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Sample records for anaplasma marginale major

  1. Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a directs cell surface display of tick BM95 immunogenic peptides on Escherichia coli.

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    Canales, Mario; Almazán, Consuelo; Pérez de la Lastra, José M; de la Fuente, José

    2008-07-31

    The surface display of heterologous proteins on live Escherichia coli using anchoring motifs from outer membranes proteins has impacted on many areas of biochemistry, molecular biology and biotechnology. The Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a (MSP1a) contains N-terminal surface-exposed repeated peptides (28-289 amino acids) that are involved in pathogen interaction with host cell receptors and is surface-displayed when the recombinant protein is expressed in E. coli. Therefore, it was predicted that MSP1a would surface display on E. coli peptides inserted in the N-terminal repeats region of the protein. The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus BM86 and BM95 glycoproteins are homologous proteins that protect cattle against tick infestations. In this study, we demonstrated that a recombinant protein comprising tick BM95 immunogenic peptides fused to the A. marginale MSP1a N-terminal region is displayed on the E. coli surface and is recognized by anti-BM86 and anti-MSP1a antibodies. This system provides a novel approach to the surface display of heterologous antigenic proteins on live E. coli and suggests the possibility to use the recombinant bacteria for immunization studies against cattle tick infestations. PMID:18582976

  2. The immunization-induced antibody response to the Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 and its association with protective immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many vector-borne pathogens evade clearance via rapid variation in immunogenic surface expressed proteins. In the case of A. marginale, the generation of major surface protein 2 (Msp2) variants allows for immune escape and long-term pathogen persistence. In the experiments reported here, we pose t...

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale is a naturally attenuated subtype that has been used as a vaccine for a century. We sequenced the genome of this organism and compared it to those of virulent senso stricto A. marginale strains. The comparison markedly narrows the number of outer membrane protein ...

  4. Anaplasma marginale and Theileria annulata in questing ticks from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, S; Ferrolho, J; Domingues, N; Santos, A S; Santos-Silva, M M; Domingos, A

    2016-09-01

    Ticks are ubiquitous arthropods and vectors of several pathogenic agents in animals and humans. Monitoring questing ticks is of great importance to ascertain the occurrence of pathogens and the potential vector species, offering an insight into the risk of disease transmission in a given area. In this study 428 host-seeking ticks, belonging to nine species of Ixodidae and collected from 17 of the 23 Portuguese mainland subregions, were screened for several tick-borne agents with veterinary relevance: Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma centrale, Babesia spp., Coxiella burnetii and Theileria spp. Prevalence was assessed by PCR and amplified amplicons sequenced for validation of results. Twenty ticks, in a total of 428, were found positive: one Ixodes ventalloi for Theileria annulata and four Dermacentor marginatus, one Haemaphysalis punctata, five Ixodes ricinus, five I. ventalloi, and four Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato for A. marginale. According to the reviewed literature, this is the first report of A. marginale and T. annulata detection in I. ventalloi. Furthermore, the amplification of A. marginale DNA in several tick species suggests a broad range for this agent in Portugal that might include other uncommon species as R. sanguineus s.l. This work provides new data towards a better understanding of tick-pathogen associations and also contributes to the surveillance of tick-borne agents in geographic areas with limited information. PMID:27394441

  5. Identification of Anaplasma marginale type IV secretion system effector proteins.

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    Svetlana Lockwood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaplasma marginale, an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium in the order Rickettsiales, is a tick-borne pathogen and the leading cause of anaplasmosis in cattle worldwide. Complete genome sequencing of A. marginale revealed that it has a type IV secretion system (T4SS. The T4SS is one of seven known types of secretion systems utilized by bacteria, with the type III and IV secretion systems particularly prevalent among pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The T4SS is predicted to play an important role in the invasion and pathogenesis of A. marginale by translocating effector proteins across its membrane into eukaryotic target cells. However, T4SS effector proteins have not been identified and tested in the laboratory until now. RESULTS: By combining computational methods with phylogenetic analysis and sequence identity searches, we identified a subset of potential T4SS effectors in A. marginale strain St. Maries and chose six for laboratory testing. Four (AM185, AM470, AM705 [AnkA], and AM1141 of these six proteins were translocated in a T4SS-dependent manner using Legionella pneumophila as a reporter system. CONCLUSIONS: The algorithm employed to find T4SS effector proteins in A. marginale identified four such proteins that were verified by laboratory testing. L. pneumophila was shown to work as a model system for A. marginale and thus can be used as a screening tool for A. marginale effector proteins. The first T4SS effector proteins for A. marginale have been identified in this work.

  6. The pathogen-occupied vacuoles of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale interact with the endoplasmic reticulum

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    Hilary Kay Truchan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Anaplasma consists of tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacteria that invade white or red blood cells to cause debilitating and potentially fatal infections. A. phagocytophilum, a human and veterinary pathogen, infects neutrophils to cause granulocytic anaplasmosis. A. marginale invades bovine erythrocytes. Evidence suggests that both species may also infect endothelial cells in vivo. In mammalian and arthropod host cells, A. phagocytophilum and A. marginale reside in host cell derived pathogen-occupied vacuoles (POVs. While it was recently demonstrated that the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole (ApV intercepts membrane traffic from the trans-Golgi network, it is unclear if it or the A. marginale-occupied vacuole (AmV interacts with other secretory organelles. Here, we demonstrate that the ApV and AmV extensively interact with the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER in endothelial, myeloid, and/or tick cells. ER lumen markers, calreticulin and protein disulfide isomerase, and the ER membrane marker, derlin-1, were pronouncedly recruited to the peripheries of both POVs. ApV association with the ER initiated early and continued throughout the infection cycle. Both the ApV and AmV interacted with the rough ER and smooth ER. However, only derlin-1-positive rough ER derived vesicles were delivered into the ApV lumen where they localized with intravacuolar bacteria. Transmission electron microscopy identified multiple ER-POV membrane contact sites on the cytosolic faces of both species’ vacuoles that corresponded to areas on the vacuoles’ lumenal faces where intravacuolar Anaplasma organisms closely associated. A. phagocytophilum is known to hijack Rab10, a GTPase that regulates ER dynamics and morphology. Yet, ApV-ER interactions were unhindered in cells in which Rab10 had been knocked down, demonstrating that the GTPase is dispensable for the bacterium to parasitize the ER. These data establish the ApV and AmV as pathogen

  7. Gamma irradiation attenuation of Anaplasma Marginale and its possible use as vaccine against bovine anaplasmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine Anaplasmosis is one of the limiting in the cattle development at Colombia and others tropical countries. Bovine Anaplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by a microorganism called Anaplasma Marginale, it with invades the red globules producing erythrofagocitosis. In this job, were irradiated with different gamma beam intensity; microorganisms of Anaplasma Marginale, those which were used as innocuous. Animals of the groups (I,II,III) presented good protection against the disease; animals of the Group IV presented mild symptoms with subsequent recovery and strong symptoms

  8. Detection of genetic diversity of Anaplasma marginale isolates in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pohl, A.E.; Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Ribeiro, M.F.B.; Goncalves da Silvera, J.; Silaghi, C.; Pfister, K.; Friche Passos, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2013), s. 129-135. ISSN 1984-2961 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Anaplasma marginale * MSP1a * DNA sequencing * microsatellites * tandem repeats * Brazil Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.961, year: 2013

  9. Subdominant outer membrane antigens in anaplasma marginale: conservation, antigenicity, and protective capacity using recombinant protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts or a well- defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are seve...

  10. First Molecular Characterization of Anaplasma marginale in Cattle and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Ticks in Cebu, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    YBAÑEZ, Adrian Patalinghug; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; YBAÑEZ, Rochelle Haidee Daclan; RATILLA, Jowarren Catingan; PEREZ, Zandro Obligado; GABOTERO, Shirleny Reyes; Hakimi, Hassan; KAWAZU, Shin-Ichiro; MATSUMOTO, Kotaro; Yokoyama, Naoaki; INOKUMA, Hisashi; 河津, 信一郎; 松本, 高太郎; 横山, 直明; 猪熊,壽

    2013-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale has been detected in the Philippines only by peripheral blood smear examination and serological methods. This study generally aimed to molecularly detect and characterize A. marginale in cattle and ticks in Cebu, Philippines. A total of 12 bovine blood samples and 60 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were collected on the Cebu Island in 2011. 16S rRNA-based screening-PCR and DNA sequencing revealed 8 cattle (66.7%) and 8 ticks (13.3%) to be positive for A. marginal...

  11. Molecular study on infection rates of Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma marginale in sheep and cattle in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran.

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    Noaman, Vahid; Bastani, Davood

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the presence and frequency of Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma marginale in sheep and dairy cattle in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran. A total number of 200 blood samples were randomly collected via the jugular vein from apparently healthy cattle (100) and sheep (100). The extracted DNA from blood cells was screened using genus-specific (Anaplasma spp.) nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on 16S rRNA gene primer sets. Species-specific PCR was set up using major surface protein 4 (MSP4) gene primer set. None of cattle blood samples were positive for Anaplasma spp. by the first nested PCR. Five samples among the 100 sheep blood samples were both positive in the first nested PCR and A. ovis -specific PCR, based on MSP4 gene. In total, 5.00% of animals were A. ovis positive. This study identified a low prevalence of A. ovis in the blood of apparently healthy sheep in West Azerbaijan province. PMID:27482362

  12. Immune responses in cattle vaccinated with gamma-irradiated Anaplasma marginale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The infectivity and immunogenecity of gamma-irradiated Anaplasma marginale organisms were studied in bovine calves. The severity of Anaplasma infection based on per cent infected red blood cells, haematological values and mortality was more in animals immunized with blood exposed to 60 kR in comparison to those inoculated with blood irradiated at 70, 80 and 90 kR. The immunizing controls demonstrated a significantly high parasitaemia, marked anaemia and more deaths. Marked and prolonged cell-mediated and humoral immune responses detectable in the first 3 weeks of post-immunization may be responsible for conferring of protective immunity. (author)

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on anaplasma marginale in bovines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because the costs of treatment of anaplasmosis are very high, it was considered of great usefulness to obtain the modification of the pathogenecity and the antigenecity of A. marginale by means of gamma radiation (60Co) to obtain a vaccine. This would be reflected favorably in saving lives as well as to obviate losses of meat and dairy production and the elimination of the risks derived from the introduction of selected cattle into the tropics. The main purpose of this study was to determine the optimal modification of the pathogenecity of A. marginale in splenectomized calves and adult cows, among 4 different radiation doses. (author)

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on Anaplasma marginale in bovines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, H.Q.; de Fernandez, M.V.G. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Centro de Estudios Nucleares); Meza, B.R.; Rodriguez, E. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City)

    1981-01-01

    Because the costs of treatment of anaplasmosis are very high, it was considered of great usefulness to obtain the modification of the pathogenecity and the antigenicity of A. marginale by means of gamma radiation (/sup 60/Co) to obtain a vaccine. This would be reflected favorably in saving lives as well as to obviate losses of meat and dairy production and the elimination of the risks derived from the introduction of selected cattle into the tropics. The main purpose of this study was to determine the optimal modification of the pathogenecity of A. marginale in splenectomized calves and adult cows, among 4 different radiation doses.

  15. Comparison of the Efficiency of Biological Transmission of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) by Dermacentor andersoni Stiles (Acari: Ixodidae) with Mechanical Transmission by the Horse Fly, Tabanus fuscicos

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    Mechanical transmission of Anaplasma marginale by horse flies (Tabanidae) is thought to be epidemiologically significant in some areas of the US. We compared the relative efficiencies of mechanical transmission of Anaplasma marginale by the horse fly, Tabanus fuscicostatus Hine during acute infectio...

  16. Immunization-induced anaplasma marginale-specific T lymphocyte reponses impaired by A. marginale infection are restored after eliminating the infection with tetracycline

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    Infection of cattle with Anaplasma marginale fails to prime sustained effector/memory T-cell responses, and high bacterial load may induce antigen-specific CD4 T exhaustion and deletion. We tested the hypothesis that clearance of persistent infection restores the exhausted T-cell response. We show t...

  17. Evaluating the effectiveness of an inactivated vaccine from Anaplasma marginale derived from tick cell culture.

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    Lasmar, Pedro Veloso Facury; Carvalho, Antônio Último de; Facury Filho, Elias Jorge; Bastos, Camila Valgas; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    The protective efficacy of an inactivated vaccine from Anaplasma marginale that was cultured in tick cells (IDE8) for use against bovine anaplasmosis was evaluated. Five calves (Group 1) were inoculated subcutaneously, at 21-day intervals, with three doses of vaccine containing 3 × 10(9) A. marginale initial bodies. Five control calves received saline solution alone (Group 2). Thirty-two days after the final inoculation, all the calves were challenged with approximately 3 × 10(5) erythrocytes infected with A. marginale high-virulence isolate (UFMG2). The Group 1 calves seroconverted 14 days after the second dose of vaccine. After the challenge, all the animals showed patent rickettsemia. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the Group 1 and 2 calves during the incubation period, patency period or convalescence period. All the animals required treatment to prevent death. The results suggest that the inactivated vaccine from A. marginale produced in IDE8 induced seroconversion in calves, but was not effective for preventing anaplasmosis induced by the UFMG2 isolate under the conditions of this experiment. PMID:22832750

  18. Comparison of Microscopy and PCR-RFLP for detection of Anaplasma marginale in carrier cattle

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    P Shayan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In Iran, anaplasmosis is normally diagnosed with traditional Giemsa staining method. This is not applicable for identification of the carrier animals. The aim of this study was to compare the detection of Anaplasma marginale in two different numbers of microscopic fields (50 and 100 using conventional Giemsa staining method compared with the PCR-RFLP technique."nMaterials and Methods: In this study, examinations were performed on 150 blood samples from cattle without clinical signs. Sensitivity and specificity of two microscopic fields (50 and 100 fields were compared with A. marginale specific PCR-RFLP. The degree of agreement between PCR-RFLP and the two microscopic tests was determined by Kappa (κ values with 95% confidence intervals."nResults: PCR-RFLP showed that 58 samples were A. marginale, while routine microscopy showed erythrocytes harboring Anaplasma like structures in 16 and 75 blood samples determined in 50 and 100 microscopic fields respectively. Examination of 50 and 100 microscopic fields showed 25.8% and 91.4% sensitivity and 99% and 76.1% specificity compared to 100% sensitivity and specificity by PCR-RFLP. The Kappa coefficient between PCR-RFLP and Microscopy (50 fields indicated a fair level of agreement (0.29. The Kappa coefficient between PCR-RFLP and Microscopy (100 fields indicated a good level of agreement (0.64"nConclusion: Our results showed that the microscopic examination remains the convenient technique for day-to-day diagnosis of clinical cases in the laboratory but for the detection of carrier animal with low bacteremia, microscopy with 100 fields is preferable to Microscopy with 50 fields and molecular methods such as PCR-RFLP can be used as a safe method for identifying cattle persistently infected with A. marginale.

  19. Identification of a vertically transmitted strain from Anaplasma marginale (UFMG3): Molecular and phylogenetic characterization, and evaluation of virulence.

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    Silvestre, Bruna T; Silveira, Júlia A G; Meneses, Rodrigo M; Facury-Filho, Elias J; Carvalho, Antônio U; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2016-02-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is a disease caused by the intraerythrocytic rickettsia species Anaplasma marginale and results in great economic losses in tropical and subtropical regions. Vertical transmission is an important phenomenon that contributes to the persistence of different strains of the agent within the same herd. The identification of new strains and genetic characterization studies are essential to understanding their epidemiology and virulence and for vaccine development. The aim of this study was to perform molecular and phylogenetic characterizations of a new vertically transmitted strain from A. marginale and to evaluate its virulence by experimental inoculation of rickettsia-free calves. Thirty newborn Holstein calves were subjected to molecular tests for the detection of A. marginale, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina. Calves positive for A. marginale (n=3) were splenectomized and monitored for the clinical manifestations of anaplasmosis. Blood samples from one of the calves that presented rickettsemia of 42.8% and spontaneous recovery of clinical parameters were used for molecular and phylogenetic characterization (msp1a gene), and inoculum production was used for the evaluation of virulence. This strain was identified as UFMG3. Three tandem repeat forms (13 and MGI19) were identified from the analysis of the msp1a gene, in which the form MGI19 appeared twice. Analysis of these repeats revealed the presence of the sequences QASTSS and SSASGQQQESS and of aspartic acid (D) at position 20 of both repeats. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship among the UFMG3, MGI19 and UFMG2 strains. For virulence evaluation, six Holstein calves were inoculated intravenously with 2×10(7)A. marginale UFMG3-infected erythrocytes. The calves showed maximum rickettsemia of 5.1%, a moderate decrease in packed cell volume and spontaneous recovery of clinical parameters without the need for treatment. The results of experimental inoculation suggest that the strain A

  20. Silencing of genes involved in Anaplasma marginale-tick interactions affects the pathogen developmental cycle in Dermacentor variabilis

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    Almazán Consuelo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle pathogen, Anaplasma marginale, undergoes a developmental cycle in ticks that begins in gut cells. Transmission to cattle occurs from salivary glands during a second tick feeding. At each site of development two forms of A. marginale (reticulated and dense occur within a parasitophorous vacuole in the host cell cytoplasm. However, the role of tick genes in pathogen development is unknown. Four genes, found in previous studies to be differentially expressed in Dermacentor variabilis ticks in response to infection with A. marginale, were silenced by RNA interference (RNAi to determine the effect of silencing on the A. marginale developmental cycle. These four genes encoded for putative glutathione S-transferase (GST, salivary selenoprotein M (SelM, H+ transporting lysosomal vacuolar proton pump (vATPase and subolesin. Results The impact of gene knockdown on A. marginale tick infections, both after acquiring infection and after a second transmission feeding, was determined and studied by light microscopy. Silencing of these genes had a different impact on A. marginale development in different tick tissues by affecting infection levels, the densities of colonies containing reticulated or dense forms and tissue morphology. Salivary gland infections were not seen in any of the gene-silenced ticks, raising the question of whether these ticks were able to transmit the pathogen. Conclusion The results of this RNAi and light microscopic analyses of tick tissues infected with A. marginale after the silencing of genes functionally important for pathogen development suggest a role for these molecules during pathogen life cycle in ticks.

  1. Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against Anaplasma marginale in cattle from south Mozambique Soroprevalência de anticorpos de classe IgG contra Anaplasma marginale em bovinos da região Sul de Moçambique

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    António Amélia Mucalane Tembue

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to Anaplasma marginale in cattle from Maputo, Gaza and Inhambane provinces, south Mozambique. A total of 809 serum samples from cattle were obtained and tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA. The chi-square test at 5% significance was used to assess the association between seroprevalence and the variables gender, age and geographic origin of animals. The overall seropositivity was 76.5% (n = 619 and anti-A. marginale antibodies were detected in 89.1% (n = 156, 68.4% (n = 308 and 84.2% (n = 155 of the animals in the provinces of Maputo, Gaza and Inhambane, respectively. A significant association (p 12 and 24 and 36 months, respectively. These results indicate that in southern Mozambique there are areas of enzootic stability to A. marginale. Thus, epidemiological monitoring is required to monitor the immune status of animals in the region.O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a soroprevalência de anticorpos da classe IgG contra Anaplasma marginale em bovinos de corte da região Sul de Moçambique. Para esse efeito, 809 amostras de soro foram coletadas e avaliadas pelo ensaio imunoadsorção enzimático indireto (ELISA-i. O teste Qui-Quadrado, a 5% de significância, foi utilizado para avaliar a associação entre a soroprevalência e as variáveis sexo, idade e origem geográfica dos animais. A soropositividade geral foi de 76,5% (n = 619, e anticorpos anti-A. marginale foram detectados em 89,1% (n = 156, 68,4% (n = 308 e 84,2% (n = 155 dos animais nas províncias de Maputo, Gaza e Inhambane, respectivamente. Uma associação significativa (p 12 a 24 36 meses, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstram que, no Sul de Moçambique, existem áreas de estabilidade enzoótica para A. marginale, em animais maiores de 12 meses. Assim, monitoramento epidemiológico deve ser realizado para o acompanhamento do status imunológico dos animais na região.

  2. Development of a multilocus sequence typing scheme for the study of Anaplasma marginale population structure over space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemi, Eliana C; Ruybal, Paula; Lia, Verónica; Gonzalez, Sergio; Lew, Sergio; Zimmer, Patricia; Lopez Arias, Ludmila; Rodriguez, Jose L; Rodriguez, Sonia Y; Frutos, Roger; Wilkowsky, Silvina E; Farber, Marisa D

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale is a worldwide disease prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions where Rhipicephalus microplus is considered the most significant biological vector. Molecular markers previously applied for A. marginale typing are efficient for isolate discrimination but they are not a suitable tool for studying population structure and dynamics. Here we report the development of an MLST scheme based on the study of seven genes: dnaA, ftsZ, groEl, lipA, recA, secY and sucB. Five annotated genomes (Saint Maries, Florida, Mississippi, Puerto Rico and Virginia) and 53 bovine blood samples from different world regions were analyzed. High nucleotide diversity and a large proportion of synonymous substitutions, indicative of negative selection resulted from DnaSP 5.00.02 package application. Recombination events were detected in almost all genes, this evidence together with the coexistence of more than one A. marginale strain in the same sample might suggest the superinfection phenomena as a potential source of variation. The allelic profile analysis performed through GoeBURST shown two main CC that did not support geography. In addition, the AMOVA test confirmed the occurrence of at least two main genetically divergent groups. The composition of the emergent groups reflected the impact of both historical and environmental traits on A. marginale population structure. Finally, a web-based platform "Galaxy MLST-Pipeline" was developed to automate DNA sequence editing and data analysis that together with the Data Base are freely available to users. The A. marginale MLST scheme developed here is a valuable tool with a high discrimination power, besides PCR based strategies are still the better choice for epidemiological intracellular pathogens studies. Finally, the allelic profile describe herein would contribute to uncover the mechanisms in how intracellular pathogens challenge virulence paradigm. PMID:25550150

  3. Independence of Anaplasma marginale Strains with High and Low Transmission Efficiencies in the Tick Vector following Simultaneous Acquisition by Feeding on a Superinfected Mammalian Reservoir Host

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    Strain superinfection occurs when a second pathogen strain infects a host already carrying a primary strain. Anaplasma marginale superinfection occurs when the second strain encodes a unique variant surface repertoire as compared to the primary strain and the epidemiologic consequences depend on th...

  4. Seroprevalence estimation and management factors associated with high herd seropositivity for Anaplasma marginale in commercial dairy farms of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdaz-Rodríguez, J H; Fosgate, G T; Alleman, A R; Rae, D O; Donovan, G A; Melendez, P

    2009-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine individual cow seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in adult lactating dairy cattle of Puerto Rico (PR) and to assess the associations of farm management factors on herd seroprevalence. Antibody activity against A. marginale was determined using the MSP-5 competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum samples were obtained from 2,414 adult lactating dairy cattle from 76 randomly selected commercial dairy farms. Herd seroprevalence ranged from 3 to 100% with an overall individual cow seroprevalence for A. marginale of 27.4%. Factors associated with high herd seropositivity were pasture grazing as the main feed source (OR = 6.5, 95% CI = 1.2-34), observed monkeys on the premises (OR = 13, 95% CI = 1.2-138), use of 11% permethrin (OR = 17, 95% CI = 2.2-129), farmers who attended an acaricide certification program (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.04-0.74), and lack of a fly control program (OR = 5.6, 95% CI = 1.3-24). PMID:19337849

  5. Cattle experimentally infected by Anaplasma marginale: Influence of splenectomy on disease pathogenesis, oxidative profile, and antioxidant status.

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    Doyle, Rovaina L; França, Raqueli T; Oliveira, Camila B; Rezer, João F P; Klafke, Guilherme M; Martins, João R; Santos, Andrea P; do Nascimento, Naíla C; Mesick, Joanne B; Lopes, Sonia T A; Leal, Daniela B R; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Andrade, Cinthia M

    2016-06-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is caused by the obligate intraerythrocytic bacteria Anaplasma marginale. These bacteria are transmitted by tick species such as Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, blood-sucking insects, and fomites (needles, clippers, and other blood contaminated equipment). During the acute phase of infection, animals may develop fever, anemia, jaundice, and hepatosplenomegaly. The aims of this study are to quantify the bacteremia by quantitative PCR in eight naïve calves experimentally infected by A. marginale [splenectomized (n = 4), and intact/non-splenectomized (n = 4)], and to correlate these findings with markers of oxidative stress on days 0, 8, 15, 21 and 23 post-infection. Complete blood counts (CBC) were performed in both groups. Lipid peroxidation was estimated by quantifying thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS); and non-enzymatic antioxidants were assessed by erythrocyte content of non-protein thiols (NPSH). There were no significant differences in complete blood counts (CBC) between the two groups. However, both groups had a slight decrease on packet cell volume (PCV), erythrocytes and hemoglobin concentration, as well as an increase in total leukocyte counts due to elevated lymphocytes when comparing pre and post-infection with A. marginale. Progressive increase on TBARS levels and concomitant decrease on NPSH content were observed in all animals, without significant differences between splenectomized and intact animals. A positive correlation between bacteremia and TBARS, and a negative correlation between bacteremia and NPSH were observed in both groups with higher correlation for NPSH in splenectomized animals. A negative correlation between TBARS and NPSH levels was observed in both groups indicating lipid peroxidation without a non-enzymatic antioxidant response. The results of experimental infection by A. marginale in cattle showed that bacteremia has an impact on lipid peroxidation regardless of the splenectomy. PMID

  6. Prevalence and haemato-biochemical profile ofAnaplasma marginale infection in dairy animals of Punjab (India)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashuma; Amrita Sharma; Lachhman Das Singla; Paramjit Kaur; Mandeep Singh Bal; Balwinder Kaur Batth; Prayag Dutt Juyal

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To do the systematic comparison of prevalence of anaplasmosis byPCR andGiemsa stained thin blood smear (GSTBS) based parasitological assays in dairy cattle ofPunjab, which has not been reported yet.To analyse the haematobiochemical alterations in infected animals to arrive at the conclusion regarding the pathogenicity induced byAnaplasma marginale (A. marginale) in latent and patent infection.Methods:Study was conducted on320 animals (236 cows,62 calves and22 buffaloes) ofPunjab,India.PCR on genome ofA. marginale was performed by targeting msp1β gene using specific primersBAP-2/AL34S, amplifies products of size407 bp.Questionnaires based data on the characteristics of the infected animals and management strategies of the farm were collected and correlated.Results:Higher prevalence and more significant association was observed in thePCR based molecular diagnosis (P=0.00012) as compared to that inGSTBS (P=0.0288) based diagnosis with various regions under study.With respect to the regions, highest prevalence was recorded inFerozepur byPCR based diagnosis, while that inJalandhar byGSTBS examination.Similar marked significant association of thePCR based diagnosis with the age of the animals under study (P=0.00013) was observed elucidating no inverse age resistance toA. marginale in cow calves.Haematobiochemical profile of infected animals revealed marked anemia, liver dysfunction and increase globulin concentrate indicating rise in immunoglobulin level to counteract infection.Conclusions:PCR is far more sensitive in detecting the disease even in latent infection which may act as nidus for spread of anaplasmosis to susceptible animals in endemic areas.Severity of anaemia and liver dysfunction were comparable both in patent as well as latent infection indicating pathogenicity of both.

  7. Serological detection of Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in beef cattle of the northern and central-western regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the occurrence of antibodies against Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in beef cattle of the northern and central-western regions of Brazil. A total of 1703 blood samples were collected from cattle from 100 farms distributed among 37 municipalities in the states of Mato Grosso, Pará and Tocantins. The search for antibodies was conducted using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and antibodies were observed for B. bovis, B. bigemina and A. marginale in cattle from Mato Grosso, Tocantins and Pará at rates of 99%, 90% and 41%; 99%, 70% and 52%; and 97%, 97% and 75%, respectively. The results show that the analyzed regions exhibit enzootic stability for infection with B. bovis and B. bigemina, whereas the same result was not observed with A. marginale.

  8. Immunogenicity of Outer Membrane Proteins VirB9-1 and VirB9-2, a Novel Nanovaccine against Anaplasma marginale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Antonino S.; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Jun; Deringer, James R.; Zhao, Chun-Xia; Brown, Wendy C.; Yu, Chengzhong; Mitter, Neena; Middelberg, Anton P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent tick-borne livestock pathogen and poses a significant threat to cattle industry. In contrast to currently available live blood-derived vaccines against A. marginale, alternative safer and better-defined subunit vaccines will be of great significance. Two proteins (VirB9-1 and VirB9-2) from the Type IV secretion system of A. marginale have been shown to induce humoral and cellular immunity. In this study, Escherichia coli were used to express VirB9-1 and VirB9-2 proteins. Silica vesicles having a thin wall of 6 nm and pore size of 5.8 nm were used as the carrier and adjuvant to deliver these two antigens both as individual or mixed nano-formulations. High loading capacity was achieved for both proteins, and the mouse immunisation trial with individual as well as mixed nano-formulations showed high levels of antibody titres over 107 and strong T-cell responses. The mixed nano-formulation also stimulated high-level recall responses in bovine T-cell proliferation assays. These results open a promising path towards the development of efficient A. marginale vaccines and provide better understanding on the role of silica vesicles to deliver multivalent vaccines as mixed nano-formulations able to activate both B-cell and T-cell immunity, for improved animal health. PMID:27115492

  9. Eficácia do dipropionato de imidocarb, da enrofloxacina e do cloridrato de oxitetraciclina no tratamento de bovinos naturalmente infectados por Anaplasma marginale

    OpenAIRE

    L.R. Alberton; C.F. Orlandini; T.M. Zampieri; A.Y. Nakamura; D.D. Gonçalves; R. Piau Júnior; M.M. Zaniolo; S.T. Cardim; O. Vidotto; Garcia, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    O agente de maior importância, em relação à anaplasmose bovina, é o Anaplasma marginale. Os principais sinais clínicos dessa enfermidade são anemia hemolítica, icterícia, dispneia, taquicardia, febre, fadiga, lacrimejamento, sialorreia, micção frequente, anorexia, perda de peso, aborto e morte. A terapia antimicrobiana é o principal protocolo terapêutico. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia do dipropionato de imidocarb, da enrofloxacina e do cloridrato de oxitetraciclina no...

  10. Frequency of antibodies to Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax and Borrelia burdgorferi in cattle from the northeastern region of the state of Pará, Brazil Freqüência de anticorpos para Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax e Borrelia burgdorferi em bovinos do nordeste do Estado do Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Guedes Junior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Babesiosis, anaplasmosis, and trypanosomosis are relevant diseases, potentially causing morbidity in cattle, leading to economic losses. Borreliosis is import as a potential zoonosis. The objective of this study was to determine, by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, the frequency of seropositive cattle to Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax and Borrelia burgdorferi in cattle from the Northeastern region of Pará, Brazil. Sera samples from 246 female adult cattle from municipalities of Castanhal and São Miguel do Guamá were used. Crude antigens ELISAs were used to detect antibodies to all agents, except to A. marginale, to which an indirect ELISA with recombinant major surface 1a protein (MSP1a antigen was used. Overall frequencies of seropositive animals were: B. bigemina - 99.2%; B. bovis - 98.8%; A. marginale - 68.3%; T. vivax - 93.1% and B. burgdorferi - 54.9%. The frequencies of seropositive cattle to B. bovis and B. bigemina suggest a high rate of transmission of these organisms by tick in the studied region, which can be classified as enzootically stable to these hemoprotozoans. The low frequency of seropositive cattle to A. marginale may be attributed to a lower sensitivity of the recombinant antigen ELISA utilized or a distinct rate of inoculation of this rickettsia by ticks, as compared with Babesia sp. transmission. The high frequency of seropositive cattle to T. vivax indicates that this hemoprotozoan is prevalent in herds from the Northeastern region of Pará. The rate of animal that showed homologues antibodies to B. burgdorferi indicates the presence of the tickborne spirochaetal agent in the cattle population in the studied region.A babesiose, a anaplasmose e a tripanossomose são enfermidades relevantes, potencialmente causadoras de morbidade em bovinos, levando a perdas econômicas. A borreliose assume importância como zoonose potencial. O objetivo desse estudo foi determinar

  11. Real time polymerase chain reaction to diagnose Anaplasma marginale in cattle and deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus leucogaster of the Brazilian Pantanal Reação da polimerase em cadeia tempo real para diagnóstico de Anaplasma marginale em bovino e veado campeiro do Pantanal brasileiro Ozotoceros bezoarticus leucogaster

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    Graziela Picoloto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Epizootiological study of Anaplasma marginale in regions that contain various reservoir hosts, co-existence of rickettsia pathogens, and common vectors is a complicated task. To achieve diagnosis of this rickettsia in cattle and campeiro deer of Brazilian Pantanal, a comparison was made between a real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR with intercalating Sybr Green fluorochrome and primers based on msp5 gene of A. marginale; a conventional PCR (C-PCR; and parasitological examination using thin blood smear stained with Giemsa-MayGrunwald. Both PCRs showed good performance in the diagnosis of A. marginale in cattle, and were superior to the parasitological exam. The RT-PCR detected seven positive campeiro deer (16.3%. This rate was significantly higher compared to C-PCR, which identified one animal as positive (2.3%, and also compared to parasitological diagnosis, which did not find any positive animals. The dissociation temperature average of positive reactions in cattle (81.72 ºC ± 0.20 was identical to dissociation temperature found in the cervids (81.72 ºC ± 0.12, suggesting that both animal species were infected with A. marginale. We concluded that RT-PCR can be used for A. marginale diagnosis and in epizootiological studies of cattle and cervids; in spite of the small number of campeiro deer samples, the results indicated that this wildlife species has importance in the Anaplasma epizootiology in the Brazilian Pantanal.O estudo epizootiológico de Anaplasma marginale em regiões que existem vários reservatórios, co-existência de espécies de riquétsias patógenas e vetores comuns é uma tarefa complicada. Com o objetivo de obter o diagnóstico dessa riquétsia em bovinos e veado campeiro do Pantanal brasileiro foi avaliada uma reação da polimerase em cadeia em tempo real (PCR-TR com o fluoróforo intercalante de fita dupla de DNA Sybr Green e iniciadores baseados na seqüência do gene msp5 de A. marginale comparando-a a uma

  12. Evaluating the effectiveness of an inactivated vaccine from Anaplasma marginale derived from tick cell culture Avaliação da eficácia de uma vacina inativada de Anaplasma marginale derivada de cultura de células de carrapato

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    Pedro Veloso Facury Lasmar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The protective efficacy of an inactivated vaccine from Anaplasma marginale that was cultured in tick cells (IDE8 for use against bovine anaplasmosis was evaluated. Five calves (Group 1 were inoculated subcutaneously, at 21-day intervals, with three doses of vaccine containing 3 × 10(9 A. marginale initial bodies. Five control calves received saline solution alone (Group 2. Thirty-two days after the final inoculation, all the calves were challenged with approximately 3 × 10(5 erythrocytes infected with A. marginale high-virulence isolate (UFMG2. The Group 1 calves seroconverted 14 days after the second dose of vaccine. After the challenge, all the animals showed patent rickettsemia. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 between the Group 1 and 2 calves during the incubation period, patency period or convalescence period. All the animals required treatment to prevent death. The results suggest that the inactivated vaccine from A. marginale produced in IDE8 induced seroconversion in calves, but was not effective for preventing anaplasmosis induced by the UFMG2 isolate under the conditions of this experiment.Foi avaliada a eficácia de uma vacina protetora para Anaplasma marginale cultivada em células de carrapato (IDE8 para uso contra a anaplasmose bovina. Cinco bezerros (Grupo 1 foram inoculados por via subcutânea com três doses, intervalados de 21 dias, de vacina contendo 3 × 10(9 corpúsculos iniciais de A. marginale inicial. Cinco bezerros do grupo controle receberam apenas solução salina (Grupo 2. Trinta e dois dias após a inoculação final, todos os bezerros foram desafiados com aproximadamente 3 × 10(5 eritrócitos infectados com isolado de A. marginale alta virulência (UFMG2. Os bezerros do Grupo 1 soroconverteram-se 14 dias após a segunda dose da vacina. Após o desafio, todos os animais mostraram riquestsemia patente. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 entre bezerros do Grupo 1 e 2 em período de incuba

  13. Epitope-based vaccines with the Anaplasma marginale MSP1a functional motif induce a balanced humoral and cellular immune response in mice.

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    Paula S Santos

    Full Text Available Bovine anaplasmosis is a hemoparasitic disease that causes considerable economic loss to the dairy and beef industries. Cattle immunized with the Anaplasma marginale MSP1 outer membrane protein complex presents a protective humoral immune response; however, its efficacy is variable. Immunodominant epitopes seem to be a key-limiting factor for the adaptive immunity. We have successfully demonstrated that critical motifs of the MSP1a functional epitope are essential for antibody recognition of infected animal sera, but its protective immunity is yet to be tested. We have evaluated two synthetic vaccine formulations against A. marginale, using epitope-based approach in mice. Mice infection with bovine anaplasmosis was demonstrated by qPCR analysis of erythrocytes after 15-day exposure. A proof-of-concept was obtained in this murine model, in which peptides conjugated to bovine serum albumin were used for immunization in three 15-day intervals by intraperitoneal injections before challenging with live bacteria. Blood samples were analyzed for the presence of specific IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies, as well as for the rickettsemia analysis. A panel containing the cytokines' transcriptional profile for innate and adaptive immune responses was carried out through qPCR. Immunized BALB/c mice challenged with A. marginale presented stable body weight, reduced number of infected erythrocytes, and no mortality; and among control groups mortality rates ranged from 15% to 29%. Additionally, vaccines have significantly induced higher IgG2a than IgG1 response, followed by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This is a successful demonstration of epitope-based vaccines, and protection against anaplasmosis may be associated with elicitation of effector functions of humoral and cellular immune responses in murine model.

  14. Genetic diversity of anaplasma species major surface proteins and implications for anaplasmosis serodiagnosis and vaccine development

    OpenAIRE

    de la Fuente, J.; Lew, A.; Lutz, H.; Meli, M. L.; Hofmann-Lehmann, R.; Shkap, V; Molad, T; Mangold, A J; Almazán, C; Naranjo, V.; Gortázar, C.; Torina, A; Caracappa, S.; García-Pérez, A. L.; Barral, M.

    2005-01-01

    The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) includes several pathogens of veterinary and human medical importance. An understanding of the diversity of Anaplasma major surface proteins (MSPs), including those MSPs that modulate infection, development of persistent infections, and transmission of pathogens by ticks, is derived in part, by characterization and phylogenetic analyses of geographic strains. Information concerning the genetic diversity of Anaplasma spp. MSPs will likely in...

  15. Natural infection of calves by Anaplasma marginale in dairy herds of the Metalúrgica Region, Minas Gerais Infecção natural por Anaplasma marginale em bezerras de fazendas leiteiras da região Metalúrgica de Minas Gerais

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    Valeska S.P. Melo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic of natural infections by Anaplasma marginale in calves was evaluated during a period of one year on two farms located in the Metalúrgica Region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Blood samples were collected weekly for rickettsemia and packed cell volume (PCV determination. The animals born from March to July suffered the infection in October and November, independently of their age, whilst calves born from September to December acquired the infection during the first days of life. These animals presented patent rickettsemia from 30 days of life. During the patent period PCV decreased after one week of infection, ranging from 20 to 23%. It was concluded, that in the region studied, the transmission of A. marginale is influenced by climatic conditions, and that calves born during the dry season are more likely to acquire the infection when they are exposed to high transmission levels during the subsequent raining season.Realizou-se um estudo da dinâmica de infecções naturais por Anaplasma marginale, durante o período de um ano, em duas propriedades localizadas na Região Metalúrgica do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram realizados esfregaços sangüíneos e determinação do volume globular (VG. Os animais que nasceram no período de março a julho sofreram a infecção em outubro e novembro, independentemente da idade, enquanto os que nasceram no período de setembro a dezembro adquiriram a infecção nos primeiros dias de vida, com parasitemia patente a partir de 30 dias de idade. Durante o período patente, o VG reduziu na primeira semana de infecção, variando entre 20 a 23%. Concluiu-se que a ocorrência da primo-infecção sofre influência das estações do ano e que bezerros nascidos na estação seca apresentam maior risco de infecção, quando expostos às condições de elevada transmissão durante a estação chuvosa subseqüente.

  16. Functional and Immunological Relevance of Anaplasma marginale Major Surface Protein 1a Sequence and Structural Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Passos, L.M.F.; Lis, K.; Kenneil, R.; Valdés, James J.; Ferrolho, J.; Tonk, Miray; Pohl, A.E.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Zweygarth, E.; Shkap, V.; Ribeiro, M.F.B.; Estrada-Pena, A.; Kocan, K.M.; de la Fuente, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 6 (2013), e65243. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 238511 - POSTICK Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : CD4(+) T-lymphocytes * B-cell epitopes * salivary glands Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  17. Detection of Anaplasma antibodies in wildlife and domestic species in wildlife-livestock interface areas of Kenya by major surface protein 5 competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    OpenAIRE

    J.J.N. Ngeranwa; S.P. Shompole; E.H. Venter; Wambugu, A.; J.E. Crafford; Penzhorn, B.L.

    2008-01-01

    The seroprevalence of Anaplasma antibodies in wildlife (eland, blue wildebeest, kongoni, impala, Thomson's gazelle, Grant's gazelle, giraffe and plains zebra) and domestic animal (cattle, sheep and goat) populations was studied in wildlife / livestock interface areas of Kenya. Serum samples were analyzed by competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA), using a recombinant antigen (MSP-5) from Anaplasma marginale surface membrane. A monoclonal antibody, FC-16, was ...

  18. Anaplasma marginale infection with persistent high-load bacteremia induces a dysfunctional memory CD4+ T lymphocyte response but sustained high IgG titers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of blood-borne infections is dependent on antigen-specific effector and memory T cells and high-affinity IgG responses. In chronic infections characterized by a high antigen load, it has been shown that antigen-specific T and B cells are vulnerable to downregulation and apoptosis. Anaplasma ...

  19. Frequency of Anaplasma marginale (Theiler 1910 and Babesia sp in mestizo bovine Zebu, in the Municipality of Ixiamas county Abel Iturralde Department of The La Paz, Bolivia

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    Mercado Alvaro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work one carries out in the Municipality of Ixiamas County Abel Iturralde of the department of Peace-Bolivia, between May and August of 2010. The objective was to determine the presence of Anaplama sp and Babesia sp, through sanguine smear, they took 160 samples of blood, 40 bovine of the four areas they have been evaluated. The results indicate the presence of Anaplasma sp 6,90%, 6,20% in females and 9,70% in males, this represents 2,50% for the area TO, 5,00% area B, 17,50% area C and 2,50% area D. According to the category 12,50% in calves, 0,00% in torillos, 4,80% in bulls, 6,20% in cows and 14,30% in heifers. The presence of Babesia sp 3,13%, with relationship to the sex 3,10% in females and 3,22% in males, being observed 2,50% in the area TO, 5,00% in the area B, 5,00% in the area C and 0,00% in the area D, according to the category 0,00% in calves, torillos 4,80% bulls, 2,73% vacates and 7,14% in heifers.

  20. Subdominant antigens in bacterial vaccines: Am779 is subdominant in the anaplasma marginale outer membrane vaccine but does not associate with protective immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of specific antigens responsible for the ability of complex immunogens to induce protection is a major goal in development of bacterial vaccines. Much of the investigation has focused on highly abundant and highly immunodominant outer membrane proteins. Recently however, genomic and p...

  1. Comparison of the serologic tests of Indirect Immunofluorescence, Rapid Conglutination, Indirect ELISA and Competition ELISA for detection of antibodies against Anaplasma marginale in cattle sera from different enzootic areas/ Comparação dos testes sorológicos de Imunofluorescência Indireta, Conglutinação Rápida, ELISA indireto e ELISA por competição para a detecção de anticorpos contra o Anaplasma marginale em soros de bovinos de diferentes áreas enzoóticas

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    João Luís Garcia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The serological techniques Rapid Conglutination Test (RCT, Indirect ELISA (iELISA and Indirect Immunofluorescent Assay (IFA, using the competition ELISA (cELISA as gold test, were comparatively evaluated to detect antibodies against Anaplasma marginale. A total of 453 sera from vaccinated and non vaccinated cattle and, collected from enzootic stability and instability areas were tested. iELISA, IFA and TCR presented kappa index = 0.77 (substantial; 0.57 and 0.49 (moderate, sensibility of 90.6%; 90.2% and 73.7% and specificity of 86.6%; 62.8%, and 79.3%, respectively. Therefore, iELISA presented better specificity than IFA and RCT, and can be indicated for more detailed serological investigations, detection of persistently infected animals in cattle herds and for monitorating of vaccination programs. IFA and TCR can be used in prevalence studies and to monitor cattle movement between different geographical regions.Os testes sorológicos de Conglutinação Rápida (TCR Imunofluorescência Indireta (IFI e Imunoenzimáticos Indireto (iELISA utilizando ELISA por competição (cELISA, como padrão ouro, foram avaliados comparativamente para a detecção de anticorpos contra o Anaplasma marginale. Foram utilizadas 453 amostras de soros sangüíneos de bovinos vacinados e não-vacinados e de áreas de estabilidade e instabilidade enzoótica. O iELISA, IFI e TCR apresentaram respectivamente, índice kappa=0,77 (substancial, 0,57 e 0,49 (moderado, sensibilidade de 90,6%, 90,2% e 73,7% e especificidade de 86,6%, 62,8%, e 79,3%. O iELISA apresentou o melhor desempenho e maior especificidade, podendo ser indicado na avaliação do perfil sorológico de rebanhos, na detecção de animais persistentemente infectados e de animais submetidos a programas de vacinação. As técnicas de IFI e TCR, mesmo apresentando desempenho inferior, podem ser recomendadas para a realização de inquéritos epidemiológicos e para o monitoramento de animais em trânsito entre

  2. Effect of milk production system on the enzootic stability to Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bovis in calves in the Campo das Vertentes region of Minas Gerais state, BrazilEfeito do sistema de produção de leite sobre a estabilidade enzoótica para Anaplasma marginale e Babesia bovis em bezerras na região do Campo das Vertentes de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães Rocha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a cross-sectional observational study, in order to determine the frequency of anti-A. marginale and anti-B. bovis antibodies in calves from four to 12 months of age from ten farms that producing B type milk and an equal number that produce raw milk refrigerated, located in the Campo das Vertentes region of Minas Gerais state, in the period September 2008 to August 2009. Blood smears were performed, serologic testing by indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFAT, given the packed cell volume, rickettsemia, and the clinical scores of animals infected by A. marginale. In the farms that produce B type milk, the overall average frequency of seropositive calves was 94.47% (166/176 and 89.20% (157/176 for A. marginale and B. bovis, respectively. Already on the farms that produce raw milk refrigerated, the overall average frequency of A. marginale was 92.59% (149/161 and for B. bovis from 86.30% (139/161, and there was no significant difference (p > 0.05 in the frequency of calves infected for both hemoparasitic between the two systems of milk production. Statistically significant (p 0.05 among calves from properties that produce B type milk and raw milk refrigerated. The results of this study indicate that, in the Campos das Vertentes region of Minas Gerais, the production system does not interfere with the enzootic stability for A. marginale and B. bovis in calves from dairy farms B milk or raw milk refrigerated, with low probability of anaplasmosis and/or babesiosis in adults animals.Foi realizado um estudo observacional do tipo transversal, com o objetivo de determinar a frequência de anticorpos anti-A. marginale e B. bovis em 337 bezerras com idade entre quatro a 12 meses, oriundas de dez propriedades produtoras de leite B e igual número de fazendas de leite cru refrigerado (leite C, na região do Campo das Vertentes de Minas Gerais, no período de setembro de 2008 a agosto de 2009. Foram realizados esfregaços sangu

  3. Detection of Anaplasma antibodies in wildlife and domestic species in wildlife-livestock interface areas of Kenya by major surface protein 5 competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

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    J.J.N. Ngeranwa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The seroprevalence of Anaplasma antibodies in wildlife (eland, blue wildebeest, kongoni, impala, Thomson's gazelle, Grant's gazelle, giraffe and plains zebra and domestic animal (cattle, sheep and goat populations was studied in wildlife / livestock interface areas of Kenya. Serum samples were analyzed by competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA, using a recombinant antigen (MSP-5 from Anaplasma marginale surface membrane. A monoclonal antibody, FC-16, was used as the primary antibody, while anti-mouse conjugated to horseradish peroxidase was used as the secondary antibody. The results indicate a high seroprevalence in both wildlife and livestock populations, in contrast to earlier reports from Kenya, which indicated a low seroprevalence. The differences are attributed to the accurate analytical method used (CI-ELISA, as compared with agglutination techniques, clinical signs and microscopy employed by the earlier workers.

  4. Detection of Anaplasma antibodies in wildlife and domestic species in wildlife-livestock interface areas of Kenya by major surface protein 5 competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeranwa, J J N; Shompole, S P; Venter, E H; Wambugu, A; Crafford, J E; Penzhorn, B L

    2008-09-01

    The seroprevalence of Anaplasma antibodies in wildlife (eland, blue wildebeest, kongoni, impala, Thomson's gazelle, Grant's gazelle, giraffe and plains zebra) and domestic animal (cattle, sheep and goat) populations was studied in wildlife/livestock interface areas of Kenya. Serum samples were analyzed by competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA), using a recombinant antigen (MSP-5) from Anaplasma marginale surface membrane. A monoclonal antibody, FC-16, was used as the primary antibody, while anti-mouse conjugated to horseradish peroxidase was used as the secondary antibody. The results indicate a high seroprevalence in both wildlife and livestock populations, in contrast to earlier reports from Kenya, which indicated a low seroprevalence. The differences are attributed to the accurate analytical method used (CI-ELISA), as compared with agglutination techniques, clinical signs and microscopy employed by the earlier workers. PMID:19040134

  5. First molecular survey and identification of Anaplasma spp. in white yaks (Bos grunniens) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jifei; Liu, Zhijie; Niu, Qingli; Liu, Junlong; Guan, Guiquan; Xie, Jingying; Luo, Jianxun; Wang, Shuqing; Wang, Shufang; Yin, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Anaplasmosis is caused by a group of obligate intracellular bacteria in the genus Anaplasma, which are transmitted by ticks and infect humans, domestic animals and wildlife. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of Anaplasma spp. in semi-wild white yaks sampled in Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County, northwest China. Out of 332 samples tested, 35 (10·9%) were positive for Anaplasma spp. The positive rates were 6·2% (20/322) and 5·3% (17/322) for Anaplasma bovis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in white yaks, respectively. None of the sample was positive for Anaplasma marginale. Two (0·6%) samples were simultaneously positive to A. bovis and A. phagocytophilum. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed two genotypes (ApG1 and ApG2) of A. phagocytophilum and two sequence types (ST1 and ST2) of A. bovis in white yaks. This study is the first to document the presence of Anaplasma in white yaks. Our findings extend the host range for Anaplasma species and provide more valuable information for the control and management of anaplasmosis in white yaks. PMID:27003378

  6. Comparative study of Anaplasma parasites in tick carrying buffaloes and cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAJPUT Z.I.; HU Song-hua; ARIJO A.G.; HABIB M.; KHALID M.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study on the prevalence of Anaplasma parasite was conducted on ticks carrying buffaloes and cattle.Five hundred blood samples of both animals (250 of each) were collected during February, March and April. Thin blood smears on glass slides were made, fixed in 100% methyl alcohol and examined. Microscopic examination revealed that 205 (41%) animals had Anaplasma parasites, out of which 89, 44 and 72 animals had Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma centrale and mixed infection respectively. Infected buffaloes and cattle were 75 and 130 respectively. The infection in female was 53 and 92 in buffaloes and cattle respectively. Twenty-two and 92 blood samples of male were found positive in buffaloes and cattle respectively. Comparative study revealed that the cattle were 26.82% more susceptible than buffaloes. The parasite prevailing percentage in female of both animals was slightly higher than that of the male. This investigation was aimed at studying the comparative prevalence of Anaplasma parasite in tick carrying buffaloes and cattle.

  7. Cepas atenuadas de Babesia bovis e Babesia bigemina e de Anaplasma centrale como imunógenos no controle da tristeza parasitária bovina Attenuated strains of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina and of Anaplasma centrale as immunogens for tick borne disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Sastre Sacco

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram avaliadas cepas atenuadas de Babesia bovis e B. bigemina e Anaplasma centrale como imunógenos a serem utilizados no controle da Tristeza Parasitária Bovina. O processo de imunização demonstrou ser inócuo, imunogênico e eficiente, pelo menos no que diz respeito às babesias, pois protegeu os animais vacinados frente ao desafio com cepas heterólogas virulentas a campo, que provocou doença clínica e morte nos animais do grupo controle. O desafio a campo pelo Anaplasma marginale não se mostrou muito virulento ou patogênico, não sendo possível concluir que a imunização com A. centrale proteja os animais contra anaplasmose.Attenuated strains of Babesia bovis and B. bigemina and a strain of Anaplasma centrale were evaluated as immunogens against tick-borne disease. The immunization process was shown to be inocuous, immunogenic and efficient to protect cattle, at least against the babesias. Vaccinated animals proved to be protected when naturally challenged with heterologous and virulent strains, in contrast to control animals that showed clinical symptoms of the disease and had to be treated. The Anaplasma marginale challenge was not efficient since treatment was not necessary in the control animals, therefore it was not possible to conclude that immunization with A. centrale protected animals against anaplasmosis.

  8. Sequence analysis of the msp4 gene of Anaplasma ovis strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, J.; Atkinson, M.W.; Naranjo, V.; Fernandez de Mera, I. G.; Mangold, A.J.; Keating, K.A.; Kocan, K.M.

    2007-01-01

    Anaplasma ovis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) is a tick-borne pathogen of sheep, goats and wild ruminants. The genetic diversity of A. ovis strains has not been well characterized due to the lack of sequence information. In this study, we evaluated bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Montana for infection with A. ovis by serology and sequence analysis of the msp4 gene. Antibodies to Anaplasma spp. were detected in 37% and 39% of bighorn sheep and mule deer analyzed, respectively. Four new msp4 genotypes were identified. The A. ovis msp4 sequences identified herein were analyzed together with sequences reported previously for the characterization of the genetic diversity of A. ovis strains in comparison with other Anaplasma spp. The results of these studies demonstrated that although A. ovis msp4 genotypes may vary among geographic regions and between sheep and deer hosts, the variation observed was less than the variation observed between A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum strains. The results reported herein further confirm that A. ovis infection occurs in natural wild ruminant populations in Western United States and that bighorn sheep and mule deer may serve as wildlife reservoirs of A. ovis. ?? 2006.

  9. The Life and Death of Anaplasma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-30

    Dr. Setu Vora, medical director of critical care and physician director of performance improvement at Backus Hospital in Norwich, Connecticut, reads his poem The Life and Death of Anaplasma and discusses the poem’s origins.  Created: 3/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/2/2012.

  10. Development of a multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Theileria annulata, Babesia bovis and Anaplasma marginale in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgiç, Huseyin B.; KARAGENÇ, Tülin; Simuunza, Martin; Shiels, Brian; Tait, Andy; Eren, Hasan; Weir, William

    2013-01-01

    Tropical theileriosis, bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis are tick-borne protozoan diseases that impose serious constraints on the health and productivity of domestic cattle in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. A common feature of these diseases is that, following recovery from primary infection, animals become persistent carriers of the pathogen and continue to play a critical role in disease epidemiology, acting as reservoirs of infection. This study describes development and ...

  11. Molecular Characterization of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Species in Different Cattle Breeds and Age Groups in Mbarara District (Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhanguzi Dennis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma and Ehrlichia sp. (AEs cause significant economic losses to the livestock sector in Uganda. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of AEs in cattle from Kashaari county-Mbarara district (Uganda so as to compare the prevalence of AEs in different cattle breeds, age groups, sub county of origin and management systems and predictor(s of infection with AEs. Such information is deemed necessary to direct future tick-borne disease control programs. A single pair of primers w as used to am plify a 492-498bp fragment of the 16SRNA gene spanning the V1 region conserved for both AEs. PCR products were transferred onto the Reverse Line Blot (RLB membrane and AEs amplicons in the PCR products allowed to hybridize with AE species-specific oligonucleotides. The prevalence of Ehrlichia sp. was 5.1% (CI = 95%, 2.9-7.3% whereas that of Anaplasma species was 5.3 % (C I = 95%, 3-7.6%. Individual AEs detected include; A. bovis (5.1%, CI = 95%, 2.9-7.3%, E. ruminantium (4.5% , CI = 95%, 2.4-6.6%, A. marginale (3.7%, CI = 95%, 1.8-5.6%, A. (E. phagocytophilum (2.7%, CI = 95%, 1.1-4.3% , E. ovina/canis (2.7%, CI = 95%; 1.1-4.3%, E. sp. (omatjenne(1.9%, CI = 95 %, 0.5-3.3%. Cattle breed was found to be the best predictor of infection. To further understand bovine tick-borne parasites in Uganda, we recommend that studies covering a wider area and over longer periods, investigation of breed as a predictor of infection, molecular genetic characterization, transmission and pathogenicity studies on the different strains of AEs be carried out.

  12. Detection of Rickettsia and Anaplasma from hard ticks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaisri, Premnika; Hirunkanokpun, Supanee; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2015-12-01

    We collected a total of 169 adult hard ticks and 120 nymphs from under the leaves of plants located along tourist nature trails in ten localities. The results present data examining the vector competence of ticks of different genera and the presence of Rickettsia and Anaplasma species. The ticks belonged to three genera, Amblyomma, Dermacentor, and Haemaphysalis, comprising 11 species. Rickettsia bacteria were detected at three collection sites, while Anaplasma bacteria were detected at only one site. Phylogenetic analysis revealed new rickettsia genotypes from Thailand that were closely related to Rickettsia tamurae, Rickettsia monacensis, and Rickettsia montana. This study was also the first to show that Anaplasma bacteria are found in Haemaphysalis shimoga ticks and are closely related evolutionarily to Anaplasma bovis. These results provide additional information for the geographical distribution of tick species and tick-borne bacteria in Thailand and can therefore be applied for ecotourism management. PMID:26611960

  13. Natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in ticks from a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    G Javkhlan; B Enkhtaivan; B Baigal; Myagmarsuren, P.; Battur, B.; Battsetseg, B

    2014-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic agent of public health importance, infecting both humans and animals. An investigation of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum as well as Anaplasma platys was conducted in a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia, where ticks are widely distributed and tick-borne diseases are highly endemic. Ticks were collected and tested using polymerase chain reaction based on groEL methodology. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 14 (6%) of Ixodes pers...

  14. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and effect on lamb growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinshamn Håvard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge in sheep farming during the grazing season along the coast of south-western Norway is tick-borne fever (TBF caused by the bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum that is transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus. Methods A study was carried out in 2007 and 2008 to examine the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum infection and effect on weaning weight in lambs. The study included 1208 lambs from farms in Sunndal Ram Circle in Møre and Romsdal County in Mid-Norway, where ticks are frequently observed. All lambs were blood sampled and serum was analyzed by an indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IFA to determine an antibody status (positive or negative to A. phagocytophilum infection. Weight and weight gain and possible effect of infection were analyzed using ANOVA and the MIXED procedure in SAS. Results The overall prevalence of infection with A. phagocytophilum was 55%. A lower weaning weight of 3% (1.34 kg, p A. phagocytophilum infection compared to seronegative lambs at an average age of 137 days. Conclusions The results show that A. phagocytophilum infection has an effect on lamb weight gain. The study also support previous findings that A. phagocytophilum infection is widespread in areas where ticks are prevalent, even in flocks treated prophylactic with acaricides.

  15. The natural history of Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldehiwet, Zerai

    2010-02-10

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the recently designated name replacing three species of granulocytic bacteria, Ehrlichia phagocytophila, Ehrlichia equi and the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, after the recent reorganization of the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales. Tick-borne fever (TBF), which is caused by the prototype of A. phagocytophilum, was first described in 1932 in Scotland. A similar disease caused by a related granulocytic agent was first described in horses in the USA in 1969; this was followed by the description of two distinct granulocytic agents causing similar diseases in dogs in the USA in 1971 and 1982. Until the discovery of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) in the USA in 1994, these organisms were thought to be distinct species of bacteria infecting specific domestic animals and free-living reservoirs. It is now widely accepted that the agents affecting different animal hosts are variants of the same Gram-negative obligatory intracellular bacterium, which is transmitted by hard ticks belonging to the Ixodes persulcatus complex. One of its fascinating features is that it infects and actively grows in neutrophils by employing an array of mechanisms to subvert their bactericidal activity. It is also able to survive within an apparently immune host by employing a complex mechanism of antigenic variation. Ruminants with TBF and humans with HGA develop severe febrile reaction, bacteraemia and leukopenia due to neutropenia, lymphocytopenia and thrombocytopenia within a week of exposure to a tick bite. Because of the severe haematological disorders lasting for several days and other adverse effects on the host's immune functions, infected animals and humans are more susceptible to other infections. PMID:19811878

  16. Unidirectional Suppression of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Genotypes in Infected Lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Stuen, Snorre; Dahl, Hilde; Bergström, Karin; Moum, Truls

    2005-01-01

    Five-month-old lambs were simultaneously infected with different doses of two 16S rRNA genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and thereafter followed for clinical observation and blood sampling. The result of the study indicates a unidirectional suppression of genotypes in infected lambs, at least during a certain period of an A. phagocytophilum infection.

  17. Lessons from Anaplasma phagocytophilum: Chromatin Remodeling by Bacterial Effectors

    OpenAIRE

    Rennoll-Bankert, Kristen E.; Dumler, J. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens can alter global host gene expression via histone modifications and chromatin remodeling in order to subvert host responses, including those involved with innate immunity, allowing for bacterial survival. Shigella flexneri, Listeria monocytogenes, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum express effector proteins that modify host histones and chromatin structure. A. phagocytophilum modulates granulocyte respiratory burst in part by dampening transcription of se...

  18. Natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in ticks from a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Javkhlan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic agent of public health importance, infecting both humans and animals. An investigation of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum as well as Anaplasma platys was conducted in a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia, where ticks are widely distributed and tick-borne diseases are highly endemic. Ticks were collected and tested using polymerase chain reaction based on groEL methodology. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 14 (6% of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and four (1% Dermacentor nuttalli ticks; infection of Anaplasma platys was detected in 1% of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and 10% of Dermacentor nuttalli ticks. The phylogenetic tree showed that the Anaplasma phagocytophilum clustered with the Russian group, most likely due to similar geographical locations. This finding is significant for both veterinary and public health officials given that these agents can cause both animal and human illness.

  19. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ruminants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldehiwet, Zerai

    2006-10-01

    The agent that causes tick-borne fever (TBF) in sheep was first described in 1940, 8 years after the disease was first recognized in Scotland. The same agent was soon shown to cause TBF in sheep and pasture fever in cattle in other parts of the UK, Scandinavia, and other parts of Europe. After the initial use of the name Rickettsia phagocytophila, the organism was given the name Cytoecetes phagocytophila to reflect its association with granulocytes and its morphological similarity with Cytoecetes microti. This name continued to be used by workers in the UK until the recent reclassification of the granulocytic ehrlichiae affecting ruminants, horses, and humans as variants of the same species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. TBF and pasture fever are characterized by high fever, recurrent bacteremia, neutropenia, lymphocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, and general immunosuppression, resulting in more severe secondary infections such as tick pyemia, pneumonic pasteurellosis, listeriosis, and enterotoxemia. During the peak period of bacteremia as many as 90% of granulocytes may be infected. The agent is transmitted transtadially by the hard tick Ixodes ricinus, and possibly other ticks. After patent bacteremia, sheep, goats, and cattle become persistently infected "carriers," perhaps playing an important role in the maintenance of infection, in the flock/herd. Little is known about how efficiently ticks acquire and maintain infection in ruminant populations or whether "carrier" domestic ruminants play an important role as reservoirs of infection, but deer, other free-living ruminants, and wild rodents are also potential sources of infection. During the late 1990s serological evidence of infection of humans was demonstrated in several European countries, creating a renewed interest and increased awareness of the zoonotic potential of TBF variants. More recently, a few cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) have been reported in some European countries, but it remains to

  20. Cine y deporte: Reinserción de jóvenes marginales

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco Rodríguez, Miguel Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    El trabajo se basa en el análisis de películas deportivas, siendo utilizadas como la base principal de obtención de la información sobre el tema: La reinserción de los jóvenes marginales. A través del estudio de tres largometrajes, estudios y teorías existentes se busca obtener datos que clarifiquen si existe una relación entre la práctica deportiva y los beneficios que puede tener en la reinserción de los jóvenes marginales.

  1. Mesure de l’utilité marginale et indice de prix chez Ragnar Frisch

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont-Kieffer, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    Cet article a pour objet de montrer comment Ragnar Frisch a fondé l’économétrie sur une articulation spécifique de la mesure théorique et de la mesure empirique des phénomènes. Ses travaux sur l’utilité marginale du revenu permettent d’illustrer sa démarche. Sa tentative de mesurer l’utilité marginale du revenu en 1926 puis à nouveau en 1932, afin d’estimer le pouvoir d’achat de la monnaie, se heurte à une difficulté d’ordre conceptuel : donner un prix à un bien composite ou «bien général», q...

  2. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Danish sheep: confirmation by DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamsborg Stig M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an Ixodes ricinus transmitted bacterium, was investigated in two flocks of Danish grazing lambs. Direct PCR detection was performed on DNA extracted from blood and serum with subsequent confirmation by DNA sequencing. Methods 31 samples obtained from clinically normal lambs in 2000 from Fussingø, Jutland and 12 samples from ten lambs and two ewes from a clinical outbreak at Feddet, Zealand in 2006 were included in the study. Some of the animals from Feddet had shown clinical signs of polyarthritis and general unthriftiness prior to sampling. DNA extraction was optimized from blood and serum and detection achieved by a 16S rRNA targeted PCR with verification of the product by DNA sequencing. Results Five DNA extracts were found positive by PCR, including two samples from 2000 and three from 2006. For both series of samples the product was verified as A. phagocytophilum by DNA sequencing. Conclusions A. phagocytophilum was detected by molecular methods for the first time in Danish grazing lambs during the two seasons investigated (2000 and 2006.

  3. Ixodes scapularis saliva mitigates inflammatory cytokine secretion during Anaplasma phagocytophilum stimulation of immune cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, G.; Severo, M. S.; Sohail, M.; Sakhon, O. S.; Wikel, S. K.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2012), s. 229. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick * Ixodes scapularis * Saliva * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * Rickettsial agent Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.246, year: 2012 http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/5/1/229

  4. Detection and identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia helvetica in Danish Ixodes ricinus ticks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarphédinsson, Sigurdur; Lyholm, Birgitte Fjendbo; Ljungberg, Marianne;

    2007-01-01

    % of adult ticks. The difference in prevalence between Anaplasma and Borrelia in adult ticks supports the idea that their maintenance cycles in nature may be different. Ticks were also infected with Rickettsia helvetica. Our study indicates that A. phagocytophilum prevalence in ticks in Denmark is as...

  5. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Dirofilaria immitis among dogs in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Villeneuve, Alain; Goring, Jonas; Marcotte, Lynne; Overvelde, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    The seropositivity of dogs to Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia canis antibodies, and Dirofilaria immitis antigen was assessed in Canada. Borrelia burgdorferi had the highest seroprevalence, while that of Dirofilaria immitis has not changed significantly in the past 20 y. The risk for these vector-borne infectious agents in Canadian dogs is low but widespread with foci of higher prevalence.

  6. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Small Mammal Hosts of Ixodes Ticks, Western United States

    OpenAIRE

    Janet E. Foley; Nieto, Nathan C.; Adjemian, Jennifer; Dabritz, Haydee; Brown, Richard N.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 2,121 small mammals in California were assessed for Anaplasma phagocytophilum from 2006 through 2008. Odds ratios were >1 for 4 sciurids species and dusky-footed woodrats. High seroprevalence was observed in northern sites. Ten tick species were identified. Heavily infested rodent species included meadow voles, woodrats, deer mice, and redwood chipmunks.

  7. Analysis of the population structure of Anaplasma phagocytophilum using multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, Christian; Winter, Christina; Wolfsperger, Timo; Wüppenhorst, Nicole; Strašek Smrdel, Katja; Skuballa, Jasmin; Pfäffle, Miriam; Petney, Trevor; Silaghi, Cornelia; Dyachenko, Viktor; Pantchev, Nikola; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Schaarschmidt-Kiener, Daniel; Ganter, Martin; Aardema, Matthew L; von Loewenich, Friederike D

    2014-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium that replicates in neutrophils. It is transmitted via tick-bite and causes febrile disease in humans and animals. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis is regarded as an emerging infectious disease in North America, Europe and Asia. However, although increasingly detected, it is still rare in Europe. Clinically apparent A. phagocytophilum infections in animals are mainly found in horses, dogs, cats, sheep and cattle. Evidence from cross-infection experiments that A. phagocytophilum isolates of distinct host origin are not uniformly infectious for heterologous hosts has led to several approaches of molecular strain characterization. Unfortunately, the results of these studies are not always easily comparable, because different gene regions and fragment lengths were investigated. Multilocus sequence typing is a widely accepted method for molecular characterization of bacteria. We here provide for the first time a universal typing method that is easily transferable between different laboratories. We validated our approach on an unprecedented large data set of almost 400 A. phagocytophilum strains from humans and animals mostly from Europe. The typability was 74% (284/383). One major clonal complex containing 177 strains was detected. However, 54% (49/90) of the sequence types were not part of a clonal complex indicating that the population structure of A. phagocytophilum is probably semiclonal. All strains from humans, dogs and horses from Europe belonged to the same clonal complex. As canine and equine granulocytic anaplasmosis occurs frequently in Europe, human granulocytic anaplasmosis is likely to be underdiagnosed in Europe. Further, wild boars and hedgehogs may serve as reservoir hosts of the disease in humans and domestic animals in Europe, because their strains belonged to the same clonal complex. In contrast, as they were only distantly related, roe deer, voles and shrews are unlikely to

  8. Los impactos marginales del olivar ecologico de montana andaluz frente al convencional post-condicionalidad: una vision de los expertos

    OpenAIRE

    Montiel, Beatriz; Colombo, Sergio; Sayadi, Samir; Estevez, Ceferino

    2013-01-01

    Establecer y valorar los impactos marginales de la olivicultura ecologica despues de la aplicacion de la condicionalidad, supone una importante herramienta para determinar, en un futuro, posibiles pagos a los agricultores por el caracter multifuncional de este sistema productivo. Por ello, en el presente trabajo se plantea un cuestionario Delphi a una serie de expertos, con el objetivo de conocer su opinion sobre los impactos economicos, ambientales y sociales de explotaciones de olivar tradi...

  9. SERUM ANTIBODIES TO BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM, AND BABESIA MICROTI IN RECAPTURED WHITE-FOOTED MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Magnarelli, Louis A.; Williams, Scott C.; Norris, Steven J; Fikrig, Erol

    2013-01-01

    A mark-release-recapture study was conducted during 2007 through 2010 in six, tick-infested sites in Connecticut, United States to measure changes in antibody titers for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti in Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mice). There was an overall recapture rate of 40%, but only four tagged mice were caught in ≥2 yr. Sera from 561 mice were analyzed for total antibodies to B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum by using whol...

  10. A molecular epidemiological survey of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infections of dogs in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    KUBO, Shotaro; TATENO, Morihiro; ICHIKAWA, Yasuaki; ENDO, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases are often encountered in canine clinical practice. In the present study, a molecular epidemiological survey of dogs in Japan was conducted to understand the prevalence and geographical distribution of Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. Pathogen-derived DNA in blood samples obtained from 722 dogs with a history of exposure to ticks and/or fleas was examined by PCR. The prevalence of Babesia gibsoni, Babesia odocoilei-like species, Hepatozoon ca...

  11. Understanding the human ehrlichiosisis and standing out a causal agent: anaplasma phagocytophilum

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Ayazo Helí; Marien-Clarete Said

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligatory intracytoplasmatic bacteriathat belong to Rickettsiales order and that has been recognized as a cause of humandisease. Most of symptomatic patients report exposure to ticks (vector) one or twoweeks before the beginning of the disease. They present a febrile disease, however theclinical status extends since asymptomatic infection until fatal disease.Clinical case: Male patient with prolonged fever and with negative proofs in the searchof...

  12. Reservoir Competence of the Redwood Chipmunk (Tamias Ochrogenys) for Anaplasma Phagocytophilum

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto, Nathan C.; Janet E. Foley

    2009-01-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) is an emerging tick-transmitted disease that persists in rodent- Ixodes ricinus-complex tick cycles across the Holarctic. Although the putative reservoir for anaplasmosis in the western United States is the dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes), this rodent was not shown reservoir-competent because of failure of infection from woodrats to other animals via ticks. Redwood chipmunks are common in habitats where Anaplasma phagocytophilum is common, have high PCR-...

  13. Molecular characterization reveals distinct genospecies of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from diverse North American hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Rejmanek, Daniel; Bradburd, Gideon; Foley, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne pathogen that infects humans, domestic animals and wildlife throughout the Holarctic. In the far-western United States, multiple rodent species have been implicated as natural reservoirs for A. phagocytophilum. However, the presence of multiple A. phagocytophilum strains has made it difficult to determine which reservoir hosts pose the greatest risk to humans and domestic animals. Here we characterized three genetic markers (23S–5S rRNA inte...

  14. Nidicolous ticks of small mammals in Anaplasma phagocytophilum-enzootic sites in northern California

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Janet; Rejmanek, Daniel; Fleer, Katryna; Nieto, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Ixodes spp. tick-borne zoonotic diseases are present across the Holarctic in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Small mammals are reservoirs for the rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum and tick vectors may include catholic-feeding bridge vectors as well as host-specialist or nidicolous ticks. Far western North American communities in which A. phagocytophilum is maintained are complex ecologically, with multiple reservoir host and tick species, multiple strains of the bacterial...

  15. First case of Anaplasma platys infection in a dog from Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyachenko Viktor

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that Anaplasma (A. platys, the causative agent of infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, is endemic in countries of the Mediterranean basin. However, few reports are available from the Balkans. This case report describes a dog, which was imported from Croatia to Germany in May 2010. One month later the dog was presented to a local veterinarian in Germany due to intermittent/recurrent diarrhoea. Diagnostic tests were performed to identify infections caused by Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Hepatozoon canis, Babesia spp., Leishmania spp., Borrelia burgdorferi and/or Dirofilaria immitis. Findings Haematological examination of a blood smear revealed basophilic inclusions in thrombocytes, which were confirmed as A. platys with a species-specific real-time PCR. Additionally, an infection with Babesia (B. vogeli was also detected (PCR and serology. No specific antibodies against Anaplasma antigen were detectable. Although the dog showed no specific clinical signs, thrombocytopenia, anaemia and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP were observed. Sequencing of a 1,348-bp partial ribosomal RNA gene revealed highest homology to A. platys sequences from Thailand, Japan and France. Conclusions A. platys was detected for first time in a dog imported from Croatia. As the dog was also co-infected by B. vogeli, unique serological and haematological findings were recorded. Thrombocytopenia, anaemia and elevated values of C-reactive protein were the laboratory test abnormalities observed in this case. A. platys infections should be considered in dogs coming from Croatia and adjacent regions.

  16. Prevalence of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. in Ticks Collected from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Bae-Keun; Park, Jinho; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-02-01

    Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings. PMID:26951985

  17. An O-Methyltransferase Is Required for Infection of Tick Cells by Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela S Oliva Chávez

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA, is an obligately intracellular α-proteobacterium that is transmitted by Ixodes spp ticks. However, the pathogen is not transovarially transmitted between tick generations and therefore needs to survive in both a mammalian host and the arthropod vector to complete its life cycle. To adapt to different environments, pathogens rely on differential gene expression as well as the modification of proteins and other molecules. Random transposon mutagenesis of A. phagocytophilum resulted in an insertion within the coding region of an o-methyltransferase (omt family 3 gene. In wild-type bacteria, expression of omt was up-regulated during binding to tick cells (ISE6 at 2 hr post-inoculation, but nearly absent by 4 hr p.i. Gene disruption reduced bacterial binding to ISE6 cells, and the mutant bacteria that were able to enter the cells were arrested in their replication and development. Analyses of the proteomes of wild-type versus mutant bacteria during binding to ISE6 cells identified Major Surface Protein 4 (Msp4, but also hypothetical protein APH_0406, as the most differentially methylated. Importantly, two glutamic acid residues (the targets of the OMT were methyl-modified in wild-type Msp4, whereas a single asparagine (not a target of the OMT was methylated in APH_0406. In vitro methylation assays demonstrated that recombinant OMT specifically methylated Msp4. Towards a greater understanding of the overall structure and catalytic activity of the OMT, we solved the apo (PDB_ID:4OA8, the S-adenosine homocystein-bound (PDB_ID:4OA5, the SAH-Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCA, and SAM- Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCL X-ray crystal structures of the enzyme. Here, we characterized a mutation in A. phagocytophilum that affected the ability of the bacteria to productively infect cells from its natural vector. Nevertheless, due to the lack of complementation, we cannot rule out secondary

  18. An O-Methyltransferase Is Required for Infection of Tick Cells by Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva Chávez, Adela S; Fairman, James W; Felsheim, Roderick F; Nelson, Curtis M; Herron, Michael J; Higgins, LeeAnn; Burkhardt, Nicole Y; Oliver, Jonathan D; Markowski, Todd W; Kurtti, Timothy J; Edwards, Thomas E; Munderloh, Ulrike G

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA), is an obligately intracellular α-proteobacterium that is transmitted by Ixodes spp ticks. However, the pathogen is not transovarially transmitted between tick generations and therefore needs to survive in both a mammalian host and the arthropod vector to complete its life cycle. To adapt to different environments, pathogens rely on differential gene expression as well as the modification of proteins and other molecules. Random transposon mutagenesis of A. phagocytophilum resulted in an insertion within the coding region of an o-methyltransferase (omt) family 3 gene. In wild-type bacteria, expression of omt was up-regulated during binding to tick cells (ISE6) at 2 hr post-inoculation, but nearly absent by 4 hr p.i. Gene disruption reduced bacterial binding to ISE6 cells, and the mutant bacteria that were able to enter the cells were arrested in their replication and development. Analyses of the proteomes of wild-type versus mutant bacteria during binding to ISE6 cells identified Major Surface Protein 4 (Msp4), but also hypothetical protein APH_0406, as the most differentially methylated. Importantly, two glutamic acid residues (the targets of the OMT) were methyl-modified in wild-type Msp4, whereas a single asparagine (not a target of the OMT) was methylated in APH_0406. In vitro methylation assays demonstrated that recombinant OMT specifically methylated Msp4. Towards a greater understanding of the overall structure and catalytic activity of the OMT, we solved the apo (PDB_ID:4OA8), the S-adenosine homocystein-bound (PDB_ID:4OA5), the SAH-Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCA), and SAM- Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCL) X-ray crystal structures of the enzyme. Here, we characterized a mutation in A. phagocytophilum that affected the ability of the bacteria to productively infect cells from its natural vector. Nevertheless, due to the lack of complementation, we cannot rule out secondary mutations

  19. The Prostaglandin E2-EP3 Receptor Axis Regulates Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Mediated NLRC4 Inflammasome Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowei; Shaw, Dana K; Hammond, Holly L; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S; Rayamajhi, Manira; Shirey, Kari Ann; Perkins, Darren J; Bonventre, Joseph V; Velayutham, Thangam S; Evans, Sean M; Rodino, Kyle G; VieBrock, Lauren; Scanlon, Karen M; Carbonetti, Nicholas H; Carlyon, Jason A; Miao, Edward A; McBride, Jere W; Kotsyfakis, Michail; Pedra, Joao H F

    2016-08-01

    Rickettsial agents are sensed by pattern recognition receptors but lack pathogen-associated molecular patterns commonly observed in facultative intracellular bacteria. Due to these molecular features, the order Rickettsiales can be used to uncover broader principles of bacterial immunity. Here, we used the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to reveal a novel microbial surveillance system. Mechanistically, we discovered that upon A. phagocytophilum infection, cytosolic phospholipase A2 cleaves arachidonic acid from phospholipids, which is converted to the eicosanoid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) via cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and the membrane associated prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1). PGE2-EP3 receptor signaling leads to activation of the NLRC4 inflammasome and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Importantly, the receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (RIPK2) was identified as a major regulator of the immune response against A. phagocytophilum. Accordingly, mice lacking COX2 were more susceptible to A. phagocytophilum, had a defect in IL-18 secretion and exhibited splenomegaly and damage to the splenic architecture. Remarkably, Salmonella-induced NLRC4 inflammasome activation was not affected by either chemical inhibition or genetic ablation of genes associated with PGE2 biosynthesis and signaling. This divergence in immune circuitry was due to reduced levels of the PGE2-EP3 receptor during Salmonella infection when compared to A. phagocytophilum. Collectively, we reveal the existence of a functionally distinct NLRC4 inflammasome illustrated by the rickettsial agent A. phagocytophilum. PMID:27482714

  20. The Prostaglandin E2-EP3 Receptor Axis Regulates Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Mediated NLRC4 Inflammasome Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowei; Shaw, Dana K.; Hammond, Holly L.; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S.; Rayamajhi, Manira; Shirey, Kari Ann; Perkins, Darren J.; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Velayutham, Thangam S.; Evans, Sean M.; Rodino, Kyle G.; VieBrock, Lauren; Scanlon, Karen M.; Carbonetti, Nicholas H.; Carlyon, Jason A.; Miao, Edward A.; McBride, Jere W.; Kotsyfakis, Michail

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsial agents are sensed by pattern recognition receptors but lack pathogen-associated molecular patterns commonly observed in facultative intracellular bacteria. Due to these molecular features, the order Rickettsiales can be used to uncover broader principles of bacterial immunity. Here, we used the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to reveal a novel microbial surveillance system. Mechanistically, we discovered that upon A. phagocytophilum infection, cytosolic phospholipase A2 cleaves arachidonic acid from phospholipids, which is converted to the eicosanoid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) via cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and the membrane associated prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1). PGE2-EP3 receptor signaling leads to activation of the NLRC4 inflammasome and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Importantly, the receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (RIPK2) was identified as a major regulator of the immune response against A. phagocytophilum. Accordingly, mice lacking COX2 were more susceptible to A. phagocytophilum, had a defect in IL-18 secretion and exhibited splenomegaly and damage to the splenic architecture. Remarkably, Salmonella-induced NLRC4 inflammasome activation was not affected by either chemical inhibition or genetic ablation of genes associated with PGE2 biosynthesis and signaling. This divergence in immune circuitry was due to reduced levels of the PGE2-EP3 receptor during Salmonella infection when compared to A. phagocytophilum. Collectively, we reveal the existence of a functionally distinct NLRC4 inflammasome illustrated by the rickettsial agent A. phagocytophilum. PMID:27482714

  1. Migratory and carnivorous birds in Brazil: reservoirs for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério; Werther, Karin; de Sousa, Eliane; Gavioli, Fernando Antônio; Alves Junior, José Roberto Ferreira

    2012-08-01

    In order to investigate new hosts for Anaplasmataceae agents in Brazil, we collected blood samples from 21 wild birds. Using molecular techniques, we detected the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and an Ehrlichia species closely related to Ehrlichia canis in carnivorous avian blood samples. In addition, an Ehrlichia species closely related to an Ehrlichia species found in wild felines in Brazil was also detected in a goose blood sample. Wild birds may play a role as carriers of Anaplasmataceae agents in Brazil. PMID:22607070

  2. The first report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and a novel Theileria spp. co-infection in a South African giraffe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Tongyi; Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Jinhong; Lv, Yali; Wang, Rongjun; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Jiantang; Yang, Guangcheng; Ning, Changshen

    2016-08-01

    Organisms of the genera Anaplasma and Theileria are important intracellular bacteria and parasites that cause various tick-borne diseases, threatening the health of numerous animals as well as human beings. In the present study, a 12-month-old male wild South African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) originating from South Africa, and living in Zhengzhou Zoo (located in the urban district of Zhengzhou in the provincial capital of Henan), suddenly developed an unknown fatal disease and died 1day after the onset of the clinical signs. By microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears combined with nested PCR and DNA sequence analysis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis and a novel Theileria spp. were found in the blood of this giraffe. The six other Cervidae animals in the zoo and three ruminants living in the same colony house with them were found to be negative for both Anaplasma and Theileria in their blood specimens. We report on the first case of an A. phagocytophilum infection and the occurrence of a novel Theileria spp. in the blood of a giraffe. This is the first reported case of a multi-infection of A. bovis, A. phagocytophilum and Theileria spp. in a giraffe, as revealed by microscopic examination of blood smears and the results of nested PCR and DNA sequencing. PMID:27109775

  3. Prevalence of Anaplasma, Bartonella and Borrelia Species in Haemaphysalis longicornis collected from goats in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Smith, W Barney; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, In-Yong; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-06-30

    North Korea is located on the northern part of the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. While tick-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance have been reported from China and South Korea, they have not been reported from North Korea. To screen for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in North Korea, ticks were collected from domestic goats. A total of 292 (27 nymph, 26 male, 239 female) Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis were collected and assayed individually for selected tick-borne pathogens. A total of 77 (26.4%) were positive for Anaplasma bovis, followed by Bartonella (B.) grahamii (15, 5.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (12, 4.1%), Bartonella henselae (10, 3.4%), and Borrelia spp. (3, 1.0%) based on 16S ribosomal RNA and ITS species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction. Using the groEL-based nested PCR, a total of 6 and 1 H. longicornis were positive for B. grahamii and B. henselae, respectively. All products were sequenced and demonstrated 100% identity and homology with previously reported sequences from other countries in GenBank. This is the first report of the detection of tick-borne pathogens in the North Korea and suggests that farm animals may act as reservoirs for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens. PMID:26645342

  4. Adaptation marginale des restaurations classe II en composite avec des différents liners de cavité

    OpenAIRE

    Pecie, Raluca

    2013-01-01

    Le but a été d’évaluer l’influence des différents ‘cavity liners’ sur l’adaptation marginale (AM) des restaurations en composite dans 40 cavités classe II ( 4 groups). Dans chaque groupe, à l’exception du groupe contrôle, un liner a été appliqué sur le fond de cavité avant la mise en place du composite Herculite XRV Ultra (groupe A: contrôle/ groupe B: Premise Flowable lining/ groupe C: Herculite XRV Ultra lining/ groupe D: Optibond FL lining). L’AM a été évaluée avant et après le test de fat...

  5. Molecular characterization of two different strains of haemotropic mycoplasmas from a sheep flock with fatal haemolytic anaemia, concomitant Anaplasma ovis infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hornok, Sándor; Meli, Marina L; Erdős, András; Hajtós, István; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2009-01-01

    Molecular characterization of two different strains of haemotropic mycoplasmas from a sheep flock with fatal haemolytic anaemia, concomitant Anaplasma ovis infection HUNGARY (Hornok, Sandor) HUNGARY Received: 2008-08-03 Revised: 2008-10-27 Accepted: 2008-10-29

  6. Understanding the human ehrlichiosisis and standing out a causal agent: anaplasma phagocytophilum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Ayazo Helí

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligatory intracytoplasmatic bacteriathat belong to Rickettsiales order and that has been recognized as a cause of humandisease. Most of symptomatic patients report exposure to ticks (vector one or twoweeks before the beginning of the disease. They present a febrile disease, however theclinical status extends since asymptomatic infection until fatal disease.Clinical case: Male patient with prolonged fever and with negative proofs in the searchof hepatitis, malaria, dengue, leptospirosis and typhoid disease. In the peripheralblood smear with Wright’s stain, there were found granulocytes with intracytoplasmatic vacuoles called morulae (microcolonies of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Diagnosticimpression was Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA. Treatment with tetracyclinewas done and good evolution was reported.Conclusion: HGA should be a disease to have present in patients with prolonged febrileprofile. A detailed clinical history with information about exposure to ticks should begotten. It is important an early diagnosis to establish the differences with other similarinfections and to apply promptly indicated antibiotic therapy. Rev.cienc.biomed.2013;4(1:165-169RESUMEN:Introducción: Anaplasma phagocytophilum es una bacteria intracitoplasmática obligadaque pertenece al orden Rickettsiales, reconocido como causante de enfermedaden humanos. Pacientes sintomáticos reportan exposición a las garrapatas (vector unao dos semanas antes del inicio de la enfermedad. Presentan una enfermedad febril, noobstante el rango clínico se extiende desde infección asintomática hasta enfermedadfatal.Caso clínico: paciente masculino con cuadro febril prolongado. Pruebas negativas enla búsqueda de hepatitis, paludismo, dengue, leptospirosis y enfermedad tifoidea. Enel extendido de sangre periférica, con tinción de Wright se encontraron granulocitoscon vacuolas intracitoplasmáticas llamadas mórulas (microcolonias

  7. Responsabilidad Social Matriz de indicadores sustentables que refleja el impacto de la forestación en tierras marginales del Partido de Bahía Blanca, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Regina del Carmen Durán Durán

    2009-01-01

    Actualmente, se han empezado a considerar otras obligaciones que tienen las empresas para con su comunidad; se trata de aspectos vinculados con las dimensiones sociales y ambientales. Desde este contexto, nuestro trabajo tiene como punto de partida el concepto de responsabilidad social desde la noción de sustentabilidad. El objetivo es evaluar la forestación como instrumento para mejorar la sostenibilidad de los sistemas productivos tradicionales en tierras marginales del Partido de Bahía Bla...

  8. Análisis de la dinámica relacional generada por las websites de Internet en el desarrollo de los turismos marginales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Prat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de los actores turísticos del territorio, y de sus relaciones, es un elemento básico para la gestión activa de cualquier destino turístico. Como que, gracias a las nuevas tecnologías de la información y a la popularizacióndel uso de Internet, se han creado una gran cantidad de relaciones sociales gracias a las websites, interrelacionadas, que han permitido una rápida y amplia difusión promocional de aquellos destinos que ofrecen unas alternativas turísticas más marginales, como respuesta a los nuevos planteamientos post-fordistas del turismo, generándose una dinámica relacional que se ha beneficiado del rápido desarrollo de las TIC's. En este trabajo se han analizado dichas relaciones entre websites, en el caso del desarrollo de dos turismos marginales, el naturista y el swinger, en Cap d'Agde, en el sur de Francia, comprobándose la existencia de una relación directa entre la dinámica relacional del territorio y elgrado de desarrollo de los turismos marginales.

  9. Natural infection of Anaplasma platys in dogs from Umbria region (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Antognoni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma platys is a tick-borne pathogen causing the Infectious Canine Cyclic Thrombocytopenia. The pathogenesis of this disease is not yet well understood, due to the wide variety of clinico-pathological patterns described worldwide and to the high prevalence of co-infections with other vector-borne pathogens occurring in endemic areas. The present paper reports 3 cases of infection by A. platys occurring in dogs native to Central Italy, considered a non-endemic area to date. Infections were initially diagnosed based on clinical data and observation of morulae within platelets and then confirmed by biomolecular techniques. Moreover, two dogs showed an immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, as yet not described in literature in association with A. platys infection. The symptoms and the pathological findings observed will be discussed, as well as the importance to include this pathogen in the differential diagnosis of tick-borne diseases even in Central Italy.

  10. Molecular evidence of potential novel spotted fever group rickettsiae, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species in Amblyomma ticks parasitizing wild snakes

    OpenAIRE

    Kho, Kai Ling; Koh, Fui Xian; Tay, Sun Tee

    2015-01-01

    Background Amblyomma ticks parasitize a wide range of animals in tropical regions. This study describes the identification of Amblyomma ticks from wild snakes in Malaysia and the detection of potential human pathogens such as Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and bartonellae in the ticks. Findings Twenty one adult ticks (twelve A. varanense and nine Amblyomma helvolum ticks) identified from seven Python molurus snakes in Sepang and a pool of six A. helvolum ticks from a Naja sumatrana snake in...

  11. Co-infections with Borrelia species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in patients with tick-borne encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Moniuszko, A.; Dunaj, J.; Święcicka, I.; Zambrowski, G.; Chmielewska-Badora, J.; Żukiewicz-Sobczak, W.; Zajkowska, J.; Czupryna, P.; Kondrusik, M.; Grygorczuk, S.; Swierzbinska, R.; Pancewicz, S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluation of the prevalence of co-infection with Borrelia species, A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in patients with tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). At total of 110 patients with TBE were included in the study. Serological tests for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), PCR for Borrelia species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp., blood smears for A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. and BLAST analysis for Babesia spp. were performed. Results showed a s...

  12. Seroprevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum among healthy dogs and horses in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, O; Waner, T; Baneth, G; Keysary, A; Bruchim, Y; Silverman, J; Harrus, S

    2006-03-01

    The presence of reacting antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum has previously been demonstrated in Israel, both in humans and the golden jackal (Canis aureus syriacus). This study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of A. phagocytophilum antibodies in two additional potential hosts, domestic dogs and horses in order to investigate the possibility of exposure to the organism in Israel. Of 195 dogs tested, 9% were seroreactive with A. phagocytophilum antigen and 30% were seroreactive to Ehrlichia canis. Twenty-nine percent of the dogs seropositive for E. canis were also reactive to A. phagocytophilum. Two dogs had immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) antibody titres for A. phagocytophilum greater than E. canis. The equine serological survey (n = 300) revealed no seroreactive horses. The results presented in this study suggest that dogs in Israel could have been accidentally exposed to A. phagocytophilum, for example by ticks carried on migrating birds, however, the possibility of cross-reaction with E. canis should also be considered. In spite of the high prevalence of ticks on horses in Israel during the summer months, no evidence for exposure to A. phagocytophilum was apparent. PMID:16626404

  13. First report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti in rodents in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Eva R; Begon, Michael; Birtles, Richard J; Bown, Kevin J; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Watts, Phillip C

    2014-06-01

    Tick-borne diseases pose an increasingly important public health problem in Europe. Rodents are the reservoir host for many tick-transmitted pathogens, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti, which can cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis and babesiosis, respectively. To estimate the presence of these pathogens in rodents in Finland, we examined blood samples from 151 bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and demonstrate, for the first time, that A. phagocytophilum and B. microti commonly infect bank voles (in 22% and 40% of animals, respectively) in Finland. Sequence analysis of a fragment of 18S rRNA showed that the B. microti strain isolated was identical to the Munich strain, which is considered to be nonzoonotic. The A. phagocytophilum strain (based on a fragment of the msp4 gene) was identical to one found earlier in rodents in the United Kingdom that is transmitted by the tick Ixodes trianguliceps, all the life stages of which feed on small mammals. The infection probability of B. microti in the bank voles was the greater the older the individual was, and males were more often infected than females. A. phagocytophilum infection probability first increased and then decreased with the age of individual without any difference between sexes. While these pathogens presumably pose a limited zoonotic risk to humans in Finland, they might have important interactions with other rodent pathogens and therefore affect infection dynamics of, for example, zoonotic pathogens. PMID:24848684

  14. Superinfection occurs in Anaplasma phagocytophilum infected sheep irrespective of infection phase and protection status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergström Karin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in domestic ruminants is widespread in the coastal areas of southern Norway. The bacteria may persist in mammalian hosts. Several genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum exist. In the present study, we investigate whether superinfection occurs in the acute and persistent phase of the infection. Methods Five-month-old lambs of the Norwegian Dala breed were experimentally infected with two 16S rRNA gene variants of A. phagocytophilum, i.e. A. phagocytophilum variant 1 (GenBank accession number M73220 and variant 2 (GenBank acc. no. AF336220. Eighteen lambs were used, two lambs in each group. Eight groups were experimentally inoculated with either variant 1 or 2 on day 0. Six of these groups were then challenged with the other variant on either days 7, 42 or 84, respectively. One group was left uninfected. The occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in blood samples was determined using semi-nested PCR analysis and gene sequencing. Specific antibodies were measured by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA. Results A. phagocytophilum variant 1 and 2 differed significantly with regards to clinical reaction and cross-immunity in infected lambs. Both variants were found in the blood after challenge. However, variant 1 was detected most frequently. Conclusion The present experiment indicates that superinfection of different genotypes occurs during the acute as well as the persistent phase of an A. phagocytophilum infection, even in lambs protected against the challenged infection.

  15. Introduction to the alpha-proteobacteria: Wolbachia and Bartonella, Rickettsia, Brucella, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Dwight D

    2011-11-01

    Wolbachia is an obligate intracellular endosymbiont and likely mutualist living within the heartworm Dirofilaria immitis and a number of other filarial nematodes in the family Onchocercidae. The bacterial infection is passed from worm to worm transovarially; the organisms are in ovarian cells, the developing microfilariae, and multiply and persist in all later developmental stages through the mosquito and into the next host. Besides being present in the ovaries of the adult worms, they also are present in large numbers within the hypodermal tissues of the nematode. It is now know that these bacteria that were first observed in heartworms more than 30 years ago are actually related to similar Wolbachia bacteria that are found in arthropods. Wolbachia is an alpha-proteobacteria, and this group includes a number of important arthropod-transmitted bacterial agents of dogs and cats: Rickettsia rickettsii, R. felis, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, and E. ewingii. Alpha-proteobacteria are also important as obligate intracellular mutualists in plants in which they are responsible for nitrogen fixation. Recent work on the treatment of heartworms in dogs with doxycycline stems from related work with the human filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus that causes river blindness in people. PMID:22152604

  16. First molecular survey of Anaplasma bovis in small ruminants from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; Karaoud, Maroua; Bousrih, Maha; Yahiaoui, Mouna; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Messadi, Lilia

    2015-09-30

    To date, no information is available regarding the presence of Anaplasma bovis in the South Mediterranean area. In this study, prevalence, risk factors, and genetic diversity of A. bovis were assessed in small ruminants. A total of 563 healthy small ruminants (260 sheep and 303 goats), from 25 randomly selected flocks located in 5 localities from two bioclimatic areas in Tunisia, were investigated for the detection of A. bovis in blood by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assay. The overall infection rates of A. bovis were 42.7 and 23.8% in sheep and goats, respectively. Goats located in a sub-humid area were statistically more infected than those located in a humid area. A. bovis prevalence rate varied significantly according to sheep and goat flocks, and to the sheep breed. Infection with A. bovis was validated by sequencing. Sequence analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that A. bovis from Tunisian goats and sheep clustered with other strain sequences detected from wild and domestic animals and published in GenBank. This study gives the first insight of presence of A. bovis DNA in small ruminants in Tunisia and suggests that these animal species may be playing an important role in the bovine anaplasmosis natural cycle caused by A. bovis in the South Mediterranean ecosystem. PMID:26088935

  17. Global proteomic analysis of two tick-borne emerging zoonotic agents: Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Mingqun ..; Kikuchi, Takane; Brewer, Heather M.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2011-02-17

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis are obligatory intracellular {alpha}-proteobacteria that infect human leukocytes and cause potentially fatal emerging zoonoses. In the present study, we determined global protein expression profiles of these bacteria cultured in the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL-60. Mass spectrometric (MS) analyses identified a total of 1,212 A. phagocytophilum and 1,021 E. chaffeensis proteins, representing 89.3 and 92.3% of the predicted bacterial proteomes, respectively. Nearly all bacterial proteins ({approx}99%) with known functions were expressed, whereas only approximately 80% of hypothetical proteins were detected in infected human cells. Quantitative MS/MS analyses indicated that highly expressed proteins in both bacteria included chaperones, enzymes involved in biosynthesis and metabolism, and outer membrane proteins, such as A. phagocytophilum P44 and E. chaffeensis P28/OMP-1. Among 113 A. phagocytophilum p44 paralogous genes, 110 of them were expressed and 88 of them were encoded by pseudogenes. In addition, bacterial infection of HL-60 cells up-regulated the expression of human proteins involved mostly in cytoskeleton components, vesicular trafficking, cell signaling, and energy metabolism, but down regulated some pattern recognition receptors involved in innate immunity. Our proteomics data represent a comprehensive analysis of A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis proteomes, and provide a quantitative view of human host protein expression profiles regulated by bacterial infection. The availability of these proteomic data will provide new insights into biology and pathogenesis of these obligatory intracellular pathogens.

  18. Los conventillos de Valparaíso, 1880-1920: Percepción de barrios y viviendas marginales. / The

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    Urbina C., María Ximena

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Las viviendas populares, los conventillos y ranchos urbanos y semiurbanos, reflejaron el modo de ser de una cultura, el modo de vivir de la gran mayoría de los porteños en tiempos en que la ciudad creció demográficamente y las viviendas y áreas llamadas "decentes" no daban abasto a la imperiosidad de buscar ganarse la vida en la urbe y hacerse citadino. En los barrios marginales de ranchos y de conventillos se expresaba lo más genuino de la vida urbana, lo popular, la vida de los más humildes que forjaron una forma de existencia arrabalera, quizá un substrato importante de la chilenidad. En este artículo nuestro objetivo es distinguir una tipología de conventillos - sin entrar en detalles de su descripción -, y perfilar la imagen, representación mental o percepción que de ellos se tenía en su época dorada, 1880-1920./Popular housing, "conventillos", urban and semi-urban ranches show the way of life and culture most of the people in Valparaiso in a time when the city experimented a population growth and proper housing was not enough to cover the growing demand due to the greater need to make a living in the city and becoming a city dweller. In this low class neighborhoods, ranches and "conventillos" the most genuine aspects of city life, that which is popular, the life of the humble, the slum dwellers, which is perhaps an important constituent of what is Chilean. In this article our objective is to define a type of "conventillos", nevertheless not describing them in detail, and then establish and image, a mental representation or perception that people had of them during their 'golden age' between the years 1880 and 1920.

  19. Detección de Anaplasma spp. en Garrapatas de Myrmecophaga tridactyla de Vida Libre en la Sabana Inundable de Casanare‚ Colombia -resumen-

    OpenAIRE

    César Rojano-Bolaño; V Contreras-Cogollo; L Miranda-Cortés; R Ávila-Avilán; Jorge Miranda-Regino; Laura Hernández-Fernández; Salim Mattar-Velilla; Santiago Monsalve-Buriticá

    2014-01-01

    La anaplasmosis es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por rickettsias del género Anaplasma spp. Su relevancia esta principalmente determinada por el grado de afectación endémica en el ganado doméstico. Una amplia variedad de mamíferos silvestres también son susceptibles a la infección. Las bacterias pueden ser intracitoplasmáticas‚ dañando las estructuras de las células pudiendo causar anemia e ictericia. Algunas especies de Anaplasma spp han sido reportadas como microorganismos potencialmente...

  20. Molecular Detection of Zoonotic Rickettsiae and Anaplasma spp. in Domestic Dogs and Their Ectoparasites in Bushbuckridge, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolo, Agatha O; Sibeko-Matjila, Kgomotso P; Maina, Alice N; Richards, Allen L; Knobel, Darryn L; Matjila, Paul T

    2016-04-01

    Members of the order Rickettsiales are small, obligate intracellular bacteria that are vector-borne and can cause mild to fatal diseases in humans worldwide. There is little information on the zoonotic rickettsial pathogens that may be harbored by dogs from rural localities in South Africa. To characterize rickettsial pathogens infecting dogs, we screened 141 blood samples, 103 ticks, and 43 fleas collected from domestic dogs in Bushbuckridge Municipality, Mpumalanga Province of South Africa, between October 2011 and May 2012 using the reverse line blot (RLB) and Rickettsia genus and species-specific quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays. Results from RLB showed that 49% of blood samples and 30% of tick pools were positive for the genus-specific probes for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma; 16% of the blood samples were positive for Ehrlichia canis. Hemoparasite DNA could not be detected in 36% of blood samples and 30% of tick pools screened. Seven (70%) tick pools and both flea pools were positive for Rickettsia spp; three (30%) tick pools were positive for Rickettsia africae; and both flea pools (100%) were positive for Rickettsia felis. Sequencing confirmed infection with R. africae and Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis; an R. felis-like organism from one of the R. felis-positive flea pools. Anaplasma sp. South Africa dog strain (closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum), A. phagocytophilum, and an Orientia tsutsugamushi-like sequence were identified from blood samples. The detection of emerging zoonotic agents from domestic dogs and their ectoparasites in a rural community in South Africa highlights the potential risk of human infection that may occur with these pathogens. PMID:26974185

  1. Reversible switch from hemoglobin A to C in sheep and recovery from anemia following experimental infection with Anaplasma ovis

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Pieragostini; Ferruccio Petazzi; Anna Caroli; Alessandra Torina; Giuseppe De Ruvo; Ingrid Alloggio

    2010-01-01

    Anemia causes a change in the type of circulating hemoglobin (Hb) in sheep carrying the βA-globin haplotype, where the Hb A is replaced with Hb C, unlike Hb B. The effect of the substitution of Hb A with Hb C on the recovery from anemia was investigated by comparing the hematological picture of sheep, following experimental infection with Anaplasma ovis. The blood values were obtained from 3 AB and 3 BB Hb sheep after the development of the disease where anemia is a pathognomonic symptom...

  2. Hematologic and Clinical Aspects of Experimental Ovine Anaplasmosis Caused by Anaplasma Ovis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gharabaghi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaplasma ovis infections can cause clinical symptoms in acute phase and lead to huge economic losses in flocks. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hematological and parasito­logical changes in experimental anaplasmosis in sheep with Iranian strain of A. ovis.Method: Five male sheep without any blood parasite infection were selected. One hundred ml hepari­nized blood was collected from splenectomised sheep that showed 6% A. ovis parasitemia. Inocu­lums of 20 ml blood were administered intravenously to each test animal. Hematological, parasito­logical and clinical changes of experimental anaplasmosis were studied in 0-38 days post infec­tion.Result: Parasitemia was detected 3 days post infection and reached its maximum level on the day 12 of experiment in test animals. Then the parasitemia was declined, but the organism could be found persistently until the last day of study. The red cell counts, packed cell volume and hemoglobin concentra­tion were decreased and mean corpuscular volume was increased significantly during the infection period. Reticulocytosis and basophilic stippling were also detected. No significant changes were observed in total and differential leukocyte count and animal body temperature.Conclusion: Experimental A. ovis infection in sheep resulted in marked normocytic normochromic anemia at the beginning of the infection which became macrocytic normochromic by the develop­ment of the disease. There were negative correlations between parasitemia and RBC, PCV and Hb values, therefore hematological assessment can be considered as a practical diagnostic tool in ovine anaplasmosis.

  3. Detection of Babesia and Anaplasma species in rabbits from Texas and Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J; Romines, Janean; Nettles, Victor F

    2006-01-01

    Rabbits have been shown to harbor a suite of zoonotic organisms, including a Babesia species, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In this study, we conducted a molecular survey for various tick-borne pathogens in three species of rabbits from Texas and Georgia. Of 18 black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) tested from Texas, six (28%) were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for Babesia, and nucleotide sequencing revealed two distinct species or strains. Two jackrabbits were infected with a Babesia species or strain (Babesia sp. A) that was nearly identical (99.9%) to a piroplasm previously detected in humans from Washington state, and the remaining four jackrabbits were infected with a Babesia species (Babesia sp. B) that was most similar (99.7%) to a Babesia species detected in cottontail rabbits from Massachusetts and humans from Kentucky and Missouri. Eleven (61%) black-tailed jackrabbits were positive for A. bovis, and one was positive for A. phagocytophilum. Two of four desert cottontails (Sylvilagus audubonii) from Texas were positive for the Babesia sp. B, and one desert cottontail each was positive for A. bovis and A. phagocytophilum. One of these desert cottontails was coinfected with the Babesia sp. B and A. phagocytophilum, and five jackrabbits were coinfected with Babesia species and A. bovis. Of 19 eastern cottontails (S. floridanus) from Georgia, only one (5.3%) was positive for A. phagocytophilum, and three (15.8%) were positive for A. bovis. No rabbits from Texas or Georgia were positive for Borrelia species. The only tick species detected on the Texas and Georgia rabbits was the rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris. These data extend the geographic and host range of these pathogens, and because both the Babesia species and A. phagocytophilum are potential zoonotic pathogens, it is important to be aware that these organisms are enzootic in parts of the southern United States. PMID:16584322

  4. First molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukyee; Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Kim, Neung-Hee; Kim, Kyoo-Tae; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Rhee, Man Hee; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the status of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection was assessed in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea, with PCR and phylogenetic analyses. Nested PCR on 1058 collected blood samples revealed only one A. phagocytophilum positive sample (female, age genetic variability of A. phagocytophilum was evaluated by genotyping, using the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 gene sequences of the positive sample. BLASTn analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 genes had 99.6%, 99.9%, and 100% identity with the following sequences deposited in GenBank: a cat 16S rRNA sequence from Korea (KR021166), a rat groEL sequence from Korea (KT220194), and a water deer msp2 sequence from Korea (HM752099), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses classified the groEL gene into two distinct groups (serine and alanine), whereas the msp2 gene showed a general classification into two groups (USA and Europe) that were further subgrouped according to region. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the molecular diagnosis of A. phagocytophilum in dogs reared in Korea. In addition, the high genetic identity of the 16S rRNA and groEL sequences between humans and dogs from the same region suggests a possible epidemiological relation. Given the conditions of climate change, tick ecology, and recent incidence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Korea, the findings of this study underscore the need to establish appropriate control programs for tick-borne diseases in Korea. PMID:27130537

  5. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) - reservoir host of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiterová, Katarína; Špilovská, Silvia; Blaňarová, Lucia; Derdáková, Markéta; Čobádiová, Andrea; Hisira, Vladimír

    2016-06-01

    In Central Europe the wild boar population is permanently growing and consequently Cf foodborne infections. In this study serological and molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in wild boars was evaluated. Moreover, same samples were screened for the presence and genetic variability of tick-borne bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Blood samples collected from 113 wild boars from Southern Slovakia were examined for antibodies to T. gondii by indirect and to N. caninum by competitive ELISA. The presence of parasitic DNA in blood samples was determined by standard or real time PCR techniques. Antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum were detected in 45 (39.8%) and 38 (33.6%) animals, respectively. Females were more frequently infected for both pathogens than males. The high seropositivity against both coccidia indicates a permanent occurrence of these pathogens in the studied locality. T. gondii DNA was confirmed in five seropositive boars (4.4%) and N. caninum in 23 blood samples (20.4%). Three out of 23 N. caninum PCR positive animals did not show seropositivity. Three out of 113 blood samples of wild boars were positive for A. phagocytophilum (2.7%). The obtained A. phagocytophilum sequences were 100% identical with GenBankTM isolates from Slovak dog (KC985242); German horse (JF893938) or wild boar (EF143810) and red deer (EF143808) from Poland. Coinfections of T. gondii with N. caninum and N. caninum with A. phagocytophilum were detected in single cases. Results suggest a potential zoonotic risk of toxoplasmosis transmission to humans and the spread of neosporosis to farm animals. PMID:27078648

  6. Longitudinal analysis of tick densities and Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia infections of Ixodes ricinus ticks in different habitat areas in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielinga, Peter R; Gaasenbeek, Cor; Fonville, Manoj; Boer, Albert de; Vries, Ankje de; Dimmers, Wim; Akkerhuis Op Jagers, Gerard; Schouls, Leo M; Borgsteede, Fred; Giessen, Joke W B van der

    2006-01-01

    From 2000 to 2004, ticks were collected by dragging a blanket in four habitat areas in The Netherlands: dunes, heather, forest, and a city park. Tick densities were calculated, and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species was investigated by reverse line blot analysis.

  7. Longitudinal analysis of tick densities and Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia infections of Ixodes ricinus ticks in different habitat areas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielinga, P.R.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Fonville, M.; Boer, de A.G.; Vries, de A.; Dimmers, W.J.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.; Schouls, L.M.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2006-01-01

    From 2000 to 2004, ticks were collected by dragging a blanket in four habitat areas in The Netherlands: dunes, heather, forest, and a city park. Tick densities were calculated, and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species was investigated by reverse line blot analysis.

  8. DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES TO ANAPLASMA, BARTONELLA AND COXIELLA IN RURAL INHABITANTS OF THE CARIBBEAN AREA OF COLOMBIA

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    Salim Máttar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Establecer la seroprevalencia de Bartonella spp, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (antesErlichia y Coexiella burnetii. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron sueros representativos de unsector de la población en el año 2003, recolectados de personas que trabajan en actividades delcampo en los departamentos de Córdoba y Sucre que sirvieron como población base de las muestrasque se obtuvieron. Los trabajadores rurales elegidos a participar tenían entra 16 – 65 años deedad. Los sueros fueron examinados por IFA para detección de anticuerpos contra IgG para Bartonellaspp, Erlichia Anaplasma phagocytophilum y Coexiella burnetii. Resultados. La seroprevalencia deanticuerpos de todos los microorganismos estudiados fue de 56.8%. De 81 muestras de sueroanalizadas el 26.6% fueron seropositivas contra C. burnetii, el 37.7% tuvieron anticuerpos contraBartonella y el 20% de los individuos evaluados fueron seropositivos para Anaplasmaphagocytophilum. Conclusiones. Nuestros datos indican que la prevalencia de anticuerpos contraBartonella, A. phagocytophilum y C. burnetii son altos en nuestra región. Los resultados indicanque estas enfermedades zoonoticas son muy comunes en las personas que residen en el área delcaribe colombiano. Este estudio demuestra por primera vez la presencia de estos microorganismosen Colombia.

  9. Retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory findings in hunting dogs with serologic reactions to tick-borne pathogens (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Ricketsia conorii

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    Spasojević-Kosić Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seroprevalence of tick-borne infections in endemic areas could be high. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence of tick-borne pathogens (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Rickettsia conorii in hunting dogs, naturally infected with one or more pathogens. Serological test results of the investigated animals were compared to those from clinical examination, as well as from haematological and biochemical analyses. A total of 74.14% dogs were seropositive (R.conorii 44.83%, B. canis 32.76%, B. burgdorferi 25.86%, E. canis 13.79%, A. phagocytophilum 8.47%, with 25.86% of dogs seropositive to two pathogens, 15.52% seropositive to three pathogens, and 1.72% of dogs seropositive to four pathogens. Among all registered clinical signs, only pyrexia (p<0.05 and arrhythmia (p<0.05 were significant in seropositive dogs. There was no significant difference between seropositive and seronegative dogs regarding the majority of haematological and biochemical parameters. Statistically significant difference was registered for particular haematological (number of red blood cells and seroreactivity to B. burgdorferi and biochemical parameters (albumin concentration and seroreactivity to E. canis, and AST and seroreactivity to R. conorii but these values were not clinically significant. The high exposure to tick-borne pathogens suggests that ectoparasitic profilactic treatment is not adequate in examined population of hunting dogs. Clinical finding of pyrexia need to be further investigated and explained etiologically, which means that molecular diagnosis should be used in order to identify larger number of pathogens because of the possibility of coinfection. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31084

  10. Reversible switch from hemoglobin A to C in sheep and recovery from anemia following experimental infection with Anaplasma ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pieragostini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia causes a change in the type of circulating hemoglobin (Hb in sheep carrying the βA-globin haplotype, where the Hb A is replaced with Hb C, unlike Hb B. The effect of the substitution of Hb A with Hb C on the recovery from anemia was investigated by comparing the hematological picture of sheep, following experimental infection with Anaplasma ovis. The blood values were obtained from 3 AB and 3 BB Hb sheep after the development of the disease where anemia is a pathognomonic symptom. The expression of the silent gene encoding for Hb C was detected by isoelectric focusing and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Both Hb AB genotype and Hb C occurrence were involved in the lower recovery from anemia in the trial.

  11. OCORRÊNCIA DE Anaplasma bovis (Donatien & Lestoquard, 1936, Dumler et al. 2001) NA REGIÃO DE BOM JESUS DO ITABAPOANA, RJ

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando Augusto Melo Junior; Antonio Peixoto Albernaz; José Tarcisio de Lima Thiebaut; Farlen Jose Bebber Miranda; Josias Alves Machado; Antonio Carlos Faber da Silva

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, 400 capillary blood smears collected from the ear and the tail of 200 bovines were microscopically examinedfor the presence of hemoparasites. The diagnosis was based on the direct research, semonstrating the etiologic agent inclusions. Eleven bovines (5.5%) were considered infected by Anaplasma bovis, confirming the presence of this hemoparasite in the city of Bom Jesus do Itabapoana, the first city of the northwesten region of the state of Rio de Janeiro to register suc...

  12. Prävalenz von hämotrophen Mycoplasma spp., Bartonella spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum und Borrelia burgdorferi bei Katzen im Raum Berlin/Brandenburg

    OpenAIRE

    Morgenthal, Dinah

    2014-01-01

    Arthropod-borne infectious agents in the cat include Bartonella (B.) henselae, Bartonella (B.) clarridgeiae, Bartonella (B.) quintana, Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum and Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi. Moreover infections with Mycoplasma (M.) haemofelis, Candidatus Mycoplasma (C. M.) turicensis and Candidatus Mycoplasma (C. M.) haemominutum occur in the cat. The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is supposed to be the main vector for Mycoplasma spp.; moreover, transmission via blood transfusion and ...

  13. Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Rickettsia‚ Ehrlichia y Anaplasma en Fauna Silvestre ex situ e in situ de algunas Regiones de Colombia -resumen-

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Monsalve-Buriticá; César Rojano-Bolaño; Jorge Miranda-Regino; Lizeth Quintana-Diosa; Laura Hernandez-Fernandez; M J Loaiza-Escobar; Luz Dary Acevedo-Cendales; Salim Mattar-Velilla; J Londoño-Londoño; J D Rodas-González

    2014-01-01

    Las enfermedades causadas por bacterias del orden de los Rickettsiales son trasmitidas por ectoparásitos originados en vida silvestre‚ sin embargo‚ en Colombia no existe una línea base del conocimiento en este sentido. Estos microorganismos intracelulares son causantes de enfermedades transmisibles en pacientes humanos; convirtiéndolas en zoonosis de tipo emergente. Este estudio ha permitido determinar la presencia de microorganismos del orden de los Rickettsiales (Ehrlichia spp.‚ Anaplasma s...

  14. Prevalence of Human-Active and Variant 1 Strains of the Tick-Borne Pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Hosts and Forests of Eastern North America

    OpenAIRE

    Keesing, Felicia; McHenry, Diana J.; Hersh, Michelle; Tibbetts, Michael; Jesse L Brunner; Killilea, Mary; LoGiudice, Kathleen; Kenneth A Schmidt; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    Anaplasmosis is an emerging infectious disease caused by infection with the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In the eastern United States, A. phagocytophilum is transmitted to hosts through the bite of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. We determined the realized reservoir competence of 14 species of common vertebrate hosts for ticks by establishing the probability that each species transmits two important strains of A. phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum human-active, which causes ...

  15. Infections and risk factors for livestock with species of Anaplasma, Babesia and Brucella under semi-nomadic rearing in Karamoja Region, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Chiara; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Strona, Paolo; Lappo, Pier Giorgio; Etiang, Patrick; Diverio, Silvana

    2016-03-01

    A survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Anaplasma, Babesia and Brucella spp. infections in cattle, goats and sheep in the Karamoja Region of Uganda and to identify possible risk factors existing in this semi-nomadic and pastoral area. Low cost laboratory tests were used to diagnose infections (Rose Bengal test for Brucella spp. antibodies and direct microscopic examination for Anaplasma and Babesia spp.). Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to identify possible risk factors linked to gender, animal species, age (only for cattle) and districts. A total of 3935 cattle, 729 goats and 306 sheep of five districts of the Karamoja Region were tested. Seroprevalence for Brucella was 9.2 % (CI, 95 %: 8.4-10), for Anaplasma 19.5 % (CI 95 %: 18.4-20.6) and for Babesia 16 % (CI 95 %: 15-17.1). Significant differences in infections prevalence were observed against risk factors associated with districts and species. Cattle were the species with higher risk of the infections. Female gender was identified as at risk only for Brucella spp. infection. Cattle more than one year old had greater likelihood to be Brucella seropositive. Co-infections of Anaplasma and Babesia spp. were statistically associated, especially in goats and sheep. Further studies to identify risk factors related to host species and geographical districts are needed. The influence on the semi-nomadic agro-pastoral system in Karamoja of animal raids and animal mixing should be further investigated. Findings were important to sensitize Karamojong undertaking measures on infection control, especially on cattle, which are their main source of food. PMID:26888206

  16. A Molecular and Serological Survey of Rickettsiales Bacteria in Wild Sika Deer (Cervus nippon nippon) in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan: High Prevalence of Anaplasma Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongxing; Wuritu; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Gaowa; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Ikegaya, Asaka; Ohtake, Masayoshi; Ohashi, Masataka; Shimada, Masahiko; Takada, Ayumi; Iwai, Katsuki; Ohashi, Norio

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed Rickettsiales bacteria, including Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Neoehrlichia, in wild sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon) from Shizuoka prefecture, Japan. In spleen samples from 187 deer, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (deer type), A. bovis, and A. centrale were successfully detected by PCR assay targeting to 16S rDNA or p44/msp2, and their positive rates were 96.3% (180/187), 53.5% (100/187), and 78.1% (146/187), respectively. Additionally, 2 or 3 Anaplasma species could be detected from a single deer in 165 spleen samples (88.2%), indicating dual or triple infection. In contrast, A. phagocytophilum (human type) 16S rDNA, Rickettsia gltA, Ehrlichia p28/omp-1, and Neoehrlichia 16S rDNA could not be amplified. The serological test of 105 deer serum samples by immunofluorescence assay showed that the detection of antibodies against antigens of A. phagocytophilum HZ (US-human isolate) and Rickettsia japonica YH were 29.5% (31/105) and 75.2% (79/105), respectively. These findings suggest that A. phagocytophilum (deer type), A. centrale, and A. bovis are highly dominant and prevalent in wild sika deer from Shizuoka, a central region of Japan, and that the antibodies against some Rickettsiales bacteria have also been retained in deer blood. PMID:25971318

  17. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... Doctors do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  18. Serological and molecular investigation of Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. in ticks and blood of dogs, in the Thrace Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Handan; Matur, Erdal; Akyazi, İbrahim; Ekiz, Elif Ergul; Aydin, Levent; Toparlak, Mufit

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, tick-borne diseases like ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis became widespread worldwide threatening the health of both human and companion animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs and ticks in the Thrace Region of Turkey. A total of 400 blood samples and 912 ticks were collected from dogs living in shelters that are located in four cities (Istanbul, Edirne, Tekirdag and Kirklareli) of the Thrace Region. Blood and buffy coat smears were prepared for microscopic examination. Hematologic and serologic analyses were performed using cell counter and commercial Snap3Dx test kit, respectively. Eight hundred fifty of collected ticks were classified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 33 as Rhipicephalus turanicus and 29 as Ixodes ricinus. After DNA extraction from blood samples and pooled ticks (127 tick pools, in total), nested PCR was performed to detect the DNA of Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. The seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis was 27.25% (109) by Snap3Dx test and the total molecular positivity was 11.75% (47) in dog blood samples and 21.25% (27) in tick pools by nested PCR. The frequencies of the infected blood samples with E. canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys were detected as 6%, 4% and 6%, respectively. E. canis and A. platys were detected in R. sanguineus pools with a ratio of 15.75% and 0.7%, respectively. In addition, A. platys was also detected in R. turanicus pools (0.7%). A. phagocytophilum was found only in I. ricinus pools (3.93%). Morulae of three species were detected in buffy coat and blood smears. While anemia was observed in dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected (with one or more species), thrombocytopenia was observed only in co-infected dogs. This is the first study providing evidence for the presence of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs and ticks in the Thrace Region of Turkey. Based on the results of the tests used in this study

  19. Detección de Anaplasma spp. en Garrapatas de Myrmecophaga tridactyla de Vida Libre en la Sabana Inundable de Casanare‚ Colombia -resumen-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Rojano-Bolaño

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La anaplasmosis es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por rickettsias del género Anaplasma spp. Su relevancia esta principalmente determinada por el grado de afectación endémica en el ganado doméstico. Una amplia variedad de mamíferos silvestres también son susceptibles a la infección. Las bacterias pueden ser intracitoplasmáticas‚ dañando las estructuras de las células pudiendo causar anemia e ictericia. Algunas especies de Anaplasma spp han sido reportadas como microorganismos potencialmente zoonóticos‚ por lo tanto‚ la anaplasmosis‚ como otras enfermedades transmitidas por garrapatas‚ ha tomado una especial relevancia en la salud pública. El objetivo de este estudio fue detectar la presencia de Anaplasma spp.‚ en garrapatas colectadas en nueve osos palmeros (Myrmecophaga tridactyla de vida libre en el municipio de Pore‚ Casanare‚ entre los años 2013 y 2014‚ capturados con el método de búsqueda activa‚ y posteriormente fueron anestesiados utilizando un dardo con Ketamina (12 mg/kg y Xilacina (0‚5 mg/kg por vía intramuscular. Las garrapatas fueron colectadas directamente de los individuos‚ con ayuda de pinzas. En total se obtuvieron 204 ectoparásitos‚ que fueron almacenados en alcohol al 70%‚ y posteriormente fueron identificados como pertenecientes a la especie Amblyomma cajennense. Para este estudio se seleccionaron 55 pool de tres individuos y fueron analizadas por medio de la técnica de PCR en tiempo real. Se detectaron 2 pool de garrapatas positivos a este microorganismo (3‚6 % pertenecientes a dos osos palmeros. Los resultados preliminares de este estudio demuestran que Anaplasma spp. podría estar circulante entre garrapatas A. cajennense de animales silvestres en la sabana inundable del municipio de Pore‚ Casanare. Se hace necesario realizar nuevos muestreos para analizar un mayor número de garrapatas y determinar la especie de Anaplasma spp. presente.

  20. Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in ticks of dogs in Cuiaba, Mato GrossoEhrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em carrapatos de cães de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso

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    Valéria Dutra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diseases transmitted by arthropods such as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, are caused by a spectrum of pathogens. Among these are the canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and cyclical thrombocytopenia with a cosmopolitan distribution. Aiming to verify the presence of DNA of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in ticks R. sanguineus collected in the period 2008 to 2009 of 380 infected dogs. Ticks, after maceration, were subjected to DNA extraction and then nested PCR was performed for amplification of A. platys and E. canis. Of these, 81 (29.7% amplified DNA from ehrlichiais agents, where 38 (17.9% amplified in E. canis and 32 (15.7% for A. platys. The observation of two pathogens, combined with worldwide distribution of the tick R. sanguineus, demonstrates the high risk of infection with these pathogens in dogs in the city of Cuiaba. Doenças transmitidas por artrópodes, como o Rhipicephalus sanguineus, são causadas por um espectro de patógenos. Dentre estas, estão a erliquiose monocítica canina e trombocitopenia cíclica com distribuição cosmopolita. Com o objetivo de verificar a presença de DNA de Anaplasma platys e Ehrlichia canis em carrapatos R. sanguineus coletados no período de 2008 a 2009 de 380 cães infestados. Os carrapatos, após a maceração, foram submetidos a extração de DNA e, em seguida, foi realizada a Nested PCR para a amplificação da espécie A. platys e E. canis. Destes, 81 (29.7% amplificaram o DNA dos agentes ehrlichiais, onde 38 (17.9% amplificaram para E. canis e 32 (15.7% para A. platys. A observação dos dois patógenos, combinado com distribuição mundial do carrapato R. sanguineus, demonstra o elevado risco de infecção por esses patógenos de cães na cidade de Cuiabá.

  1. Responsabilidad Social Matriz de indicadores sustentables que refleja el impacto de la forestación en tierras marginales del Partido de Bahía Blanca, Argentina

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    Regina del Carmen Durán Durán

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, se han empezado a considerar otras obligaciones que tienen las empresas para con su comunidad; se trata de aspectos vinculados con las dimensiones sociales y ambientales. Desde este contexto, nuestro trabajo tiene como punto de partida el concepto de responsabilidad social desde la noción de sustentabilidad. El objetivo es evaluar la forestación como instrumento para mejorar la sostenibilidad de los sistemas productivos tradicionales en tierras marginales del Partido de Bahía Blanca, mitigando los impactos del desarrollo no responsable de la producción primaria. Para ello, se han identificado técnicas de manejo generadoras de externalidades positivas en otras actividades agropecuarias complementarias, donde existen limitantes edafológicas, apoyándose en las tres dimensiones del concepto de sustentabilidad: ecológica, económica, sociopolítica y cultural. De igual forma, se diseñó una matriz de evaluación y ponderación de impactos, que contempla indicadores cuantitativos y cualitativos, de cuya aplicación surge la forestación como una alternativa sustentable

  2. Molecular characterization and specific detection of Anaplasma species (AP-sd) in sika deer and its first detection in wild brown bears and rodents in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Mohamed Abdallah Mohamed; Lee, Kyunglee; Taylor, Kyle; Nakao, Ryo; Sashika, Mariko; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    A previously undescribed Anaplasma species (herein referred to as AP-sd) has been detected in sika deer, cattle and ticks in Japan. Despite being highly similar to some strains of A. phagocytophilum, AP-sd has never been detected in humans. Its ambiguous epidemiology and the lack of tools for its specific detection make it difficult to understand and interpret the prevalence of this Anaplasma species. We developed a method for specific detection, and examined AP-sd prevalence in Hokkaido wildlife. Our study included 250 sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis), 13 brown bears (Ursus arctos yesoensis) and 252 rodents including 138 (Apodemus speciosus), 45 (Apodemus argenteus), 42 (Myodes rufocanus) and 27 (Myodes rutilus) were collected from Hokkaido island, northern Japan, collected during 2010 to 2015. A 770 bp and 382 bp segment of the 16S rRNA and gltA genes, respectively, were amplified by nested PCR. Results were confirmed by cloning and sequencing of the positive PCR products. A reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) based on the 16S rRNA gene was then developed for the specific detection of AP-sd. The prevalence of AP-sd by nested PCR in sika deer was 51% (128/250). We detected this Anaplasma sp. for the first time in wild brown bears and rodents with a prevalence of 15% (2/13) and 2.4% (6/252), respectively. The sequencing results of the 16S rRNA and gltA gene amplicons were divergent from the selected A. phagocytophilum sequences in GenBank. Using a newly designed AP-sd specific probe for RLB has enabled us to specifically detect this Anaplasma species. Besides sika deer and cattle, wild brown bears and rodents were identified as potential reservoir hosts for AP-sd. This study provided a high throughput molecular method that specifically detects AP-sd, and which can be used to investigate its ecology and its potential as a threat to humans in Japan. PMID:26431688

  3. Occurrence of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in household dogs from northern Parana Ocorrência de Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em cães domiciliados da região norte do Paraná

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    Gislaine Cristina Ferreira da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused primarily by Ehrlichia canis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis induced by Anaplasma platys are important emerging zoonotic tick-borne diseases of dogs. There is evidence that these pathogens can also affect humans. This study evaluated the presence of E. canis and A. platys in blood samples collected from 256 domiciled dogs in the municipality of Jataizinho, located in north region of the State of Parana, Brazil, by PCR assay. The occurrence of E. canis and A. platys was 16.4% (42/256 and 19.4% (49/256, respectively; while 5.47% (14/256 of the dogs evaluated were co-infected by these two organisms. The presence of E. canis and A. platys was not significantly associated with the variables evaluated (sex, age, outdoor access, and presence of ticks during blood collection. Infection of dogs by E. canis was associated with anemia and thrombocytopenia, while infection induced by A. platys was related only to thrombocytopenia. Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis should be included in the differential diagnoses when these hematological alterations are observed during routine laboratory evaluation of dogs.Erliquiose monocítica canina, causada principalmente por Ehrlichia canis, e anaplasmose trombocítica canina, devida a infecção com Anaplasma platys, são importantes doenças transmitidas por carrapatos que acometem os cães, com evidências que podem também acometer o homem. O presente estudo avaliou a ocorrência desses agentes em amostras de sangue de 256 cães domiciliados na cidade de Jataizinho, na região Norte do Paraná, Brasil, utilizando a técnica da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR. A ocorrência de E. canis e A. platys foi de 16,4% (42/256 e 19,4% (49/256, respectivamente, com 5,47% (14/256 dos animais apresentando coinfecção. Não foi observada associação significativa com as variáveis sexo, idade, acesso à rua e presença de carrapatos no momento da

  4. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  5. Detecção de Ehrlichia spp./Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Mycoplasma haemofelis e Leishmania infantum em felinos errantes e sua relação com a presença de retrovírus e com a sintomatologia manifestada

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Telma Simone Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT - Detection of Ehrlichia spp./Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Mycoplasma haemofelis and Leishmania infantum in stray cats, and its relation to the presence of retroviruses and the symptoms manifested - The prevalence of infectious diseases on cats is related with the density and the size of the population indwells. The objective of this work was to determinate the prevalence of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV), Ehrlichia spp./Anaplasma s...

  6. LA COMPRENSIÓN DE CUENTOS COMO RESOLUCIÓN DE PROBLEMAS EN NIÑOS DE 5 AÑOS DE SECTORES URBANO - MARGINALES

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    MARÍA SOLEDAD MANRIQUE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Para los niños pequeños la comprensión de un texto puede ser considerada un verdadero proceso de resolución de problemas, más que un proceso automático (Kinstch, 1988, 1998. En el presente trabajo se informa acerca de las dificultades específicas que aparecen durante la lectura interactiva de cuentos en niños de poblaciones urbano - marginales, que concurren a jardines de infantes en salas integradas de 4 y 5 años, en Buenos Aires (República Argentina. El análisis de la interacción maestra / niños en 26 situaciones de lectura de cuentos en nueve salas diferentes, que se realizó empleando el método comparativo constante (Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Strauss & Corbin, 1991 dio lugar a la caracterización inductiva de estas dificultades. En el proceso de comprensión, las operaciones cognitivas básicas que se ponen en juego son la activación de conocimiento previo, la realización de inferencias y el procesamiento de cadenas causales y del plano psicológico de la narrativa. Las dificultades que los niños enfrentan en el proceso de comprensión se originan en la relación existente entre las habilidades cognitivas que les permiten llevar a cabo las operaciones mencionadas y las características que asume cada una de las fuentes de información a partir de las cuales los niños construyen la representación mental del texto: el texto mismo, las ilustraciones y el proceso interactivo en torno al texto. Las dificultades encontradas se originan en la relación entre las habilidades del niño y cada una de las fuentes de información. Los resultados son discutidos en función de los aportes de la Psicología Cognitiva con respecto a este tema.

  7. Experimental infection and co-infection of dogs with Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis: hematologic, serologic and molecular findings

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    Diniz PPVP

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a ubiquitous tick responsible for transmitting Ehrlichia canis and most likely Anaplasma platys to dogs, as either single or co-infections. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of either simultaneous or sequential experimental infections with E. canis and A. platys on hematological and serological parameters, duration of infection, and efficacy of doxycycline therapy in dogs infected with one or both organisms. Six dogs per group were either uninfected, A. platys infected, E. canis infected, A. platys and E. canis co-infected, A. platys infected and E. canis challenged or E. canis infected and A. platys challenged at day 112 post-infection (PI. Doxycycline treatment was initiated at 211 days PI, followed by dexamethasone immunosuppression beginning 410 days PI. Results Initially, transient decreases in hematocrit occurred in all groups infected with E. canis, but the mean hematocrit was significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. All dogs except the controls developed marked thrombocytopenia after initial infection followed by gradually increased platelet counts by 112 days PI in groups with the single infections, while platelet counts remained significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. Both sequential and simultaneous infections of A. platys and E. canis produced an enhanced humoral immune response to A. platys when compared to infection with A. platys alone. Likewise, co-infection with E. canis and A. platys resulted in a more persistent A. platys infection compared to dogs infected with A. platys only, but nearly all A. platys infected dogs became A. platys PCR negative prior to doxycycline treatment. E. canis infected dogs, whether single or co-infected, remained thrombocytopenic and E. canis PCR positive in blood for 420 days. When treated with doxycycline, all E. canis infected dogs became E. canis PCR negative and the

  8. Assessment of antibodies against surface and outer membrane proteins of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krbková, L; Homola, L; Hlaváčová, A; Mikolášek, P; Bednářová, J; Čermáková, Z

    2016-09-01

    To examine evidence of positive antibodies against immunogenic proteins of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in patients with other tick-borne infections and to diagnose possible co-infections, 412 serum specimens were tested by immunoblotting using three specific Anaplasma antigens: surface proteins p44 and Asp62 and outer membrane protein A (OmpA). In total, 284 serum samples from children with Lyme borreliosis and 12 serum samples from children with tick-borne encephalitis were tested. Sera from patients with viral aseptic meningitis (n = 47) and from blood donors (n = 69) were used as controls. Among all serum specimens from patients with tick-borne infections submitted for this study, six samples (2·0%) showed positive IgM reactions and seven samples (2·4%) were IgG positive for A. phagocytophilum by immunoblot. Borderline reactivity was found in 30 samples (10·14%) for IgM and 36 samples (12·2%) for IgG. The difference between patients and blood donors was statistically significant for IgM (P = 0·006) and for IgG (P = 0·0007) antibodies. A statistically significant result was obtained for IgG (P = 0·02) but not for IgM between patients and children with aseptic meningitis. Immunoblot using three specific antigens provides novel information about the positivity of antibodies to A. phagocytophilum in children with other tick-borne infections. Taking into account clinical and laboratory findings of children despite antibody positivity, no case of human granulocytic anaplasmosis was demonstrated. PMID:27180603

  9. Efficacy of sarolaner in the prevention of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum transmission from infected Ixodes scapularis to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honsberger, Nicole A; Six, Robert H; Heinz, Thomas J; Weber, Angela; Mahabir, Sean P; Berg, Thomas C

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis) to prevent transmission primarily of Borrelia burgdorferi and secondarily of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from infected wild-caught Ixodes scapularis to dogs was evaluated in a placebo-controlled laboratory study. Twenty-four purpose-bred laboratory Beagles seronegative for B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies were allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups: placebo administered orally on Days 0 and 7, or sarolaner at 2mg/kg administered orally on Day 0 (28 days prior to tick infestation) or on Day 7 (21 days prior to tick infestation). On Day 28, each dog was infested with approximately 25 female and 25 male wild caught adult I. scapularis that were determined to have prevalence of 57% for B. burgdorferi and 6.7% for A. phagocytophilum by PCR. In situ tick counts were conducted on Days 29 and 30. On Day 33, all ticks were counted and removed. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated based on the reduction of geometric mean live tick counts in the sarolaner-treated groups compared to the placebo-treated group for each tick count. Blood samples collected from each dog on Days 27, 49, 63, 77, 91 and 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies using the SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) Plus Test, and quantitatively assayed for B. burgdorferi antibodies using an ELISA test. Skin biopsies collected on Day 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi by bacterial culture and PCR. Geometric mean live tick counts for placebo-treated dogs were 14.8, 12.8, and 19.1 on Days 29, 30, and 33, respectively. The percent reductions in mean live tick counts at 1, 2, and 5 days after infestation were 86.3%, 100%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 21 days prior to infestation, and 90.9%, 97.1%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 28 days prior to infestation. Geometric mean live tick counts for both sarolaner-treated groups were significantly lower than those for the

  10. Trouver la bonne distance : étrangère, marginale, ethnologue et parente en Corée du Sud

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    Élise Prébin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Trouver la bonne distance : étrangère, marginale, ethnologue et parente en Corée du Sud. Cet article a pour sujet ma relation à la société sud-coréenne, non seulement en tant qu’anthropologue mais aussi en tant que personne adoptée d’origine coréenne. Il relate la manière dont plusieurs sortes de relations ont dû être gérées pendant le terrain. Il a fallu d’un côté me rapprocher de mes informateurs pour pouvoir mener un terrain classique dans une société inconnue, comprendre une culture autre et traiter un sujet relevant des sciences sociales : le retour des adoptés étrangers dans leur pays d’origine. De l’autre, il a fallu établir une bonne distance avec ma famille biologique coréenne en m’en éloignant momentanément. Ma relation avec elle était en effet instable du fait qu’elle reposait sur une contradiction : mon statut d’étrangère en dépit de l’intimité que supposaient les liens du sang. Pourtant, cette relation continue entre ma famille biologique et moi-même a éclairé certaines ambiguïtés relatives au statut des adoptés dans la société sud-coréenne que le temps limité du terrain n’avait pas permis de saisir. Cet article ébauche donc une réflexion épistémologique sur la pertinence d’éléments biographiques dans le traitement anthropologique de certains sujets. Je montre en l’occurrence comment le don en mariage d’une fille biologique adoptée conjure de manière satisfaisante un don en adoption toujours problématique.Finding the right distance: stranger, marginal, ethnologist and relative in south Korea. The topic of this article is my relation to the South Korean society, not only as a social anthropologist but also as a Korean adoptee. I relate the way I had to manage contrasted relations while conducting fieldwork. On one hand, I endeavoured to get closer to my informants in order to conduct classic fieldwork in an unknown society, to understand a different culture

  11. A serological survey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs in North America and the Caribbean as assessed by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. platys, Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and Borrelia burgdorferi species-specific peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Qurollo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tick-borne pathogens cause a spectrum of disease manifestations in both dogs and humans. Recognizing regional and temporal shifts in exposure are important as tick distributions change. To better delineate regional exposure to canine tick-borne pathogens, an expanded set of species-specific peptides were used to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Aph, Anaplasma platys (Apl, Ehrlichia canis (Ec, Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Ech, Ehrlichia ewingii (Eew, and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb antibodies in canine serum. Methods: Archived canine serum samples (n=6,582 collected during 2008–2010 and in 2012 from the US, Canada, and the Caribbean were retrospectively screened for antibodies against Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species-specific peptides. Overall, regional and temporal seroprevalence rates were determined. Results: Overall Bb and Eew were the most seroprevalent pathogens. During 2008–2010, seroprevalence rates increased overall for Aph and Ech, and regionally, Bb and Aph seroprevalence rates increased in the South. Canada had unexpectedly high seroprevalence rates for Ec and Apl. The most common co-exposures were Eew+Ech, followed by Aph+Bb and Eew+Bb. Conclusions: This study demonstrated significant shifts in canine vector-borne disease seroprevalence rates. The use of specific peptides facilitated improved geographic delineation of tick-borne pathogen distributions among dogs, which may enhance epidemiological surveillance of vector-borne pathogens shared by dogs and humans.

  12. Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Rickettsia‚ Ehrlichia y Anaplasma en Fauna Silvestre ex situ e in situ de algunas Regiones de Colombia -resumen-

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    Santiago Monsalve-Buriticá

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades causadas por bacterias del orden de los Rickettsiales son trasmitidas por ectoparásitos originados en vida silvestre‚ sin embargo‚ en Colombia no existe una línea base del conocimiento en este sentido. Estos microorganismos intracelulares son causantes de enfermedades transmisibles en pacientes humanos; convirtiéndolas en zoonosis de tipo emergente. Este estudio ha permitido determinar la presencia de microorganismos del orden de los Rickettsiales (Ehrlichia spp.‚ Anaplasma spp.‚ y Rickettsia spp. en ejemplares silvestres de centros de conservación ex situ (Zoológicos‚ CAV y CAVR y en algunas regiones en condiciones in situ del país. De igual manera se identifica la infección de estos microorganismos en ectoparásitos vectores relacionados. Por medio de la técnica PCRrt‚ se detectó la presencia de Rickettsia spp.‚ Anaplasma spp.‚ y Ehrlichia spp.‚ en suero obtenido de mamíferos‚ y garrapatas colectadas de reptiles y mamíferos del Centro de Atención y Valoración de Fauna silvestre de la Corporación Autónoma Regional de los Valles del Sinú y San Jorge CAV-CVS en Montería (Córdoba‚ en osos hormigueros (Myrmecophaga tridactyla en Pore (Casanare‚ y en garrapatas obtenidas en ejemplares de titi gris (Saguinus leucopus y su hábitat en la vereda La Parroquia en Mariquita (Tolima. En Montería‚ los resultados obtenidos en mamíferos demostraron la ausencia de Rickettsia spp. en 72 muestras de suero‚ sin embargo se detectó un pool de garrapatas de la especie Amblyomma ovale positivo a este microorganismo‚ siendo el primer reporte en Colombia de ectoparásitos de Puma concolor positivos a Rickettsia spp.‚ mientras que en reptiles se detectaron 18 pools de garrapatas positivos a Rickettsia spp (90 %. En las garrapatas colectadas de nueve osos palmeros (Myrmecophaga tridactyla de vida libre se detectaron 12 pool de garrapatas positivos a este microorganismo (17‚6 %‚ y en ejemplares de

  13. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Rickettsia monacensis in dogs from Maio Island of Cape Verde archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzi, Stefania; Maia, João P; Epis, Sara; Marcos, Ricardo; Pereira, Cristina; Luzzago, Camilla; Santos, Marta; Puente-Payo, Pablo; Giordano, Alessia; Pajoro, Massimo; Sironi, Giuseppe; Faustino, Augusto

    2016-07-01

    Tick-borne diseases are emerging worldwide and have an important zoonotic relevance. Dogs play an important role in the epidemiology of several zoonotic tick-borne pathogens acting as sentinels and/or reservoirs. This study focused on the molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in blood samples of 153 autochthonous asymptomatic dogs in Maio Island, Cape Verde archipelago. Eighty-four (54.9%) dogs were positive for one or more pathogens. Fifty-five (35.9%) dogs were infected with Hepatozoon canis, 53 (34.6%) with Anaplasma platys, five (3.3%) with Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia monacensis, an emerging human pathogen, was also identified in a single dog (0.7%). The former three pathogens cause important canine tick-borne diseases that are transmitted or potentially transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., the only hard tick identified in Cape Verde. Furthermore, Wolbachia spp. was amplified from the blood of one dog. None of the dogs were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Midichloria mitochondrii, Bartonella spp., Babesia spp. or Theileria spp. Fifty-four (35.3%) animals showed single infections and 30 (19.6%) co-infections, with A. platys and H. canis co-infection being the most frequent (28 dogs, 18.3%). The frequency of E. canis infection was statistically different among age groups (P=0.017), being higher among dogs older than 4 years compared to younger dogs. Infection by A. platys was also statistically different among age groups (P=0.031), being higher in dogs younger than 2 years compared to older dogs. The statistical analyses showed no significant association of PCR positivity with gender or location. The frequency of tick-borne pathogens detected in dogs in Maio Island, including R. monacensis, highlights the need to improve diagnosis and control in order to prevent the risk of transmission of these pathogens among dogs and humans living in or travelling to this touristic island. PMID:27177475

  14. Prevalence of Babesia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in hard ticks collected from meadows of Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern Poland

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    Dzięgiel Beata

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Babesia canis in adult females and males of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, inhabiting meadows near large forest complexes throughout the Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern region of Poland. Ticks were collected using the flagging method. Among 720 ticks collected, 506 were identified as D. reticulatus, and 214 as I. ricinus. DNA of B. canis and B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 21.3% and 0.6% of D. reticulatus ticks, respectively. In I. ricinus ticks, DNA specific to B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum was detected in 5.6% and 10.3%, respectively. Co-infections of B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum were found in two I. ricinus ticks. These results indicate that the Lublin region is an area at risk of tick-borne diseases of humans and animals, which must be considered in clinical practice.

  15. Prevalence and first molecular characterization of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks attached to dogs from Egypt

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    Mohamed W. Ghafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene integrated with sequence analysis were performed to investigate the prevalence and the molecular identity of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Egyptian Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks attached to dogs. A total of 413 adult and nymphal R. sanguineus ticks were collected while attached to 72 free-roaming dogs from four locations (Imbaba, Boulaq, Haram, Monib in Giza Governorate, Egypt. DNA was successfully extracted from 401 specimens (133 nymphs and 268 adults. The overall prevalence rate was 13.7% and adult ticks showed a significantly higher infection rate (16.4% compared to nymphs (8.3%. Sequence comparisons of 218-bp showed that detected organism belongs to A. phagocytophilum. The sequence showed 99.1% similarity (2 nucleotide differences with some strains described as human pathogens and with that detected in the established tick vectors. Phylogenetic analysis placed the bacteria on a separate branch with that found in R. annulatus from Egypt (DQ379972 (99.5% similarity. Our variant strain was designated as A. phagocytophilum-Ghafar-EGY (AB608266. This report is the first molecular characterization of A. phagocytophilum in R. sanguineus in Egypt, suggesting that this tick species may act as a competent vector for a variant strain of human granulocytic anaplasmosis agent.

  16. The prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys and Babesia spp. in dogs in Nueva Ecija, Philippines based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corales, Joyce Marielle I; Viloria, Victoria V; Venturina, Virginia M; Mingala, Claro N

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys and Babesia spp. in dogs. It describes the practice of veterinarians in detecting tick-borne diseases in Nueva Ecija, Philippines. Seventy blood samples were collected and were subjected to multiplex PCR for the detection of E. canis, Babesia spp. and A. platys. The prevalence of babesiosis is the highest in Cabanatuan City (2/10), while a 10% prevalence (1/10) was observed in Science City of Muñoz, Talavera and Sta. Rosa. E. canis were only detected in Cabanatuan City. However, no anaplasmosis was detected in any area. The prevalence of babesiosis and ehrlichiosis in Nueva Ecija is 7.14% (5/70) and 2.85% (2/70) respectively. In addition, 70% (7/10) of the Nueva Ecija veterinary practitioners encountered cases of suspected ehrlichiosis in their practice. The diagnosis of ehrlichiosis is based primarily on presented clinical signs and complete blood counts, which include a platelet count. Of the 10 respondents, half utilized test kits while 90% interpreted blood samples. Meanwhile, only 60% of the respondents used an ELISA test kit for ehrlichiosis. For some practitioners, the main reason for not utilizing a kit is the high cost. None of the respondents had previously attended cases of suspected anaplasmosis. Only one respondent diagnosed a case of babesiosis by blood smear microscopy. PMID:25706424

  17. Comparative analysis of the infectivity rate of both Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in humans and dogs in a New Jersey community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaito A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Gaito,1 Vedrana Gjivoje,2 Sebastian Lutz,1 Ben Baxter2 1Private medical practice, Somerset County, NJ, USA; 2Bernardsville Animal Hospital, Somerset County, NJ, USA Abstract: Ticks are important vectors of disease and transmit an extensive array of bacterial, viral and protozoan diseases to both humans and dogs within a community. Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has been extensively studied within both the human and veterinary population. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an intracellular rickettsial pathogen also transmitted by ixodid ticks, has emerged as an important zoonotic infection with significant veterinary and medical implications, and is responsible for both canine granulocytic anaplasmosis and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Multiple surveys exist in the international literature referencing infectivity rates of both of these diseases separately in both the dog and human populations. This is the first study to simultaneously examine the infectivity rate of both anaplasmosis and Lyme disease in humans and dogs in a community endemic for tick-borne diseases. Keywords: Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, dogs, humans 

  18. Les noirs a l’heure de l’indépendance jamaïcaine : histoire d’une majorité marginale Blacks at a time of Jamaican independence : the story of a marginal majority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Ceyrat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available L’article s’intéresse à la construction de l’identité noire en Jamaïque lors de l’indépendance obtenue du Royaume-Uni en 1962. Dominée par les Euro-créoles, paupérisée et confrontée à une offre politique nationale inadaptée, la population africaine souffre de l’absence d’une identité noire institutionnalisée, diluée dans le « nationalisme multiracial créole ». Ce travail met en lumière l’importance de l’histoire et des problématiques de la mémoire dans le processus de construction des identités sociales et souligne le rôle central de la culture dans les luttes de pouvoir.The article deals with the status of a Black identity in Jamaica when it became independent from the United Kingdom in 1962. Dominated by the Euro-Creoles, pauperized and facing an inadequate political offer, the African population suffers from the lack of an institutionalized blackness, melted into “Creole multiracialism”. This study highlights the importance of history and memory issues in the process of building up social identities, and underlines the central role of culture in conflicts of power.

  19. Disaggregating Tropical Disease Prevalence by Climatic and Vegetative Zones within Tropical West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Carl S.; Shaban, Salisu; Palmer, Guy H.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Noh, Susan M.; Futse, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical infectious disease prevalence is dependent on many socio-cultural determinants. However, rainfall and temperature frequently underlie overall prevalence, particularly for vector-borne diseases. As a result these diseases have increased prevalence in tropical as compared to temperate regions. Specific to tropical Africa, the tendency to incorrectly infer that tropical diseases are uniformly prevalent has been partially overcome with solid epidemiologic data. This finer resolution data is important in multiple contexts, including understanding risk, predictive value in disease diagnosis, and population immunity. We hypothesized that within the context of a tropical climate, vector-borne pathogen prevalence would significantly differ according to zonal differences in rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and vegetation condition. We then determined if these environmental data were predictive of pathogen prevalence. First we determined the prevalence of three major pathogens of cattle, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileria spp, in the three vegetation zones where cattle are predominantly raised in Ghana: Guinea savannah, semi-deciduous forest, and coastal savannah. The prevalence of A. marginale was 63%, 26% for Theileria spp and 2% for B. bigemina. A. marginale and Theileria spp. were significantly more prevalent in the coastal savannah as compared to either the Guinea savanna or the semi-deciduous forest, supporting acceptance of the first hypothesis. To test the predictive power of environmental variables, the data over a three year period were considered in best subsets multiple linear regression models predicting prevalence of each pathogen. Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc) were assigned to the alternative models to compare their utility. Competitive models for each response were averaged using AICc weights. Rainfall was most predictive of pathogen prevalence, and EVI also contributed to A. marginale and B. bigemina prevalence

  20. Disaggregating Tropical Disease Prevalence by Climatic and Vegetative Zones within Tropical West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl S Beckley

    Full Text Available Tropical infectious disease prevalence is dependent on many socio-cultural determinants. However, rainfall and temperature frequently underlie overall prevalence, particularly for vector-borne diseases. As a result these diseases have increased prevalence in tropical as compared to temperate regions. Specific to tropical Africa, the tendency to incorrectly infer that tropical diseases are uniformly prevalent has been partially overcome with solid epidemiologic data. This finer resolution data is important in multiple contexts, including understanding risk, predictive value in disease diagnosis, and population immunity. We hypothesized that within the context of a tropical climate, vector-borne pathogen prevalence would significantly differ according to zonal differences in rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and vegetation condition. We then determined if these environmental data were predictive of pathogen prevalence. First we determined the prevalence of three major pathogens of cattle, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileria spp, in the three vegetation zones where cattle are predominantly raised in Ghana: Guinea savannah, semi-deciduous forest, and coastal savannah. The prevalence of A. marginale was 63%, 26% for Theileria spp and 2% for B. bigemina. A. marginale and Theileria spp. were significantly more prevalent in the coastal savannah as compared to either the Guinea savanna or the semi-deciduous forest, supporting acceptance of the first hypothesis. To test the predictive power of environmental variables, the data over a three year period were considered in best subsets multiple linear regression models predicting prevalence of each pathogen. Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc were assigned to the alternative models to compare their utility. Competitive models for each response were averaged using AICc weights. Rainfall was most predictive of pathogen prevalence, and EVI also contributed to A. marginale and B

  1. Problem of ticks and tick-borne diseases in India with special emphasis on progress in tick control research: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikant Ghosh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of several zoonotic diseases, are ranked second only to mosquitoes as vectors. The diseases spread by ticks are a major constraint to animal productivity while causing morbidity and mortality in both animals and humans. A number of tick species have been recognised since long as vectors of lethal pathogens, viz. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV, Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV, Babesia spp, Theileria, Rickettsia conorii, Anaplasma marginale, etc. and the damages caused by them are well-recognised. There is a need to reassess the renewed threat posed by the tick vectors and to prioritize the tick control research programme. This review is focused on the major tick-borne human and animal diseases in India and the progress in vector control research with emphasis on acaricide resistance, tick vaccine and the development of potential phytoacaricides as an integral part of integrated tick control programme.

  2. Problem of ticks and tick-borne diseases in India with special emphasis on progress in tick control research: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srikant; Nagar, Gaurav

    2014-12-01

    Ticks, as vectors of several zoonotic diseases, are ranked second only to mosquitoes as vectors. The diseases spread by ticks are a major constraint to animal productivity while causing morbidity and mortality in both animals and humans. A number of tick species have been recognised since long as vectors of lethal pathogens, viz. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV), Babesia spp, Theileria, Rickettsia conorii, Anaplasma marginale, etc. and the damages caused by them are well-recognised. There is a need to reassess the renewed threat posed by the tick vectors and to prioritize the tick control research programme. This review is focused on the major tick-borne human and animal diseases in India and the progress in vector control research with emphasis on acaricide resistance, tick vaccine and the development of potential phytoacaricides as an integral part of integrated tick control programme. PMID:25540956

  3. Allocation of the transmission service cost with base in marginal costs of the transmission network expansion; Asignacion del costo del servicio de transmision con base en costos marginales de expansion de la red de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Casillas, Manuel E.; Nieva Gomez, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The transmission charges to the users must be completely defined in those systems where the restructuring has broken up the traditional functions of the companies; in order to introduce competition in the generation and commercialization segments of the electrical energy. The fundamentals of a method used are explained to assure the transmission service cases between their users. The method is based on the marginal expansion costs of the transmission network. Their more known applications have been in competitive markets of energy, in particular, where the energy price is the same one in all the localities. Nevertheless, it can be used under other forms of organization of the electrical industry. In order to illustrate results, the obtained ones from their application to the most important part of the transmission network of the Mexican system that operates interconnected, are presented. [Spanish] Los cargos de transmision a los usuarios deben estar completamente definidos en aquellos sistemas donde la reestructuracion ha desagregado las funciones tradicionales de las empresas; para introducir competencia en los segmentos de generacion y comercializacion de la energia electrica. Se explican los fundamentos de un metodo utilizado para asegurar los casos del servicio de transmision entre sus usuarios. El metodo se basa en los costos marginales de expansion de la red de transmision. Sus aplicaciones mas conocidas han sido en mercados competitivos de energia, en particular, donde el precio de la energia es el mismo en todas las localidades. Sin embargo, puede utilizarse bajo otras formas de organizacion de la industria electrica. Con el proposito de ilustrar resultados, se muestran los obtenidos de su aplicacion a la parte mas importante de la red de transmision del sistema mexicano que opera interconectada.

  4. Emerging perspectives in the research of bovine Babesiosis and Anaplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Babesia bovis and B. bigemina apicomplexan protozoa in conjunction with the rickettsia Anaplasma marginale are intraerythrocytic pathogens that are responsible for the most prevalent and costly tick borne diseases (TBD’s) of cattle worldwide. These organisms are historically associated as they c...

  5. Serological survey of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia canis infections in rural and urban dogs in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[i][/i][/b][i]. Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (s.l. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are well known zoonotic pathogens, whereas[i] Ehrlichia canis[/i] is usually considered to be of veterinary concern, although on the basis of recent reports it also seems to be able to infect humans. [b]objective[/b]. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of [i]B. burgdorferi [/i]s.l., A. phagocytophilum and [i]E. canis[/i] in an Italian canine population, and to verify if there are differences between dogs living in urban areas and those from a rural environment. [b]materials and method.[/b] Blood sera of 1,965 dogs, 1,235 from cities and 730 from rural areas, were tested by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFAT. [b]results[/b]. The overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (7.07%, followed by [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] (4.68%, and [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. (1.47%. Rural dogs showed the highest seroprevalence to [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. and [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i]. No significant differences were observed between rural and urban [i]E. canis[/i]-positive dogs. A low percentage (1.32% of dogs with dual seropositivity was detected, and no triple positive reactions were observed. No significant differences were detected in the seroprevalence of the three agents in relationship to the age and gender of the dogs. Seroprevalence in the five years considered were not statistically different, except for the lowest rate for [i]E. canis[/i] observed in 2012. [b]conclusions[/b]. The results confirm the presence of [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l., [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] and [i]E. canis[/i] in Italian dogs in both urban and rural areas. Monitoring pet dogs, which share the same environment with their owners, is useful for identifying the presence of tick-borne disease agents of both veterinary and public health significance

  6. Tissue-Specific Signatures in the Transcriptional Response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus Tick Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, Pilar; Mansfield, Karen L.; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Cook, Charlotte; Ayllón, Nieves; Villar, Margarita; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R.; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum are transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks and have become one of the most common and relevant tick-borne pathogens due to their impact on human and animal health. Recent results have increased our understanding of the molecular interactions between Ixodes scapularis and A. phagocytophilum through the demonstration of tissue-specific molecular pathways that ensure pathogen infection, development and transmission by ticks. However, little is known about the Ixodes ricinus genes and proteins involved in the response to A. phagocytophilum infection. The tick species I. scapularis and I. ricinus are evolutionarily closely related and therefore similar responses are expected in A. phagocytophilum-infected cells. However, differences may exist between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cells associated with tissue-specific signatures of these cell lines. To address this hypothesis, the transcriptional response to A. phagocytophilum infection was characterized by RNA sequencing and compared between I. scapularis ISE6 and I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 tick cell lines. The transcriptional response to infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells resembled that of tick hemocytes while the response in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells was more closely related to that reported previously in infected tick midguts. The inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum appears to be a key adaptation mechanism to facilitate infection of both vertebrate and tick cells and was used to investigate further the tissue-specific response of tick cell lines to pathogen infection. The results supported a role for the intrinsic pathway in the inhibition of cell apoptosis by A. phagocytophilum infection of I. scapularis ISE6 cells. In contrast, the results in I. ricinus IRE/CTVM20 cells were similar to those obtained in tick midguts and suggested a role for the JAK/STAT pathway in the inhibition of apoptosis in tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum. Nevertheless, tick

  7. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in apparently healthy and CVBD-suspect dogs in Portugal - a national serological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Luís

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are caused by a wide range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods including ticks and insects. Many CVBD-agents are of zoonotic concern, with dogs potentially serving as reservoirs and sentinels for human infections. The present study aimed at assessing the seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in dogs in Portugal. Methods Based on 120 veterinary medical centres from all the regions of mainland and insular Portugal, 557 apparently healthy and 628 CVBD-suspect dogs were sampled. Serum, plasma or whole blood was tested for qualitative detection of D. immitis antigen and antibodies to E. canis, B. burgdorferi s. l., Anaplasma spp. and L. infantum with two commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Odds ratios (OR were calculated by logistic regression analysis to identify independent risk factors of exposure to the vector-borne agents. Results Total positivity levels to D. immitis, E. canis, B. burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., L. infantum, one or more agents and mixed agents were 3.6%, 4.1%, 0.2%, 4.5%, 4.3%, 14.0% and 2.0% in the healthy group, and 8.9%, 16.4%, 0.5%, 9.2%, 25.2%, 46.3% and 11.6% in the clinically suspect group, respectively. Non-use of ectoparasiticides was a risk factor for positivity to one or more agents both in the apparently healthy (OR = 2.1 and CVBD-suspect (OR = 1.5 dogs. Seropositivity to L. infantum (OR = 7.6, E. canis (OR = 4.1 and D. immitis (OR = 2.4 were identified as risk factors for the presence of clinical signs compatible with CVBDs. Positivity to mixed agents was not found to be a risk factor for disease. Conclusions Dogs in Portugal are at risk of becoming infected with vector-borne pathogens, some of which are of zoonotic concern. CVBDs should be considered by practitioners and prophylactic measures must be put in

  8. Major Sport Venues

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Major Public Venues dataset is composed of facilities that host events for the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Indy Racing League, Major League...

  9. Comparação de nested-PCR com o diagnóstico direto na detecção de Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em cães Comparison of nested-PCR with blood smear examination in detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. N. Ramos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os sinais clínicos das infecções por Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys são similares, e o diagnóstico desses patógenos feito por esfregaços sanguíneos corados é difícil devido à sensibilidade e especificidade. Por outro lado, os diagnósticos moleculares são altamente sensíveis e específicos, e nested-PCRs têm sido otimizadas para o diagnóstico preciso desses patógenos em cães. Em um Hospital Veterinário Escola, amostras de sangue total com EDTA foram obtidas de 100 cães, e esfregaços foram feitos das amostras de sangue para busca dos parasitos intracelulares. Para cada amostra, DNA foi extraído e submetido à nPCR para detecção de E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados dos esfregaços sanguíneos mostraram que 9% dos animais foram positivos para E. canis e 21% para A. platys. Com relação à nPCR, 57 e 55% dos cães foram positivos para E. canis e A. platys, respectivamente. Quando comparados com a nPCR, os esfregaços sanguíneos corados revelaram resultados falso-negativos para E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados indicam que a nPCR é altamente sensível e específica para detecção de ambos os patógenos, e os diagnósticos moleculares podem ser mais úteis nos Hospitais Veterinários.The clinical signs of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys infection are similar, and the diagnosis of these pathogens made by stained blood smears is poor due sensibility and specificity. On the other hand, the molecular diagnosis is highly sensitive and specific and nested-PCR have been optimized for accurate diagnosis these pathogens in dogs. At the veterinary teaching hospital, whole-blood samples with EDTA were obtained from 100 dogs and smears were made from blood samples for evaluation for intracellular parasites. For each sample, DNA was extracted and submitted to nPCR analysis for detection of E. canis and A. platys. The results of stained blood smears showed 9% of the animals were positive for E. canis and 21% for A. platys

  10. El nivel educativo y socioeconómico del hogar y habilidades pre-lectoras en escuelas urbano y urbano-marginales de la provincia de Mendoza-Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanina Canales, Jara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available En Argentina, las dificultades en la adquisición de la lectura se originan en diferencias lingüísticas asociadas al nivel sociocultural donde se desarrollan los niños. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar, en escolares de 4 y 5 años, la relación entre el nivel educativo y socioeconómico del hogar con habilidades lingüísticas precursoras de la lectura. Esta es una investigación de carácter cuantitativo y de profundidad comparativa. Se evaluaron 120 niños y niñas de salas de 4 y 5 años de Jardín de Infantes de escuelas urbanas (n= 60 y urbano-marginales (n= 60. El nivel socioeconómico del hogar y educativo de los padres se calculó a partir de datos de los registros escolares. En los niños y niñas se evaluó el nivel de vocabulario, conocimiento del nombre y sonido de la letra y conciencia fonológica. Se observó un efecto significativo de la zona sobre el nivel educativo de los padres y el socioeconómico. Se obtuvieron correlaciones positivas del nivel socioeconómico y educativo con el conocimiento del nombre y sonido de la letra. Ambas variables contextuales explicaron parte de la varianza en el conocimiento del nombre y sonido de las letras en niños y niñas de 4 años únicamente: 6% y 13% respectivamente. Los resultados sugieren que las variables contextuales influyen en el conocimiento alfabético pre-escolar que presentan los niños y las niñas y que la intervención pedagógica recibida en la escuela promueve el desarrollo de habilidades lingüísticas. Frente a contextos socioeconómicos heterogéneos, la educación escolar es una variable protectora que regula las desigualdades de orden social promoviendo el desarrollo de habilidades lingüísticas precursoras de la lectura al inicio de la escolaridad.

  11. On Majorization for Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, M. Adil; Latif, Naveed; Pecaric, J.; Peric, I.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we give several results for majorized matrices by using continuous convex function and Green function. We obtain mean value theorems for majorized matrices and also give corresponding Cauchy means, as well as prove that these means are monotonic. We prove positive semi-definiteness of matrices generated by differences deduced from majorized matrices which implies exponential convexity and log-convexity of these differences and also obtain Lypunov's and Dresher's type inequaliti...

  12. Sphingolipids in Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Jernigan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Major depression is one of the most common and severe diseases affecting the world's population. However, the pathogenesis of the disease remains inadequately defined. Previously, a lack of monoaminergic neurotransmitters was the focus of pathophysiological concepts; however, recent concepts focus on a alteration of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. This concept suggests that neurogenesis is decreased in major depression with a rarefication of neuronal networks and a lack of new, immature neurons in the hippocampus, events that may result in the clinical symptoms of major depression. However, molecular targets involved in the pathogenesis of major depression and, in particular, a reduction of neurogenesis, are largely unknown. We have recently discovered that an inhibition of the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system mediates the effects of tri- and tetracyclic antidepressants. Moreover, an accumulation of ceramide in the hippocampus results in depression-like symptoms. This suggests the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system is very important in the pathogenesis of major depression.

  13. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  14. Major operations and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development

  15. A major safety overhaul

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.

  16. Major operations and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  17. The voiceless majority

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, T.

    2006-01-01

    To judge by the polls, the political system in Israel is very far from representing the positions of the majority in Israeli society. For several months the polls have shown a 60% majority or more in favor of dismantling settlements, even in the framework of a "unilateral separation". The questions in the polls are not always unequivocal, but in a 'Da"haf' poll, on May 6th, which was solicited by 'Peace Now', the questions were clear, and so were the answers: 59% of the Jewish Israelis suppor...

  18. Attracting Economics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, Ifeakandu

    2011-01-01

    A disturbing concern that has been expressed by academic economists is the low interest in economics as a major, as evidenced by the declining enrollment in most of the economics departments in American colleges and universities. Though some college and university economics departments are experiencing or had experienced a decline in their majors…

  19. Unity in Major Themes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Davis, Philip J.

    We describe and explain the desire, common among mathematicians, both for unity and independence in its major themes. In the dialogue that follows, we express our spontaneous and considered judgment and reservations; by contrasting the development of mathematics as a goal-driven process as opposed...

  20. Approximating Majority Depth

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Dan

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of approximating the majority depth (Liu and Singh, 1993) of a point q with respect to an n-point set, S, by random sampling. At the heart of this problem is a data structures question: How can we preprocess a set of n lines so that we can quickly test whether a randomly selected vertex in the arrangement of these lines is above or below the median level. We describe a Monte-Carlo data structure for this problem that can be constructed in O(nlog n$ time, can answer queries O((log n)^{4/3}) expected time, and answers correctly with high probability.

  1. Securing Major Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When asked why the IAEA should provide nuclear security support to countries that organize large public events, Nuclear Security Officer Sophia Miaw answers quickly and without hesitation. ''Imagine any major public event such as the Olympics, a football championship, or an Expo. If a dirty bomb were to be exploded at a site where tens of thousands of people congregate, the radioactive contamination would worsen the effects of the bomb, increase the number of casualties, impede a rapid emergency response, and cause long term disruption in the vicinity,'' she said. Avoiding such nightmarish scenarios is the driving purpose behind the assistance the IAEA offers States that host major sporting or other public events. The support can range from a single training course to a comprehensive programme that includes threat assessment, training, loaned equipment and exercises. The type and scope of assistance depends on the host country's needs. ''We incorporate nuclear security measures into their security plan. We don't create anything new,'' Miaw said

  2. The major suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the existing nonproliferation regime which is, in essence, a regime of regulated nuclear supply. Not surprisingly, the regime has been most strongly influenced by the nuclear haves---the major nuclear supplier states, which include four of the five announced nuclear powers. Although the regime was not particularly contentious during its early decades, since the mid-1970s the regime has been castigated by the nuclear have-nots, who have bitterly opposed the regime---in particular, the creation of and the controls over nuclear exports imposed by the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). As recently evidenced by the Committee on Assurances of Supply (CAS) and the recent U.N. Conference on International Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (PUNE), this critique has continued, and there are serious questions about the future of the NSG guidelines and the supply regime for which they serve as the principal rules of the game

  3. EFRC CMSNF Major Accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Hurley; Todd R. Allen

    2014-09-01

    The mission of the Center for Material Science of Nuclear Fuels (CMSNF) has been to develop a first-principles-based understanding of thermal transport in the most widely used nuclear fuel, UO2, in the presence of defect microstructure associated with radiation environments. The overarching goal within this mission was to develop an experimentally validated multiscale modeling capability directed toward a predictive understanding of the impact of radiation and fission-product induced defects and microstructure on thermal transport in nuclear fuel. Implementation of the mission was accomplished by integrating the physics of thermal transport in crystalline solids with microstructure science under irradiation through multi institutional experimental and computational materials theory teams from Idaho National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Purdue University, the University of Florida, the University of Wisconsin, and the Colorado School of Mines. The Center’s research focused on five major areas: (i) The fundamental aspects of anharmonicity in UO2 crystals and its impact on thermal transport; (ii) The effects of radiation microstructure on thermal transport in UO2; (iii) The mechanisms of defect clustering in UO2 under irradiation; (iv) The effect of temperature and oxygen environment on the stoichiometry of UO2; and (v) The mechanisms of growth of dislocation loops and voids under irradiation. The Center has made important progress in each of these areas, as summarized below.

  4. Predicting Major Solar Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares are two examples of major explosions from the surface of the Sun but theyre not the same thing, and they dont have to happen at the same time. A recent study examines whether we can predict which solar flares will be closely followed by larger-scale CMEs.Image of a solar flare from May 2013, as captured by NASAs Solar Dynamics Observatory. [NASA/SDO]Flares as a Precursor?A solar flare is a localized burst of energy and X-rays, whereas a CME is an enormous cloud of magnetic flux and plasma released from the Sun. We know that some magnetic activity on the surface of the Sun triggers both a flare and a CME, whereas other activity only triggers a confined flare with no CME.But what makes the difference? Understanding this can help us learn about the underlying physical drivers of flares and CMEs. It also might help us to better predict when a CME which can pose a risk to astronauts, disrupt radio transmissions, and cause damage to satellites might occur.In a recent study, Monica Bobra and Stathis Ilonidis (Stanford University) attempt to improve our ability to make these predictions by using a machine-learning algorithm.Classification by ComputerUsing a combination of 6 or more features results in a much better predictive success (measured by the True Skill Statistic; higher positive value = better prediction) for whether a flare will be accompanied by a CME. [Bobra Ilonidis 2016]Bobra and Ilonidis used magnetic-field data from an instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory to build a catalog of solar flares, 56 of which were accompanied by a CME and 364 of which were not. The catalog includes information about 18 different features associated with the photospheric magnetic field of each flaring active region (for example, the mean gradient of the horizontal magnetic field).The authors apply a machine-learning algorithm known as a binary classifier to this catalog. This algorithm tries to predict, given a set of features

  5. Pectoralis Major Tendon Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, Frank A.; Degen, Ryan; Mahony, Gregory Thomas; Tsouris, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Systematic reviews of the literature have identified 365 reported cases of Pectoralis Major Tendon (PMT) injuries. While surgical treatment has demonstrated improved outcomes compared to non-operative treatment, there is still relatively limited data on the functional outcome, return to sport and need for 2nd surgery in athletes following PMT repair. This study comprises the largest series of athletes following PMT repair reported to date. The Objective is to report on the functional outcomes, return to sport and need for 2nd surgery in a consecutive series of PMT tears. Methods: From 2009, 81 patients with PMT tears were enrolled in this prospective series. Baseline evaluation included patient demographics, mechanism of injury, physical examination and PMT specific MRI for confirmation of the diagnosis and analysis of the extent of injury. Each patient underwent surgical repair by the senior author utilizing a previously published surgical technique. Patients were then followed at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months and further follow-up was conducted annually thereafter with functional outcome scores and adduction strength testing. The return to sport and incidence of 2nd surgery data were recorded. This study includes the first 40 athletes to reach the 2-year post-operative period. Results: All athletes were male, with an average age of 34.4 years (range 23-59). The patient cohort consisted of 4 professional NFL players and 36 recreational athletes. Average follow-up duration was 2.5 years (range 2 - 6.0 years). The most common mechanisms of injury occurred during the bench press (n=26) and contact sport participation (n=14). Sixteen injuries were complete avulsions involving both the clavicular and sternocostal heads, while 24 were isolated sternocostal head avulsions. Average pre-injury bench press of 396 lbs (range 170-500 lbs) was restored to 241 lbs post-operatively (range 140-550 lbs). Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) scores

  6. Investigação molecular de Ehrlichia spp. e Anaplasma platys em felinos domésticos: alterações clínicas, hematológicas e bioquímicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete S Correa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia sp. e Anaplasma platys são micro-organismos Gram negativos, parasitos intracelulares obrigatórios, residindo em vacúolos citoplasmáticos de leucócitos e plaquetas, encontrados no sangue periférico ou em tecidos. Poucos relatos têm sido feitos sobre erliquiose e anaplasmose em gatos no Brasil, os quais são baseados na presença de mórulas em leucócitos e plaquetas, ou pela detecção de anticorpos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a infecção natural por Ehrlichia sp. e A.platys em gatos no Município de Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ, através da hematoscopia e pela detecção do DNA desses agentes. Foram utilizadas amostras de sangue total e de soro de 91 gatos, independente de raça, sexo e idade. Realizaram-se hemograma, bioquímica sérica e PCR, utilizando oligonucleotídes para Ehrlichia sp. e A.platys. Os dados de hematoscopia mostraram que 9,89% dos gatos apresentaram mórulas em macroplaquetas. O DNA de A.platys foi detectado em 13,18% dos 91 animais e em 44,44% das amostras positivas à hematoscopia. O DNA de Ehrlichia sp. não foi detectado em nenhuma amostra. Nenhuma alteração foi observada nos sinais clínicos nem nos resultados laboratoriais nos animais estudados. Os dados sugerem que os felinos domésticos podem atuar como potenciais reservatórios para A. platys, como forma não sintomática das enfermidades relacionadas

  7. On a continuous majority rule

    OpenAIRE

    Won Kyu Kim; Kyoung Hee Lee

    2005-01-01

    A seminal paper by May characterizes the majority rule in terms of anonymity, neutrality, and positive responsiveness. Since then, there have been many characterizations of the majority rule using different axioms by several authors. In this paper, we will introduce the concept of a continuous majority rule which generalizes the previous social welfare functions beyond the discrete values, and using new axioms, we will give a characterization of the continuous majority rule.

  8. Oxidative Stress and Major Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Bajpai, Ashutosh; Verma, Akhilesh Kumar; Srivastava, Mona; Srivastava, Ragini

    2014-01-01

    Background: Major causative factor for major depression is inflammation, autoimmune tissue damage and prolonged psychological stress, which leads to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to know the association of free radicals and antioxidant status in subjects suffering from major depression.

  9. Krankheits- und Produktionsfaktoren in periurbanen Milchrinderherden Ugandas

    OpenAIRE

    Poetzsch, Carsten Jochen

    2010-01-01

    From June 1994 to November 1996 a longitudinal study was carried out to investigate disease and production on 56 randomly selected peri-urban dairy farms in south-eastern Uganda. Relationships between animal-, farm-, production- and environmental variables, prevalence of trypanosome and helminth infections and sero-prevalences of Theileria parva, Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina were investigated. Despite favourable climatic conditions and an emphasis on dairy production, the poten...

  10. Major Life Events and Major Chronic Difficulties Are Differentially Associated With History of Major Depressive Episodes

    OpenAIRE

    Monroe, Scott M.; Slavich, George M.; Torres, Leandro D.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2007-01-01

    Major life events have been found to precede onsets of a 1st lifetime episode of depression more commonly than subsequent recurrences. Despite general empirical support for this finding, few data directly address how the role of major life events may change over successive recurrences. Further, little research has examined major chronic difficulties in relation to a 1st lifetime episode versus a recurrence of depression. The present study tested the associations between major life events and ...

  11. Sir Arnold Theiler and the discovery of anaplasmosis : a centennial perspective : tick-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Palmer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sir Arnold Theiler's research in 1908/09 led to the discovery of the first rickettsial pathogen, Anaplasma marginale, and set the stage for his development and implementation of an effective live vaccine based on a less virulent strain, A. marginale ss. centrale. His 1910 report, describing A. marginale, is among the classic monographs in infectious disease research, presenting not only observations in exacting detail but also highlighting the deductive reasoning leading to association of a new pathogen with a specific disease. With a centennial perspective and both conceptual frameworks and molecular tools unimaginable in Theiler's time, the significance of several observations in the original report - cyclic bacteremia, strain superinfection, and taxonomic position - is now clear and highlight the broad applicability of key principles of pathogen biology.

  12. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick M. Kivaria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted between September and October 2010 in five states of South Sudan that were selected on the basis of the perceived risk of tick-borne diseases. The purpose was to investigate epidemiological parameters of tick-borne diseases in South Sudan and their uses in future control strategies. A total of 805 calves were assessed by clinical, microscopic and serological examination and tick counts. The indirect Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA was used to detect antibodies to Theileria parva, Theileria mutans, Anaplasma marginale and Babesian bigemina. Sero-conversion risks for T. parva and T. mutans were 27.3% and 31.3% respectively, whilst the risk was 57.6% and 52.8% for A. marginale and B. bigemina, respectively. Major tick species identified include Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus microplus, Amblyomma variegatum, and Rhipicephalus evertsi. There was great variation (P ≤ 0.001 in the number of all these ticks, both between herds in a state and between calves in an individual herd. The low and intermediate sero-conversion risks observed in the study states suggest that immunisation against East Coast fever (ECF is justified. Fortunately, three major genotypes that were identified by applying Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCRRFLP analysis on the p104 to the blood samples and T. parva Muguga, matched very well with T. parva Kiambu 5 and T. parva Muguga; therefore the Muguga cocktail can be used for the immunisation of cattle in South Sudan. However, prospective studies are required to develop optimal control measures for tick-borne diseases under different ecological and husbandry practices in South Sudan.

  13. LSAT Scores of Economics Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieswiadomy, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Argues that economics education provides many benefits to students, including preparation for law school. Examines the ranking of economics majors on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). Finds that among the 14 majors having more than 2,000 students take the LSAT, economics students received the highest average score. (DSK)

  14. Personality, academic majors and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anna; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Larsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    personality traits and facets was found between different academic majors; R2 varied from .05 to .15 for the Big Five personality traits and from .16 to .57 for the Big Five facets. Complex patterns emerged; several Conscientiousness and Openness facets were good predictors of GPA in some majors...

  15. Do You Have Major Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  16. Systematic Minimization Technique for Majority-Majority Digital Combinational Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor technology AND-OR combination logic is used because of the ease of its minimization using different well-known techniques such as K-Map. On the other hand, majority gate-based logic is not handled well in standard CMOS technologies, primarily because of the hardware inefficiencies in creating majority gates. As a result no optimization techniques of circuits based on majority gates were established. Promising technologies particularly, Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA use majority gate as a primary logic primitive instead of the AND-OR combination gates. We report a perceptive systematic minimization technique for reduction of 3-variable, 4-variables and 5-variables Boolean functions into a simplified majority of majority gate representation. The main role of this work is the general and systematic way the new approach can be applied. All attempts in the literature were complex and lacked the extended systematic approach that we are offering. The design of several logical functions will be presented using the new technique. Simulation of these functions are done using QCA designer showing area reduction achievements.

  17. Evidence supporting laparoscopic major hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Susannah M; Sucandy, Iswanto; Tsung, Allan; Marsh, J Wallis; Geller, David A

    2016-05-01

    Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) has been increasing in frequency with over 9,000 cases done worldwide. Benefits of laparoscopic resection include less blood loss, smaller incisions, decreased postoperative morbidity, and shorter length of stay compared to open liver resection. With increased experience, several centers have reported series of laparoscopic major hepatectomy, although this represents only about 25% of total LLR performed. Evidence is accumulating to support laparoscopic major hepatectomy with the understanding that there is a steep learning curve, and surgeons should begin with minor LLR before moving on to laparoscopic major hepatectomy. Controversy still remains concerning indications, techniques, learning curve, risks, and long-term cancer outcomes with laparoscopic major hepatectomy. PMID:27040039

  18. Major Depression and Complicated Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grieving process Symptoms of major depression and complicated grief Depression It’s common for people to have sadness, ... pain or trying to avoid letting go. Complicated grief If normal mourning does not occur, or if ...

  19. Major Land Resource Areas (MLRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of the Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the conterminous United States. Land resource regions are geographic areas...

  20. Major hazards onshore and offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This symposium continues the tradition of bringing together papers on a topic of current interest and importance in terms of process safety - in this case, Major Hazards Onshore and Offshore. Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster has, in effect, suggested that the experience gained in the control of major hazards onshore during the 1980s should be applied to improve safety offshore during the 1990s. This major three-day symposium reviews what has been learned so far with regard to major hazards and considers its present and future applications both onshore and offshore. The topics covered in the programme are wide ranging and deal with all aspects of legislation, the application of regulations, techniques for evaluating hazards and prescribing safety measures in design, construction and operation, the importance of the human factors, and recent technical developments in protective measures, relief venting and predicting the consequences of fires and explosions. (author)

  1. Nutritional factors and thalassaemia major.

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, G J; Tienboon, P; Linpisarn, S; Nimsakul, S; Leelapat, P; Tovanabutra, S; Tubtong, V; DeWier, M; Suskind, R M

    1996-01-01

    Abnormal growth is a common feature of thalassaemia major in children. In an attempt to determine whether it has a nutritional cause, 12 children aged 1 to 3 years with thalassaemia major were studied under metabolic ward conditions. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometry and biochemistry before and after an intensive nutrition regimen. Five children had wasting or stunting on admission. As a result of the nutrition intervention, mean weight for height improved significantly. The me...

  2. Liquid in the major incision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the case of a patient with spill pleural extending in the left major incision. In the chest thorax PA, we could observe one of the complex radiographic appearances that take the reconfiguration of fluid in this localization, being this appearance dependent of the patient's position. Some points are also discussed on the anatomy of the major incisions and some of their radiographic characteristics

  3. Major Decisions: Motivations for Selecting a Major, Satisfaction, and Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a…

  4. Implementation of the Second Major Requirement for Teacher Education Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Deborah A.; And Others

    An exploratory study was conducted in North Carolina to examine the impact on teacher education programs of improved academic preparation for undergraduate teacher education majors. This report describes one such approach--the requirement that in addition to general college and teacher preparation courses, undergraduate education students complete…

  5. Physics momentum 'stars' draw majors

    CERN Multimedia

    Lindström, I

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, the number of University of Arizona students declaring physics as their major has doubled, amid a national decline. According to a recent report by the National Task Force on Undergraduate Physics, it is the university's dedication to its undergraduate physics program which draws students in (1 page).

  6. Targeting astrocytes in major depression

    OpenAIRE

    Verkhratsky, Alexej; Peng, Liang; Gu, Li; Li, Baoman

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes represent a highly heterogeneous population of neural cells primarily responsible for the homeostasis of the central nervous system. Astrocytes express multiple receptors for neurotransmitters, including the serotonin 5-HT2B receptors and interact with neurones at the synapse. Astroglia contribute to neurological diseases through homeostatic response, neuroprotection and reactivity. In major depression, astrocytes show signs of degeneration and are decreased in numbe...

  7. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as ‘major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These ‘synthetic’ transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The major synthetic evolutionary transitions’. PMID:27431528

  8. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-08-19

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as 'major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These 'synthetic' transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID:27431528

  9. Neurobiology of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Villanueva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We survey studies which relate abnormal neurogenesis to major depressive disorder. Clinically, descriptive gene and protein expression analysis and genetic and functional studies revised here show that individual alterations of a complex signaling network, which includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; the production of neurotrophins and growth factors; the expression of miRNAs; the production of proinflammatory cytokines; and, even, the abnormal delivery of gastrointestinal signaling peptides, are able to induce major mood alterations. Furthermore, all of these factors modulate neurogenesis in brain regions involved in MDD, and are functionally interconnected in such a fashion that initial alteration in one of them results in abnormalities in the others. We highlight data of potential diagnostic significance and the relevance of this information to develop new therapeutic approaches. Controversial issues, such as whether neurogenesis is the basis of the disease or whether it is a response induced by antidepressant treatments, are also discussed.

  10. Candidemia in major burns patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau Escrig, Ana I; Salavert, Miguel; Vivó, Carmen; Cantón, Emilia; Pérez Del Caz, M Dolores; Pemán, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Major burn patients have characteristics that make them especially susceptible to candidemia, but few studies focused on this have been published. The objectives were to evaluate the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical aspects of candidemia in major burn patients, determining factors associated with a poorer prognosis and mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of candidemia between 1996 and 2012 in major burn patients admitted to the La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. The study included 36 episodes of candidemia in the same number of patients, 55.6% men, mean age 37.33 years and low associated comorbidity. The incidence of candidemia varied between 0.26 and 6.09 episodes/1000 days stay in the different years studied. Candida albicans was the most common species (61.1%) followed by Candida parapsilosis (27.8%). Candidemia by C. krusei, C. glabrata or C. tropicalis were all identified after 2004. Central vascular catheter (CVC) was established as a potential source of candidemia in 36.1%, followed by skin and soft tissues of thermal injury (22.2%) and urinary tract (8.3%). Fluconazole was used in 19 patients (52.7%) and its in vitro resistance rate was 13.9%. The overall mortality was 47.2%, and mortality related to candidemia was 30.6%. Factors associated with increased mortality were those related to severe infection and shock. CVC was the most usual focus of candidemia. Fluconazole was the most common antifungal drug administered. The management of candidemia in major burn patients is still a challenge. PMID:26931414

  11. Risk Management In Major Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Scott William

    1997-01-01

    The integration of risk management in major projects within the construction and oil and gas industries has never been more significant especially as these projects are becoming larger and more complex. The increased requirement for risk to be efficiently managed is also supported by the inflated amount of legislation in this area, mainly due to incidents like the Piper Alpha installation in 1988. Hence risk management is developing into a multifarious process which needs conti...

  12. Constructing majority-rule supertrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMorris FR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supertree methods combine the phylogenetic information from multiple partially-overlapping trees into a larger phylogenetic tree called a supertree. Several supertree construction methods have been proposed to date, but most of these are not designed with any specific properties in mind. Recently, Cotton and Wilkinson proposed extensions of the majority-rule consensus tree method to the supertree setting that inherit many of the appealing properties of the former. Results We study a variant of one of Cotton and Wilkinson's methods, called majority-rule (+ supertrees. After proving that a key underlying problem for constructing majority-rule (+ supertrees is NP-hard, we develop a polynomial-size exact integer linear programming formulation of the problem. We then present a data reduction heuristic that identifies smaller subproblems that can be solved independently. While this technique is not guaranteed to produce optimal solutions, it can achieve substantial problem-size reduction. Finally, we report on a computational study of our approach on various real data sets, including the 121-taxon, 7-tree Seabirds data set of Kennedy and Page. Conclusions The results indicate that our exact method is computationally feasible for moderately large inputs. For larger inputs, our data reduction heuristic makes it feasible to tackle problems that are well beyond the range of the basic integer programming approach. Comparisons between the results obtained by our heuristic and exact solutions indicate that the heuristic produces good answers. Our results also suggest that the majority-rule (+ approach, in both its basic form and with data reduction, yields biologically meaningful phylogenies.

  13. HEMI: Hyperedge Majority Influence Maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gangal, Varun; Narayanam, Ramasuri

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we consider the problem of influence maximization on a hypergraph. We first extend the Independent Cascade (IC) model to hypergraphs, and prove that the traditional influence maximization problem remains submodular. We then present a variant of the influence maximization problem (HEMI) where one seeks to maximize the number of hyperedges, a majority of whose nodes are influenced. We prove that HEMI is non-submodular under the diffusion model proposed.

  14. Major transitions in human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Robert A; Martin, Lawrence; Mirazón Lahr, Marta; Stringer, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Evolutionary problems are often considered in terms of 'origins', and research in human evolution seen as a search for human origins. However, evolution, including human evolution, is a process of transitions from one state to another, and so questions are best put in terms of understanding the nature of those transitions. This paper discusses how the contributions to the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution' throw light on the pattern of change in hominin evolution. Four questions are addressed: (1) Is there a major divide between early (australopithecine) and later (Homo) evolution? (2) Does the pattern of change fit a model of short transformations, or gradual evolution? (3) Why is the role of Africa so prominent? (4) How are different aspects of adaptation-genes, phenotypes and behaviour-integrated across the transitions? The importance of developing technologies and approaches and the enduring role of fieldwork are emphasized.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. PMID:27298461

  15. Infektion mit Anaplasma phagozytophilum beim Hund

    OpenAIRE

    Galke, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    A. phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes. It mostly afflicts neutrophils. Infections with this pathogen have been described in most domestic mammals and men. A. phagocytophilum is the causative agent of canine granulocytic anaplasmosis (CGA). Objectives of this study were 1) the determination of the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum infections in clinically healthy and sick dogs suspicious for CGA, 2) the evaluation wh...

  16. Anaplasma phagocytophilum: deceptively simple or simply deceptive?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Severo, M. S.; Stephens, K. D.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2012), s. 719-731. ISSN 1746-0913 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : obligate intracellular bacterium * rickettsial agents * ticks * vector - borne disease s Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Disease s, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.018, year: 2012

  17. Major turbine generator shaft realignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering-1 turbine generator was found to have significant shaft misalignment. The cause of the misalignment was traced to uneven settling of the supporting foundation. The machine was completely realigned by lowering the high-pressure and the first low-pressure turbine and the accompanying bearings. Settlement of foundations was also discovered at other Pickering units, but the conditions of alignment did not warrant major turbine repositioning at the time. Monitoring of foundation movement and turbine generator alignment is continuing. A computer-aided laser alignment instrument has been developed, and will be used for all future turbine generator alignments at Pickering

  18. Major arcs for Goldbach's problem

    OpenAIRE

    Helfgott, H. A.

    2013-01-01

    The ternary Goldbach conjecture states that every odd number $n\\geq 7$ is the sum of three primes. The estimation of the Fourier series $\\sum_{p\\leq x} e(\\alpha p)$ and related sums has been central to the study of the problem since Hardy and Littlewood (1923). Here we show how to estimate such Fourier series for $\\alpha$ in the so-called major arcs, i.e., for $\\alpha$ close to a rational of small denominator. This is part of the author's proof of the ternary Goldbach conjecture. In contrast ...

  19. Vanpooling: the three major approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, P.M.

    1979-08-01

    The manual provides technical assistance to existing or prospective vanpool sponsors. It is designed to help them promote vanpooling in its three major approaches: employer sponsored, third party sponsored, and driver owned and operated. The first chapter is an overview of vanpooling and a second chapter, on vanpool marketing, is addressed to ridesharing coordinators and others whose responsibilities include the promotion of vanpooling. Some fact sheets on the three approaches provide convenient summaries of the needs and opportunities of each approach and suggest solutions to practical problems likely to be encountered in starting new vanpool programs.

  20. Societal risk and major disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A disaster can be defined as an event, or a series of events, in which a large number of people is adversely affected by a single cause. This definition includes man-made accidents, like that at Chernobyl, as well as the natural disasters that insurance companies are sometimes pleased to describe as Acts of God. In 1986 alone, 12,000 people died and 2.2 million were made homeless by 215 major accidents or disasters. The nature of risk is examined in this paper. (author)

  1. Plasmenylethanolamine synthesis in Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowic, Mattie C; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Moitra, Samrat; Biyani, Neha; Zhang, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Ethanolamine glycerophospholipids are ubiquitous cell membrane components. Trypanosomatid parasites of the genus Leishmania synthesize the majority of their ethanolamine glycerophospholipids as 1-O-alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine or plasmenylethanolamine (PME) through the Kennedy pathway. PME is a subtype of ether phospholipids also known as ethanolamine plasmalogen whose functions are not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of PME synthesis in Leishmania major through the characterization of an ethanolamine phosphotransferase (EPT) mutant. EPT-null parasites are largely devoid of PME and fully viable in regular medium but fail to proliferate in the absence of fetal bovine serum. They exhibit significant abnormalities in the synthesis and localization of GPI-anchored surface molecules. EPT-null mutants also show attenuated virulence in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, in addition to PME synthesis, ethanolamine also contributes to the production of phosphatidylcholine, the most abundant class of lipids in Leishmania. Together, these findings suggest that ethanolamine production is likely required for Leishmania promastigotes to generate bulk phospholipids, to handle stress, and to control the expression of membrane bound virulence factors. PMID:27062077

  2. Wartime major venous vessel injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorovic, Narcis

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study is to declare our experience and to identify the important factors that influence the mortality and morbidity in patients with combat-related penetrating wounds of the abdomen (CR-PWA) with major venous vessel injuries. Twenty-six wounded with combat-related injuries of major abdominal venous vessels, admitted in the University Clinic cardiovascular surgery department during the period from 1 August 1991 through 30 October 1995, were analyzed. Patients with concomitant injured arteries and extra-abdominal injuries (n=150; 85.2%) were excluded from this study. The Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index (PATI) score for each patient was calculated. Fifteen patients (57.69%) sustained with PATI score greater than 25 died. The mean duration of hospitalization was 16 days (range 0-86). The average hospitalization time for those surviving their complications was 17 days with a PATI of 25 or less, and 43 days with a score more than 25. Three clinical assessments of the long-term outcome were performed after a median of about 3, 5 and 10 years, respectively. Surviving patients (42.31%) were symptom free and had normal Duplex scans as well as no other surgical related complications. Higher PATI scores, postoperative complications and reoperations exert an unfavorable effect on patient outcome. PMID:18006557

  3. Major Transitions in Political Order

    CERN Document Server

    DeDeo, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We present three major transitions that occur on the way to the elaborate and diverse societies of the modern era. Our account links the worlds of social animals such as pigtail macaques and monk parakeets to examples from human history, including 18th Century London and the contemporary online phenomenon of Wikipedia. From the first awareness and use of group-level social facts to the emergence of norms and their self-assembly into normative bundles, each transition represents a new relationship between the individual and the group. At the center of this relationship is the use of coarse-grained information gained via lossy compression. The role of top-down causation in the origin of society parallels that conjectured to occur in the origin and evolution of life itself.

  4. [Management of major postpartum hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebout, Sophie; Merbai, Nadia; Faitot, Valentina; Keita, Hawa

    2014-02-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is defined by loss of greater than 500 mL of blood following vaginal delivery or 1,000 mL of blood following cesarean section, in the first 24 hours postpartum. Its incidence is up to 5% and the severe forms represent 1% of births. PPH is the first cause of obstetrical maternal mortality in France and 90% of these deaths are considered as preventable. Its management is multidisciplinary (obstetricians, anesthetists, midwives, biologists and interventional radiologists), based on treatment protocols where time is a major prognosis factor. In case of failure of the initial measures (oxytocin, manual placenta removal, uterus and birth canal examination), the management of severe forms includes active resuscitation (intravenous fluids, blood transfusion, vasoactive drugs), haemostatic interventions (sulprostone, tamponnade and haemostatic suture, surgical procedures and arterial embolization) and the correction of any potential coagulopathy (administration of blood products and haemostatic agents). PMID:24373716

  5. Neuroticism in remitted major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders; Kristoffersen, Marius; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    been consistent. METHOD: We examined neuroticism, extraversion and perceived stress in 88 fully remitted depressed patients with a mean age of 60 years and with a history of hospitalization for major depressive disorder. Patients were divided into those with onset after and those with onset before 50......BACKGROUND: The personality trait of neuroticism is strongly related to depression, but depression is etiologically heterogeneous. Late-onset depression (LOD) may be more closely related to vascular factors, and previous studies of neuroticism in LOD versus early-onset depression (EOD) have not...... age of onset and neuroticism was confirmed in analyses based on age of depression onset as a continuous variable. CONCLUSION: Neuroticism may be an etiological factor in EOD but not or less so in LOD. This finding contributes to the growing evidence for etiological differences between early- and late...

  6. Major translocations in genetic counselling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    József Gábor Joó; Ákos Csaba; Zsanett Szigeti; Judit Nagy Oroszné; János Rigó jr

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To review major chromosome translocation, with special regard to the clinical differences between balanced and unbalanced, as well as de novo and inherited cases.Methods:The authors have included cases of major chromosome translocations detected during a20-year period.Among the28 cases,25 patients carried balanced and3 were affected by unbalanced translocations.Results:In cases of balanced translocation, maternal age ranged between26 and42 years, with a median age value of(30.5±2.67) years, while in unbalanced translocations the values were between24-37 with a median age of(30.5±4.59) years.In three cases(13%) of balanced translocations in the patient’s history previous chromosomal aberrations had been recorded.In nine cases of the same group(39%) previous miscarriages were reported.In cases in which balanced translocation was suspected, karyotyping was done in the16th-23rdgestational weeks.In three cases of unbalanced translocation, karyotyping was performed in weeks18 or19. Among the28 cases examined by us,12 carried reciprocal and16 were affected byRobertsonian translocations.If the involvement of chromosomes in balanced translocations was concerned, chromosome14was found to be overwhelmingly affected.In14 of the25 cases(56%) examined by us, this chromosome was definitely affected by translocation.Frequently occurring translocations in chromosomes1,13 and22 are also worth mentioning.Conclusions:Ultrasonography performed after karyotyping-in the cases of balanced translocations-and the results of fetal echocardiography-if such imaging was done at all-provide important information about the prognosis of the fetus.In case of sonographically normal fetal anatomy the good outcome of pregnancy is probable, while in cases of unbalanced translocations the sonography reconfirms the chances of poor outcome.

  7. Thalassaemia major and the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malcolm Walker

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of haemoglobin synthesis are the commonest monogenetic disorders worldwide. When first described, thalassaemia was universally fatal in childhood, but after the adoption of regular blood transfusion survival until early teenage and adulthood was to be expected. At that stage in the life of these affected individuals organ failure followed, due to accumulated iron, for which the human has no excretory capacity. Principal amongst the tissues affected by iron overload is the heart and even to the present day, heart disease accounts for the overwhelming majority of premature deaths in this population. Managing transfusion derived iron overload was the next hurdle for clinicians and the families of the patients. For nearly four decades the only available treatment was the demanding regime of parenteral chelation therapy, required on a daily basis, to achieve growth, development and survival with limited or no organ damage. Despite the adoption of these treatment strategies the outlook for thalassaemia patients remained poor, with a 30% to 40% mortality occurring between late teenage and 30 years of age, even in well organised health care systems, such as in the UK, where regular transfusion and desferioxamine treatment were readily available. This dreadful early mortality, largely as a consequence of myocardial iron overload, (1,2 is now improving so that in the UK and other developed nations, heart failure in thalassaemic patients has become uncommon and premature death a much rarer tragedy. This editorial reviews, from a personal viewpoint of a cardiologist involved in the care of these patients for the last 20 years, the progress in the management of the cardiovascular complications of thalassaemia major (TM, which has followed better techniques of identifying those thalassaemic individuals at greatest risk, improved chelation strategies making best use of the three chelating agents that are now available and improved co

  8. Control of tick infestations in cattle vaccinated with bacterial membranes containing surface-exposed tick protective antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán, Consuelo; Moreno-Cantú, Orlando; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Galindo, Ruth C; Canales, Mario; Villar, Margarita; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines containing the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus BM86 and BM95 antigens protect cattle against tick infestations. Tick subolesin (SUB), elongation factor 1a (EF1a) and ubiquitin (UBQ) are new candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. Previous studies showed that R. microplus BM95 immunogenic peptides fused to the Anaplasma marginale major surface protein (MSP) 1a N-terminal region (BM95-MSP1a) for presentation on the Escherichia coli membrane were protective against R. microplus infestations in rabbits. In this study, we extended these results by expressing SUB-MSP1a, EF1a-MSP1a and UBQ-MSP1a fusion proteins on the E. coli membrane using this system and demonstrating that bacterial membranes containing the chimeric proteins BM95-MSP1a and SUB-MSP1a were protective (>60% vaccine efficacy) against experimental R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus infestations in cattle. This system provides a novel, simple and cost-effective approach for the production of tick protective antigens by surface display of antigenic protein chimera on the E. coli membrane and demonstrates the possibility of using recombinant bacterial membrane fractions in vaccine preparations to protect cattle against tick infestations. PMID:22085549

  9. Population policy: major party positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, K

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies the major political party positions on population policy (PP) in Australia. Australia has the Governing Coalition, comprised of the Liberal and National Parties, and the Australian Labor Party (ALP), the main opposition party. The ALP adopted a PP at its national conference in 1998. The Government Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (DIMA) does not view a PP as a need. The ALP policy identifies the need to decide on a long term sustainable population size as determined within a PP framework. The visa classification system needs to reflect national priorities. Labor will support a fair refugee and humanitarian program. Skilled labor migration must be linked with labor market needs. Business migration is a means of transferring resources and technology to Australia. The DIMA Minister announced the target intake of 80,000 visa immigrants in 1998- 99, which would produce a peak population of about 23 million in 2050. Settler arrivals from New Zealand would increase population size. A group of scientists and scholars published their recommendations about development of a PP. The Minister of DIMA's defense of the lack of a PP is included in this publication. Labor in several publications indicates support for a larger immigration intake, or an adjustment of the intake within the existing numbers. The Prime Minister, who supports the concept of multiculturalism, argues that people must accept immigration policy. Politics today are more divided over the origin and future of the nation than population size issues. PMID:12294231

  10. Tilecal meets two major milestones

    CERN Multimedia

    Cavalli-Sforza, M.

    Over the last two months the Tile Calorimeter passed not one but two major milestones. In early May, the last of the 64 modules that make up one of the two Extended Barrels arrived at CERN from IFAE-Barcelona, equipped with optical components and tested. And during the Overview Week in Clermont-Ferrand, the last of the 64 Barrel modules, mechanically assembled, arrived from JINR-Dubna. Just a brief reminder: the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is composed of 3 cylinders ("barrels") of steel, scintillating tiles and optical fibers, altogether about 12 m long, with an outer diameter of 8.4 m, and weighing about 2700 tons. The central cavity will contain the Liquid Argon cryostats, and the whole calorimetry system will measure the direction and energy of jets produced at the LHC, as well as the missing transverse energy, which as everyone knows is one of the telltale signals of new and exciting physics. Each of the three cylinders is divided azimuthally into 64 modules - much like the slices of an orange. The modules ar...

  11. Major transitions in information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Sergi

    2016-08-19

    When looking at the history of technology, we can see that all inventions are not of equal importance. Only a few technologies have the potential to start a new branching series (specifically, by increasing diversity), have a lasting impact in human life and ultimately became turning points. Technological transitions correspond to times and places in the past when a large number of novel artefact forms or behaviours appeared together or in rapid succession. Why does that happen? Is technological change continuous and gradual or does it occur in sudden leaps and bounds? The evolution of information technology (IT) allows for a quantitative and theoretical approach to technological transitions. The value of information systems experiences sudden changes (i) when we learn how to use this technology, (ii) when we accumulate a large amount of information, and (iii) when communities of practice create and exchange free information. The coexistence between gradual improvements and discontinuous technological change is a consequence of the asymmetric relationship between complexity and hardware and software. Using a cultural evolution approach, we suggest that sudden changes in the organization of ITs depend on the high costs of maintaining and transmitting reliable information.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID:27431527

  12. GMAT Scores of Undergraduate Economics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Paul A.; Monson, Terry D.

    2008-01-01

    The average score of economics majors on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) exceeds those of nearly all humanities and arts, social sciences, and business undergraduate majors but not those of most science, engineering, and mathematics majors. (Contains 1 table.)

  13. Body Contouring After Major Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Plastic Surgery Statistics ASPS TV News Program History of Plastic Surgery For Medical Professionals ... Major Weight Loss Body Contouring After Major Weight Loss For Men and Women Body contouring following major weight loss improves the ...

  14. Margins in Swedish district heating systems; Marginaler i Fjaerrvaermesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selinder, Patrik; Zinko, Heimo [ZW Energiteknik AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-03-01

    It can be assumed on good reasons that the Swedish district heating nets are designed with relatively large margins concerning the transportable power. This is done historically to be able to transport the necessary power that can be called for on the coldest winter days but which occur rarely and also due to the former (until 2001) applied recommendations for the dimensioning of hot water flows. The aim of this project was to investigate the possibilities of reducing the connecting power to customers, both from a technical and from the customer point of view. The heating system of a building in Sweden is normally dimensioned according to a certain outdoor air temperature (DUT in Swedish). According to the Swedish Building Code, DUT20 is defined for a given location in such a way that if the heating system is designed for this temperature, the room temperature is allowed to decrease by 3 deg C in the average once in 20 years. That means that for economical reasons, a power deficiency is accounted for in the case of strong cold. The value of DUT is depending on the thermal inertia of the building. Buildings with high thermal inertia can have a higher DUT and vice versa. A reduced system size can in principle mean smaller size of pipes and consumer substations and more power available for additional customers to be connected. In principle, that means a more profitable district heating operation. Besides costs, another problem with oversized capacities are possible operational problems due to slow dynamic system responses, for instance at restarting occasions after a pump stop. A smaller valve size will result in a better system dynamic and may result in a more compliant system operation and increased delivery quality. By choosing just right DUT for every building and abandoning safety margins, it is shown in the report that the connecting power can be reduced in especially medium light to heavy buildings with larger time constants. However, this also means that the occasions with power deficiency will occur more often. The lower limit for the reduction of connection power is depending on the level of comfort the customers are prepared to accept. These questions have been discussed with selected customer representatives. The mentioned practice of oversizing of the heating power deliverable to the buildings presents a relatively large margin for reduction of consumable power without decreasing the level of heating comfort too much. In the report this method is recommended under the name 'stingy' (= adequate) dimensioning; it is still according to the recommendation of the Swedish building code based on DUT20 and following the regulations of the Swedish District Heating Association for the domestic hot water dimensioning. The result will be a decrease of about 30% of the connected power in most buildings, and somewhat more in the heaviest buildings. Further reduction of the connecting power will implicate a more strong impact on the heating comfort. We call this 'deficiency dimensioning' and we cannot really recommend it apart from some special customer groups who might accept this heating quality by receiving some kind of economic compensation.

  15. Einfluss der approximalen Kastenelevationstechnik auf die marginale Adaptation von Keramikinlays

    OpenAIRE

    Hehn, Julia

    2012-01-01

    1. Hintergrund und Ziele Auf Grund der schmelzähnlichen Eigenschaften, einer hohen Biokompatibilität und der ästhetisch anspruchsvollen Optik werden heute bevorzugt vollkeramische Werkstoffe als Inlaymaterial verwendet. Wie Langzeitstudien belegen, können auch weit extendierte Kavitäten erfolgreich mit Keramik versorgt werden. Die indirekte Versorgung tiefreichender Defekte bis apikal der Schmelz-Zement-Grenze gestaltet sich jedoch sehr arbeits- und zeitintensiv. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie ...

  16. Should Job Rates Affect College Majors?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In November 2011,the Chinese Ministry of Education demanded that colleges to cut classes and reduce recruitment on majors that had post-graduation employment rates lower than 60 percent.These majors could be fazed out altogether over time.

  17. Predictors of Treatment Utilization in Major Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Alonzo, Dana M.; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M.; Stanley, Barbara; Burke, Ainsley; Mann, J. John; Oquendo, Maria A

    2011-01-01

    Suicide attempters with major depression are at risk for repeat attempts and often do not utilize treatment. Identifying predictors of treatment non-utilization could inform interventions to motivate treatment use and reduce suicide risk in major depression. Two hundred and seventy three participants with a major depressive episode as part of a major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder, were assessed for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline and again 1 year later to ...

  18. Why It Pays to Major in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Thomas; Assane, Djeto; Busker, Jared

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors use a large, recent, and accessible data set to examine the effect of economics major on individual earnings. They find a significant positive earnings gain for economics majors relative to other majors, and this advantage increases with the level of education. Their findings are consistent with Black, Sanders, and…

  19. The bacterial microbiome of Dermacentor andersoni ticks influences pathogen susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Cory A; Reif, Kathryn E; Scoles, Glen A; Mason, Kathleen L; Mousel, Michelle; Noh, Susan M; Brayton, Kelly A

    2016-08-01

    Ticks are of medical importance owing to their ability to transmit pathogens to humans and animals. The Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, is a vector of a number of pathogens, including Anaplasma marginale, which is the most widespread tick-borne pathogen of livestock. Although ticks host pathogenic bacteria, they also harbor bacterial endosymbionts that have a role in tick physiology, survival, as well as pathogen acquisition and transmission. The goal of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiome and examine the impact of microbiome disruption on pathogen susceptibility. The bacterial microbiome of two populations of D. andersoni with historically different susceptibilities to A. marginale was characterized. In this study, the microbiome was disrupted and then ticks were exposed to A. marginale or Francisella novicida to determine whether the microbiome correlated with pathogen susceptibility. Our study showed that an increase in proportion and quantity of Rickettsia bellii in the microbiome was negatively correlated to A. marginale levels in ticks. Furthermore, a decrease in Francisella endosymbionts was associated with lower F. novicida infection levels, demonstrating a positive pathogen-endosymbiont relationship. We demonstrate that endosymbionts and pathogens have varying interactions, and suggest that microbiome manipulation may provide a possible method for biocontrol by decreasing pathogen susceptibility of ticks. PMID:26882265

  20. 'Nothing is permanent but change'- antigenic variation in persistent bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Guy H; Bankhead, Troy; Lukehart, Sheila A

    2009-12-01

    Pathogens persist in immunocompetent mammalian hosts using various strategies, including evasion of immune effectors by antigenic variation. Among highly antigenically variant bacteria, gene conversion is used to generate novel expressed variants from otherwise silent donor sequences. Recombination using oligonucleotide segments from multiple donors is a combinatorial mechanism that tremendously expands the variant repertoire, allowing thousands of variants to be generated from a relatively small donor pool. Three bacterial pathogens, each encoded by a small genome (Treponema pallidum TprK and Anaplasma marginale Msp2 expression sites and donors are chromosomally encoded. Both T. pallidum and A. marginale generate antigenic variants in vivo in individual hosts and studies at the population level reveal marked strain diversity in the variant repertoire that may underlie pathogen strain structure and the capacity for re-infection and heterologous strain superinfection. Here, we review gene conversion in bacterial antigenic variation and discuss the short- and long-term selective pressures that shape the variant repertoire. PMID:19709057

  1. Aplicación de modelos estructurales marginales para estimar los efectos de la terapia antirretroviral en 5 cohortes de seroconvertores al virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana Marginal structural models application to estimate the effects of antiretroviral therapy in 5 cohorts of HIV seroconverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Pérez-Hoyos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Los métodos convencionales tienen limitaciones para ajustar por factores de confusión dependientes del tiempo para evaluar la efectividad poblacional de tratamientos en estudios observacionales. En este trabajo se muestra un nuevo tipo de metodología, los modelos estructurales marginales (MEM, y se estima la efectividad de la terapia antirretroviral de gran actividad (TARGA sobre la incidencia de sida o muerte. Sujetos y métodos: Se identificaron los sujetos sin TARGA seguidos a partir de 1997 en las cohortes de seroconvertores al virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH del proyecto GEMES (Grupo de Estudio Multicéntrico Español de Seroconvertores. Para estimar el efecto sobre la incidencia de sida o muerte, se obtuvieron los parámetros de un MEM mediante una regresión logística ponderada por probabilidad inversa. La estimación de los pesos se basó en el recuento de CD4, el tiempo desde la seroconversión, el sexo, la edad, la categoría de trasmisión y el tratamiento previo. Resultados: Los 917 sujetos elegibles se siguieron durante una media de 3,4 años, durante los cuales se observaron 139 desenlaces de interés. El 42,1% de los participantes recibió TARGA durante el estudio. La tasa relativa fue de 1,01 (intervalo de confianza &(IC& del 95%, 0,68-1,49 mediante un modelo de Cox convencional sin covariables, y de 0,90 (IC del 95%, 0,61-1,32 mediante un modelo de Cox convencional con covariables cambiantes en el tiempo. La tasa relativa causal estimada por un MEM fue de 0,74 (IC del 95%, 0,49-1,12. Conclusiones: El efecto beneficioso del TARGA encontrado por los MEM está bien establecido, pero los modelos convencionales no pudieron detectarlo. El uso de un MEM permitió ajustar apropiadamente por la variable CD4, que es a la vez una variable de confusión dependiente del tiempo y está afectada por el uso previo de tratamiento.Objectives: Standard methods to evaluate population effectiveness of treatments in observational

  2. Gender Equality in Muslim-Majority Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gouda, Moamen; Potrafke, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination has been documented against women in Muslim-majority countries. Constitutions differ among Muslim-majority countries. By using women’s rights indicators and exploiting cross-country variation, we find that discrimination against women is more pronounced in countries where Islam is the source of legislation. Constitutions changed in only four Muslim-majority countries since 1980. We discuss anecdotal evidence to what extent women’s rights changed as a consequence of new constitu...

  3. Majority influence in children and other animals

    OpenAIRE

    Haun, D; van Leeuwen, E.; Edelson, M.

    2013-01-01

    We here review existing evidence for majority influences in children under the age of ten years and comparable studies with animals ranging from fish to apes. Throughout the review, we structure the discussion surrounding majority influences by differentiating the behaviour of individuals in the presence of a majority and the underlying mechanisms and motivations. Most of the relevant research to date in both developmental psychology and comparative psychology has focused on the behavioural o...

  4. Characterizing the epistemological development of physics majors

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Gire; Barbara Jones; Edward Price

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory physics courses are likely to have views about physics that differ from those of experts. However, students who continue to study physics eventually become experts themselves. Presumably these students either possess or develop more expertlike views. To investigate this process, the views of introductory physics students majoring in physics are compared with the views of introductory physics students majoring in engineering. In addition, the views of physics majors ar...

  5. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1991 is the fifteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1991, as well as reviews important trends. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report

  6. Major Programs | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations, research networks, investigator-initiated grants, postdoctoral training, and specialized resources across the United States. |

  7. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  8. Control de Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) mediante el uso del hongo entomopatógeno Metarhizium anisopliae (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). Revisión

    OpenAIRE

    Melina Maribel Ojeda-Chi; Roger Ivan Rodríguez-Vivas; Edelmira Galindo-Velasco; Roberto Lezama-Gutiérrez; Carlos Cruz-Vázquez

    2011-01-01

    Las infestaciones de la garrapata del ganado, Rhipicephalus microplus, producen el mayor problema global de ectoparásitos en ganado de regiones tropicales y subtropicales, provocan importantes pérdidas económicas en la producción de carne, leche y pieles, además incrementan los gastos derivados de los programas de control, y son capaces de transmitir Babesia bovis, B. bigemina y Anaplasma marginale. El control de R. microplus se basa principalmente en el uso de ixodicidas, sin embargo, su uso...

  9. Prevalence of parasitic infections in cattle of Ludhiana district, Punjab

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, N. K.; Singh, Harkirat; Jyoti; Haque, M.; Rath, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 862 cattle were sampled for both haematological (703) and coprological (159) investigations at the Large Animal Clinics, GADVASU, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Examination of Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears exhibited that 22.9 % (161/703) of cattle were infected with haematozoa comprising Theileria annulata (14.65 %), Trypanosoma evansi (0.28 %), Babesia bigemina (1.56 %) and Anaplasma marginale (8.53 %) while mixed infection appeared in 2.13 % (15/703) animals. The prevalence of...

  10. HEMOPARASITOSIS EN GANADERÍA DOBLE PROPÓSITO VENEZOLANA, DIAGNÓSTICO Y CONTROL: UNA REVISIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Tamasaukas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo de revisión de tesis doctoral incluye resultados de investigaciones realizadas en el periodo 1971 a 2009 sobre cuatro hemoparasitosis causados por protozoarios y rickettsiales en Venezuela y otros países, con énfasis en la infección mixta en rebaños bovinos, y su diagnóstico y control. En Venezuela, las afecciones causadas por agentes hemotrópicos parasitarios están distribuidas en todos los estados del país con vocación ganadera, en especial, en rebaños bovinos y bufalinos. Entre aquellos encontramos a especies del género Anaplasma (Anaplasma marginale, Babesia (Babesia bigemina y B. bovis, y Trypanosoma (Trypanosoma vivax, con una frecuencia endémica y con variaciones estacionales.

  11. Optimal Encodings for Range Majority Queries

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Gonzalo; Thankachan, Sharma V.

    2014-01-01

    We study the problem of designing a data structure that reports the positions of the distinct $\\tau$-majorities within any range of an array $A[1,n]$, without storing $A$. A $\\tau$-majority in a range $A[i,j]$, for $0

  12. Major land uses in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of major land uses in the United States. The source of the coverage is the map of major land uses in the National Atlas, pages 158-159,...

  13. Writing Apprehension in Beginning Accounting Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Kay A.; Golen, Steven P.; Lynch, David H.

    1999-01-01

    Finds significant differences in level of writing apprehension among students in Freshman Composition based on grades in Freshman Composition but not based on a student's age or gender. Finds significantly greater writing apprehension among accounting majors than among non-accounting majors. (SR)

  14. DEXAMETHASONE SUPPRESSION TEST FOR MAJOR DEPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam, R.; Anand, Mohini; Lal, Narottam; Trivedi, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    SUMMARY Overnight post dexamethasone plasma Cortisol levels were estimated in thirty patients of major depression and 30 controls. The cut-off point after which post dexamethasone plasma Cortisol level could be considered abnormal, in patients of major depression, has been worked out at 15 μg/dl in the present study. The results are discussed.

  15. Work Values and College Major Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Michela; Lauriola, Marco; Saggino, Aristide

    2013-01-01

    Our study sought to clarify the nature of the known individual differences in work values associated with academic college major choice, specifically the question whether these precede or follow the choice of an academic major. To rule out environmental influences during academic study, group differences in five value orientations were evaluated…

  16. Major and trace elements in human tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major elements in tears were determined by ion chromatography. The concentrations of major elements in tears (Cl, Na, K) are in the range from 600 to 4000 ppm. Minor elements in tears (Ca and Mg) were analyzed using ICP-MS and their concentration range is 10 to 80 ppm. All trace elements in tears have concentrations below the ppm range. Two techniques were applied for the determination of trace elements in tears (GFAAS and ICP-MS). The time-dependence of the concentrations of major and minor elements in tears was studied. The concentrations of major elements in tears hardly change with passage of time. However, the concentrations of minor elements (Ca, Mg, Rb) vary with time but in inconsistent manner. Some correlations are found between the concentrations of major elements (Cl and Na, Cl and Na+K) No correlations were observed between K and either Cl or Na. (author)

  17. Majority-Minority Relations in the Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Oleh Protsyk

    2008-01-01

    'Majority-minority relations in Ukraine, as in any other country, are a complex phenomenon. What differentiates the Ukrainian case from many old polities and from some recently established ones is that the identities of both majority and minority groups probably have been settled to a much lesser degree than is usually the case in Europe. The process of defining what it means to be a majority or a minority group in Ukraine goes along with all the other identity-related processes that a newly ...

  18. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to examine year-to-year developments in the operations of 26 major US energy companies on a corporate level and also by major line of energy business and by major functions within each line of business. The period covered is 1977 to 1979. Comparisons of income and investment flow are featured and related to functionally allocated net investment in place. The presentation seeks to identify similarities and dissimilarities in results across lines-of-business activity or by firm size

  19. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  20. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations

  1. Inequalities theory of majorization and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Olkin, Ingram

    1980-01-01

    Although they play a fundamental role in nearly all branches of mathematics, inequalities are usually obtained by ad hoc methods rather than as consequences of some underlying ""theory of inequalities."" For certain kinds of inequalities, the notion of majorization leads to such a theory that is sometimes extremely useful and powerful for deriving inequalities. Moreover, the derivation of an inequality by methods of majorization is often very helpful both for providing a deeper understanding and for suggesting natural generalizations.Anyone wishing to employ majorization as a tool in applicati

  2. Characterization of majorization monotone quantum dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Haidong

    2015-01-01

    In this article I study the dynamics of open quantum system in Markovian environment. I give necessary and sufficient conditions for such dynamics to be majorization monotone, which are those dynamics always mixing the states.

  3. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs.

  4. Characterizing the epistemological development of physics majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Gire

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Students in introductory physics courses are likely to have views about physics that differ from those of experts. However, students who continue to study physics eventually become experts themselves. Presumably these students either possess or develop more expertlike views. To investigate this process, the views of introductory physics students majoring in physics are compared with the views of introductory physics students majoring in engineering. In addition, the views of physics majors are assessed at various stages of degree progress. The Colorado learning attitudes about science survey is used to evaluate students’ views about physics, and students’ overall survey scores and responses to individual survey items are analyzed. Beginning physics majors are significantly more expertlike than nonmajors in introductory physics courses, and this high level of sophistication is consistent for most of undergraduate study.

  5. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Espanol Image Library Campaign Materials The Healthy Heart Handbook for Women Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease ... on how to choose and cook low-fat foods, get more physical activity, and achieve a healthy ...

  6. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs

  7. Liver disease in transfusion dependent thalassaemia major

    OpenAIRE

    C. Li; Chik, K; Lam, C.; To, K; Yu, S.; Lee, V.; Shing, M.; Cheung, A; Yuen, P

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To study the prevalence and severity of liver diseases of transfusion dependent thalassaemia major patients, and correlate the histological and biochemical changes of iron overload in liver with the peripheral blood markers.

  8. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  9. Characterizing the epistemological development of physics majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gire, Elizabeth; Jones, Barbara; Price, Edward

    2009-06-01

    Students in introductory physics courses are likely to have views about physics that differ from those of experts. However, students who continue to study physics eventually become experts themselves. Presumably these students either possess or develop more expertlike views. To investigate this process, the views of introductory physics students majoring in physics are compared with the views of introductory physics students majoring in engineering. In addition, the views of physics majors are assessed at various stages of degree progress. The Colorado learning attitudes about science survey is used to evaluate students’ views about physics, and students’ overall survey scores and responses to individual survey items are analyzed. Beginning physics majors are significantly more expertlike than nonmajors in introductory physics courses, and this high level of sophistication is consistent for most of undergraduate study.

  10. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  11. Data Sets from Major NCI Initiaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Data Catalog includes links to data collections produced by major NCI initiatives and other widely used data sets, including animal models, human tumor cell lines, epidemiology data sets, genomics data sets from TCGA, TARGET, COSMIC, GSK, NCI60.

  12. Hydrography - MO 2005 Major Rivers (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The MAJOR_RIVERS data set is a subset of the NHDPlus based on the associated THINNERCOD data that is delivered separately from the flowline geometry. The NHDPlus...

  13. Disturbances in equilibrium function after major earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Motoyasu; Endo, Nobutaka; Osada, Yoshihisa; Kim, Yoshiharu; Kuriyama, Kenichi

    2012-10-01

    Major earthquakes were followed by a large number of aftershocks and significant outbreaks of dizziness occurred over a large area. However it is unclear why major earthquake causes dizziness. We conducted an intergroup trial on equilibrium dysfunction and psychological states associated with equilibrium dysfunction in individuals exposed to repetitive aftershocks versus those who were rarely exposed. Greater equilibrium dysfunction was observed in the aftershock-exposed group under conditions without visual compensation. Equilibrium dysfunction in the aftershock-exposed group appears to have arisen from disturbance of the inner ear, as well as individual vulnerability to state anxiety enhanced by repetitive exposure to aftershocks. We indicate potential effects of autonomic stress on equilibrium function after major earthquake. Our findings may contribute to risk management of psychological and physical health after major earthquakes with aftershocks, and allow development of a new empirical approach to disaster care after such events.

  14. Rupture of pectoralis major muscle: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guity MR

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Rupture of pectoralis major muscle is a very rare and often athletic injury. These days in our country this injury occurs more frequently. This could be due to increase in professional participation of amateur people in different types of sport, like body building and weight-lifting (especially bench-pressing without adequate preparation, training and taking necessary precautions. In this article, we have tried to review several aspects of complex anatomy of pectoralis major muscle, epidemiology, mechanism, clinical presentations, imaging modalities, surgical indications and techniques of its rupture. Complex and especial anatomy of pectoralis major muscle, in its humeral insertion particularly, have a major role of its vulnerability to sudden and eccentric contraction as the main mechanism of rupture. Also, restoration of this complex anatomy seems to be important during surgical repair to have normal function of the muscle again.

  15. Goal directed fluid therapy reduces major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Y. Kassim

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: A restrictive strategy of fluid maintenance during optimization of oxygen delivery with early treatment directed to maintain oxygen extraction ratio estimate (O2ERe at <27% reduces major complications and hospital stay of surgical patients undergo abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  16. Major mineral deposits of the world

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Regional locations and general geologic setting of known deposits of major nonfuel mineral commodities. Originally compiled in five parts by diverse authors,...

  17. CNPC's Ten Major Technological Events in 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Technological Development Department of CNPC

    2005-01-01

    @@ Editor's note: To make a timely introduction of the latest technologies developed by CNPC, Technological Development Department of CNPC entrusted Petroleum Economic & Technological Research Center of CNPC to appraise the oil company 's major technological developments. Based on three rounds of voting by nearly 100 oil experts, ten major technological events in 2004 are finally selected from more than 1 00 technological projects of CNPC according to the measurement standards of innovation, technological maturity, function and scientific value.

  18. Archival Literacy Competencies for Undergraduate History Majors

    OpenAIRE

    Weiner, Sharon A.; Morris, Sammie L.; Mykytiuk, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate history majors need to know how to conduct archival research. This paper describes the second phase of a project to identify “archival literacy” competencies. Faculty, archivists, and librarians from baccalaureate, masters, and doctoral/research institutions commented on a draft list. This resulted in competencies in six major categories: accurately conceive of primary sources; locate primary sources; use a research question, evidence, and argumentation to advance a thesis; obta...

  19. Strategies to improve English major graduates’ employability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou; Qi

    2012-01-01

    Universities’strategies to improve English major graduates’s employability are as follows:update teaching concept,optimize the arrangement of majors, improve teaching methods and increase educational efficiency, strengthen career guidance, ect. Students should improve their employability through making career planning,renewing employment idea and change employment psychology,enhance their own core competitive ness as well as grasp job-hunting skills,ect.

  20. Playwriting in Three Major Nigerian Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Ilo, Isaiah

    2009-01-01

    In his article, "Playwriting in Three Major Nigerian Languages" Isaiah Ilo analyzes the frequency of playwriting in Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba, the three major Nigerian languages, which together hold about a half of the country's estimated population of 140 million. Ilo uses a case study to contrast the importance of the languages, their evolution as literary languages, and their official status with a role in education. Ilo locates the significance of these factors next to an inventory of the p...

  1. Psychology Degree Beliefs and Stereotypes: Differences in the Perceptions of Majors and Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Hurst, Jennifer R.; Johnson, Quinn R.

    2016-01-01

    Very little research examines the beliefs and stereotypes students have about the discipline and major of psychology. Previous research has found that psychology majors report hearing a variety of such beliefs and stereotypes more often from their fellow students than from their family members. In the current study, psychology majors/minors and…

  2. Delayed mood transitions in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korf, Jakob

    2014-05-01

    The hypothesis defended here is that the process of mood-normalizing transitions fails in a significant proportion of patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Such a failure is largely unrelated to the psychological content. Evidence for the hypothesis is provided by the highly variable and unpredictable time-courses of the depressive episodes. The main supporting observations are: (1) mood transitions within minutes or days have been reported during deep brain stimulation, naps after sleep deprivation and bipolar mood disorders; (2) sleep deprivation, electroconvulsive treatment and experimental drugs (e.g., ketamine) may facilitate mood transitions in major depressive disorder within hours or a few days; (3) epidemiological and clinical studies show that the time-to-recovery from major depressive disorder can be described with decay models implying very short depressive episodes; (4) lack of relationship between the length of depression and recovery episodes in recurrent depression; (5) mood fluctuations predict later therapeutic success in major depressive disorder. We discuss some recent models aimed to describe random mood transitions. The observations together suggest that the mood transitions have a wide variety of apparently unrelated causes. We suggest that the mechanism of mood transition is compromised in major depressive disorder, which has to be recognized in diagnostic systems. PMID:24613736

  3. Bipolar disorder: Evidence for a major locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, M.A.; Flodman, P.L. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Sadovnick, A.D.; Ameli, H. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: (1) dominant, (2) recessive, (3) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, (4) environmental, and (5) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis {open_quotes}affected{close_quotes} for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. and Blangero and Elston. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-13

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations.

  5. Major economies Forum on energy and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Major Economies Forum is intended to facilitate an open dialogue among major developed and developing economies, help generate the political leadership necessary to achieve a successful outcome at the United Nations climatic change conference in Copenhagen, and advance the exploration of concrete initiatives and joint ventures that increase the supply of clean energy while cutting greenhouse gas emissions. The Forum's second preparatory meeting was held in Paris in May 2009, mainly focused on greenhouse gas emissions reduction actions and objectives, the diffusion of clean technologies, the financing of activities for climate protection and adaptation to climatic change impacts

  6. Multidimensional Scaling Using Majorization: SMACOF in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan de Leeuw

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the methodology of multidimensional scaling problems (MDS solved by means of the majorization algorithm. The objective function to be minimized is known as stress and functions which majorize stress are elaborated. This strategy to solve MDS problems is called SMACOF and it is implemented in an R package of the same name which is presented in this article. We extend the basic SMACOF theory in terms of configuration constraints, three-way data, unfolding models, and projection of the resulting configurations onto spheres and other quadratic surfaces. Various examples are presented to show the possibilities of the SMACOF approach offered by the corresponding package.

  7. Abstracts of Major Papers in This Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Linguistic Studies by Hu Zhuanglin, by YANG Xinzhang, p. 12 Based on the papers collected from CNKI, this paper attempts to examine the linguistic inquiries Prof. Zhuanglin Hu have made and describe his major fields of research and generalize his contributions to the development of linguistics in China. Apart from rhetoric, language planning, language testing, contrastive studies in English and Chinese, and lexicography, CNKI shows that Hu's major fields of research can be categorized into six types, including systemic functional linguistics, general linguistics, semiotics, discourse analysis, stylistics, language education, hypertext,

  8. [Major Burn Trauma Management and Nursing Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shu-Fen

    2015-08-01

    Major burn injury is one of the most serious and often life-threatening forms of trauma. Burn patients not only suffer from the physical, psychological, social and spiritual impacts of their injury but also experience considerable changes in health-related quality of life. This paper presents a review of the literature on the implications of previous research and clinical care guidelines related to major burn injuries in order to help clinical practice nurses use evidence-based care guidelines to respond to initial injury assessments, better manage the complex systemic response to these injuries, and provide specialist wound care, emotional support, and rehabilitation services. PMID:26242439

  9. Migraine symptomatology and major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, Lannie; Penninx, Brenda; Nyholt, Dale R.; Distel, Marijn A.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Smit, Johannes H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and objective: Migraine and major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently co-occur, but it is unclear whether depression is associated with a specific subtype of migraine. The objective of this study was to investigate whether migraine is qualitatively different in MDD patients (N = 1816)

  10. Delayed mood transitions in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis defended here is that the process of mood-normalizing transitions fails in a significant proportion of patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Such a failure is largely unrelated to the psychological content. Evidence for the hypothesis is provided by the highly variable an

  11. Majorization in Euclidean Geometry and Beyond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 466, 1 February (2015), s. 233-240. ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Majorization * Doubly stochastic matrix * Euclidean simplex * Star * Regular simplex * Volume of a simplex Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2014

  12. Core Requirements for the Economics Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Marie; Perry, John J.; Johnson, Bruce K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors are the first to describe the core economics curriculum requirements for economics majors at all American colleges and universities, as opposed to a sample of institutions. Not surprisingly, principles of economics is nearly universally required and implemented as a two-semester course in 85 percent of economics major…

  13. Politeness Theory and Shakespeare's Four Major Tragedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roger; Gilman, Albert

    1989-01-01

    Shakespeare's use of Early Modern English in four major tragedies was analyzed to test a theory that power, distance, and the ranked extremity of a face-threatening act are the universal determinants of politeness levels in dyadic discourse. While affect strongly influenced politeness, interactive closeness had little or no effect on politeness.…

  14. Majority logic - threshold logic - possible uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report circuits for majority logic and threshold logic are briefly presented. Some examples are given where it has been possible to check that the amount of equipment required is much less than in the case where conventional logic circuits are used. (authors)

  15. Radiation chemistry of major food components

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter summarizes radiolysis of lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins. The major focuses of the chapter are on recent developments in radiation chemistry and the use of irradiation to reduce undesirable chemicals in foods. Specifically, formation of volatile sulfur compounds from...

  16. Combining two major ATLAS inner detector components

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The semiconductor tracker is inserted into the transition radiation tracker for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. These make up two of the three major components of the inner detector. They will work together to measure the trajectories produced in the proton-proton collisions at the centre of the detector when the LHC is switched on in 2008.

  17. FOOD SERVICES: A MAJOR MINNESOTA ECONOMIC COMPONENT

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Uel; Olson, Robert P.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides basic data about Minnesota's food service industry. It is based upon a comprehensive study of the industry and provides the first overall analysis available. As such it affords major new insights into the scope, complexity and contribution of this industry to Minnesota's society and economy.

  18. 75 FR 39492 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... published on June 3, 2010 (75 FR 31383), noting that additional meetings would be announced in subsequent... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 611 RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects...

  19. 75 FR 33757 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... June 3, 2010 (75 FR 31383), noting that additional meetings would be announced in subsequent Federal... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 611 RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects...

  20. Multiple nerve palsies in beta thalassaemia major.

    OpenAIRE

    Lamabadusuriya, S. P.

    1989-01-01

    A patient with beta thalassaemia major is described who developed a lower motor neurone facial nerve palsy on the left side, together with a phrenic nerve palsy on the same side, during the course of the illness. This complication has not been reported before in haemoglobinopathies.

  1. Eliminating Major Tornadoes in Tornado Alley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.

    2015-03-01

    In my recent paper, I propose that major tornadoes in Tornado Alley can be eliminated by building east-west ranged walls, 300 meter high and 50 meter wide. The work has received much attention, but some meteorologists are against the idea, claiming that the major tornadoes in Tornado Alley are not related to the collisions between northbound warm air flow and southbound cold air flow because supercells are not at the collision front. In this talk, we will show that wind tunnel experiments and airplane wing tip vortices clearly demonstrate that vortices produced by air mass collisions are usually not at the collision front because of the extremely volatile condition over there; they are either near the ends or at side of the collision fronts. When the warm and moist wind collides with the cold wind violently in Tornado Alley, similarly, the supercell storms cannot be right at the collision fronts, but are near the ends or at sides of the collision fronts. While only a small portion of vortices in the warm air side may have a chance to develop into tornadoes, the major tornadoes in Tornado Alley indeed start from the air mass clashes. If we can weaken such violent air mass collisions, we will eliminate the major tornadoes in Tornado Alley. The work is supported in part by Naval Research Lab.

  2. The HI Mass Function in Ursa Major

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, M. A. W.; Trentham, N.; Tully, B.; Zwaan, M.A.; Hibbard, J.E.; Rupen, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    A deep blind HI survey of the nearby spiral-rich Ursa Major Cluster has been performed with the VLA in parallel with a wide-field R-band imaging campaign of most VLA fields with the CFHT. The goal is to measure the slope of the HI mass function (HIMF) down to HI masses of 107 Msolar as well as the s

  3. Predicting Undergraduate Music Education Majors' Collegiate Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    In order for teachers to guide students in their preparation to be music majors, it would be useful to know those musical components that best predict overall collegiate success. The purpose of this study was to measure the relationship of predictor variables (Lessons, Music History, Music Theory, and Piano) to collegiate grade point average (GPA)…

  4. Quality planning for major plant design modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the approach and activities undertaken by Public Service Electric and Gas Company's (PSE and G's) nuclear quality assurance (QA) department to support major plant design modifications conducted during refueling outages at Salem Generating Station. It includes the planning and implementation of quality plans developed to provide both QA and quality control (QC) coverage of modification performed by contracted service organizations

  5. European Regulation on Major Shareholdings and Takeovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Clausen, Nis Jul

    2002-01-01

    Even though the rules on disclosure of major shareholdings in listed companies has been partly harmonised in the EU large difference remains. This is documented in the article and it is further debated whether these difference are acceptable, especially in light of the ongoing efforts to harmonise...

  6. Major Martian Volcanoes from MOLA - Arsia Mons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Two views of Arsia Mons, the southern most of the Tharsis montes, shown as topography draped over a Viking image mosaic. MOLA topography clearly shows the caldera structure and the flank massive breakout that produced a major side lobe. The vertical exaggeration is 10:1.

  7. Major Contaminants in Industrial and Domestic Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Vysokomornaya Olga V.; Kurilenko E. Yu.; Shcherbinina Anastasia A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on the type and concentration of the major contaminants in industrial and domestic wastewater. The present study was conducted to analyze and collect data on hazardous substances in wastewater from petrochemical plants, pulp and paper mills, electroplating industries, power plants, and municipal sources (households and small industries).

  8. THE MAJOR TENDENCIES IN UKRAINES LABOUR MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Ostapa, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    The article highlights the labour force and market in Ukraine in 2003-2013. The author gives a comprehensive analysis of the current tendencies in Ukraines labour market and develops practical recommendations as to overcoming major disproportions and raising the demand for labour force.

  9. Reduced collagen accumulation after major surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L N; Kallehave, F; Karlsmark, T;

    1996-01-01

    .01)). This decline was significantly higher in the six patients who had a postoperative infection (median 3.02 (range -0.06 to 6.14) versus 0.36 (range -1.56 to 12.60) micrograms/cm, P = 0.02). This study shows that major surgery is associated with impairment of subcutaneous collagen accumulation in a test...

  10. Are great tits (Parus major) optimal foragers?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berec, Michal; Křivan, Vlastimil; Berec, Luděk

    Brno : Ústav biologie obratlovců AV ČR, 2002. s. 15-21. [Zoologické dny. 14.02.2002-15.02.2002, Brno] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : predator * Parus major Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  11. Teaching Graduate Non-English Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT; T.; TUOHEY

    2010-01-01

    Foreigners teaching English in China routinely find themselves in odd situa-tions. One of the oddest, at least for the newcomer, is being thrust into a room packed ceiling-to-floor with every major under the sun, except English, and being expected to make said group conversant in the missing language. Even at a glance, this setup is screwy for

  12. Teaching Graduate Non-English Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT T.TUOHEY

    2010-01-01

    @@ Foreigners teaching English in China routinely find themselves in odd situations. One of the oddest, at least for the newcomer, is" being thrust into a room packed ceiling-to-floor with every major under the sun, except English, and being expected to make said group conversant in the missing language.

  13. Sex segregation in undergraduate engineering majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzler, Elizabeth

    Gender inequality in engineering persists in spite of women reaching parity in college enrollments and degrees granted. To date, no analyses of educational sex segregation have comprehensively examined segregation within one discipline. To move beyond traditional methods of studying the long-standing stratification by field of study in higher education, I explore gender stratification within one field: engineering. This dissertation investigates why some engineering disciplines have a greater representation of women than other engineering disciplines. I assess the individual and institutional factors and conditions associated with women's representation in certain engineering departments and compare the mechanisms affecting women's and men's choice of majors. I use national data from the Engineering Workforce Commission, survey data from 21 schools in the Project to Assess Climate in Engineering study, and Carnegie Foundation classification information to study sex segregation in engineering majors from multiple perspectives: the individual, major, institution, and country. I utilize correlations, t-tests, cross-tabulations, log-linear modeling, multilevel logistic regression and weighted least squares regression to test the relative utility of alternative explanations for women's disproportionate representation across engineering majors. As a whole, the analyses illustrate the importance of context and environment for women's representation in engineering majors. Hypotheses regarding hostile climate and discrimination find wide support across different analyses, suggesting that women's under-representation in certain engineering majors is not a question of choice or ability. However, individual level factors such as having engineering coursework prior to college show an especially strong association with student choice of major. Overall, the analyses indicate that institutions matter, albeit less for women, and women's under-representation in engineering is not

  14. The SNARE protein family of Leishmania major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mottram Jeremy C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania major is a protozoan parasite with a highly polarised cell shape that depends upon endocytosis and exocytosis from a single area of the plasma membrane, the flagellar pocket. SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor adaptor proteins receptors are key components of the intracellular vesicle-mediated transports that take place in all eukaryotic cells. They are membrane-bound proteins that facilitate the docking and fusion of vesicles with organelles. The recent availability of the genome sequence of L. major has allowed us to assess the complement of SNAREs in the parasite and to investigate their location in comparison with metazoans. Results Bioinformatic searches of the L. major genome revealed a total of 27 SNARE domain-containing proteins that could be classified in structural groups by phylogenetic analysis. 25 of these possessed the expected features of functional SNAREs, whereas the other two could represent kinetoplastid-specific proteins that might act as regulators of the SNARE complexes. Other differences of Leishmania SNAREs were the absence of double SNARE domain-containing and of the brevin classes of these proteins. Members of the Qa group of Leishmania SNAREs showed differential expressions profiles in the two main parasite forms whereas their GFP-tagging and in vivo expression revealed localisations in the Golgi, late endosome/lysosome and near the flagellar pocket. Conclusion The early-branching eukaryote L. major apparently possess a SNARE repertoire that equals in number the one of metazoans such as Drosophila, showing that the machinery for vesicle fusion is well conserved throughout the eukaryotes. However, the analysis revealed the absence of certain types of SNAREs found in metazoans and yeast, while suggesting the presence of original SNAREs as well as others with unusual localisation. This study also presented the intracellular localisation of the L. major SNAREs from the Qa group

  15. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in college music majors and nonmusic majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Warner Henning

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence and absence of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs as well as DPOAE amplitudes were compared between college music majors and a control group of nonmusic majors. Participants included 28 music majors and 35 nonmusic majors enrolled at a university with ages ranging from 18-25 years. DPOAEs and hearing thresholds were measured bilaterally on all the participants. DPOAE amplitudes were analyzed at the following f2 frequencies: 1,187 Hz, 1,500 Hz, 1,906 Hz, 2,531 Hz, 3,031 Hz, 3812 Hz, 4,812 Hz, and 6,031 Hz. Significantly more music majors (7/28 than nonmusic majors (0/35 exhibited absent DPOAEs for at least one frequency in at least one ear. Both groups of students reported similar histories of recreational and occupational noise exposures that were unrelated to studying music, and none of the students reported high levels of noise exposure within the previous 48 h. There were no differences in audiometric thresholds between the groups at any frequency. At DPOAE f2 frequencies from 3,031 Hz to 6,031 Hz, nonsignificantly lower amplitudes of 2-4 dB were seen in the right ears of music majors versus nonmajors, and in the right ears of music majors playing brass instruments compared to music majors playing nonbrass instruments. Given the greater prevalence of absent DPOAEs in university music majors compared to nonmusic majors, it appears that early stages of cochlear damage may be occurring in this population. Additional research, preferably longitudinal and across multiple colleges/universities, would be beneficial to more definitively determine when the music students begin to show signs of cochlear damage, and to identify whether any particular subgroups of music majors are at a greater risk of cochlear damage.

  16. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in college music majors and nonmusic majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Rebecca L Warner; Bobholz, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The presence and absence of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) as well as DPOAE amplitudes were compared between college music majors and a control group of nonmusic majors. Participants included 28 music majors and 35 nonmusic majors enrolled at a university with ages ranging from 18-25 years. DPOAEs and hearing thresholds were measured bilaterally on all the participants. DPOAE amplitudes were analyzed at the following f2 frequencies: 1,187 Hz, 1,500 Hz, 1,906 Hz, 2,531 Hz, 3,031 Hz, 3812 Hz, 4,812 Hz, and 6,031 Hz. Significantly more music majors (7/28) than nonmusic majors (0/35) exhibited absent DPOAEs for at least one frequency in at least one ear. Both groups of students reported similar histories of recreational and occupational noise exposures that were unrelated to studying music, and none of the students reported high levels of noise exposure within the previous 48 h. There were no differences in audiometric thresholds between the groups at any frequency. At DPOAE f2 frequencies from 3,031 Hz to 6,031 Hz, nonsignificantly lower amplitudes of 2-4 dB were seen in the right ears of music majors versus nonmajors, and in the right ears of music majors playing brass instruments compared to music majors playing nonbrass instruments. Given the greater prevalence of absent DPOAEs in university music majors compared to nonmusic majors, it appears that early stages of cochlear damage may be occurring in this population. Additional research, preferably longitudinal and across multiple colleges/universities, would be beneficial to more definitively determine when the music students begin to show signs of cochlear damage, and to identify whether any particular subgroups of music majors are at a greater risk of cochlear damage. PMID:26780957

  17. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in college music majors and nonmusic majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Rebecca L. Warner; Bobholz, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The presence and absence of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) as well as DPOAE amplitudes were compared between college music majors and a control group of nonmusic majors. Participants included 28 music majors and 35 nonmusic majors enrolled at a university with ages ranging from 18-25 years. DPOAEs and hearing thresholds were measured bilaterally on all the participants. DPOAE amplitudes were analyzed at the following f2 frequencies: 1,187 Hz, 1,500 Hz, 1,906 Hz, 2,531 Hz, 3,031 Hz, 3812 Hz, 4,812 Hz, and 6,031 Hz. Significantly more music majors (7/28) than nonmusic majors (0/35) exhibited absent DPOAEs for at least one frequency in at least one ear. Both groups of students reported similar histories of recreational and occupational noise exposures that were unrelated to studying music, and none of the students reported high levels of noise exposure within the previous 48 h. There were no differences in audiometric thresholds between the groups at any frequency. At DPOAE f2 frequencies from 3,031 Hz to 6,031 Hz, nonsignificantly lower amplitudes of 2-4 dB were seen in the right ears of music majors versus nonmajors, and in the right ears of music majors playing brass instruments compared to music majors playing nonbrass instruments. Given the greater prevalence of absent DPOAEs in university music majors compared to nonmusic majors, it appears that early stages of cochlear damage may be occurring in this population. Additional research, preferably longitudinal and across multiple colleges/universities, would be beneficial to more definitively determine when the music students begin to show signs of cochlear damage, and to identify whether any particular subgroups of music majors are at a greater risk of cochlear damage. PMID:26780957

  18. Personal and interpersonal risk factors in the consumption of illicit drugs by marginal adolescents and young people from juvenile gangs Factores de riesgo personales e interpersonales en el consumo drogas ilícitas en adolescentes y jóvenes marginales de bandas juveniles Fatores de risco pessoais e interpessoais no consumo de drogas ilícitas em adolescentes e jovens marginais de bandos juvenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Guzmán Facundo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Marginal populations are groups which are known to present higher risks of drug consumption. It is possible to identify adolescents and young people from juvenile gangs that constitute this group. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of personal and interpersonal risk factors of drug consumption in 175 marginal adolescents and young people who belong to juvenile gangs in Mexico. Results showed a significant effect of personal factors on drug use, with an estimated variation of 26.1%. The factors that presented the highest rates were: gender, age and mental problems. The interpersonal factors (relationships with friends who have maladaptive behaviors and inappropriate relationships with parents showed an effect with an estimated variation of 15%. These results will allow for reflection and, in the future, the elaboration of adequate preventive programs aimed at this group of young people.Grupos reconocidos con mayor riesgo para consumir drogas, son los marginales, dentro de estos podemos localizar a los adolescentes y jóvenes de bandas juveniles. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar el efecto de los factores de riesgo personales e interpersonales sobre el consumo de drogas, en 175 adolescentes y jóvenes margínales de bandas juveniles de México. Los resultados mostraron efecto significativo de los factores personales sobre el consumo de drogas, con una varianza explicada del 26.1%, los factores que mostraron una mayor contribución fueron; el sexo, edad y problemas de salud mental. Los factores interpersonales (relación con amigos con conductas mal adaptadas y relación inapropiada con padres mostraron un efecto sobre el consumo de drogas, con una varianza explicada del 15%. Estos resultados posibilitarán la reflexión y en un futuro diseñar programas adecuados dirigidos a la prevención en este grupo de jóvenes.Grupos reconhecidos com maior risco para o consumo de drogas, são os de populações marginais, e, dentro destas

  19. A student's guide to Einstein's major papers

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the physical universe underwent a revolution in the early twentieth century - evolving from the classical physics of Newton, Galileo, and Maxwell to the modern physics of relativity and quantum mechanics. The dominant figure in this revolutionary change was Albert Einstein. In a single year, 1905, Einstein produced breakthrough works in three areas of physics: on the size and the effects of atoms; on the quantization of the electromagnetic field; and on the special theory of relativity. In 1916 he produced a fourth breakthrough work, the general theory of relativity. A Student's Guide to Einstein's Major Papers focuses on Einstein's contributions, setting his major works into their historical context, and then takes the reader through the details of each paper, including the mathematics. This book helps the reader appreciate the simplicity and insightfulness of Einstein's ideas and how revolutionary his work was, and locate it in the evolution of scientific thought begun by the ancient...

  20. Major League Baseball Players' Life Expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Onge, Jarron M; Rogers, Richard G; Krueger, Patrick M

    2008-07-17

    OBJECTIVE: We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. METHODS: We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. RESULTS: Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

  1. Exercise for patients with major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Speyer, Helene; Gluud, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The lifetime prevalence of major depression is estimated to affect 17% of the population and is considered the second largest health-care problem globally in terms of the number of years lived with disability. The effects of most antidepressant treatments are poor; therefore, exercise...... has been assessed in a number of randomized clinical trials. A number of reviews have previously analyzed these trials; however, none of these reviews have addresses the effect of exercise for adults diagnosed with major depression. METHODS/DESIGN: The objective of this systematic review is to......-analysis of the effect estimates of the individual trials, taking bias risk into consideration, will be carried out. Any heterogeneity will be explored using meta-regression and subgroup analyses. Trial sequential analysis will be carried out on the trials to control for risks of random errors. The results...

  2. Physics for Occupational Therapy Majors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Aurora, Tarlok

    1998-03-01

    In Spring 1996, a one semester course - "Survey of Physics" - was taught for students majoring in Occupational Therapy (O. T.), in contrast to the two semester physics sequence for all other health science majors. The course was designed to expose the students to the concept of physics, develop problem solving skills and to emphasize the importance of physics to O.T. In developing the course content, students' preparedness in mathematics and the perceived future applications of physics in O. T. was taken in to consideration, and steps were taken to remedy the deficiencies in students' background. The course was comprised of lecture, laboratory, and considerable self study due to the time constraints, and these will be described.

  3. Catalytic majorization and $\\ell_p$ norms

    CERN Document Server

    Aubrun, G; Aubrun, Guillaume; Nechita, Ion

    2007-01-01

    The possible transformations of jointly held quantum states under local operations and classical communication (LOCC) are described using majorization, which is a fairly well-known relation. This LOCC protocol can be generalized in two ways: using an auxiliary entangled state as a catalyst (Entanglement-assisted LOCC) or performing simultaneously several identical transformations (Multiple-copy LOCC). These protocols are encoded by relations on probability vectors that generalize the majorization relation. We study the geometry of the set of vectors dominated by a fixed vector for these two relations. We show that both closures in the $\\ell_1$ norm coincide and characterize it using inequalities involving the $\\ell_p$ norms, $p \\geq 1$. Our proof uses a variant of Cram\\'{e}r's theorem on large deviations.

  4. Creating lenticular galaxies with major mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Querejeta, Miguel; Tapia, Trinidad; Borlaff, Alejandro; van de Ven, Glenn; Lyubenova, Mariya; Martig, Marie; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Méndez-Abreu, Jairo; Zamorano, Jaime; Gallego, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Lenticular galaxies (S0s) represent the majority of early-type galaxies in the local Universe, but their formation channels are still poorly understood. While galaxy mergers are obvious pathways to suppress star formation and increase bulge sizes, the marked parallelism between spiral and lenticular galaxies (e.g. photometric bulge-disc coupling) seemed to rule out a potential merger origin. Here, we summarise our recent work in which we have shown, through N-body numerical simulations, that disc-dominated lenticulars can emerge from major mergers of spiral galaxies, in good agreement with observational photometric scaling relations. Moreover, we show that mergers simultaneously increase the light concentration and reduce the angular momentum relative to their spiral progenitors. This explains the mismatch in angular momentum and concentration between spirals and lenticulars recently revealed by CALIFA observations, which is hard to reconcile with simple fading mechanisms (e.g. ram-pressure stripping).

  5. Intraoperative neuromonitoring in major vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, V C; Poon, C C M

    2016-09-01

    There has been a growing interest in using intraoperative neuromonitoring to reduce the incidence of stroke and paralysis in major vascular interventions. Electroencephalography, various neurophysiological evoked potential measurements, transcranial Doppler, and near-infrared spectroscopy are some of the modalities currently used to detect neural injuries. A good understanding of these modalities and their interactions with anaesthesia is important to maximize their value and to allow meaningful interpretation of their results. In view of the inter-individual differences in anatomy, physiological reserves, and severity of pathological processes, neuromonitoring may be a valuable method to evaluate the well-being of the nervous system during and after surgical interventions. In this review, we summarize some of their applications, efficacies, and drawbacks in major carotid and aortic surgeries. PMID:27566804

  6. Alterations in coagulation following major liver resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, S V; Sugavanam, A; Krzanicki, D A; Patel, S; Broomhead, R H; Davidson, B R; Riddell, A; Gatt, A; Chowdary, P

    2016-06-01

    The international normalised ratio is frequently raised in patients who have undergone major liver resection, and is assumed to represent a potential bleeding risk. However, these patients have an increased risk of venous thromboembolic events, despite conventional coagulation tests indicating hypocoagulability. This prospective, observational study of patients undergoing major hepatic resection analysed the serial changes in coagulation in the early postoperative period. Thrombin generation parameters and viscoelastic tests of coagulation (thromboelastometry) remained within normal ranges throughout the study period. Levels of the procoagulant factors II, V, VII and X initially fell, but V and X returned to or exceeded normal range by postoperative day five. Levels of factor VIII and Von Willebrand factor were significantly elevated from postoperative day one (p < 0.01). Levels of the anticoagulants, protein C and antithrombin remained significantly depressed on postoperative day five (p = 0.01). Overall, the imbalance between pro- and anticoagulant factors suggested a prothrombotic environment in the early postoperative period. PMID:27030945

  7. Major gene mutations and domestication of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the approximately 200,000 species of flowering plants known, only about 200 have been domesticated. The process has taken place in many regions over long periods. At present there is great interest in domesticating new species and developing new uses for existing ones in order to supply needed food, industrial raw materials, etc. It is proposed that major gene mutations were important in domestication; many key characters distinguishing cultivated from related wild species are controlled by one or very few major genes. The deliberate effort to domesticate new species requires at least the following: identification of needs and potential sources, establishment of suitable niches, choice of taxa to be domesticated, specification of the desired traits and key characters to be modified, as well as the potential role of induced mutations. (author). 14 refs

  8. Review of major plutonium pyrochemical technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past twenty years have seen significant growth in the development and application of pyrochemical technology for processing of plutonium. For particular feedstocks and specific applications, non-aqueous high-temperature processes offer key advantages over conventional hydrometallurgical systems. Major processes in use today include: (1) direct oxide reduction for conversion of PuO2 to metal, (2) molten salt extraction for americium removal from plutonium, (3) molten salt electrorefining for Pu purification, and (4) hydriding to remove plutonium from host substrates. This paper reviews current major pyrochemical processes from the classical calcination-hydrofluorination-bomb reduction sequence through new techniques under development. Each process is presented and brief descriptions of production equipment are given. 47 references, 5 figures

  9. A model of major disruption in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mechanism for the onset of the major disruption is proposed which considers the effect of magnetic stochasticity on the growth of the m=2 tearing mode. The toroidicity can cause stochasticity near the separatrix of the m=2 magnetic island which enhances the current viscosity, resulting in explosive growth. The threshold condition and the time scale of rapid growth are studied. The role of the toroidal coupling to the m=1 component is also discussed. (author)

  10. Major and trace elements in lithogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Słojewski, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The process of crystallization in the urinary tract occurs when the equilibrium between promoting and inhibiting factors is broken. Many theories have been published to explain the mechanism of urinary stones formation; however, none of these theories has paid attention to trace elements. Their role in lithogenesis is still unclear and under debate. The findings of some studies may support the thesis that some major and trace elements may take part in the initiation of stone crystallization f...

  11. Omphalocele Major with Absent Lower Limb

    OpenAIRE

    Kundal, Vijay Kumar; Gajdhar, Mufique; Kundal, Raksha; Ahmed, Reyaz; Agrawal, Leela Dhar

    2013-01-01

    A newborn delivered by Caesarian section presented with an absent anterior abdominal wall and visible bowel loops and liver. The defect was covered by a thin membrane. The patient had associated absent left lower limb and right foot fusion defect. The patient was haemodynamically stable; general condition was average. No genito-urinary abnormality was detected. The anal opening was present normally, and the patient passed meconium immediately after birth. A diagnosis of omphalocele major with...

  12. Prevalence of major depression in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Domènech-Llaberia, Edelmira; Viñas, Ferran; Pla, Esther; Jané, Maria Claustre; Mitjavila, Mercè; Corbella, Teresa; Canals, Josefa

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of preschool major depressive disorder (MDD) was studied in the community. The whole population of children between 3 and 6 years attending preschool nurseries in three areas (one urban, one rural and one suburban) in Spain (n = 1,427) were contacted. Selection was by a two-stage procedure. At stage I, the ESDM 3-6, a screening measure for preschool depression, was used to identify a sample for more intensive interviewing. Sensitivity and specificity of the ...

  13. Information support for major public events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique capabilities of the IAEA illicit trafficking database is used to provide information on and assesment of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials to national authorities in charge of nuclear security of major public events. The information communicated to state parties cooperating with IAEA is on incidences confirmed to the agency on illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials and also incidences reported in open sources which have not been confirmed.

  14. Aging cellular networks: chaperones as major participants

    OpenAIRE

    Soti, Csaba; Csermely, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We increasingly rely on the network approach to understand the complexity of cellular functions. Chaperones (heat shock proteins) are key "networkers", which have among their functions to sequester and repair damaged protein. In order to link the network approach and chaperones with the aging process, we first summarize the properties of aging networks suggesting a "weak link theory of aging". This theory suggests that age-related random damage primarily affects the overwhelming majority of t...

  15. Projected Images of Major Chinese Outbound Destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Cathy H.C.; Song, Hanqun

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the projected images of major outbound destinations based on popular travel magazines in China. Travel articles on Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, South Korea, Vietnam and Taiwan from 2006 to 2008 were content analyzed. Japan was reported on most, and the projected images of the six destinations are dominated by leisure and recreation, and culture, history and art. Correspondence analysis was used to examine relationships between destinations and popular image attributes....

  16. Aggregating judgments by the majority method

    OpenAIRE

    García Bermejo, Juan Carlos

    2006-01-01

    “Judgement aggregation has been receiving increasing attention over recent years. Some typical impossibility results have been proved, about majority and other similar aggregation methods. Those results depend essentially on certain logical constraints borrowed from standard two- valued deductive logic. Nevertheless, the adequacy of these constraints is doubtful. In this paper, we show that by weakening the consistency conditions in a plausible way, such impossibility theorems can be reversed...

  17. Arthroscopy Journal Prizes Are Major Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowitz, James H; Brand, Jefferson C; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    According to the Harvard Business Review, the optimal number of people in a decision-making group is no more than 8. Thus, it is no surprise that 18 Arthroscopy journal associate editors had difficulty making a major decision. In the end, 18 editors did successfully select the 2015 winner of the Best Comparative Study Prize. All studies have limitations, but from a statistical standpoint, the editors believe that the conclusions of the winning study are likely correct. PMID:26743401

  18. Exercise attenuates the major hallmarks of aging

    OpenAIRE

    Garatachea, Nuria; Pareja Galeano, Helios; Sanchís-Gomar, Fabián; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Fiuza Luces, María del Carmen; Emanuele, Enzo; Joyner, Michael J.; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Regular exercise has multi-system anti-aging effects. Here we summarize how exercise impacts the major hallmarks of aging. We propose that, besides searching for novel pharmaceutical targets of the aging process, more research efforts should be devoted to gaining insights into the molecular mediators of the benefits of exercise and to implement effective exercise interventions for elderly people. 3,311 JCR (2014) Q2, posición 15 de 50 (Geriatrics and Gerontology) UEM

  19. ON MAJOR FACTORS OF SUCCESSFUL LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    As is well known, some people are more successful thanothers in learning. This different levels of achievement may beattributed to variables associated with the learner. In recentyears there has been extensive research into aspects of differencesin learning a second language. This paper briefly reviews anddiscusses the major parameters of the differences among individu-als which research studies indicate may influence the success ofsecond language learning, citing six areas of interest: age, intel-ligence, cognitive styles, personality, motivation and attitude.

  20. Evaluative study of major Internet bookshops

    OpenAIRE

    Hirwade, Mangala; Hirwade, Anil; Bherwani, Mohini

    2006-01-01

    Internet Bookshops are the online bookshops that allow the user to search the items of his interest, navigate, make a query, communicate, place an order, bargain and negotiate. At its simplest the Internet Bookshop or online bookshop list the products for sale or the services offered and invite the customer to phone, fax or e-mail their order. The present paper evaluates major ten Internet bookshops by using the evaluation criteria like Authority, variety of collection, help menu, shopping pr...

  1. Debt Markets in Emerging Economies: Major Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Didier; Schmukler, Sergio L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper documents the major trends in debt (bank and bond) markets in emerging economies since the early 1990s, when these markets started expanding. The paper shows that banks have increased in size in most emerging economies though from low bases. But bond markets have expanded even more, gaining importance relative to banks. The nature of financing has also changed. Local currency bond financing has expanded, the extent of dollarization of loans and bonds has declined, and the maturity ...

  2. Solar cycle distribution of major geomagnetic storms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Ming Le; Zi-Yu Cai; Hua-Ning Wang; Zhi-Qiang Yin; Peng Li

    2013-01-01

    We examine the solar cycle distribution of major geomagnetic storms (Dst ≤-100 nT),including intense storms at the level of-200 nT< Dst ≤-100 nT,great storms at-300 nT< Dst ≤-200 nT,and super storms at Dst ≤-300 nT,which occurred during the period of 1957-2006,based on Dst indices and smoothed monthly sunspot numbers.Statistics show that the majority (82%) of the geomagnetic storms at the level of Dst ≤-100 nT that occurred in the study period were intense geomagnetic storms,with 12.4% ranked as great storms and 5.6% as super storms.It is interesting to note that about 27% of the geomagnetic storms that occurred at all three intensity levels appeared in the ascending phase of a solar cycle,and about 73% in the descending one.Statistics also show that 76.9% of the intense storms,79.6% of the great storms and 90.9% of the super storms occurred during the two years before a solar cycle reached its peak,or in the three years after it.The correlation between the size of a solar cycle and the percentage of major storms that occurred,during the period from two years prior to maximum to three years after it,is investigated.Finally,the properties of the multi-peak distribution for major geomagnetic storms in each solar cycle is investigated.

  3. Specific affect regulation impairments in major depression

    OpenAIRE

    Brockmeyer, Timo

    2012-01-01

    Impairments in affect regulation as well as cognitive reactivity have been considered to play important roles in the development, maintenance, and recurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, there is a lack of studies investigating, (a) whether certain difficulties in emotion regulation are specific for MDD, (b) whether certain meta-mood beliefs are associated with an increased risk for MDD, and (c) whether reduced abilities to engage in mood-incongruent information processing and...

  4. Synthesis of the major metabolites of Tolvaptan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Li Wan; Jian Bo Wu; Fan Lei; Xiao Long Li; Li Hai; Yong Wu

    2012-01-01

    Tolvaptan is a nonpeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) V2-receptor antagonist and used in the treatment of heart failure,cirrhosis,syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion or other high-volume capacity of hyponatremia.The metabolites of tolvaptan are mainly produced by CYP3A4,including two major compounds named DM-4103 and DM-4107.Herein,the chemical synthesis of those two metabolites is described in this article for further study.

  5. Avipoxvirus in great tits (Parus major)

    OpenAIRE

    Literak, Ivan; Kulich, Pavel; Robesova, Blanka; Adamik, Peter; Roubalova, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A total of six cases and 37 suspect cases of skin avipoxvirus infection in great tits (Parus major) have been described in central Europe since 2005. Most of the cases were diagnosed during the winter season, from October to March. Analyses of the 4b core protein gene showed identical or almost identical DNA sequence in six isolates (one from Austria, three from Hungary, and two from Czech Republic). A morphogenesis of the avipoxvirus including a constitution of acidophili...

  6. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The energy industry generally and petroleum and natural gas operations in particular are frequently reacting to a variety of unsettling forces. Falling oil prices, economic upswings, currency devaluations, increasingly rigorous environmental quality standards, deregulation of electricity markets, and continued advances in exploration and production technology were among the challenges and opportunities to the industry in 1997. To analyze the extent to which these and other developments have affected energy industry financial and operating performance, strategies, and industry structure, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains the Financial Reporting Systems (FRS). Through Form EIA-28, major US energy companies annually report to the FRS. Financial and operating information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production (upstream), petroleum refining and marketing (downstream), other energy operations, and nonenergy business. Performance Profiles of Major Producers 1997 examines the interplays of energy markets, companies` strategies, and government policies (in 1997 and in historical context) that gave rise to the results given here. The report also analyzes other key aspects of energy company financial performance as seen through the multifaceted lens provided by the FRS data and complementary data for industry overall. 41 figs., 77 tabs.

  7. Comorbidity of Leishmania major with cutaneous sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Moravvej

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: leishmaniasis infection might manifest as sarcoidosis; on the other hand, some evidences propose an association between sarcoidosis and leishmaniasis. Most of the times, it is impossible to discriminate idiopathic sarcoidosis from leishmaniasis by conventional histopathologic exam. Aim: We performed a cross-sectional study to examine the association of sarcoidosis with leishmaniasis in histopathologically diagnosed sarcoidal granuloma biopsy samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods: We examined paraffin-embedded skin biopsy samples obtained from patients with clinical and histopathological diagnosis as naked sarcoidal granuloma, referred to Skin Research Center of Shaheed Beheshti Medical University from January 2001 to March 2010, in order to isolate Leishmania parasite. The samples were reassessed by an independent dermatopathologist. DNA extracted from all specimens was analyzed by the commercially available PCR kits (DNPTM Kit, CinnaGen, Tehran, Iran to detect endemic Leishmania species, namely leishmania major (L. major. Results: L. major was positive in PCR of Eight out of twenty-five examined samples. Conclusion: Cutaneous leishmaniasis may be misinterpreted as sarcoidosis; in endemic areas, when conventional methods fail to detect Leishmania parasite, PCR should be utilized in any granulomatous skin disease compatible with sarcoidosis, regardless of the clinical presentation or histopathological interpretation.

  8. Ventilator associated pneumonia in major paediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alan David; Deal, Cailin; Argent, Andrew Charles; Hudson, Donald Anthony; Rode, Heinz

    2014-09-01

    More than three-quarters of deaths related to major burns are a consequence of infection, which is frequently ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). A retrospective study was performed, over a five-year period, of ventilated children with major burns. 92 patients were included in the study; their mean age was 3.5 years and their mean total body surface area burn was 30%. 62% of the patients sustained flame burns, and 31% scalds. The mean ICU stay was 10.6 days (range 2-61 days) and the mean ventilation time was 8.4 days (range 2-45 days). There were 59 documented episodes of pneumonia in 52 patients with a rate of 30 infections per 1000 ventilator days. Length of ventilation and the presence of inhalational injury correlate with the incidence of VAP. 17.4% of the patients died (n=16); half of these deaths may be attributed directly to pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Staphylococcus aureus were the most prominent aetiological organisms. Broncho-alveolar lavage was found to be more specific and sensitive at identifying the organism than other methods. This study highlights the importance of implementing strictly enforced strategies for the prevention, detection and management of pneumonia in the presence of major burns. PMID:24468505

  9. Structure of the lipophosphoglycan from Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, M J; Thomas-Oates, J E; Ferguson, M A; Homans, S W

    1990-11-15

    The major cell surface glycoconjugate of the parasitic protozoan Leishmania major is a heterogeneous lipophosphoglycan. It has a tripartite structure, consisting of a phosphoglycan (Mr 5,000-40,000), a variably phosphorylated hexasaccharide glycan core, and a lysoalkylphosphatidylinositol (lysoalkyl-PI) lipid anchor. The structures of the phosphoglycan and the hexasaccharide core were determined by monosaccharide analysis, methylation analysis, fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional 500-MHz (correlated spectroscopy (COSY), homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn spectroscopy (HOHAHA] 1H NMR spectroscopy, and exoglycosidase digestions. The phosphoglycan consists of eight types of phosphorylated oligosaccharide repeats which have the general structure, [formula: see text] where R = H, Galp(beta 1-3), Galp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3), Arap(alpha 1-2)Galp(beta 1-3), Glcp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3), Galp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3), Arap(alpha 1-2)Galp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3), or Arap(alpha 1-2)Galp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3), and where all the monosaccharides, including arabinose, are in the D-configuration. The average number of repeat units/molecule (n) is 27. Data are presented which suggest that the nonreducing terminus of the phosphoglycan is capped exclusively with the neutral disaccharide Manp(alpha 1-2)Manp alpha 1-. The structure of the glycan core was determined to be, [formula: see text] where approximately 60% of the mannose residues distal to the glucosamine are phosphorylated and where the inositol is part of the lysoalkyl-PI lipid moiety containing predominantly 24:0 and 26:0 alkyl chains. The unusual galactofuranose residue is in the beta-configuration, correcting a previous report where this residue was identified as alpha Galf. Although most of the phosphorylated repeat units are attached to the terminal galactose 6-phosphate of the core to form a linear lipophosphoglycan (LPG) molecule, some of the mannose 6

  10. The structure of Leishmania major amastigote lipophosphoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, S F; Handman, E; McConville, M J; Bacic, A

    1993-09-01

    Intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania major produce 6 x 10(4) copies/cell of a lipophosphoglycan (LPG) that is structurally distinct from the LPG produced by the extracellular promastigote form of L. major, Leishmania donovani, and Leishmania mexicana (reviewed by McConville, M. J. (1991) Cell Biol. Int. Rep. 15, 779-798). L. major amastigote LPG is composed of a lysoalkyl phosphatidylinositol lipid anchor that links via a diphosphorylated hexasaccharide core to a phosphoglycan (6-100 kDa). The structures of the anchor, the core, and the phosphoglycan were determined by monosaccharide and linkage analysis, fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, one-dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy, and exoglycosidase microsequencing. The lipid anchor contains predominantly 1-O-alkylglycerols with 24:0 and 22:0 alkyl chains. The lipids are linked via a glycerol-myo-inositol-PO4 to a core glycan with the structure -PO4-6)Gal(alpha 1-)Gal(alpha 1-) Galf(beta 1-)[Glc(alpha 1-PO4-)]Man(alpha 1-)Man(alpha 1-)GlcN(alpha 1-). The chromatographic characteristics of the core glycan suggest that the saccharide components are linked similarly in amastigote and promastigote LPG. The phosphoglycan attached to the core consists of -PO4-6)Gal(beta 1-4)Man(alpha 1- repeats units which are either unsubstituted (70%) or substituted (30%) at the 3-position of the Gal residues with oligosaccharide side chains containing primarily Gal and some Glc. Thirteen different types of side chains were identified with the structures [Gal(beta 1-3)]x, where x = 1-11, or Glc(1-3)Glc(1-3), or Glc(1-3)Gal(beta 1-3), where glucose is probably in the beta-configuration. All monosaccharides in the phosphoglycan domain are in the pyranose configuration. The average number of repeat units per molecule is 36. The nonreducing terminus of the phosphoglycan chains probably terminates predominantly in the neutral disaccharide Gal(beta 1-4)Man(alpha 1-. Comparison of the structure of L. major amastigote LPG to L. major

  11. Music Piracy--Differences in the Ethical Perceptions of Business Majors and Music Business Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Susan Lee

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the author investigated the ethical perceptions of business majors and music business majors from a private university and observed whether the taking of a business ethics course affected students' perceptions regarding the ethical aspects of downloading, sharing, copying, and selling copyrighted music from Internet and non-Internet…

  12. Science Motivation Questionnaire II: Validation with Science Majors and Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Brickman, Peggy; Armstrong, Norris; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of social cognitive theory, the motivation of students to learn science in college courses was examined. The students--367 science majors and 313 nonscience majors--responded to the Science Motivation Questionnaire II, which assessed five motivation components: intrinsic motivation, self-determination, self-efficacy, career…

  13. Age at Menarche and Choice of College Major: Implications for STEM Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner-Shuman, Anna; Waren, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Even though boys and girls in childhood perform similarly in math and spatial thinking, after puberty fewer young women pursue majors that emphasize abilities such as science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in college. If postpubertal feminization contributes to a lower likelihood of choosing STEM majors, then young women who enter…

  14. Student Perceptions of the First Course in Accounting: Majors versus Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickell, Geoffrey; Lim, Tiong Kiong; Balachandran, Balasinghan

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to the continuing debate regarding the curriculum for the first undergraduate course in accounting by examining student perceptions from studying such a course. Participants are divided into two cohorts--Accounting & Finance Majors (AFM) and Other Business Majors (OBM). Results reported in this paper indicate that…

  15. Major life events and development of major depression in Parkinson's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Bordelon, Y; Thompson, A;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Non-motor symptoms including depression are important features of Parkinson's disease (PD). We aim to address the relationship between major life events and depression amongst PD patients free of depressive symptoms at baseline. METHODS: New-onset PD patients from California...... were recruited in 2001-2007 and followed up for 3-4 years. The participants (n = 221) were examined by neurologists and responded to comprehensive interviews that included major life events, social support, and coping measures from validated scales. Major depression was assessed using the Structured...... Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV depression module (SCID). RESULTS: More than half of all patients had experienced major life events since diagnosed with PD, and 22 patients developed a major depression. The number of life events was associated with risk of depression in an exposure-dependent manner, with...

  16. Family Environment and Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogburn, Kelin M.; Sanches, Marsal; Williamson, Douglas E.; Caetano, Sheila C.; Olvera, Rene L.; Pliszka, Steven; Hatch, John P.; Soares, Jair C.

    2010-01-01

    Background The risks for depression broadly include biological and environmental factors. Furthermore, having a family member suffering from major depression is also likely to have consequences for the family environment. Further research aimed at understanding the effects of having a child with major depression on family interaction patterns is warranted. Methods We studied 31 families with an 8- to 17-year-old child (mean age ± SD = 12.9 ± 2.7 years) who met the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) and 34 families with no mentally ill children (mean age ± SD = 12.6 ± 2.9 years) or parents. Children and their parents were assessed with the K-SADS-PL (Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia – Present and Lifetime Version) interview. Parents completed the Moos Family Environment Scale (FES) to assess their perceptions of current family functioning. Data were analyzed using the nonparametric Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results Families of MDD children showed significantly different patterns of family functioning on FES subscales representing relationships and personal growth dimensions. The families with MDD children showed higher levels of conflict (p < 0.001) and lower levels of cohesion (p < 0.001), expressiveness (p = 0.003) and active-recreational orientation (p = 0.02) compared to the families without mentally ill children. Conclusion Families with MDD children show a lower degree of commitment, provide less support to one another, provide less encouragement to express feelings and have more conflicts compared to families with no mentally ill children or parents. Interventions aimed at improving family dynamics may be beneficial to MDD children and their families. PMID:20664307

  17. Major gene mutations in fruit tree domestication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though fruit gathering from the wild began long before domestication, fruit tree domestication started only after the establishment of grain agriculture. Banana, fig, date, grape and olive were among the first fruit trees domesticated. Most fruit trees are outbreeders, highly heterozygous and vegetatively propagated. Knowledge of genetics and economic traits controlled by major genes is limited. Ease of vegetative propagation has played a prominent part in domestication; advances in propagation technology will play a role in domestication of new crops. Changes toward domestication affected by major genes include self-fertility in peach, apricot and sour cherry, while the emergence of self-fertile almond populations is more recent and due probably to introgression from Amygdalus webbii. Self-compatibility in the sweet cherry has been attained only by pollen irradiation. A single gene controls sex in Vitis. Wild grapes are dioecious, with most domesticated cultivars hermaphrodite, and only a few females. In the papaya changes from dioecism to hermaphroditism have also occurred. Self-compatible systems have also been selected during domestication in Rubus. Changes towards parthenocarpy and seedlessness during domestication occurred in the banana, citrus, grape, fig and pineapple. In the banana, parthenocarpy is due to three complementary dominant genes; stenospermocarpy in the grape depends on two complementary recessive genes; parthenocarpy and sterility in citrus seems more complicated; however, it can be induced in genetic material of suitable background with ease by irradiation. Presence of persistent syconia in the fig is controlled by a mutant allele P dominant to wild +. Thornlessness in blackberry is recessive, while in the pineapple spineless forms are dominant. Changes affecting fruit composition owing to major genes include the disappearance of amygdalin present in bitter almonds (bitter kernel recessive to sweet), shell hardness in almond, and a recessive

  18. Prediction of Major Vascular Events after Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovbiagele, Bruce; Goldstein, Larry B.; Amarenco, Pierre;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identifying patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) at high risk of major vascular events (MVEs; stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death) may help optimize the intensity of secondary preventive interventions. We evaluated the relationships between the...... baseline Framingham Coronary Risk Score (FCRS) and a novel risk prediction model and with the occurrence of MVEs after stroke or TIA in subjects enrolled in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Level (SPARCL) trial. METHODS: Data from the 4731 subjects enrolled in the SPARCL study...

  19. Women's decision to major in STEM fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Stephanie

    This paper explores the lived experiences of high school female students who choose to enter into STEM fields, and describes the influencing factors which steered these women towards majors in computer science, engineering and biology. Utilizing phenomenological methodology, this study seeks to understand the essence of women's decisions to enter into STEM fields and further describe how the decision-making process varies for women in high female enrollment fields, like biology, as compared with low enrollment fields like, computer science and engineering. Using Bloom's 3-Stage Theory, this study analyzes how relationships, experiences and barriers influenced women towards, and possibly away, from STEM fields. An analysis of women's experiences highlight that support of family, sustained experience in a STEM program during high school as well as the presence of an influential teacher were all salient factors in steering women towards STEM fields. Participants explained that influential teacher worked individually with them, modified and extended assignments and also steered participants towards coursework and experiences. This study also identifies factors, like guidance counselors as well as personal challenges, which inhibited participant's path to STEM fields. Further, through analyzing all six participants' experiences, it is clear that a linear model, like Bloom's 3-Stage Model, with limited ability to include potential barriers inhibited the ability to capture the essence of each participant's decision-making process. Therefore, a revised model with no linear progression which allows for emerging factors, like personal challenges, has been proposed; this model focuses on how interest in STEM fields begins to develop and is honed and then mastered. This study also sought to identify key differences in the paths of female students pursuing different majors. The findings of this study suggest that the path to computer science and engineering is limited. Computer

  20. Access to major overseas research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will describe four schemes which have been established to permit Australian researchers access to some of the most advanced overseas research facilities. These include, access to Major Research Facilities Program, the Australian National Beamline Facility at the Photon Factory, the Australian Synchrotron Research Program and the ISIS Agreement. The details of each of these programs is discussed and the statistics on the scientific output provided. All programs are managed on behalf of the Department of Industry, Science and Tourism by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation. One hundred and thirteen senior scientists plus forty, one postgraduate, students were supported through these schemes during the 1996-1997 financial year

  1. Placebo and antidepressant treatment for major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Esben

    2010-01-01

    Antidepressant medication is generally considered the primary treatment for major depressive disorders (MDD), but antidepressant treatment has recently approached a crisis with shrinking specific effects and growing placebo responses in current trials. The aim of the paper is to review the placebo...... problem within antidepressant treatment for MDD, and to draw lines to similar problems within the field of psychotherapy. Although clinicians might profit from the large placebo response in their treatment of MDD, the small differences between active treatment and placebo groups found in controlled...

  2. CNPC Launching Major Restructuring for Higher Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) launched a major restructuring of the onshore oil industry in late November 1996 to accelerate the transition to a market economy. The onshore oil industry, created under a centrally planned system, has been for decades under one management operating within one budget. In accordance with market economy rules and international conventions,this restructuring is aimed at separating oil exploration and development from technical services and logistics, hospitals and schools and all other non-oil businesses, thus making the oil industry more efficient and flexible.

  3. Optimal Majority Rules and Enhanced Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Widgrén, Mika

    2001-01-01

    The decision-making rules of the European Union (EU) are defined in an incomplete contract signed by 15 national governments. The design of the contract defines the set of policy issues where it applies – in decision-making rules i.e. the majority rules and the division of powers among the actors involved. The treaty also gives competence to the Commission in terms of making legislative proposals. In this Paper, our objective is to study how decision-making rules affect expected outcomes in t...

  4. [Signs and symptoms of major neurocognitive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, J-C

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive disorders are a common problem, especially for older people. Dementia, recently renamed "major neurocognitive disorder" in DSM-5 is a complex subject. Age, vascular risk factors, subjective decline and its objectivation, are all risk factor for such neurocognitive disorders. Face to minor neurocognitive disorder, decline seemed more associated with the presence of structural atrophy or functional metabolic modification. It seems however more and more clear that, at least actually, such a diagnosis should not be done as early as possible but well timely and individually correct. This patient-centred approach requires the peculiar involvement of its familial, general physician. But when early detection tools will be used, for any legitimate reason, it will also be important to address specialized teams. In case of neurocognitive disorders, particularly major, psychoeducative programs are the most effective therapeutic on both patient and caregiver qualities of live. Such multidisciplinary program of care for patients with neurocognitive disorder and his/her caregiver has just obtained a financial agreement via the specific protocol 3 and should be known to be efficient. PMID:26591324

  5. Inequalities Theory of Majorization and Its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Albert W; Arnold, Barry

    2011-01-01

    This book’s first edition has been widely cited by researchers in diverse fields. The following are excerpts from reviews. “Inequalities: Theory of Majorization and its Applications” merits strong praise. It is innovative, coherent, well written and, most importantly, a pleasure to read. … This work is a valuable resource!” (Mathematical Reviews). “The authors … present an extremely rich collection of inequalities in a remarkably coherent and unified approach. The book is a major work on inequalities, rich in content and original in organization.” (Siam Review). “The appearance of … Inequalities in 1979 had a great impact on the mathematical sciences. By showing how a single concept unified a staggering amount of material from widely diverse disciplines–probability, geometry, statistics, operations research, etc.–this work was a revelation to those of us who had been trying to make sense of his own corner of this material.” (Linear Algebra and its Applications). This greatly expanded...

  6. SITO, Environmental Impact of Major Industrial Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: SITO evaluates the impact of major industrial activities on the environment. The method applied accounts for the alterations of ecological, physico-chemical, aesthetical and social values caused by the development of the considered activity. Such values are usually considered as not quantifiable but very important for the quality of the environment. 2 - Method of solution: The territory affected by the industrial project is described in a one-dimensional (for example a coast development) or two-dimensional representation as a lattice of square meshes of equal size. A major feature of the model is that the impact factors are considered with reference to each single mesh. The following vectors and matrices are evaluated: a) Matrix of environmental quality characteristics. It is the product of the environmental quality index matrix and the vector of weighting factors. b) Vector of the initial environmental values. It is the sum of the columns of matrix (a). c) Matrix obtained when the environmental quality characteristics matrix is multiplied by the vector of project action factors, taking into account distance effects. d) Vector of the final environmental values. This is the sum of columns of matrix (c)

  7. Major detectors in elementary-particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the 1983 issue of LBL-91 we introduce a supplement - a folio of descriptions of the world's major elementary particle physics detectors. Modern high energy physics usually involves the use of massive, costly, carefully engineered, large solid angle detectors. These detectors require a long lead time for construction, are often integrated with an accelerator, accumulate data over many years, and are in reality a combination of numerous subsystems. As was the case with bubble chambers, many experiments are performed with the same data, or with data taken after relatively minor changes or additions to the detector configuration. These experiments are often reported in journals whose space limitations make repeated full descriptions of the detector impossible. The detailed properties and performance of the detector are usually described in a fragmented series of papers in more specialized, technologically oriented journals. New additions are often not well documented. Several detectors often make similar measurements and physicists want to make quick comparisons of their respective capabilities. Designers of new large detectors and even of smaller experiments need to know what already exists and what performance has been achieved. To aid the physics community, the Particle Data Group has produced this brief folio of the world's major large detectors. This first edition has some notable omissions: in particular, the bubble chambers and any associated spectrometers, and the still somewhat tentative LEP, SLC, and TRISTAN detectors

  8. Selecting major Appalachian basin gas plays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patchen, D.G.; Nuttall, B.C.; Baranoski, M.T.; Harper, J.A.; Schwietering, J.F.; Van Tyne, A.; Aminian, K.; Smosna, R.A.

    1992-06-01

    Under a cooperative agreement with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) the Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium (AONGRC) is preparing a geologic atlas of the major gas plays in the Appalachian basin, and compiling a database for all fields in each geologic play. the first obligation under this agreement was to prepare a topical report that identifies the major gas plays, briefly describes each play, and explains how the plays were selected. Four main objectives have been defined for this initial task: assign each gas reservoir to a geologic play, based on age, trap type, degree of structural control, and depositional environment; organize all plays into geologically-similar groups based on the main criteria that defines each play; prepare a topical report for METC; and transfer this technology to industry through posters and talks at regional geological and engineering meetings including the Appalachian Petroleum Geology Symposium, Northeastern Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, the METC Gas Contractors Review meeting, the Kentucky Oil and Gas Association, and the Appalachian Energy Group.

  9. Selecting major Appalachian basin gas plays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patchen, D.G.; Nuttall, B.C.; Baranoski, M.T.; Harper, J.A.; Schwietering, J.F.; Van Tyne, A.; Aminian, K.; Smosna, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Under a cooperative agreement with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) the Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium (AONGRC) is preparing a geologic atlas of the major gas plays in the Appalachian basin, and compiling a database for all fields in each geologic play. the first obligation under this agreement was to prepare a topical report that identifies the major gas plays, briefly describes each play, and explains how the plays were selected. Four main objectives have been defined for this initial task: assign each gas reservoir to a geologic play, based on age, trap type, degree of structural control, and depositional environment; organize all plays into geologically-similar groups based on the main criteria that defines each play; prepare a topical report for METC; and transfer this technology to industry through posters and talks at regional geological and engineering meetings including the Appalachian Petroleum Geology Symposium, Northeastern Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, the METC Gas Contractors Review meeting, the Kentucky Oil and Gas Association, and the Appalachian Energy Group.

  10. Major and Modified Nucleosides, RNA, and DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Charles W.; Kuo, Kenneth C.

    Most analytical chemists are well aware of the rapid rate of development of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) over the past 5 years. A number of articles have been published in Analytical Chemistry on different topics in HPLC and many papers appear in the chromatographic journals. Some books also have been published covering this subject. HPLC has proved to be a very effective, broadly applicable chromatographic method for the separation and analysis of complex molecules in fields as diverse as biochemistry and environmental, pharmaceutical, medical, and polymer chemistry. HPLC is now having a major impact on the clinical and research aspects of medical biochemistry. Although the contributions of HPLC to other disciplines generally complements gas-liquid chromatography, this method is destined to play a much greater role in medical and biochemical research. This is because many of the biomolecules, owing to their molecular complexity and size, are thermally unstable or nonvolatile, preventing or complicating an analysis by GC. A major factor contributing to the powerful advances in biomedical liquid chromatography is the development of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) using n-alkyl and phenyl chemically bonded substrates.

  11. [Cognition - the core of major depressive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosan, M; Lemogne, C; Jardri, R; Fossati, P

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive deficits have been only recently recognized as a major phenotype determinant of major depressive disorder, although they are an integral part of the definition of the depressive state. Congruent evidence suggest that these cognitive deficits persist beyond the acute phase and may be identified at all ages. The aim of the current study was to review the main meta-analyses on cognition and depression, which encompasses a large range of cognitive domains. Therefore, we discuss the "cold" (attention, memory, executive functions) and "hot" (emotional bias) cognitive impairments in MDD, as well as those of social cognition domains (empathy, theory of mind). Several factors interfere with cognition in MDD such as clinical (melancholic, psychotic...) features, age, age of onset, illness severity, medication and comorbid condition. As still debated in the literature, the type of relationship between the severity of cognitive symptoms and functioning in depression is detailed, thus highlighting their predictive value of functional outcome, independently of the affective symptoms. A better identification of the cognitive deficits in MDD and a monitoring of the effects of different treatments require appropriate instruments, which may be developed by taking advantage of the increasing success of computing tools. Overall, current data suggest a core role for different cognitive deficits in MDD, therefore opening new perspectives for optimizing the treatment of depression. PMID:26879254

  12. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Frase, Lukas

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we will introduce interpersonal psychotherapy as an effective short-term treatment strategy in major depression. In IPT, a reciprocal relationship between interpersonal problems and depressive symptoms is regarded as important in the onset and as a maintaining factor of depressive disorders. Therefore, interpersonal problems are the main therapeutic targets of this approach. Four interpersonal problem areas are defined, which include interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, complicated bereavement, and interpersonal deficits. Patients are helped to break the interactions between depressive symptoms and their individual interpersonal difficulties. The goals are to achieve a reduction in depressive symptoms and an improvement in interpersonal functioning through improved communication, expression of affect, and proactive engagement with the current interpersonal network. The efficacy of this focused and structured psychotherapy in the treatment of acute unipolar major depressive disorder is summarized. This article outlines the background of interpersonal psychotherapy, the process of therapy, efficacy, and the expansion of the evidence base to different subgroups of depressed patients. PMID:22955493

  13. Subcortical brain alterations in major depressive disorder : findings from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmaal, L.; Veltman, D. J.; van Erp, T. G. M.; Saemann, P. G.; Frodl, T.; Jahanshad, N.; Loehrer, E.; Tiemeier, H.; Hofman, A.; Niessen, W. J.; Vernooij, M. W.; Ikram, M. A.; Wittfeld, K.; Grabe, H. J.; Block, A.; Hegenscheid, K.; Voelzke, H.; Hoehn, D.; Czisch, M.; Lagopoulos, J.; Hatton, S. N.; Hickie, I. B.; Goya-Maldonado, R.; Kraemer, B.; Gruber, O.; Couvy-Duchesne, B.; Renteria, M. E.; Strike, L. T.; Mills, N. T.; de Zubicaray, G. I.; McMahon, K. L.; Medland, S. E.; Martin, N. G.; Gillespie, N. A.; Wright, M. J.; Hall, G.B.; MacQueen, G. M.; Frey, E. M.; Carballedo, A.; van Velzen, L. S.; van Tol, M. J.; van der Wee, N. J.; Veer, I. M.; Walter, H.; Schnell, K.; Schramm, E.; Normann, C.; Schoepf, D.; Konrad, C.; Zurowski, B.; Nickson, T.; McIntosh, A. M.; Papmeyer, M.; Whalley, H. C.; Sussmann, J. E.; Godlewska, B. R.; Cowen, P. J.; Fischer, F. H.; Rose, M.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Thompson, P. M.; Hibar, D. P.

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of structural brain alterations associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unresolved. This is in part due to small sample sizes of neuroimaging studies resulting in limited statistical power, disease heterogeneity and the complex interactions between clinical characteristic

  14. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 43 - Major Alterations, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...); and 14 CFR 11.45) ... compression ratio, propeller reduction gear, impeller gear ratios or the substitution of major engine parts... alterations: (i) Changes in blade design. (ii) Changes in hub design. (iii) Changes in the governor or...

  15. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m3). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m3) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the third quarter of the first project year (January 1 through March 31, 2003). This work included gathering field data and analyzing best practices in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah, and the Colorado portion of the Paradox Basin. Best practices used in oil fields of the eastern Uinta Basin consist of conversion of all geophysical well logs into digital form, running small fracture treatments, fingerprinting oil samples from each producing zone, running spinner surveys biannually, mapping each producing zone, and drilling on 80-acre (32 ha) spacing. These practices ensure that induced fractures do not extend vertically out of the intended zone, determine the percentage each zone contributes to the overall production of the

  16. RAPHAEL: Developing major V/HTR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FP6 RAPHAEL Integrated Project on V/HTR technology concluded in April 2010 after 5 years of successful performance. 35 partners from 10 Member States, an overall budget above 18 MEUR and about 170 key deliverables are some important figures of the project. RAPHAEL provides results in seven V/HTR technology areas: core physics, fuel, fuel cycle back end, materials, components, safety and system integration covering the major systems and components of a V/HTR. Major highlights include design, fabrication and testing of innovative helium components, improved fuel fabrication and fuel and materials irradiation, and safety testing and PIE of irradiated fuel. In the area of coupled reactor physics and core thermo fluid dynamics, benchmarks have been performed on core safety experiments on the AVR and HTR10 high temperature test reactors, and on the HFR EU1bis fuel burn-up experiment. The fuel cycle back-end activities cover characterisation of V/HTR-specific waste, disposal behaviour and conditioning and spent fuel performance modelling. The materials activities comprise vessel and high-temperature materials, the latter work in collaboration with EXTREMAT, and graphite irradiation and characterisation. Safety and licensing assessments of a V/HTR, and the system integration aspects with respect to plant reference data and R and D results complete the comprehensive scope of RAPHAEL. Selected results will be made available as Euratom input for exchange within the GIF VHTR projects in negotiated procedures. Two advisory groups (safety-SAG and industrial users-IUAG) accompanied the project and provided valuable input regarding adjustment of concept specifications. The recommendations of the Industrial Users Advisory Group, including major end-users, are used as input to EUROPAIRS, an FP7 support action aiming at integrating end-users into the R and D process towards a demonstrator for cogeneration. To address the key issue of knowledge transfer, RAPHAEL conducted three

  17. RAPHAEL: Developing major V/HTR technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogusch, Edgar, E-mail: edgar.bogusch@areva.com [AREVA NP GmbH, Paul-Gossen-Strasse 100, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The FP6 RAPHAEL Integrated Project on V/HTR technology concluded in April 2010 after 5 years of successful performance. 35 partners from 10 Member States, an overall budget above 18 MEUR and about 170 key deliverables are some important figures of the project. RAPHAEL provides results in seven V/HTR technology areas: core physics, fuel, fuel cycle back end, materials, components, safety and system integration covering the major systems and components of a V/HTR. Major highlights include design, fabrication and testing of innovative helium components, improved fuel fabrication and fuel and materials irradiation, and safety testing and PIE of irradiated fuel. In the area of coupled reactor physics and core thermo fluid dynamics, benchmarks have been performed on core safety experiments on the AVR and HTR10 high temperature test reactors, and on the HFR EU1bis fuel burn-up experiment. The fuel cycle back-end activities cover characterisation of V/HTR-specific waste, disposal behaviour and conditioning and spent fuel performance modelling. The materials activities comprise vessel and high-temperature materials, the latter work in collaboration with EXTREMAT, and graphite irradiation and characterisation. Safety and licensing assessments of a V/HTR, and the system integration aspects with respect to plant reference data and R and D results complete the comprehensive scope of RAPHAEL. Selected results will be made available as Euratom input for exchange within the GIF VHTR projects in negotiated procedures. Two advisory groups (safety-SAG and industrial users-IUAG) accompanied the project and provided valuable input regarding adjustment of concept specifications. The recommendations of the Industrial Users Advisory Group, including major end-users, are used as input to EUROPAIRS, an FP7 support action aiming at integrating end-users into the R and D process towards a demonstrator for cogeneration. To address the key issue of knowledge transfer, RAPHAEL conducted three

  18. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey Jr; Craig D. Morgan; Roger L. Bon

    2003-07-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the third quarter of the first project year (January 1 through March 31, 2003). This work included gathering field data and analyzing best practices in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah, and the Colorado portion of the Paradox Basin. Best practices used in oil fields of the eastern Uinta Basin consist of conversion of all geophysical well logs into digital form, running small fracture treatments, fingerprinting oil samples from each producing zone, running spinner surveys biannually, mapping each producing zone, and drilling on 80-acre (32 ha) spacing. These practices ensure that induced fractures do not extend vertically out of the intended zone, determine the percentage each zone contributes to the overall

  19. Some mechanistic requirements for major transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Peter

    2016-08-19

    Major transitions in nature and human society are accompanied by a substantial change towards higher complexity in the core of the evolving system. New features are established, novel hierarchies emerge, new regulatory mechanisms are required and so on. An obvious way to achieve higher complexity is integration of autonomous elements into new organized systems whereby the previously independent units give up their autonomy at least in part. In this contribution, we reconsider the more than 40 years old hypercycle model and analyse it by the tools of stochastic chemical kinetics. An open system is implemented in the form of a flow reactor. The formation of new dynamically organized units through integration of competitors is identified with transcritical bifurcations. In the stochastic model, the fully organized state is quasi-stationary whereas the unorganized state corresponds to a population with natural selection. The stability of the organized state depends strongly on the number of individual subspecies, n, that have to be integrated: two and three classes of individuals, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], readily form quasi-stationary states. The four-membered deterministic dynamical system, [Formula: see text], is stable but in the stochastic approach self-enhancing fluctuations drive it into extinction. In systems with five and more classes of individuals, [Formula: see text], the state of cooperation is unstable and the solutions of the deterministic ODEs exhibit large amplitude oscillations. In the stochastic system self-enhancing fluctuations lead to extinction as observed with [Formula: see text] Interestingly, cooperative systems in nature are commonly two-membered as shown by numerous examples of binary symbiosis. A few cases of symbiosis of three partners, called three-way symbiosis, have been found and were analysed within the past decade. Four-way symbiosis is rather rare but was reported to occur in fungus-growing ants. The model

  20. Coping with ecological catastrophe: crossing major thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns, Jr.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The combination of human population growth and resource depletion makes catastrophes highly probable. No long-term solutions to the problems of humankind will be discovered unless sustainable use of the planet is achieved. The essential first step toward this goal is avoiding or coping with global catastrophes that result from crossing major ecological thresholds. Decreasing the number of global catastrophes will reduce the risks associated with destabilizing ecological systems, which could, in turn, destabilize societal systems. Many catastrophes will be local, regional, or national, but even these upheavals will have global consequences. Catastrophes will be the result of unsustainable practices and the misuse of technology. However, avoiding ecological catastrophes will depend on the development of eco-ethics, which is subject to progressive maturation, comments, and criticism. Some illustrative catastrophes have been selected to display some preliminary issues of eco-ethics.

  1. International gas trade: Potential major projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper reviews some key factors affecting continued expansion of the use and trade of natural gas, with a particular focus on a group of major gas trade and transport projects now in various stages of consideration. The paper begins by outlining the distribution of potential gas supplies, it also sketches the sectorial and regional structures of potential demand for natural gas. It continues by considering current and emerging trends in the international trade of natural gas by pipeline and as liquefied natural gas (LNG). Within the context thus provided, the paper then details a number of significant potential gas trade and transportation projects individually. Finally, the paper comments on the challenges in financing and implementing gas projects, especially with regard to economic, political, and institutional issues in the producing, transit, and consuming countries

  2. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    as systematic reviews and meta-analyses. A total of 116 articles met the inclusion criteria of which 97 were original studies. Negative biases in perception, attention and memory for emotional information, and aberrant reward/punishment processing occur in MDD. Imbalanced responses to negative stimuli...... to the perpetuation of negative emotional states in MDD. Limited success in the identification of susceptibility genes in MDD has led to great research interest in identifying vulnerability biomarkers or endophenotypes. Emerging evidence points to the persistence of 'hot' cognition dysfunction during remission......Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized...

  3. MAJOR PROJECTS THAT INFLUENCE WORLD TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE CORNEL DUMITRESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1869, with the opening of the Suez Canal, world trade entered a new era of development. The commercial routes linking the Far East to the western countries were shortened considerably as compared to the maritime corridor around the Cape of Good Hope. In 1914, the opening of the Panama Canal sealed the new deal in world trade, opening for business the shortest commercial routes around the world. After 145 years from the inauguration of the Suez Canal, world trade is on the eve of a new expansion. Two major projects: the expansion of both the Suez and Panama canals, planned to be completed in the next two years, will double their transit capacity. This paper does a comparative analysis of these two strategic projects, underlining the main benefits for Egypt, Panama and world trade, based on the available statistical data, reports and literature in the field.

  4. Epigenetic Modifications of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Saavedra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is a chronic disease whose neurological basis and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Initially, it was proposed that genetic variations were responsible for the development of this disease. Nevertheless, several studies within the last decade have provided evidence suggesting that environmental factors play an important role in MDD pathophysiology. Alterations in epigenetics mechanism, such as DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression could favor MDD advance in response to stressful experiences and environmental factors. The aim of this review is to describe genetic alterations, and particularly altered epigenetic mechanisms, that could be determinants for MDD progress, and how these alterations may arise as useful screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring biomarkers of depressive disorders.

  5. Management of major blood loss: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P I; Ostrowski, S R; Secher, N H

    2010-01-01

    Haemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Trauma and massive transfusion are associated with coagulopathy secondary to tissue injury, hypoperfusion, dilution and consumption of clotting factors and platelets. Concepts of damage control surgery have evolved, prioritizing...... coagulopathy of massive transfusion remains debated and randomized controlled studies are lacking. Results from recent before-and-after studies in massively bleeding patients indicate that trauma exsanguination protocols involving the early administration of plasma and platelets are associated with improved......, regardless of its cause, should be treated with goal-directed haemostatic control resuscitation involving the early administration of plasma and platelets and based on the results of the TEG/ROTEM analysis. The aim of the goal-directed therapy should be to maintain a normal haemostatic competence until...

  6. Ensemble Forecasting of Major Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Guerra, J A; Uritsky, V M

    2015-01-01

    We present the results from the first ensemble prediction model for major solar flares (M and X classes). Using the probabilistic forecasts from three models hosted at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (NASA-GSFC) and the NOAA forecasts, we developed an ensemble forecast by linearly combining the flaring probabilities from all four methods. Performance-based combination weights were calculated using a Monte Carlo-type algorithm by applying a decision threshold $P_{th}$ to the combined probabilities and maximizing the Heidke Skill Score (HSS). Using the probabilities and events time series from 13 recent solar active regions (2012 - 2014), we found that a linear combination of probabilities can improve both probabilistic and categorical forecasts. Combination weights vary with the applied threshold and none of the tested individual forecasting models seem to provide more accurate predictions than the others for all values of $P_{th}$. According to the maximum values of HSS, a performance-based weights ...

  7. Cost analysis of a major burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofts, J A

    1991-11-27

    A retrospective review was undertaken of 26 patients admitted to Middlemore Hospital between January 1986 to July 1989 with burns totalling more than 30% of total body surface area. An attempt was made to estimate the total cost of successful inpatient management of a major burn using known and assumed values. The new schedule of interboard hospital charges was also employed for greater accuracy. The 20 survivors had a mean initial hospital stay of 68.7 days at a cost of between $37,077 and $40,702 (1989 values) and $46,069 (1991 values). This latter figure equates to an average cost of $647 per patient per day or, alternatively, $927 per % burn. Suggestions to reduce costs and improve treatment include: earlier excision and grafting; the establishment of a regional skin bank and keratinocyte culture facility to aid wound closure; and guidelines on antibiotic prescribing. PMID:1745459

  8. Omphalocele major with absent lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundal, Vijay Kumar; Gajdhar, Mufique; Kundal, Raksha; Ahmed, Reyaz; Agrawal, Leela Dhar

    2015-02-01

    A newborn delivered by Caesarian section presented with an absent anterior abdominal wall and visible bowel loops and liver. The defect was covered by a thin membrane. The patient had associated absent left lower limb and right foot fusion defect. The patient was haemodynamically stable; general condition was average. No genito-urinary abnormality was detected. The anal opening was present normally, and the patient passed meconium immediately after birth. A diagnosis of omphalocele major with amelia was made. The patient was initially managed by topical application of povidone-iodine for eschar formation and epithelisation of the sac. The patient was discharged after 1 week with advice for regular follow-up. PMID:25829718

  9. The "Majority Illusion" in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Kristina; Yan, Xiaoran; Wu, Xin-Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Individual’s decisions, from what product to buy to whether to engage in risky behavior, often depend on the choices, behaviors, or states of other people. People, however, rarely have global knowledge of the states of others, but must estimate them from the local observations of their social contacts. Network structure can significantly distort individual’s local observations. Under some conditions, a state that is globally rare in a network may be dramatically over-represented in the local neighborhoods of many individuals. This effect, which we call the “majority illusion,” leads individuals to systematically overestimate the prevalence of that state, which may accelerate the spread of social contagions. We develop a statistical model that quantifies this effect and validate it with measurements in synthetic and real-world networks. We show that the illusion is exacerbated in networks with a heterogeneous degree distribution and disassortative structure. PMID:26886112

  10. The major traumas in youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, P; Pozzoni, R; Galli, M

    2003-11-01

    For 4 years we followed a group of football players in the youth division of a professional club, ranging in age from 9 to 19 years, and analyzed the major injuries, i.e., those which required them to be sidelined for at least 4 weeks. We observed 23 sprains, 16 fractures, 16 cases of osteochondrosis, 7 muscle lesions, 6 cases of groin pain (athletic pubalgia), and 4 tendonopathies. The most frequent sites were the knee (n=30) and the ankle (n=11); the trauma factor was predominant (65.2%) with respect to overuse; noncontact traumas were more numerous (63.8%) than those resulting from contrast. Of a total 72 cases 8 regarded goalkeepers, and the remaining 64 cases were distributed among the other positions. As regards the age categories we detected a prevalence of osteochondrosis, traumatic detachments, and some fractures in the younger players, while in the older athletes we observed more sprains, muscle lesions, and tendonopathies. PMID:14618321

  11. Strategic issues for the oil majors - 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strategic issues facing major oil producers in the 1990s are very diffuse - in contrast with both the 1970s (when strategy meant the response to high oil prices) and the 1980s (when it meant anticipating and exploiting a drop in prices). Mainly upstream issues include the future of price management by OPEC or a successor, the speed of development of new markets for natural gas in power generation and the role of Russia in world energy markets. Other issues include the impact of environmental regulations and taxes on the product mix and on marketing. Human-resource management will continue to face the task of reconciling career opportunities with static or declining manpower requirements; and corporate cash mountains may periodically recur. (Author)

  12. Major Intrinsic Proteins in Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    internal pH and salt concentration. Also known as water channels or aquaporins they are highly efficient membrane pore proteins some of which are capable of transporting water at very high rates up to 109 molecules per second. Some MIPs transport other small, uncharged solutes, such as glycerol and other....../separation technology, a unique class of membrane transport proteins is especially interesting the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). Generally, MIPs conduct water molecules and selected solutes in and out of the cell while preventing the passage of other solutes, a property critical for the conservation of the cells...... or as sensor devices based on e.g., the selective permeation of metalloids. In principle a MIP based membrane sensor/separation device requires the supporting biomimetic matrix to be virtually impermeable to anything but water or the solute in question. In practice, however, a biomimetic support matrix...

  13. Major anthocyanins from purple asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yumi; Ozaki, Yukio; Miyajima, Ikuo; Yamaguchi, Masaatsu; Fukui, Yuko; Iwasa, Keiko; Motoki, Satoru; Suzuki, Takashi; Okubo, Hiroshi

    2008-05-01

    Two major anthocyanins (A1 and A2) were isolated from peels of the spears of Asparagus officinalis cv. Purple Passion. They were purified by column, paper and high-performance liquid chromatographic separations, and their structures were elucidated by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (HR-FT-ICR MS), 1H, 13C and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic analyses and either acid or alkaline hydrolysis, respectively. A1 was identified as cyanidin 3-[3''-(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-6''-(O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside], whereas A2 was cyanidin 3-rutinoside, which is widely distributed in higher plants. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays proved their high antioxidant activities. PMID:18406435

  14. Contraction of online response to major events

    CERN Document Server

    Szell, Michael; Ratti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying regularities in behavioral dynamics is of crucial interest for understanding collective social events such as panics or political revolutions. With the widespread use of digital communication media it has become possible to study massive data streams of user-created content in which individuals express their sentiments, often towards a specific topic. Here we investigate messages from various online media created in response to major, collectively followed events such as sport tournaments, presidential elections or a large snow storm. We relate content length and message rate, and find a systematic correlation during events which can be described by a power law relation - the higher the excitation the shorter the messages. Further, we identify the distributions of content lengths as lognormals in line with statistical linguistics, and suggest a phenomenological law for the systematic dependence of the message rate to the lognormal mean parameter. Our measurements have practical implications for th...

  15. Major congenital anomalies in a Danish region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Birkelund, Anne Sofie; Andersen, Anne Marie Nybo

    2014-01-01

    registry covers live births, foetal deaths with a gestational age (GA) of 20 weeks or more, and terminations of pregnancy due to congenital anomalies (TOPFA). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of congenital anomalies was 2.70% (95% confidence interval: 2.58-2.80). The majority of cases had an isolated......INTRODUCTION: This study describes the prevalence of congenital anomalies and changes over time in birth outcome, mortality and chronic maternal diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was based on population data from the EUROCAT registry covering the Funen County, Denmark, 1995-2008. The......: diabetes, epilepsy, mental disorder, thyroid disease, asthma, or inflammatory bowel disease. Medication for these conditions accounted for 46% of maternal drug use. CONCLUSION: Maternal morbidity and use of potentially teratogenic medication have increased among congenital anomaly cases. Foetal and infant...

  16. The Major Histocompatibility Complex in Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Ayala García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplant of organs is one of the greatest therapeutic achievements of the twentieth century. In organ transplantation, the adaptive immunity is considered the main response exerted to the transplanted tissue, since the principal target of the immune response is the MHC (major histocompatibility complex molecules expressed on the surface of donor cells. However, we should not forget that the innate and adaptive immunities are closely interrelated and should be viewed as complementary and cooperating. When a human transplant is performed, HLA (human leukocyte antigens molecules from a donor are recognized by the recipient's immune system triggering an alloimmune response Matching of donor and recipient for MHC antigens has been shown to have a significant positive effect on graft acceptance. This paper will present MHC, the innate and adaptive immunities, and clinical HLA testing.

  17. p-Democracy a Pervasive Majority Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniades, Kyriacos A.

    Today, group decision making in our democratic society uses the non-ranked method. What we need is an improved method that allows decision makers to indicate not only their chosen alternative, but also their order of preference by which all alternatives will be placed. We classify this as a particular Social Choice Function, where choice is a group decision-making methodology in an ideal democratic society that gives the expression of the will of the majority. We use the Eigenvector Function to obtain individual priorities of preferences and Borda's Function to obtain the Ranking or otherwise, the Group Choice. Our conclusions give rise to new directions for pervasive democracy with an innovative degenerative quantum scale to allow even for strong to very strong preferences.

  18. Comparison And Assessment for Major Anions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayada Mohammed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Four major anions (nitrate, phosphate, sulfate and chloride  are measured in Tigris river at Mosul in six locations since Sept.2005 to June 2006.  The same 4 anions are measured previously by researches or thesis, so their results are added to the former one for comparison. The variation of flow is also reported for the whole period in order to study the concentration-flow relationship. The nitrate and phosphate concentrations are increasing with the river flow increase and decreasing with its decrease for most periods, (reaching up to1.05mg/l at June for nitrate and 0.482mg/l at April for phosphate .The lowest concentrations are observed (as low as 0.285 mg/l at Dec. for nitrate and 0.07mg/l at Jan for phosphate. Sulfate and chloride concentration are varying oppositely to the river flow for most periods, both showing their peaks at Jan. and their lowest at June (reaching up to 170 mg/l for sulfate, and 33.4 mg/l for chloride while the minimum values are 68mg/l for sulfate, and 15.6 mg/l for chloride. The data of the previous years are not complete and data for only 8 years are available. It indicates that the anions concentrations variation corresponding to the river flow is similar to that of  the studied years. However the data with equal flow rate only are used for comparison purposes to achieve correct results. All of the studied anions are increasing since 1982-2006 in different percentages except the phosphate. The 4 major anions are lower than the standards and MCL for the recent and previous studies.

  19. The major histocompatibility complex of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, E R; Cook, D J; Schepart, B S; Manning, C H; McMahan, M R; Chedid, M; Keever, C A

    1987-08-31

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encodes cell surface glycoproteins that function in self-nonself recognition and in allograft rejection. Among primates, the MHC has been well defined only in the human; in the chimpanzee and in two species of macaque monkeys the MHC is less well characterized. Serologic, biochemical and genetic evidence indicates that the basic organization of the MHC linkage group has been phylogenetically conserved. However, the number of genes and their linear relationship on the chromosomes differ between species. Class I MHC loci encode molecules that are the most polymorphic genes known. These molecules are ubiquitous in their tissue distribution and typically are recognized together with nominal antigens by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Class II MHC loci constitute a smaller family of serotypes serving as restricting elements for regulatory T lymphocytes. The distribution of class II antigens is limited mainly to cell types serving immune functions, and their expression is subject to up and down modulation. Class III loci code for components C2, C4 and Factor B (Bf) of the complement system. Interspecies differences in the extent of polymorphism occur, but the significance of this finding in relation to fitness and natural selection is unclear. Detailed information on the structure and regulation of MHC gene expression will be required to understand fully the biologic role of the MHC and the evolutionary relationships between species. Meanwhile, MHC testing has numerous applications to biomedical research, especially in preclinical tissue and organ transplantation studies, the study of disease mechanisms, parentage determination and breeding colony management. In this review, the current status of MHC definition in nonhuman primates will be summarized. Special emphasis is placed on the CyLA system of M. fascicularis which is a major focus in our laboratory. A highly polymorphic cynomolgus MHC has been partially characterized and consists

  20. Major Oil Plays in Utah and Vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Douglas A. Sprinkel; Roger L. Bon; Hellmut H. Doelling

    2003-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play. This report covers research activities for the sixth quarter of the project (October 1 through December 31, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs for the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone and Mississippian Leadville Limestone, major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively, and analyzing best practices used in the southern Green River Formation play of the Uinta Basin. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view of reservoir petrophysics, facies characteristics, and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. In the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province, the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone produces from subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the low-porosity limestone beds are extensively

  1. Major Oil Plays In Utah And Vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Chidsey

    2007-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.33 billion barrels (211 million m{sup 3}) of oil and hold 256 million barrels (40.7 million m{sup 3}) of proved reserves. The 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m3) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. However, in late 2005 oil production increased, due, in part, to the discovery of Covenant field in the central Utah Navajo Sandstone thrust belt ('Hingeline') play, and to increased development drilling in the central Uinta Basin, reversing the decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming can continue this new upward production trend. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios include descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary recovery techniques for each play. The most prolific oil reservoir in the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province is the eolian, Jurassic Nugget Sandstone, having produced over 288 million barrels (46 million m{sup 3}) of oil and 5.1 trillion cubic feet (145 billion m{sup 3}) of gas. Traps form on discrete subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the depositionally heterogeneous Nugget is also extensively fractured. Hydrocarbons in Nugget reservoirs were generated from subthrust Cretaceous source rocks. The seals for the producing horizons are overlying argillaceous and gypsiferous beds in

  2. Major Oil Plays In Utah And Vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Chidsey

    2007-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.33 billion barrels (211 million m{sup 3}) of oil and hold 256 million barrels (40.7 million m{sup 3}) of proved reserves. The 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m3) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. However, in late 2005 oil production increased, due, in part, to the discovery of Covenant field in the central Utah Navajo Sandstone thrust belt ('Hingeline') play, and to increased development drilling in the central Uinta Basin, reversing the decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming can continue this new upward production trend. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios include descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary recovery techniques for each play. The most prolific oil reservoir in the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province is the eolian, Jurassic Nugget Sandstone, having produced over 288 million barrels (46 million m{sup 3}) of oil and 5.1 trillion cubic feet (145 billion m{sup 3}) of gas. Traps form on discrete subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the depositionally heterogeneous Nugget is also extensively fractured. Hydrocarbons in Nugget reservoirs were generated from subthrust Cretaceous source rocks. The seals for the producing horizons are overlying argillaceous and gypsiferous beds in

  3. Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Markus

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania represent a complex of important human pathogens that belong to the systematic order of the kinetoplastida. They are transmitted between their human and mammalian hosts by different bloodsucking sandfly vectors. In their hosts, the Leishmania undergo several differentiation steps, and their coordination and optimization crucially depend on numerous interactions between the parasites and the physiological environment presented by the fly and human hosts. Little is still known about the signalling networks involved in these functions. In an attempt to better understand the role of cyclic nucleotide signalling in Leishmania differentiation and host-parasite interaction, we here present an initial study on the cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major. Results This paper presents the identification of three class I cyclic-nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs from L. major, PDEs whose catalytic domains exhibit considerable sequence conservation with, among other, all eleven human PDE families. In contrast to other protozoa such as Dictyostelium, or fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida ssp or Neurospora, no genes for class II PDEs were found in the Leishmania genomes. LmjPDEA contains a class I catalytic domain at the C-terminus of the polypeptide, with no other discernible functional domains elsewhere. LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 are coded for by closely related, tandemly linked genes on chromosome 15. Both PDEs contain two GAF domains in their N-terminal region, and their almost identical catalytic domains are located at the C-terminus of the polypeptide. LmjPDEA, LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were further characterized by functional complementation in a PDE-deficient S. cerevisiae strain. All three enzymes conferred complementation, demonstrating that all three can hydrolyze cAMP. Recombinant LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were shown to be cAMP-specific, with Km values in the low micromolar range

  4. Prevalence of Haemoprotozoan infections in bovines of Shimoga region of Karnataka state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Murthy, C M; Ananda, K J; Adeppa, J

    2016-09-01

    A study was conducted to record the prevalence of Haemoprotozoan infections in bovines of Shimoga region for a period of 1 year from April 2012 to March 2013. A total of 300 blood samples were examined for the presence of haemoprotozoan parasites, of which 215 from cattle and 85 from buffaloes were examined by Giemsa staining technique. Out of 300 blood samples examined, 130 (43.3 %) were found positive for Haemoprotozoan infections. Out of 215 cattle blood samples examined, 62 (28.8 %) were positive for Theileria annulata, 27 (12.5 %) were harbored Babesia bigemina, 15 (6.9 %) were found positive for Trypanosoma evansi and 06 (2.7 %) samples showed Anaplasma marginale. Among 85 buffalo samples examined, 11 (12.9 %) were showed Theileria spp, 04 (4.7 %) found positive for B. bigemina, 03 (3.5 %) were found positive for T. evansi and 02 (2.3 %) were positive for A. marginale. Among haemoprotozoan parasites, the highest prevalence was observed with T. annulata followed by B. bigemina and T. evansi infection. The lowest prevalence was observed with A. marginale infection. PMID:27605804

  5. Genetic Diversity of Tick-Borne Rickettsial Pathogens; Insights Gained from Distant Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Aguilar Pierlé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to capture genetic variation with unprecedented resolution improves our understanding of bacterial populations and their ability to cause disease. The goal of the pathogenomics era is to define genetic diversity that results in disease. Despite the economic losses caused by vector-borne bacteria in the Order Rickettsiales, little is known about the genetic variants responsible for observed phenotypes. The tick-transmitted rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale infects cattle in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, including Australia. Genomic analysis of North American A. marginale strains reveals a closed core genome defined by high levels of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs. Here we report the first genome sequences and comparative analysis for Australian strains that differ in virulence and transmissibility. A list of genetic differences that segregate with phenotype was evaluated for the ability to distinguish the attenuated strain from virulent field strains. Phylogenetic analyses of the Australian strains revealed a marked evolutionary distance from all previously sequenced strains. SNP analysis showed a strikingly reduced genetic diversity between these strains, with the smallest number of SNPs detected between any two A. marginale strains. The low diversity between these phenotypically distinct bacteria presents a unique opportunity to identify the genetic determinants of virulence and transmission.

  6. The Chernobyl Forum: major findings and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balonov, M.I. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: m.balonov@iaea.org

    2007-07-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986 was the most severe in the history of the nuclear industry, causing a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. The recently completed Chernobyl Forum concluded that after a number of years, along with reduction of radiation levels and accumulation of humanitarian consequences, severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem to be addressed by the authorities. The majority of the affected land is now safe for life and economic activities. However, in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and in some limited areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine some restrictions on land-use should be retained for decades to come. Most of the 600,000 emergency and recovery operation workers and five million residents of the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine received relatively minor radiation doses which are comparable with the natural background levels. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed at a young age and some increase of leukaemia and solid cancer in most exposed workers, there is no clearly demonstrated increase in the somatic diseases due to radiation.

  7. Major new sources of biological ice nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, B. F.; Hill, T.; Henderson-Begg, S. K.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all research on biological ice nucleation has focussed on a limited number of bacteria. Here we characterise several major new sources of biogenic ice nuclei. These include mosses, hornworts, liverworts and cyanobacteria. Ice nucleation in the eukaryotic bryophytes appears to be ubiquitous. The temperature at which these organisms nucleate is that at which the difference in vapour pressure over ice and water is at or close to its maximum. At these temperatures (-8 to -18 degrees C) ice will grow at the expense of supercooled water. These organisms are dependent for their water on occult precipitation - fog, dew and cloudwater which by its nature is not collected in conventional rain gauges. Therefore we suggest that these organism produce ice nuclei as a water harvesting mechanism. Since the same mechanism would also drive the Bergeron-Findeisen process, and as moss is known to become airborne, these nuclei may have a role in the initiation of precipitation. The properties of these ice nuclei are very different from the well characterised bacterial nuclei. We will also present DNA sequence data showing that, although related, the proteins responsible are only very distantly related to the classical bacterial ice nuclei.

  8. Major depression as a complex dynamical system

    CERN Document Server

    Cramer, Angélique O J; Giltay, Erik J; van der Maas, Han L J; Kendler, Kenneth S; Scheffer, Marten; Borsboom, Denny

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we characterize major depression (MD) as a complex dynamical system in which symptoms (e.g., insomnia and fatigue) are directly connected to one another in a network structure. We hypothesize that individuals can be characterized by their own network with unique architecture and resulting dynamics. With respect to architecture, we show that individuals vulnerable to developing MD are those with strong connections between symptoms: e.g., only one night of poor sleep suffices to make a particular person feel tired. Such vulnerable networks, when pushed by forces external to the system such as stress, are more likely to end up in a depressed state; whereas networks with weaker connections tend to remain in or return to a healthy state. We show this with a simulation in which we model the probability of a symptom becoming active as a logistic function of the activity of its neighboring symptoms. Additionally, we show that this model potentially explains some well-known empirical phenomena such as s...

  9. Leishmania major: Parasite Interactions Suggesting Sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Maria Auxiliadora de

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In five experiments, Leishmania (Leishmania major (MRHO/SU/59/P-strain grew poorly when seeded in FYTS medium supplemented with 15% fetal calf serum, but presented several peculiar pairs of promastigotes diametrically opposed and attached at their posterior ends (5.8-13.5%. As seen in Giemsa-stained smears, a ring-like line and/or an enlargement, generally occurred at the parasite junction. A close proximity of nuclei, which sometimes were difficult to distinguish from each other, was also observed at this junction. Several of these pairs appeared to be composed of fused cells in which the nuclei could be apparently fused, as shown by fluorescence microscopy to detect ß-tubulin and DNA, and by scanning electron microscopy. Under other culture conditions these pairs were absent or occurred at very low rates (0.2-2.2%. Such pairs differ markedly from longitudinally dividing cells and resemble those described in two other Leishmania species, as well as in Herpetomonas megaseliae and Phytomonas davidi, suggesting steps of a putative sexual process

  10. Environmental influences on major waterfowl diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, M.

    1992-01-01

    The decline of North American waterfowl resources since the 1960s is well-known to this audience and need not be detailed to establish that population numbers for several key waterfowl species are at or near their lowest levels since records have been kept. Loss of habitat is an accepted major cause for the decline of waterfowl numbers and the wildlife conservation community is responding with initiatives to prevent further loss of existing wetland acreage, restoration for degraded wetlands and creation of new wetlands. Numerous joint ventures focusing on key waterfowl habitat requirements are being developed under the North American Waterfowl Plan. The importance of habitat loss also is reflected in many of the presentations at this conference on wetland conservation, including one special session devoted solely to that topic. A basic premise of the focus on wetlands is that restoration of waterfowl populations is habitat dependent. This is a tenable thesis if other factors suppressing waterfowl numbers are dealt with and the habitat base being enhanced sustains waterfowl rather than contributes to their death. My presentation addresses disease as a factor suppressing waterfowl numbers and the relation of habitat quantity and quality with waterfowl disease.

  11. Perceptive biases in major depressive episode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Naudin

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Alterations in emotional processing occur during a major depressive episode (MDE, and olfaction and facial expressions have implications in emotional and social interactions. To gain a better understanding of these processes, we characterized the perceptive sensorial biases, potential links, and potential remission after antidepressant treatment of MDE. METHODS: We recruited 22 patients with acute MDE, both before and after three months of antidepressant treatment, and 41 healthy volunteers matched by age and smoking status. The participants underwent a clinical assessment (Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Physical and Social Anhedonia scales, Pleasure-Displeasure Scale, an olfactory evaluation (hedonic aspect, familiarity and emotional impact of odors, and a computerized Facial Affect Recognition task. RESULTS: MDE was associated with an olfactory bias concerning hedonic and emotional aspects, including negative olfactory alliesthesia (unpleasant odorants perceived as more unpleasant, facial emotion expression recognition (happy facial expressions, and in part olfactory anhedonia (pleasant odorants perceived as less pleasant. In addition, the results revealed that these impairments represent state markers of MDE, suggesting that the patients recovered the same sensory processing as healthy subjects after antidepressant treatment. DISCUSSION: This study demonstrated that MDE is associated with negative biases toward olfactory perception and the recognition of facial emotional expressions. The link between these two sensory parameters suggests common underlying processes.

  12. Affective Priming in Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle eLeMoult

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on cognitive biases in depression has provided considerable evidence for the impact of emotion on cognition. Individuals with depression tend to preferentially process mood-congruent material and to show deficits in the processing of positive material leading to biases in attention, memory, and judgments. More research is needed, however, to fully understand which cognitive processes are affected. The current study further examines the impact of emotion on cognition using a priming design with facial expressions of emotion. Specifically, this study tested whether the presentation of facial expressions of emotion affects subsequent processing of affective material in participants with major depressive disorder (MDD and healthy controls (CTL. Facial expressions displaying happy, sad, angry, disgusted, or neutral expressions were presented as primes for 500ms, and participants’ speed to identify a subsequent target’s emotional expression was assessed. All participants displayed greater interference from emotional versus neutral primes, marked by slower response times to judge the emotion of the target face when it was preceded by an emotional prime. Importantly, the CTL group showed the strongest interference when happy emotional expressions served as primes whereas the MDD group failed to show this bias. These results add to a growing literature that shows that depression is associated with difficulties in the processing of positive material.

  13. Contraction of online response to major events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szell, Michael; Grauwin, Sébastian; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying regularities in behavioral dynamics is of crucial interest for understanding collective social events such as panics or political revolutions. With the widespread use of digital communication media it has become possible to study massive data streams of user-created content in which individuals express their sentiments, often towards a specific topic. Here we investigate messages from various online media created in response to major, collectively followed events such as sport tournaments, presidential elections, or a large snow storm. We relate content length and message rate, and find a systematic correlation during events which can be described by a power law relation--the higher the excitation, the shorter the messages. We show that on the one hand this effect can be observed in the behavior of most regular users, and on the other hand is accentuated by the engagement of additional user demographics who only post during phases of high collective activity. Further, we identify the distributions of content lengths as lognormals in line with statistical linguistics, and suggest a phenomenological law for the systematic dependence of the message rate to the lognormal mean parameter. Our measurements have practical implications for the design of micro-blogging and messaging services. In the case of the existing service Twitter, we show that the imposed limit of 140 characters per message currently leads to a substantial fraction of possibly dissatisfying to compose tweets that need to be truncated by their users. PMID:24586499

  14. Contraction of online response to major events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Szell

    Full Text Available Quantifying regularities in behavioral dynamics is of crucial interest for understanding collective social events such as panics or political revolutions. With the widespread use of digital communication media it has become possible to study massive data streams of user-created content in which individuals express their sentiments, often towards a specific topic. Here we investigate messages from various online media created in response to major, collectively followed events such as sport tournaments, presidential elections, or a large snow storm. We relate content length and message rate, and find a systematic correlation during events which can be described by a power law relation--the higher the excitation, the shorter the messages. We show that on the one hand this effect can be observed in the behavior of most regular users, and on the other hand is accentuated by the engagement of additional user demographics who only post during phases of high collective activity. Further, we identify the distributions of content lengths as lognormals in line with statistical linguistics, and suggest a phenomenological law for the systematic dependence of the message rate to the lognormal mean parameter. Our measurements have practical implications for the design of micro-blogging and messaging services. In the case of the existing service Twitter, we show that the imposed limit of 140 characters per message currently leads to a substantial fraction of possibly dissatisfying to compose tweets that need to be truncated by their users.

  15. Deep brain stimulation for major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, T E; Bewernick, B H

    2013-01-01

    A third of patients suffering from major depression cannot be helped by conventional treatment methods. These patients face reduced quality of life, high risk of suicide, and little hope of recovery. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is under scientific evaluation as a new treatment option for these treatment-resistant patients. First clinical studies with small samples have been stimulated at the subgenual cingulate gyrus (Cg25/24), the anterior limb of the capsula interna (ALIC), and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Long-term antidepressant effects, augmentation of social functioning, and normalization of brain metabolism have been shown in about 50% of patients. Cognitive safety regarding attention, learning, and memory has been reported. Adverse events were wound infection, suicide, and hypomania, amongst others. Larger studies are under way to confirm these preliminary encouraging results. New hypothesis-guided targets (e.g., medial forebrain bundle, habenula) are about to be assessed in clinical trials. The application of DBS for other psychiatric diseases (e.g., bipolar disorder, alcohol dependency, opioid addiction, schizophrenia) is debated and single case studies are under way. Standards are needed for study registration, target selection, patient inclusion and monitoring, and publication of results to guarantee safety for the patients and scientific exchange. PMID:24112897

  16. Osteoporosis Syndrome in Thalassaemia Major: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meropi Toumba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in thalassaemia major (TM represents a prominent cause of morbidity. The mechanism of pathogenesis of bone disease (BD in TM is multifactorial and complicated. Peak bone mass is achieved shortly after completion of puberty and normally remains stable until the third decade of life when age-related bone mass begins. Growth hormone (GH and sex steroids play a crucial role in bone remodeling and in the maintenance of skeletal architecture during adult life. GH and insulin growth factors (IGFs have anabolic effect in bone formation. Sex steroids act probably by increasing the expression of RANKL by osteoblastic cells and alterations in the RANK/RANKL/OPG system in favor of osteoclasts. Impaired GH secretion and lack of sex steroids in thalassemic patients due to pituitary damage, contribute to failure of achieving optimal peak bone mass. Other endocrine complications such as hypoparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency have also a detrimental role on bones in TM. It is still questionable whether the international criteria for defining osteopenia and osteoporosis are relevant to patients with TM; also a question arises for the diagnostic methods such as DEXA scan and management of osteoporosis with known treatment protocols, in the thalassaemic patient.

  17. Potentialities of robots in major accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The INTRA group was founded in 1988, 2 years after the Chernobyl accident with the purpose of a cooperation between EDF, Cogema and CEA in order to develop and operate a fleet of robots able to intervene and replace man in a nuclear facility in case of major accident. Now INTRA disposes of 5 types of equipment: first, robots for the inside of buildings (they can overcome 40 cm high obstacles, open doors, go upstairs) they are wire-guided and enjoy a battery life of 6 to 8 hours. Secondly, robots for the open air that are able to move in very degraded grounds, they are remote controlled through radio-waves and their autonomy range nears 5 km. Thirdly, public works vehicles, INTRA has developed an excavator and a dump truck, both are remote controlled, they allow the making of any earth work. Fourthly, INTRA has developed 2 systems of contamination measurement: Skylink and Helinuc. Skylink is a system of 20 radiation monitors that can be dispatched on the contaminated zone, their data is collected through radio waves. Helinuc is a kind of gamma spectrometer that is helicopter-borne and can draw a map of the contamination around the installation. Fifthly, 2 drones are being tested, they will be fitted with radiation monitors. (A.C.)

  18. Distribution of major hydrocarbon source rocks in the major oil-gas-bearing basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Luofu; ZHAO Suping; CHEN Lixin; HUO Hong

    2005-01-01

    The distribution characteristics of major hydrocarbon source rocks in the major oil-gas-bearing basins in China were discussed in this paper, and differences between the East and the West basins in tectonic setting, age, lithology, sedimentary environment, and hydrocarbon generation feature and potential were also studied. Considering the Lüliang Mountains-Dalou Mountains as the boundary, source rocks in the East basins are distributed mainly in three NNE-trend subsiding belts, and those in the West basins are distributed in the north and south of the Tianshan Mountains and Qilian Mountains. They are mainly NWW trending and can be divided into four basin groups.

  19. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area.

  20. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area

  1. Bovine anaplasmosis with emphasis on immune responses and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaplasmosis is an infectious and transmissible disease manifested by progressive anaemia and the appearance of other characteristic disease symptoms. It is a world-wide tick-borne disease of cattle and some wild ruminants caused by the rickettsia Anaplasma marginale. By drawing on information obtained from studies of plasmodial cell cultures, a method has recently been developed for short-term in vitro cultivation of A. marginale. An attenuated Anaplasma organism capable of growth in both ovine and bovine erythrocytes was used to demonstrate that the in vitro system provided the necessary requirements for active transfer of the organism from cell to cell. Organismal antigens are found in the erythrocytes of infected animals, whereas soluble antigens are derived from their erythrocytes and serum. Serums from convalescing animals interact with these antigens in agglutination, complement fixation, fluorescent antibody and precipitation tests. Passive transfer of sera from immune to susceptible cattle, however, does not seem to confer protection against the infection and development of the disease. Studies that employed various tests for measuring cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses (leukocyte migration inhibition, blast transformation and cytotoxicity), in association with information collected simultaneously on antibody activity, have shown that both humoral and cellular immune responses are needed for the development of protective immunity in anaplasmosis. It was further shown that an active replication of Anaplasma is essential for induction of these two types of immune responses. Consequently, live virulent and attenuated immunogens fulfil requirements for induction of protective immunity. With the virulent agent, however, development of protective immunity is preceded by induction of auto-immune responses apparently associated with pathogenesis of anaemia in anaplasmosis. Inactivated immunogens derived from blood of infected cattle and used in combination with

  2. Aerosol pollution potential from major population centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kunkel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Major population centers (MPCs or mega-cities represent the largest of growing urban agglomerations with major societal and environmental implications. In terms of air quality they are seen as localized but strong emission sources of aerosols and trace gases which in turn affect air pollution levels in the city or in downwind regions. In the state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC, generic aerosol and gas phase tracers with equal emission source strengths at 46 MPC locations are used to study the balance between local pollution build up and pollution export, either vertically into the upper troposphere or horizontally, but remaining in the lower atmosphere. The insoluble gas phase tracers with fixed lifetimes are transported with the atmospheric circulation, while the aerosol tracers also undergo gravitational sedimentation as well as dry and wet deposition processes. The strength of low-level tracer export depends on the location of the emission source and prevailing meteorology, in particular on atmospheric stability and the height of the boundary layer and the mixing out of this layer. In contrast, vertical transport of tracer mass depends on the tracer's solubility: the more soluble a tracer is the less mass reaches altitudes above five kilometers. Hence, the mass of insoluble gas phase tracer above five kilometers can be up to ten times higher than the hydrophilic aerosol mass from the same source. In the case of aerosol tracers, pollution build up around the source is determined by meteorological factors which have only indirect effects on tracer lifetime, like surface wind, boundary layer height, and turbulent mixing as well as those which affect the lifetime of the tracers such as precipitation. The longer a tracer stays in the atmosphere, the lower is the relative importance of the location of the source to the atmospheric mass and thus the lower is the relative local pollution build up. We further use

  3. Aerosol pollution potential from major population centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kunkel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Major population centers (MPCs, or megacities, represent the largest of growing urban agglomerations with major societal and environmental implications. In terms of air quality, they are seen as localized but strong emission sources of aerosols and trace gases which in turn affect air pollution levels in the city or in downwind regions. In the state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC, generic aerosol and gas-phase tracers with equal emission source strengths at 46 MPC locations are used to study the balance between local pollution build-up and pollution export, either vertically into the upper troposphere or horizontally in the lower troposphere. The insoluble gas-phase tracers with fixed lifetimes are transported with the atmospheric circulation, while the aerosol tracers also undergo gravitational sedimentation as well as dry and wet deposition processes. The strength of low-level tracer export depends on the location of the emission source and prevailing meteorology, in particular on atmospheric stability and the height of the boundary layer and the mixing out of this layer. In contrast, vertical transport of tracer mass depends on the tracer's solubility: the more soluble a tracer is, the less mass reaches altitudes above five kilometers. Hence, the mass of insoluble gas-phase tracer above five kilometers can be up to ten times higher than the hydrophilic aerosol mass from the same source. In the case of aerosol tracers, pollution build-up around the source is determined by meteorological factors which have only indirect effects on tracer lifetime, like surface wind, boundary layer height, and turbulent mixing, as well as those which affect the lifetime of the tracers such as precipitation. The longer a tracer stays in the atmosphere, the lower is the relative importance of the location of the source to the atmospheric mass, and thus the lower is the relative local pollution build-up. We further use aerosol

  4. Prehospital care at a major international airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwinn, A A; Dinerman, N; Pons, P T; Marlin, R

    1988-10-01

    Medical emergencies at a major metropolitan airport have a significant impact on prehospital care capabilities for the rest of the community in which the airport is located. Stapleton International Airport in Denver, Colorado, is a facility that in 1985 had 14.4 million passengers and a static employee population of 12,000 to 15,000. In 1981, there were 1,182 ambulance trips to the airport, 40.4% of which did not result in the transport of a patient. The expense of sending an ambulance and fire engine out on such calls was great, and paramedics were out of service for approximately 300 hours on these nontransport cases. In order to improve prehospital services to the airport and the city, a paramedic has been stationed in the concourse at the airport 16 hours a day since 1982. The records for airport paramedic services for the 12 months ending September 1985 were reviewed. Paramedic services were requested for 1,952 patients. Of these, 696 (35.7%) were transported to hospital by ambulance; 115 (5.9%) went by private car; 284 (14.6%) refused any paramedic care or transport; and 857 (43.9%) were released, after base station contact, with instructions to seek definitive care at the final destination. Presenting complaints were classified into 55 categories and the frequencies and dispositions are described. The most common presentations resulting in transport were chest pain, 110 (5.6%); syncope, 60 (3.1%); psychiatric, 57 (2.9%); abdominal pain, 49 (2.5%); seizure, 36 (1.8%); fracture, 31 (1.6%); and cardiac arrest, 29 (1.5%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3177992

  5. A major genetic component of BSE susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams John L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coding variants of the prion protein gene (PRNP have been shown to be major determinants for the susceptibility to transmitted prion diseases in humans, mice and sheep. However, to date, the effects of polymorphisms in the coding and regulatory regions of bovine PRNP on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE susceptibility have been considered marginal or non-existent. Here we analysed two insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP in BSE affected animals and controls of four independent cattle populations from UK and Germany. Results In the present report, we show that two previously reported 23- and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP are strongly associated with BSE incidence in cattle. Genotyping of BSE-affected and control animals of UK Holstein, German Holstein, German Brown and German Fleckvieh breeds revealed a significant overrepresentation of the deletion alleles at both polymorphic sites in diseased animals (P = 2.01 × 10-3 and P = 8.66 × 10-5, respectively. The main effect on susceptibility is associated with the 12-bp indel polymorphism. Compared with non-carriers, heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the 12-bp deletion allele possess relatively higher risks of having BSE, ranging from 1.32 to 4.01 and 1.74 to 3.65 in the different breeds. These values correspond to population attributable risks ranging from 35% to 53%. Conclusion Our results demonstrate a substantial genetic PRNP associated component for BSE susceptibility in cattle. Although the BSE risk conferred by the deletion allele of the 12-bp indel in the regulatory region of PRNP is substantial, the main risk factor for BSE in cattle is environmental, i.e. exposure to feedstuffs contaminated with the infectious agent.

  6. Polygenic dissection of major depression clinical heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milaneschi, Y; Lamers, F; Peyrot, W J; Abdellaoui, A; Willemsen, G; Hottenga, J-J; Jansen, R; Mbarek, H; Dehghan, A; Lu, C; Boomsma, D I; Penninx, B W J H

    2016-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder (MDD) are largely unknown. Limited success of previous genetics studies may be attributable to heterogeneity of MDD, aggregating biologically different subtypes. We examined the polygenic features of MDD and two common clinical subtypes (typical and atypical) defined by symptom profiles in a large sample of adults with established diagnoses. Data were from 1530 patients of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) and 1700 controls mainly from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Diagnoses of MDD and its subtypes were based on DSM-IV symptoms. Genetic overlap of MDD and subtypes with psychiatric (MDD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia) and metabolic (body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein, triglycerides) traits was evaluated via genomic profile risk scores (GPRS) generated from meta-analysis results of large international consortia. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-heritability of MDD and subtypes was also estimated. MDD was associated with psychiatric GPRS, while no association was found for GPRS of metabolic traits. MDD subtypes had differential polygenic signatures: typical was strongly associated with schizophrenia GPRS (odds ratio (OR)=1.54, P=7.8e-9), while atypical was additionally associated with BMI (OR=1.29, P=2.7e-4) and triglycerides (OR=1.21, P=0.006) GPRS. Similar results were found when only the highly discriminatory symptoms of appetite/weight were used to define subtypes. SNP-heritability was 32% for MDD, 38% and 43% for subtypes with, respectively, decreased (typical) and increased (atypical) appetite/weight. In conclusion, MDD subtypes are characterized by partially distinct polygenic liabilities and may represent more homogeneous phenotypes. Disentangling MDD heterogeneity may help the psychiatric field moving forward in the search for molecular roots of depression. PMID:26122587

  7. Dichotomy of major genes and polygenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to facilitate domestication and breeding of new or underexploited crop species, the genetic basis of many traits must be critically investigated, and both naturally occurring and induced mutations should be utilized. Classically, most breeding procedures have invoked the dichotomy of major genes versus polygenes (or discrete versus continuously varying traits) which is briefly reviewed here from several viewpoints. Clearly, the evidence for two distinct classes of genes (or gene effects on phenotype) and traits is largely a product of different forms of genetic analyses and their primary objectives as well as of researchers' expectations. Superimposed on the simplest Mendelian ratios and genome maps are numerous sources of molecular variation and gene expression at many levels of phenotypic description. Many attempts to delineate developmental pathways and to identify genes controlling discrete vs. quantitative phenotypic variation have resulted in emphasis on multigenic models with specific gene effects at mappable loci but nonetheless modified by small effects. Thus, quantitative genetic variation may arise from multi-genic and multi-allelic systems of both structural and regulatory gene action and gene interactions which, from an empirical breeding perspective, might be adequately described by the biometrical and evolutionary models. Polygenic analyses were conceptually based on genetic parameters in these models (as caricatures of reality) but efforts to modify or reject them by identifying and mapping sources of phenotypic variation through newer genetic methods are likely to enrich and not displace biometrical methods. Domestication programmes, in particular, should employ the entire array of genetic discoveries and methodologies. (author). 71 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  8. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in minor and major surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, M; Righi, E; Astilean, A; Corcione, S; Petrolo, A; Farina, E C; De Rosa, F G

    2015-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a frequent cause of morbidity following surgical procedures. Gram-positive cocci, particularly staphylococci, cause many of these infections, although Gram-negative organisms are also frequently involved. The risk of developing a SSI is associated with a number of factors, including aspects of the operative procedure itself, such as wound classification, and patient-related variables, such as preexisting medical conditions. Antimicrobial prophylaxis (AP) plays an important role in reducing SSIs, especially if patient-related risk factors for SSIs are present. The main components of antimicrobial prophylaxis are: timing, selection of drugs and patients, duration and costs. Compliance with these generally accepted preventive principles may lead to overall decreases in the incidence of these infections. Ideally the administration of the prophylactic agent should start within 30 minutes from the surgical incision. The duration of the AP should not exceed 24 hours for the majority of surgical procedures. The shortest effective period of prophylactic antimicrobial administration is not known and studies have demonstrated that post-surgical antibiotic administration is unnecessary. Furthermore, there were no proven benefits in multiple dose regimens when compared to single-dose regimens. The choice of an appropriate prophylactic antimicrobial agent should be based primarily on efficacy and safety. Broad spectrum antibiotics should be avoided due to the risk of promoting bacterial resistance. Cephalosporins are the most commonly used antibiotics in surgical prophylaxis; specifically, cefazolin or cefuroxime are mainly used in the prophylaxis regimens for cardio-thoracic surgery, vascular surgery, hip or knee arthroplasty surgery, neurosurgical procedures and gynecologic and obstetric procedures. A review of the prophylactic regimens regarding the main surgical procedures is presented. PMID:24561611

  9. Flexible Pre-Majors: Final Report of the Flexible Pre-Majors Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGibbon, John; Orum, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This report provides advice for program areas contemplating the development of a Flexible Pre-Major (FPM) in their discipline. The FPM is another means of aiding student transfer in a system that expects and encourages significant student mobility. The FPM addresses a problematic area for academic students: that of completing the lower level major…

  10. A New Majority: Low Income Students Now a Majority in the Nation's Public Schools. Research Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Education Foundation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For the first time in recent history, a majority of the schoolchildren attending the nation's public schools come from low income families. The latest data collected from the states by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), evidence that 51 percent of the students across the nation's public schools were low income in 2013. The…

  11. Major Difference: An Examination of Student Writing Performance by Major and Its Implications for Business Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmar, Lucia S.; Hynes, Geraldine E.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the writing performance levels of 352 students to determine the extent to which business students are achieving written communication competency and whether differences exist among the business majors. Although most students met or exceeded expectations in format and content on a common writing task, students were weakest in…

  12. Teleneonatology: a major tool for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Stephen; Allan, Mark; Valdes, Wesley

    2014-02-01

    Hospitals have, for centuries, maintained a central position in the health care system, providing care for critically ill patients. Despite being a cornerstone of health care delivery, we are witnessing the beginning of a major transformation in their function. There are several forces driving this transformation, including health care costs, shortage of health care professionals, volume of people with chronic diseases, consumerism, health care reform, and hospital errors. The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Utah Valley Regional Medical Center in Provo, Utah, began an aggressive redesign/quality improvement effort in 1990. It became obvious that our care processes were designed for health care deliverers and not for the families. An ongoing revamp of our care delivery processes was undertaken using significant input from a parent focus meeting, parental interviews, and development of a parent-to-parent support group. As a result of this work, it became obvious we needed a new model to truly empower parents. The idea of "NICU is Home" was born. We elected to make a mind shift, not to focus on what families think, but rather on how they think. Web cams and other video apparatus have been used in a number of NICUs across the country. We decided our equipment requirements would need to include high-resolution cameras, full high-definition video recording, autofocus, audio microphones, automatic noise reduction, and automatic low-light correction. Our conferencing software needed to accommodate multiple users and have multiple-picture capabilities, low band width, and inexpensive technology. It was recognized that a single video camera feed was insufficient to adequately capture the desired amount of information. Verbal communication between parents and their babies' principal care providers is critical. Parents loved the idea of expanding the remote NICU web cam of their baby to a two-way physician-parent communication bedside monitor. Doctors at Utah Valley

  13. Major intrinsic proteins in biomimetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Claus Hélix

    2010-01-01

    Biological membranes define the structural and functional boundaries in living cells and their organelles. The integrity of the cell depends on its ability to separate inside from outside and yet at the same time allow massive transport of matter in and out the cell. Nature has elegantly met this challenge by developing membranes in the form of lipid bilayers in which specialized transport proteins are incorporated. This raises the question: is it possible to mimic biological membranes and create a membrane based sensor and/or separation device? In the development of a biomimetic sensor/separation technology, a unique class of membrane transport proteins is especially interesting-the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). Generally, MIPs conduct water molecules and selected solutes in and out of the cell while preventing the passage of other solutes, a property critical for the conservation of the cells internal pH and salt concentration. Also known as water channels or aquaporins they are highly efficient membrane pore proteins some of which are capable of transporting water at very high rates up to 10(9) molecules per second. Some MIPs transport other small, uncharged solutes, such as glycerol and other permeants such as carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide and the metalloids antimonite, arsenite, silicic and boric acid depending on the effective restriction mechanism of the protein. The flux properties of MIPs thus lead to the question ifMIPs can be used in separation devices or as sensor devices based on, e.g., the selective permeation of metalloids. In principle a MIP based membrane sensor/separation device requires the supporting biomimetic matrix to be virtually impermeable to anything but water or the solute in question. In practice, however, a biomimetic support matrix will generally have finite permeabilities to both electrolytes and non-electrolytes. The feasibility of a biomimetic MIP device thus depends on the relative transport

  14. Subcortical brain alterations in major depressive disorder: findings from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmaal, L.; Veltman, DJ; Van Erp, TG; Sämann, PG; Frodl, T; Jahanshad, N.; Loehrer, E; Tiemeier, H.; Hofman, A.; Niessen, WJ; Vernooij, MW; Ikram, MA; Wittfeld, K; Grabe, HJ; Block, A

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of structural brain alterations associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unresolved. This is in part due to small sample sizes of neuroimaging studies resulting in limited statistical power, disease heterogeneity and the complex interactions between clinical characteristics and brain morphology. To address this, we meta-analyzed three-dimensional brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 1728 MDD patients and 7199 controls from 15 research samples worldwide, to ide...

  15. Subcortical brain alterations in major depressive disorder: Findings from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group

    OpenAIRE

    Schmaal, Lianne; Veltman, Dick; van Erp, T G M; Smann, P.G.; Frodl, Thomas; Jahanshad, N; Loehrer, Elizabeth; Tiemeier, Henning; Hofman, A; Niessen, W. J.; Vernooij, Meike; Ikram, Arfan; Wittfeld, Katharina; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Block, A

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe pattern of structural brain alterations associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unresolved. This is in part due to small sample sizes of neuroimaging studies resulting in limited statistical power, disease heterogeneity and the complex interactions between clinical characteristics and brain morphology. To address this, we meta-analyzed three-dimensional brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 1728 MDD patients and 7199 controls from 15 research samples world...

  16. Seroprevalence and risk factors for cattle anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and trypanosomiasis in a Brazilian semiarid region Soroprevalência e fatores de risco para anaplasmose, babesiose e tripanosomíase bovina em uma região semiárida do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Medeiros de Mendonça Costa

    Full Text Available The seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Trypanosoma vivax and the risk factors for these infections were investigated in 509 cows on 37 farms in the semiarid region of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Cow serum samples were tested by means of immunofluorescence assay (IFA against each specific antigen. The mean seroprevalence values per farm were 15.0% (range: 0-75% for A. marginale, 9.5% (range: 0-40% for B. bigemina and 26.9% (range: 0-73.7% for B. bovis. All cows tested negative for T. vivax. Higher prevalence for A. marginale was significantly associated with less frequent acaricide spraying per year and with higher use of injectable antihelminthics. Presence of cows positive for B. bigemina was significantly associated with acaricide use and with presence of horse flies on the farm. Both occurrence and higher prevalence of B. bovis were significantly associated with recent observations of ticks on cattle. Overall, the present results indicate that the region investigated is an enzootically unstable area for A. marginale, B. bigemina and B. bovis, since most animals were seronegative to at least one agent.A soroprevalência de Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis e Trypanosoma vivax, assim como os fatores de risco para estas infecções, foram investigadas em 37 fazendas (total de 509 vacas da região semiárida da Paraíba, nordeste do Brasil. A presença de anticorpos nos soros dos animais foi detectada pela técnica de imunofluorescência indireta, utilizando antígenos específicos. Os valores médios de soroprevalência por fazenda foram 15,0% (0-75% para A. marginale, 9,5% (0-40% para B. bigemina, e 26,9% (0-73,7% para B. bovis. Todas as vacas foram soronegativas para T. vivax. As maiores prevalências de A. marginale foram significativamente associadas com menor uso de carrapaticidas por ano e com uso mais frequente de antihelmínticos injetáveis. A soroprevalência de B. bigemina

  17. A Student's Guide to Einstein's Major Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The core of this volume is formed by four chapters (2–5) with detailed reconstructions of the arguments and derivations in four of Einstein's most important papers, the three main papers of his annus mirabilis 1905 (on the light quantum, Brownian motion, and special relativity) and his first systematic exposition of general relativity of 1916. The derivations are given in sufficient detail and in sufficiently modernized notation (without any serious distortion of the originals) for an undergraduate physics major to read and understand them with far less effort than it would take him or her to understand (English translations of) Einstein's original papers. Each of these four papers is accompanied by a detailed introduction, which covers the conceptual development of the relevant field prior to Einstein's contribution to it and corrects some of the myths surrounding these papers that still have not been fully eradicated among physicists. (One quibble: though Kennedy correctly points out that the goal of the light quantum paper was not to explain the photoelectric effect, it is also not quite right to say that 'it was written to explain the Wien region of blackbody radiation' (p. xv). Einstein used this explanatory feat as the central argument for his light quantum hypothesis.) These four chapters then are the most valuable part of the volume. They could be used, independently of one another, but preferably in conjunction with Einstein's original texts, in courses on quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, electrodynamics, and general relativity, respectively, to add a historical component to such courses. As a historian of science embedded in a physics department who is regularly called upon to give guest lectures in such courses on the history of their subjects, I can highly recommend the volume for this purpose. However, I would not adopt this volume as (one of) the central text(s) for a course on the history of modern physics. For one thing, chapter 1, which

  18. Ursa Major: ot losya do medvedya %t Ursa Major: from elk to bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushnikova, A. V.

    In the article material from various cultural and linguistic sources (Indo-European - Slavic, Indo-Iranian; Uralo-Altaic, Tungus, Ancient Egyptian, Babylonian) is used in order to trace up the chronology of the designation of Ursa Majopr, a constellation which has been playing an important role for people different regions since ancient times. It was used for observing of the visible yearly motion of the Sun, for working out seasonal changes; being a circumpolar and non-hiding behind the horizon it has been perceived as a symbol of immortality, its peculiar positional change during a year lay down in plot of the Uralo-Siberian myths about a cosmic hunt for the Elk, myths about deluge. Data from Uralo-Siberian mythology are analyzed. Designations of Ursa Major in the form of a horned hoofed animal such as elk, deer, cow (Uralo-Altaic, Tungus, Slavic, Indo-Iranian languages; Ancient Greece, Crete, Ancient Egypt) and connected with it (or derived from it) denominations and images of "enclosed space" - "vehicle for travelling and carrying goods" (a wagon, a boat) - "instrument for hunting-fishing, a ritual thing" - "household construction" are taken in consideration. The conclusion is made that the transition of the Ursa Major designation from elk to bear could follow the general tendency to shift from so-called matriarchy to patriarchy, to substitute female deities with male ones, which was reflected "in the rise" of the predatory animal cults (not earlier than II mil. B.C.). To prove this, lexical examples of resemblance and coincidences in designation of homed hoofed (elk, deer) and predatory (bear, wolf) animals should be analyzed. Such a goal-directed investigation of the chronology of Ursa Major designations has never been carried out.

  19. Comparative genomics and transcriptomics of trait-gene association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierlé Sebastián

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Order Rickettsiales includes important tick-borne pathogens, from Rickettsia rickettsii, which causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever, to Anaplasma marginale, the most prevalent vector-borne pathogen of cattle. Although most pathogens in this Order are transmitted by arthropod vectors, little is known about the microbial determinants of transmission. A. marginale provides unique tools for studying the determinants of transmission, with multiple strain sequences available that display distinct and reproducible transmission phenotypes. The closed core A. marginale genome suggests that any phenotypic differences are due to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. We combined DNA/RNA comparative genomic approaches using strains with different tick transmission phenotypes and identified genes that segregate with transmissibility. Results Comparison of seven strains with different transmission phenotypes generated a list of SNPs affecting 18 genes and nine promoters. Transcriptional analysis found two candidate genes downstream from promoter SNPs that were differentially transcribed. To corroborate the comparative genomics approach we used three RNA-seq platforms to analyze the transcriptomes from two A. marginale strains with different transmission phenotypes. RNA-seq analysis confirmed the comparative genomics data and found 10 additional genes whose transcription between strains with distinct transmission efficiencies was significantly different. Six regions of the genome that contained no annotation were found to be transcriptionally active, and two of these newly identified transcripts were differentially transcribed. Conclusions This approach identified 30 genes and two novel transcripts potentially involved in tick transmission. We describe the transcriptome of an obligate intracellular bacterium in depth, while employing massive parallel sequencing to dissect an important trait in bacterial pathogenesis.

  20. Babesiosis and anaplasmosis in dairy cattle in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A.L. Souza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to characterize the epidemiological situation and the factors involved in the prevalence of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle in the dairy basin of Parnaíba, Piauí, Brazil. The study was conducted in 22 farms, and collected blood samples from 202 cattle to study serological, molecular and determination of the packed cell volume (PCV. On the farms were applied surveys involving epidemiological aspects. Seroprevalence rates were: Babesia bigemina 52.5%, B. bovis 68.8%, and Anaplasma marginale 89.1%. Of the samples analyzed, 73.3% were reactive for Babesia spp. and A. marginale, showing co-infection. In PCR, B. bigemina and B. bovis were positive in 52.0% and 33.2% respectively, and A. marginale in 76.2%. Of these, 51.5% amplified DNA of Babesia spp. and A. marginale. The semi-intensive management predominated in 68.0% of the farms studied. The clinical history of babesiosis and anaplasmosis, was reported from 73% of the farms. There was no significant difference (p>0.05 between age groups and for the PCV of positive compared with negative animals. The study indicates that in this region is enzootic instability for babesiosis and enzootic stability for anaplasmosis, reinforcing the fact that in Brazil there are areas of enzootic instability, even in tropical regions of the country. The PCR technique was a valuable tool for the diagnosis of these diseases and may be used to characterize a geographic region.

  1. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease ... can do something about. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart ...

  2. 48 CFR 2131.205-70 - Major subcontractor service charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 2131.205-70 Major... major subcontractor only from the risk charge or service charge negotiated between OPM and...

  3. Generalization of majorization theorem via Abel-Gontscharoff polynomial

    OpenAIRE

    Adil Khan, Muhammad; Latif, Naveed; Pečarić, Josip

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we use Abel-Gontscharoff formula and Green function to give some identities for the difference of majorization inequality and present the generalization of majorization theorem for the class of n-convex. We use inequalities for the Čebyšev functional to obtain bounds for the identities related to generalizations of majorization inequalities. We present mean value theorems and n-exponential convexity for the functional obtained from the generalized majorization inequalities. At t...

  4. 22 CFR 120.32 - Major non-NATO ally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Major non-NATO ally. 120.32 Section 120.32... § 120.32 Major non-NATO ally. Major non-NATO ally means a country that is designated in accordance with § 517 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2321k) as a major non-NATO ally for purposes...

  5. A Sound and Complete Axiomatization of Majority-n Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Amarù, Luca; Gaillardon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Chattopadhyay, Anupam; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Manipulating logic functions via majority operators recently drew the attention of researchers in computer science. For example, circuit optimization based on majority operators enables superior results as compared to traditional logic systems. Also, the Boolean satisfiability problem finds new solving approaches when described in terms of majority decisions. To support computer logic applications based on majority a sound and complete set of axioms is required. Most of the recent advances in...

  6. Starting an Actuarial Science Major at a Liberal Arts College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The article provides details of the process of starting an actuarial science major at a small, liberal arts college. Some critique of the major is included, as well as some challenges that may be faced by others wanting to start such a major at their institution.

  7. 14 CFR 21.289 - Major repairs, rebuilding and alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major repairs, rebuilding and alteration. 21.289 Section 21.289 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... authorization, a manufacturer may— (a) After finding that a major repair or major alteration meets...

  8. 77 FR 16047 - Oregon; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... State of Oregon have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Benton, Columbia... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Oregon; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oregon (FEMA-4055-DR), dated March 2, 2012, and...

  9. 77 FR 44648 - Florida; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... affected by this major disaster: Baker, Bradford, Columbia, Pasco, and Wakulla Counties for Individual... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Florida; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Florida (FEMA-4068-DR), dated July 3, 2012, and...

  10. The Viability of the English Major in the Current Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiner, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In an April, 2012 Wall Street Journal article titled "Wealth or Waste? Rethinking the Value of a Business Major," national reporter Melissa Korn explores an intriguing fact: the business major, the most popular major on college campuses for over 30 years and the discipline believed to be most economically viable by prospective college students and…

  11. The "Discouraged-Business-Major" Hypothesis: Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangos, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a relatively large dataset of the stated academic major preferences of economics majors at a relatively large, not highly selective, public university in the USA to identify the "discouraged-business-majors" (DBMs). The DBM hypothesis addresses the phenomenon where students who are screened out of the business curriculum often…

  12. Selecting a Business Major within the College of Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, David W.; McGaughey, Ronald E.; Downey, James P.

    2012-01-01

    This study employed a survey in examining the important influences that shape a student's selection of a major in the College of Business (COB). In particular, it compared these influences, by major, to assess which items were most (and least) important to the students majoring in accounting, general business, finance, management, marketing, and…

  13. Effect of Undergraduate College Major on Performance in Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen R.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 406 Brown University (Rhode Island) medical students found slightly over half had undergraduate majors in science or mathematics, a third majored in the humanities or social sciences, and a tenth had double majors or independent concentrations. No statistically significant difference was found between medical school performances of the…

  14. Latissimus Dorsi and Teres Major Injuries in Major League Baseball Pitchers: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Syed K; Frangiamore, Salvatore J; Schickendantz, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the upper extremity in baseball pitchers are not uncommon, with extensive literature on shoulder and elbow pathology. However, there is minimal literature on isolated teres major (TM) and latissimus dorsi (LD) injuries. As a result, there is no consensus on an optimal treatment method. An extensive Medline search on studies focusing on the treatment of isolated LD and TM injuries in professional baseball pitchers was performed to explore this topic. Of the 20 retrieved articles, 5 met our inclusion criteria. There were a total of 29 patients who underwent conservative treatment and 1 who underwent surgical treatment. The average time required to return to pitching was 99.8 days in the conservative group and 140 days in the surgically treated group. Five patients in the conservative group suffered from complications and/or setbacks during their treatment and rehabilitation. The lone surgical patient suffered no complications, returned to preinjury form, and was elected an all-star the following year. The goal of this review is to provide a concise summary of the current literature in order to assist physicians when discussing treatment options with their patients. PMID:26991570

  15. Subcortical brain alterations in major depressive disorder: findings from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaal, L; Veltman, D J; van Erp, T G M; Sämann, P G; Frodl, T; Jahanshad, N; Loehrer, E; Tiemeier, H; Hofman, A; Niessen, W J; Vernooij, M W; Ikram, M A; Wittfeld, K; Grabe, H J; Block, A; Hegenscheid, K; Völzke, H; Hoehn, D; Czisch, M; Lagopoulos, J; Hatton, S N; Hickie, I B; Goya-Maldonado, R; Krämer, B; Gruber, O; Couvy-Duchesne, B; Rentería, M E; Strike, L T; Mills, N T; de Zubicaray, G I; McMahon, K L; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Gillespie, N A; Wright, M J; Hall, G B; MacQueen, G M; Frey, E M; Carballedo, A; van Velzen, L S; van Tol, M J; van der Wee, N J; Veer, I M; Walter, H; Schnell, K; Schramm, E; Normann, C; Schoepf, D; Konrad, C; Zurowski, B; Nickson, T; McIntosh, A M; Papmeyer, M; Whalley, H C; Sussmann, J E; Godlewska, B R; Cowen, P J; Fischer, F H; Rose, M; Penninx, B W J H; Thompson, P M; Hibar, D P

    2016-06-01

    The pattern of structural brain alterations associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unresolved. This is in part due to small sample sizes of neuroimaging studies resulting in limited statistical power, disease heterogeneity and the complex interactions between clinical characteristics and brain morphology. To address this, we meta-analyzed three-dimensional brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 1728 MDD patients and 7199 controls from 15 research samples worldwide, to identify subcortical brain volumes that robustly discriminate MDD patients from healthy controls. Relative to controls, patients had significantly lower hippocampal volumes (Cohen's d=-0.14, % difference=-1.24). This effect was driven by patients with recurrent MDD (Cohen's d=-0.17, % difference=-1.44), and we detected no differences between first episode patients and controls. Age of onset ⩽21 was associated with a smaller hippocampus (Cohen's d=-0.20, % difference=-1.85) and a trend toward smaller amygdala (Cohen's d=-0.11, % difference=-1.23) and larger lateral ventricles (Cohen's d=0.12, % difference=5.11). Symptom severity at study inclusion was not associated with any regional brain volumes. Sample characteristics such as mean age, proportion of antidepressant users and proportion of remitted patients, and methodological characteristics did not significantly moderate alterations in brain volumes in MDD. Samples with a higher proportion of antipsychotic medication users showed larger caudate volumes in MDD patients compared with controls. This currently largest worldwide effort to identify subcortical brain alterations showed robust smaller hippocampal volumes in MDD patients, moderated by age of onset and first episode versus recurrent episode status. PMID:26122586

  16. Gender Differences in Attitudes Toward Science and Technology Among Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Anu A.; Rabe-Hemp, Cara; Woeste, Lori; Machina, Kenton

    2015-08-01

    In the USA, women have consistently been proportionally underrepresented in science and technology (S&T). In these disciplines, as students move from high schools to colleges to graduate programs, qualified women drop out at higher rates than do men, resulting in a striking loss of talented students. Attitude toward a discipline is one of the major factors in students' choice of majors. As a result, attitudes toward S&T are issues with longstanding attention and interest in education research. Retention of female students in S&T majors remains a major concern. The purpose of the study was to investigate attitudes toward S&T including attitudes toward female participation in S&T, among S&T majors, and examine differences by gender and class standing. Such an investigation would provide deeper insights to help devise strategies to retain women in S&T majors.

  17. Infecção natural por hemoparasitos em bezerros submetidos à quimio-profilaxia aos 30 dias de idade Natural infection by hemoparasites in calves submitted to chemo -prophylaxis wonder 30 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela A. Da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O complexo Tristeza Parasitária acarreta grandes prejuízos à pecuária bovina nacional. Os principais agentes etiológicos são Babesia bigemina, B. bovis e Anaplasma marginale, sendo o carrapato Boophilus microplus o principal vetor. Este trabalho relata a ocorrência de infecção natural por hemoparasitos da tristeza parasitária bovina em 36 bezerros com alta infestação natural por carrapatos e submetidos à quimioprofilaxia aos 30 dias de idade. Babesia bigemina (33,3%, B. bovis (11,1% e A. marginale (13,9% foram detectados em esfregaços sangüíneos de 16 animais (44,4% de diferentes idades. Seis bezerros apresentaram sintomas (16,7% e um morreu (2,8%. O número de casos clínicos foi decorrente de uma associação de fatores, destacando-se a alta infestação precoce por carrapatos e a baixa imunidade passiva em período em que os bezerros ainda não haviam desenvolvido imunidade ativa suficiente.The tick-borne disease (TBD brings great damages to cattle breeding. The most important etiologic agents are Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma marginale, being the tick Boophilus microplus the main vector. This work reports the occurrence of natural infection by hemoparasites of TBD in 36 calves with high ticks natural infestation submitted to chemoprophylaxis with 30 days year-old. The blood smears from animals of different ages were analized and were found B. bigemina (33.3%, B. bovis (11.1% and A. marginale (13.9%. Six animals had clinical symptoms (16.7% and one dead (2.8%. The number of clinical cases ocurred in consequence of an association of factors as high infestation of ticks and low passive immunity in period that calves had not developed enough active immunity.

  18. Does thromboprophylaxis prevent venous thromboembolism after major orthopedic surgery?*,**

    OpenAIRE

    Akpinar, Evrim Eylem; Hosgün, Derya; Akan, Burak; Ates, Can; Gülhan, Meral

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is an important complication of major orthopedic surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and factors influencing the development of VTE in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery in a university hospital. METHODS: Patients who underwent major orthopedic surgery (hip arthroplasty, knee arthroplasty, or femur fracture repair) between February of 2006 and June of 2012 were retrospectively included in the...

  19. Does thromboprophylaxis prevent venous thromboembolism after major orthopedic surgery?

    OpenAIRE

    Evrim Eylem Akpinar; Derya Hosgun; Burak Akan; Can Ates; Meral Gulhan

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is an important complication of major orthopedic surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and factors influencing the development of VTE in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery in a university hospital. METHODS: Patients who underwent major orthopedic surgery (hip arthroplasty, knee arthroplasty, or femur fracture repair) between February of 2006 and June of 2012 were retrospectively included i...

  20. The Convergence Rate of Majority Vote under Exchangeability

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Miles E.

    2013-01-01

    Majority vote plays a fundamental role in many applications of statistics, such as ensemble classifiers, crowdsourcing, and elections. When using majority vote as a prediction rule, it is of basic interest to ask "How many votes are needed to obtain a reliable prediction?" In the context of binary classification with Random Forests or Bagging, we give a precise answer: If err_t denotes the test error achieved by the majority vote of t \\geq 1 classifiers, and err* denotes its nominal limiting ...

  1. TYPES OF LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES USED BY TERTIARY ENGLISH MAJORS

    OpenAIRE

    TAN KHYE CHUIN; SARJIT KAUR

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the types of language learning strategies used by 73 English majors from the School of Humanities in Universiti Sains Malaysia. Using questionnaires adopted from Oxford’s (1990) Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) and focus group interviews, the study also examined the English major students’ perceptions of using language learning strategies while learning English. The results revealed that the English majors were generally high users of all six types of lan...

  2. The Major Obstacles in Improving English Reading Speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任政谦

    2012-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the major obstacles in improving English reading speed,such as being lack of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge,bad reading habits,being lack of reading interest and the obstacle of cultural background knowledge,etc.Through discussing those major obstacles,this thesis puts forward some suggestions and teaching strategies.Those suggestions and teaching strategies will help college students to overcome the major obstacles and improve English reading speed.

  3. Occupy Central and the silent majority in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, Jun-ki; 麥進琦

    2015-01-01

    While a wealth of research and news articles have written about Occupy Central and its participants and supporters, there is a gap in terms of the Silent Majority. This research seeks to investigate what factors or combination of factors contribute to a large unspecified majority of Hong Kong citizens who did not participate nor express their opinions publicly about Occupy Central.  Two theoretical perspectives are used to examine the Silent Majority. Noelle-Neumann’s (1993) Spiral of Sile...

  4. A WISE Census of Young Stellar Objects in Canis Major

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, William J.; Deborah L. Padgett(NASA/GSFC, Code 665, Greenbelt, MC 20770, USA); Stapelfeldt, Karl L.; Sewilo, Marta

    2016-01-01

    With the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we searched for young stellar objects (YSOs) in a 100 deg^2 region centered on the lightly studied Canis Major star forming region. Applying stringent magnitude cuts to exclude the majority of extragalactic contaminants, we find 144 Class I candidates and 335 Class II candidates. The sensitivity to Class II candidates is limited by their faintness at the distance to Canis Major (assumed as 1000 pc). More than half the candidates (53%) are f...

  5. Authenticity and place attachment of major visitor attractions

    OpenAIRE

    Ram, Yael; Bjork, Peter; Weidenfeld, Adi

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the relationships between place attachment and perceived authenticity of major visitor attractions. The empirical study was conducted with a sample of international tourists to major visitor attractions in two capital cities, Helsinki, Finland and Jerusalem, Israel. The results indicate a positive correlation between place attachment and authenticity. Major visitor attractions located in places with considerable heritage experience value are considered more authenti...

  6. Research progress of the NSFC Major Research Plan “Dynamic Disaster Evolution of Major Engineering Structures”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The NSFC Major Research Plan aims to conduct researches at the international research frontiers on modeling of strong earthquake ground motions and strong wind or typhoon fields, and investigating the damage and failure evolution process of the major engineering structures under dynamic actions, focusing on the following two key scientific problems: (1) characteristics and laws of strong earthquake ground motions and strong wind or typhoon fields, and (2) process and mechanism of dynamic disaster evolution of the major engineering structures. For these goals, the research work is targeted at (1) modeling and predicting of strong earthquake ground motion and strong wind or typhoon fields, (2) identifying critical parameters influencing the dynamic disaster evolution of the major engineering structures, (3) analyzing the whole dynamic disaster evolution process of the major engineering structures, and (4) integration and verification of simulation systems for dynamic disaster evolution of the major engineering structures.

  7. Major Events and the European Code of Police Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Hadley, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Examines the symbolic significance of major events and their security provision in the historical and contemporary context of the European Code of Police Ethics. Stresses the potential of major events to set new practical policing and security standards of technology and in doing so necessitiate the maintenance of professional ethical standards for policing in Europe.

  8. Why Are Students Not Majoring in Information Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstrom, Kent A.; Schambach, Thomas P.; Jones, Keith T.; Crampton, William J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine some of the factors that influence and impact business students when they select their major and, more particularly, to examine why students are not majoring in information systems. Students in an entry level business class responded that they were more knowledgeable about careers in management, marketing,…

  9. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of English Majors in Professional Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚承华; 张宇超

    2007-01-01

    The study adopted qualitative method to investigate vocabulary learning strategies utilized by English majors in professional universities.The findings of the research show that English majors in professional universities employ a wide range of vocabulary learning strategies including metacognitive and cognitive strategies.

  10. Teaching Elementary Accounting to Non-Accounting Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Abbey, Augustus

    2009-01-01

    A central recurring theme in business education is the optimal strategy for improving introductory accounting, the gateway subject of business education. For many students, especially non-accounting majors, who are required to take introductory accounting as a requirement of the curriculum, introductory accounting has become a major obstacle for…

  11. The Opinions of Economics Majors before and after Learning Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammock, Michael R.; Routon, P. Wesley; Walker, Jay K.

    2016-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on undergraduates from 463 American colleges and universities from 1994-99, the authors examine how majoring in economics affects student opinions on 13 social, political, and economic issues. Economics majors were found to begin and end their college tenure with differing opinions on several issues when compared to other…

  12. Geographic Differences in the Earnings of Economics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, John V.; Xu, Weineng

    2014-01-01

    Economics has been shown to be a relatively high-earning college major, but geographic differences in earnings have been largely overlooked. The authors of this article use the American Community Survey to examine geographic differences in both absolute earnings and relative earnings for economics majors. They find that there are substantial…

  13. Investigating the Molecular Basis of Major Depressive Disorder Etiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Korf, Jaalp; Ormel, Johan; Kema, Ido P.; den Boer, Johan A.; Kvetnansky, R; Aguilera, G; Goldstein, D; Jezova, D; Krizanova, O; Sabban, EL; Pacak, K

    2008-01-01

    Genes play a major role in behavioral adaptation to challenging environmental stimuli, but the complexity of their contribution remains unclear. There is growing evidence linking disease phenotypes with genes on the one hand, and the genesis of stress-related disorders like major depression, as a re

  14. Academic Success for STEM and Non-STEM Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Donald F; Shelley, Mack C., II

    2010-01-01

    Enrollment in STEM majors has improved recently, but there continues to be concern over students' retention in those majors, especially women and minority students. The purpose of this study is to develop an integrated understanding of how multiple predictor variables affect student degree attainment, and to ascertain how those variables' impact…

  15. 78 FR 54949 - Major Project Financial Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Major Project Financial Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice; Request for comments. SUMMARY: This notice requests comments on draft Major Project Financial Plan Guidance outlining the procedures the FHWA will follow when reviewing...

  16. Intelligent Video Disc as a Major Component of Individualized Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Richard E.

    Due to the importance of visual stimuli for learning, the videodisc is expected to have a major impact on education. When combined with the computer, it will greatly expand the capabilities of computer assisted instruction. There are two major types of videodisc equipment: the optical type with a laser beam to read the information from the disc,…

  17. HOW TO MOTIVATE NON-ENGLISH MAJORS TO MASTER ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the factors causing the lack of learning motivation of non-English majors,re-garded as one of the crucial reasons leading to the inefficiency of college English teaching in Chi-na.It also puts forward corresponding ways to motivate non-English majors to study English.

  18. 7 CFR 987.104 - Major marketing promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major marketing promotion. 987.104 Section 987.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules Definitions § 987.104 Major marketing...

  19. Choice of Major: The Changing (Unchanging) Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sarah E.; Bowen, William G.

    1999-01-01

    Data on major choice and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores show the following: (1) there is a widening gap between life and math/physical sciences in attractiveness to men and women; (2) SAT scores account for only part of the gap; and (3) gender gaps in major choice are attributable to different preferences, expectations, and gender-specific…

  20. 76 FR 17736 - Major Capital Investment Program-New Starts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... Federal Transit Administration Major Capital Investment Program--New Starts AGENCY: Federal Transit... discretionary selection of projects for funding using unallocated Major Capital Investment (New Starts) program... payments will save financial costs for the local transit project sponsors and free up local funds for...

  1. Benchmarks for Psychotherapy Efficacy in Adult Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Takuya; Wampold, Bruce E.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Kircher, John C.; Brown, George S.

    2007-01-01

    This study estimates pretreatment-posttreatment effect size benchmarks for the treatment of major depression in adults that may be useful in evaluating psychotherapy effectiveness in clinical practice. Treatment efficacy benchmarks for major depression were derived for 3 different types of outcome measures: the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression…

  2. Major congenital anomalies in babies born with Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Joan K; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana;

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that over 40% of babies with Down syndrome have a major cardiac anomaly and are more likely to have other major congenital anomalies. Since 2000, many countries in Europe have introduced national antenatal screening programs for Down syndrome. This study aimed to deter...

  3. Cardiovascular and respiratory complications after major head and neck surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Buitelaar; A.J.M. Balm; N. Antonini; H. van Tinteren; J.M. Huitink

    2006-01-01

    Background. Our aim was to gain insight into the incidence rates for, distribution of, and risk factors of postoperative cardiovascular and respiratory complications in major head and neck surgery. Methods. We performed a retrospective review of 469 patients who had undergone primary major head and

  4. Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yau, Joanne W Y; Rogers, Sophie L; Kawasaki, Ryo;

    2012-01-01

    To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes.......To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes....

  5. Defragmenting the effect of major news announcements on financial markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhlaas Gurrib

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of High Frequency Trading (HFT and its impact on financial markets is hitting the headlines hard nowadays. This paper looks at the effects of three major news announcements on two major currency pairs namely the Australian dollar against the US dollar and the Euro against the US dollar. The three major news announcements are the cash rate from the Reserve Bank of Australia, the minimum bid rate from European Central Bank (ECB and the official bank rate from the Bank of England.  A one minute data interval analysis is used over a time period of four years.  Findings suggest the effects of the specific news under analysis to be insignificant for a trader to benefit from the fluctuations in the two major currency markets. The use of other macroeconomic news or higher frequency data is warranted to defragment the effects of major news announcements further.

  6. Epistemic Impact on Group Problem Solving for Different Science Majors

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of cognitive apprenticeship in an introductory physics lab group problem solving exercise may be mitigated by epistemic views toward physics of non-physics science majors. Quantitative pre-post data of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and Colorado Learning Attitudes About Science Survey (CLASS) of 39 students of a first-semester algebra-based introductory physics course, while describing typical results for a traditional-format course overall (g = +0.14), suggest differences in epistemic views between health science majors and life science majors which may correlate with differences in pre-post conceptual understanding. Audiovisual data of student lab groups working on a context-rich problem and students' written reflections described each group's typical dynamics and invoked epistemic games. We examined the effects of framework-based orientation (favored by biology majors) and performance-based orientation (favored by computer science, chemistry, and health science majors) on pre-post attitud...

  7. BOOK REVIEW: A Student's Guide to Einstein's Major Papers A Student's Guide to Einstein's Major Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Michel

    2013-12-01

    The core of this volume is formed by four chapters (2-5) with detailed reconstructions of the arguments and derivations in four of Einstein's most important papers, the three main papers of his annus mirabilis 1905 (on the light quantum, Brownian motion, and special relativity) and his first systematic exposition of general relativity of 1916. The derivations are given in sufficient detail and in sufficiently modernized notation (without any serious distortion of the originals) for an undergraduate physics major to read and understand them with far less effort than it would take him or her to understand (English translations of) Einstein's original papers. Each of these four papers is accompanied by a detailed introduction, which covers the conceptual development of the relevant field prior to Einstein's contribution to it and corrects some of the myths surrounding these papers that still have not been fully eradicated among physicists. (One quibble: though Kennedy correctly points out that the goal of the light quantum paper was not to explain the photoelectric effect, it is also not quite right to say that 'it was written to explain the Wien region of blackbody radiation' (p. xv). Einstein used this explanatory feat as the central argument for his light quantum hypothesis.) These four chapters then are the most valuable part of the volume. They could be used, independently of one another, but preferably in conjunction with Einstein's original texts, in courses on quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, electrodynamics, and general relativity, respectively, to add a historical component to such courses. As a historian of science embedded in a physics department who is regularly called upon to give guest lectures in such courses on the history of their subjects, I can highly recommend the volume for this purpose. However, I would not adopt this volume as (one of) the central text(s) for a course on the history of modern physics. For one thing, chapter 1, which in

  8. Developing "Green" Business Plans: Using Entrepreneurship to Teach Science to Business Administration Majors and Business to Biology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letovsky, Robert; Banschbach, Valerie S.

    2011-01-01

    Biology majors team with business administration majors to develop proposals for "green" enterprise for a business plan competition. The course begins with a series of student presentations so that science students learn about the fundamentals of business, and business students learn about environmental biology. Then mixed biology-business student…

  9. Profiles of Motivated Self-Regulation in College Computer Science Courses: Differences in Major versus Required Non-Major Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Duane F.; Soh, Leen-Kiat

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to utilize a profiling approach to understand differences in motivation and strategic self-regulation among post-secondary STEM students in major versus required non-major computer science courses. Participants were 233 students from required introductory computer science courses (194 men; 35 women; 4 unknown) at…

  10. Defragmenting the effect of major news announcements on financial markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ikhlaas Gurrib

    2014-01-01

    The issue of High Frequency Trading (HFT) and its impact on financial markets is hitting the headlines hard nowadays. This paper looks at the effects of three major news announcements on two major currency pairs namely the Australian dollar against the US dollar and the Euro against the US dollar. The three major news announcements are the cash rate from the Reserve Bank of Australia, the minimum bid rate from European Central Bank (ECB) and the official bank rate from the Bank of England.  A...

  11. Defragmenting the Effect of Major News Announcements on Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ikhlaas Gurrib

    2014-01-01

    The issue of High Frequency Trading (HFT) and its impact on financial markets is hitting the headlines hard nowadays. This paper looks at the effects of three major news announcements on two major currency pairs namely the Australian dollar against the US dollar and the Euro against the US dollar. The three major news announcements are the cash rate from the Reserve Bank of Australia, the minimum bid rate from European Central Bank (ECB) and the official bank rate from the Bank of England. A ...

  12. GROWTH ESTIMATION OF SELECTED MAJOR CROPS IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Yasmin, Sarah; Alam, Shamsul; M. Moniruzzaman

    2010-01-01

    The keen interest of this research paper is to estimate the growth rates of area, production and yield of selected major crops viz., aus, aman, boro, jute and wheat in Bangladesh. The time series data have been used for this purpose. This study covers the time period of 1980/81 to 2009/10. The study was entirely based on secondary data. Growth rates of area, production and yield of major crops were estimated by fitting exponential trend function. Aus, aman, boro, jute and wheat are major crop...

  13. Developments in the strategic planning of the major oil companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the changes in strategic planning of the major oil companies since the 1970s, and considers the reorganisations of the companies, and upstream and downstream planning. New directions for the major companies downstream operation in the retail and aviation sectors, and the influence of the BP/AMOCO/ARCO/BURMAH, EXXON/MOBIL and TOTAL/FINA/ELF mergers on the international oil industry are explored. Tables illustrating the earnings of the major oil companies for upstream and downstream operations, and chemicals in 1999, and for BP UK exploration and production, and refining and marketing profits (quarterly) for 1983-2000 are presented

  14. Major depression, parental mental disorder and early family relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hällström, T

    1987-03-01

    Sixty middle-aged urban women with a major depressive episode diagnosed in a community survey were compared with those 400 participants of the study who had no history of major depression. The study design is retrospective. The depressed women's parents had been in contact with psychiatric services twice as often as those of never depressed women. The rate of paternal alcoholism was however the same in both groups. As compared with the controls, women with major depression reported significantly more often frequent corporal punishment, poor relationship with mother, having been misunderstood by parents, and unhappy childhood. PMID:3591408

  15. Genomic analysis of the major bovine milk protein genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Threadgill, D.W.; Womack, J E

    1990-01-01

    The genomic arrangement of the major bovine milk protein genes has been determined using a combination of physical mapping techniques. The major milk proteins consist of the four caseins, alpha s1 (CASAS1), alpha s2 (CASAS2), beta (CASB), and kappa (CASK), as well as the two major whey proteins, alpha-lactalbumin (LALBA) and beta-lactoglobulin (LGB). A panel of bovine X hamster hybrid somatic cells analyzed for the presence or absence of bovine specific restriction fragments revealed the gene...

  16. Nódulos opalinos en facies marginales del salar Olaroz (Puna Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, R.

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of a petrological and geochemical study of silica nodules from Quaternary alluvial fallS of the Olaroz Salar. The nodules are mainly constituted by C-T opal, d. (101 spacing to 4,11 A, implying a high-disorder; this is commonly observed in opa! rocks formed in near surface environments, without burial and heating. The chemical composition of the nodules is anomalous when compared with other typical silica-rocks formed in arid continental closed basin, without any eruptive environments (for instance the Cuenca del Tajo in Spain. The siliceous nodules do not have the characteristics of the silcretes and are not associated to the evaporitic facies of the salar. Their genesis is probably related to contamination of groundwater of the alluvial fan with high-silica thermal water. The C-T opal would thus precipitate by either displacing tbe terrigenous host-rock or replacing previous ulexite nodules.Se realiza un estudio petrológico y geoquímico de los nódulos silíceos que se encuentran incluidos en sedimentos terrígenos cuaternarios de la Cuenca de Olaroz (La Puna, Argentina. Estos nódulos se localizan en abanicos aluviales que aparecen encajados, debido a los cambios en el nivel de base que se produce desde el Pleistoceno a la actualidad, durante la evolución de los cuerpos lacustres a salares. Un estudio mediante DRX revela que son rocas constituidas por ópalo C-T, con un espaciado (101 a 4,11 A, que implica un grado de desorden alto, típico de las rocas silíceas formadas en superficie y que no han sufrido enterramiento ni influencia térmica. Su composición química es anómala si se compara con rocas silíceas continentales formadas en ambiente endorreico y fuera de un marco volcánico (Mioceno de la Cuenca del Tajo. No poseyendo características de silcretas y no estando asociadas a la sedimentación evaporítica de los salares, se considera la influencia de aguas termales. La contaminación local y en un momento dado de las aguas freáticas de los abanicos aluviales por aguas termales ricas en sílice, propiciaría junto con la evaporización la precipitación de la silíceo Los nódulos silíceos crecerían desplazando el sedimento terrígeno que constituye la roca caja o reemplazando nódulos previa de ulexita.

  17. El documental musical y la audiovisualización de estéticas marginales

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda Pinilla, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Entre las diferentes narrativas y estéticas del documental, existe una creciente tendencia a registrar universos musicales. Estos documentales abordan, ocasionalmente, temas que trascienden la música en sí misma, y conforman un complejo ejercicio de representación de sociedades que son habitadas y narradas por determinadas estéticas visuales y sonoras. A partir del análisis de los documentales brasileños Sou feia mas tô na moda y Faço de mim o que quero, este artículo analizará la forma e...

  18. Maras y barras : Pandillas y violencia juvenil en los barrios marginales de Centroamérica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, W.

    2009-01-01

    Street gangs -especially ‘Mara Salvatrucha’ [MS] and 18th Street Gang [18]- and student gangs are feared throughout Central America. This study looks at the violent and criminal acts they engage in, the attraction they hold over other young people, the solidarity among their members, and the physica

  19. Maras y barras : Pandillas y violencia juvenil en los barrios marginales de Centroamérica

    OpenAIRE

    Savenije, W.

    2009-01-01

    Street gangs -especially ‘Mara Salvatrucha’ [MS] and 18th Street Gang [18]- and student gangs are feared throughout Central America. This study looks at the violent and criminal acts they engage in, the attraction they hold over other young people, the solidarity among their members, and the physical and social risks they face. It sheds light on an even more alarming phenomena: the dynamics of social exclusion and self exclusion faced by large groups of young Central Americans. The reproducti...

  20. Optimization of fuel cycles: marginal loss values; Optimisation des cycles de combustibles: valeurs marginales des pertes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 75 - Paris (France); Lasteyrie, B. de; Doumerc, J. [Compagnie pour l' Etude et la Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques, 75 - Paris (France)

    1965-07-01

    Uranium processing from the pit to the fuel element rod entails metal losses at every step. These losses become more and more expensive with the elaboration of the metal. Some of the uranium must be accepted as definitely lost whilst the rest could be recovered and recycled. The high cost of these losses, whether they are recycled or not, and the fact that the higher the enrichment is the higher their costs are, make it necessary to take them into account when optimizing fuel cycles. It is therefore felt important to determine their most desirable level from an economic point of view at the various nuclear fuel processing stages. However, in France as in some other countries, fissile material production is a state concern, whilst fuel element fabrication is carried out by private enterprise. Optimization criteria and the economic value of losses are therefore different for each of the two links in the fabrication chain. One can try in spite of this to reach an optimum which would conform to public interest, without interfering with the firm's sales policy. This entails using the fact that for a given output marginal costs are equal at the optimum. One can therefore adjust the level of the losses to attain this equation of marginal costs, as these are easier to obtain from the firm than a justification of the actual prices. One notices moreover that, although mainly concerned with losses, this global analysis can bring both the state and the firm to a better use of other production factors. An account is given of the theory of this economic optimization method and practical applications in the field of natural uranium-graphite moderated and CO{sub 2} cooled reactor fuel element fabrication are offered. (authors) [French] L'elaboration de l'uranium, de la mine a la cartouche d'element combustible, s'accompagne, a tous les stades, de pertes, de plus en plus onereuses, a mesure que le metal devient plus elabore. Une certaine proportion de l'uranium doit etre consideree comme definitivement perdue, alors que le reste pourrait etre recupere et recycle. Le cout eleve des pertes, recyclees ou non, d'autant plus eleve que l'uranium est plus enrichi, exige qu'il en soit tenu compte dans l'optimisation generale des cycles de combustible. Il importe donc de determiner leur niveau le plus souhaitable economiquement, aux diverses etapes d'elaboration du combustible nucleaire. Mais en France et dans d'autres pays, la production de matieres fissiles est geree par l'Etat, tandis que la fabrication de l'element combustible est effectuee par l'industrie privee. Les criteres d'optimisation et l'interet economique accorde aux pertes sont donc differents pour les deux parties de la chaine de fabrication. Pour tenter neanmoins d'atteindre un optimum conforme a l'interet collectif sans intervenir dans la politique de prix de l'entreprise, on peut utiliser la propriete des couts marginaux d'etre egaux entre eux a l'optimum, pour un volume de production donne. On peut donc ajuster le niveau des pertes pour realiser cette egalite des couts marginaux dont le calcul est plus facile a obtenir de la firme que la justification des prix eux-memes. On s'apercoit d'ailleurs que, bien qu'axee essentiellement sur les pertes, cette analyse globale peut conduire a une meilleure utilisation d'autres facteurs de production. On donne un expose theorique et des exemples pratiques de cette methode d'optimisation economique dans le cadre de la fabrication d'elements combustibles destines a des reacteurs du type: uranium naturel, moderes au graphite et refroidis par le gaz carbonique. (auteurs)

  1. DNR Watersheds - DNR Level 04 - HUC 08 - Majors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data consists of 81 watershed delineations in one seamless dataset of drainage areas called Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Major Watersheds....

  2. Major issues associated with DOE commercial recycling initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motl, G.P.; Burns, D.D. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Rast, D.M. [USDOE Fernald Field Office, OH (United States)

    1994-07-27

    Major initiatives are underway within DOE to recycle large volumes of scrap material generated during cleanup of the DOE Weapons Complex. These recycling initiatives are driven not only by the desire to conserve natural resources, but also by the recognition that shallow level burial is not a politically acceptable option. The Fernald facility is in the vanguard of a number of major DOE recycling efforts. These early efforts have brought issues to light that can have a major impact on the ability of Fernald and other major DOE sites to expand recycling efforts in the future. Some of these issues are; secondary waste deposition, title to material and radioactive contaminants, mixed waste generated during recycling, special nuclear material possession limits, cost benefit, transportation of waste to processing facilities, release criteria, and uses for beneficially reused products.

  3. CNPC Sets Eight Major Development Strategies for New Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Qing

    2002-01-01

    @@ Facing the tremendous changes taking place both at home and abroad, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has recently formulated a series of major business strategies to highlight its main businesses and maintain its sustainable and coordinated growth in the future.

  4. Tracks of Major Hurricanes of the Western Hemisphere

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 36"x24" National Hurricane Center poster depicts the complete tracks of all major hurricanes in the north Atlantic and eastern north Pacific basins since as...

  5. Investigation of major phenolic antioxidants from Camellia sinensis fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Rana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study unveils major phenolic antioxidant compounds from Camellia sinensis fruits, followed by their investigation, purification and characterization using HPLC, ESI-MS and NMR studies. The spectrophotometric estimation results have clearly demonstrated that C. sinensis (tea fruits contain up to 14% of total polyphenols (as gallic acid equivalent and 7% of flavonoids (as quercetin equivalent on dry weight basis. Differential solvent-mediated extractions have been performed for quantitative assessment of major phytoconstituents by RP-HPLC analysis. And the results have revealed that these fruits contain adequate amount of tea catechins (4% along with caffeine (1% and theanine (0.4% on dry weight basis. Moreover, purification and characterization of major phytoconstituents such as epigallocatechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate along with caffeine have been accomplished. Thus, it is clearly demonstrated that tea fruits could act as a possible and reliable source for obtaining major phenolic antioxidants.

  6. Major Mergers Going Notts: Challenges for Modern Halo Finders

    CERN Document Server

    Behroozi, Peter; Pearce, Frazer R; Elahi, Pascal; Han, Jiaxin; Lux, Hanni; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Muldrew, Stuart I; Potter, Doug; Srisawat, Chaichalit

    2015-01-01

    Merging haloes with similar masses (i.e., major mergers) pose significant challenges for halo finders. We compare five halo finding algorithms' (AHF, HBT, Rockstar, SubFind, and VELOCIraptor) recovery of halo properties for both isolated and cosmological major mergers. We find that halo positions and velocities are often robust, but mass biases exist for every technique. The algorithms also show strong disagreement in the prevalence and duration of major mergers, especially at high redshifts (z>1). This raises significant uncertainties for theoretical models that require major mergers for, e.g., galaxy morphology changes, size changes, or black hole growth, as well as for finding Bullet Cluster analogues. All finders not using temporal information also show host halo and subhalo relationship swaps over successive timesteps, requiring careful merger tree construction to avoid problematic mass accretion histories. We suggest that future algorithms should combine phase-space and temporal information to avoid the...

  7. Training Methodology on Radiation Security for Major Public Events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>To the Olympics, radiological security for major public events (MPEs) is paid more and more attention. The radiological security is always an important issue for MPEs security. In the past few years,

  8. Entanglement and majorization in (1+1)-dimensional quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Orus, R

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by the idea of entanglement loss along Renormalization Group flows, analytical majorization relations are proven for the ground state of (1+1)-dimensional conformal field theories. For any of these theories, majorization is proven to hold in the spectrum of the reduced density matrices in a bipartite system when changing the size L of one of the subsystems. Continuous majorization along uniparametric flows is also proven as long as part of the conformal structure is preserved under the deformation and some monotonicity conditions hold as well. As particular examples of our derivations, we study the cases of the XX, Heisenberg and XY quantum spin chains. Our results provide in a rigorous way explicit proves for all the majorization conjectures raised by Latorre, Lutken, Rico, Vidal and Kitaev in previous papers on quantum spin chains.

  9. Major mergers going Notts: challenges for modern halo finders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozi, Peter; Knebe, Alexander; Pearce, Frazer R.; Elahi, Pascal; Han, Jiaxin; Lux, Hanni; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Muldrew, Stuart I.; Potter, Doug; Srisawat, Chaichalit

    2015-12-01

    Merging haloes with similar masses (i.e. major mergers) pose significant challenges for halo finders. We compare five halo-finding algorithms' (AHF, HBT, ROCKSTAR, SUBFIND, and VELOCIRAPTOR) recovery of halo properties for both isolated and cosmological major mergers. We find that halo positions and velocities are often robust, but mass biases exist for every technique. The algorithms also show strong disagreement in the prevalence and duration of major mergers, especially at high redshifts (z > 1). This raises significant uncertainties for theoretical models that require major mergers for, e.g. galaxy morphology changes, size changes, or black hole growth, as well as for finding Bullet Cluster analogues. All finders not using temporal information also show host halo and subhalo relationship swaps over successive timesteps, requiring careful merger tree construction to avoid problematic mass accretion histories. We suggest that future algorithms should combine phase-space and temporal information to avoid the issues presented.

  10. 76 FR 62085 - Pennsylvania; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; ] 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...--Disaster Housing Operations for Individuals and Households; 97.050, Presidentially Declared Disaster... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Pennsylvania; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  11. 76 FR 44031 - Arkansas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...--Disaster Housing Operations for Individuals and Households; 97.050, Presidentially Declared Disaster... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Arkansas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  12. Major Ups and Downs: Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Major Ups and Downs Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings Most people feel happy ... Strike Out Stroke Wise Choices Links Dealing with Bipolar Disorder If you have bipolar disorder, get treatment and ...

  13. Major issues associated with DOE commercial recycling initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major initiatives are underway within DOE to recycle large volumes of scrap material generated during cleanup of the DOE Weapons Complex. These recycling initiatives are driven not only by the desire to conserve natural resources, but also by the recognition that shallow level burial is not a politically acceptable option. The Fernald facility is in the vanguard of a number of major DOE recycling efforts. These early efforts have brought issues to light that can have a major impact on the ability of Fernald and other major DOE sites to expand recycling efforts in the future. Some of these issues are; secondary waste deposition, title to material and radioactive contaminants, mixed waste generated during recycling, special nuclear material possession limits, cost benefit, transportation of waste to processing facilities, release criteria, and uses for beneficially reused products

  14. Big Five personality group differences across academic majors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anna

    decades, studies have regularly explored associations between enrolment in specific academic majors and scores on the Big Five personality traits; Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. The present review examines this research systematically, summarises group...

  15. 48 CFR 1631.205-80 - Major subcontractor service charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... insurance risk or underwriting, when costs are determined on the basis of actual costs incurred or... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.205-80 Major...

  16. Game over? What hampers a major uptake of serious games?

    OpenAIRE

    Nadolski, Rob; Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke; Boyle, Liz; Riedel, Johann; Luccini, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Nadolski, R. J., Baalsrud Hauge, J., Boyle, L., Riedel, J., & Luccini, M. (2011, 2 December). Game over? What hampers the major uptake of serious games? Discussion session at Online Educa Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

  17. Majority runoff elections: strategic voting and Duverger's hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bouton, Laurent; Gratton, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The majority runoff system is widely used around the world. Yet, our understanding of its properties and of voters’ behavior is limited. In this paper, we fully characterize the set of strictly perfect voting equilibria in large three-candidate majority runoff elections. Considering all possible distributions of preference orderings and intensities, we prove that only two types of equilibria can exist. First, there are always equilibria in which only two candidates receive votes. Second, ther...

  18. Allergies and major depression: a longitudinal community study

    OpenAIRE

    Lavorato Dina H; Williams Jeanne VA; Patten Scott B; Eliasziw Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Cross-sectional studies have reported associations between allergies and major depression but in the absence of longitudinal data, the implications of this association remain unclear. Our goal was to examine this association from a longitudinal perspective. Methods The data source was the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS). This study included a short form version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-SF) to assess major depression and al...

  19. Methods for Analyzing Pathways through a Physics Major

    OpenAIRE

    Aiken, John M.; Caballero, Marcos D.

    2016-01-01

    Physics Education Research frequently investigates what students studying physics do on small time scales (e.g. single courses, observations within single courses), or post-education time scales (e.g., what jobs do physics majors get?) but there is little research into how students get from the beginning to the end of a physics degree. Our work attempts to visualize students paths through the physics major, and quantitatively describe the students who take physics courses, receive physics deg...

  20. Two pathways for cysteine biosynthesis in Leishmania major

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Roderick A. M.; Westrop, Gareth D.; Coombs, Graham H.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Genome mining and biochemical analyses have shown that L. major possesses two pathways for cysteine synthesis - the de novo biosynthesis pathway comprising serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and cysteine synthase (CS) and the reverse transsulfuration (RTS) pathway comprising cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine gamma-lyase (CGL). The L. major CS (LmjCS) is similar to the type A CSs of bacteria and catalyses the synthesis of cysteine using O-acetyserine and sulfide...