Science in Darwin's Reading Notebooks

    CERN Document Server

    Murdock, Jaimie; DeDeo, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Search in an environment with an uncertain distribution of resources involves a trade-off between local exploitation and distant exploration. This extends to the problem of information foraging, where a knowledge-seeker shifts between reading in depth and studying new domains. To study this, we examine the reading choices made by one of the most celebrated scientists of the modern era: Charles Darwin. Darwin built his theory of natural selection in part by synthesizing disparate parts of Victorian science. When we analyze his extensively self-documented reading we find shifts, on multiple timescales, between choosing to remain with familiar topics and seeking cognitive surprise in novel fields. On the longest timescales, these shifts correlate with major intellectual epochs of his career, as detected by Bayesian epoch estimation. When we compare Darwin's reading path with publication order of the same texts, we find Darwin more adventurous than the culture as a whole.

  1. Exploiting the Capabilities of the Interconnection Network on Dawning-1000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Limin; ZHU Mingfa

    1999-01-01

    On Dawning-1000, the two-dimension mesh interconnection network enables low-latency, high-bandwidth communication, however, these capabilities have not been realized because of the high processing overhead imposed by existing communication software. Active Messages provide an efficient communication mechanism with small overhead, which may expose the raw capabilities of the underlying hardware. In addition, one of the most promising techniques, user-level communication, is often used to improve the performance of the traditional protocols such as TCP and UDP, andis also adopted in implementing the novel abstractions like Active Messages. Thus a user-level Active Messages model is designed and implemented on Dawning-1000. Preliminary experiments show that the combination of Active Messages mechanism and user-level communication technique is quite efficient in reducing software overhead associated with sending and receiving messages, and in exploiting the capabilitiesof the interconnection network.

  2. Labour exploitation of illegal immigrants in the developed north

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renovčević Anja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is the exploitation of illegal immigrants working in the developed North, while the main objective is analysis of the relation between illegal migration and market demand for low-cost labor, in the context of globalization, growing inequalities and the new global division of labor. The basic assumption is that the market of so-called developed countries of the North has an internal, self-built need for illegal labor, and that the overall economy in the North largely depends on such labor. In that sense the policies against immigration are considered false or infertile. Also, this paper explains the characteristics of illegal immigrant labor and sectoral deployment, but also the forms it takes and illegal conditions in which it is carried.

  3. Exploiting PV technology for basic need provision in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transitional economies are confronted with ever declining standard of living and low per capita income. Development institutions around the world have come to realize the strategic importance of Sustainable Energy as a Basic Need in the development process. Despite the efforts made by emerging democracies to eradicate poverty, there are still millions of people without access to electricity. Unreliable energy supply currently presents a constant obstacle to many poverty alleviation programmes. Against this background, some states government in Nigeria are exploiting the unique advantage offered by PV technology in the provision of Basic Needs. This study appraises some of the scheme in which the authors have been heavily involved with. This paper identifies some of the strategic policies that might accelerate the successful implementation of PV technology as a poverty alleviation tool in terms of electricity provision in transitional economies. (authors)

  4. Impact of Exploitation System on Commercial Hogs’ Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Petroman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rest is the etho-physiological activity with the most prolonged duration within the 24 hours: thus, males rest for about 61-62% of their time while females rest for about 66-68% of their time. Feed consumption in ad libitum feeding conditions lasts differently: thus, castrated males feed for about 16' 23" ± 0.44" while females feed for about 18'46" ± 0.62". Conflicts within the groups take place in 2.30 ± 0.34 sessions for attacks and in 0.45-0.83 session for defence fights. Attack sessions, foraging sessions, defecation sessions, and urinating sessions to differ between castrated males and females exploited in farming systems since neither feeding, nor living conditions are always acceptable and regular.

  5. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Li-Ling; Luo, Yung-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN) is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols. PMID:27005624

  6. Exploiting the colloidal nanocrystal library to construct electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Wang, Han; Oh, Soong Ju; Paik, Taejong; Sung, Pil; Sung, Jinwoo; Ye, Xingchen; Zhao, Tianshuo; Diroll, Benjamin T.; Murray, Christopher B.; Kagan, Cherie R.

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic methods produce libraries of colloidal nanocrystals with tunable physical properties by tailoring the nanocrystal size, shape, and composition. Here, we exploit colloidal nanocrystal diversity and design the materials, interfaces, and processes to construct all-nanocrystal electronic devices using solution-based processes. Metallic silver and semiconducting cadmium selenide nanocrystals are deposited to form high-conductivity and high-mobility thin-film electrodes and channel layers of field-effect transistors. Insulating aluminum oxide nanocrystals are assembled layer by layer with polyelectrolytes to form high–dielectric constant gate insulator layers for low-voltage device operation. Metallic indium nanocrystals are codispersed with silver nanocrystals to integrate an indium supply in the deposited electrodes that serves to passivate and dope the cadmium selenide nanocrystal channel layer. We fabricate all-nanocrystal field-effect transistors on flexible plastics with electron mobilities of 21.7 square centimeters per volt-second.

  7. Exploiting material softening in hard PZTs for resonant bandwidth enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadenham, S.; Moura, A.; Erturk, A.

    2016-04-01

    Intentionally designed nonlinearities have been employed by several research groups to enhance the frequency bandwidth of vibration energy harvesters. Another type of nonlinear resonance behavior emerges from the piezoelectric constitutive behavior for high excitation levels and is manifested in the form of softening stiffness. This material nonlinearity does not result in the jump phenomenon in soft piezoelectric ceramics, e.g. PZT-5A and PZT-5H, due to their large internal dissipation. This paper explores the potential for wideband energy harvesting using a hard (relatively high quality factor) PZT-8 bimorph by exploiting its material softening. A wide range of base excitation experiments conducted for a set of resistive electrical loads confirms the frequency bandwidth enhancement.

  8. Host exploitation strategies of the social parasite Maculinea alcon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Matthias Alois

      Coevolution is the process where at least two species put some selective pressure on each other, thereby reciprocally influencing each others evolution. To explain co-adaptations invoked by coevolution of interacting species, evolutionary biologists predominantly use host-parasite interactions....... Throughout the first instars M. alcon lives on a specific food plant, however, in the last instar before pupation it develops into an obligate social parasite, posing a considerably cost to its host ant colony. I here focus on the different exploitation strategies of M. alcon throughout its lifecycle...... are the most important factors for oviposition choice of the female butterflies. Whilst development from egg to the 3rd instar exclusively occurs on the food plant, the caterpillar stops feeding when it reaches the 4th instar. Hereafter it will only survive if it is actively adopted by a host ant worker...

  9. Exploiting CRISPR/Cas: Interference Mechanisms and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Plagens

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of biological concepts can often provide a framework for the development of novel molecular tools, which can help us to further understand and manipulate life. One recent example is the elucidation of the prokaryotic adaptive immune system, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated (Cas that protects bacteria and archaea against viruses or conjugative plasmids. The immunity is based on small RNA molecules that are incorporated into versatile multi-domain proteins or protein complexes and specifically target viral nucleic acids via base complementarity. CRISPR/Cas interference machines are utilized to develop novel genome editing tools for different organisms. Here, we will review the latest progress in the elucidation and application of prokaryotic CRISPR/Cas systems and discuss possible future approaches to exploit the potential of these interference machineries.

  10. Safe industrial electron accelerators operation in extended period of exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    construction. Safe industrial electron accelerators operation in extended period of exploitation became a question due to over 30 years long period in service of some units and second hand accelerators sometime offered on the market. The careful evaluation should be performed to establish critical parameters like: - Accelerator reliability (availability); - Access to the spare parts and cost of accelerator servicing; - Safety interlocks condition and reliability; - Quality of cables, wires and rubber tubes which are irradiated by scattered radiation (in some cases replacement is needed in 10-15 years intervals). One should recognize if second hand accelerator was renovated and it is adequate in spite of: - Lack of computer based accelerator control and technological process management; - Limited quality control capabilities in relation to present industrial standards; - Certain accelerator parameters (electron energy, beam power, electrical efficiency, exploitation cost). Positive answer on above topics may allow on successful accelerator exploitation in extended period of time. Such evaluation should be repeated in 2-5 years period to avoid rapid change in accelerator availability. More conservative direct (transformer) accelerator construction is better suited for longer exploitation period to compare with microwave linacs where microwave components with limited life period are applied. Progress in development of microwave components creates difficulties in access to old fashion spare parts. The accelerator upgrading program can be applied in some cases to increase electron energy, beam power or both, replace certain components when ageing process is particularly intense or replace components which are no more accessible as spare parts. The detail investigation should be made to recognize manpower in development and implementation such upgrading program, time needed and available financial resources. New accelerator purchasing could be better solution in some cases. (author)

  11. ANALYSIS OF ANDROID VULNERABILITIES AND MODERN EXPLOITATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Shewale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Android is an operating system based on the Linux kernel. It is the most widely used and popular operating system among Smartphones and portable devices. Its programmable and open nature attracts attackers to take undue advantage. Android platform allows developers to freely access and modify source code. But at the same time it increases the security issue. A user is likely to download and install malicious applications written by software hackers. This paper focuses on understanding and analyzing the vulnerabilities present in android platform. In this paper firstly we study the android architecture; analyze the existing threats and security weaknesses. Then we identify various exploit mitigation techniques to mitigate known vulnerabilities. A detailed analysis will help us to identify the existing loopholes and it will give strategic direction to make android operating system more secure.

  12. Groundwater exploration and exploitation of the Caracas aquifer, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Caracas valley is bordered by crystalline rocks, and the valley fill (Caracas aquifer) comprises the weathering products of these rocks, such as fluvial gravels and sands, in addition to clay and silts from former lakes. All these sediments intercalate in a very irregular manner. Groundwater recharge below Caracas is pronounced because of significant exfiltrations of drinking water out of the distribution net. This creates an important dilution potential for pollutants and stimulates the development of microbiological activity. These, however, cannot favour groundwater withdrawal from the active recharge zone, because protection measures will be difficult to realize. It is therefore recommended that groundwater exploitation be restricted to the passive recharge zone by wells with filter screens more than 100 m below the surface

  13. On the exploitability of thermo-charged capacitors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Abramo, Germano

    2009-01-01

    Recently (arXiv:0904.3188) the concept of vacuum capacitors spontaneously charged thanks to the heat absorbed from single thermal source at room temperature has been introduced, along with a detailed mathematical description of the functioning and a discussion on its main paradoxical feature that seems to violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics. In the present paper we investigate the theoretical and practical possibility of exploiting such thermo-charged capacitors as voltage/current generators: we show that if very weak provisos on the physical characteristics of the capacitors are fulfilled, then a measurable current should flow across the device, allowing the generation of potentially usable voltage, current and electric power out of a single thermal source at room temperature.

  14. How Polyomaviruses Exploit the ERAD Machinery to Cause Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupzyk, Allison; Tsai, Billy

    2016-01-01

    To infect cells, polyomavirus (PyV) traffics from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it hijacks elements of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) machinery to penetrate the ER membrane and reach the cytosol. From the cytosol, the virus transports to the nucleus, enabling transcription and replication of the viral genome that leads to lytic infection or cellular transformation. How PyV exploits the ERAD machinery to cross the ER membrane and access the cytosol, a decisive infection step, remains enigmatic. However, recent studies have slowly unraveled many aspects of this process. These emerging insights should advance our efforts to develop more effective therapies against PyV-induced human diseases. PMID:27589785

  15. Television production, Funding Models and Exploitation of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Doyle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The rise of digital platforms has transformative implications for strategies of financing media production and for exploitation of the economic value in creative content. In the television industry, changes in technologies for distribution and the emergence of SVOD services such as Netflix are gradually shifting audiences and financial power away from broadcasters while at the same time creating unprecedented opportunities for programme-makers.  Drawing on findings from recent RCUK-funded research, this article examines how these shifts are affecting production financing and the economics of supplying television content.  In particular, it focuses on how changes in the dynamics of rights markets and in strategic approaches towards the financing of television production might mean for markets, industries and for policies intended to support the economic sustainability of independent television content production businesses.

  16. Understanding and Exploiting Information Spreading and Integrating Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Petter Holme; Mikael Huss

    2011-01-01

    Our daily life leaves an increasing amount of digital traces,footprints that are improving our lives.Data-mining tools,like recommender systems,convert these traces to information for aiding decisions in an ever-increasing number of areas in our lives.The feedback loop from what we do,to the information this produces,to decisions what to do next,will likely be an increasingly important factor in human behavior on all levels from individuals to societies.In this essay,we review some effects of this feedback and discuss how to understand and exploit them beyond mapping them on more well-understood phenomena.We take examples from models of spreading phenomena in social media to argue that analogies can be deceptive,instead we need to fresh approaches to the new types of data,something we exemplify with promising applications in medicine.

  17. Exploiting tumor shrinkage through temporal optimization of radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Unkelbach, Jan; Hong, Theodore; Papp, David; Ramakrishnan, Jagdish; Salari, Ehsan; Wolfgang, John; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In multi-stage radiotherapy, a patient is treated in several stages separated by weeks or months. This regimen has been motivated mostly by radiobiological considerations, but also provides an approach to reduce normal tissue dose by exploiting tumor shrinkage. The paper considers the optimal design of multi-stage treatments, motivated by the clinical management of large liver tumors for which normal liver dose constraints prohibit the administration of an ablative radiation dose in a single treatment. We introduce a dynamic tumor model that incorporates three factors: radiation induced cell kill, tumor shrinkage, and tumor cell repopulation. The design of multi-stage radiotherapy is formulated as a mathematical optimization problem in which the total dose to the liver is minimized, subject to delivering the prescribed dose to the tumor. Based on the model, we gain insight into the optimal administration of radiation over time, i.e. the optimal treatment gaps and dose levels. We analyze treatments consisting ...

  18. Exploiting the geomagnetic distortion of the inclined atmospheric showers

    CERN Document Server

    Billoir, Pierre; Blanco, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel approach for the determination of the nature of ultra-high energy cosmic rays by exploiting the geomagnetic deviation of muons in nearly horizontal showers. The distribution of the muons at ground level is well described by a simple parametrization providing a few shape parameters tightly correlated to $X^\\mu_\\mathrm{max}$, the depth of maximal muon production, which is a mass indicator tightly correlated to the usual parameter $X_\\mathrm{max}$, the depth of maximal development of the shower. We show that some constraints can be set on the predictions of hadronic models, especially by combining the geomagnetic distortion with standard measurement of the longitudinal profile. We discuss the precision needed to obtain significant results and we propose a schematic layout of a detector.

  19. Smart facility application: exploiting space technology for smart city solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termizi, A. A. A.; Ahmad, N.; Omar, M. F.; Wahap, N. A.; Zainal, D.; Ismail, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Facilities and amenities management is amongst the core functionalities of local government. Considering the vast area that local government has to manage, a smart solution is extremely inevitable to solve issues such as inefficient maintenance of public parks, drainage system and so forth. Therefore, this paper aims to offer a smart city solution which exploits the benefit of space technology. This proposed solution is one of the modules developed in Spatial Smart City Service Delivery Engine (SSC SDE) Project undertaken by Agensi Angkasa Negara (ANGKASA). Various levels of local government have been chosen to understand real issues faced by them. Based on this data, a Smart Facility application has been developed with the aim to enhance the service delivery by the local government hence improving citizens’ satisfaction. Since this project is still in progress, this paper will merely discussing the concept of this application.

  20. Exploiting periodicity to extract the atrial activity in atrial arrhythmias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinares, Raul; Igual, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation disorders are one of the main arrhythmias of the elderly. The atrial and ventricular activities are decoupled during an atrial fibrillation episode, and very rapid and irregular waves replace the usual atrial P-wave in a normal sinus rhythm electrocardiogram (ECG). The estimation of these wavelets is a must for clinical analysis. We propose a new approach to this problem focused on the quasiperiodicity of these wavelets. Atrial activity is characterized by a main atrial rhythm in the interval 3-12 Hz. It enables us to establish the problem as the separation of the original sources from the instantaneous linear combination of them recorded in the ECG or the extraction of only the atrial component exploiting the quasiperiodic feature of the atrial signal. This methodology implies the previous estimation of such main atrial period. We present two algorithms that separate and extract the atrial rhythm starting from a prior estimation of the main atrial frequency. The first one is an algebraic method based on the maximization of a cost function that measures the periodicity. The other one is an adaptive algorithm that exploits the decorrelation of the atrial and other signals diagonalizing the correlation matrices at multiple lags of the period of atrial activity. The algorithms are applied successfully to synthetic and real data. In simulated ECGs, the average correlation index obtained was 0.811 and 0.847, respectively. In real ECGs, the accuracy of the results was validated using spectral and temporal parameters. The average peak frequency and spectral concentration obtained were 5.550 and 5.554 Hz and 56.3 and 54.4%, respectively, and the kurtosis was 0.266 and 0.695. For validation purposes, we compared the proposed algorithms with established methods, obtaining better results for simulated and real registers.

  1. Automated motion imagery exploitation for surveillance and reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Se, Stephen; Laliberte, France; Kotamraju, Vinay; Dutkiewicz, Melanie

    2012-06-01

    Airborne surveillance and reconnaissance are essential for many military missions. Such capabilities are critical for troop protection, situational awareness, mission planning and others, such as post-operation analysis / damage assessment. Motion imagery gathered from both manned and unmanned platforms provides surveillance and reconnaissance information that can be used for pre- and post-operation analysis, but these sensors can gather large amounts of video data. It is extremely labour-intensive for operators to analyse hours of collected data without the aid of automated tools. At MDA Systems Ltd. (MDA), we have previously developed a suite of automated video exploitation tools that can process airborne video, including mosaicking, change detection and 3D reconstruction, within a GIS framework. The mosaicking tool produces a geo-referenced 2D map from the sequence of video frames. The change detection tool identifies differences between two repeat-pass videos taken of the same terrain. The 3D reconstruction tool creates calibrated geo-referenced photo-realistic 3D models. The key objectives of the on-going project are to improve the robustness, accuracy and speed of these tools, and make them more user-friendly to operational users. Robustness and accuracy are essential to provide actionable intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information. Speed is important to reduce operator time on data analysis. We are porting some processor-intensive algorithms to run on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) in order to improve throughput. Many aspects of video processing are highly parallel and well-suited for optimization on GPUs, which are now commonly available on computers. Moreover, we are extending the tools to handle video data from various airborne platforms and developing the interface to the Coalition Shared Database (CSD). The CSD server enables the dissemination and storage of data from different sensors among NATO countries. The CSD interface allows

  2. Exploitation of heterosis using diverse parental lines in Rabi Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar and M. S. Raut

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench is one of the major crops for grain and fodder, widely grown in India under rain fedconditions. Rabi sorghum is grown in an area of 5.5 million hectares mainly in the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka and AndhraPradesh with average productivity of 854 kg/ha. Despite low productivity, Rabi sorghum continues to be an importantcomponent of dry land economy in these states with fairly consistent area over many years. The low yields are mainly due tovarious abiotic and biotic stresses. Hybrid vigour and its commercial exploitation have paid rich dividends in Kharif sorghumleading to quantum jump in sorghum production. However, the progress in Rabi sorghum is limited and there is a need forcritical studies on combining ability and heterosis involving diverse sources of breeding lines. Present study comprised a line xtester analysis involving 2 lines and 7 testers for exploitation of heterosis and assessing best combiners. Combining abilitystudies revealed the presence of significant differences due to lines, testers and line x testers, indicating the presence ofvariability. Considering the general combining ability effects of parents, female SL-19B and males SLR-13, SLR-24 and SLR-30 were good general combiners for grain yield and the female SL-12B and male SLR-10 and SLR-27 were good generalcombiners for earliness. The crosses SL-19B x SLR-13, SL-19B x SLR-17, SL-19B x SLR-30 and SL-19B x SLR-39 wereidentified for improving grain yield and crosses SL-12B x SLR-10, SL-12B x SLR-27 and SL-12B x SLR-39 were selected forbreeding earliness.

  3. Sensor Exposure, Exploitation, and Experimentation Environment (SE4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, D.; Duff, F.; Goding, J.; Bankston, M.; McLaughlin, T.; Six, S.; Taylor, S.; Wootton, S.

    2011-09-01

    As the resident space object population increases from new launches and events such as the COSMOS/IRIDIUM collision, the maintenance of high-level Space Situational Awareness (SSA) has become increasingly difficult. To maintain situational awareness of the changing environment, new systems and methods must be developed. The Sensor Exposure, Exploitation and Experimentation Environment (SE4) provides a platform to illustrate “The Art of the Possible” that shows the potential benefit of enriched sensor data collections and real-time data sharing. Through modeling and simulation, and a net-centric architecture, SE4 shows the added value of sharing data in real-time and exposing new types of sensor data. The objective of SE4 is to develop an experimentation and innovation environment for sensor data exposure, composable sensor capabilities, reuse, and exploitation that accelerates the delivery of needed Command and Control, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance capabilities to the warfighter. Through modeling, simulation and rapid prototyping, the art of the possible for a fully-connected, net-centric space Command and Control (C2) and sensor enterprise can be demonstrated. This paper provides results that demonstrate the potential for faster cataloging of breakup events and additional event monitoring that are possible with data available today in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). Demonstrating the art of the possible for the enterprise will guide net-centric requirements definition and facilitate discussions with stakeholder organizations on the Concept of Operations (CONOPS), policy, and Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP) evolution necessary to take full advantage of net-centric operations. SE4 aligns with direction from Secretary Gates and the Chairman Joint Chief of Staff that emphasizes the need to get the most out of our existing systems. Continuing to utilize SE4 will enable the enterprise by demonstrating the benefits of applying

  4. Exploitation of the waste-heat from hydro power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the possibility of exploiting low-temperature heat from the generators' cooling system within a hydro power plant, using a HTHP (high temperature heat-pump) that enables heating at up to 85 °C. The results based on theoretical calculations are presented for heat-flows, the powers of the compressors, and COP (coefficient of performance) values for the cases when using the refrigerant R717 and a single stage high pressure compressor (up to 50 bar) under varying operational conditions. Real possibilities are presented for heat production based on measurements of a closed cooling system of generators, thus showing that the total efficiencies of generators can be enhanced by up to 1% whilst reducing the electricity consumption during the electric heating of buildings. In addition, the simulations of cost and revenue, and cumulatively discounted cash-flows of the investment in HTHP are presented using the MS Excel computer program. The payback period for the investment in a 500 kW high-temperature heat-pump for exploiting low-temperature heat of the generators' cooling system would be approximately 2 years for the case of heating the commercial buildings of the hydro power plant, and 7 years for the case when heating the fluid within the nearby district heating systems of urban settlements. - Highlights: • Article describes the use of generators' heat within a hydroelectric power plant. • Total energy efficiency of hydroelectric generators can thus be increased by up to 1%. • High-temperature heat-pump allows a temperature rise of up to 85 °C with COP (coefficient of performance) > 5. • Heat recovery of a generator cooling system is very economical

  5. Serological investigation of vector-borne disease in dogs from rural areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwen Wang; Jing He; Lijuan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum), Ehrlichia canis (E. canis), Dirofilaria immitis (D. immitis) (canine heartworm), Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) infections in countryside dogs from Yunnan, Hainan and Anhui provinces. Methods: Serum samples were collected from 26 dogs in Yunnan, Hainan and Anhui provinces. The samples were tested using a commercial ELISA rapid diagnostic assay kit (SNAP® 4Dx®; IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. U.S.A.). Meanwhile, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) recommended by WHO was conducted to detect IgG to A. phagocytophilum. Two methods were analyzed and compared. Results: The number of serologically positive dogs for IgG to A. phagocytophilum was only 2 which was from Hainan province and none of the 26 dogs responded positive for E. canis, D. immitis (canine heartworm), and B. burgdorferi by ELISA rapid diagnostic method. The number of serologically positive dogs for IgG to A. phagocytophilum was 13 (50%) by IFA method. Data of the two methods were analyzed by statistical software and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.002). Conclusions: It can be concluded that IFA method was more sensitive than ELISA rapid diagnostic method. However, we need conduct further and intensive epidemiology survey on tick-born diseases pathogens including A. phagocytophilum, E. canis, D. immitis (canine heartworm), and B. burgdorferi which have public health significance.

  6. Outbreak of anaplasmosis associated with the presence of different Anaplasma marginale strains in dairy cattle in the states of São Paulo and Goiás, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; André, Marcos Rogério; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Matos, Carlos Antonio; Obregón, Dasiel

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports the genetic diversity of Anaplasma marginale during anaplasmosis outbreaks in rural properties of the states of Goiás and São Paulo, Brazil. Mortality rates of 3.5% (37/1,050) in calves, 4.7% (45/954) in heifers and 1.1% (25/2,200) in lactating cows were observed in a cattle herd of the municipality of Mambaí, state of Goiás, central-western Brazil. In a cattle herd from the municipality of Lins, state of São Paulo, in southeastern Brazil, none of the animals died, despite presenting clinical signs suggestive of bovine anaplasmosis and exhibiting a drastic decrease in milk production. Thus, blood samples were collected from 100 animals with clinical signs suggestive of bovine anaplasmosis in the municipalities of Mambaí and Lins. Based on the microsatellite structure of the MSP1a of A. marginale, the genotypes E and H were observed in Lins, and the C, D and E genotypes were found in Mambaí. The analysis of the tandem repeat structures of the MSP1a showed nine different strains (τ-10 -15, α-β2, α-β3-13, α-β2 192, τ-β-100, α-β2-Γ, 193-β-100, 191-13-Γ and 191-13-18) in Lins and two (α-β3-Γ and E-F-φ2-F2) in Mambaí. Three new tandem repeats of MSP1a (191, 192 and 193) were described. The τ-10-15 and α-β3-Γ strains were predominantly associated with the occurrence of clinical anaplasmosis and mortality in calves, heifers and lactating cows. PMID:26648009

  7. Investigação molecular de Ehrlichia spp. e Anaplasma platys em felinos domésticos: alterações clínicas, hematológicas e bioquímicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete S Correa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia sp. e Anaplasma platys são micro-organismos Gram negativos, parasitos intracelulares obrigatórios, residindo em vacúolos citoplasmáticos de leucócitos e plaquetas, encontrados no sangue periférico ou em tecidos. Poucos relatos têm sido feitos sobre erliquiose e anaplasmose em gatos no Brasil, os quais são baseados na presença de mórulas em leucócitos e plaquetas, ou pela detecção de anticorpos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a infecção natural por Ehrlichia sp. e A.platys em gatos no Município de Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ, através da hematoscopia e pela detecção do DNA desses agentes. Foram utilizadas amostras de sangue total e de soro de 91 gatos, independente de raça, sexo e idade. Realizaram-se hemograma, bioquímica sérica e PCR, utilizando oligonucleotídes para Ehrlichia sp. e A.platys. Os dados de hematoscopia mostraram que 9,89% dos gatos apresentaram mórulas em macroplaquetas. O DNA de A.platys foi detectado em 13,18% dos 91 animais e em 44,44% das amostras positivas à hematoscopia. O DNA de Ehrlichia sp. não foi detectado em nenhuma amostra. Nenhuma alteração foi observada nos sinais clínicos nem nos resultados laboratoriais nos animais estudados. Os dados sugerem que os felinos domésticos podem atuar como potenciais reservatórios para A. platys, como forma não sintomática das enfermidades relacionadas

  8. Making and exploiting fullerenes, graphene, and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcaccio, Massimo; Paolucci, Francesco (eds.) [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry G. Ciamician

    2014-11-01

    This volume contains nine chapters which are presenting critical reviews of the present and future trends in modern chemistry research. The chapter ''Solubilization of Fullerenes, Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene'' by Alain Penicaud describes the various ingenious approaches to solve the solubility issue and describes in particular how graphite, and modern nanocarbons, can be made soluble by reductive dissolution. A large part of the present volume concerns the merging of nanocarbons with nanotechnology and their impact on technical development in many areas. Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamond and graphene find, for instance, various applications in the development of solar cells, including dye sensitized solar cells. The chapter ''Incorporation of Balls, Tubes and Bowls in Nanotechnology'' by James Mack describes the recent development of the area of fullerene fragments, and corannulene in particular, and their direct applications to organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology, while, in the chapter ''Exploiting Nanocarbons in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells'' by Ladislav Kavan, the exploitation of nanocarbons in the development of novel dye sensitized solar cells with improved efficiency, durability and costs is thoroughly reviewed. The functionalization of CNSs has the invaluable advantage of combining their unique properties with those of other classes of materials. Supramolecular chemistry represents an elegant alternative approach for the construction of functional systems by means of noncovalent bonding interactions. In the chapter ''Supramolecular Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes'' by Gildas Gavrel et al., the incredibly varied world of supramolecular, non-covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes and their applications is examined and reviewed, and the synthetic strategies devised for fabricating mechanically-linked molecular architectures are described in the chapter &apos

  9. Rare earth elements exploitation, geopolitical implications and raw materials trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemin, Marie-Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) correspond to seventeen elements of the periodic table. They are used in high technology, cracking, electric cars' magnet, metal alloy for batteries, and also in phone construction or ceramics for electronic card. REEs are an important resource for high technology. This project targets 16 years old students in the subject "personalized aid" and will last six weeks. The purpose of this project is to develop autonomy and research in groups for a transdisciplinary work. This project gathers knowledge in geology, geography and economics. During the first session students analyze the geology applications of the REE. They begin the analysis with learning the composition in different rocks such as basalt and diorite to make the link with crystallization. Then they compare it with adakite to understand the formation of these rocks. In the second session, they study REE exploitation. We can find them as oxides in many deposits. The principal concentrations of rare earth elements are associated with uncommon varieties of igneous rocks, such as carbonatites. They can use Qgis, to localize this high concentration. In the third session, they study the environmental costs of REE exploitation. Indeed, the exploitation produces thorium and carcinogenic toxins: sulphates, ammonia and hydrochloric acid. Processing one ton of rare earths produces 2,000 tons of toxic waste. This session focuses, first, on Baotou's region, and then on an example they are free to choose. In the fourth session, they study the geopolitical issues of REE with a focus on China. In fact this country is the largest producer of REE, and is providing 95% of the overall production. REE in China are at the center of a geopolitical strategy. In fact, China implements a sort of protectionism. Indeed, the export tax on REE is very high so, as a foreign company, it is financially attractive to establish a manufacturing subsidiary in China in order to use REE. As a matter of fact

  10. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Zehner, Claus; Engdahl, Marcus; Benveniste, Jerome; Delwart, Steven; Gascon, Ferran; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bojkov, Bojan; Koetz, Benjamin; Arino, Olivier; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Foumelis, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of the ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) programme element are • to federate, support and expand the research community • to strengthen the leadership of European EO research community • to enable the science community to address new scientific research As a preparation for the SEOM element a series of international science users consultation has been organized by ESA in 2012 and 2013 In particular the ESA Living Planet Symposium was successfully organized in Edinburgh September 2013 and involving 1700 participants from 60 countries. The science users recommendations have been gathered and form the basis for the 2014 SEOM work plan approved by ESA member states. The SEOM element is organized along the following action lines: 1. Developing open-source, multi-mission, scientific toolboxes : the new toolboxes for Sentinel 1/2/3 and 5P will be introduced 2. Research and development studies: the first SEOM studies are being launched such as the INSARAP studies for Sentinel 1 interferometry in orbit demonstration , the IAS study to generate an improved spectroscopic database of the trace gas species CH4, H2O, and CO in the 2.3 μm region and SO2 in the UV region for Sentinel 5 P. In addition larger Sentinels for science call will be tendered in 2014 covering grouped studies for Sentinel 1 Land , Sentinel 1 Ocean , Sentinel 2 Land, Sentinel 3 SAR Altimetry ,Sentinel 3 Ocean color, Sentinel 3 Land and Sentinels Synergy . 3. Science users consultation : the Sentinel 2 for Science workshop is planned from 20 to 22 may 2014 at ESRIN to prepare for scientific exploitation of the Sentinel-2 mission (http://seom.esa.int/S2forScience2014 ) . In addition the FRINGE workshop focusing on scientific explotation of Sentinel1 using SAR interferometry is planned to be held at ESA ESRIN in Q2 2015 4. Training the next generation of European EO scientists on the scientific exploitation of Sentinels data: the Advanced Training course Land

  11. Exploitation of Information Processing Technologies to Extend Digital Library Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hua Yeh、Jia-Yanh Chang、Yen-Jen Oyan

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:1-11

    This paper discusses exploitation of information processing technologies to extend digital library applications to a new dimension. The discussion focuses on the following three information processing technologies.

    l. information extraction.

    2. deductive inference.

    3. data mining.

    The most significant applications are discovery and derivation of new information and knowledge. This paper discusses how these information processing technologies can be exploited to complement the capabilities of human beings in the digital library domain. The tasks that the developed information processing utilities perform are simple and tedious intelligent information processing. However, because a digital library contains a large quantity of contents, it is common that human beings can hardly carry out such tasks exhaustively. As a result, a great amount of information and knowledge may remain undiscovered without the assistance of assistance of such utilities. On the other hands, with the developed information processing utilities, human being are the released form performing

  12. Tickborne fever associated with abortion outbreak in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-20

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum detected in aborting cows on rough grazingLead poisoning in bullocksPersistent bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection and colisepticaemia in a 20-hour-old calfAbortion due to bovine herpesvirus 1 in a four-year-old cowTickborne fever in lambsInfectious sinusitis due to Mycoplasma gallisepticum in pheasants These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for May 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:27550334

  13. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae in hard ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) parasitizing bats in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Piksa, Krzysztof; Stańczak, Joanna; Biernat, Beata; Górz, Andrzej; Nowak-Chmura, Magdalena; Siuda, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    A total of 491 Ixodes vespertilionis and 8 Ixodes ricinus collected from bats and cave walls in southern Poland between 2010 and 2012 were examined by the polymerase chain reaction for tick-transmitted pathogens. PCR analysis for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum yielded negative results for all I. vespertilionis. DNA of Rickettsia helvetica was detected in three specimens of I. ricinus attached to Rhinolophus hipposideros or Myotis myotis, while Borrel...

  14. The pCS20 PCR assay for Ehrlichia ruminantium does not cross-react with the novel deer ehrlichial agent found in white-tailed deer in the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Mahan, S. M.; B.H. Simbi; Burridge, M J

    2004-01-01

    White-tailed deer are susceptible to heartwater (Ehrlichia [Cowdria] ruminantium infection) and are likely to suffer high mortality if the disease spreads to the United States. It is vital, therefore, to validate a highly specific and sensitive detection method for E. ruminantium infection that can be reliably used in testing white-tailed deer, which are reservoirs of antigenically or genetically related agents such as Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum (HGE a...

  15. Assessment of Polymicrobial Infections in Ticks in New York State

    OpenAIRE

    Tokarz, Rafal; Jain, Komal; Bennett, Ashlee; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2010-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis ticks are clinically important hematophagous vectors. A single tick bite can lead to a polymicrobial infection. We determined the prevalence of polymicrobial infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Borrelia miyamotoi, and Powassan virus in 286 adult ticks from the two counties in New York State where Lyme disease is endemic, utilizing a MassTag multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. Seventy-one percent of the ticks harbored at lea...

  16. Coexistence of Pathogens in Host-Seeking and Feeding Ticks within a Single Natural Habitat in Central Germany▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Jan; Fritzsch, Julia; Tomaso, Herbert; Straube, Eberhard; Dorn, Wolfram; Hildebrandt, Anke

    2010-01-01

    The importance of established and emerging tick-borne pathogens in Central and Northern Europe is steadily increasing. In 2007, we collected Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on birds (n = 211) and rodents (n = 273), as well as host-seeking stages (n = 196), in a habitat in central Germany. In order to find out more about their natural transmission cycles, the ticks were tested for the presence of Lyme disease borreliae, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, Francisella...

  17. First evidence of feline herpesvirus, calicivirus, parvovirus, and Ehrlichia exposure in Brazilian free-ranging felids.

    OpenAIRE

    Filoni, C.; Catão-Dias, J L; Bay, G.; E. L. Durigon; Jorge, R S P; Lutz, H.; Hofmann-Lehmann, R.

    2006-01-01

    Serum samples from 18 pumas (Puma concolor), one ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and two little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus) collected from free-ranging animals in Brazil between 1998 and 2004 were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) for antibodies to feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV 1), calicivirus (FCV), coronavirus (FCoV), parvo-virus (FPV), Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma pha-gocytophilum, and Bartonella henselae. Serum samples also were tested, by Western blot and ELISA, for feline leukemi...

  18. Agents of Human Anaplasmosis and Lyme Disease at Camp Ripley, Minnesota

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Russell C.; Kodner, Carrie; Jarnefeld, Janet; Eck, Deborah K.; Xu, Yaning

    2011-01-01

    The transmission dynamics of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap) and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) among Ixodes scapularis (Is) and mammalian hosts was investigated at Camp Ripley, an area representative of central Minnesota. Prevalence of white-footed mouse infection with Ap and Bb were 20% and 42%, respectively, with a coinfection level of 14%. Peak levels of infection with both agents occurred in May. The average levels of seropositivity to Ap and Bb were 29.3% and 48%, respectively. Of the mice in...

  19. The ecology of tick-transmitted infections in the redwood chipmunk (Tamias ochrogenys)

    OpenAIRE

    Janet E. Foley; Nieto, Nathan C.

    2011-01-01

    The redwood chipmunk contributes to the maintenance of tick-borne diseases in northern California. The range of redwood chipmunks overlaps that of western black-legged ticks and tick-borne disease, including granulocytic anaplasmosis and Lyme borreliosis. Chipmunks have high Anaplasma phagocytophilum PCR- and seroprevalence, are infested with a diversity of Ixodes spp. ticks, and are reservoir competent for Borrelia burgdorferi. We hypothesized that chipmunks could maintain tick-borne disease...

  20. Bats track and exploit changes in insect pest populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary F McCracken

    Full Text Available The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator's ability to track and exploit available prey. Using a qPCR fecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis consuming corn earworm (CEW moths (Helicoverpa zea and seasonal fluctuations in CEW populations. This result is consistent with earlier research linking the bats' diet to patterns of migration, abundance, and crop infestation by important insect pests. Here we confirm opportunistic feeding on one of the world's most destructive insects and support model estimates of the bats' ecosystem services. Regression analysis of CEW consumption versus the moth's abundance at four insect trapping sites further indicates that bats track local abundance of CEW within the regional landscape. Estimates of CEW gene copies in the feces of bats are not associated with seasonal or local patterns of CEW abundance, and results of captive feeding experiments indicate that our qPCR assay does not provide a direct measure of numbers or biomass of prey consumed. Our results support growing evidence for the role of generalist predators, and bats specifically, as agents for biological control and speak to the value of conserving indigenous generalist predators.

  1. Bats track and exploit changes in insect pest populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Gary F; Westbrook, John K; Brown, Veronica A; Eldridge, Melanie; Federico, Paula; Kunz, Thomas H

    2012-01-01

    The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator's ability to track and exploit available prey. Using a qPCR fecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consuming corn earworm (CEW) moths (Helicoverpa zea) and seasonal fluctuations in CEW populations. This result is consistent with earlier research linking the bats' diet to patterns of migration, abundance, and crop infestation by important insect pests. Here we confirm opportunistic feeding on one of the world's most destructive insects and support model estimates of the bats' ecosystem services. Regression analysis of CEW consumption versus the moth's abundance at four insect trapping sites further indicates that bats track local abundance of CEW within the regional landscape. Estimates of CEW gene copies in the feces of bats are not associated with seasonal or local patterns of CEW abundance, and results of captive feeding experiments indicate that our qPCR assay does not provide a direct measure of numbers or biomass of prey consumed. Our results support growing evidence for the role of generalist predators, and bats specifically, as agents for biological control and speak to the value of conserving indigenous generalist predators. PMID:22952782

  2. Exploiting Dynamic Workload Variation in Low Energy Preemptive Task Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Lap-Fai; Hu, Xiaobo Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A novel energy reduction strategy to maximally exploit the dynamic workload variation is proposed for the offline voltage scheduling of preemptive systems. The idea is to construct a fully-preemptive schedule that leads to minimum energy consumption when the tasks take on approximately the average execution cycles yet still guarantees no deadline violation during the worst-case scenario. End-time for each sub-instance of the tasks obtained from the schedule is used for the on-line dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) of the tasks. For the tasks that normally require a small number of cycles but occasionally a large number of cycles to complete, such a schedule provides more opportunities for slack utilization and hence results in larger energy saving. The concept is realized by formulating the problem as a Non-Linear Programming (NLP) optimization problem. Experimental results show that, by using the proposed scheme, the total energy consumption at runtime is reduced by as high as 60% for randomly generated task set...

  3. IN A PARALLEL UNIVERSE: HOW ART EXPLOITS TECHNOLOGY

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Technical innovation in the arts creates new opportunities for perceptual shifts that lead to lasting achievements. One of the most important events took place in the 15th century not far from CERN on the other side of the Alps in Venice. Titian, in one life time, exploited these new material developments to expand the range of expression like no other artist of his generation. Titian was able to harness these new innovations to emerge as the supreme competitor and hustler, a notion that seems very much a part of the modern promotion of art as exemplified by Warhol , Jeff Koons and Damian Hirst. The language of science and technology has created social networks, changed the mediums and the subject of fine art. Fast forward to CERN 2012, the most expensive experiment in the history of science. The knowledge of dark matter will either help confirm, or not, the Standard Model. This information will be part of what Michel Foucault calls "epistemological breaks", shifts in consciousness that change our p...

  4. Informing or Exploiting? Public Reponses to Giuliana Rancic's Health Narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bute, Jennifer J; Quinlan, Margaret M; Quandt, Lindsay K

    2016-08-01

    Popular entertainment journalist Giuliana Rancic has shared her struggles with pregnancy loss, infertility, and breast cancer in an array of public forums. In this study, we analyzed online comments responding to public discourses surrounding Rancic's revelations, including her miscarriage and fertility treatments, her breast cancer diagnosis, and her decision to undergo a double mastectomy. Our goal was to explore how the public framed Rancic's health challenges. Using a narrative lens, we argue that online comments reveal the tensions that celebrities like Rancic must manage as they contend with public scrutiny of their stories. Online commenters in this study framed Rancic's narrative as a privileged vantage point in which she exploited her health struggles for personal and financial gain. Our analysis of these comments also demonstrates how Rancic's narrative exists in concert with other discourses that challenge and disrupt her own account of events. The examination of these mediated discourses has implications for understanding the role of celebrity experiences in personal and public conversations about health. PMID:26756357

  5. Cosimulation of electromagnetics-circuit systems exploiting DGTD and MNA

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2014-06-01

    A hybrid electromagnetics (EM)-circuit simulator exploiting the discontinuous Galerkin time domain (DGTD) method and the modified nodal analysis (MNA) algorithm is developed for analyzing hybrid distributive and nonlinear multiport lumped circuit systems. The computational domain is split into two subsystems. One is the EM subsystem that is analyzed by DGTD, while the other is the circuit subsystem that is solved by the MNA method. The coupling between the EM and circuit subsystems is enforced at the lumped port where related field and circuit unknowns are coupled via the use of numerical flux, port voltages, and current sources. Since the spatial operations of DGTD are localized, thanks to the use of numerical flux, coupling matrices between EM and circuit subsystems are small and are directly inverted. To handle nonlinear devices within the circuit subsystem, the standard Newton-Raphson method is applied to the nonlinear coupling matrix system. In addition, a local time-stepping scheme is applied to improve the efficiency of the hybrid solver. Numerical examples including single and multiport linear/nonlinear circuit networks are presented to validate the proposed solver. © 2014 IEEE.

  6. MAPI: towards the integrated exploitation of bioinformatics Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Johan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioinformatics is commonly featured as a well assorted list of available web resources. Although diversity of services is positive in general, the proliferation of tools, their dispersion and heterogeneity complicate the integrated exploitation of such data processing capacity. Results To facilitate the construction of software clients and make integrated use of this variety of tools, we present a modular programmatic application interface (MAPI that provides the necessary functionality for uniform representation of Web Services metadata descriptors including their management and invocation protocols of the services which they represent. This document describes the main functionality of the framework and how it can be used to facilitate the deployment of new software under a unified structure of bioinformatics Web Services. A notable feature of MAPI is the modular organization of the functionality into different modules associated with specific tasks. This means that only the modules needed for the client have to be installed, and that the module functionality can be extended without the need for re-writing the software client. Conclusions The potential utility and versatility of the software library has been demonstrated by the implementation of several currently available clients that cover different aspects of integrated data processing, ranging from service discovery to service invocation with advanced features such as workflows composition and asynchronous services calls to multiple types of Web Services including those registered in repositories (e.g. GRID-based, SOAP, BioMOBY, R-bioconductor, and others.

  7. The business of exploiting induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Catherine

    2011-08-12

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) can be exploited for both research and clinical applications. The first part of this review seeks to provide an understanding of the financial drivers and key elements of a successful business strategy that underpin a company focused on developing iPS-related products and services targeted at the research market. The latter part of the review highlights some of the reasons as to why the reprogramming of somatic cells is currently being used to develop cell-based models to screen for small molecules with drug-like properties rather than to develop cell-based regenerative medicines per se. The latter may be used to repair or replace a patient's damaged cells and thereby have the potential to 'cure' a disease and, in doing so, prevent or delay the onset of associated medical conditions. However, the cost of an expensive regenerative medicine and time to accrue any benefit linked to a decrease in co-morbidity expenditure may not outweigh the benefit for a healthcare community that has finite resources. The implications of this are discussed together with evidence that the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and the National Health Service (NHS) have established a precedent for a cost-sharing strategy with the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:21727138

  8. Compressive sensing exploiting wavelet-domain dependencies for ECG compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polania, Luisa F.; Carrillo, Rafael E.; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Barner, Kenneth E.

    2012-06-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) is an emerging signal processing paradigm that enables sub-Nyquist sampling of sparse signals. Extensive previous work has exploited the sparse representation of ECG signals in compression applications. In this paper, we propose the use of wavelet domain dependencies to further reduce the number of samples in compressive sensing-based ECG compression while decreasing the computational complexity. R wave events manifest themselves as chains of large coefficients propagating across scales to form a connected subtree of the wavelet coefficient tree. We show that the incorporation of this connectedness as additional prior information into a modified version of the CoSaMP algorithm can significantly reduce the required number of samples to achieve good quality in the reconstruction. This approach also allows more control over the ECG signal reconstruction, in particular, the QRS complex, which is typically distorted when prior information is not included in the recovery. The compression algorithm was tested upon records selected from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm leads to high compression ratios associated with low distortion levels relative to state-of-the-art compression algorithms.

  9. Exploitation of parallelism in climate models. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Ferdinand; Tribbia, Joseph J.; Williamson, David L.

    2001-02-05

    This final report includes details on the research accomplished by the grant entitled 'Exploitation of Parallelism in Climate Models' to the University of Maryland. The purpose of the grant was to shed light on (a) how to reconfigure the atmospheric prediction equations such that the time iteration process could be compressed by use of MPP architecture; (b) how to develop local subgrid scale models which can provide time and space dependent parameterization for a state-of-the-art climate model to minimize the scale resolution necessary for a climate model, and to utilize MPP capability to simultaneously integrate those subgrid models and their statistics; and (c) how to capitalize on the MPP architecture to study the inherent ensemble nature of the climate problem. In the process of addressing these issues, we created parallel algorithms with spectral accuracy; we developed a process for concurrent climate simulations; we established suitable model reconstructions to speed up computation; we identified and tested optimum realization statistics; we undertook a number of parameterization studies to better understand model physics; and we studied the impact of subgrid scale motions and their parameterization in atmospheric models.

  10. Energy harvesting from human motion: exploiting swing and shock excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern compact and low power sensors and systems are leading towards increasingly integrated wearable systems. One key bottleneck of this technology is the power supply. The use of energy harvesting techniques offers a way of supplying sensor systems without the need for batteries and maintenance. In this work we present the development and characterization of two inductive energy harvesters which exploit different characteristics of the human gait. A multi-coil topology harvester is presented which uses the swing motion of the foot. The second device is a shock-type harvester which is excited into resonance upon heel strike. Both devices were modeled and designed with the key constraint of device height in mind, in order to facilitate the integration into the shoe sole. The devices were characterized under different motion speeds and with two test subjects on a treadmill. An average power output of up to 0.84 mW is achieved with the swing harvester. With a total device volume including the housing of 21 cm3 a power density of 40 μW cm−3 results. The shock harvester generates an average power output of up to 4.13 mW. The power density amounts to 86 μW cm−3 for the total device volume of 48 cm3. Difficulties and potential improvements are discussed briefly. (paper)

  11. Commercial imagery archive, management, exploitation, and distribution product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Bruce; Sakkas, Alysa

    1999-12-01

    The Lockheed Martin (LM) team had garnered over a decade of operational experience on the U.S. Government's IDEX II (Imagery Dissemination and Exploitation) system. Recently, it set out to create a new commercial product to serve the needs of large-scale imagery archiving and analysis markets worldwide. LM decided to provide a turnkey commercial solution to receive, store, retrieve, process, analyze and disseminate in 'push' or 'pull' modes imagery, data and data products using a variety of sources and formats. LM selected 'best of breed' hardware and software components and adapted and developed its own algorithms to provide added functionality not commercially available elsewhere. The resultant product, Intelligent Library System (ILS)TM, satisfies requirements for (a) a potentially unbounded, data archive (5000 TB range) (b) automated workflow management for increased user productivity; (c) automatic tracking and management of files stored on shelves; (d) ability to ingest, process and disseminate data volumes with bandwidths ranging up to multi- gigabit per second; (e) access through a thin client-to-server network environment; (f) multiple interactive users needing retrieval of files in seconds from both archived images or in real time, and (g) scalability that maintains information throughput performance as the size of the digital library grows.

  12. Commercial imagery archive, management, exploitation, and distribution project development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Bruce; Sakkas, Alysa

    1999-10-01

    The Lockheed Martin (LM) team had garnered over a decade of operational experience on the U.S. Government's IDEX II (Imagery Dissemination and Exploitation) system. Recently, it set out to create a new commercial product to serve the needs of large-scale imagery archiving and analysis markets worldwide. LM decided to provide a turnkey commercial solution to receive, store, retrieve, process, analyze and disseminate in 'push' or 'pull' modes imagery, data and data products using a variety of sources and formats. LM selected 'best of breed' hardware and software components and adapted and developed its own algorithms to provide added functionality not commercially available elsewhere. The resultant product, Intelligent Library System (ILS)TM, satisfies requirements for (1) a potentially unbounded, data archive (5000 TB range) (2) automated workflow management for increased user productivity; (3) automatic tracking and management of files stored on shelves; (4) ability to ingest, process and disseminate data volumes with bandwidths ranging up to multi- gigabit per second; (5) access through a thin client-to-server network environment; (6) multiple interactive users needing retrieval of files in seconds from both archived images or in real time, and (7) scalability that maintains information throughput performance as the size of the digital library grows.

  13. Exploiting Child-Robot Aesthetic Interaction for a Social Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Joon Lee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A social robot interacts and communicates with humans by using the embodied knowledge gained from interactions with its social environment. In recent years, emotion has emerged as a popular concept for designing social robots. Several studies on social robots reported an increase in robot sociability through emotional imitative interactions between the robot and humans. In this paper conventional emotional interactions are extended by exploiting the aesthetic theories that the sociability of a social robot can be markedly enhanced through aesthetic imitative interactions such as “playful acts”. We applied these aesthetic interactions to child‐robot interaction. Children imitate the emotional behaviours of a robot through aesthetic interactions; they play with the robot by mimicking its emotional facial expressions. From the tests, we see that aesthetic judgment is more influential than emotions in playful interactions between children and the robot; the aesthetic imitative interactions would reinforce the positive social relationships of children and enhance their social adaptability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first social robot study to investigate child‐robot interaction on the basis of aesthetics.

  14. Exploiting dimensionality and defect mitigation to create tunable microwave dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Che-Hui; Orloff, Nathan D; Birol, Turan; Zhu, Ye; Goian, Veronica; Rocas, Eduard; Haislmaier, Ryan; Vlahos, Eftihia; Mundy, Julia A; Kourkoutis, Lena F; Nie, Yuefeng; Biegalski, Michael D; Zhang, Jingshu; Bernhagen, Margitta; Benedek, Nicole A; Kim, Yongsam; Brock, Joel D; Uecker, Reinhard; Xi, X X; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Kamba, Stanislav; Muller, David A; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Booth, James C; Fennie, Craig J; Schlom, Darrell G

    2013-10-24

    The miniaturization and integration of frequency-agile microwave circuits--relevant to electronically tunable filters, antennas, resonators and phase shifters--with microelectronics offers tantalizing device possibilities, yet requires thin films whose dielectric constant at gigahertz frequencies can be tuned by applying a quasi-static electric field. Appropriate systems such as BaxSr1-xTiO3 have a paraelectric-ferroelectric transition just below ambient temperature, providing high tunability. Unfortunately, such films suffer significant losses arising from defects. Recognizing that progress is stymied by dielectric loss, we start with a system with exceptionally low loss--Srn+1TinO3n+1 phases--in which (SrO)2 crystallographic shear planes provide an alternative to the formation of point defects for accommodating non-stoichiometry. Here we report the experimental realization of a highly tunable ground state arising from the emergence of a local ferroelectric instability in biaxially strained Srn+1TinO3n+1 phases with n ≥ 3 at frequencies up to 125 GHz. In contrast to traditional methods of modifying ferroelectrics-doping or strain-in this unique system an increase in the separation between the (SrO)2 planes, which can be achieved by changing n, bolsters the local ferroelectric instability. This new control parameter, n, can be exploited to achieve a figure of merit at room temperature that rivals all known tunable microwave dielectrics. PMID:24132232

  15. Tuning oxygen sensitivity of ruthenium complex exploiting silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Osman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dicle, Diyarbakır (Turkey); Oter, Ozlem [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Center for Fabrication and Application of Electronic Materials (EMUM), University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Tinaztepe, Izmir (Turkey); Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Tinaztepe, Izmir (Turkey); Yildirim, Serdar [Center for Fabrication and Application of Electronic Materials (EMUM), University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Tinaztepe, Izmir (Turkey); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Tinaztepe, Izmir (Turkey); Subasi, Elif [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Tinaztepe, Izmir (Turkey); Ertekin, Kadriye, E-mail: kadriye.ertekin@deu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Center for Fabrication and Application of Electronic Materials (EMUM), University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Tinaztepe, Izmir (Turkey); Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Tinaztepe, Izmir (Turkey); Celik, Erdal [Center for Fabrication and Application of Electronic Materials (EMUM), University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Tinaztepe, Izmir (Turkey); Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Tinaztepe, Izmir (Turkey); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Tinaztepe, Izmir (Turkey); Temel, Hamdi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dicle, Diyarbakır (Turkey)

    2014-11-15

    In this study, we utilized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) along with ionic liquids as additives for fabrication of polymeric oxygen sensitive fibers. Plasticized polymethyl methacrylate and ethyl cellulose (EC) were used as matrix materials. Fibers and porous films were produced by electrospinning technique. Oxygen induced spectral response of the fluorescent tris(2,2′-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) chloride (Ru(bipy){sub 3}{sup 2+}) was followed as the analytical signal. Utilization of silver nanoparticles in electrospun polymeric fibers for oxygen sensing purposes resulted with many advantages such as tuned sensitivity, linear calibration plot for larger concentration ranges, increased surface area and enhancement in all sensor dynamics. Linearity of the calibration plot for the offered composition was superior with respect to the previously reported ones. When stored at the ambient air of the laboratory there was no significant drift in intensity after 12 months. Our sensitivity and stability tests are still in progress. - Highlights: • Ag nanoparticles and Ru(II) complex doped together into polymers for the first time for O{sub 2} sensing. • The ionic liquid EMIMBF{sub 4} was used for matrix modification. • Fabricated electrospun nanofibers offered enhanced linearity for a large concentration range. • Exploited polymeric matrix materials and additives provided long-term stability. • Silver nanoparticles tuned oxygen sensitivity and facilitated fabrication process.

  16. Comparative analysis of redirection methods for asteroid resource exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzocchi, Michael C. F.; Emami, M. Reza

    2016-03-01

    An in-depth analysis and systematic comparison of asteroid redirection methods are performed within a resource exploitation framework using different assessment mechanisms. Through this framework, mission objectives and constraints are specified for the redirection of an asteroid from a near-Earth orbit to a stable orbit in the Earth-Moon system. The paper provides a detailed investigation of five redirection methods, i.e., ion beam, tugboat, gravity tractor, laser sublimation, and mass ejector, with respect to their capabilities for a redirection mission. A set of mission level criteria are utilized to assess the performance of each redirection method, and the means of assigning attributes to each criterion is discussed in detail. In addition, the uncertainty in physical characteristics of the asteroid population is quantified through the use of Monte Carlo analysis. The Monte Carlo simulation provides insight into the performance robustness of the redirection methods with respect to the targeted asteroid range. Lastly, the attributes for each redirection method are aggregated using three different multicriteria assessment approaches, i.e., the Analytical Hierarchy Process, a utility-based approach, and a fuzzy aggregation mechanism. The results of each assessment approach as well as recommendations for further studies are discussed in detail.

  17. Exploiting pallidal plasticity for stimulation in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourens, Marcel A. J.; Schwab, Bettina C.; Nirody, Jasmine A.; Meijer, Hil G. E.; van Gils, Stephan A.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. Continuous application of high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) often effectively reduces motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease patients. While there is a growing need for more effective and less traumatic stimulation, the exact mechanism of DBS is still unknown. Here, we present a methodology to exploit the plasticity of GABAergic synapses inside the external globus pallidus (GPe) for the optimization of DBS. Approach. Assuming the existence of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) at GABAergic GPe-GPe synapses, we simulate neural activity in a network model of the subthalamic nucleus and GPe. In particular, we test different DBS protocols in our model and quantify their influence on neural synchrony. Main results. In an exemplary set of biologically plausible model parameters, we show that STDP in the GPe has a direct influence on neural activity and especially the stability of firing patterns. STDP stabilizes both uncorrelated firing in the healthy state and correlated firing in the parkinsonian state. Alternative stimulation protocols such as coordinated reset stimulation can clearly profit from the stabilizing effect of STDP. These results are widely independent of the STDP learning rule. Significance. Once the model settings, e.g., connection architectures, have been described experimentally, our model can be adjusted and directly applied in the development of novel stimulation protocols. More efficient stimulation leads to both minimization of side effects and savings in battery power.

  18. Exploiting apoptosis in photodynamic therapy: is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Cesar A.; Lilge, Lothar D.

    2003-06-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme is the most common form of malignant brain tumors and accounts for approximately 25% of all primary brain tumors. Only 5% of these patients survive longer than 2 years. The standard form of treatment is radiation therapy and surgery if the site is accessible. Different forms of adjuvant chemotherapy have been largely proven unsuccessful. Another form of adjuvant therapy, Photodynamic Therapy (PDT), has undergone preliminary trials showing some promising results but at the cost of increased side effects like rise in intracranial blood pressure and neurological deficiency. Apoptotic cell kill used as a biological treatment endpoint can possibly ameliorate these side effects. This study evaluates the significance of apoptotic cell death in the 9L rat gliosarcoma using the aminolevulinic acid (ALA) induced endogenous photosensitizer Protophorphyrin IX (PpIX). A strong influence of drug incubation time with cell kill was observed. The percentage of apoptotic cell death was less than 10% for 2 and 4 hours incubation times and irradiation times ensuring up to 70 and 80% cell kill respectively. Accumulation of PpIX in the mitochondria and cytoplasm was quantified by confocal fluorescence microscopy showing a linear relationship of PpIX fluorescence with concentration. The possibility of an in vitro threshold in the PDT dose is discussed, above which cell repair mechanisms may become exhausted. In conclusion for the range of parameters investigated, apoptotic cell kill may be hard to exploit therapeutically in this tumor model.

  19. Nuclear techniques in the prospecting and exploitation of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apatite is a mineral that is found in the perforation nucleus of petroleum exploration whose natural content of Uranium is of around 10 ppm. This uranium is spontaneously fissioned producing fission traces whose number it is proportional to the age of the apatite and whose longitudes remained stable to temperatures smaller than 60 C, they decreased partially in the temperature range of 60 to 120 C and they faded totally if the nucleus of perforation was to temperatures bigger than 120 C. This agreement in the call 'thermal formation window' of the petroleum among 60 and 120 C and the partial erased of the longitudes of fission traces in the apatite, it allows to use this to determine not only the age of the petroleum field, but also their geologic thermal history (paleo temperature), it also allows to model the formation of the petroleum field and to contribute to outline to PEMEX on exploitation and exploration strategies. In this work it is presented: the visualization of the fission traces in the apatite of Cerro de Mercado, Durango, considered as an international standard of dating; the basic principles of this nuclear technique that allow to determine the age of the apatite; the formation of horizontal fission traces inside the apatite, by irradiation with fission fragments; and as the analysis of the thermal instability of the lengths of the fission traces it provides information of the paleo temperature of the petroleum basin. (Author)

  20. Efficient terrestrial laser scan segmentation exploiting data structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudabadi, Hamid; Olsen, Michael J.; Todorovic, Sinisa

    2016-09-01

    New technologies such as lidar enable the rapid collection of massive datasets to model a 3D scene as a point cloud. However, while hardware technology continues to advance, processing 3D point clouds into informative models remains complex and time consuming. A common approach to increase processing efficiently is to segment the point cloud into smaller sections. This paper proposes a novel approach for point cloud segmentation using computer vision algorithms to analyze panoramic representations of individual laser scans. These panoramas can be quickly created using an inherent neighborhood structure that is established during the scanning process, which scans at fixed angular increments in a cylindrical or spherical coordinate system. In the proposed approach, a selected image segmentation algorithm is applied on several input layers exploiting this angular structure including laser intensity, range, normal vectors, and color information. These segments are then mapped back to the 3D point cloud so that modeling can be completed more efficiently. This approach does not depend on pre-defined mathematical models and consequently setting parameters for them. Unlike common geometrical point cloud segmentation methods, the proposed method employs the colorimetric and intensity data as another source of information. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on several datasets encompassing variety of scenes and objects. Results show a very high perceptual (visual) level of segmentation and thereby the feasibility of the proposed algorithm. The proposed method is also more efficient compared to Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC), which is a common approach for point cloud segmentation.

  1. Exploiting dimensionality and defect mitigation to create tunable microwave dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Che-Hui; Orloff, Nathan D.; Birol, Turan; Zhu, Ye; Goian, Veronica; Rocas, Eduard; Haislmaier, Ryan; Vlahos, Eftihia; Mundy, Julia A.; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Nie, Yuefeng; Biegalski, Michael D.; Zhang, Jingshu; Bernhagen, Margitta; Benedek, Nicole A.; Kim, Yongsam; Brock, Joel D.; Uecker, Reinhard; Xi, X. X.; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Kamba, Stanislav; Muller, David A.; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Booth, James C.; Fennie, Craig J.; Schlom, Darrell G.

    2013-10-01

    The miniaturization and integration of frequency-agile microwave circuits--relevant to electronically tunable filters, antennas, resonators and phase shifters--with microelectronics offers tantalizing device possibilities, yet requires thin films whose dielectric constant at gigahertz frequencies can be tuned by applying a quasi-static electric field. Appropriate systems such as BaxSr1-xTiO3 have a paraelectric-ferroelectric transition just below ambient temperature, providing high tunability. Unfortunately, such films suffer significant losses arising from defects. Recognizing that progress is stymied by dielectric loss, we start with a system with exceptionally low loss--Srn+1TinO3n+1 phases--in which (SrO)2 crystallographic shear planes provide an alternative to the formation of point defects for accommodating non-stoichiometry. Here we report the experimental realization of a highly tunable ground state arising from the emergence of a local ferroelectric instability in biaxially strained Srn+1TinO3n+1 phases with n>=3 at frequencies up to 125GHz. In contrast to traditional methods of modifying ferroelectrics--doping or strain--in this unique system an increase in the separation between the (SrO)2 planes, which can be achieved by changing n, bolsters the local ferroelectric instability. This new control parameter, n, can be exploited to achieve a figure of merit at room temperature that rivals all known tunable microwave dielectrics.

  2. Biological and economic foundations of renewable resource exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A physiologically based population dynamics model of a renewable resource is used as the basis to develop a model of human harvesting. The model incorporates developing technology and the effects of market forces on the sustainability of common property resources. The bases of the model are analogies between the economics of resource harvesting and allocation by firms and adapted organisms in nature. Specifically, the paper makes the following points: (1) it shows how economic and ecological theories may be unified; (2) it punctuates the importance of time frame in the two systems (evolutionary versus market); (3) it shows, contrary to prevailing economic wisdom, how technological progress may be detrimental to resource preservation; (4) it shows how the anticipated effects of high discount rates on resource use can be catastrophic when synergized by progress in harvesting technology; (5) it suggests that increases in efficiency of utilization of the harvest encourages higher levels of resource exploitation; and (6) it shows the effects of environmental degradation on consumer and resource dynamics. The model leads to global implications on the relationship between economic growth and the ability of modern societies to maintain the environment at a sustainable level

  3. LALPC: Exploiting Parallelism from FPGAs Using C Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Lucas F.; Fernandes, Marcio M.; Bonato, Vanderlei; Menotti, Ricardo

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents LALPC, a prototype high-level synthesis tool, specialized in hardware generation for loop-intensive code segments. As demonstrated in a previous work, the underlying hardware components target by LALPC are highly specialized for loop pipeline execution, resulting in efficient implementations, both in terms of performance and resources usage (silicon area). LALPC extends the functionality of a previous tool by using a subset of the C language as input code to describe computations, improving the usability and potential acceptance of the technique among developers. LALPC also enhances parallelism exploitation by applying loop unrolling, and providing support for automatic generation and scheduling of parallel memory accesses. The combination of using the C language to automate the process of hardware design, with an efficient underlying scheme to support loop pipelining, constitutes the main goal and contribution of the work described in this paper. Experimental results have shown the effectiveness of those techniques to enhance performance, and also exemplifies how some of the LALPC compiler features may support performance-resources trade-off analysis tasks.

  4. Exploiting Seams and Closing Gaps: Lessons from Mumbai and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Andrea J. Dew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes a single event—the 2008 Mumbai attacks—in order to consider the strategic and operational lessons for dealing with other armed groups. How and why was Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LeT able to carry out such a sophisticated attack in the heart of Mumbai? And what lessons does Mumbai hold for strategists seeking to counter other armed groups around the world? While tactical level lessons from Mumbai have been well documented, it is important to also consider what the Mumbai attacks tell us at the strategic and operational levels. Specifically, the Mumbai attacks provide valuable insight into how armed groups use the maritime environment, and how they use surprise, denial, and deception to mask intention and invite over-reaction by states. In addition, studying the Mumbai attacks provides insight into some of the strategic and operational seams and gaps that armed groups seek to exploit. These include environmental and geographical factors; institutional, bureaucratic, and jurisdictional seams and gaps between agencies; cognitive seams and gaps that made the use of the sea by LeT so difficult to conceptualize; and the diplomatic seams and gaps that led to heightened tensions among states— in this case, India, Pakistan, and the United States. This article discusses how to categorize these seams and gaps in order to better address the problems they create, and how states might best direct and focus their limited resources when faced with similar challenges.

  5. Exploitation réseau électrique Bilan 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Cumer, G

    2001-01-01

    Ce document présente le bilan annuel d'exploitation du réseau électrique pour l'année 2000. Après une présentation succincte des nouvelles sous-stations et équipements mis en service cette année, ce bilan est proposé au travers des statistiques des pannes et des demandes d'interventions des salles de contrôles PCR, MCR et PCR. Cette année 2000 aura été marquée par quelques pannes majeures ayant affecté le LEP et le SPS. L'analyse de ces incidents en fait apparaître les causes d'origines techniques, humaines ou extérieures au CERN, détaille les catégories d'équipements concernés. Ces données permettent de souligner l'impact et les conséquences lourdes de la moindre coupure électrique sur le fonctionnement des accélérateurs. Elles permettent d'autre part de mettre en lumière les points faibles actuels que sont les contrôleurs Micène, les câbles et les protections 18 kV SPS. Dans ce contexte et au vu des incidents de ces dernières années, un historique des pannes survenues sur les...

  6. Thermal exploitation of wastes with lignite for energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammelis, Panagiotis; Kakaras, Emmanuel; Skodras, George

    2003-11-01

    The thermal exploitation of wastewood with Greek lignite was investigated by performing tests in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactor, a 1-MW(th) semi-industrial circulating fluidized bed combustor, and an industrial boiler. Blends of natural wood, demolition wood, railroad sleepers, medium-density fiberboard residues, and power poles with lignite were used, and the co-combustion efficiency and the effect of wastewood addition on the emitted pollutants were investigated. Carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen emissions were continuously monitored, and, during the industrial-scale tests, the toxic emissions (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and heavy metals) were determined. Ash samples were analyzed for heavy metals in an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy spectrophotometer. Problems were observed during the preparation of wastewood, because species embedded with different compounds, such as railway sleepers and demolition wood, were not easily treated. All wastewood blends were proven good fuels; co-combustion proceeded smoothly and homogeneous temperature and pressure profiles were obtained. Although some fluctuations were observed, low emissions of gaseous pollutants were obtained for all fuel blends. The metal element emissions (in the flue gases and the solid residues) were lower than the legislative limits. Therefore, wastewood co-combustion with lignite can be realized, provided that the fuel handling and preparation can be practically performed in large-scale installations. PMID:14649749

  7. Compressed sensing MR image reconstruction exploiting TGV and wavelet sparsity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Du, Huiqian; Han, Yu; Mei, Wenbo

    2014-01-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) based methods make it possible to reconstruct magnetic resonance (MR) images from undersampled measurements, which is known as CS-MRI. The reference-driven CS-MRI reconstruction schemes can further decrease the sampling ratio by exploiting the sparsity of the difference image between the target and the reference MR images in pixel domain. Unfortunately existing methods do not work well given that contrast changes are incorrectly estimated or motion compensation is inaccurate. In this paper, we propose to reconstruct MR images by utilizing the sparsity of the difference image between the target and the motion-compensated reference images in wavelet transform and gradient domains. The idea is attractive because it requires neither the estimation of the contrast changes nor multiple times motion compensations. In addition, we apply total generalized variation (TGV) regularization to eliminate the staircasing artifacts caused by conventional total variation (TV). Fast composite splitting algorithm (FCSA) is used to solve the proposed reconstruction problem in order to improve computational efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can not only reduce the computational cost but also decrease sampling ratio or improve the reconstruction quality alternatively. PMID:25371704

  8. Compressed Sensing MR Image Reconstruction Exploiting TGV and Wavelet Sparsity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressed sensing (CS based methods make it possible to reconstruct magnetic resonance (MR images from undersampled measurements, which is known as CS-MRI. The reference-driven CS-MRI reconstruction schemes can further decrease the sampling ratio by exploiting the sparsity of the difference image between the target and the reference MR images in pixel domain. Unfortunately existing methods do not work well given that contrast changes are incorrectly estimated or motion compensation is inaccurate. In this paper, we propose to reconstruct MR images by utilizing the sparsity of the difference image between the target and the motion-compensated reference images in wavelet transform and gradient domains. The idea is attractive because it requires neither the estimation of the contrast changes nor multiple times motion compensations. In addition, we apply total generalized variation (TGV regularization to eliminate the staircasing artifacts caused by conventional total variation (TV. Fast composite splitting algorithm (FCSA is used to solve the proposed reconstruction problem in order to improve computational efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can not only reduce the computational cost but also decrease sampling ratio or improve the reconstruction quality alternatively.

  9. Separated Control and Data Stacks to Mitigate Buffer Overflow Exploits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kugler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that protection mechanisms like StackGuard, ASLR and NX are widespread, the development on new defense strategies against stack-based buffer overflows has not yet come to an end. In this article, we present a novel compiler-level protection called SCADS: Separated Control and Data Stacks that protects return addresses and saved frame pointers on a separate stack, called the control stack. In common computer programs, a single user mode stack is used to store control information next to data buffers. By separating control information from the data stack, we can protect sensitive pointers of a program’s control flow from being overwritten by buffer overflows. To substantiate the practicability of our approach, we provide SCADS as an open source patch for the LLVM compiler infrastructure. Focusing on Linux and FreeBSD running on the AMD64 architecture, we show compatibility, security and performance results. As we make control flow information simply unreachable for buffer overflows, many exploits are stopped at an early stage of progression with only negligible performance overhead.

  10. Informing or Exploiting? Public Reponses to Giuliana Rancic's Health Narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bute, Jennifer J; Quinlan, Margaret M; Quandt, Lindsay K

    2016-08-01

    Popular entertainment journalist Giuliana Rancic has shared her struggles with pregnancy loss, infertility, and breast cancer in an array of public forums. In this study, we analyzed online comments responding to public discourses surrounding Rancic's revelations, including her miscarriage and fertility treatments, her breast cancer diagnosis, and her decision to undergo a double mastectomy. Our goal was to explore how the public framed Rancic's health challenges. Using a narrative lens, we argue that online comments reveal the tensions that celebrities like Rancic must manage as they contend with public scrutiny of their stories. Online commenters in this study framed Rancic's narrative as a privileged vantage point in which she exploited her health struggles for personal and financial gain. Our analysis of these comments also demonstrates how Rancic's narrative exists in concert with other discourses that challenge and disrupt her own account of events. The examination of these mediated discourses has implications for understanding the role of celebrity experiences in personal and public conversations about health.

  11. A new deconvolution approach to perfusion imaging exploiting spatial correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orten, Burkay B.; Karl, W. Clem; Sahani, Dushyant V.; Pien, Homer

    2008-03-01

    The parts of the human body affected by a disease do not only undergo structural changes but also demonstrate significant physiological (functional) abnormalities. An important parameter that reveals the functional state of tissue is the flow of blood per unit tissue volume or perfusion, which can be obtained using dynamic imaging methods. One mathematical approach widely used for estimating perfusion from dynamic imaging data is based on a convolutional tissue-flow model. In these approaches, deconvolution of the observed data is necessary to obtain the important physiological parameters within a voxel. Although several alternatives have been proposed for deconvolution, all of them treat neighboring voxels independently and do not exploit the spatial correlation between voxels or the temporal correlation within a voxel over time. These simplistic approaches result in a noisy perfusion map with poorly defined region boundaries. In this paper, we propose a novel perfusion estimation method which incorporates spatial as well as temporal correlation into the deconvolution process. Performance of our method is compared to standard methods using independent voxel processing. Both simulated and real data experiments illustrate the potential of our method.

  12. Strategic aspects of exploiting geothermal energy for industrial purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy is widely used in Iceland for space heating swimming pools and snow melting systems as well as for greenhouses and soil heating and aquaculture. Its contribution to the standard of living in Iceland is very substantial. The industrial applications are, however, fewer today than anticipated twenty years ago. This paper considers some of the socio-economic reasons for that. Although geothermal energy is generally a cost competitive source of energy, it is site limited and does not by itself provide sufficient economic incentive to attract manufacturing or process industries. This generally requires another, locally available production factor offering further competitive advantage to justify greenfield investments. World economic slow-downs, and structural problems in many process industries after the energy crisis of the seventies have reduced interest for investments in energy intensify industries world wide. While public sector initiative motivated by technological possibilities was instrumental for developing geothermal resources in the past, time has now come for private sector initiative, led by market interest, to identify and exploit opportunities for using geothermal energy for industrial purposes. National and local governments must, however, provide the appropriate incentives to stimulate such developments

  13. Exploitation of semantic methods to cluster pharmacovigilance terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuch, Marie; Dupuch, Laëtitia; Hamon, Thierry; Grabar, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is the activity related to the collection, analysis and prevention of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) induced by drugs. This activity is usually performed within dedicated databases (national, European, international...), in which the ADRs declared for patients are usually coded with a specific controlled terminology MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Drug Regulatory Activities). Traditionally, the detection of adverse drug reactions is performed with data mining algorithms, while more recently the groupings of close ADR terms are also being exploited. The Standardized MedDRA Queries (SMQs) have become a standard in pharmacovigilance. They are created manually by international boards of experts with the objective to group together the MedDRA terms related to a given safety topic. Within the MedDRA version 13, 84 SMQs exist, although several important safety topics are not yet covered. The objective of our work is to propose an automatic method for assisting the creation of SMQs using the clustering of semantically close MedDRA terms. The experimented method relies on semantic approaches: semantic distance and similarity algorithms, terminology structuring methods and term clustering. The obtained results indicate that the proposed unsupervised methods appear to be complementary for this task, they can generate subsets of the existing SMQs and make this process systematic and less time consuming. PMID:24739596

  14. Exploitation of complement regulatory proteins by Borrelia and Francisella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Marian; Bencurova, Elena; Mlynarcik, Patrik; Almeida, André M; Soares, Renata; Bhide, Katarina; Pulzova, Lucia; Kovac, Andrej; Coelho, Ana V; Bhide, Mangesh

    2015-06-01

    Pathogens have developed sophisticated mechanisms of complement evasion such as binding to the host complement regulatory proteins (CRPs) on their surface or expression of CRP mimicking molecules. The ability of pathogens to evade the complement system has been correlated with pathogenesis and host selectivity. Hitherto, little work has been undertaken to determine whether Borrelia and Francisella exploit various CRPs to block complement attack. Seventeen Borrelia (twelve species) and six Francisella (three subspecies) strains were used to assess their ability to bind human, sheep and cattle CRPs or mimic membrane associated complement regulators. A series of experiments including affinity ligand binding experiments, pull-down assays and mass spectrometry based protein identification, revealed an array of CRP binding proteins of Borrelia and Francisella. Unlike Francisella, Borrelia strains were able to bind multiple human CRPs. Three strains of Borrelia (SKT-4, SKT-2 and HO14) showed the presence of a human CD46-homologous motif, indicating their ability to possess putative human CD46 mimicking molecules. Similarly, five strains of Borrelia and two strains of Francisella may have surface proteins with human CD59-homologous motifs. Among ovine and bovine CRPs, the only CRP bound by Francisella (LVS, Tul4 strain) was vitronectin, while ovine C4BP, ovine factor H and bovine factor H were bound to Borrelia strains SKT-2, DN127 and Co53. This study presents an array of proteins of Borrelia and Francisella that bind CRPs or may mimic membrane-CRPs, thus enabling multiphasic complement evasion strategies of these pathogens.

  15. Efficient Resource Scheduling by Exploiting Relay Cache for Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In relay-enhanced cellular systems, throughput of User Equipment (UE is constrained by the bottleneck of the two-hop link, backhaul link (or the first hop link, and access link (the second hop link. To maximize the throughput, resource allocation should be coordinated between these two hops. A common resource scheduling algorithm, Adaptive Distributed Proportional Fair, only ensures that the throughput of the first hop is greater than or equal to that of the second hop. But it cannot guarantee a good balance of the throughput and fairness between the two hops. In this paper, we propose a Two-Hop Balanced Distributed Scheduling (TBS algorithm by exploiting relay cache for non-real-time data traffic. The evolved Node Basestation (eNB adaptively adjusts the number of Resource Blocks (RBs allocated to the backhaul link and direct links based on the cache information of relays. Each relay allocates RBs for relay UEs based on the size of the relay UE’s Transport Block. We also design a relay UE’s ACK feedback mechanism to update the data at relay cache. Simulation results show that the proposed TBS can effectively improve resource utilization and achieve a good trade-off between system throughput and fairness by balancing the throughput of backhaul and access link.

  16. Exploiting Unsupervised and Supervised Constraints for Subspace Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Han; Feng, Jianjiang; Zhou, Jie

    2015-08-01

    Data in many image and video analysis tasks can be viewed as points drawn from multiple low-dimensional subspaces with each subspace corresponding to one category or class. One basic task for processing such kind of data is to separate the points according to the underlying subspace, referred to as subspace clustering. Extensive studies have been made on this subject, and nearly all of them use unconstrained subspace models, meaning the points can be drawn from everywhere of a subspace, to represent the data. In this paper, we attempt to do subspace clustering based on a constrained subspace assumption that the data is further restricted in the corresponding subspaces, e.g., belonging to a submanifold or satisfying the spatial regularity constraint. This assumption usually describes the real data better, such as differently moving objects in a video scene and face images of different subjects under varying illumination. A unified integer linear programming optimization framework is used to approach subspace clustering, which can be efficiently solved by a branch-and-bound (BB) method. We also show that various kinds of supervised information, such as subspace number, outlier ratio, pairwise constraints, size prior and etc., can be conveniently incorporated into the proposed framework. Experiments on real data show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms significantly in clustering accuracy. The effectiveness of the proposed method in exploiting supervised information is also demonstrated. PMID:26352994

  17. Real time dynamic MRI by exploiting spatial and temporal sparsity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Li, Yeqing; Axel, Leon; Huang, Junzhou

    2016-05-01

    Online imaging requires that the reconstruction of current frame only depends on the previous frames, and real time imaging is the desired case. In this work, we propose a novel scheme for real time dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) reconstruction. Different from previous methods, the reconstructions of the second frame to the last frame are independent in our scheme, which only require the first frame as the reference image. Therefore, this scheme can be naturally implemented in parallel. After the first frame is reconstructed, all the later frames can be processed as soon as the k-space data are acquired. As an extension of the conventional spatial total variation, a new online model called dynamic total variation is used to exploit the sparsity on both spatial and temporal domains in dMRI. In real time dMRI, each frame is required to be reconstructed very fast. We then design a novel reweighted least squares algorithm to solve the challenging problem. Motivated by the special structure of partial Fourier transform in sparse MRI, this algorithm is accelerated by the preconditioned conjugate gradient descent method. The proposed method is compared with 4 state-of-the-art online and offline methods on two in-vivo cardiac dMRI datasets. The experimental results show that our method significantly outperforms previous online methods, and is comparable to the offline methods in terms of reconstruction accuracy. PMID:26578303

  18. Improved Exploiting Modification Direction Method by Modulus Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Hyun Jung

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The EMD method proposed by Zhang and Wang fully exploited modification directions. Modifications in different directions were used to represent different secret data. According to the experimental results, the highest capacity was demonstrated in the 5-ary notational system, where only one secret digit is embedded for each two pixels. But this is an inefficient method because it can be hidden more secret data without revealing to the human visual system. To improve an embedding capacity, Chang et al. proposed two-stage EMD method, Lee et al. restricted to 8-ary embedding for the EMD method, and also Lee et al. segmented the pair of cover data into two parts to embed higher secret data. But still have a room for hiding more secret data. This paper proposes an improved method of the EMD method to hide more secret data while maintaining ahigh PSNR value. The proposed method can embed secret bit on every pixel of cover data. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has a high capacity and good visual quality.

  19. Waste heat exploitation in processing plants using existing power installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews a new procedure patent for the exploitation of low-temperature waste heat in processing plants that consist of steam power installations for the generation of electric energy. The procedure is based on the energy exchange among different processing units, divided into processing stages, so that the input of waste heat at one point substitutes for the consumption of the primary energy medium steam at another point. This enables the utilisation of higher parameter energy accumulated from the, still operationally capable, steam, for the additional expansion on the existing steam turbine within a steam installation. Should this procedure secure a larger quantity of usable steam compared to the quantities processed by the existing steam turbine, then it could be utilised on a new, smaller turbine, which would be built into the other side of the generator, so that it made a unique operational group with the existing one. This would enable the generation of additional electric energy by means of utilising waste heat. Both above mentioned variants can be seen on the process diagram, Figure 1, which is an essential part of this report, while only the first one will be presented in detail for a particular location with a potential energy rationalisation expressed through heat power of around 11 MWt. The main characteristic of this innovation is that its implementation involves minimum investments, as little new equipment would be used with the existing power installations. (author)

  20. Exploitation of Documented Historical Floods for Achieving Better Flood Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Kolaković

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishing Base Flood Elevation for a stream network corresponding to a big catchment is feasible by interdisciplinary approach, involving stochastic hydrology, river hydraulics, and computer aided simulations. A numerical model calibrated by historical floods has been exploited in this study. The short presentation of the catchment of the Tisza River in this paper is followed by the overview of historical floods which hit the region in the documented period of 130 years. Several well documented historical floods provided opportunity for the calibration of the chosen numerical model. Once established, the model could be used for investigation of different extreme flood scenarios and to establish the Base Flood Elevation. The calibration has shown that the coefficient of friction in case of the Tisza River is dependent both on the actual water level and on the preceding flood events. The effect of flood plain maintenance as well as the activation of six potential detention ponds on flood mitigation has been examined. Furthermore, the expected maximum water levels have also been determined for the case if the ever observed biggest 1888 flood hit the region again. The investigated cases of flood superposition highlighted the impact of tributary Maros on flood mitigation along the Tisza River.

  1. Geological Environment Problems Caused by Controlling Groundwater Exploitation in Jiangyin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Qing-hai; MA Feng-shan; YUAN Ren-mao; YAO Bing-kui

    2007-01-01

    Geological environment effects caused by the control of groundwater exploitation in Jiangyin city are discussed thoroughly, including the dynamic variation of groundwater levels and quality and the development of land subsidence and ground fissures. According to the dynamic characteristics of groundwater levels, some advice about groundwater exploitation is offered. Our research will provide a basis for using groundwater resources and the prevention of geological disasters in Jiangyin city and the Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou area. The following results are deduced from our research. First, groundwater levels vary with the exploitation of groundwater in Jiangyin city and are affected by hydrogeological conditions. The groundwater levels remained rather stable before and after the implementation of control of groundwater exploitation in the northwest of Jiangyin city along the Yangtze River. A suitable level of exploitation should be allowed. In the southeast, the speed of recovery of the groundwater level has been rather rapid after the control of exploitation. We conclude that groundwater might be exploited locally after the groundwater level has recovered. In the southwest, the speed of recovery of the groundwater level is rather slow and exploitation of groundwater should be prohibited. Second, groundwater quality is stable in Jiangyin city and the contents of the main chemical indices of groundwater varied only slightly before and after the control of exploitation. Third, after controlling the exploitation, the speed of land subsidence has clearly slowed down and the development of ground fissures has been controlled effectively.

  2. Exploiting node mobility for energy optimization in wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Moukaddem, Fatme Mohammad

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become increasingly available for data-intensive applications such as micro-climate monitoring, precision agriculture, and audio/video surveillance. A key challenge faced by data-intensive WSNs is to transmit the sheer amount of data generated within an application's lifetime to the base station despite the fact that sensor nodes have limited power supplies such as batteries or small solar panels. The availability of numerous low-cost robotic units (e.g. Robomote and Khepera) has made it possible to construct sensor networks consisting of mobile sensor nodes. It has been shown that the controlled mobility offered by mobile sensors can be exploited to improve the energy efficiency of a network. In this thesis, we propose schemes that use mobile sensor nodes to reduce the energy consumption of data-intensive WSNs. Our approaches differ from previous work in two main aspects. First, our approaches do not require complex motion planning of mobile nodes, and hence can be implemented on a number of low-cost mobile sensor platforms. Second, we integrate the energy consumption due to both mobility and wireless communications into a holistic optimization framework. We consider three problems arising from the limited energy in the sensor nodes. In the first problem, the network consists of mostly static nodes and contains only a few mobile nodes. In the second and third problems, we assume essentially that all nodes in the WSN are mobile. We first study a new problem called max-data mobile relay configuration (MMRC ) that finds the positions of a set of mobile sensors, referred to as relays, that maximize the total amount of data gathered by the network during its lifetime. We show that the MMRC problem is surprisingly complex even for a trivial network topology due to the joint consideration of the energy consumption of both wireless communication and mechanical locomotion. We present optimal MMRC algorithms and practical distributed

  3. Birds of a feather: Neanderthal exploitation of raptors and corvids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Finlayson

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that Neanderthals exploited birds for the use of their feathers or claws as personal ornaments in symbolic behaviour is revolutionary as it assigns unprecedented cognitive abilities to these hominins. This inference, however, is based on modest faunal samples and thus may not represent a regular or systematic behaviour. Here we address this issue by looking for evidence of such behaviour across a large temporal and geographical framework. Our analyses try to answer four main questions: 1 does a Neanderthal to raptor-corvid connection exist at a large scale, thus avoiding associations that might be regarded as local in space or time?; 2 did Middle (associated with Neanderthals and Upper Palaeolithic (associated with modern humans sites contain a greater range of these species than Late Pleistocene paleontological sites?; 3 is there a taphonomic association between Neanderthals and corvids-raptors at Middle Palaeolithic sites on Gibraltar, specifically Gorham's, Vanguard and Ibex Caves? and; 4 was the extraction of wing feathers a local phenomenon exclusive to the Neanderthals at these sites or was it a geographically wider phenomenon?. We compiled a database of 1699 Pleistocene Palearctic sites based on fossil bird sites. We also compiled a taphonomical database from the Middle Palaeolithic assemblages of Gibraltar. We establish a clear, previously unknown and widespread, association between Neanderthals, raptors and corvids. We show that the association involved the direct intervention of Neanderthals on the bones of these birds, which we interpret as evidence of extraction of large flight feathers. The large number of bones, the variety of species processed and the different temporal periods when the behaviour is observed, indicate that this was a systematic, geographically and temporally broad, activity that the Neanderthals undertook. Our results, providing clear evidence that Neanderthal cognitive capacities were comparable to

  4. Incentive Use in Research: Protecting Vulnerable Populations from Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Muwonge

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Global investment in Medical Research and Development has markedly increased in the last few decades. However, due to the decreasing public altruism, researchers have come under increased pressures from the funding bodies to produce results. Out of desperation, some researchers have resorted to using incentives as a means of sourcing for volunteers. Consequently, the research burden has disproportionately been shared among the most vulnerable populations in the society. Incentives especially monetary ones present an ethical dilemma because of the uncertainties’ surrounding the morality, amount and type of payment, vulnerability of volunteers and possible threats to voluntary participation. Several studies done on the use of incentives in medical research have noted that financial motivation was the number one reason for subjects to volunteer in Medical research. Mutual benefit and freedom of choice by participants were given as reasons to support their use. However, scientists who are against the use of incentives believe that they are coercive or undue inducements, and may influence a subjects’ ability to give an informed consent. Guidelines exist that protect vulnerable groups from exploitation, although none sheds light into the use of incentives. Nonetheless, in the face of the waning public altruism, the benefits of using incentives far outweigh the dangers, although researchers should avoid situations where their use may become problematic. As a mode of payment to research subjects, researchers should adopt a combination of the Dickerts’ Wage and re-imbursement models as guides in quantifying the incentive. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 408-417

  5. Trawling bats exploit an echo-acoustic ground effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor eZsebok

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A water surface acts not only as an optic mirror but also as an acoustic mirror. Echolocation calls emitted by bats at low heights above water are reflected away from the bat, and hence the background clutter is reduced. Moreover, targets on the surface create an enhanced echo. Here, we formally quantified the effect of the substrate and target height on both target detection and –discrimination in a combined laboratory and field approach with Myotis daubentonii. In a two-alternative, forced-choice paradigm, the bats had to detect a mealworm and discriminate it from an inedible dummy (20 mm PVC disc. Psychophysical performance was measured as a function of height above either smooth substrates (water or PVC or above a clutter substrate (artificial grass. At low heights above the clutter substrate (10, 20 or 35 cm, the bats’ detection performance was worse than above a smooth substrate. At a height of 50 cm, the substrate structure had no influence on target detection. Above the clutter surface, also target discrimination was significantly impaired with decreasing target height. A detailed analysis of the bats’ echolocation calls during target approach shows that above the clutter substrate, the bats produce calls with significantly higher peak frequency. Flight-path reconstruction revealed that the bats attacked an object from below over water but from above over a clutter substrate.These results are consistent with the hypothesis that trawling bats exploit an echo-acoustic ground effect, in terms of a spatio-temporal integration of direct reflections with indirect reflections from the water surface, to optimize prey detection and –discrimination not only for prey on the water but also for some range above.

  6. Trends in the exploitation of South Atlantic shark populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Rodrigo; Ferretti, Francesco; Flemming, Joanna M; Amorim, Alberto; Andrade, Humber; Worm, Boris; Lessa, Rosangela

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 25% of globally reported shark catches occur in Atlantic pelagic longline fisheries. Strong declines in shark populations have been detected in the North Atlantic, whereas in the South Atlantic the situation is less clear, although fishing effort has been increasing in this region since the late 1970s. We synthesized information on shark catch rates (based on 871,177 sharks caught on 86,492 longline sets) for the major species caught by multiple fleets in the South Atlantic between 1979 and 2011. We complied records from fishing logbooks of fishing companies, fishers, and onboard observers that were supplied to Brazilian institutions. By using exploratory data analysis and literature sources, we identified 3 phases of exploitation in these data (Supporting Information). From 1979 to 1997 (phase A), 5 fleets (40 vessels) fished mainly for tunas. From 1998 to 2008 (phase B), 20 fleets (100 vessels) fished for tunas, swordfishes, and sharks. From 2008 to 2011 (phase C), 3 fleets (30 vessels) fished for multiple species, but restrictive measures were implemented. We used generalized linear models to standardize catch rates and identify trends in each of these phases. Shark catch rates increased from 1979 to 1997, when fishing effort was low, decreased from 1998 to 2008, when fishing effort increased substantially, and remained stable or increased from 2008 to 2011, when fishing effort was again low. Our results indicate that most shark populations affected by longlines in the South Atlantic are currently depleted, but these populations may recover if fishing effort is reduced accordingly. In this context, it is problematic that comprehensive data collection, monitoring, and management of these fisheries ceased after 2012. Concurrently with the fact that Brazil is newly identified by FAO among the largest (and in fastest expansion) shark sub-products consumer market worldwide. PMID:26634410

  7. Managing and exploiting routinely collected NHS data for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasa Curcin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Health research using routinely collected National Health Service (NHS data derived from electronic health records (EHRs and health service information systems has been growing in both importance and quantity. Wide population coverage and detailed patient-level information allow this data to be applied to a variety of research questions. However, the sensitivity, complexity and scale of such data also hamper researchers from fully exploiting this potential.Objective Here, we establish the current challenges preventing researchers from making optimal use of the data sets at their disposal, on both the legislative and practical levels, and give recommendations as to how these challenges can be overcome.Method A number of projects has recently been launched in the UK to address poor research data management practices. Rapid Organisation of Healthcare Research Data (ROHRD at Imperial College, London produced a useful prototype that provides local researchers with a one-stop index of available data sets together with relevant metadata.Findings Increased transparency of data sets’ availability and their provenance leads to better utilisation and facilitates compliance with regulatory requirements.Discussion Research data resulting from NHS data is often not utilised fully, or is handled in a haphazard manner that prevents full auditability of the research. Furthermore, lack of informatics and data management skills in research teams act as a barrier to implementing more advanced practices, such as provenance capture and detailed, regularly updated, data management strategies. Only by a concerted effort at the levels of research organisations, funding bodies and publishers, can we achieve full transparency and reproducibility of the research.

  8. Refuging rainbow trout selectively exploit flows behind tandem cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, William J; Tian, Fang-Bao; Akanyeti, Otar; Walker, Christina J; Liao, James C

    2016-07-15

    Fishes may exploit environmental vortices to save in the cost of locomotion. Previous work has investigated fish refuging behind a single cylinder in current, a behavior termed the Kármán gait. However, current-swept habitats often contain aggregations of physical objects, and it is unclear how the complex hydrodynamics shed from multiple structures affect refuging in fish. To begin to address this, we investigated how the flow fields produced by two D-shaped cylinders arranged in tandem affect the ability of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to Kármán gait. We altered the spacing of the two cylinders from l/D of 0.7 to 2.7 (where l=downstream spacing of cylinders and D=cylinder diameter) and recorded the kinematics of trout swimming behind the cylinders with high-speed video at Re=10,000-55,000. Digital particle image velocimetry showed that increasing l/D decreased the strength of the vortex street by an average of 53% and decreased the frequency that vortices were shed by ∼20% for all speeds. Trout were able to Kármán gait behind all cylinder treatments despite these differences in the downstream wake; however, they Kármán gaited over twice as often behind closely spaced cylinders (l/D=0.7, 1.1, and 1.5). Computational fluid dynamics simulations show that when cylinders are widely spaced, the upstream cylinder generates a vortex street that interacts destructively with the downstream cylinder, producing weaker, more widely spaced and less-organized vortices that discourage Kármán gaiting. These findings are poised to help predict when fish may seek refuge in natural habitats based on the position and arrangement of stationary objects. PMID:27445401

  9. Exploiting Aura OMI Level 2 Data with High Resolution Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J. C.; Yang, W.; Johnson, J. E.; Zhao, P.; Gerasimov, I. V.; Pham, L.; Vicente, G. A.; Shen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite data products are important for a wide variety of applications that can bring far-reaching benefits to the science community and the broader society. These benefits can best be achieved if the satellite data are well utilized and interpreted, such as model inputs from satellite, or extreme event (such as volcano eruption, dust storm, …etc) interpretation from satellite. Unfortunately, this is not always the case, despite the abundance and relative maturity of numerous satellite data products provided by NASA and other organizations. One way to help users better understand the satellite data is to provide data along with 'Images', including accurate pixel-level (Level 2) information, pixel coverage area delineation, and science team recommended quality screening for individual geophysical parameters. Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) always strives to best support (i.e., Software-as-a-service, SaaS) the user-community for NASA Earth Science Data. In this case, we will present a new visualization tool that helps users exploiting Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Level 2 data. This new visualization service utilizes Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard-compliant Web Mapping Service (WMS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS) calls in the backend infrastructure. The functionality of the service allows users to select data sources (e.g., multiple parameters under the same measurement, like NO2 and SO2 from OMI Level 2 or same parameter with different methods of aggregation, like NO2 in OMNO2G and OMNO2D products), defining area-of-interest and temporal extents, zooming, panning, overlaying, sliding, and data subsetting and reformatting. The interface will also be able to connect to other OGC WMS and WCS servers, which will greatly enhance its expandability to integrate additional outside data/map sources (such as Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS)).

  10. Optimization of hydraulic machinery by exploiting previous successful designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, S. A.; Weissenberger, S.; Grafenberger, P.; Giannakoglou, K. C.

    2010-08-01

    A design-optimization method for hydraulic machinery is proposed. Optimal designs are obtained using the appropriate CFD evaluation software driven by an evolutionary algorithm which is also assisted by artificial neural networks used as surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. As shown in a previous IAHR paper by the same authors, such an optimization method substantially reduces the CPU cost, since the metamodels can discard numerous non-promising candidate solutions generated during the evolution, at almost negligible CPU cost, without evaluating them by means of the costly CFD tool. The present paper extends the optimization method of the previous paper by making it capable to accommodate and exploit pieces of useful information archived during previous relevant successful designs. So, instead of parameterizing the geometry of the hydraulic machine components, which inevitably leads to many design variables, enough to slow down the design procedure, in the proposed method all new designs are expressed as weighted combinations of the archived ones. The archived designs act as the design space bases. The role of the optimization algorithms is to find the set (or sets, for more than one objectives, where the Pareto front of non-dominated solutions is sought) of weight values, corresponding to the hydraulic machine configuration(s) with optimal performance. Since the number of weights is much less that the number of design variables of the conventional shape parameterization, the design space dimension reduces and the CPU cost of the metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithm is much lower. The design of a Francis runner is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method.

  11. Trends in the exploitation of South Atlantic shark populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Rodrigo; Ferretti, Francesco; Flemming, Joanna M; Amorim, Alberto; Andrade, Humber; Worm, Boris; Lessa, Rosangela

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 25% of globally reported shark catches occur in Atlantic pelagic longline fisheries. Strong declines in shark populations have been detected in the North Atlantic, whereas in the South Atlantic the situation is less clear, although fishing effort has been increasing in this region since the late 1970s. We synthesized information on shark catch rates (based on 871,177 sharks caught on 86,492 longline sets) for the major species caught by multiple fleets in the South Atlantic between 1979 and 2011. We complied records from fishing logbooks of fishing companies, fishers, and onboard observers that were supplied to Brazilian institutions. By using exploratory data analysis and literature sources, we identified 3 phases of exploitation in these data (Supporting Information). From 1979 to 1997 (phase A), 5 fleets (40 vessels) fished mainly for tunas. From 1998 to 2008 (phase B), 20 fleets (100 vessels) fished for tunas, swordfishes, and sharks. From 2008 to 2011 (phase C), 3 fleets (30 vessels) fished for multiple species, but restrictive measures were implemented. We used generalized linear models to standardize catch rates and identify trends in each of these phases. Shark catch rates increased from 1979 to 1997, when fishing effort was low, decreased from 1998 to 2008, when fishing effort increased substantially, and remained stable or increased from 2008 to 2011, when fishing effort was again low. Our results indicate that most shark populations affected by longlines in the South Atlantic are currently depleted, but these populations may recover if fishing effort is reduced accordingly. In this context, it is problematic that comprehensive data collection, monitoring, and management of these fisheries ceased after 2012. Concurrently with the fact that Brazil is newly identified by FAO among the largest (and in fastest expansion) shark sub-products consumer market worldwide.

  12. Improving Quay Cranes Exploitation by Implementing a Port Equipment Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Dragomir

    2011-01-01

    Port operators use almost all type of port equipments, from a range of heavy equipments to light machines. Port activities efficiency can be achieved by improving the exploitation of the necessary port equipment for handling cargo. Objectives of research are based on establishing factors that influence management activities of quay cranes exploitation. A better exploitation management of quay cranes can be achieved by implementing a proper port equipment management system

  13. Improving Quay Cranes Exploitation by Implementing a Port Equipment Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Dragomir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Port operators use almost all type of port equipments, from a range of heavy equipments to light machines. Port activities efficiency can be achieved by improving the exploitation of the necessary port equipment for handling cargo. Objectives of research are based on establishing factors that influence management activities of quay cranes exploitation. A better exploitation management of quay cranes can be achieved by implementing a proper port equipment management system

  14. Sex, Gore and Provocation: the Influence of Exploitation in John Waters’s Early Films

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Nunes, Elise

    2016-01-01

    A self-taught filmmaker working with very low budgets, fascinated with Hollywood’s glamor as well as exploitation and underground cinema, John Waters has appropriated techniques and modes of production, distribution and promotion specific to exploitation from the beginning of his career in the late 1960s. The illicit, controversial topics addressed in his early movies, traditionally brought up by exploitation in order to attract audiences whose voyeuristic desires would not be fulfilled by Ho...

  15. FULL WAVEFORM LIDAR EXPLOITATION TECHNIQUE AND ITS EVALUATION IN THE MIXED FOREST HILLY REGION

    OpenAIRE

    S. Chhatkuli; Mano, K; Kogure, T.; Tachibana, K; Shimamura, H

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a full waveform exploitation technique and its evaluation in the mixed forest hilly region is presented. The increment in ground penetration by using the full waveform exploitation technique compared to the discrete LiDAR pulses during autumn and winter season is evaluated. The results showed that the technique used for the full waveform exploitation has effectively increased the ground penetration by 50 % and 20 %, respectively, during autumn and winter in the mixed fo...

  16. Exploited for care : abuse and trafficking in domestic work in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    PALUMBO, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    Domestic workers, especially live-in workers, are frequently victims of exploitation, including severe abuse and trafficking. This seems to be overlooked by public debate and policies on trafficking. By highlighting the factors producing domestic workers’ vulnerability to exploitation as well as the inadequacies of Italian legal and political responses, this policy brief calls for the need to adopt a comprehensive approach to trafficking and severe exploitation in domestic work through the im...

  17. Rational Exploitation of Resources and Prevention of Geohazards in Karst Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢耀如

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the rational exploitation of main resources and prevention of geohazards in karst regions. There exist relationship chains between natural disasters in the earth, which include the chain between geological hazards and climatic hazards, the chain between geological hazards and biogenic hazards as well as the one between geological hazards. Irrational exploitation of all resources will inevitably cause hazards. Therefore it is very important to discuss the problem related to prevention of geohazards by rational exploitation of resources.``

  18. SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF CHILDREN IN THE TOURISM – THE DARK SIDE OF TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    Janez Mekinc; Katarina Music

    2015-01-01

    The underlying causes of sexual exploitation and prostitution are poverty, inequality between women and men, high population growth and rural - urban migration. Victims are, predominantly, women and children with lower socio-economic status. One particular form of sexual exploitation is child sex tourism. This ruthless exploitation of children can be found throughout the world, predominantly in the third world and developing countries. Children, mainly between the ages of 6 to 14 years, are t...

  19. Needs Analysis in the Exploitation of School-based HVE Teaching Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of School-based HVE(Higher Vocational English) teaching materials must take needs analysis theory as the breakthrough point. This thesis attempts to make up a new exploiting rationale of School-based HVE teaching materials and a needs analysis framework is figured out to be applied to the exploitation for Non-English Majors. According to the theoretical framework, comprehensive needs of School-based HVE teaching materials are mainly described from three aspects: HV(Higher Vocational) students’occupational demands, HV school’s exploitation demands, and HVE teaching-and-learning demands.

  20. Optimal exploitation strategies for an animal population in a Markovian environment: A theory and an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    Optimal exploitation strategies were studied for an animal population in a Markovian (stochastic, serially correlated) environment. This is a general case and encompasses a number of important special cases as simplifications. Extensive empirical data on the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) were used as an example of general theory. The number of small ponds on the central breeding grounds was used as an index to the state of the environment. A general mathematical model was formulated to provide a synthesis of the existing literature, estimates of parameters developed from an analysis of data, and hypotheses regarding the specific effect of exploitation on total survival. The literature and analysis of data were inconclusive concerning the effect of exploitation on survival. Therefore, two hypotheses were explored: (1) exploitation mortality represents a largely additive form of mortality, and (2) exploitation mortality is compensatory with other forms of mortality, at least to some threshold level. Models incorporating these two hypotheses were formulated as stochastic dynamic programming models and optimal exploitation strategies were derived numerically on a digital computer. Optimal exploitation strategies were found to exist under the rather general conditions. Direct feedback control was an integral component in the optimal decision-making process. Optimal exploitation was found to be substantially different depending upon the hypothesis regarding the effect of exploitation on the population. If we assume that exploitation is largely an additive force of mortality in Mallards, then optimal exploitation decisions are a convex function of the size of the breeding population and a linear or slight concave function of the environmental conditions. Under the hypothesis of compensatory mortality forces, optimal exploitation decisions are approximately linearly related to the size of the Mallard breeding population. Dynamic programming is suggested as a very general

  1. Virtual Geophysics Laboratory: Exploiting the Cloud and Empowering Geophysicsts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Ryan; Vote, Josh; Goh, Richard; Cox, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Over the last five decades geoscientists from Australian state and federal agencies have collected and assembled around 3 Petabytes of geoscience data sets under public funding. As a consequence of technological progress, data is now being acquired at exponential rates and in higher resolution than ever before. Effective use of these big data sets challenges the storage and computational infrastructure of most organizations. The Virtual Geophysics Laboratory (VGL) is a scientific workflow portal addresses some of the resulting issues by providing Australian geophysicists with access to a Web 2.0 or Rich Internet Application (RIA) based integrated environment that exploits eResearch tools and Cloud computing technology, and promotes collaboration between the user community. VGL simplifies and automates large portions of what were previously manually intensive scientific workflow processes, allowing scientists to focus on the natural science problems, rather than computer science and IT. A number of geophysical processing codes are incorporated to support multiple workflows. For example a gravity inversion can be performed by combining the Escript/Finley codes (from the University of Queensland) with the gravity data registered in VGL. Likewise, tectonic processes can also be modeled by combining the Underworld code (from Monash University) with one of the various 3D models available to VGL. Cloud services provide scalable and cost effective compute resources. VGL is built on top of mature standards-compliant information services, many deployed using the Spatial Information Services Stack (SISS), which provides direct access to geophysical data. A large number of data sets from Geoscience Australia assist users in data discovery. GeoNetwork provides a metadata catalog to store workflow results for future use, discovery and provenance tracking. VGL has been developed in collaboration with the research community using incremental software development practices and open

  2. Exploiting Aerobic Fitness to Reduce Risk of Hypobaric Decompression Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, J.; Gernhardt, M. L.; Wessel, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is multivariable. But we hypothesize an aerobically fit person is less likely to experience hypobaric DCS than an unfit person given that fitness is exploited as part of the denitrogenation (prebreathe, PB) process prior to an altitude exposure. Aerobic fitness is peak oxygen uptake (VO2pk, ml/kg/min). Treadmill or cycle protocols were used over 15 years to determine VO2pks. We evaluated dichotomous DCS outcome and venous gas emboli (VGE) outcome detected in the pulmonary artery with Doppler ultrasound associated with VO2pk for two classes of experiments: 1) those with no PB or PB under resting conditions prior to ascent in an altitude chamber, and 2) PB that included exercise for some part of the PB. There were 165 exposures (mean VO2pk 40.5 plus or minus 7.6 SD) with 25 cases of DCS in the first protocol class and 172 exposures (mean VO2pk 41.4 plus or minus 7.2 SD) with 25 cases of DCS in the second. Similar incidence of the DCS (15.2% vs. 14.5%) and VGE (45.5% vs. 44.8%) between the two classes indicates that decompression stress was similar. The strength of association between outcome and VO2pk was evaluated using univariate logistic regression. An inverse relationship between the DCS outcome and VO2pk was evident, but the relationship was strongest when exercise was done as part of the PB (exercise PB, coef. = -0.058, p = 0.07; rest or no PB, coef. = -0.005, p = 0.86). There was no relationship between VGE outcome and VO2pk (exercise PB, coef. = -0.003, p = 0.89; rest or no PB, coef. = 0.014, p = 0.50). A significant change in probability of DCS was associated with fitness only when exercise was included in the denitrogenation process. We believe a fit person that exercises during PB efficiently eliminates dissolved nitrogen from tissues.

  3. From Narcissistic Exploitativeness to Bullying Behavior: The Mediating Role of Approval-of-Aggression Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Ong, Eileen Y. L.; Lim, Joylynn C. Y.; Lim, Eulindra W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of approval-of-aggression beliefs in the relationship between narcissistic exploitativeness and bullying behavior in an Asian sample (N = 809) comprising elementary children and middle school adolescents. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with both bullying behavior and…

  4. Nuptial gifts of male spiders: sensory exploitation of the female's maternal care instinct or foraging motivation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Tuni, Cristina; Elsayed, Rehab;

    2007-01-01

    Nuptial feeding can evolve as sensory traps where the male exploits the female's foraging motivation in a sexual context. The nuptial prey gift of the nursery-web spider Pisaura mirabilis is wrapped in white silk, and it has been suggested that males initially exploit the maternal care instinct...

  5. Achieving a balance between exploration and exploitation in service firms: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Geerts, Annelies; Blindenbach-Driessen, F.; P. GEMMEL

    2010-01-01

    Whereas ambidexterity is frequently associated with simultaneous exploration and exploitation, others concluded that exploration and exploitation can also be achieved by a punctuated equilibrium. Drawing on longitudinal data of 532 firms, we show that ambidexterity and punctuated equilibrium have a positive effect on firm performance in manufacturing and service firms.

  6. Normative Beliefs about Aggression as a Mediator of Narcissistic Exploitativeness and Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Tan, Kit-Aun; Mansor, Abu Talib

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs…

  7. Ambidextrous Organizations: A Multiple-Level Study of Absorptive Capacity, Exploratory and Exploitative Innovation and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Justin

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBalancing and synchronizing exploration and exploitation is fundamental to the competitive success of firms in dynamic environments. Despite the importance of reconciling exploration and exploitation within organizations, however, relatively little empirical research has examined this challenge facing numerous organizations. This study develops a multi-level framework and explores how ambidextrous organizations can successfully cope with both types of innovations across organizati...

  8. The Role of Ambidexterity in Marketing Strategy Implementation: Resolving the Exploration-Exploitation Dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Prange, Christiane; Bodo B. Schlegelmilch

    2009-01-01

    Formulating consistent marketing strategies is a difficult task, but successfully implementing them is even more challenging. This is even more pertinent as marketing strategies quite often incorporate inherent conflicts between major breakthroughs and consolidation. Consequently, marketers need to balance exploratory and exploitative strategies. However, the literature lacks concrete insights for marketing managers as to how exploratory and exploitative strategies can be best com...

  9. Fluency Heuristic: A Model of How the Mind Exploits a By-Product of Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Ralph; Herzog, Stefan M.; Schooler, Lael J.; Reimer, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    Boundedly rational heuristics for inference can be surprisingly accurate and frugal for several reasons. They can exploit environmental structures, co-opt complex capacities, and elude effortful search by exploiting information that automatically arrives on the mental stage. The fluency heuristic is a prime example of a heuristic that makes the…

  10. Strategic Alignment of Innovation to Business: Balancing the Exploration and Exploitation Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses the crucial question for innovative prospector companies of how to bridge the gap between exploration and exploitation. Whereas exploration deals with the search for new ideas and opportunities, exploitation is about incrementally moving the performance bar a little bit higher. F

  11. Ambidextrous Leadership and Employees' Self-reported Innovative Performance: The Role of Exploration and Exploitation Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, Hannes; Robinson, Alecia J.; Rosing, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    The ambidexterity theory of leadership for innovation proposes that leaders' opening and closing behaviors positively predict employees' exploration and exploitation behaviors, respectively. The interaction of exploration and exploitation behaviors, in turn, is assumed to influence employee innovative performance, such that innovative performance…

  12. D6.2 BRAIN - Dissemination, use, and exploitation plan (DUEP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Molina, G.

    2009-01-01

    This dissemination, use and exploitation plan (DUEP) is a dynamic document, which will be continuously updated throughout BRAIN's duration. It serves the following purposes: -To document the overall strategy for the dissemination and exploitation of the knowledge gained in BRAIN -To document the exp

  13. 48 CFR 225.873 - Waiver of United Kingdom commercial exploitation levies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiver of United Kingdom commercial exploitation levies. 225.873 Section 225.873 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... International Agreements and Coordination 225.873 Waiver of United Kingdom commercial exploitation levies....

  14. Present Situation and Forecast of Natural Gas Exploitation and Utilization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Xunzhi

    1995-01-01

    @@ China is a country with rich oil and gas resources and also a big country of energy resource consumption. With the development of economy in China,the growth of exploitation and utilization of oil and natural gas resources will be continued. Especially, there will be a more eager to demand natural gas and a higher speed of gas exploitation than that of oil.

  15. Exploratory Innovation, Exploitative Innovation, and Performance: Effects of Organizational Antecedents and Environmental Moderators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.P. Jansen (Justin); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractResearch on exploration and exploitation is burgeoning, yet our understanding of the antecedents and consequences of both activities remains rather unclear. We advance the growing body of literature by focusing on the apparent differences of exploration and exploitation and examining imp

  16. Legal Approaches to Combating the Exploitation of Third-Country National Seasonal Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, Conny

    2015-01-01

    The Directive on Seasonal workers is aimed at combating exploitative practices vis-a-vis seasonal workers from outside the EU. After a thorough analysis of the conditions under which practices can be qualified as exploitative, this article assesses the extent to which the directive is equipped to co

  17. Research into Exploitation and Application of Three Sorts of Unconventional Nonmetal Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the authors introduce their past years' study results about the exploitation and application of three sorts of nontraditional nonmetal minerals. In this research, the main aspects and techniques of basic study for the exploitation and application are summarized, and some key science and technological problems are proposed as the objects of their future research.

  18. Robust fluoroscopic tracking of fiducial markers: exploiting the spatial constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new fluoroscopic fiducial tracking methods that exploit the spatial relationship among the multiple implanted fiducial to achieve fast, accurate and robust tracking are proposed in this paper. The spatial relationship between multiple implanted markers are modeled as Gaussian distributions of their pairwise distances over time. The means and standard deviations of these distances are learned from training sequences, and pairwise distances that deviate from these learned distributions are assigned a low spatial matching score. The spatial constraints are incorporated in two different algorithms: a stochastic tracking method and a detection based method. In the stochastic method, hypotheses of the ‘true’ fiducial position are sampled from a pre-trained respiration motion model. Each hypothesis is assigned an importance value based on image matching score and spatial matching score. Learning the parameters of the motion model is needed in addition to learning the distribution parameters of the pairwise distances in the proposed stochastic tracking approach. In the detection based method, a set of possible marker locations are identified by using a template matching based fiducial detector. The best location is obtained by optimizing the image matching score and spatial matching score through non-serial dynamic programming. In this detection based approach, there is no need to learn the respiration motion model. The two proposed algorithms are compared with a recent work using a multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) algorithm which is denoted by MHT, Tang et al (2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 4081–98). Phantom experiments were performed using fluoroscopic videos captured with known motion relative to an anthropomorphic phantom. The patient experiments were performed using a retrospective study of 16 fluoroscopic videos of liver cancer patients with implanted fiducials. For the motion phantom data sets, the detection based approach has the smallest tracking error (

  19. Local Perspectives on Environmental Insecurity and Its Influence on Illegal Biodiversity Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Meredith L; Lute, Michelle L; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah H; Rajaonson, Andry

    2016-01-01

    Environmental insecurity is a source and outcome of biodiversity declines and social conflict. One challenge to scaling insecurity reduction policies is that empirical evidence about local attitudes is overwhelmingly missing. We set three objectives: determine how local people rank risk associated with different sources of environmental insecurity; assess perceptions of environmental insecurity, biodiversity exploitation, myths of nature and risk management preferences; and explore relationships between perceptions and biodiversity exploitation. We conducted interviews (N = 88) with residents of Madagascar's Torotorofotsy Protected Area, 2014. Risk perceptions had a moderate effect on perceptions of environmental insecurity. We found no effects of environmental insecurity on biodiversity exploitation. Results offer one if not the first exploration of local perceptions of illegal biodiversity exploitation and environmental security. Local people's perception of risk seriousness associated with illegal biodiversity exploitation such as lemur hunting (low overall) may not reflect perceptions of policy-makers (considered to be high). Discord is a key entry point for attention.

  20. Optimal exploitation strategies for an animal population in a stochastic serially correlated environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.R.

    1974-01-01

    Optimal exploitation strategies were studied for an animal population in a stochastic, serially correlated environment. This is a general case and encompasses a number of important cases as simplifications. Data on the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) were used to explore the exploitation strategies and test several hypotheses because relatively much is known concerning the life history and general ecology of this species and extensive empirical data are available for analysis. The number of small ponds on the central breeding grounds was used as an index to the state of the environment. Desirable properties of an optimal exploitation strategy were defined. A mathematical model was formulated to provide a synthesis of the existing literature, estimates of parameters developed from an analysis of data, and hypotheses regarding the specific effect of exploitation on total survival. Both the literature and the analysis of data were inconclusive concerning the effect of exploitation on survival. Therefore, alternative hypotheses were formulated: (1) exploitation mortality represents a largely additive form of mortality, or (2 ) exploitation mortality is compensatory with other forms of mortality, at least to some threshold level. Models incorporating these two hypotheses were formulated as stochastic dynamic programming models and optimal exploitation strategies were derived numerically on a digital computer. Optimal exploitation strategies were found to exist under rather general conditions. Direct feedback control was an integral component in the optimal decision-making process. Optimal exploitation was found to be substantially different depending upon the hypothesis regarding the effect of exploitation on the population. Assuming that exploitation is largely an additive force of mortality, optimal exploitation decisions are a convex function of the size of the breeding population and a linear or slightly concave function of the environmental conditions. Optimal