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Sample records for anaplasma marginale major

  1. High genetic diversity of Anaplasma marginale detected from Philippine cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Ybañez, Rochelle Haidee D; Claveria, Florencia G; Cruz-Flores, Mary Jane; Xuenan, Xuen; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2014-07-01

    A total of 658 cattle in 6 provinces in the Philippines were screened for Anaplasma marginale infection by using a diagnostic heat-shock operon (groEL) gene-PCR assay. The screening-positive samples were further tested using the major surface antigen protein 1a (Msp1a) gene-PCR assay. Screening PCR results showed 130 cattle (19.8%) were positive for the A. marginale infection. Subsequent amplification using the Msp1a gene only showed 93 samples (14.1%) to be positive. In addition, 37 tandem-repeat structures, including 20 novel structures, and 41 distinct genotypes were identified. Interestingly, multiple infections of 4 different genotypes were also observed in A. marginale-infected cattle. The present study demonstrated the prevalence and characterization of diverse genotypes of A. marginale in the Philippine cattle.

  2. Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum in cattle in Tunisia.

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    M'ghirbi, Youmna; Bèji, Marwa; Oporto, Beatriz; Khrouf, Fatma; Hurtado, Ana; Bouattour, Ali

    2016-10-20

    Tick-borne diseases caused by Anaplasma species put serious constraints on the health and production of domestic cattle in tropical and sub-tropical regions. After recovering from a primary infection, cattle typically become persistent carriers of pathogens and play a critical role in the epidemiology of the disease, acting as reservoirs of the Anaplasma spp. In this study a duplex PCR assay was used for the simultaneous detection of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cattle using two primer pairs targeting msp4 and msp2 genes, respectively. We used this method to analyze DNA preparations derived from 328 blood cattle samples that were collected from 80 farms distributed among Tunisia's four bioclimatic zones. The prevalence of the A. marginale infection (24.7 %) was significantly higher and more widespread (in all bioclimatic areas) than that of A. phagocytophilum (0.6 %), which was found in a mixed infection with A. marginale. The duplex PCR assay used proved to be a rapid, specific and inexpensive mean for the simultaneous detection of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cattle blood. It allowed us to report the identification of A. phagocytophilum for the first time in cattle in Tunisia and confirm the presence of A. marginale in cattle from several geographical areas of the country. Further epidemiological studies undertaken using this assay will help improve the surveillance of the associated diseases in the regions where they are endemic.

  3. Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum: Rickettsiales pathogens of veterinary and public health significance.

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    Atif, Farhan Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are the most important tick-borne bacteria of veterinary and public health significance in the family Anaplasmataceae. The objective of current review is to provide knowledge on ecology and epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum and compare major similarities and differences of A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum. Bovine anaplasmosis is globally distributed tick-borne disease of livestock with great economic importance in cattle industry. A. phagocytophilum, a cosmopolitan zoonotic tick transmitted pathogen of wide mammalian hosts. The infection in domestic animals is generally referred as tick-borne fever. Concurrent infections exist in ticks, domestic and wild animals in same geographic area. All age groups are susceptible, but the prevalence increases with age. Movement of susceptible domestic animals from tick free non-endemic regions to disease endemic regions is the major risk factor of bovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever. Recreational activities or any other high-risk tick exposure habits as well as blood transfusion are important risk factors of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. After infection, individuals remain life-long carriers. Clinical anaplasmosis is usually diagnosed upon examination of stained blood smears. Generally, detection of serum antibodies followed by molecular diagnosis is usually recommended. There are problems of sensitivity and cross-reactivity with both the Anaplasma species during serological tests. Tetracyclines are the drugs of choice for treatment and elimination of anaplasmosis in animals and humans. Universal vaccine is not available for either A. marginale or A. phagocytophilum, effective against geographically diverse strains. Major control measures for bovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever include rearing of tick-resistant breeds, endemic stability, breeding Anaplasma-free herds, identification of regional vectors, domestic/wild reservoirs and control, habitat modification

  4. Comparison of three nucleic acid-based tests for detecting Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma centrale in cattle

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    Mamohale E. Chaisi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several nucleic acid-based assays have been developed for detecting Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma centrale in vectors and hosts, making the choice of method to use in endemic areas difficult. We evaluated the ability of the reverse line blot (RLB hybridisation assay, two nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR assays and a duplex real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assay to detect A. marginale and A. centrale infections in cattle (n = 66 in South Africa. The lowest detection limits for A. marginale plasmid DNA were 2500 copies by the RLB assay, 250 copies by the nPCR and qPCR assays and 2500, 250 and 25 copies of A. centrale plasmid DNA by the RLB, nPCR and qPCR assays respectively. The qPCR assay detected more A. marginale- and A. centrale-positive samples than the other assays, either as single or mixed infections. Although the results of the qPCR and nPCR tests were in agreement for the majority (38 of A. marginale-positive samples, 13 samples tested negative for A. marginale using nPCR but positive using qPCR. To explain this discrepancy, the target sequence region of the nPCR assay was evaluated by cloning and sequencing the msp1β gene from selected field samples. The results indicated sequence variation in the internal forward primer (AM100 area amongst the South African A. marginale msp1β sequences, resulting in false negatives. We propose the use of the duplex qPCR assay in future studies as it is more sensitive and offers the benefits of quantification and multiplex detection of both Anaplasma spp.

  5. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale Elicit Different Gene Expression Responses in Cultured Tick Cells

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    Zorica Zivkovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae includes obligate tick-transmitted intracellular organisms, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale that multiply in both vertebrate and tick host cells. Recently, we showed that A. marginale affects the expression of tick genes that are involved in tick survival and pathogen infection and multiplication. However, the gene expression profile in A. phagocytophilum-infected tick cells is currently poorly characterized. The objectives of this study were to characterize tick gene expression profile in Ixodes scapularis ticks and cultured ISE6 cells in response to infection with A. phagocypthilum and to compare tick gene expression responses in A. phagocytophilum- and A. marginale-infected tick cells by microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses. The results of these studies demonstrated modulation of tick gene expression by A. phagocytophilum and provided evidence of different gene expression responses in tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum and A. marginale. These differences in Anaplasma-tick interactions may reflect differences in pathogen life cycle in the tick cells.

  6. Detection and Characterisation of Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale in South Africa

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    Paidashe Hove; Zamantungwa T. H. Khumalo; Mamohale E. Chaisi; Marinda C. Oosthuizen; Kelly A. Brayton; Nicola E. Collins

    2018-01-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is endemic in South Africa and it has a negative economic impact on cattle farming. An improved understanding of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma marginale variety centrale (A. centrale) transmission, together with improved tools for pathogen detection and characterisation, are required to inform best management practices. Direct detection methods currently in use for A. marginale and A. centrale in South Africa are light microscopic examination of tissue and organ smears...

  7. Protective immunity induced by immunization with a live, cultured anaplasma marginale strain

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    Despite significant economic losses resulting from infection with Anaplasma marginale, a tick-transmitted rickettsial disease of cattle, available vaccines provide, at best, only partial protection against clinical disease. The green-fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing mutant of the A. marginale St...

  8. Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 CD4+-T-cell epitopes are evenly distributed in conserved and hypervariable regions (HVR), whereas linear B-cell epitopes are predominantly located in the HVR.

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    Abbott, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Guy H; Howard, Chris J; Hope, Jayne C; Brown, Wendy C

    2004-12-01

    Organisms in the genus Anaplasma express an immunodominant major surface protein 2 (MSP2), composed of a central hypervariable region (HVR) flanked by highly conserved regions. Throughout Anaplasma marginale infection, recombination results in the sequential appearance of novel MSP2 variants and subsequent control of rickettsemia by the immune response, leading to persistent infection. To determine whether immune evasion and selection for variant organisms is associated with a predominant response against HVR epitopes, T-cell and linear B-cell epitopes were localized by measuring peripheral blood gamma interferon-secreting cells, proliferation, and antibody binding to 27 overlapping peptides spanning MSP2 in 16 cattle. Similar numbers of MSP2-specific CD4(+) T-cell epitopes eliciting responses of similar magnitude were found in conserved and hypervariable regions. T-cell epitope clusters recognized by the majority of animals were identified in the HVR (amino acids [aa] 171 to 229) and conserved regions (aa 101 to 170 and 272 to 361). In contrast, linear B-cell epitopes were concentrated in the HVR, residing within hydrophilic sequences. The pattern of recognition of epitope clusters by T cells and of HVR epitopes by B cells is consistent with the influence of protein structure on epitope recognition.

  9. Anaplasma marginale attenuated by irradiation: Kinetics of immunity and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, L.A.; Higuera, B.O.; Castro, J.; Chavez, M.; Ruiz, O.

    1988-01-01

    Attempts were made to attenuate Anaplasma marginale by gamma irradiation using a dose of 900 Gy. Parasites were either irradiated once and after infection of an animal isolated and re-irradiated, or irradiated and cultured in vitro for four days and then re-irradiated. In the first two treatments the animals reacted as severely as a control group that received non-irradiated organisms; upon subsequent challenge with a virulent heterologous A. marginale strain, all animals had reasonable levels of protective immunity. The group that received irradiated and cultured organisms twice was not protected upon subsequent challenge and the animals reacted as severely as controls. Antibody responses were monitored. In all instances, after patent parasitaemia, an initial IgM response was followed by an IgG 1 and IgG 2 response. It is concluded that a virulent parasite population suitable for use as a vaccine was not obtained through irradiation and further use of this technique is discouraged. (author). 17 refs, 3 figs

  10. Knockdown of the rhipicephalus microplus cytochrome c oxidase subunit III gene is associated with a failure of anaplasma marginale transmission

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    Rhipicephalus microplus is an obligate hematophagous ectoparasite of cattle and an important biological vector of Anaplasma marginale in tropical and subtropical regions. The primary determinants for Anaplasma transmission are infection of tick gut epithelial cells followed by infection of salivary ...

  11. The Pathogen-Occupied Vacuoles of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale Interact with the Endoplasmic Reticulum.

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    Truchan, Hilary K; Cockburn, Chelsea L; Hebert, Kathryn S; Magunda, Forgivemore; Noh, Susan M; Carlyon, Jason A

    2016-01-01

    The genus Anaplasma consists of tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacteria that invade white or red blood cells to cause debilitating and potentially fatal infections. A. phagocytophilum, a human and veterinary pathogen, infects neutrophils to cause granulocytic anaplasmosis. A. marginale invades bovine erythrocytes. Evidence suggests that both species may also infect endothelial cells in vivo. In mammalian and arthropod host cells, A. phagocytophilum and A. marginale reside in host cell derived pathogen-occupied vacuoles (POVs). While it was recently demonstrated that the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole (ApV) intercepts membrane traffic from the trans-Golgi network, it is unclear if it or the A. marginale-occupied vacuole (AmV) interacts with other secretory organelles. Here, we demonstrate that the ApV and AmV extensively interact with the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in endothelial, myeloid, and/or tick cells. ER lumen markers, calreticulin, and protein disulfide isomerase, and the ER membrane marker, derlin-1, were pronouncedly recruited to the peripheries of both POVs. ApV association with the ER initiated early and continued throughout the infection cycle. Both the ApV and AmV interacted with the rough ER and smooth ER. However, only derlin-1-positive rough ER derived vesicles were delivered into the ApV lumen where they localized with intravacuolar bacteria. Transmission electron microscopy identified multiple ER-POV membrane contact sites on the cytosolic faces of both species' vacuoles that corresponded to areas on the vacuoles' lumenal faces where intravacuolar Anaplasma organisms closely associated. A. phagocytophilum is known to hijack Rab10, a GTPase that regulates ER dynamics and morphology. Yet, ApV-ER interactions were unhindered in cells in which Rab10 had been knocked down, demonstrating that the GTPase is dispensable for the bacterium to parasitize the ER. These data establish the ApV and AmV as pathogen-host interfaces that directly

  12. Detection and Characterisation of Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale in South Africa.

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    Hove, Paidashe; Khumalo, Zamantungwa T H; Chaisi, Mamohale E; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Brayton, Kelly A; Collins, Nicola E

    2018-03-03

    Bovine anaplasmosis is endemic in South Africa and it has a negative economic impact on cattle farming. An improved understanding of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma marginale variety centrale (A. centrale) transmission, together with improved tools for pathogen detection and characterisation, are required to inform best management practices. Direct detection methods currently in use for A. marginale and A. centrale in South Africa are light microscopic examination of tissue and organ smears, conventional, nested, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, and a reverse line blot hybridisation assay. Of these, qPCR is the most sensitive for detection of A. marginale and A. centrale in South Africa. Serological assays also feature in routine diagnostics, but cross-reactions prevent accurate species identification. Recently, genetic characterisation has confirmed that A. marginale and A. centrale are separate species. Diversity studies targeting Msp1a repeats for A. marginale and Msp1aS repeats for A. centrale have revealed high genetic variation and point to correspondingly high levels of variation in A. marginale outer membrane proteins (OMPs), which have been shown to be potential vaccine candidates in North American studies. Information on these OMPs is lacking for South African A. marginale strains and should be considered in future recombinant vaccine development studies, ultimately informing the development of regional or global vaccines.

  13. Detection and Characterisation of Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paidashe Hove

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine anaplasmosis is endemic in South Africa and it has a negative economic impact on cattle farming. An improved understanding of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma marginale variety centrale (A. centrale transmission, together with improved tools for pathogen detection and characterisation, are required to inform best management practices. Direct detection methods currently in use for A. marginale and A. centrale in South Africa are light microscopic examination of tissue and organ smears, conventional, nested, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assays, and a reverse line blot hybridisation assay. Of these, qPCR is the most sensitive for detection of A. marginale and A. centrale in South Africa. Serological assays also feature in routine diagnostics, but cross-reactions prevent accurate species identification. Recently, genetic characterisation has confirmed that A. marginale and A. centrale are separate species. Diversity studies targeting Msp1a repeats for A. marginale and Msp1aS repeats for A. centrale have revealed high genetic variation and point to correspondingly high levels of variation in A. marginale outer membrane proteins (OMPs, which have been shown to be potential vaccine candidates in North American studies. Information on these OMPs is lacking for South African A. marginale strains and should be considered in future recombinant vaccine development studies, ultimately informing the development of regional or global vaccines.

  14. Anaplasma marginale infection in a Japanese Black cow 13 years after eradication of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Okinawa, Japan.

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    Ooshiro, Mamoru; Zakimi, Satoshi; Matsukawa, Yoshimasa; Yafuso, Makoto; Katagiri, Yoshito; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2009-03-23

    In October 2007, a 15-year-old Japanese Black cow on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa, Japan, was diagnosed with Anaplasma marginale infection based on clinical symptoms, blood examination, smear observation, 16S rRNA and groEL gene sequence analysis, and the result of a CF test. The cow was introduced into the farm from mainland Japan as a calf in 1993, one year before the eradication of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, the main vector of A. marginale in Okinawa Prefecture. It is possible that the cow was first infected with A. marginale as a calf in Ishigaki Island and had been persistently infected since then. This is the first reported clinical case of A. marginale infection of cattle since the eradication of R. microplus in Okinawa Prefecture. Additional analysis of major surface protein 1alpha amino acid sequences revealed that the A. marginale Okinawa strain presented four new repeat forms which were not seen in other strains. This indicates that the Okinawa strain may be a unique geographical variant of A. marginale.

  15. Gamma irradiation attenuation of Anaplasma Marginale and its possible use as vaccine against bovine anaplasmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Z, J.; Pupiales T, N.

    1986-01-01

    Bovine Anaplasmosis is one of the limiting in the cattle development at Colombia and others tropical countries. Bovine Anaplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by a microorganism called Anaplasma Marginale, it with invades the red globules producing erythrofagocitosis. In this job, were irradiated with different gamma beam intensity; microorganisms of Anaplasma Marginale, those which were used as innocuous. Animals of the groups (I,II,III) presented good protection against the disease; animals of the Group IV presented mild symptoms with subsequent recovery and strong symptoms

  16. Transmisión de Anaplasma marginale por garrapatas

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    Kelly A. Brayton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale, patógeno de distribución mundial, es transmitido por garrapatas Ixódidas. Comprender su complejo desarrollo dentro de la garrapata vector, permitirá la predicción de brotes y ofrecerá oportunidades para controlar su transmisión. En este trabajo se revisa su ciclo básico de desarrollo junto con los estudios recientes acerca de las diferencias de transmisión entre cepas, que delinean aspectos de la interacción patógeno - vector. Bacterias, virus o protozoarios transmitidos por artrópodos causan enfermedades severas, tanto en humanos como en animales. Las enfermedades infecciosas transmitidas por garrapatas, entre las que incluimos a la Anaplasmosis (A. marginale, babesiosis (Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, B. divergens y Theileriosis (Theileria annulata, T. parva, se encuentran entre las más importantes en el ámbito mundial, con pérdidas cercanas a los siete mil millones de dólares anualmente; y, a pesar de su impacto, permanecen escasamente bajo control, basado primordialmente en la aplicación de acaricidas, para interrumpir su transmisión. La aparición de garrapatas resistentes a múltiples sustancias acaricidas, representa una amenaza en este tipo de control y, como resultado, hay un resurgimiento de la investigación para el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias para su control. Nuevas opciones para prevenir la transmisión de patógenos de animales por garrapatas, será el resultado de entender las interacciones garrapata patógeno; proceso que culmina con el desarrollo de la infección y transmisión exitosa. En todos los casos de patógenos transmitidos por garrapatas, el desarrollo de la infección se realiza coordinamente a los momentos de adhesión y alimentación del vector sobre el animal. Esto sucede por la interdependencia en la señalización entre el patógeno y el vector al alimentarse y, por ello, será susceptible de intervención.

  17. Subdominant outer membrane antigens in anaplasma marginale: conservation, antigenicity, and protective capacity using recombinant protein

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    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts or a well- defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are seve...

  18. Knockout of an outer membrane protein operon of anaplasma marginale by transposon mutagenesis

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    Large amounts of data generated by genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics technologies have increased our understanding of the biology of Anaplasma marginale. However, these data have also led to new assumptions that require testing, ideally through classic genetic mutation. One example is the def...

  19. Detection of genetic diversity of Anaplasma marginale isolates in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pohl, A.E.; Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Ribeiro, M.F.B.; Goncalves da Silvera, J.; Silaghi, C.; Pfister, K.; Friche Passos, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2013), s. 129-135 ISSN 1984-2961 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Anaplasma marginale * MSP1a * DNA sequencing * microsatellites * tandem repeats * Brazil Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.961, year: 2013

  20. Prevalence of Anaplasma marginale in different tick species from Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania.

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    Fyumagwa, Robert D; Simmler, Pascale; Meli, Marina L; Hoare, Richard; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2009-04-06

    In 2001, Ngorongoro Crater was infested with high density of ticks on grassland, livestock and wildlife which was also associated with high mortality. Adult ticks were collected, identified, processed for nucleic acids extraction and a molecular analysis was performed to determine the range of tick species harboring Anaplasma marginale. The real-time PCR was used in the amplification of rickettsia DNA in tick pools (n=527) from 11 identified tick species. Six tick species were detected with A. marginale DNA including Amblyomma gemma, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. compositus, R.decoloratus, R. praetextatus and R. pulchellus. The detection rate in each tick species was 3%, 0.7%, 2%, 13%, 1.8%, and 6.2%, respectively. Five of the positive tick species excluding R.decoloratus have previously not been described to transmit A. marginale. High diversity of tick species detected with A. marginale in Ngorongoro Crater is likely to increase a risk to susceptible animals of contracting the infection.

  1. Cooperation of Pd-1 and LAG-3 contributes to T-cell exhaustion in anaplasma marginale-infected cattle

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    The CD4+ T-cell response is central for control of Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle. However, the infection induces a functional exhaustion of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in cattle immunized with A. marginale outer membrane proteins or purified outer membranes (OM), which presumably facilit...

  2. OBTENÇÃO DE ISOLADO PURO DE Anaplasma marginale EM BEZERROS NEONATOS PRIVADOS DE COLOSTRO Anaplasma marginale PURE ISOLATE OBTAINED IN COLOSTRUM-DEPRIVED NEWBORN CALVES

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    Francisco de Carvalho Dias Filho

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo principal de obter isolados autóctones puros de Anaplasma marginale a partir de amostra de sangue de bovino criado em uma área endêmica para a tristeza parasitária bovina no município de Goiânia. Obteve-se o inóculo para o isolamento de A. marginale de animal doador, portador de infecções naturais mistas, após receber tratamento seletivo com dose babesicida esterelizante de dipropionato de imidocarb. Dois dias após esse tratamento, colheu-se dele uma amostra de sangue de 20 mL do animal doador para inoculação em bezerro neonato privado de colostro e livre de infecções por hemoparasitos. Após trinta dias da inoculação, o receptor apresentou febre, apatia e parasitemia patente por A. marginale. Amostras de sangue foram então colhidas e preparadas na forma de estabilizados para serem criopreservadas e, assim, comporem banco de isolados de hemoparasitos autóctones. Realizou-se a comprovação da pureza do isolado, concomitantemente, pela demonstração de soroconversão específica, pela reação de PCR e, ainda, pela subinoculação da amostra criopreservada em bezerro suscetível. Constatou-se ainda que o uso de bezerros neonatos privados de colostro, como animais suscetíveis, pode ser considerado como modelo prático, eficaz e relativamente barato para o isolamento de hemoparasitos em regiões endêmicas.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Anaplasma marginale, anaplasmose bovina, bezerros, isolados.

    This study was conducted with the objective of obtaining pure autochthonous isolates of Anaplasma marginale from blood samples of bovines that have been raised in the tick-borne disease endemic area of the municipality of Goiânia. The inoculum of A. marginale was prepared from a donor animal, known to be natural carrier of hemoparasite mixed infections, after treatment with

  3. Anaplasma Marginale isolation from infected bovine erythrocytes or from its floating culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canon Q, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Isolation of Anaplasma Marginale is of great importance because this is the cause of anaplasmosis in cattle. Anaplasmosis is a mortal disease and spreads easily. To isolate the anaplasm, four different experiments were developed; in the first experiment, the parasite was isolated from parasitic blood, by means of three methods; osmotic shock, sonic vibration and treatment with hemolisine. In the second experiment, the parasite source was the top of the bacteriologic culture of anaplasma marginale obtained by means of slow centrifugation. In the third experiment, it was used parasitic blood diluted in PBS and liquid nitrogen criopreserved. In the fourth experiment.it was used parasitic blood which was separated by means of sonic oscillation. This method was more adequate to free the parasite from the host cell. Differential centrifugation was the best method to separate parasite of the stroma and ghost cells

  4. Transplacental transmission of Anaplasma marginale in beef cattle chronically infected in southern Brazil

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    Hermann Eduardo Gonzalez Grau

    Full Text Available In this study, we have investigated the incidence of transplacental transmission of Anaplasma marginale in chronically infected cows with no history of acute anaplasmosis during gestation. In addition, we evaluated various techniques for detection of transplacental transmission ofA. marginale. Blood samples were collected from 30 cows at three different periods: at the time of artificial insemination, at gestational diagnosis, and after calving. Also, blood was collected from the newborn calves, including one sample before colostrum intake, and another three days after birth. A. marginale-specific antibodies were detected in 100% of the cows with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, and in 97% of them, using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Also, we observed that all of the three-day-old newborn calves were seropositive by IFAT. According to polymerase chain reaction, 63.3% of the cows were carriers of A. marginale, as well as 6.7% of the newborn calves. This represented a transplacental transmission rate of 10.5%. Furthermore, a correlation of 93.3% was observed between the two serodiagnostic techniques, demonstrating that both ELISA and IFAT can be used in epidemiological surveys of A. marginale. These results confirm the occurrence of transplacental transmission of A. marginale in chronically infected cows and suggest the importance of this transmission route in areas of enzootic instability.

  5. Prevalence of Babesia spp. and Anaplasma marginale in cattle in the municipality of Palma, MG

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    Marluce Aparecida Mattos Paula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Paula M.A.M., Oliveira F.C.R., Melo Jr O.A. & Frazão-Teixeira E. [Prevalence of Babesia spp. and Anaplasma marginale in cattle in the municipality of Palma, MG.] Prevalência de Babesia spp. e Anaplasma marginale em bovinos no município de Palma, MG. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4: 359-365, 2015. Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/ Fiocruz, Avenida Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21040-361, Brasil. E-mail: edwards.teixeira@ioc.fiocruz.br We verified the prevalence of hemoparasites in 40 cattle with ages varying from one month to 12 years old, in two farms of the Municipality of Palma, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Two blood smear samples were collected from each animal: one from the tail tip and another from the ear tip. The smears were fixed, stained and observed under 100X lighted microscope magnifying glass. Twenty- -seven out of 40 animals studied (67.5% had at least one species of hemoparasite. Among these, 21 (52.5% were infected with Babesia spp., 10 (25% with Anaplasma marginale and four (10% parasitized with both hemoparasites. The studied region is potentially enzootic for the detected parasites and there is high risk for clinical cases of tick-borne disease. Both anatomic points, tail and ear tips, are good spots for blood collection and smear confection for hemoparasite investigation.

  6. Characterization of Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale Strains by Use of msp1aS Genotyping Reveals a Wildlife Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumalo, Zamantungwa T H; Catanese, Helen N; Liesching, Nicole; Hove, Paidashe; Collins, Nicola E; Chaisi, Mamohale E; Gebremedhin, Assefaw H; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Brayton, Kelly A

    2016-10-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis caused by the intraerythrocytic rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale is endemic in South Africa. Anaplasma marginale subspecies centrale also infects cattle; however, it causes a milder form of anaplasmosis and is used as a live vaccine against A. marginale There has been less interest in the epidemiology of A. marginale subsp. centrale, and, as a result, there are few reports detecting natural infections of this organism. When detected in cattle, it is often assumed that it is due to vaccination, and in most cases, it is reported as coinfection with A. marginale without characterization of the strain. A total of 380 blood samples from wild ruminant species and cattle collected from biobanks, national parks, and other regions of South Africa were used in duplex real-time PCR assays to simultaneously detect A. marginale and A. marginale subsp. centrale. PCR results indicated high occurrence of A. marginale subsp. centrale infections, ranging from 25 to 100% in national parks. Samples positive for A. marginale subsp. centrale were further characterized using the msp1aS gene, a homolog of msp1α of A. marginale, which contains repeats at the 5' ends that are useful for genotyping strains. A total of 47 Msp1aS repeats were identified, which corresponded to 32 A. marginale subsp. centrale genotypes detected in cattle, buffalo, and wildebeest. RepeatAnalyzer was used to examine strain diversity. Our results demonstrate a diversity of A. marginale subsp. centrale strains from cattle and wildlife hosts from South Africa and indicate the utility of msp1aS as a genotypic marker for A. marginale subsp. centrale strain diversity. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Immunization-induced anaplasma marginale-specific T lymphocyte reponses impaired by A. marginale infection are restored after eliminating the infection with tetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection of cattle with Anaplasma marginale fails to prime sustained effector/memory T-cell responses, and high bacterial load may induce antigen-specific CD4 T exhaustion and deletion. We tested the hypothesis that clearance of persistent infection restores the exhausted T-cell response. We show t...

  8. Molecular detection and characterization of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria species and Anaplasma marginale isolated from cattle in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Aboge, Gabriel Oluga; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Masatani, Tatsunori; Cao, Shinuo; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Zhou, Mo; Wang, Guanbo; Liu, Mingming; Iguchi, Aiko; Vudriko, Patrick; Ybanez, Adrian Patalinghug; Inokuma, Hisashi; Shirafuji-Umemiya, Rika; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2015-09-30

    Infections with Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria species and Anaplasma marginale are endemic in Kenya yet there is a lack of adequate information on their genotypes. This study established the genetic diversities of the above tick-borne hemoparasites infecting cattle in Kenya. Nested PCR and sequencing were used to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of the above parasites in 192 cattle blood samples collected from Ngong and Machakos farms. B. bovis spherical body protein 4, B. bigemina rhoptry-associated protein 1a, A. marginale major surface protein 5, Theileria spp. 18S rRNA, T. parva p104 and T. orientalis major piroplasm surface protein were used as the marker genes. B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. parva, T. velifera, T. taurotragi, T. mutans and A. marginale were prevalent in both farms, whereas T. ovis, Theileria sp. (buffalo) and T. orientalis were found only in Ngong farm. Co-infections were observed in more than 50 % of positive samples in both farms. Babesia parasites and A. marginale sequences were highly conserved while T. parva and T. orientalis were polymorphic. Cattle-derived T. parva was detected in Machakos farm. However, cattle and buffalo-derived Theileria were detected in Ngong farm suggesting interactions between cattle and wild buffaloes. Generally, the pathogens detected in Kenya were genetically related to the other African isolates but different from the isolates in other continents. The current findings reaffirm the endemicity and co-infection of cattle with tick-borne hemoparasites, and the role of wildlife in pathogens transmission and population genetics in Kenya.

  9. Cultivo in vitro de Anaplasma marginale en líneas celulares endoteliales

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    G. Sarahí Luna-Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale, bacteria intracelular obligada, es el agente causal de la anaplasmosis bovina, caracterizada por anemia progresiva, fiebre, pérdida de peso y ocasionalmente, la muerte. Como alternativa para el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias de prevención se plantea el uso de cultivos celulares para la obtención in vitro de A. marginale. El propósito de este estudio fue ensayar su cultivo in vitro en células nucleadas empleando estirpes de células endoteliales de bovino y de mono, mismas que fueron expuestas a eritrocitos infectados con A. marginale. Para demostrar la invasión de las células endoteliales se emplearon diferentes opciones: tinciones, detección genómica o inmunofluorescencia, con resultados negativos; adicionalmente, tampoco se apreciaron efectos citopatológicos. Sin embargo, cuando se aplicó la metodología de co-cultivo en presencia de las células endoteliales, A. marginale se detectó durante más tiempo que en cultivos con eritrocitos únicamente. Con el supuesto de evidenciar la presencia de la infección, mediante la valoración de las constantes fisiológicas y anticuerpos específicos contra la bacteria, se inocularon bovinos susceptibles con el material biológico de los cultivos. Aún cuando no hubieron signos clínicos de anaplasmosis, en el bovino inoculado con la línea de córnea co-cultivada con eritrocitos infectados, se detectaron anticuerpos específicos contra A. marginale; sin embargo, no se logra dilucidar en este estudio la participación de las células endoteliales.

  10. Anaplasma marginale attenuated by irradiation, its potential use as vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, A.; Pupiales, N.; Castro, J.; Higuera, B.; Orrego, J.

    1986-01-01

    Five groups of 5 calves each were inoculated: group 1 (control) with 5 x 10 8 non-irradiated parasites (day 0) and group 2 with the same dose of irradiated (900 Gy) parasites on day 0. Both groups showed clinical signs of the infection, although group 2 was less severely affected. On day 41 group 3 was inoculated with blood (1 x 10 9 parasites) from an animal in group 2. These parasites were irradiated again (900 Gy) prior to inoculation. On day 59 group 4 was inoculated with blood (1 x 10 9 parasites) from the same animal in group 2. This inoculum was irradiated a second time (900 Gy) and the cells were washed and culture ''IN VITRO'' for 4 days prior to inoculation. Parasitaemia increased abruptly in group 3 (peak = 25%) concomitant with a sudden drop in hematocrit. Two animals died, the others required treatment. Group 4 had a transient and low parasitaemia (peak = 2%) and normal hematocrit values. On day 201 all animals including a new control (group 5) of 5 animals, were inoculated with 2 x 10 9 heterologous parasites. All 5 control animals reached 20% parasitaemia and averaged a -40% hematocrit decrease when treated. In contrast, the remaining animals had from -20% to normal hematocrit values and from 5.6% to non-detectable parasitaemias. All inoculated calves showed high antibody titers which increased once the parasitaemia was overcome, and after challenge. It appears that two (900 Gy) irradiations effectively attenuated A. marginale, conferring an active and long lasting protection. However, inoculum cells had to be washed and cultured to prevent hemolitic shock

  11. Immune response of calves inoculated with proteins ofAnaplasma marginale bound to an immunostimulant complex

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    Marcela Ribeiro Gasparini

    Full Text Available Despite our current knowledge of the immunology, pathology, and genetics of Anaplasma marginale, prevention in cattle is currently based on old standbys, including live attenuated vaccines, antibiotic treatment, and maintaining enzootic stability in cattle herds. In the present study, we evaluated the use of an immunostimulant complex (ISCOMATRIX adjuvant, associated with a pool of recombinant major surface proteins (rMSP1a, rMSP1b, rMSP4 and rMSP5 to improve the humoral immune response triggered in calves mainly by IgG2. Ten calves were divided in three groups: 4 calves were inoculated with the ISCOMATRIX/rMSPs (G1; 2 calves were inoculated with ISCOMATRIX adjuvant (G2; and 4 calves received saline (G3. Three inoculations were administered at 21-day intervals. In G1, the calves showed significant increases in total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 levels 21 days after the second inoculation, compared to the control group (p < 0.05, and G1 calves remained above the cut-off value 28 days after the third inoculation (p < 0.05. The post-immunized sera from calves in G1 reacted specifically for each of the rMSPs used. In conclusion, the ISCOMATRIX/rMSPs induced antigen-specific seroconversion in calves. Therefore, additional testing to explore the protection induced by rMSPs, both alone and in conjunction with proteins previously identified as subdominant epitopes, is warranted.

  12. Knockdown of the Rhipicephalus microplus cytochrome c oxidase subunit III gene is associated with a failure of Anaplasma marginale transmission.

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    Thais D Bifano

    Full Text Available Rhipicephalus microplus is an obligate hematophagous ectoparasite of cattle and an important biological vector of Anaplasma marginale in tropical and subtropical regions. The primary determinants for A. marginale transmission are infection of the tick gut, followed by infection of salivary glands. Transmission of A. marginale to cattle occurs via infected saliva delivered during tick feeding. Interference in colonization of either the tick gut or salivary glands can affect transmission of A. marginale to naïve animals. In this study, we used the tick embryonic cell line BME26 to identify genes that are modulated in response to A. marginale infection. Suppression-subtractive hybridization libraries (SSH were constructed, and five up-regulated genes {glutathione S-transferase (GST, cytochrome c oxidase sub III (COXIII, dynein (DYN, synaptobrevin (SYN and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate 3-phosphatase (PHOS} were selected as targets for functional in vivo genomic analysis. RNA interference (RNAi was used to determine the effect of tick gene knockdown on A. marginale acquisition and transmission. Although RNAi consistently knocked down all individually examined tick genes in infected tick guts and salivary glands, only the group of ticks injected with dsCOXIII failed to transmit A. marginale to naïve calves. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that RNAi of a tick gene is associated with a failure of A. marginale transmission.

  13. Comparação entre diversos antígenos para o diagnóstico de Anaplasma marginale por ELISA Comparison between several antigens for diagnosis of Anaplasma marginale by ELISA

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    Carlos A.N. Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasmose bovina é uma doença com grande importância nas regiões tropicais e subtropicais do mundo por determinar perdas econômicas devido à mortalidade e redução da produtividade. É causada por Anaplasma marginale, uma riquétsia intraeritrocítica obrigatória cujo controle requer, além de uma vacina eficiente, uma acurada identificação de bovinos cronicamente infectados. Apesar de existirem atualmente diversos métodos de diagnóstico dessa riquétsia, os métodos sorológicos, em particular o ensaio de imunoadsorção enzimática-ELISAs, são os mais utilizados devido à sua versatilidade e praticidade. No entanto, devido ao grande número de antígenos disponíveis, atualmente torna-se necessária uma avaliação para definir quais antígenos apresentam um melhor desempenho no diagnóstico da anaplasmose. Soros de bovinos positivos e negativos para A. marginale por PCR, e soros de animais provenientes do Brasil e Costa Rica, foram testados em ELISAs baseados em MSP1a, MSP2 e MSP5 recombinantes, um pool das três proteínas recombinantes, e antígeno de lisado de corpúsculos iniciais da riquétsia (CI. Utilizando soro de bovinos positivos para A. marginale por PCR, uma maior sensibilidade foi observada no ELISA CI. No entanto, uma maior especificidade, com soro de bovinos negativos a PCR, foi observada com os ELISAs recombinantes. O porcentual de bovinos positivos do Brasil e Costa Rica foi maior com ELISA CI. Razões para essas diferenças são discutidas.Bovine anaplasmosis is a major disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world by determine economical loss due mortality and productive reduction. The disease is caused by Anaplasma marginale, an intraerythrocytic rickettsia whose control requires, besides an efficient vaccine, the accurate identification of chronically infected cattle. Although the existence of diverse methods of diagnosis of this rickettsia, the serological methods, in particular the enzyme

  14. SEROPREVALENCE OF Trypanosoma vivax, Anaplasma marginale, and Babesia bovis IN DAIRY CATTLE

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    Jonata de Melo Barbieri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the prevalence of IgG against Trypanosoma vivax, Anaplasma marginale, and Babesia bovis in dairy cattle in southern Minas Gerais, four hundred cows from 40 dairy farms  were randomly selected and distributed in 14 municipalities. Seroprevalence was determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. Interviews were conducted to characterize producers and dairy production. Univariate analysis was carried out using chi-square (x2 or Fisher’s exact test. The multiple model was constructed with variables associated with p ≤ 0.25 by x2 test using generalized estimating equations (GEE. True prevalence at herd level was 49.6% (31.7–67.5, 100% (92.1–100, and 100% (86.5–100 for T. vivax, A. marginale, and B. bovis, respectively. At individual level, true seroprevalence was 9.9% (6.7–13.1, 96.2% (92.1–99.6, and 93.7% (89.4–97.2, respectively, for T. vivax, A. marginale, and B. bovis. Among the factors adjusted by logistic regression GEE  model, “total farm area” (p= 0.021, OR= 0.308, Ic95%= 0.114–0.836 and “fly season” (p= 0.016, OR= 2.133, Ic95%= 1.153–3.948 remained associated with seropositivity for T. vivax. As the State of Minas Gerais is considered non-endemic for T. vivax, producers and veterinarians should be informed about the risk of occurrence of bovine trypanosomiasis. Keywords: anaplasmosis; babesiosis; dairy cattle; enzootic stability; trypanosomiasis.

  15. Analysis of the risk factors related to the immune humoral anti-Anaplasma marginale in dairy cattleAnálise dos fatores de risco relacionados à resposta imune humoral anti-Anaplasma marginale em vacas de leite

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    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent pathogen of cattle transmitted by ticks in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for anaplasmosis in dairy cattle. Fifty dairy cattle from the herd of Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Estado do Rio de Janeiro were selected by proportional stratified sampling. The risk factors evaluated were: physiological state, race pattern, number of lactations, milk production, infestation by Rhipicephalus microplus and animal density. Antibody activity against A. marginale was determined using the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The percentual values of seroprevalence for A. marginale were submitted to χ2 test, and the level of minimum significance, to keep a factor in the model of logistic regression, was fixated in 5%. It was observed that pregnancy and lactation influenced significantly (pAnaplasma marginale é o mais prevalente patógeno de bovinos transmitido por carrapatos em todo o mundo. Este estudo objetivou avaliar os fatores de risco para anaplasmose em vacas de leite. Foram selecionadas por amostragem estratificada proporcional 50 vacas do rebanho da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os fatores de risco avaliados foram: estado fisiologico, padrão racial, número de lactações, produção leiteira, infestação por Rhipicephalus microplus e densidade animal. Atividade de anticorpos contra Anaplasma marginale determinada utilizado o Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimático Indireto. Os valores percentuais de soroprevalêcia para A. marginale foram submetidos ao teste ?2, sendo que o nível de significância mínima para manter um fator no modelo de regressão logística foi fixado em 5%. Observou-se que, tanto a gestação quanto a lactação influenciaram significativamente (p<0.05 na soropositividade dos animais. Animais Bos indicus apresentaram 5,21 vezes mais chance de serem soropositivos do que animais B. taurus. Fêmeas prim

  16. Association of Anaplasma marginale strain superinfection with infection prevalence within tropical regions.

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    Elizabeth J Castañeda-Ortiz

    Full Text Available Strain superinfection occurs when a second strain infects a host already infected with and having mounted an immune response to a primary strain. The incidence of superinfection with Anaplasma marginale, a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of domestic and wild ruminants, has been shown to be higher in tropical versus temperate regions. This has been attributed to the higher prevalence of infection, with consequent immunity against primary strains and thus greater selective pressure for superinfection with antigenically distinct strains. However an alternative explanation would be the differences in the transmitting vector, Dermacentor andersoni in the studied temperate regions and Rhipicephalus microplus in the studied tropical regions. To address this question, we examined two tropical populations sharing the same vector, R. microplus, but with significantly different infection prevalence. Using two separate markers, msp1α (one allele per genome and msp2 (multiple alleles per genome, there were higher levels of multiple strain infections in the high infection prevalence as compared to the low prevalence population. The association of higher strain diversity with infection prevalence supports the hypothesis that high levels of infection prevalence and consequent population immunity is the predominant driver of strain superinfection.

  17. Molecular identification of Anaplasma marginale in two autochthonous South American wild species revealed an identical new genotype and its phylogenetic relationship with those of bovines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemi, Eliana C; de la Fourniere, Sofía; Orozco, Marcela; Peña Martinez, Jorge; Correa, Elena; Fernandez, Javier; Lopez Arias, Ludmila; Paoletta, Martina; Corona, Belkis; Pinarello, Valérie; Wilkowsky, Silvina E; Farber, Marisa D

    2016-05-26

    Anaplasma marginale is a well-known cattle pathogen of tropical and subtropical world regions. Even though, this obligate intracellular bacterium has been reported in other host species different than bovine, it has never been documented in Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater) or Hippocamelus antisense (taruca), which are two native endangered species. Samples from two sick wild animals: a Myrmecophaga tridactyla (blood) and a Hippocamelus antisense (blood and serum) were studied for the presence of A. marginale DNA through msp5 gene fragment amplification. Further characterization was done through MSP1a tandem repeats analysis and MLST scheme and the genetic relationship among previously characterized A. marginale sequences were studied by applying, eBURST algorithm and AMOVA analysis. Anaplasma marginale DNA was identified in the Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Hippocamelus antisense samples. Through molecular markers, we identified an identical genotype in both animals that was not previously reported in bovine host. The analysis through eBURST and AMOVA revealed no differentiation between the taruca/anteater isolate and the bovine group. In the present publication we report the identification of A. marginale DNA in a novel ruminant (Hippocamelus antisense) and non-ruminant (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) host species. Genotyping analysis of isolates demonstrated the close relatedness of the new isolate with the circulation population of A. marginale in livestock. Further analysis is needed to understand whether these two hosts contribute to the anaplasmosis epidemiology.

  18. Loss of immunization-induced epitope-specific CD4 T-cell response following anaplasma marginale infection requires presence of the T-cell epitope on the pathogen and is not associated with an increase in lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have shown that in cattle previously immunized with outer membrane proteins, infection with Anaplasma marginale induces a functionally exhausted CD4 T-cell response to the A. marginale immunogen. Furthermore, T-cell responses following infection in nonimmunized cattle had a delayed onset and were...

  19. Validation of an Anaplasma marginale cELISA for use in the diagnosis of A. ovis infections in domestic sheep and Anaplasma spp. in wild ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoles, Glen A; Goff, Will L; Lysyk, Timothy J; Lewis, Gregory S; Knowles, Donald P

    2008-07-27

    A commercially available (cELISA) kit for diagnosing Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle was validated for diagnosing A ovis infection in sheep using the bovine serum controls as supplied by the manufacturer (BcELISA) and sheep serum controls from pathogen-free sheep (OcELISA). True positives were identified using two previously established assays, a nested PCR (nPCR) test and an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA). The BcELISA was also applied to sera from various species of wild ruminants, comparing the results with the IFA. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the predicted threshold inhibition for the BcELISA was 19.2. The sensitivity for the BcELISA was 98.2% and the specificity was 96.3%. The predicted threshold inhibition decreased to 14.3 for the OcELISA; the sensitivity was 96.5% and the specificity was 98.1%. There was >/=90% concordance between IFA and nPCR, as well as between the BcELISA at 19% inhibition cutoff and either IFA or PCR. Concordance between the cELISA and IFA using sera from elk, mule deer, bighorn sheep, pronghorn antelope, and black-tailed deer ranged from 64% to 100%. This commercially available cELISA test kit can be used very effectively to test domestic sheep for infection with A. ovis using the kit-supplied controls (i.e. the BcELISA) and a 19% inhibition cutoff; the kit may also be useful for detecting intra-erythrocytic Anaplasma infections in wild ruminants.

  20. Anaplasma marginale: Diversity, Virulence, and Vaccine Landscape through a Genomics Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroz-Castañeda, Rosa Estela; Amaro-Estrada, Itzel; Rodríguez-Camarillo, Sergio Darío

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the genetic diversity of A. marginale, several efforts have been made around the world. This rickettsia affects a significant number of ruminants, causing bovine anaplasmosis, so the interest in its virulence and how it is transmitted have drawn interest not only from a molecular point of view but also, recently, some genomics research have been performed to elucidate genes and proteins with potential as antigens. Unfortunately, so far, we still do not have a recombinan...

  1. Anaplasma marginale: Diversity, Virulence, and Vaccine Landscape through a Genomics Approach

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    Rosa Estela Quiroz-Castañeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the genetic diversity of A. marginale, several efforts have been made around the world. This rickettsia affects a significant number of ruminants, causing bovine anaplasmosis, so the interest in its virulence and how it is transmitted have drawn interest not only from a molecular point of view but also, recently, some genomics research have been performed to elucidate genes and proteins with potential as antigens. Unfortunately, so far, we still do not have a recombinant anaplasmosis vaccine. In this review, we present a landscape of the multiple approaches carried out from the genomic perspective to generate valuable information that could be used in a holistic way to finally develop an anaplasmosis vaccine. These approaches include the analysis of the genetic diversity of A. marginale and how this affects control measures for the disease. Anaplasmosis vaccine development is also reviewed from the conventional vaccinomics to genome-base vaccinology approach based on proteomics, metabolomics, and transcriptomics analyses reported. The use of these new omics approaches will undoubtedly reveal new targets of interest in the near future, comprising information of potential antigens and the immunogenic effect of A. marginale proteins.

  2. Isolation and attempted cultivation of an Anaplasma marginale strain from Brazilian brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira, Fisher, 1814) in the tick cell line IDE8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Julia A G; Silvestre, Bruna T; Bastos, Camila V; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and establish an Anaplasma marginale strain from Brazilian brown brocket deer, Mazama gouazoubira, in the Ixodes scapularis cell line IDE8. Blood from a free-living adult female M. gouazoubira naturally infected with A. marginale (MGI5) was inoculated intravenously into a splenectomized calf. When A. marginale rickettsemia was 2.5%, blood was collected and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). IDE8 cell cultures were infected with calf blood inoculated with the A. marginale (MG15) isolate. The cultures were monitored by examination of Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears. Light microscopy of stained IDE8 samples revealed the first inclusions of A. marginale (MGI5) at 48days post-inoculation (d.p.i). The IDE8-infected cells contained parasitophorous vacuoles with amorphous material and a few cocci-like organisms. A sample from IDE8-infected cells from the 16th subculture (336 d.p.i.) was analyzed by nPCR, nucleotide sequencing, electron microscopy, and an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The IFAT highlighted some IDE8-infected cells with intense fluorescence in the parasitophorous vacuole, while in other cells, fluorescence was observed only at the periphery. DNA from a culture of the MG15 isolate was amplified with A. marginale msp4 gene primers, and nucleotide sequencing of the PCR product and BLAST software analysis further confirmed 100% identity with the MGI5 blood isolate (GenBank no. JN022558.1). Electron microscopy revealed increased numbers of lysosomes in the cytoplasm of IDE8 cells. Several cells exhibited large vacuoles containing cellular debris and amorphous material. After the 29th subculture, it was not possible to detect compatible Anaplasma structures by light microscopy, and subculture samples tested negative in nPCR. Despite the failure of the attempt to establish A. marginale (MGI5) in IDE8 cells, the results demonstrated the isolate's ability to infect, survive and multiply

  3. Immunogenicity of Outer Membrane Proteins VirB9-1 and VirB9-2, a Novel Nanovaccine against Anaplasma marginale.

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    Liang Zhao

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent tick-borne livestock pathogen and poses a significant threat to cattle industry. In contrast to currently available live blood-derived vaccines against A. marginale, alternative safer and better-defined subunit vaccines will be of great significance. Two proteins (VirB9-1 and VirB9-2 from the Type IV secretion system of A. marginale have been shown to induce humoral and cellular immunity. In this study, Escherichia coli were used to express VirB9-1 and VirB9-2 proteins. Silica vesicles having a thin wall of 6 nm and pore size of 5.8 nm were used as the carrier and adjuvant to deliver these two antigens both as individual or mixed nano-formulations. High loading capacity was achieved for both proteins, and the mouse immunisation trial with individual as well as mixed nano-formulations showed high levels of antibody titres over 107 and strong T-cell responses. The mixed nano-formulation also stimulated high-level recall responses in bovine T-cell proliferation assays. These results open a promising path towards the development of efficient A. marginale vaccines and provide better understanding on the role of silica vesicles to deliver multivalent vaccines as mixed nano-formulations able to activate both B-cell and T-cell immunity, for improved animal health.

  4. Frequency of antibodies to Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax and Borrelia burdgorferi in cattle from the northeastern region of the state of Pará, Brazil Freqüência de anticorpos para Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax e Borrelia burgdorferi em bovinos do nordeste do Estado do Pará, Brasil

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    Daniel S. Guedes Junior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Babesiosis, anaplasmosis, and trypanosomosis are relevant diseases, potentially causing morbidity in cattle, leading to economic losses. Borreliosis is import as a potential zoonosis. The objective of this study was to determine, by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, the frequency of seropositive cattle to Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax and Borrelia burgdorferi in cattle from the Northeastern region of Pará, Brazil. Sera samples from 246 female adult cattle from municipalities of Castanhal and São Miguel do Guamá were used. Crude antigens ELISAs were used to detect antibodies to all agents, except to A. marginale, to which an indirect ELISA with recombinant major surface 1a protein (MSP1a antigen was used. Overall frequencies of seropositive animals were: B. bigemina - 99.2%; B. bovis - 98.8%; A. marginale - 68.3%; T. vivax - 93.1% and B. burgdorferi - 54.9%. The frequencies of seropositive cattle to B. bovis and B. bigemina suggest a high rate of transmission of these organisms by tick in the studied region, which can be classified as enzootically stable to these hemoprotozoans. The low frequency of seropositive cattle to A. marginale may be attributed to a lower sensitivity of the recombinant antigen ELISA utilized or a distinct rate of inoculation of this rickettsia by ticks, as compared with Babesia sp. transmission. The high frequency of seropositive cattle to T. vivax indicates that this hemoprotozoan is prevalent in herds from the Northeastern region of Pará. The rate of animal that showed homologues antibodies to B. burgdorferi indicates the presence of the tickborne spirochaetal agent in the cattle population in the studied region.A babesiose, a anaplasmose e a tripanossomose são enfermidades relevantes, potencialmente causadoras de morbidade em bovinos, levando a perdas econômicas. A borreliose assume importância como zoonose potencial. O objetivo desse estudo foi determinar

  5. Seroprevalence fo Anaplasma marginale in dairy cattle and, studies on the dynamics of natural infection of Holstein calves in Southern Brazil/ Soroprevalência de Anaplasma marginale em bovinos leiteiros e estudos sobre a dinâmica da infecção natural em bezerros holandeses no Sul do Brasil

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    Flora S. Kano

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Sera of 708 animals (cows, heifers and calves from 13 dairy herds in the Londrina region of Paraná, Brazil, were tested for antibodies to Anaplasma marginale by a competitive ELISA assay (cELISA. Ten 2 to 20 days old Holstein calves, from one of the 13 herds studied, were monitored during one year. Blood samples from each calf were collected monthly and tick burden counting was performed every fortnight. Percentage of infected erythrocytes was established by Giemsa-stained smears, and sera samples were examined by cELISA to detect antibodies against A. marginale. In the 13 herds, 92.94% of the animals were seropositive to A. marginale, which indicates that Londrina is an area of enzootic stability. Among the three animal categories (cows, heifers and calves, the rates were 98.29%, 96.64% and 81.25%, respectively. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies to calves was demonstrated by cELISA. From ten calves, nine (90% were seropositive at the first sampling, revealing colostral antibodies anti-A . marginale. These antibodies remained in calves for 2 to 3 months. After this period the calves were infected with ticks, and then all of them were seropositive to Anaplasma. Five 4 to 7 months old calves showed rickettsemia ranging from 0.1% to 3.8%. Two of them were treated with tetracycline. The rickettsemia and clinical signs of anaplasmosis of these calves were coincident with tick burden increase.Soros de 708 animais (vacas, novilhas e bezerros oriundos de 13 propriedades leiteiras da região de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, foram testados para a presença de anticorpos contra Anaplasma marginale pelo teste ELISA competitivo (cELISA. Dez bezerros recém nascidos, pertencentes a um dos 13 rebanhos utilizados no levantamento sorológico, foram monitorados durante um ano. De cada bezerro foram colhidas amostras de sangue mensalmente e a cada quinze dias foi realizada a contagem de carrapatos. A porcentagem de eritrócitos parasitados foi

  6. Nanoparticle-Based Delivery of Anaplasma marginale Membrane Proteins; VirB9-1 and VirB10 Produced in the Pichia pastoris Expression System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine anaplasmosis or cattle-tick fever is a tick-borne haemolytic disease caused by the rickettsial haemoparasite Anaplasma marginale in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. While difficult to express, the proteins VirB9-1 and VirB10 are immunogenic components of the outer membrane type IV secretion system that have been identified as candidate antigens for vaccines targeting of A. marginale. Soluble VirB9-1 and VirB10 were successfully expressed using Pichia pastoris. When formulated with the self-adjuvanting silica vesicles, SV-100 (diameter: 50 nm, and pore entrance size: 6 nm, 200 µg of VirB9-1 and VirB10 were adsorbed per milligram of nanoparticle. The VirB9-1 and VirB10, SV-100 formulations were shown to induce higher antibody responses in mice compared to the QuilA formulations. Moreover, intracellular staining of selected cytokines demonstrated that both VirB9-1 and VirB10 formulations induced cell-mediated immune responses in mice. Importantly, the SV-100 VirB9-1 and VirB10 complexes were shown to specifically stimulate bovine T-cell linages derived from calves immunised with A. marginale outer membrane fractions, suggesting formulations will be useful for bovine immunisation and protection studies. Overall this study demonstrates the potential of self-adjuvanting silica vesicle formulations to address current deficiencies in vaccine delivery applications.

  7. Epitope-based vaccines with the Anaplasma marginale MSP1a functional motif induce a balanced humoral and cellular immune response in mice.

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    Paula S Santos

    Full Text Available Bovine anaplasmosis is a hemoparasitic disease that causes considerable economic loss to the dairy and beef industries. Cattle immunized with the Anaplasma marginale MSP1 outer membrane protein complex presents a protective humoral immune response; however, its efficacy is variable. Immunodominant epitopes seem to be a key-limiting factor for the adaptive immunity. We have successfully demonstrated that critical motifs of the MSP1a functional epitope are essential for antibody recognition of infected animal sera, but its protective immunity is yet to be tested. We have evaluated two synthetic vaccine formulations against A. marginale, using epitope-based approach in mice. Mice infection with bovine anaplasmosis was demonstrated by qPCR analysis of erythrocytes after 15-day exposure. A proof-of-concept was obtained in this murine model, in which peptides conjugated to bovine serum albumin were used for immunization in three 15-day intervals by intraperitoneal injections before challenging with live bacteria. Blood samples were analyzed for the presence of specific IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies, as well as for the rickettsemia analysis. A panel containing the cytokines' transcriptional profile for innate and adaptive immune responses was carried out through qPCR. Immunized BALB/c mice challenged with A. marginale presented stable body weight, reduced number of infected erythrocytes, and no mortality; and among control groups mortality rates ranged from 15% to 29%. Additionally, vaccines have significantly induced higher IgG2a than IgG1 response, followed by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This is a successful demonstration of epitope-based vaccines, and protection against anaplasmosis may be associated with elicitation of effector functions of humoral and cellular immune responses in murine model.

  8. Estudios genómicos y funcionales en Anaplasma marginale y en bacterias intracelulares de la clase alfa-proteobacteria y su relación con la reducción del genoma

    OpenAIRE

    Nuñez, Pablo Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    La subdivisión α- de la clase proteobacteria representa un grupo sumamente diverso y heterogéneo de bacterias con una gran variabilidad en sus características genómicas, biológicas y ecológicas. Dentro de esta subdivisión se encuentra el orden Rickettsiales que ha cobrado gran importancia durante los últimos años por agrupar a diversos patógenos emergentes que resultan relevantes para la salud pública y salud animal. Entre ellos, se destaca Anaplasma marginale, causante de la Anaplasmosis bov...

  9. Dynamic of the natural infection by Anaplasma marginale in Holstein cows and calves in the Londrina region, North of Paraná State, Brazil/ Dinâmica da infecção natural pelo Anaplasma marginale em vacas e bezerros da raça Holandesa, na região de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, Brasil

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    Ademir Luz Pereira

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic of the infection by Anaplasma marginale in Holstein cows and calves was studied in two dairy farms (A and B in the Londrina region, North of Paraná. In the farm A the cows were maintained in the tie-stall system and, the calves in collective stall; in the farm B, the cows stayed in freestall system and the calves in individual cages. Every 15 days, blood samples were collected from the dams 45 days before parturition until 60 days post partum, and from their calves at birth until 240 days of age. Tick burden counting was also performed on dams and calves twice a month. Percentage of infected erythrocytes was established by Giemsa-stained smears. Blood and sera samples were examined by Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR and competitive Enzime-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA, respectively. In the cows, the anti-A. marginale antibody levels decreased close to the parturition, showing an adverse behavior among the farms. In the farm A the levels of antibodies increased between 30 and 60 days after the parturition and, in farm B the antibodies stayed in low levels during the accompaniment period of the cows. The anti-A. marginale antibody levels of the calves of the farm A, that were not high in the day of the birth, decreased more until 45 days post parturition and it increased again starting from 60 days, with maximum pick to the 105 days. In the farm B, where the calves presented higher levels of antibodies at the birth day, there was a slower decrease of the antibody levels, reaching the lowest point to the 75 days post parturition and it increased again more tardily, to the 165 days of age. The dams and calves in both farms were exposure to cattle tick Boophilus microplus during almost all period of accompaniment and they showed rickettsemia ranging from 0 to 1%. In conclusion, A. marginale infection after birth was more influenced by maternal antibody levels than tick burden; the differences between animals handling influenced the

  10. Functional and Immunological Relevance of Anaplasma marginale Major Surface Protein 1a Sequence and Structural Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Passos, L.M.F.; Lis, K.; Kenneil, R.; Valdés, James J.; Ferrolho, J.; Tonk, Miray; Pohl, A.E.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Zweygarth, E.; Shkap, V.; Ribeiro, M.F.B.; Estrada-Pena, A.; Kocan, K.M.; de la Fuente, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 6 (2013), e65243 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 238511 - POSTICK Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : CD4(+) T-lymphocytes * B-cell epitopes * salivary glands Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  11. Development of a new PCR-based assay to detect Anaplasmataceae and the first report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys in cattle from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmani, Mustapha; Davoust, Bernard; Benterki, Mohamed Seghir; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is a hemoparasitic disease considered as a major constraint to cattle production in many countries. This pathology is at least partially caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma centrale, and Anaplasma bovis. The global threat and emergence of these species in animals require the reliable identification of these bacteria in animal samples. In this study, we developed a new qPCR tool targeting the 23S rRNA gene for the detection of Anaplasmataceae bacteria. The primers and probe for the qPCR reaction had 100% specificity and could identify at least A. phagocytophilum, A. marginale, A. centrale, Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ruminantium, Neorickettisa sennetsu, and Neorickettsia risticii. We used this tool to test samples of bovines from Batna (Algeria), an area from which bovine anaplasmosis have never been reported. We identified three genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum, A. platys and Anaplasma sp. "variant 4". This finding should attract the attention of public authorities to assess the involvement of these pathogens in human and animal health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Caracterização da imunogenicidade das proteínas recombinantes Virb9, Virb10 e fator termo instável de Elongação de Peptídeos de Anaplasma marginale em camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Canevari Castelão

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Considerando as limitações dos atuais métodos de controle contra a anaplasmose bovina, o desenvolvimento de uma vacina efetiva se faz necessário. A partir do advento da análise genômica e proteômica, novas proteínas de membrana de Anaplasma marginale foram identificadas como possíveis candidatas a componentes de uma vacina, tais como, VirB9,VirB10 e Fator Termo Instavél de Elongação de Peptídeos (EF-Tu. Embora estas proteínas ainda não estejam bem caracterizadas na membrana de A. marginale, a produção destas na forma recombinante (rVirB 9, rVirB10 e rEF-Tutem sido realizada, mas as mesmas ainda não foram exploradas em formulações vacinais. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se ouso de rVirB9, rVirB10 e rEF-Tu emulsionadas em adjuvante Montanide em camundongos. Nas condições testadas, verificou-se a indução de forte resposta imune humoral com a produção de IgG1 e IgG2a, sendo que as proporções dos níveis de produção destas subclasses indicam predomínio de IgG1. Entretanto, esplenócitos de animais, que foram injetados com rVirB9 ou rVirB10, produziram interferon-gama acima do limite de detecção do ensaio após estimulação in vitro, sinalizando assim resposta celular específica. Assim, novas avaliações serão realizadas com a finalidade de modular o perfil de resposta imune obtido em bovinos e avaliar a proteção contra A. marginale.

  13. Frequency of Anaplasma marginale (Theiler 1910 and Babesia sp in mestizo bovine Zebu, in the Municipality of Ixiamas county Abel Iturralde Department of The La Paz, Bolivia

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    Mercado Alvaro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work one carries out in the Municipality of Ixiamas County Abel Iturralde of the department of Peace-Bolivia, between May and August of 2010. The objective was to determine the presence of Anaplama sp and Babesia sp, through sanguine smear, they took 160 samples of blood, 40 bovine of the four areas they have been evaluated. The results indicate the presence of Anaplasma sp 6,90%, 6,20% in females and 9,70% in males, this represents 2,50% for the area TO, 5,00% area B, 17,50% area C and 2,50% area D. According to the category 12,50% in calves, 0,00% in torillos, 4,80% in bulls, 6,20% in cows and 14,30% in heifers. The presence of Babesia sp 3,13%, with relationship to the sex 3,10% in females and 3,22% in males, being observed 2,50% in the area TO, 5,00% in the area B, 5,00% in the area C and 0,00% in the area D, according to the category 0,00% in calves, torillos 4,80% bulls, 2,73% vacates and 7,14% in heifers.

  14. Comparison of the serologic tests of Indirect Immunofluorescence, Rapid Conglutination, Indirect ELISA and Competition ELISA for detection of antibodies against Anaplasma marginale in cattle sera from different enzootic areas/ Comparação dos testes sorológicos de Imunofluorescência Indireta, Conglutinação Rápida, ELISA indireto e ELISA por competição para a detecção de anticorpos contra o Anaplasma marginale em soros de bovinos de diferentes áreas enzoóticas

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    João Luís Garcia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The serological techniques Rapid Conglutination Test (RCT, Indirect ELISA (iELISA and Indirect Immunofluorescent Assay (IFA, using the competition ELISA (cELISA as gold test, were comparatively evaluated to detect antibodies against Anaplasma marginale. A total of 453 sera from vaccinated and non vaccinated cattle and, collected from enzootic stability and instability areas were tested. iELISA, IFA and TCR presented kappa index = 0.77 (substantial; 0.57 and 0.49 (moderate, sensibility of 90.6%; 90.2% and 73.7% and specificity of 86.6%; 62.8%, and 79.3%, respectively. Therefore, iELISA presented better specificity than IFA and RCT, and can be indicated for more detailed serological investigations, detection of persistently infected animals in cattle herds and for monitorating of vaccination programs. IFA and TCR can be used in prevalence studies and to monitor cattle movement between different geographical regions.Os testes sorológicos de Conglutinação Rápida (TCR Imunofluorescência Indireta (IFI e Imunoenzimáticos Indireto (iELISA utilizando ELISA por competição (cELISA, como padrão ouro, foram avaliados comparativamente para a detecção de anticorpos contra o Anaplasma marginale. Foram utilizadas 453 amostras de soros sangüíneos de bovinos vacinados e não-vacinados e de áreas de estabilidade e instabilidade enzoótica. O iELISA, IFI e TCR apresentaram respectivamente, índice kappa=0,77 (substancial, 0,57 e 0,49 (moderado, sensibilidade de 90,6%, 90,2% e 73,7% e especificidade de 86,6%, 62,8%, e 79,3%. O iELISA apresentou o melhor desempenho e maior especificidade, podendo ser indicado na avaliação do perfil sorológico de rebanhos, na detecção de animais persistentemente infectados e de animais submetidos a programas de vacinação. As técnicas de IFI e TCR, mesmo apresentando desempenho inferior, podem ser recomendadas para a realização de inquéritos epidemiológicos e para o monitoramento de animais em trânsito entre

  15. Effect of milk production system on the enzootic stability to Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bovis in calves in the Campo das Vertentes region of Minas Gerais state, BrazilEfeito do sistema de produção de leite sobre a estabilidade enzoótica para Anaplasma marginale e Babesia bovis em bezerras na região do Campo das Vertentes de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães Rocha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a cross-sectional observational study, in order to determine the frequency of anti-A. marginale and anti-B. bovis antibodies in calves from four to 12 months of age from ten farms that producing B type milk and an equal number that produce raw milk refrigerated, located in the Campo das Vertentes region of Minas Gerais state, in the period September 2008 to August 2009. Blood smears were performed, serologic testing by indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFAT, given the packed cell volume, rickettsemia, and the clinical scores of animals infected by A. marginale. In the farms that produce B type milk, the overall average frequency of seropositive calves was 94.47% (166/176 and 89.20% (157/176 for A. marginale and B. bovis, respectively. Already on the farms that produce raw milk refrigerated, the overall average frequency of A. marginale was 92.59% (149/161 and for B. bovis from 86.30% (139/161, and there was no significant difference (p > 0.05 in the frequency of calves infected for both hemoparasitic between the two systems of milk production. Statistically significant (p 0.05 among calves from properties that produce B type milk and raw milk refrigerated. The results of this study indicate that, in the Campos das Vertentes region of Minas Gerais, the production system does not interfere with the enzootic stability for A. marginale and B. bovis in calves from dairy farms B milk or raw milk refrigerated, with low probability of anaplasmosis and/or babesiosis in adults animals.Foi realizado um estudo observacional do tipo transversal, com o objetivo de determinar a frequência de anticorpos anti-A. marginale e B. bovis em 337 bezerras com idade entre quatro a 12 meses, oriundas de dez propriedades produtoras de leite B e igual número de fazendas de leite cru refrigerado (leite C, na região do Campo das Vertentes de Minas Gerais, no período de setembro de 2008 a agosto de 2009. Foram realizados esfregaços sangu

  16. Detection of Anaplasma antibodies in wildlife and domestic species in wildlife-livestock interface areas of Kenya by major surface protein 5 competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

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    J.J.N. Ngeranwa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The seroprevalence of Anaplasma antibodies in wildlife (eland, blue wildebeest, kongoni, impala, Thomson's gazelle, Grant's gazelle, giraffe and plains zebra and domestic animal (cattle, sheep and goat populations was studied in wildlife / livestock interface areas of Kenya. Serum samples were analyzed by competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA, using a recombinant antigen (MSP-5 from Anaplasma marginale surface membrane. A monoclonal antibody, FC-16, was used as the primary antibody, while anti-mouse conjugated to horseradish peroxidase was used as the secondary antibody. The results indicate a high seroprevalence in both wildlife and livestock populations, in contrast to earlier reports from Kenya, which indicated a low seroprevalence. The differences are attributed to the accurate analytical method used (CI-ELISA, as compared with agglutination techniques, clinical signs and microscopy employed by the earlier workers.

  17. Effect of milk production system on the enzootic stability to Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bovis in calves in the Campo das Vertentes region of Minas Gerais state, Brazil
    Efeito do sistema de produção de leite sobre a estabilidade enzoótica para Anaplasma marginale e Babesia bovis em bezerras na região do Campo das Vertentes de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães Rocha; Débora Oliveira Daher; Fidelis Antônio Silva Júnior; André Henrique Oliveira Carvalho; Antônio Marcos Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional observational study, in order to determine the frequency of anti-A. marginale and anti-B. bovis antibodies in calves from four to 12 months of age from ten farms that producing B type milk and an equal number that produce raw milk refrigerated, located in the Campo das Vertentes region of Minas Gerais state, in the period September 2008 to August 2009. Blood smears were performed, serologic testing by indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFAT), given the packe...

  18. Diversidad genética de la región variable de los genes msp1a y msp4 en cepas de Anaplasma marginale de México

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    Rafael Jiménez Ocampo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La anaplasmosis es de difícil control debido a la diversidad genética de la rickettsia. La proteína Msp1a, compuesta de repetidos variables de entre 23 y 31 aminoácidos en su región variable y la proteína Msp4, son dos de las proteínas de superficie más estudiadas en A. marginale y han sido ampliamente usadas como marcadores genéticos en la caracterización de cepas de A. marginale de diferentes orígenes geográficos. En este trabajo se analizaron, la región variable de la proteína Msp1a y la proteína Msp4 de 10 cepas mexicanas. En el caso de Msp1a, se observó un patrón de segregación que contiene los repetidos (alpha, beta, beta, gama en diferentes modalidades a lo largo de aislamientos del Golfo de México, principalmente en zonas de estabilidad enzoótica, mientras que la máxima variabilidad se presentó en Tamaulipas, en aislamientos de un brote de la enfermedad, es decir en zonas de inestabilidad. La diversidad observada no es tan extensa como se esperaba y, misma que se puede explicar por la presión que el sistema inmune del hospedero ejerce contra la rickettsia y los mecanismos de esta última para evadirla. En el caso de la proteína Msp4, la secuencia fue altamente conservada tanto en nucleótidos como en aminoácidos para los aislados en estudio, aunque, se observan diferencias con lo previamente reportado en México para este marcador.

  19. Cloning and expression of the gene encoding the major surface protein 5 (MSP5) of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and potential application for serodiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, A Rick; Barbet, Anthony F; Sorenson, Heather L; Strik, Nicole I; Wamsley, Heather L; Wong, Susan J; Chandrashaker, Ramaswamy; Gaschen, Frédéric P; Luckshander, Nicole; Bjöersdorff, Annelli

    2006-12-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly known as the human granulocytic ehrlichia, Ehrlichia equi and Ehrlichia phagocytophila) is an obligate intracellular organism causing clinical disease in humans and various species of domestic animals. The objectives of this investigation were to sequence and clone the major surface protein 5 (MSP5) of A phagocytophilum and to evaluate the suitability of this antigen in the serologic diagnosis of anaplasmosis in humans and dogs. The msp5 gene of A phagocytophilum was sequenced, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The predicted amino acid sequence homology of the various MSP5/major antigenic protein 2 orthologs was compared among various Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species. Recombinant MSP5 of A phagocytophilum was used in an ELISA to detect antibodies in serum samples from humans and dogs infected with the organism. Serum samples from 104 individuals previously diagnosed with A phagocytophilum infection, as well as samples from clinically healthy humans, were tested. In addition, multiple samples from 4 dogs experimentally infected with 2 different geographic isolates of A phagocytophilum and 5 dogs naturally infected with a Swiss isolate were tested using ELISA. Using this group of immunofluorescent antibody test-positive and immunofluorescent antibody test-negative samples, we found the overall agreement between assays to be >90%. These results indicate that recombinant MSP5 has potential for use as a diagnostic test antigen to detect infection with A phagocytophilum in both dogs and humans. However, sequence similarities among orthologs of MSP5 in related species of anaplasma and ehrlichia suggest that cross-reactivity among these pathogens is likely if the entire peptide is used as a test antigen.

  20. Prevalence and genotypes of Anaplasma species and habitat suitability for ticks in a Mediterranean ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torina, Alessandra; Alongi, Angelina; Naranjo, Victoria; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Vicente, Joaquín; Scimeca, Salvatore; Marino, Anna M F; Salina, Felice; Caracappa, Santo; de la Fuente, José

    2008-12-01

    Anaplasma species are tick-transmitted pathogens that impact veterinary and human health. Sicily is one of the locations where these pathogens are endemic. Sicily represents a typical Mediterranean ecosystem to study Anaplasma infection and tick habitat suitability. The aims of this study were (i) to characterize by 16S rRNA and species-specific msp4 gene PCR the prevalence and genotypes of A. marginale, A. phagocytophilum, and A. ovis in the most abundant host species in Sicilian provinces and (ii) to correlate differences between hosts and between western and eastern Sicily with the habitat suitability for ticks in these regions. Differences were found in the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. between different hosts and between western and eastern provinces. The differences in Anaplasma prevalence between different hosts may be explained by pathogen host tropism. The differences between western and eastern provinces correlated with the tick habitat suitability in these regions. The analysis of Anaplasma genotypes suggested a higher host and regional specificity for A. phagocytophilum than for A. marginale and A. ovis strains, a finding probably associated with the broader host range of A. phagocytophilum. The presence of identical A. marginale genotypes in the two regions may reflect cattle movement. The results for A. ovis suggested the possibility of some genotypes being host specific. These results provide information potentially useful for the management of tick-borne diseases caused by Anaplasma spp. in Sicily and other Mediterranean regions and may contribute to the development of models to predict the risks for these tick-borne pathogens.

  1. Adaptive immunity to Anaplasma pathogens and immune dysregulation: implications for bacterial persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Wendy C.

    2012-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale is an obligate intraerythrocytic bacterium that infects ruminants, and notably causes severe economic losses in cattle worldwide. A. phagocytophilum infects neutrophils and causes disease in many mammals, including ruminants, dogs, cats, horses, and humans. Both bacteria cause persistent infection – infected cattle never clear A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum can also cause persistent infection in ruminants and other animals for several years. This review describes correlates of the protective immune response to these two pathogens as well as subversion and dysregulation of the immune response following infection that likely contribute to long-term persistence. I also compare the immune dysfunction observed with intraerythrocytic A. marginale to that observed in other models of chronic infection resulting in high antigen loads, including malaria, a disease caused by another intraerythrocytic pathogen. PMID:22226382

  2. Improved diagnostic performance of a commercial anaplasma antibody competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant major surface protein 5–glutathione S-transferase fusion protein as antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study tested the hypothesis that removal of maltose binding protein from recombinant antigen used for plate coating would improve the specificity of Anaplasma antibody competitive ELISA. Three hundred and eight sera with significant MBP antibody binding (=30%I) in Anaplasma negative herds was 1...

  3. Validation of an improved Anaplasma antibody competitive ELISA for detection of Anaplasma ovis antibody in domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kathleen L; Gonzalez, Michael V; Chung, Chungwon; Mousel, Michelle R; White, Stephen N; Taylor, Joshua B; Scoles, Glen A

    2017-09-01

    An accurate and simple-to-perform new version of a competitive ELISA (cELISA) kit that became commercially available in 2015 for testing of cattle for antibody to Anaplasma marginale was validated for detection of Anaplasma ovis antibody in domestic sheep. True positives and negatives were identified using nested PCR (nPCR) as the gold standard. Negative bovine control sera supplied with the kit were used to calculate % inhibition (%I), designated bovine control ELISA (BcELISA), and this was compared to %I calculated from negative ovine sera derived from hand-raised, pathogen-free sheep, designated ovine control ELISA (OcELISA). The receiver operating characteristics area under the curve was 1.0 with a p value sheep. Furthermore, this work confirmed the historically high infection prevalence (>93%) at the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station (Dubois, Idaho), in spite of efforts to reduce the possibility for iatrogenic transmission there, suggesting high levels of tick-borne transmission.

  4. Sequence analysis of the msp4 gene of Anaplasma ovis strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, J.; Atkinson, M.W.; Naranjo, V.; Fernandez de Mera, I. G.; Mangold, A.J.; Keating, K.A.; Kocan, K.M.

    2007-01-01

    Anaplasma ovis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) is a tick-borne pathogen of sheep, goats and wild ruminants. The genetic diversity of A. ovis strains has not been well characterized due to the lack of sequence information. In this study, we evaluated bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Montana for infection with A. ovis by serology and sequence analysis of the msp4 gene. Antibodies to Anaplasma spp. were detected in 37% and 39% of bighorn sheep and mule deer analyzed, respectively. Four new msp4 genotypes were identified. The A. ovis msp4 sequences identified herein were analyzed together with sequences reported previously for the characterization of the genetic diversity of A. ovis strains in comparison with other Anaplasma spp. The results of these studies demonstrated that although A. ovis msp4 genotypes may vary among geographic regions and between sheep and deer hosts, the variation observed was less than the variation observed between A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum strains. The results reported herein further confirm that A. ovis infection occurs in natural wild ruminant populations in Western United States and that bighorn sheep and mule deer may serve as wildlife reservoirs of A. ovis. ?? 2006.

  5. Anaplasma spp. in dogs and owners in north-western Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhamiani Khatat, Sarah; Daminet, Sylvie; Kachani, Malika; Leutenegger, Christian M; Duchateau, Luc; El Amri, Hamid; Hing, Mony; Azrib, Rahma; Sahibi, Hamid

    2017-04-24

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic pathogen of increased interest worldwide which has been detected in northern Africa. Anaplasma platys is also present in this region and could possibly have a zoonotic potential. However, only one recent article reports on the human esposure to A. phagocytophilum in Morocco and no data are available on canine exposure to both bacteria. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological study aiming to assess both canine and human exposure to Anaplasma spp. in Morocco. A total of 425 dogs (95 urban, 160 rural and 175 working dogs) and 11 dog owners were sampled from four cities of Morocco. Canine blood samples were screened for Anaplasma spp. antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and for A. phagocytophilum and A. platys DNA by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the msp2 gene. Human sera were tested for specific A. phagocytophilum immunoglobulin G (IgG) using a commercial immunofluorescence assay (IFA) kit. Anaplasma spp. antibodies and A. platys DNA were detected in 21.9 and 7.5% of the dogs, respectively. Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was not amplified. Anaplasma platys DNA was significantly more frequently amplified for working dogs. No statistically significant differences in the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. antibodies or A. platys DNA detection were observed between sexes, age classes or in relation to exposure to ticks. A total of 348 Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato) ticks were removed from 35 urban and working dogs. The majority of dog owners (7/10) were seroreactive to A. phagoyctophilum IgG (one sample was excluded because of hemolysis). This study demonstrates the occurrence of Anaplasma spp. exposure and A. platys infection in dogs, and A. phagocytophilum exposure in humans in Morocco.

  6. Molecular characterization of Anaplasma platys strains from dogs in Sicily, Italy

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    Alongi Angelina

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic diversity of Anaplasma platys (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae strains is currently poorly defined. The present study was designed to characterize A. patys strains in dogs from Palermo, Sicily, Italy, using a combination of PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA, heat shock operon groESL and citrate synthase (gltA genes. Results Blood was collected from 344 dogs (111 pet dogs, 122 pound dogs and 111 hunting dogs during 2003–2005 in the Province of Palermo, Sicily, Italy. The prevalence of A. platys in dogs in Sicily, as demonstrated by PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA, groESL and gltA genes, was 4%. None of the samples were positive for A. marginale, A. centrale, A. ovis and A. phagocytophilum DNA. Three different gltA genotypes of A. platys were identified in dogs from Sicily. Two of the gltA sequences of Sicilian A. platys strains were different from sequences reported previously. However, one of the gltA, 16S rDNA and groESL sequences were identical to the sequence of A. platys strains from other regions of the world characterized previously. Conclusion At least three different strains of A. platys were identified in dogs from Sicily by PCR and sequence analyses of the 16S rDNA, groESL and gltA genes. The results reported herein suggested that genetic diversity of A. platys strains may be similar to A. ovis, but lower than the diversity reported for A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum. This lower genetic diversity may have resulted from restricted movement of infected hosts compared to A. marginale-infected cattle and/or the limited host range of A. ovis and A. platys as compared with A. phagocytophilum. These results expand our knowledge about A. platys and encourage further research for analysis of the genetic variation of A. platys strains worldwide.

  7. Alpha proteobacteria of genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae): Epidemiology and characteristics of Anaplasma species related to veterinary and public health importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Farhan Ahmad

    2016-05-01

    The Anaplasma species are important globally distributed tick-transmitted bacteria of veterinary and public health importance. These pathogens, cause anaplasmosis in domestic and wild animal species including humans. Rhipicephalus, Ixodes, Dermacentor and Amblyomma genera of ticks are the important vectors of Anaplasma. Acute anaplasmosis is usually diagnosed upon blood smear examination followed by antibodies and nucleic acid detection. All age groups are susceptible but prevalence increases with age. Serological cross-reactivity is one of the important issues among Anaplasma species. They co-exist and concurrent infections occur in animals and ticks in same geographic area. These are closely related bacteria and share various common attributes which should be considered while developing vaccines and diagnostic assays. Movement of susceptible animals from non-endemic to endemic regions is the major risk factor of bovine/ovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever. Tetracyclines are currently available drugs for clearance of infection and treatment in humans and animals. Worldwide vaccine is not yet available. Identification, elimination of reservoirs, vector control (chemical and biological), endemic stability, habitat modification, rearing of tick resistant breeds, chemotherapy and tick vaccination are major control measures of animal anaplasmosis. Identification of reservoirs and minimizing the high-risk tick exposure activities are important control strategies for human granulocytic anaplasmosis.

  8. Investigation of tick-borne bacteria (Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia spp.) in ticks collected from Andean tapirs, cattle and vegetation from a protected area in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquera, Cristina; Portillo, Aránzazu; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A

    2015-01-24

    Ixodid ticks play an important role in the transmission and ecology of infectious diseases. Information about the circulation of tick-borne bacteria in ticks is lacking in Ecuador. Our aims were to investigate the tick species that parasitize Andean tapirs and cattle, and those present in the vegetation from the buffer zone of the Antisana Ecological Reserve and Cayambe-Coca National Park (Ecuador), and to investigate the presence of tick-borne bacteria. Tick species were identified based on morphologic and genetic criteria. Detection of tick-borne bacteria belonging to Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Borrelia genera was performed by PCRs. Our ticks included 91 Amblyomma multipunctum, 4 Amblyomma spp., 60 Rhipicephalus microplus, 5 Ixodes spp. and 1 Ixodes boliviensis. A potential Candidatus Rickettsia species closest to Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia tamurae (designated Rickettsia sp. 12G1) was detected in 3 R. microplus (3/57, 5.3%). In addition, Anaplasma spp., assigned at least to Anaplasma phagocytophilum (or closely related genotypes) and Anaplasma marginale, were found in 2 A. multipunctum (2/87, 2.3%) and 13 R. microplus (13/57, 22.8%). This is the first description of Rickettsia sp. in ticks from Ecuador, and the analyses of sequences suggest the presence of a potential novel Rickettsia species. Ecuadorian ticks from Andear tapirs, cattle and vegetation belonging to Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus genera were infected with Anaplasmataceae. Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were not found in any ticks.

  9. The Life and Death of Anaplasma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-30

    Dr. Setu Vora, medical director of critical care and physician director of performance improvement at Backus Hospital in Norwich, Connecticut, reads his poem The Life and Death of Anaplasma and discusses the poem’s origins.  Created: 3/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/2/2012.

  10. Arnaldo Saraiva y las literaturas marginales y marginalizadas

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    Carlos Nogueira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Arnaldo Saraiva’s studies and teaching in the area of the socalled marginal or marginalized literatures of Portugal and Brazil, and on the unusually significant impact they have had on successive generations of teachers, cultural agents and literary scholars. RESUMEN: El presente trabajo versa sobre los estudios y la actividad docente de Arnaldo Saraiva en el área de las llamadas literaturas marginales o marginalizadas de Portugal y de Brasil, así como el impacto extrañamente significativo que aquellos han tenido en sucesivas generaciones de profesores, agentes culturales o estudiosos de la literatura.

  11. EL MISTICISMO de los espíritus marginales

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    JOSÉ JORGE DE CARVALHO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EL ARTÍCULO OFRECE UNA VISIÓN PANORÁMICA DE LAS MANIFESTACIONES RELIGIOSAS brasileñas marginales con relación al cristianismo dominante, entre las cuales se destacan el espiritismo kardecista y las varias formas de religiones de origen africano, todas de tradición oral. Un punto común a esas expresiones religiosas es la experiencia del trance y la posesión, que busco teorizar con la idea de la apófasis radical. En la segunda mitad del ensayo presento una antología de textos sagrados afrobrasileños, los cuales comento en una perspectiva de simbología comparada. Ellos señalan la presencia de un misticismo análogo al de los místicos de las llamadas "grandes religiones" o "religiones del libro". Propongo, entonces, incluir esas tradiciones marginales como parte constitutiva de la experiencia religiosa de la humanidad como un todo.

  12. High Prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in Small Ruminants in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Lbacha, H; Alali, S; Zouagui, Z; El Mamoun, L; Rhalem, A; Petit, E; Haddad, N; Gandoin, C; Boulouis, H-J; Maillard, R

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of infection by Anaplasma spp. (including Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was determined using blood smear microscopy and PCR through screening of small ruminant blood samples collected from seven regions of Morocco. Co-infections of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp, Theileria spp. and Mycoplasma spp. were investigated and risk factors for Anaplasma spp. infection assessed. A total of 422 small ruminant blood samples were randomly collected from 70 flocks. Individual animal (breed, age, tick burden and previous treatment) and flock data (GPS coordinate of farm, size of flock and livestock production system) were collected. Upon examination of blood smears, 375 blood samples (88.9%) were found to contain Anaplasma-like erythrocytic inclusion bodies. Upon screening with a large spectrum PCR targeting the Anaplasma 16S rRNA region, 303 (71%) samples were found to be positive. All 303 samples screened with the A. phagocytophilum-specific PCR, which targets the msp2 region, were found to be negative. Differences in prevalence were found to be statistically significant with regard to region, altitude, flock size, livestock production system, grazing system, presence of clinical cases and application of tick and tick-borne diseases prophylactic measures. Kappa analysis revealed a poor concordance between microscopy and PCR (k = 0.14). Agreement with PCR is improved by considering microscopy and packed cell volume (PCV) in parallel. The prevalence of double infections was found to be 1.7, 2.5 and 24% for Anaplasma-Babesia, Anaplasma-Mycoplasma and Anaplasma-Theileria, respectively. Co-infection with three or more haemoparasites was found in 1.6% of animals examined. In conclusion, we demonstrate the high burden of anaplasmosis in small ruminants in Morocco and the high prevalence of co-infections of tick-borne diseases. There is an urgent need to improve the control of this neglected group of diseases. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Estimated seroprevalence of Anaplasma spp. and spotted fever group Rickettsia exposure among herders and livestock in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Fricken, Michael E; Lkhagvatseren, Sukhbaatar; Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Nymadawa, Pagbajab; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Baigalmaa, Bekh-Ochir; Anderson, Benjamin D; Reller, Megan E; Lantos, Paul M; Gray, Gregory C

    2018-01-01

    To better understand the epidemiology of tick-borne disease in Mongolia, a comprehensive seroprevalence study was conducted investigating exposure to Anaplasma spp. and spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. in nomadic herders and their livestock across three provinces from 2014 to 2015. Blood was collected from 397 herders and 2370 livestock, including sheep, goats, cattle, horses and camels. Antibodies against Anaplasma spp. and SFG Rickettsia were determined by indirect immunofluorescence using commercially available slides coated with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia rickettsii antigens. Logistic regression was used to determine if the odds of previous exposure differed by gender, location, and species, with or without adjustment for age. To examine the association between seroprevalence and environmental variables we used ArcGIS to circumscribe the five major clusters where human and animal data were collected. Anaplasma spp. exposure was detected in 37.3% (136/365) of humans and 47.3% (1120/2370) of livestock; SFG Rickettsia exposure was detected in 19.5% (73/374) humans and 20.4% (478/2342) livestock. Compared to the southern province (aimag) of Dornogovi, located in the Gobi Desert, humans were significantly more likely to be exposed to Anaplasma spp. and SFG Rickettsia in the northern provinces of Tov (OR=7.3, 95% CI: 3.5, 15.1; OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.7, 7.5), and Selenge (OR=6.9, 95% CI: 3.4, 14.0; OR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 4.8). The high seroprevalence of Anaplasma spp. and SFG Rickettsia in humans and livestock suggests that exposure to tick-borne pathogens may be common in herders and livestock in Mongolia, particularly in the more northern regions of the country. Until more is known about these pathogens in Mongolia, physicians and veterinarians in the countryside should consider testing for Anaplasma and SFG Rickettsia infections and treating clinically compatible cases, while public health authorities should expand surveillance efforts for these

  14. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in North Carolina Eastern Black Bears ( Ursus americanus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, Lori S H; Stoskopf, Michael K; Maggi, Ricardo G

    2016-10-01

    We detected Anaplasma phagocytophilum by DNA amplification in whole blood from free-ranging, hunter-killed American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) from the east coast of North Carolina, US. Molecular prevalence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum was 3% from 68 black bears. No DNA of other Anaplasma or Ehrlichia spp. was identified.

  15. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and effect on lamb growth

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    Steinshamn Håvard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge in sheep farming during the grazing season along the coast of south-western Norway is tick-borne fever (TBF caused by the bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum that is transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus. Methods A study was carried out in 2007 and 2008 to examine the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum infection and effect on weaning weight in lambs. The study included 1208 lambs from farms in Sunndal Ram Circle in Møre and Romsdal County in Mid-Norway, where ticks are frequently observed. All lambs were blood sampled and serum was analyzed by an indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IFA to determine an antibody status (positive or negative to A. phagocytophilum infection. Weight and weight gain and possible effect of infection were analyzed using ANOVA and the MIXED procedure in SAS. Results The overall prevalence of infection with A. phagocytophilum was 55%. A lower weaning weight of 3% (1.34 kg, p A. phagocytophilum infection compared to seronegative lambs at an average age of 137 days. Conclusions The results show that A. phagocytophilum infection has an effect on lamb weight gain. The study also support previous findings that A. phagocytophilum infection is widespread in areas where ticks are prevalent, even in flocks treated prophylactic with acaricides.

  16. Anaplasma platys-like strains in ruminants from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; El Mabrouk, Narjesse; Saidani, Mariem; Alberti, Alberto; Zobba, Rosanna; Cherif, Amal; Mahjoub, Tarek; Bouattour, Ali; Messadi, Lilia

    2017-04-01

    Molecular diagnosis of Anaplasma platys and related strains (A. platys-like) in carnivores and ruminants is challenging due to co-infections with cross-reacting strains, and require post-amplification sequencing of the hemi-nested PCR products traditionally generated by targeting the groEL gene. In this study, a Restriction Enzyme Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) assay coupled to hemi-nested groEL PCR was developed to discriminate among A. platys and genetically related strains. This novel approach was used for investigating A. platys-like infection in 963 domesticated ruminants (241 goats, 355 sheep, and 367 cattle) from 22 delegations located in North Tunisia. Overall prevalence rates of A. platys-like were 22.8, 11, and 3.5% in goats, sheep, and cattle, respectively. Alignment, identity comparison, and phylogenetic analysis of the groEL sequence variants obtained in this study confirmed RFLP data suggesting that Tunisian ruminants are infected by novel unclassified Anaplasma strains genetically related to A. platys. Compared to sequencing, RFLP assay allows fast detection of A. platys and A. platys-like pathogens in the same sample and has a potential value especially when screening ticks, cats and ruminants, which can be a common host for these two bacteria. This newly developed molecular technique would provide valuable molecular tool for epidemiological studies related to A. platys as well as remove concern over specificity of serological and molecular methods routinely used to identify diverse Anaplasma strains and species in wild and domestic ruminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. NNDSS - Table II. Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection to Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection to Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of...

  18. Prevalence and Diversity among Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains Originating from Ixodes ricinus Ticks from Northwest Norway

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    Ann-Kristin Tveten

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes great concern for livestock farmers. Tick-borne fever is a widespread disease in Norway, and antibodies have been produced amongst sheep, roe deer, red deer, and moose. The main vector Ixodes ricinus is found along the Norwegian coastline as far north as the Arctic Circle. A total number of 1804 I. ricinus ticks were collected and the prevalence of the pathogen was determined by species-specific qPCR. The overall infection rate varied from 2.83% to 3.32%, but there were no significant differences (p=0.01 in the overall infection rate in 2010, 2011, or 2012. A multilocus sequencing analysis was performed to further characterise the isolates. The genotyping of 27 strains resulted in classification into 19 different sequences types (ST, none of which was found in the MLST database. The nucleotide diversity was for every locus <0.01, and the number of SNPs was between 1 and 2.8 per 100 bp. The majority of SNPs were synonymous. A goeBURST analysis demonstrated that the strains from northwest Norway cluster together with other Norwegian strains in the MLST database and the strains that are included in this study constitute clonal complexes (CC 9, 10, and 11 in addition to the singleton.

  19. Identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in patients with erythema migrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulínská, D; Votýpka, J; Vanousová, D; Hercogová, J; Hulínský, V; Drevová, H; Kurzová, Z; Uherková, L

    2009-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been first isolated from the blood of two Czech patients simultaneously with a cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from their erythema migrans lesions. Cultivation of different Borrelia spp. from 12 erythema migrans biopsies, from 2 blood, one liquor and one placenta sample in BSK-H medium was successful. Adapted conventional methods targeting 16S rRNA and OspA genes for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and partial sequencing of these genes together with microscopical examinations of the blood smears provided a direct detection of the B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi, B. garinii, B. valaisiana and B. bissettii in the skin, B. garinii in the blood, placenta and liquor in 24 (36.3 %) patients, and A. phagocytophilum in 10 (15 %) patients with erythema migrans. Positive indirect IgM immunofluorescence against Anaplasma sp. was obtained in 7 cases, specific IgG antibodies were detected in 12 patients. Three women suffering from erythema migrans in the first trimester had positive PCR for Anaplasma and/or for Borrelia in the blood and two of them, later, in the placenta. Interpretation of laboratory data can bring important contribution to establishing the role of Anaplasma sp. in erythema migrans and forming the principle of precaution with laboratory diagnosis during pregnancy which always should be reflected in the resistance of Anaplasma sp. toward penicillins.

  20. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Wolbachia sp. but not Ehrlichia canis in Croatian dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Doroteja; Reil, Irena; Duvnjak, Sanja; Jurković, Daria; Lukačević, Damir; Pilat, Miroslav; Beck, Ana; Mihaljević, Željko; Vojta, Lea; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beck, Relja

    2017-11-01

    The bacteria Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis are tick-borne agents that cause canine vector-borne disease. The prevalence of these pathogens in South Eastern Europe is unknown with the exception of an isolated case of A. platys detected in a dog imported into Germany from Croatia. To gain a better insight into their presence and prevalence, PCR-based screening for these bacterial pathogens was performed on domesticated dogs from different regions of Croatia. Blood samples from 1080 apparently healthy dogs from coastal and continental parts of Croatia as well as tissue samples collected from 63 deceased dogs with a history of anaemia and thrombocytopenia were collected for molecular screening by an Anaplasmataceae-specific 16S rRNA conventional PCR. Positive samples were confirmed using a second Anaplasmataceae-specific PCR assay with the PCR product sequenced for the purpose of bacterial species identification. All sequenced isolates were georeferenced and a kernel intensity estimator was used to identify clusters of greater case intensity. 42/1080 (3.8%; CI 2.7-5.0) of the healthy dogs were PCR positive for bacteria in the Anaplasmataceae. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene amplified from these positive samples revealed the presence of A. platys in 2.5% (CI 1.6-3.4%, 27 dogs), A. phagocytophilum in 0.3% (CI 0-0.6%, 3 dogs) and a Wolbachia endosymbiont in 1.1% (CI 0.4-1.6%, 12 dogs) of dogs screened in this study. Necropsied dogs were free from infection. Notably, no evidence of E. canis infection was found in any animal. This survey represents a rare molecular study of Anaplasmataceae in dogs in South Eastern Europe, confirming the presence of A. platys and A. phagocytophilum but not E. canis. The absence of E. canis was surprising given it has been described in all other Mediterranean countries surveyed and raises questions over the regional vector capacity of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick.

  1. Intrauterine Transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Persistently Infected Lambs

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    Snorre Stuen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which causes the disease tick-borne fever (TBF, is the most important tick-borne pathogen in European animals. TBF may contribute to severe welfare challenges and economic losses in the Norwegian sheep industry. The bacterium causes a persistent infection in sheep and several other animal species. The objective of this study was to investigate whether intrauterine transmission occurs in persistently infected sheep. The study included thirteen 5–6-month-old unmated ewes, of which twelve were experimentally infected with A. phagocytophilum (GenBank acc. no. M73220. Four to six weeks later, all ewes were mated, and nine became pregnant. Blood samples were collected from these ewes and their offspring. If the lamb died, tissue samples were collected. The samples were analyzed with real-time PCR (qPCR targeting the msp2 gene. PCR-positive samples were further analyzed by semi-nested PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing. A total of 20 lambs were born, of which six died within two days. Six newborn lambs (30% were PCR-positive (qPCR, of which one was verified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The present study indicates that intrauterine transmission of A. phagocytophilum in persistently infected sheep may occur. The importance of these findings for the epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum needs to be further investigated.

  2. Intrauterine Transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Persistently Infected Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuen, Snorre; Okstad, Wenche; Sagen, Anne Mette

    2018-02-28

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which causes the disease tick-borne fever (TBF), is the most important tick-borne pathogen in European animals. TBF may contribute to severe welfare challenges and economic losses in the Norwegian sheep industry. The bacterium causes a persistent infection in sheep and several other animal species. The objective of this study was to investigate whether intrauterine transmission occurs in persistently infected sheep. The study included thirteen 5-6-month-old unmated ewes, of which twelve were experimentally infected with A. phagocytophilum (GenBank acc. no. M73220). Four to six weeks later, all ewes were mated, and nine became pregnant. Blood samples were collected from these ewes and their offspring. If the lamb died, tissue samples were collected. The samples were analyzed with real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting the msp2 gene. PCR-positive samples were further analyzed by semi-nested PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing. A total of 20 lambs were born, of which six died within two days. Six newborn lambs (30%) were PCR-positive (qPCR), of which one was verified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The present study indicates that intrauterine transmission of A. phagocytophilum in persistently infected sheep may occur. The importance of these findings for the epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum needs to be further investigated.

  3. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Danish sheep: confirmation by DNA sequencing

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    Thamsborg Stig M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an Ixodes ricinus transmitted bacterium, was investigated in two flocks of Danish grazing lambs. Direct PCR detection was performed on DNA extracted from blood and serum with subsequent confirmation by DNA sequencing. Methods 31 samples obtained from clinically normal lambs in 2000 from Fussingø, Jutland and 12 samples from ten lambs and two ewes from a clinical outbreak at Feddet, Zealand in 2006 were included in the study. Some of the animals from Feddet had shown clinical signs of polyarthritis and general unthriftiness prior to sampling. DNA extraction was optimized from blood and serum and detection achieved by a 16S rRNA targeted PCR with verification of the product by DNA sequencing. Results Five DNA extracts were found positive by PCR, including two samples from 2000 and three from 2006. For both series of samples the product was verified as A. phagocytophilum by DNA sequencing. Conclusions A. phagocytophilum was detected by molecular methods for the first time in Danish grazing lambs during the two seasons investigated (2000 and 2006.

  4. Detection of Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Babesia spp. in dogs of Cebu, Philippines

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    Rochelle Haidee D. Ybanez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Babesia spp. are canine pathogens transmitted by the Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick which can cause varied clinical signs. These pathogens have been investigated in the Philippines, but coinfection has not been reported yet. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Ehrlichia/Anaplasma and Babesia spp. in Philippine dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 dogs from seven different veterinary establishments in Cebu, Philippines, were examined for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma and Babesia spp. infection using peripheral blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Inclusion criteria included a history or presence of tick infestation, anemia, and/or thrombocytopenia. Clinical signs were recorded. Statistical analyses were performed between PCR positivity and clinical signs and hematological results. Results: A total of 10 and 18 dogs were found to be positive for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma and Babesia spp., respectively. One animal was PCR positive for both pathogens, which is the first report of coinfection in the country. The most common clinical signs observed include inappetence (89%, lethargy (80%, thrombocytopenia (85%, and anemia (74%. Analyses revealed that inappetence (p=0.044 and weight loss (p=0.028 were found statistically significant with Ehrlichia/Anaplasma infection. Basophil (p=0.001 and eosinophil counts (p=0.000 were also found significantly different between Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp.-positive and -negative dogs. On the other hand, differential monocyte count (p=0.009 was found significantly different between Babesia spp.-positive and -negative dogs. Conclusion: The present study showed low infection rates of canine ehrlichiosis/anaplasmosis and babesiosis and provided additional evidence for the presence of the pathogens in the area.

  5. First molecular evidence for the presence of Anaplasma DNA in milk from sheep and goats in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Lv, Yali; Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Jinhong; Cao, Shuxuan; Jian, Fuchun; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Longxian; Ning, Changshen

    2016-07-01

    Anaplasmosis, a disease caused by bacteria in the genus of Anaplasma, imposes economic constraints on animal breeders and also threatens human health. In the present study, we investigated the presence of Anaplasma spp. DNA in milk collected from sheep and goats in China. A total of 120 milk samples and 414 field-sampled blood specimens from sheep and goats were analyzed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Anaplasma ovis was detected in 12 milk samples (three from sheep and nine from goats). The blood specimens corresponding to the A. ovis DNA-positive milk were analyzed for Anaplasma DNA presence, and A. ovis DNA was identified in 10 out of the 12 blood specimens. One goat's milk sample was Anaplasma bovis DNA-positive, as was the corresponding blood sample. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found in a milk sample and blood sample from one goat. One milk sample from Xinmi in Henan province was simultaneously positive for A. bovis and A. phagocytophilum; however, the corresponding blood was negative for both species. DNA sequencing of the PCR products and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the sequences from the milk samples matched those of the corresponding blood samples. This is the first report to detect the Anaplasma DNA in milk samples under natural condition, and represents the first evidence of the presence of A. ovis, A. bovis and A. phagocytophilum DNA in milk from sheep and goats.

  6. Multiple infections ofAnaplasma platysvariants in Philippine dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Ybañez, Rochelle Haidee Daclan; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2016-12-01

    Anaplasma platys , the causative agent of infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, is a tick-borne pathogen that also has been implicated as potentially zoonotic. To provide molecular evidence on the multiple infections of A. platys variants in Philippine dogs. DNA fragments of A. platys from infected dogs in the Philippines were molecularly characterized. For screening, 25 dogs suspected to have canine anaplasmosis were tested using a 16S rRNA-based nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Infection was confirmed by sequencing of positive amplicons. Second round PCR targeting a longer 16S rRNA fragment was subsequently performed on the first round PCR amplicons of the positive samples. Further characterization using the heat-shock operon ( groEL ) gene was also performed on the A. platys -positive samples. 10 16S rRNA sequences were obtained and found 99.6-100% identical to each other and 99.6-99.7% identical to the closest registered A. platys sequences. On the other hand, 36 groEL clone sequences were obtained and found to be 85.1-99.8% identical with each other and 85.0-88.9% identical to the closest previously registered A. platys sequences. Four dogs were found coinfected with 2-3 groEL variant sequences. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the detected A. platys in the Philippines may represent unique variants. A. platys variants were detected in Philippine dogs. Coinfection of different A. platys variants in dogs was also demonstrated. The present study may indicate the potential genetic diversity of A. platys in the country.

  7. Multiple infections of Anaplasma platys variants in Philippine dogs

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    Adrian Patalinghug Ybañez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Anaplasma platys, the causative agent of infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, is a tick-borne pathogen that also has been implicated as potentially zoonotic. To provide molecular evidence on the multiple infections of A. platys variants in Philippine dogs. Materials and Methods: DNA fragments of A. platys from infected dogs in the Philippines were molecularly characterized. For screening, 25 dogs suspected to have canine anaplasmosis were tested using a 16S rRNA-based nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Infection was confirmed by sequencing of positive amplicons. Second round PCR targeting a longer 16S rRNA fragment was subsequently performed on the first round PCR amplicons of the positive samples. Further characterization using the heat-shock operon (groEL gene was also performed on the A. platys-positive samples. Results: 10 16S rRNA sequences were obtained and found 99.6-100% identical to each other and 99.6-99.7% identical to the closest registered A. platys sequences. On the other hand, 36 groEL clone sequences were obtained and found to be 85.1-99.8% identical with each other and 85.0-88.9% identical to the closest previously registered A. platys sequences. Four dogs were found coinfected with 2-3 groEL variant sequences. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the detected A. platys in the Philippines may represent unique variants. Conclusion: A. platys variants were detected in Philippine dogs. Coinfection of different A. platys variants in dogs was also demonstrated. The present study may indicate the potential genetic diversity of A. platys in the country.

  8. Remodeling of tick cytoskeleton in response to infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Alberdi, P.; Valdés, James J.; Villar, M.; de la Fuente, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, Jun 1 (2017), s. 1830-1844 ISSN 1093-4715 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cytoskeleton * proteomics * transcriptomics * Ixodes scapularis * Anaplasma phagocytophilum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology

  9. Ixodes scapularis Tick Cells Control Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection by Increasing the Synthesis of Phosphoenolpyruvate from Tyrosine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Espinosa, P. J.; Obregon, D. A.; Alberdi, P.; de la Fuente, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, AUG 17 (2017), č. článku 375. ISSN 2235-2988 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : proteomics * transcriptomics * phosphoenolpyruvate * glycerol-3-phosphate * Ixodes scapularis * Anaplasma phagocytophilum Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  10. Detection and identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia helvetica in Danish Ixodes ricinus ticks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarphédinsson, Sigurdur; Lyholm, Birgitte Fjendbo; Ljungberg, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Borreliosis is an endemic infection in Denmark. Recent serosurveys have indicated that human anaplasmosis may be equally common. The aim of this study was to look for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and related pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks and estimate their prevalence, compared to Borrelia, using...

  11. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection Subverts Carbohydrate Metabolic Pathways in the Tick Vector, Ixodes scapularis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Alberdi, P.; Valdés, James J.; Villar, M.; de la Fuente, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, 7 February (2017), č. článku 23. ISSN 2235-2988 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : proteomics * transcriptomics * glucose metabolism * Ixodes scapularis * Anaplasma phagocytophilum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  12. Ixodes scapularis saliva mitigates inflammatory cytokine secretion during Anaplasma phagocytophilum stimulation of immune cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, G.; Severo, M. S.; Sohail, M.; Sakhon, O. S.; Wikel, S. K.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2012), s. 229 ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick * Ixodes scapularis * Saliva * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * Rickettsial agent Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.246, year: 2012 http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/5/1/229

  13. Neonatal Anaplasma platys infection in puppies: Further evidence for possible vertical transmission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matei, I.A.; Stuen, S.; Modrý, David; Degan, A.; D'Amico, G.; Mihalca, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 219, 1 January (2017), s. 40-41 ISSN 1090-0233 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Anaplasma platys * canine * vertical transmission Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 1.802, year: 2016

  14. REDES COMUNITARIAS: UN DESAFÍO PARA ESCUELAS URBANO-MARGINALES

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    Mirta Giacobbe Tovani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las ideas básicas de este trabajo son conocer y comprender el entramado de la red de relaciones entre los distintos actores de las instituciones: escuela y organismos de la comunidad y su incidencia en la calidad educativa / calidad de vida. Analizamos la visión de los distintos actores educativos acerca de la inserción de la escuela en la comunidad. Tomamos como punto de partida el análisis de las relaciones entre calidad educativa y calidad de vida, en poblaciones urbano-marginales. Realizamos en primer lugar una investigación exploratoria, para conocer las características generales de escuelas que reciben población marginal. En una segunda etapa seleccionamos cuatro escuelas, que tomamos como casos e indagamos sus problemáticas. En ellas observamos gran dificultad para la construcción de redes comunitarias desde la institución escolar. Si bien responden a los problemas puntuales, mediante cambios o innovaciones planificados dinámica y flexiblemente, no existen soluciones duraderas debido a la falta de una convocatoria que comprometa a todas las instituciones de la comunidad constituyendo una efectiva relación en red. Estos resultados alcanzados en la investigación son producto de la triangulación de los datos estadísticos, documentales e históricos así como de los procedentes de la observación participante y de la información de las entrevistas en profundidad.

  15. Molecular and serological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Anaplasma spp. infection in goats from Chongqing Municipality, China

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    Zhou Zuoyong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis and anaplasmosis are severe zoonotic diseases, the former caused by Toxoplasma gondii and the latter by Anaplasma spp. In the present study, 332 goat blood samples were randomly collected from Chongqing Municipality, China to screen for T. gondii and Anaplasma spp. We used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect DNA, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to test for T. gondii antibodies. The prevalence of T. gondii and Anaplasma spp. was 38% and 35% respectively by PCR, and 42% for T. gondii antibodies by ELISA. The co-infection rate by T. gondii and Anaplasma was 13%, where the two predominant pathogens co-infecting were Anaplasma phagocytophilum + A. bovis (10%, followed by T. gondii + A. phagocytophilum (9.64%. While co-infection by three pathogens varied ranging from 1.81% to 5.72%, less than 1% of goats were found to be positive for four pathogens. This is the first investigation of T. gondii and Anaplasma spp. infection in goats from Chongqing.

  16. Embarazo no deseado en población indígena y mestiza de asentamientos urbanos marginales de Chiapas

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    Salvatierra Izaba, Benito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar la frecuencia del embarazo no deseado en parejas residentes de áreas marginales urbanas, así como las diferencias en magnitud y factores explicativos en indígenas y mestizos. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal en 15 asentamientos urbanos marginales de Chiapas. La muestra incluyó a mujeres en edad reproductiva recientemente embarazadas (n=230. Se estimó la frecuencia de embarazos no deseados a partir del reporte del sentimiento y reacción de las mujeres embarazadas y de su cónyuge frente al diagnóstico del embarazo. Se realizó análisis bivariado y multivariado. Resultados. Más del 80.0% de las mujeres dijeron conocer y haber usado métodos anticonceptivos, pero solamente 49.6% de los embarazos fue deseado por ambos padres; 11.2% fue rechazado por ambos y en el resto hubo indiferencia o discordancia en la pareja, con diferencias en la magnitud y momento del ciclo de vida en mujeres mestizas e indígenas. Conclusiones. Es necesario considerar el embarazo no deseado como un problema de salud pública que adquiere diferente magnitud y características en la población indígena y mestiza.

  17. Detection and identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia helvetica in Danish Ixodes ricinus ticks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarphédinsson, Sigurdur; Lyholm, Birgitte Fjendbo; Ljungberg, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Borreliosis is an endemic infection in Denmark. Recent serosurveys have indicated that human anaplasmosis may be equally common. The aim of this study was to look for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and related pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks and estimate their prevalence, compared to Borrelia, using...... Jutland and Funen, while 11% were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi. The Borrelia genotype B. afzelii was most prevalent, followed by B. valaisiana, B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. garinii.A. phagocytophilum was found in 14.5% of nymphs and 40.5% of adult ticks, while Borrelia was found in 13% of nymphs and 8......% of adult ticks. The difference in prevalence between Anaplasma and Borrelia in adult ticks supports the idea that their maintenance cycles in nature may be different. Ticks were also infected with Rickettsia helvetica. Our study indicates that A. phagocytophilum prevalence in ticks in Denmark is as high...

  18. Molecular Characterization of Anaplasma sp. in Free-Living Gray Brockets (Mazama gouazoubira).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongruel, Anna Claudia Baumel; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; André, Marcos Rogério; Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Seki, Meire Christina

    2017-03-01

    Bacteria in the genus Anaplasma are responsible for diseases in animals and humans. Studies carried out in Brazil have demonstrated that Brazilian deer are able to act as hosts of agents in the family Anaplasmataceae and are possibly potential reservoirs of these pathogens. Molecular and phylogenetic studies have been carried out on samples of two gray brocket specimens (Mazama gouazoubira) from the city of Guarapuava, state of Paraná, Brazil, for the detection of Anaplasma sp. in these animals. Partial nucleotide sequences of the genes 16S rRNA and groESL were used for phylogenetic analyses and compared with other 13 and 17 partial sequences of the respective genes obtained in GenBank. These assessments showed topological incongruence among the trees generated in the phylogenetic analyses. Phylogenetic analysis based on the gene 16S rRNA of the genotypes amplified in the samples of this study was similar to those of A. bovis detected in dogs and wild deer in Japan, whereas studies carried out on gene groESL indicated proximity with sequences of Anaplasma sp. that were also isolated in deer in Japan and allocated in the same clade of partial sequences of A. phagocytophilum. As the 16S rRNA gene is highly conserved, with few polymorphic positions, it may show low reliability for studies on phylogenetic positioning. The present study detected an Anaplasma sp. genotype in two specimens of M. gouazoubira in southern Brazil, which may mean that this agent possibly circulates in deer populations, and demonstrated the need for studies related to the possible role of deer in enzootic cycles of Anaplasmataceae in Brazil.

  19. Clinical and laboratory features of canine Anaplasma platys infection in 32 naturally infected dogs in the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzouraa, Tarek; René-Martellet, Magalie; Chêne, Jeanne; Attipa, Charalampos; Lebert, Isabelle; Chalvet-Monfray, Karine; Cadoré, Jean-Luc; Halos, Lenaig; Chabanne, Luc

    2016-10-01

    Since the first description of Anaplasma platys Infection (ApI), the disease has been sporadically reported worldwide. Whereas it is considered a subclinical disease in the United States or in Australia, severe cases are reported in Europe. Thus far, little information is available regarding the clinical and laboratory findings associated with the disease and the implication of co-infections with other vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) in Southern Europe. The purpose of the study was to describe clinical and laboratory findings in PCR-confirmed naturally infected dogs in the Mediterranean Basin, and to assess the potential impact of co-infections with other VBPs. This is a retrospective analysis of medical records from 32 client-owned dogs diagnosed with ApI using PCR-based assays. Anorexia (62.5%) and weight loss (43.8%) were the major changes, whereas lethargy was less frequent (34.4%). Lymphadenomegaly (43.8%), hyperthermia (40.6%) and hemorrhage (37.5%) were frequent clinical abnormalities, whereas cutaneous signs (31.3%), musculoskeletal disorders (21.9%), splenomegaly (15.6%), dehydration and ocular inflammation (12.5%) were less common. Hematological abnormalities included thrombocytopenia (81.0%), anemia (81.0%), leukocytosis (33.3%) and leucopenia (23.8%). Seven dogs (33.3%) were severely thrombocytopenic. Among the 28 dogs with complete testing, 15 and 13 were mono- and co-infected, respectively. Co-infections included Ehrlichia canis (3 dogs), Leishmania infantum (4), Babesia vogeli (2) and Hepatozoon canis (5). One dog was infected concurrently with Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis and Babesia vogeli. The 1-month mortality rate was 23.9% and only 38.1% improved. In the univariate analysis the 15 mono- and the 13 co-infected dogs did not differ regarding the relative frequencies of clinical and laboratory findings. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses suggested the existence of 2 different groups of strains: one of them might have higher pathogenicity. In

  20. An O-Methyltransferase Is Required for Infection of Tick Cells by Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

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    Adela S Oliva Chávez

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA, is an obligately intracellular α-proteobacterium that is transmitted by Ixodes spp ticks. However, the pathogen is not transovarially transmitted between tick generations and therefore needs to survive in both a mammalian host and the arthropod vector to complete its life cycle. To adapt to different environments, pathogens rely on differential gene expression as well as the modification of proteins and other molecules. Random transposon mutagenesis of A. phagocytophilum resulted in an insertion within the coding region of an o-methyltransferase (omt family 3 gene. In wild-type bacteria, expression of omt was up-regulated during binding to tick cells (ISE6 at 2 hr post-inoculation, but nearly absent by 4 hr p.i. Gene disruption reduced bacterial binding to ISE6 cells, and the mutant bacteria that were able to enter the cells were arrested in their replication and development. Analyses of the proteomes of wild-type versus mutant bacteria during binding to ISE6 cells identified Major Surface Protein 4 (Msp4, but also hypothetical protein APH_0406, as the most differentially methylated. Importantly, two glutamic acid residues (the targets of the OMT were methyl-modified in wild-type Msp4, whereas a single asparagine (not a target of the OMT was methylated in APH_0406. In vitro methylation assays demonstrated that recombinant OMT specifically methylated Msp4. Towards a greater understanding of the overall structure and catalytic activity of the OMT, we solved the apo (PDB_ID:4OA8, the S-adenosine homocystein-bound (PDB_ID:4OA5, the SAH-Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCA, and SAM- Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCL X-ray crystal structures of the enzyme. Here, we characterized a mutation in A. phagocytophilum that affected the ability of the bacteria to productively infect cells from its natural vector. Nevertheless, due to the lack of complementation, we cannot rule out secondary

  1. An O-Methyltransferase Is Required for Infection of Tick Cells by Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva Chávez, Adela S; Fairman, James W; Felsheim, Roderick F; Nelson, Curtis M; Herron, Michael J; Higgins, LeeAnn; Burkhardt, Nicole Y; Oliver, Jonathan D; Markowski, Todd W; Kurtti, Timothy J; Edwards, Thomas E; Munderloh, Ulrike G

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA), is an obligately intracellular α-proteobacterium that is transmitted by Ixodes spp ticks. However, the pathogen is not transovarially transmitted between tick generations and therefore needs to survive in both a mammalian host and the arthropod vector to complete its life cycle. To adapt to different environments, pathogens rely on differential gene expression as well as the modification of proteins and other molecules. Random transposon mutagenesis of A. phagocytophilum resulted in an insertion within the coding region of an o-methyltransferase (omt) family 3 gene. In wild-type bacteria, expression of omt was up-regulated during binding to tick cells (ISE6) at 2 hr post-inoculation, but nearly absent by 4 hr p.i. Gene disruption reduced bacterial binding to ISE6 cells, and the mutant bacteria that were able to enter the cells were arrested in their replication and development. Analyses of the proteomes of wild-type versus mutant bacteria during binding to ISE6 cells identified Major Surface Protein 4 (Msp4), but also hypothetical protein APH_0406, as the most differentially methylated. Importantly, two glutamic acid residues (the targets of the OMT) were methyl-modified in wild-type Msp4, whereas a single asparagine (not a target of the OMT) was methylated in APH_0406. In vitro methylation assays demonstrated that recombinant OMT specifically methylated Msp4. Towards a greater understanding of the overall structure and catalytic activity of the OMT, we solved the apo (PDB_ID:4OA8), the S-adenosine homocystein-bound (PDB_ID:4OA5), the SAH-Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCA), and SAM- Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCL) X-ray crystal structures of the enzyme. Here, we characterized a mutation in A. phagocytophilum that affected the ability of the bacteria to productively infect cells from its natural vector. Nevertheless, due to the lack of complementation, we cannot rule out secondary mutations.

  2. The Prostaglandin E2-EP3 Receptor Axis Regulates Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Mediated NLRC4 Inflammasome Activation.

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    Xiaowei Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsial agents are sensed by pattern recognition receptors but lack pathogen-associated molecular patterns commonly observed in facultative intracellular bacteria. Due to these molecular features, the order Rickettsiales can be used to uncover broader principles of bacterial immunity. Here, we used the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to reveal a novel microbial surveillance system. Mechanistically, we discovered that upon A. phagocytophilum infection, cytosolic phospholipase A2 cleaves arachidonic acid from phospholipids, which is converted to the eicosanoid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 via cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 and the membrane associated prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1. PGE2-EP3 receptor signaling leads to activation of the NLRC4 inflammasome and secretion of interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Importantly, the receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (RIPK2 was identified as a major regulator of the immune response against A. phagocytophilum. Accordingly, mice lacking COX2 were more susceptible to A. phagocytophilum, had a defect in IL-18 secretion and exhibited splenomegaly and damage to the splenic architecture. Remarkably, Salmonella-induced NLRC4 inflammasome activation was not affected by either chemical inhibition or genetic ablation of genes associated with PGE2 biosynthesis and signaling. This divergence in immune circuitry was due to reduced levels of the PGE2-EP3 receptor during Salmonella infection when compared to A. phagocytophilum. Collectively, we reveal the existence of a functionally distinct NLRC4 inflammasome illustrated by the rickettsial agent A. phagocytophilum.

  3. Violencia basada en género en zonas urbanas y urbano-marginales de Lima y Callao, 2007 - 2010

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    Pedro Mascaro-Sánchez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar y comparar las características de la violencia en pobladores de zonas urbanas y urbano-marginales. Diseño: Estudio epidemiológico descriptivo. Institución: Escuela de Obstetricia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Mujeres de Lima y Callao. Intervenciones: Entre los años 2007 y 2010, se aplicó una entrevista estructurada a 3 971 mujeres de zonas urbanas y urbano-marginales de Lima y Callao. Se incluyó mujeres residentes de la zona, excluyéndose aquellas con problemas psicológicos evidentes y problemas del habla. Los datos fueron analizados con estadísticas descriptivas y con el estadístico chi cuadrado, significativo a un nivel p<0,05. Principales medidas de resultados: Violencia física. Resultados: De las entrevistadas, 39% tenía entre 20 y 24 años de edad. El 47% identificó violencia física, siendo similar en zonas urbanas y urbano-marginales. Los empujones y bofetadas fueron la forma más frecuente de violencia en ambas áreas. Con respecto al estudio de la violencia psicológica, fueron más frecuentes la utilización de gritos y celos por posesividad, también en ambas áreas. El gasto de la pareja sin la consulta fue ligeramente mayor para el área urbano marginal (49% que para el área urbana (42%. El intento de tener relaciones sexuales contra su voluntad fue el tipo de violencia más frecuente (37%, más en el área urbana (41% que en el área urbano marginal (34%. Conclusiones: Se evidenció episodios de violencia física, psicológica, económica y sexual similares para el área urbana y el área urbano-marginal, siendo la violencia sexual más frecuente en el área urbana.

  4. Associations between coinfection prevalence of Borrelia lusitaniae, Anaplasma sp., and Rickettsia sp. in hard ticks feeding on reptile hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Václav, Radovan; Ficová, Martina; Prokop, Pavol; Betáková, Tatiana

    2011-02-01

    An increasing number of studies reveal that ticks and their hosts are infected with multiple pathogens, suggesting that coinfection might be frequent for both vectors and wild reservoir hosts. Whereas the examination of associations between coinfecting pathogen agents in natural host-vector-pathogen systems is a prerequisite for a better understanding of disease maintenance and transmission, the associations between pathogens within vectors or hosts are seldom explicitly examined. We examined the prevalence of pathogen agents and the patterns of associations between them under natural conditions, using a previously unexamined host-vector-pathogen system--green lizards Lacerta viridis, hard ticks Ixodes ricinus, and Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Rickettsia pathogens. We found that immature ticks infesting a temperate lizard species in Central Europe were infected with multiple pathogens. Considering I. ricinus nymphs and larvae, the prevalence of Anaplasma, Borrelia, and Rickettsia was 13.1% and 8.7%, 12.8% and 1.3%, and 4.5% and 2.7%, respectively. The patterns of pathogen prevalence and observed coinfection rates suggest that the risk of tick infection with one pathogen is not independent of other pathogens. Our results indicate that Anaplasma can play a role in suppressing the transmission of Borrelia to tick vectors. Overall, however, positive effects of Borrelia on Anaplasma seem to prevail as judged by higher-than-expected Borrelia-Anaplasma coinfection rates.

  5. Tuberculosis, sufrimiento y vida cotidiana en barrios marginales y vulnerables del Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria CASTILLA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Basada en los resultados preliminares de una investigación etnográfica desarrollada desde inicios del 2010 y que se desprende de otras investigaciones previas, en este texto se analizan y discuten las lógicas de cuidar, padecer y sufrir de tuberculosis en sujetos que habitan en barrios marginales y vulnerables, considerando el juego de relaciones que se establecen entre cuerpos, Estado y las dinámicas de poder imbricadas en las vidas cotidianas de estos barrios. La estrategia metodológica utilizada en la investigación es el método etnográfico que incluye entrevistas en profundidad y observación participante en diversos barrios del AMBA, muchos de los cuales compartían el no poseer un trazado urbano específico, característico de los asentamientos denominados localmente “villas”.

  6. Molecular identification and characterization of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán, Consuelo; González-Álvarez, Vicente H; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rafael; de la Fuente, José

    2016-03-01

    The tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are the causative agents of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) and canine cyclic thrombocytopenia (CCT). Although molecular evidence of E. canis has been shown, phylogenetic analysis of this pathogen has not been performed and A. platys has not been identified in Mexico, where the tick vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) is common. The aim of this research was to screen, identify and characterize E. canis and A. platys by PCR and phylogenetic analysis in dogs from La Comarca Lagunera, a region formed by three municipalities, Torreon, Gomez-Palacio and Lerdo, in the Northern states of Coahuila and Durango, Mexico. Blood samples and five engorged R. sanguineus s.l. ticks per animal were collected from 43 females and 57 male dogs presented to veterinary clinics or lived in the dog shelter from La Comarca Lagunera. All the sampled dogs were apparently healthy and PCR for Anaplasma 16S rRNA, Ehrlichia 16S rRNA, and E. canis trp36 were performed. PCR products were sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. PCR products were successfully amplified in 31% of the samples using primers for Anaplasma 16S rRNA, while 10% and 4% amplified products using primers for Ehrlichia 16S rRNA and E. canis trp36 respectively. Subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of these products showed that three samples corresponded to A. platys and four to E. canis. Based on the analysis of trp36 we confirmed that the E. canis strains isolated from Mexico belong to a conservative clade of E. canis and are closely related to strains from USA. In conclusion, this is the first molecular identification of A. platys and the first molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of both A. platys and E. canis in dogs in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatial distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolnai, Z; Sréter-Lancz, Z; Sréter, T

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus were reported from Hungary. The aim of the present study was to reveal the spatial distribution pattern of pathogens transmitted by R. sanguineus in a sentinel species, red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary and to analyse the relationship of these patterns with landscape and climate by geographical information systems. Fox carcasses, representing 0.5% of the total fox population were randomly selected out of all the foxes of Hungary. The spleen samples of the animals were tested by real-time PCR for Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli, E. canis and H. canis infection. Positive results were confirmed by conventional PCR followed by sequencing. The prevalence of H. canis infection was 22.2% (95% CI=18.4-26.4%), and this parasite was detected in all areas including the mountain regions of Hungary. These findings indicate that other tick species or other transmission routes (oral and transplacental) might be in the background of the countrywide distribution of H. canis. Anaplasma platys was not found; nevertheless, the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection transmitted by Ixodes ricinus was 12.5% (95% CI=9.7-16.1%) in foxes. B. vogeli and E. canis infection was not detected. There was no correlation between environmental parameter values in the home range of foxes and A. phagocytophilum or H. canis infection, which is in line with that observed in the case of tick species infesting foxes in Hungary. The results of this study indicate that R. sanguineus, if present, might be rare in Hungary. Our baseline study can be used for future evaluation of the effect of climate change on the spreading and emergence of R. sanguineus transmitted pathogens in Hungary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel Anaplasma and Ehrlichia organisms infecting the wildlife of two regions of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Herbert S; Marcili, Arlei; Barbieri, Amália R M; Minervino, Antonio H H; Malheiros, Antonio F; Gennari, Solange M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2017-10-01

    During 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in the Amazon biome of Brazil. Animal tissues and blood were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting DNA of the bacterial family Anaplasmataceae (genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Wolbachia) and the genus Borrelia. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. All birds and reptiles were negative by all PCR assays, as well as all mammals for the Borrelia PCR assay. Anaplasmataceae agents were searched by PCR assays targeting two different genes, the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene and the protein-coding dsb gene. Three dsb closely related haplotypes were generated from 3 white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari). In a phylogenetic analysis inferred from dsb partial sequences, these haplotypes grouped with previously reported Ehrlichia haplotypes from jaguar (Panthera onca) and horse from Brazil, suggesting that they could all represent a single species, yet to be properly characterized. A unique dsb haplotype was generated from a sloth (Bradypus tridactylus), and could also represent a different Ehrlichia species. All these dsb haplotypes formed a clade sister to the Ehrlichia ruminantium clade. Three distinct 16S rRNA gene haplotypes were generated from a wild guinea pig (Cavia sp.), a woolly mouse opossum (Micoureus demerarae), and two from robust capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp.). In a phylogenetic analysis inferred from 16S rRNA gene partial sequence, these haplotypes grouped within the Wolbachia clade, and are likely to represent Wolbachia organisms that were infecting invertebrate metazoarians (e.g., filarids) associated with the sampled mammals. Two deer (Mazama americana) samples yielded two distinct 16S rRNA gene sequences, one identical to several sequences of Anaplasma bovis, and an unique sequence that grouped in a clade with different Anaplasma species. Our results indicate that a variety of genetically distinct Anaplasmataceae organisms

  9. Cell tropism and molecular epidemiology of Anaplasma platys-like strains in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobba, R; Anfossi, A G; Visco, S; Sotgiu, F; Dedola, C; Pinna Parpaglia, M L; Battilani, M; Pittau, M; Alberti, A

    2015-04-01

    Bacterial species of the genus Anaplasma are tick transmitted pathogens that negatively impact on animal productions and generate veterinary and public health concerns. This paper reports the identification, molecular characterization and phylogeny of novel unclassified A. platys-like strains in cats. Interestingly, these novel strains are closely related to conspecific strains recently identified in ruminants, and significantly differ from A. platys. A. platys-like strains in cats, unlike ruminants strains, show tropism for platelets. Results have implications in the diagnostic scenario of animal anaplasmosis and provide background for reconstructing the evolutionary history of species genetically related to A. platys. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Test of the sheep ked Melophagus ovinus (L) as a vector of Anaplasma ovis Lestoquard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, J L; Coan, M E

    1986-05-01

    The sheep ked Melophagus ovinus was evaluated as a possible vector of Anaplasma ovis. In 4 tests, 45 to 293 keds were transferred from sheep with acute anaplasmosis, low level parasitemia, or carrier state of anaplasmosis to individual splenectomized ewes. Keds were confined in stockinette cages attached to the dorsal midline of the recipient hosts for 10 days. Throughout the 90-day observation periods after the keds were transferred, no clinical, serologic, or hematologic evidence of anaplasmosis was detected in any of the ked-recipient ewes. Results indicate that sheep keds probably are not mechanical or biological vectors of the ovine anaplasmosis organism.

  11. The first report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and a novel Theileria spp. co-infection in a South African giraffe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Tongyi; Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Jinhong; Lv, Yali; Wang, Rongjun; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Jiantang; Yang, Guangcheng; Ning, Changshen

    2016-08-01

    Organisms of the genera Anaplasma and Theileria are important intracellular bacteria and parasites that cause various tick-borne diseases, threatening the health of numerous animals as well as human beings. In the present study, a 12-month-old male wild South African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) originating from South Africa, and living in Zhengzhou Zoo (located in the urban district of Zhengzhou in the provincial capital of Henan), suddenly developed an unknown fatal disease and died 1day after the onset of the clinical signs. By microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears combined with nested PCR and DNA sequence analysis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis and a novel Theileria spp. were found in the blood of this giraffe. The six other Cervidae animals in the zoo and three ruminants living in the same colony house with them were found to be negative for both Anaplasma and Theileria in their blood specimens. We report on the first case of an A. phagocytophilum infection and the occurrence of a novel Theileria spp. in the blood of a giraffe. This is the first reported case of a multi-infection of A. bovis, A. phagocytophilum and Theileria spp. in a giraffe, as revealed by microscopic examination of blood smears and the results of nested PCR and DNA sequencing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Prostaglandin E2-EP3 Receptor Axis Regulates Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Mediated NLRC4 Inflammasome Activation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, X.; Shaw, D.K.; Hammond, H.L.; Sutterwala, F.S.; Rayamajhi, M.; Shirey, K.A.; Perkins, D.J.; Bonventre, J.V.; Velayutham, T.S.; Evans, S.M.; Rodino, K.G.; VieBrock, L.; Scanlon, K.M.; Carbonetti, N.H.; Carlyon, J.A.; Miao, E.A.; McBride, J.W.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 8 (2016), č. článku e1005803. E-ISSN 1553-7374 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Rickettsial agents * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * prostaglandin E2-EP3 Receptor Axis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.003, year: 2015

  13. High infection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. among tick species collected from different geographical locations of Iran

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    Leila Tajedin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain the prevalence of the Anaplasma/Ehrlichia infections in tick population within four provinces of Iran. Methods: A total of 384 tick specimens were collected from domestic animals inhabiting in four provinces (East Azerbaijan, Gilan, South Khorasan and Yazd. Specimens were identified based on morphological analysis. The detection of Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp. within tick samples was carried out by nested PCR amplification of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene accompanied by DNA sequencing and analysis for verification. Results: A total of 10 tick species were identified as follows: Ornithodoros lahorensis (O. lahorensis (44.8%, Hyalomma dromedarii (15.6%, Dermacentor marginatus (13.5%, Hyalomma anatolicum (11.2%, Hyalomma asiaticum (5.7%, Hyalomma marginatum (4.9%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (2.3%, Hyalomma detritum (1.0%, Dermacentor niveus (0.5% and Argas persicus (0.3%. The percentage distribution of Anaplasma/Ehrlichia was 55.5% (213 across 384 studied ticks. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Anaplasma ovis infection in O. lahorensis in Iran. We also conjecture the prevalence of Ehrlichia spp. in Yazd Province based on sequencing results; also, it is suggested that O. lahorensis is a potential vector in the studied area. This survey highlights the importance of Argasidae family to verify and correlate their threat in causing anaplasmosis and other diseases in animals.

  14. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys infection in free-roaming dogs and ticks from Kenya and Ivory Coast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matei, I.A.; D'Amico, G.; Yao, P.K.; Ionică, A.M.; Kanyari, P. W. N.; Daskalaki, A.A.; Dumitrache, M.O.; Sándor, A.D.; Gherman, C.M.; Qablan, M.; Modrý, David; Mihalca, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, MAR 16 (2016), č. článku 157. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Africa * Anaplasma platys * carnivores * Kenya * Ivory Coast Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  15. Anaplasma phagocytophilum MSP4 and HSP70 Proteins Are Involved in Interactions with Host Cells during Pathogen Infection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Contreras, M.; Alberdi, P.; Mateos-Hernández, L.; Fernández de Mera, I.G.; García-Pérez, A. L.; Vancová, Marie; Villar, M.; Ayllón, N.; Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Valdés, James J.; Stuen, S.; Gortazar, C.; de la Fuente, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, JUL 5 (2017), č. článku 307. ISSN 2235-2988 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : anaplasmosis * immunology * hl60 * tick * vaccine * sheep * Anaplasma phagocytophilum Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  16. First molecular evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in rodent population of Nanchang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weiqing; Liu, Yangqing; Tao, Huiying; Li, Zifen; Xuan, Xuenan; Liu, Xiaoqing; Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Wu, Yayun; Liu, Wenqing; Chen, Haiying

    2018-02-28

    In this study, systematic surveillance of rodent population in Nanchang of China and determination of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in rodents were performed. Between 2011 and 2015, 110,084 rodent snap traps were set in 4 Counties and the city center of Nanchang, China. Finally, 942 rodents were captured with the relative densities of 0.86%. The densities varied considerably by geographical difference and Anyi was the most rodent-infested County. Frequently captured rodents were sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus), house mice (Mus musculus) and Rattus flavipectus. Anaplasma genera were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 19 live rodents trapped by welded cages in Anyi and 6 were positive based on amplification of 16S rRNA. Sequence analysis revealed three variants of A. phagocytophilum in Nanchang. PCR analysis of the gltA (citrate synthase) gene found one sample positive for A. phagocytophilum infection. The sequence of A. phagocytophilum gltA gene formed a clade with and showed 99% identity to A. phagocytophilum previously described in rodents from south-eastern China. Taken together, our research indicates that commensal rodents are potential hosts for A. phagocytophilum and controlling rodent population may facilitate subsequent preventing HGA in Nanchang, China in the future.

  17. Coinfection of sheep with Anaplasma, Theileria and Babesia species in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneker, S; Abdo, J; Bakheit, M A; Kullmann, B; Beyer, D; Ahmed, J; Seitzer, U

    2013-11-01

    Infections of small ruminants with Anaplasma, Theileria and Babesia species are widely distributed in the old world and are of great economic impact. In Iraq, data on disease occurrence in sheep caused by above-mentioned infectious agents are scarce. This study provides information on various haemoparasitic agents infecting sheep in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq, using molecular diagnostic tools. Altogether, 195 samples originating from three governorates in the Kurdistan Region, namely Duhok, Erbil and Sulaimaniya, were analysed. The following pathogens were identified: Anaplasma ovis (62.6%), Theileria ovis (14.35%), T. lestoquardi (7.7%), T. uilenbergi (5.6%) and Babesia ovis (1.5%). T. uilenbergi is detected for the first time in Iraq. Coinfection of sheep with different pathogens could be observed in this study, and it was found that 45 of 195 (23%) of the samples contained more than one pathogen. Even triple-positive samples were identified in 3% of the investigated animals. In conclusion, we confirm the coinfection of sheep with various haemoparasitic pathogen species in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Further investigations are needed to reveal the epidemiology of the diseases, the respective tick vectors, and, in the case of coinfection, pathogens' interaction and possible cross-protection. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Prevalence of Anaplasma, Bartonella and Borrelia Species in Haemaphysalis longicornis collected from goats in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Smith, W Barney; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, In-Yong; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-06-30

    North Korea is located on the northern part of the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. While tick-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance have been reported from China and South Korea, they have not been reported from North Korea. To screen for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in North Korea, ticks were collected from domestic goats. A total of 292 (27 nymph, 26 male, 239 female) Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis were collected and assayed individually for selected tick-borne pathogens. A total of 77 (26.4%) were positive for Anaplasma bovis, followed by Bartonella (B.) grahamii (15, 5.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (12, 4.1%), Bartonella henselae (10, 3.4%), and Borrelia spp. (3, 1.0%) based on 16S ribosomal RNA and ITS species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction. Using the groEL-based nested PCR, a total of 6 and 1 H. longicornis were positive for B. grahamii and B. henselae, respectively. All products were sequenced and demonstrated 100% identity and homology with previously reported sequences from other countries in GenBank. This is the first report of the detection of tick-borne pathogens in the North Korea and suggests that farm animals may act as reservoirs for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens.

  19. [Monoinfections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia burgdorferi / Anaplasma phagocytophilum co-infections in forestry workers and farmers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarska-Rodak, Małgorzata; Pańczuk, Anna; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria; Plewik, Dorota; Szepeluk, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The presence of co-infections induced by tick-borne pathogens in humans is an important epidemiological phenomenon. This issue has attracted growing attention of doctors and people working under conditions of an increased risk of being exposed to tick bites. The research group consisted of 93 individuals with current anti-immunoglobulin M/G (IgM/ IgG) Borrelia burgdorferi or IgG anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The respondents were identified during the screening survey in a group of farmers and foresters occupationally exposed to tick bites. The aim of the work was to analyse the frequency of antibodies to specific antigens of B. burgdorferi and the levels of cytokines in forestry workers and farmers with B. burgdorferi monoinfections and B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infections. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi2, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. There is a stronger generation of IgG antibodies to B. burgdorferi antigens in patients with B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infections, such as variable major protein-like sequence expressed (VlsE) (p < 0.05), p19 (p < 0.02), p17 (p < 0.05) and complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 3 (CRASP3) (p < 0.02) compared to persons with B. burgdorferi monoinfections. The discrepancies in the synthesis of cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) have not been found in persons with B. burgdorferi monoinfections and B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infection. The immune response directed against B. burgdorferi is stronger in patients co-infected with B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum than in those with monoinfection. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  20. Monoinfections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia burgdorferi / Anaplasma phagocytophilum co-infections in forestry workers and farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of co-infections induced by tick-borne pathogens in humans is an important epidemiological phenomenon. This issue has attracted growing attention of doctors and people working under conditions of an increased risk of being exposed to tick bites. Material and Methods: The research group consisted of 93 individuals with current anti-immunoglobulin M/G (IgM/ IgG Borrelia burgdorferi or IgG anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The respondents were identified during the screening survey in a group of farmers and foresters occupationally exposed to tick bites. The aim of the work was to analyse the frequency of antibodies to specific antigens of B. burgdorferi and the levels of cytokines in forestry workers and farmers with B. burgdorferi monoinfections and B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infections. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi2, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: There is a stronger generation of IgG antibodies to B. burgdorferi antigens in patients with B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infections, such as variable major protein-like sequence expressed (VlsE (p < 0.05, p19 (p < 0.02, p17 (p < 0.05 and complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 3 (CRASP3 (p < 0.02 compared to persons with B. burgdorferi monoinfections. The discrepancies in the synthesis of cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α have not been found in persons with B. burgdorferi monoinfections and B. burgdorferi / A. phagocytophilum co-infection. Conclusions: The immune response directed against B. burgdorferi is stronger in patients co-infected with B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum than in those with monoinfection. Med Pr 2015;66(5:645–651

  1. Longitudinal field study on bovine Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections during a grazing season in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempereur, Laetitia; Lebrun, Maude; Cuvelier, Pascale; Sépult, Géraldine; Caron, Yannick; Saegerman, Claude; Shiels, Brian; Losson, Bertrand

    2012-04-01

    Anaplasmosis and babesiosis are major tick-borne diseases with a high economic impact but are also a public health concern. Blood samples collected in the spring, summer, and autumn of 2010 from 65 cows in seven different farms in Belgium were monitored with an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test to assess seroprevalence against these pathogens. Seroprevalences to Babesia spp. were measured as 10.7%, 20%, and 12.3% in spring, summer, and autumn, respectively, whereas seroprevalences to Anaplasma phagocytophilum were 30.8%, 77%, and 56.9%, respectively. A total of 805 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected at the same time from both cattle (feeding ticks) and grazed pastures (questing ticks). The infection level of ticks, assessed by PCR assay, for Babesia spp. DNA was 14.6% and 7.9% in feeding and questing ticks, respectively, whereas 21.7% and 3% of feeding and questing ticks were found be positive for A. phagocytophilum cDNA. Fifty-five PCR-positive samples were identified by sequencing as Babesia sp. EU1, of which five from feeding ticks were positive for both A. phagocytophilum and Babesia sp. EU1. The high density of wild cervids in the study area could explain these observations, as deer are considered to be the main hosts for adults of I. ricinus. However, the absence of Babesia divergens both in feeding and questing ticks is surprising, as the study area is known to be endemic for cattle babesiosis. Increasing cervid populations and comorbidity could play an import role in the epidemiology of these tick-borne diseases.

  2. Representaciones sociales de la educación formal en jóvenes marginales: primeras exploraciones con Alceste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Losano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo expone los resultados obtenidos del análisis de 30 entrevistas en profundidad con jóvenes marginales sobre sus Representaciones sociales (rs de la educación formal utilizando el programa Alceste© (Análisis Lexical de Coocurrencias en Enunciados Simples de un Texto. En un primer momento se delínean los supuestos básicos de la investigación y el procedimiento llevado a cabo para recolectar la información. Posteriormente, se presentan las cuatro clases que proporcionó el análisis. Se observan dos mundos lexicales que se generan en el discurso: por una parte una visión de la escuela “desde fuera”, en relación con otros mundos y puesta en contexto con otras realidades y, por otra parte, la vivencia “desde dentro”: el aprendizaje, la enseñanza y su utilidad para el futuro. Finalmente, se reflexiona en torno al uso que se hace de los resultados brindados por el programa y su utilidad para explorar las rs. Se sugiere hacer un uso más prudente de los resultados y considerar este procedimiento como un primer paso en la intelección de las rs.

  3. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis potentially reveals the existence of two groups of Anaplasma phagocytophilum circulating in cattle in France with different wild reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaud Dugat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of tick-borne fever, a disease with high economic impact for domestic ruminants in Europe. Epidemiological cycles of this species are complex, and involve different ecotypes circulating in various host species. To date, these epidemiological cycles are poorly understood, especially in Europe, as European reservoir hosts (i.e. vertebrate hosts enabling long-term maintenance of the bacterium in the ecosystem, of the bacterium have not yet been clearly identified. In this study, our objective was to explore the presence, the prevalence, and the genetic diversity of A. phagocytophilum in wild animals, in order to better understand their implications as reservoir hosts of this pathogen. Methods The spleens of 101 wild animals were collected from central France and tested for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by msp2 qPCR. Positive samples were then typed by multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR analysis (MLVA, and compared to 179 previously typed A. phagocytophilum samples. Results Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 82/101 (81.2% animals including 48/49 red deer (98%, 20/21 roe deer (95.2%, 13/29 wild boars (44.8%, and 1/1 red fox. MLVA enabled the discrimination of two A. phagocytophilum groups: group A contained the majority of A. phagocytophilum from red deer and two thirds of those from cattle, while group B included a human strain and variants from diverse animal species, i.e. sheep, dogs, a horse, the majority of variants from roe deer, and the remaining variants from cattle and red deer. Conclusions Our results suggest that red deer and roe deer are promising A. phagocytophilum reservoir host candidates. Moreover, we also showed that A. phagocytophilum potentially circulates in at least two epidemiological cycles in French cattle. The first cycle may involve red deer as reservoir hosts and cattle as accidental hosts for Group A strains, whereas the

  4. Bacterial Profiling Reveals Novel "Ca. Neoehrlichia", Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma Species in Australian Human-Biting Ticks.

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    Alexander W Gofton

    Full Text Available In Australia, a conclusive aetiology of Lyme disease-like illness in human patients remains elusive, despite growing numbers of people presenting with symptoms attributed to tick bites. In the present study, we surveyed the microbial communities harboured by human-biting ticks from across Australia to identify bacteria that may contribute to this syndrome. Universal PCR primers were used to amplify the V1-2 hyper-variable region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in DNA samples from individual Ixodes holocyclus (n = 279, Amblyomma triguttatum (n = 167, Haemaphysalis bancrofti (n = 7, and H. longicornis (n = 7 ticks. The 16S amplicons were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform and analysed in USEARCH, QIIME, and BLAST to assign genus and species-level taxonomies. Nested PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to confirm the NGS data and further analyse novel findings. All 460 ticks were negative for Borrelia spp. by both NGS and nested PCR analysis. Two novel "Candidatus Neoehrlichia" spp. were identified in 12.9% of I. holocyclus ticks. A novel Anaplasma sp. was identified in 1.8% of A. triguttatum ticks, and a novel Ehrlichia sp. was identified in both A. triguttatum (1.2% ticks and a single I. holocyclus (0.6% tick. Further phylogenetic analysis of novel "Ca. Neoehrlichia", Anaplasma and Ehrlichia based on 1,265 bp 16S rRNA gene sequences suggests that these are new species. Determining whether these newly discovered organisms cause disease in humans and animals, like closely related bacteria do abroad, is of public health importance and requires further investigation.

  5. Cloning and Characterization of Multigenes Encoding the Immunodominant 30-Kilodalton Major Outer Membrane Proteins of Ehrlichia canis and Application of the Recombinant Protein for Serodiagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Norio; Unver, Ahmet; Zhi, Ning; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    A 30-kDa major outer membrane protein of Ehrlichia canis, the agent of canine ehrlichiosis, is the major antigen recognized by both naturally and experimentally infected dog sera. The protein cross-reacts with a serum against a recombinant 28-kDa protein (rP28), one of the outer membrane proteins of a gene (omp-1) family of Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Two DNA fragments of E. canis were amplified by PCR with two primer pairs based on the sequences of E. chaffeensis omp-1 genes, cloned, and sequenced. Each fragment contained a partial 30-kDa protein gene of E. canis. Genomic Southern blot analysis with the partial gene probes revealed the presence of multiple copies of these genes in the E. canis genome. Three copies of the entire gene (p30, p30-1, and p30a) were cloned and sequenced from the E. canis genomic DNA. The open reading frames of the two copies (p30 and p30-1) were tandemly arranged with an intergenic space. The three copies were similar but not identical and contained a semivariable region and three hypervariable regions in the protein molecules. The following genes homologous to three E. canis 30-kDa protein genes and the E. chaffeensis omp-1 family were identified in the closely related rickettsiae: wsp from Wolbachia sp., p44 from the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, msp-2 and msp-4 from Anaplasma marginale, and map-1 from Cowdria ruminantium. Phylogenetic analysis among the three E. canis 30-kDa proteins and the major surface proteins of the rickettsiae revealed that these proteins are divided into four clusters and the two E. canis 30-kDa proteins are closely related but that the third 30-kDa protein is not. The p30 gene was expressed as a fusion protein, and the antibody to the recombinant protein (rP30) was raised in a mouse. The antibody reacted with rP30 and a 30-kDa protein of purified E. canis. Twenty-nine indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA)-positive dog plasma specimens strongly recognized the rP30 of E. canis. To evaluate whether the rP30

  6. El caucho natural, alternativa viable para tierras marginales cafeteras y cultivo promisorio para la sustitución manual de cultivos ilícitos

    OpenAIRE

    Clavijo Ocampo, John Jairo

    2004-01-01

    Una de las alternativas a la crisis del café es la del cultivo del caucho, el cual podría alternarse con el cultivo el café facilitándole al agricultor la eliminación gradual de cafetales antieconómicos ubicados en zonas marginales bajas, pues el caucho puede plantarse bajo sombrío permanente y solamente después de varios años exige la erradicación total del café sustituyendo sus ingresos por los ingresos del caucho. También es posible en zonas óptimas cafeteras utilizar distancias de siembra...

  7. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA in Ixodes ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from Madeira Island and Setubal District, mainland Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana Sofia; Santos-Silva, Maria Margarida; Almeida, Victor Carlos; Bacellar, Fátima; Dumler, John Stephen

    2004-09-01

    A total of 278 Ixodes ticks, collected from Madeira Island and Setubal District, mainland Portugal, were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Six (4%) of 142 Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected in Madeira Island and 1 nymph and 1 male (2%) of 93 I. ventalloi collected in Setubal District tested positive for A. phagocytophilum msp2 genes or rrs. Infection was not detected among 43 I. ricinus on mainland Portugal. All PCR products were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing to be identical or to be most closely related to A. phagocytophilum. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of A. phagocytophilum in ticks from Setubal District, mainland Portugal, and the first documentation of Anaplasma infection in I. ventalloi. Moreover, these findings confirm the persistence of A. phagocytophilum in Madeira Island's I. ricinus.

  8. First report of Anaplasma ovis in pupal and adult Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) collected in South Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; He, Bo; Li, Kai-Rui; Li, Fei; Zhang, Lu-Yao; Li, Xian-Qiang; Liu, Yong-Hong

    2018-04-19

    Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) is a blood-feeding ectoparasite that belongs to the family Hippoboscidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) and mainly parasitizes sheep. The life-cycle of M. ovinus consists of three stages: larva, pupa and adult. It has a worldwide distribution and has been found in four provinces of China, especially South Xinjiang. In addition to causing direct damage to animal hosts, M. ovinus serves as a vector for disease transmission. In this study, our aim was to investigate the presence of Anaplasma spp. in pupal and adult M. ovinus. A total of 93 specimens (including eight pupal specimens) of M. ovinus collected in South Xinjiang were selected for isolation of genomic DNA, followed by PCR amplification and sequencing of the msp4 gene of Anaplasma spp. The sequences were analyzed in MEGA 7.0 software and via online BLAST. PCR and sequencing results showed that all the specimens collected in 2013 were free of Anaplasma spp., whereas three and 25 specimens (including five pupal specimens) collected in 2016 and 2017, respectively, tested positive for Anaplasma spp. The analysis of 24 msp4 gene sequences (from four pupal specimens) confirmed the presence of A. ovis in M. ovinus specimens collected in South Xinjiang, China. The detected A. ovis isolates belong to Genotypes II and III. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the detection of A. ovis DNA in pupal M. ovinus, confirming the vertical transmission of A. ovis in M. ovinus and the potential of M. ovinus to serve as a vector for A. ovis.

  9. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and D. immitis in hunting dogs from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantedosi, Diego; Neola, Benedetto; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Santoro, Mario; Pacifico, Laura; Sgroi, Giovanni; Auletta, Luigi; Buch, Jesse; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2017-10-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are caused by a range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods. The present study investigates Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Dirofilaria immitis seroprevalences in hunting dogs from southern Italy. Dogs (no. 1335) were tested using a commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors. Overall, 138/1335 dogs (10.3%) were seroreactive to at least one CVBD pathogen. E. canis, Anaplasma spp., B. burgdorferi s.l., and D. immitis seroprevalences were 7.6, 4.4, 0.3, and 0.2%, respectively. E. canis and Anaplasma spp. co-exposures were found in 30 dogs (2.2%), compared with Anaplasma spp. and B. burgdorferi s.l. co-exposures in 2 dogs (0.1%). Adult age was a risk factor for E. canis (OR 2.35) seroreactivity whereas hunting fur-bearing animals for E. canis (OR 4.75) and Anaplasma spp. (OR 1.87), respectively. The historical presence of tick infestation was identified as a risk factor for positivity to E. canis (OR 2.08) and Anaplasma spp. (OR 2.15). Finally, larger dog pack size was significantly associated with E. canis (OR 1.85) and Anaplasma spp. (OR 2.42) exposures. The results of the present survey indicated that hunting dog populations are at relative risk of CVBDs in southern Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of hunting dogs in the epidemiology of vector-borne organisms due to sharing common environments with wild, sympatric animal populations.

  10. First molecular survey of Anaplasma bovis in small ruminants from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; Karaoud, Maroua; Bousrih, Maha; Yahiaoui, Mouna; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Messadi, Lilia

    2015-09-30

    To date, no information is available regarding the presence of Anaplasma bovis in the South Mediterranean area. In this study, prevalence, risk factors, and genetic diversity of A. bovis were assessed in small ruminants. A total of 563 healthy small ruminants (260 sheep and 303 goats), from 25 randomly selected flocks located in 5 localities from two bioclimatic areas in Tunisia, were investigated for the detection of A. bovis in blood by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assay. The overall infection rates of A. bovis were 42.7 and 23.8% in sheep and goats, respectively. Goats located in a sub-humid area were statistically more infected than those located in a humid area. A. bovis prevalence rate varied significantly according to sheep and goat flocks, and to the sheep breed. Infection with A. bovis was validated by sequencing. Sequence analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that A. bovis from Tunisian goats and sheep clustered with other strain sequences detected from wild and domestic animals and published in GenBank. This study gives the first insight of presence of A. bovis DNA in small ruminants in Tunisia and suggests that these animal species may be playing an important role in the bovine anaplasmosis natural cycle caused by A. bovis in the South Mediterranean ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Superinfection occurs in Anaplasma phagocytophilum infected sheep irrespective of infection phase and protection status

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    Bergström Karin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in domestic ruminants is widespread in the coastal areas of southern Norway. The bacteria may persist in mammalian hosts. Several genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum exist. In the present study, we investigate whether superinfection occurs in the acute and persistent phase of the infection. Methods Five-month-old lambs of the Norwegian Dala breed were experimentally infected with two 16S rRNA gene variants of A. phagocytophilum, i.e. A. phagocytophilum variant 1 (GenBank accession number M73220 and variant 2 (GenBank acc. no. AF336220. Eighteen lambs were used, two lambs in each group. Eight groups were experimentally inoculated with either variant 1 or 2 on day 0. Six of these groups were then challenged with the other variant on either days 7, 42 or 84, respectively. One group was left uninfected. The occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in blood samples was determined using semi-nested PCR analysis and gene sequencing. Specific antibodies were measured by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA. Results A. phagocytophilum variant 1 and 2 differed significantly with regards to clinical reaction and cross-immunity in infected lambs. Both variants were found in the blood after challenge. However, variant 1 was detected most frequently. Conclusion The present experiment indicates that superinfection of different genotypes occurs during the acute as well as the persistent phase of an A. phagocytophilum infection, even in lambs protected against the challenged infection.

  12. Bioinformatic and mass spectrometry identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum proteins translocated into host cell nuclei

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    Sara H. G. Sinclair

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Obligate intracellular bacteria have an arsenal of proteins that alter host cells to establish and maintain a hospitable environment for replication. Anaplasma phagocytophilum secrets Ankyrin A (AnkA, via a type IV secretion system, which translocates to the nucleus of its host cell, human neutrophils. A. phagocytophilum-infected neutrophils have dramatically altered phenotypes in part explained by AnkA-induced transcriptional alterations. However, it is unlikely that AnkA is the sole effector to account for infection-induced transcriptional changes. We developed a simple method combining bioinformatics and iTRAQ protein profiling to identify potential bacterial-derived nuclear-translocated proteins that could impact transcriptional programming in host cells. This approach identified 50 A. phagocytophilum candidate genes or proteins. The encoding genes were cloned to create GFP fusion protein-expressing clones that were transfected into HEK-293T cells. We confirmed nuclear translocation of six proteins: APH_0062, RplE, Hup, APH_0382, APH_0385, and APH_0455. Of the six, APH_0455 was identified as a type IV secretion substrate and is now under investigation as a potential nucleomodulin. Additionally, application of this approach to other obligate intracellular bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia trachomatis and other intracellular bacteria identified multiple candidate genes to be investigated.

  13. Dexamethasone-induced cytokine changes associated with diminished disease severity in horses infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

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    Davies, R S; Madigan, J E; Hodzic, E; Borjesson, D L; Dumler, J S

    2011-11-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the zoonotic cause of granulocytic anaplasmosis. We hypothesized that immune response, specifically gamma interferon (IFN-γ), plays a role in disease severity. To test this, horses were infected and IFNG expression was pharmacologically downregulated using corticosteroids. Eight horses were infected with A. phagocytophilum; 4 received dexamethasone on days 4 to 8 of infection. Clinical signs, hematologic parameters, and transcription of cytokine/chemokine genes were compared among treated and untreated horses. Infection was quantitated by msp2 real-time PCR and microscopy. As anticipated, there was significantly greater leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia in infected versus uninfected horses. The A. phagocytophilum load was higher for dexamethasone-treated horses. Dexamethasone reduced IFNG transcription by day 12 and IL-8 and IL-18 by days 7 to 9 and increased IL-4 on day 7. The ratio of IL-10 to IFNG was increased by dexamethasone on day 9. There were no hematologic differences between the infected horses. Dexamethasone suppression of proinflammatory response resulted in delayed infection-induced limb edema and decreased icterus, anorexia, and reluctance to move between days 6 and 9 and lower fever on day 7. These results underscore the utility of the equine model of granulocytic anaplasmosis and suggest that Th1 proinflammatory response plays a role in worsening disease severity and that disease severity can be decreased by modulating proinflammatory response. A role for Th1 response and macrophage activation in hematologic derangements elicited by A. phagocytophilum is not supported by these data and remains unproven.

  14. Diversity of ankA and msp4 genes of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strašek Smrdel, Katja; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Petrovec, Miroslav; Avšič Županc, Tatjana

    2015-03-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis is a tick transmitted emerging disease in Europe and worldwide. The agent, Anaplasma phagocytophilum is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes and causes infections in humans and domestic animals. The analysis of different target genes showed that in nature several genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum were present. The purpose of our study was to genetically characterize A. phagocytophilum strains from eight humans, 16 dogs, 12 wild boars, one bear and 18 tick pools from Slovenia. Therefore, the ankA and msp4 genes of A. phagocytophilum were chosen. The same genetic ankA and msp4 variant of A. phagocytophilum was detected in humans, wild boar and a part of the pooled ticks indicating that it circulates in a zoonotic cycle between wild boar and ticks. In dogs, three ankA variants of A. phagocytophilum were detected. One of them was identical to the one that was found in humans. In contrast, all dogs harboured the same msp4 variant as humans and wild boar. In ticks, numerous ankA and msp4 variants were present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative Genomics Identifies a Potential Marker of Human-Virulent Anaplasma phagocytophilum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khedery, Basima; Barbet, Anthony F.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously described a comparative genome analysis of nine strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum that showed similarity between strains infecting humans and U.S. dogs and a more distant relationship with horse and ruminant strains. This suggested that it may be possible to distinguish human-infective strains using simple DNA sequence-based diagnostic tests. This would be of epidemiologic significance in identifying and tracking the presence of virulent strains in tick vector populations. Further analysis identified a gene that was present in several strains, including U.S. Ap-variant 1 (ruminant), MRK (horse), and European sheep, but was deleted in strains infecting U.S. humans and dogs, suggesting that it could be a useful marker of human virulence. A simple PCR test was developed to identify the presence/absence of this gene. The PCR test discriminated A. phagocytophilum strains from clinically affected humans and U.S. dogs from the strains more distantly related in genome sequence. This warrants further testing of globally diverse A. phagocytophilum strains to examine world-wide conservation of this gene. PMID:25437606

  16. Epigenetic silencing of host cell defense genes enhances intracellular survival of the rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

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    Jose C Garcia-Garcia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacteria have evolved mechanisms that promote survival within hostile host environments, often resulting in functional dysregulation and disease. Using the Anaplasma phagocytophilum-infected granulocyte model, we establish a link between host chromatin modifications, defense gene transcription and intracellular bacterial infection. Infection of THP-1 cells with A. phagocytophilum led to silencing of host defense gene expression. Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1 expression, activity and binding to the defense gene promoters significantly increased during infection, which resulted in decreased histone H3 acetylation in infected cells. HDAC1 overexpression enhanced infection, whereas pharmacologic and siRNA HDAC1 inhibition significantly decreased bacterial load. HDAC2 does not seem to be involved, since HDAC2 silencing by siRNA had no effect on A. phagocytophilum intracellular propagation. These data indicate that HDAC up-regulation and epigenetic silencing of host cell defense genes is required for A. phagocytophilum infection. Bacterial epigenetic regulation of host cell gene transcription could be a general mechanism that enhances intracellular pathogen survival while altering cell function and promoting disease.

  17. Detection of Babesia venatorum, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ixodes persulcatus ticks from Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnath, Carolin; Obiegala, Anna; Speck, Stephanie; Essbauer, Sandra; Derschum, Henri; Scholz, Holger; Kiefer, Daniel; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Dashdavaa, Otgonbataar; Tsogbadrakh, Nyamdorj; Jigjav, Battsetseg; Pfeffer, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Information about the prevalence and geographical distribution of tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, and Babesia spp. is still rare in Mongolia. We tested 275 Ixodes persulcatus ticks for A. phagocytophilum, Cand. N. mikurensis and Babesia spp. and 125 Dermacentor nuttalli ticks especially for Babesia spp. using different PCR methods. Ticks were collected from three provinces (Selenge, Arkhangai, Khentii) in Mongolia. DNA of A. phagocytophilum, Cand. N. mikurensis and Babesia spp. were found with a prevalence of 6.2%, 1.5% and 3.3% in each case in I. persulcatus ticks. This is the first time Cand. N. mikurensis was found in ticks from Mongolia. Sequence analysis of Babesia spp.-positive amplicons showed exclusively B. venatorum, which had also not been mentioned in Mongolia before. On the contrary, all D. nuttalli ticks tested negatively for Babesia spp. This study demonstrates that all three zoonotic pathogens are present in I. persulcatus ticks in Mongolia, and justify the need for further investigations of a more detailed genetic characterization of these pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinicopathological and Molecular Findings in a Case of Canine Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Northern Italy

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    Francesco Dondi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A documented case of canine granulocytic anaplasmosis coupled with the molecular characterization of the etiological agent is reported for the first time in Northern Italy. The patient showed nonspecific clinical signs such as fever and weight loss. The most relevant clinicopathological findings were thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and normal azotemic proteinuria consistent with glomerular diseases. Blood smear examination revealed the presence of intracytoplasmatic inclusions in neutrophils associated with high positive serology for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. PCR analysis and sequencing of the amplicon confirm serological diagnosis of A. phagocytophilum. Phylogenetic analysis evidenced that the detected bacterial strain belongs to the A. phagocytophilum Europe 1 lineage. Data indicates that A. phagocytophilum circulates in natural environments of Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy and its prevalence in dogs could be underestimated because the clinical signs are frequently nonspecific and a certain diagnosis requires the combination of clinicopathological and molecular assays. Pets living in this area should be regularly monitored and treated for ectoparasites to minimize health risks for humans and pets. Also, surveillance of A. phagocytophilum should be improved in Northern Italy and canine anaplasmosis should be considered in differential diagnosis of persistent proteinuria.

  19. Reptile infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Nathan C; Foley, Janet E; Bettaso, Jamie; Lane, Robert S

    2009-10-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) is a potentially fatal tick-borne rickettsial disease that occurs sporadically in the far western United States. We evaluated the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in multiple species of lizards and snakes from enzootic sites in northern California, described the infestation prevalence of its tick vector Ixodes pacificus on reptiles, and conducted an experimental challenge of western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) and Pacific gopher snakes (Pituophis catenifer) with A. phagocytophilum delivered via needle inoculation or tick bite. Both serologically and polymerase-chain reaction (PCR)-positive lizards (seroprevalence = 10.8%, PCR prevalence = 10.2%) and snakes (seroprevalence = 5.8%, PCR prevalence = 11.7%) were detected among wild-caught animals. A DNA sequence of the A. phagocytophilum groESL gene from a PCR-positive snake was 100% homologous to that of the human-derived A. phagocytophilum. Experimental attempts to infect naïve animals were unsuccessful for snakes (n = 2), but 1 of 12 lizards became infected for 1 wk only by tick bite. Xenodiagnostic I. pacificus larvae that fed on a PCR-positive lizard did not acquire or transmit rickettsiae. Our findings suggest that lizards and snakes are exposed to A. phagocytophilum by infected ticks, but that they do not serve as primary reservoir hosts of this rickettsia.

  20. Infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in a seronegative patient in Sicily, Italy: Case Report

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    Alongi A

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA in humans, which has been recognized as an emerging tick-borne disease in the United States and Europe. Although about 65 cases of HGA have been reported in Europe, some of them do not fulfill the criteria for confirmed HGA. Confirmation of HGA requires A. phagocytophilum isolation from blood, and/or identification of morulae in granulocytes and/or positive PCR results with subsequent sequencing of the amplicons to demonstrate specific rickettsial DNA. Seroconversion or at least fourfold increase in antibody titers to A. phagocytophilum has been used as criteria for confirmed HGA also. Case presentation Infection with A. phagocytophilum was confirmed by PCR in a patient in Sicily, Italy, who had negative serology for A. phagocytophilum. A fragment of A. phagocytophilum 16S rDNA was amplified by two independent laboratories and sequenced from two separate patient's blood samples. The 16S rDNA sequence was identical in both samples and identical to the sequence of the A. phagocytophilum strain USG3 originally obtained from a dog. Conclusion Infection with A. phagocytophilum was confirmed in a patient without a detectable antibody response against the pathogen. The results reported herein documented the first case of confirmed HGA in Sicily, Italy. These results suggested the possibility of human infections with A. phagocytophilum strains that result in clinical symptoms and laboratory findings confirmatory of HGA but without detectable antibodies against the pathogen.

  1. Human Exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Two Cities of Northwestern Morocco.

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    Sarah Elhamiani Khatat

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis with extensive increased interest. Epidemiological data are available in several regions of the USA, Europe and Asia in contrast to other parts of the world such as North Africa. Blood samples of 261 healthy individuals divided in two groups i.e., dog handlers and blood donors were analysed. Indirect immunofluorescent assay using a commercial kit was performed to detect specific A. phagocytophilum IgG. Two dilutions were used to assess the prevalence of seroreactive samples. Demographic variables were assessed as potential risk factors using exact logistic regression. Seropositivity rates reached 37% and 27% in dog handlers and 36% and 22% in blood donors. No statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence rates between the two groups. Analysis of risk factors such as gender, age groups, outdoor activities, self-reported previous exposure to ticks, or contact with domestic animals (dogs, cats, ruminants and horses did not shown any significant difference. A. phagocytophilum exposure was common in both high-risk population and blood donors in Morocco.

  2. Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Related Defects in CD8, NKT, and NK Lymphocyte Cytotoxicity

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    Diana G. Scorpio

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, caused by the tick-transmitted Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is not controlled by innate immunity, and induces a proinflammatory disease state with innate immune cell activation. In A. phagocytophilum murine infection models, hepatic injury occurs with production of IFNγ thought to be derived from NK, NKT cells, and CD8 T lymphocytes. Specific A. phagocytophilum ligands that drive inflammation and disease are not known, but suggest a clinical and pathophysiologic basis strikingly like macrophage activation syndrome (MAS and hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS. We studied in vivo responses of NK, NKT, and CD8 T lymphocytes from infected animals for correlates of lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity and examined in vitro interactions with A. phagocytophilum-loaded antigen-presenting cells (APCs. Murine splenocytes were examined and found deficient in cytotoxicity as determined by CD107a expression in vitro for specific CTL effector subsets as determined by flow cytometry. Moreover, A. phagocytophilum-loaded APCs did not lead to IFNγ production among CTLs in vitro. These findings support the concept of impaired cytotoxicity with A. phagocytophilum presentation by APCs that express MHC class I and that interact with innate and adaptive immune cells with or after infection. The findings strengthen the concept of an enhanced proinflammatory phenotype, such as MAS and HPS disease states as the basis of disease and severity with A. phagocytophilum infection, and perhaps by other obligate intracellular bacteria.

  3. Human Exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Two Cities of Northwestern Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhamiani Khatat, Sarah; Sahibi, Hamid; Hing, Mony; Alaoui Moustain, Ismail; El Amri, Hamid; Benajiba, Mohammed; Kachani, Malika; Duchateau, Luc; Daminet, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis with extensive increased interest. Epidemiological data are available in several regions of the USA, Europe and Asia in contrast to other parts of the world such as North Africa. Blood samples of 261 healthy individuals divided in two groups i.e., dog handlers and blood donors were analysed. Indirect immunofluorescent assay using a commercial kit was performed to detect specific A. phagocytophilum IgG. Two dilutions were used to assess the prevalence of seroreactive samples. Demographic variables were assessed as potential risk factors using exact logistic regression. Seropositivity rates reached 37% and 27% in dog handlers and 36% and 22% in blood donors. No statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence rates between the two groups. Analysis of risk factors such as gender, age groups, outdoor activities, self-reported previous exposure to ticks, or contact with domestic animals (dogs, cats, ruminants and horses) did not shown any significant difference. A. phagocytophilum exposure was common in both high-risk population and blood donors in Morocco. PMID:27532208

  4. Remodeling of tick cytoskeleton in response to infection withAnaplasma phagocytophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Alberdi, Pilar; Valdes, James J; Villar, Margarita; de la Fuente, Jose

    2017-06-01

    The obligate intracellular pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum infects vertebrate and tick hosts. In this study, a genome-wide search for cytoskeleton components was performed in the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis . The available transcriptomics and proteomics data was then used to characterize the mRNA and protein levels of I. scapularis cytoskeleton components in response to A. phagocytophilum infection. The results showed that cytoskeleton components described in other model organisms were present in the I. scapularis genome. One type of intermediate filaments (lamin), a family of septins that was recently implicated in the cellular response to intracellular pathogens, and several members of motor proteins (kinesins and dyneins) that could be implicated in the cytoplasmic movements of A. phagocytophilum were found. The results showed that levels of tubulin, actin, septin, actin-related proteins and motor proteins were affected by A. phagocytophilum , probably to facilitate infection in I. scapularis . Functional studies demonstrated a role for selected cytoskeleton components in pathogen infection. These results provided a more comprehensive view of the cytoskeletal components involved in the response to A. phagocytophilum infection in ticks.

  5. Host specificity, pathogen exposure, and superinfections impact the distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum genotypes in ticks, roe deer, and livestock in a fragmented agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastagner, Amélie; Pion, Angélique; Verheyden, Hélène; Lourtet, Bruno; Cargnelutti, Bruno; Picot, Denis; Poux, Valérie; Bard, Émilie; Plantard, Olivier; McCoy, Karen D; Leblond, Agnes; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Bailly, Xavier

    2017-11-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a bacterial pathogen mainly transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe. It infects wild mammals, livestock, and, occasionally, humans. Roe deer are considered to be the major reservoir, but the genotypes they carry differ from those that are found in livestock and humans. Here, we investigated whether roe deer were the main source of the A. phagocytophilum genotypes circulating in questing I. ricinus nymphs in a fragmented agricultural landscape in France. First, we assessed pathogen prevalence in 1837 I. ricinus nymphs (sampled along georeferenced transects) and 79 roe deer. Prevalence was dramatically different between ticks and roe deer: 1.9% versus 76%, respectively. Second, using high-throughput amplicon sequencing, we characterized the diversity of the A. phagocytophilum genotypes found in 22 infected ticks and 60 infected roe deer; the aim was to determine the frequency of co-infections. Only 22.7% of infected ticks carried genotypes associated with roe deer. This finding fits with others suggesting that cattle density is the major factor explaining infected tick density. To explore epidemiological scenarios capable of explaining these patterns, we constructed compartmental models that focused on how A. phagocytophilum exposure and infection dynamics affected pathogen prevalence in roe deer. At the exposure levels predicted by the results of this study and the literature, the high prevalence in roe deer was only seen in the model in which superinfections could occur during all infection phases and when the probability of infection post exposure was above 0.43. We then interpreted these results from the perspective of livestock and human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence des paramètres d'un laser ER: YAG sur l'adaptation marginale d'une restauration à faible contraction

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    Peeters, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Quarante molaires ont été réparties en cinq groupes. C'est avec un laser de type Er:YAG que des cavités occlusales ont été faites sur les dents des quatre premiers groupes et cela avec certains paramètres définis et spécifiques à chacun. Les dents du dernier groupe quant à elles, ont subi un traitement conventionnel de fraisage. L’obturation des cavités a été faite avec le même matériau, une résine composite à faible taux de contraction. L'adaptation marginale de chaque dent a ensuite été com...

  7. Redes comunitarias: un desafío para escuelas urbano-marginales (COMMUNITY NETWORKS: A CHALLENGE FOR URBAN MARGINAL SCHOOLS

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    Moscoloni Bicchi Nora

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Las ideas básicas de este trabajo son conocer y comprender el entramado de la red de relaciones entre los distintos actores de las instituciones: escuela y organismos de la comunidad y su incidencia en la calidad educativa / calidad de vida. Analizamos la visión de los distintos actores educativos acerca de la inserción de la escuela en la comunidad. Tomamos como punto de partida el análisis de las relaciones entre calidad educativa y calidad de vida, en poblaciones urbano-marginales. Realizamos en primer lugar una investigación exploratoria, para conocer las características generales de escuelas que reciben población marginal. En una segunda etapa seleccionamos cuatro escuelas, que tomamos como casos e indagamos sus problemáticas. En ellas observamos gran dificultad para la construcción de redes comunitarias desde la institución escolar. Si bien responden a los problemas puntuales, mediante cambios o innovaciones planificados dinámica y flexiblemente, no existen soluciones duraderas debido a la falta de una convocatoria que comprometa a todas las instituciones de la comunidad constituyendo una efectiva relación en red. Estos resultados alcanzados en la investigación son producto de la triangulación de los datos estadísticos, documentales e históricos así como de los procedentes de la observación participante y de la información de las entrevistas en profundidad.Abstract:The basic ideas of this work are to know and understand the fabric of the network of relationships between the different institutions involved in school and community agencies and their impact on the quality of education / quality of life. The vision of the different actors of education about the insertion of the school in the community is analyzed from the point of view of the school. The analysis started studying how the quality of education is related to the quality of life in marginalized urban populations. At first an exploratory research was

  8. Anaplasma phagocytophilum increases the levels of histone modifying enzymes to inhibit cell apoptosis and facilitate pathogen infection in the tick vector Ixodes scapularis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Alberdi, P.; Ayllón, N.; Valdés, James J.; Pierce, R.; Villar, M.; de la Fuente, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2016), s. 303-319 ISSN 1559-2294 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE; European Commission(XE) 316304 - MODBIOLIN Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Anaplasma * epigenetics * histone modifying enzyme * histone * pathogen * tick Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.394, year: 2016

  9. Longitudinal analysis of tick densities and Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia infections of Ixodes ricinus ticks in different habitat areas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielinga, P.R.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Fonville, M.; Boer, de A.G.; Vries, de A.; Dimmers, W.J.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.; Schouls, L.M.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2006-01-01

    From 2000 to 2004, ticks were collected by dragging a blanket in four habitat areas in The Netherlands: dunes, heather, forest, and a city park. Tick densities were calculated, and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species was investigated by reverse line blot analysis.

  10. Canine infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in Canada, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Brian H; Peregrine, Andrew S; Goring, Jonas; Beall, Melissa J; Little, Susan E

    2017-05-19

    Canine test results generated by veterinarians throughout Canada from 2013-2014 were evaluated to assess the geographical distribution of canine infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia spp., and Anaplasma spp. The percent positive test results of 115,636 SNAP® 4Dx® Plus tests from dogs tested were collated by province and municipality to determine the distribution of these vector-borne infections in Canada. A total of 2,844/115,636 (2.5%) dogs tested positive for antibody to B. burgdorferi. In contrast, positive test results for D. immitis antigen and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. were low, with less than 0.5% of dogs testing positive for any one of these three agents nationwide. Provincial seroprevalence for antibodies to B. burgdorferi ranged from 0.5% (Saskatchewan)-15.7% (Nova Scotia); the areas of highest percent positive test results were in proximity to regions in the USA considered endemic for Lyme borreliosis, including Nova Scotia (15.7%) and Eastern Ontario (5.1%). These high endemic foci, which had significantly higher percent positive test results than the rest of the nation (P Canada. Using dogs as sentinels for these pathogens can aid in recognition of the public and veterinary health threat that each pose.

  11. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtwig, Vera; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Schulze, Christoph; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Daugschies, Arwid; Dyachenko, Viktor

    2014-04-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular and tick-transmitted bacterium, which causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in animals and humans. Although infection with A. phagocytophilum in domestic animals and vector ticks is documented, there is sparse information on the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in wild animals. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as well as raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are wildlife species highly abundant in certain areas of Germany and represent a potential wildlife reservoir for zoonotic diseases. To obtain data about the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in these animals, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by means of real-time PCR. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 10 out of 122 (8.2%) lungs of red foxes and in 3 out of 13 (23%) lungs of raccoon dogs. To the best of our knowledge, A. phagocytophilum was detected for the first time in red foxes and raccoon dogs in Germany. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp. and Rickettsia spp. in ectoparasites collected from domestic animals, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Thayssa Keren da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of emerging arthropod-borne pathogens Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia infection in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae and fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera collected from dogs and horses within municipality of Itaboraí, Rio de Janeiro State, Southern Brazil. Samples from 280 ticks and two fleas were subjected to family or/and genus specific PCR for Anaplasmataceae, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia, followed by DNA sequencing to ensure pathogen identity. In ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus collected from dogs the DNA of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis was detected in 6.8% and 2.2% samples respectively. In two R. sanguineus confection with two pathogens was observed. In Dermacentor nitens ticks, collected from horses Francisella-like endosymbiont was found in 42.8% samples. DNA of Rickettsia felis and Wolbachia pi-petens was detected in fleas Ctenocephalides canis fleas. No DNA of Rickettsia was found in tested ticks. The findings contribute to our knowledge of tick-borne bacteria, ticks and endosymbionts distribution in Brazil.

  13. DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES TO ANAPLASMA, BARTONELLA AND COXIELLA IN RURAL INHABITANTS OF THE CARIBBEAN AREA OF COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Máttar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Establecer la seroprevalencia de Bartonella spp, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (antesErlichia y Coexiella burnetii. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron sueros representativos de unsector de la población en el año 2003, recolectados de personas que trabajan en actividades delcampo en los departamentos de Córdoba y Sucre que sirvieron como población base de las muestrasque se obtuvieron. Los trabajadores rurales elegidos a participar tenían entra 16 – 65 años deedad. Los sueros fueron examinados por IFA para detección de anticuerpos contra IgG para Bartonellaspp, Erlichia Anaplasma phagocytophilum y Coexiella burnetii. Resultados. La seroprevalencia deanticuerpos de todos los microorganismos estudiados fue de 56.8%. De 81 muestras de sueroanalizadas el 26.6% fueron seropositivas contra C. burnetii, el 37.7% tuvieron anticuerpos contraBartonella y el 20% de los individuos evaluados fueron seropositivos para Anaplasmaphagocytophilum. Conclusiones. Nuestros datos indican que la prevalencia de anticuerpos contraBartonella, A. phagocytophilum y C. burnetii son altos en nuestra región. Los resultados indicanque estas enfermedades zoonoticas son muy comunes en las personas que residen en el área delcaribe colombiano. Este estudio demuestra por primera vez la presencia de estos microorganismosen Colombia.

  14. Occurrence of Hepatozoon canis (Adeleorina: Hepatozoidae) and Anaplasma spp. (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzhorn, Barend L; Netherlands, Edward C; Cook, Courtney A; Smit, Nico J; Vorster, Ilse; Harrison-White, Robert F; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2018-03-20

    Domestic dogs are not native to sub-Saharan Africa, which may account for their susceptibility to Babesia rossi, of which endemic black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) are natural reservoirs. There is virtually no information on the occurrence of potentially pathogenic haemogregarines (e.g. Hepatozoon canis) or even rickettsial bacteria (e.g. Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp.) in indigenous canids in sub-Saharan Africa. Such organisms could pose a risk to domestic dogs, as well as to populations of endangered indigenous canid species. Genomic DNA extracted from blood samples taken from 126 free-ranging and 16 captive black-backed jackals was subjected to reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay; 82 (57.8%) specimens reacted only with the Ehrlichia/Anaplasma genera-specific probe. Full-length bacterial 16S rRNA gene of five of these specimens was cloned and the recombinants sequenced. The ten 16S rDNA sequences obtained were most closely related, with approximately 99% identity, to Anaplasma sp. South African Dog, various uncultured Anaplasma spp., as well as various Anaplasma phagocytophilum genotypes. Ninety-one specimens were screened for haemogregarines through PCR amplification using the 18S rRNA gene; 20 (21.9%) specimens reacted positively, of which 14 (15.4%) were confirmed positive for Hepatozoon genotypes from within H. canis. Two (2.2%) specimens were found positive for two different Hepatozoon genotypes. Sequence analyses confirmed the presence of 16S rDNA sequences closely related to A. phagocytophilum and Anaplasma sp. South African Dog as well as two H. canis genotypes in both free-ranging and captive black-backed jackals. Distinguishing between closely related lineages may provide insight into differences in pathogenicity and virulence of various Anaplasma and H. canis genotypes. By building up a more comprehensive understanding of the range and diversity of the bacteria and eukaryotic organisms (piroplasms and haemogregarines) in the blood of

  15. Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks, ticks parasitizing rodents and the parasitized rodents--analyzing the host-pathogen-vector interface in a metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Woll, Dietlinde; Hamel, Dietmar; Pfister, Kurt; Mahling, Monia; Pfeffer, Martin

    2012-09-05

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the host-tick-pathogen interface of Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in restored areas in both questing and host-attached Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus and their small mammalian hosts. Questing ticks were collected from 5 sites within the city of Leipzig, Germany, in 2009. Small mammals were trapped at 3 of the 5 sites during 2010 and 2011. DNA extracts of questing and host-attached I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and of several tissue types of small mammals (the majority bank voles and yellow-necked mice), were investigated by PCR followed by sequencing for the occurrence of DNA of Babesia spp. and by real-time PCR for A. phagocytophilum. A selected number of samples positive for A. phagocytophilum were further investigated for variants of the partial 16S rRNA gene. Co-infection with Rickettsia spp. in the questing ticks was additionally investigated. 4.1% of questing I. ricinus ticks, but no D. reticulatus, were positive for Babesia sp. and 8.7% of I. ricinus for A. phagocytophilum. Sequencing revealed B. microti, B. capreoli and Babesia spp. EU1 in Leipzig and sequence analysis of the partial 16S RNA gene of A. phagocytophilum revealed variants either rarely reported in human cases or associated with cervid hosts. The statistical analysis revealed significantly less ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum in a city park in Leipzig as compared to the other sampling sites. A. phagocytophilum-DNA was detected in 2 bank voles, DNA of B. microti in 1 striped field-mouse and of Babesia sp. EU1 in the skin tissue of a mole. Co-infections were detected. Our results show the involvement of small mammals in the natural endemic cycles of tick-borne pathogens. A more thorough understanding of the interactions of ticks, pathogens and hosts is the essential basis for effective preventive control measures.

  16. Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks, ticks parasitizing rodents and the parasitized rodents – Analyzing the host-pathogen-vector interface in a metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silaghi Cornelia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the host-tick-pathogen interface of Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in restored areas in both questing and host-attached Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus and their small mammalian hosts. Methods Questing ticks were collected from 5 sites within the city of Leipzig, Germany, in 2009. Small mammals were trapped at 3 of the 5 sites during 2010 and 2011. DNA extracts of questing and host-attached I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and of several tissue types of small mammals (the majority bank voles and yellow-necked mice, were investigated by PCR followed by sequencing for the occurrence of DNA of Babesia spp. and by real-time PCR for A. phagocytophilum. A selected number of samples positive for A. phagocytophilum were further investigated for variants of the partial 16S rRNA gene. Co-infection with Rickettsia spp. in the questing ticks was additionally investigated. Results 4.1% of questing I. ricinus ticks, but no D. reticulatus, were positive for Babesia sp. and 8.7% of I. ricinus for A. phagocytophilum. Sequencing revealed B. microti, B. capreoli and Babesia spp. EU1 in Leipzig and sequence analysis of the partial 16S RNA gene of A. phagocytophilum revealed variants either rarely reported in human cases or associated with cervid hosts. The statistical analysis revealed significantly less ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum in a city park in Leipzig as compared to the other sampling sites. A. phagocytophilum-DNA was detected in 2 bank voles, DNA of B. microti in 1 striped field-mouse and of Babesia sp. EU1 in the skin tissue of a mole. Co-infections were detected. Conclusion Our results show the involvement of small mammals in the natural endemic cycles of tick-borne pathogens. A more thorough understanding of the interactions of ticks, pathogens and hosts is the essential basis for effective preventive control measures.

  17. Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks, ticks parasitizing rodents and the parasitized rodents – Analyzing the host-pathogen-vector interface in a metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the host-tick-pathogen interface of Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in restored areas in both questing and host-attached Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus and their small mammalian hosts. Methods Questing ticks were collected from 5 sites within the city of Leipzig, Germany, in 2009. Small mammals were trapped at 3 of the 5 sites during 2010 and 2011. DNA extracts of questing and host-attached I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and of several tissue types of small mammals (the majority bank voles and yellow-necked mice), were investigated by PCR followed by sequencing for the occurrence of DNA of Babesia spp. and by real-time PCR for A. phagocytophilum. A selected number of samples positive for A. phagocytophilum were further investigated for variants of the partial 16S rRNA gene. Co-infection with Rickettsia spp. in the questing ticks was additionally investigated. Results 4.1% of questing I. ricinus ticks, but no D. reticulatus, were positive for Babesia sp. and 8.7% of I. ricinus for A. phagocytophilum. Sequencing revealed B. microti, B. capreoli and Babesia spp. EU1 in Leipzig and sequence analysis of the partial 16S RNA gene of A. phagocytophilum revealed variants either rarely reported in human cases or associated with cervid hosts. The statistical analysis revealed significantly less ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum in a city park in Leipzig as compared to the other sampling sites. A. phagocytophilum-DNA was detected in 2 bank voles, DNA of B. microti in 1 striped field-mouse and of Babesia sp. EU1 in the skin tissue of a mole. Co-infections were detected. Conclusion Our results show the involvement of small mammals in the natural endemic cycles of tick-borne pathogens. A more thorough understanding of the interactions of ticks, pathogens and hosts is the essential basis for effective preventive control measures. PMID:22950642

  18. Molecular detection and characterization of Anaplasma platys in dogs and ticks in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudia Bezerra da; Santos, Huarrisson Azevedo; Navarrete, Maylín González; Ribeiro, Carla Carolina Dias Uzedo; Gonzalez, Belkis Corona; Zaldivar, Maykelin Fuentes; Pires, Marcus Sandes; Peckle, Maristela; Costa, Renata Lins da; Vitari, Gabriela Lopes Vivas; Massard, Carlos Luiz

    2016-07-01

    Canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, an infectious disease caused by Anaplasma platys is a worldwide dog health problem. This study aimed to detect and characterize A. platys deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in dogs and ticks from Cuba using molecular methods. The study was conducted in four cities of Cuba (Habana del Este, Boyeros, Cotorro and San José de las Lajas). Blood samples were collected from 100 dogs in these cities. The animals were inspected for the detection of tick infestation and specimens were collected. Genomic DNA was extracted from dog blood and ticks using a commercial kit. Genomic DNA samples from blood and ticks were tested by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) to amplify 678 base pairs (bp) from the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of A. platys. Positive samples in nPCR were also subjected to PCR to amplify a fragment of 580bp from the citrate synthase (gltA) gene and the products were sequenced. Only Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) was found on dogs, and 10.20% (n=5/49) of these ticks plus sixteen percent (16.0%, n=16/100) of dogs were considered positive for A. platys by nPCR targeting the 16S rDNA gene. All analyzed gltA and 16S rDNA sequences showed a 99-100% identity with sequences of A. platys reported in around the world. Phylogenetic analysis showed two defined clusters for the 16S rDNA gene and three defined clusters for the gltA gene. Based on the gltA gene, the deduced amino acid sequence showed two mutations at positions 88 and 168 compared with the sequence DQ525687 (GenBank ID from Italian sample), used as a reference in the alignment. A preliminary study on the epidemiological aspects associated with infection by A. platys showed no statistical association with the variables studied (p>0.05). This is the first evidence of the presence of A. platys in dogs and ticks in Cuba. Further studies are needed to evaluate the epidemiological aspects of A. platys infection in Cuban dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  19. Clinical and molecular features of one case of human infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum from Podlaskie Province in eastern Poland

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    Renata Welc-Falęciak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA caused by [i]Anaplasma phagocytophilum[/i] infection in one of 28 patients (3.6%; n=1/28 tested samples with early Lyme borreliosis. The clinical and laboratory results of a 42-year-old patient fulfilled criteria of confirm anaplasmosis and suggest an acute stage of illness. The described case provides strong presumptive evidence that infection in this patient was acquired with a pathogenic strain of [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] through a tick bite. A positive DNA with PCR for A. phagocytophilum infection was sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Physicians should consider the possibility of anaplasmosis in patients with early Lyme borreliosis, and [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] should be considered as a differential diagnosis in all patients from an endemic region of potential high risk factors for tick-borne diseases.

  20. Clinical and molecular features of one case of human infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum from Podlaskie Province in eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Welc-Falęciak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in one of 28 patients (3.6%; n=1/28 tested samples with early Lyme borreliosis. The clinical and laboratory results of a 42-year-old patient fulfilled criteria of confirm anaplasmosis and suggest an acute stage of illness. The described case provides strong presumptive evidence that infection in this patient was acquired with a pathogenic strain of A. phagocytophilum through a tick bite. A positive DNA with PCR for A. phagocytophilum infection was sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Physicians should consider the possibility of anaplasmosis in patients with early Lyme borreliosis, and A. phagocytophilum should be considered as a differential diagnosis in all patients from an endemic region of potential high risk factors for tick-borne diseases.

  1. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ixodid ticks from equine-inhabited sites in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Dawn M; Fang, Quentin Q

    2012-04-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a vector-borne, obligate intracellular bacterium that invades the neutrophils and eosinophils of infected individuals, causing granulocytic anaplasmosis. Equine cases have previously been reported in the United States from California, Florida, and Connecticut, but limited surveillance studies in the Southeast have been conducted. The objective of this study was to determine A. phagocytophilum prevalence in Ixodes scapularis ticks at southeastern U.S. horse-inhabited sites to evaluate the potential risk for equine exposure to A. phagocytophilum-infected ticks in these areas. Samples of I. scapularis were collected from selected barrier islands and Georgia mainland sites where feral and domestic equine populations are present, respectively. Ticks were individually tested for infection by amplification of the A. phagocytophilum ankA gene. The collective prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in I. scapularis ticks was 20% (n=808).

  2. The infection of questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks with Babesia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Vichová, Bronislavá; Slivinska, Kateryna; Werszko, Joanna; Didyk, Julia; Peťko, Branislav; Stanko, Michal; Akimov, Igor

    2014-08-29

    Tick occurrence was studied in the Chernobyl exclusion zone (CEZ) during the August-October 2009-2012. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected using the flagging method and then screened for infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis by a PCR method incorporating specific primers and sequence analysis. The prevalence of infection with B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum was found to be 3.41% and 25.36%, respectively. The results present the first evidence of B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum in questing D. reticulatus ticks from the Chernobyl exclusion zone. They also reveal the presence of tick-borne disease foci in areas with no human activity, and confirm that they can be maintained in areas after a nuclear disaster with radioactive contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A putative marker for human pathogenic strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum correlates with geography and host, but not human tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet; Stephenson, Nicole; Cubilla, Michelle Pires; Qurollo, Barbara; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2016-03-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an Ixodes species tick-transmitted bacterium that is capable of infecting a variety of host species, although there is a diversity of bacterial strains with differing host tropism. Recent analysis of A. phagocytophilum strains suggested that "drhm", a gene locus designated "distantly related to human marker" (drhm), which was predicted to be an integral membrane protein with possible transporter functions was not present in available canine and human isolates. By assessing 117 strains from 14 host species from across the US, we extended this analysis. Phylogenetic clades were associated with geography, but not host species. Additionally, a virulent clade that lacks drhm and infects dogs, horses, and humans in northeastern US was identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Detección por pcr de Anaplasma spp. en caprinos del municipio de Los Santos, Santander‑Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez, Angela; Garcia, Alba; Angulo, Carolina; Gómez, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Mediante pcr semianidada se amplificó una porción de 347 pb del gen msp5 para determinar la presencia de Anaplasma spp. en caprinos de la Mesa de Los Santos, Santander. A partir de 600 individuos se seleccionó una muestra de 99 animales utilizando una afijación proporcional. A cada uno de los caprinos se les realizó un examen semiológico y la extracción de una muestra sanguínea para pcr semi-anidada, medición de hematocrito, hemoglobina, evaluación de la morfología de los glóbulos rojos y obs...

  5. First molecular evidence of Anaplasma ovis and Rickettsia spp. in keds (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) of sheep and wild ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; de la Fuente, José; Biró, Nóra; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Meli, Marina L; Elek, Vilmos; Gönczi, Eniko; Meili, Theres; Tánczos, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the presence of rickettsial agents in hippoboscid flies with molecular methods, 81 sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) were collected from 23 sheep, 144 deer keds (Lipoptena cervi) were caught in the environment, and a further 463 and 59 individuals of the latter species were obtained from fresh carcasses of 29 red deer and 17 roe deer, respectively. DNA was extracted individually or in pools. Anaplasma ovis was demonstrated in all examined sheep keds, and from one pool of free-living deer keds. Rickettsia helvetica or other, unidentified rickettsiae were also present in one pool of sheep keds, and in four pools of deer keds from both red deer and roe deer. This is the first account of polymerase chain reaction positivity of hippoboscid flies for A. ovis and rickettsiae. These results raise the possibility that-apart from cattle and roe deer as already reported-sheep and red deer might also play a reservoir role in the epidemiology of rickettsioses.

  6. EL EFECTO DE LA LIBERALIZACIÓN COMERCIAL SOBRE LOS MÁRGENES DE PRECIOS A COSTOS MARGINALES DEL SECTOR MANUFACTURERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela López Noria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el efecto del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte ( TLCAN sobre los márgenes de precio a costos marginales ( MPCM del sector manufacturero en México durante el periodo 1994-2003. Tomando en consideración la sensibilidad de cada industria a la rapidez con la que se eliminan los aranceles bajo el TLCAN , los resultados muestran que los MPCM cayeron inmediatamente después de que comenzó en México la segunda ronda de liberalización comercial en 1994. Sin embargo, en años subsecuentes, no emerge un patrón claro para estos MPCM . Adicionalmente, el estudio toma en cuenta la sensibilidad de cada industria al nivel inicial de su arancel y presenta evidencia que muestra que mientras que el TLCAN sí tuvo un efecto sobre los MPCM de aquellas industrias que liberalizaron en 10 años, no se encontró un efecto robusto sobre los MPCM de las industrias que liberalizaron en cinco años.

  7. Responsabilidad Social Matriz de indicadores sustentables que refleja el impacto de la forestación en tierras marginales del Partido de Bahía Blanca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina del Carmen Durán Durán

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, se han empezado a considerar otras obligaciones que tienen las empresas para con su comunidad; se trata de aspectos vinculados con las dimensiones sociales y ambientales. Desde este contexto, nuestro trabajo tiene como punto de partida el concepto de responsabilidad social desde la noción de sustentabilidad. El objetivo es evaluar la forestación como instrumento para mejorar la sostenibilidad de los sistemas productivos tradicionales en tierras marginales del Partido de Bahía Blanca, mitigando los impactos del desarrollo no responsable de la producción primaria. Para ello, se han identificado técnicas de manejo generadoras de externalidades positivas en otras actividades agropecuarias complementarias, donde existen limitantes edafológicas, apoyándose en las tres dimensiones del concepto de sustentabilidad: ecológica, económica, sociopolítica y cultural. De igual forma, se diseñó una matriz de evaluación y ponderación de impactos, que contempla indicadores cuantitativos y cualitativos, de cuya aplicación surge la forestación como una alternativa sustentable

  8. Development and Clinical Validation of a Multiplex Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assay for Human Infection by Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis

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    Megan E. Reller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA, caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME, caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, often present as undifferentiated fever but are not treated by typical empiric regimens for acute febrile illness. Their role as agents of vector-borne febrile disease in tropical regions is more poorly studied than for other rickettsial infections. Limitations in diagnosis have impaired epidemiologic and clinical research and needless morbidity and mortality occur due to untreated illness. Methods: We designed and clinically validated a multiplex real-time quantitative PCR assay for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis using samples confirmed by multiple gold-standard methods. Results: Clinical sensitivity and specificity for A. phagocytophilum were 100% (39/39 and 100% (143/143, respectively, and for E. chaffeensis 95% (20/21 and 99% (159/161, respectively. Conclusions: These assays could support early diagnosis and treatment as well as the high-throughput testing required for large epidemiologic studies.

  9. Infections and risk factors for livestock with species of Anaplasma, Babesia and Brucella under semi-nomadic rearing in Karamoja Region, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Chiara; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Strona, Paolo; Lappo, Pier Giorgio; Etiang, Patrick; Diverio, Silvana

    2016-03-01

    A survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Anaplasma, Babesia and Brucella spp. infections in cattle, goats and sheep in the Karamoja Region of Uganda and to identify possible risk factors existing in this semi-nomadic and pastoral area. Low cost laboratory tests were used to diagnose infections (Rose Bengal test for Brucella spp. antibodies and direct microscopic examination for Anaplasma and Babesia spp.). Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to identify possible risk factors linked to gender, animal species, age (only for cattle) and districts. A total of 3935 cattle, 729 goats and 306 sheep of five districts of the Karamoja Region were tested. Seroprevalence for Brucella was 9.2 % (CI, 95 %: 8.4-10), for Anaplasma 19.5 % (CI 95 %: 18.4-20.6) and for Babesia 16 % (CI 95 %: 15-17.1). Significant differences in infections prevalence were observed against risk factors associated with districts and species. Cattle were the species with higher risk of the infections. Female gender was identified as at risk only for Brucella spp. infection. Cattle more than one year old had greater likelihood to be Brucella seropositive. Co-infections of Anaplasma and Babesia spp. were statistically associated, especially in goats and sheep. Further studies to identify risk factors related to host species and geographical districts are needed. The influence on the semi-nomadic agro-pastoral system in Karamoja of animal raids and animal mixing should be further investigated. Findings were important to sensitize Karamojong undertaking measures on infection control, especially on cattle, which are their main source of food.

  10. Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in ticks of dogs in Cuiaba, Mato GrossoEhrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em carrapatos de cães de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso

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    Valéria Dutra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diseases transmitted by arthropods such as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, are caused by a spectrum of pathogens. Among these are the canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and cyclical thrombocytopenia with a cosmopolitan distribution. Aiming to verify the presence of DNA of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in ticks R. sanguineus collected in the period 2008 to 2009 of 380 infected dogs. Ticks, after maceration, were subjected to DNA extraction and then nested PCR was performed for amplification of A. platys and E. canis. Of these, 81 (29.7% amplified DNA from ehrlichiais agents, where 38 (17.9% amplified in E. canis and 32 (15.7% for A. platys. The observation of two pathogens, combined with worldwide distribution of the tick R. sanguineus, demonstrates the high risk of infection with these pathogens in dogs in the city of Cuiaba. Doenças transmitidas por artrópodes, como o Rhipicephalus sanguineus, são causadas por um espectro de patógenos. Dentre estas, estão a erliquiose monocítica canina e trombocitopenia cíclica com distribuição cosmopolita. Com o objetivo de verificar a presença de DNA de Anaplasma platys e Ehrlichia canis em carrapatos R. sanguineus coletados no período de 2008 a 2009 de 380 cães infestados. Os carrapatos, após a maceração, foram submetidos a extração de DNA e, em seguida, foi realizada a Nested PCR para a amplificação da espécie A. platys e E. canis. Destes, 81 (29.7% amplificaram o DNA dos agentes ehrlichiais, onde 38 (17.9% amplificaram para E. canis e 32 (15.7% para A. platys. A observação dos dois patógenos, combinado com distribuição mundial do carrapato R. sanguineus, demonstra o elevado risco de infecção por esses patógenos de cães na cidade de Cuiabá.

  11. Serological detection of antibodies to Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis and of Dirofilaria immitis antigen in dogs from Costa Rica.

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    Montenegro, Víctor M; Bonilla, Marta C; Kaminsky, Darwin; Romero-Zúñiga, Juan José; Siebert, Susanne; Krämer, Friederike

    2017-03-15

    In a study in Costa Rica 314 serum samples from dogs throughout all seven provinces were tested using a commercial kit for the detection of circulating antibodies against Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis, and of circulating antigen of Dirofilaria immitis. A total of 6.4% (20/314) and 38.2% (120/314) were positive for Anaplasma spp. (An) and E. canis (Ec) antibodies. Overall, 8.0% (25/314) were positive for D. immitis (Di) antigen. One single dog reacted positive with B. burgdorferi s.l. (Bb) antigen (0.3%, 1/314). E. canis positive dogs were detected in all provinces (highest percentages in Guanacaste, Puntarenas [both significantly different compared to the overall] and Limón). Guanacaste and Puntarenas also showed the highest prevalences of Anaplasma spp. (both significantly different compared to the overall). The highest prevalence of D. immitis was detected in Puntarenas (significantly different compared to the overall). Double pathogen exposure (Ec plus An; Ec plus Di; Ec plus Bb) were recorded in 8.9% (28/314). Two dogs showed a triple pathogen exposure (0.6%, 2/314; An, Ec and Di). There was a significant difference between male (11.5%, 18/156) and female (4.4%, 7/158) animals for D. immitis positive results. There was also a significant difference between breed and no breed dogs regarding the characteristics of a general positive test, as well as seropositivity to the single pathogens of Anaplasma spp., E. canis and D. immitis. Finally there was a significant difference in the presence of clinical signs again regarding the characteristics of a general positive test, as well as seropositivity to Anaplasma spp., E. canis and D. immitis. Practitioners in Costa Rica should be aware of the canine vector-borne diseases mentioned as dogs are at risk of becoming infected. Concerning the positive B. burgdorferi s.l. dog, an autochthonous occurrence cannot be confirmed due to a history of adoption and an unusual tattoo number

  12. Serological and molecular investigation of Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. in ticks and blood of dogs, in the Thrace Region of Turkey.

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    Çetinkaya, Handan; Matur, Erdal; Akyazi, İbrahim; Ekiz, Elif Ergul; Aydin, Levent; Toparlak, Mufit

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, tick-borne diseases like ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis became widespread worldwide threatening the health of both human and companion animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs and ticks in the Thrace Region of Turkey. A total of 400 blood samples and 912 ticks were collected from dogs living in shelters that are located in four cities (Istanbul, Edirne, Tekirdag and Kirklareli) of the Thrace Region. Blood and buffy coat smears were prepared for microscopic examination. Hematologic and serologic analyses were performed using cell counter and commercial Snap3Dx test kit, respectively. Eight hundred fifty of collected ticks were classified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 33 as Rhipicephalus turanicus and 29 as Ixodes ricinus. After DNA extraction from blood samples and pooled ticks (127 tick pools, in total), nested PCR was performed to detect the DNA of Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. The seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis was 27.25% (109) by Snap3Dx test and the total molecular positivity was 11.75% (47) in dog blood samples and 21.25% (27) in tick pools by nested PCR. The frequencies of the infected blood samples with E. canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys were detected as 6%, 4% and 6%, respectively. E. canis and A. platys were detected in R. sanguineus pools with a ratio of 15.75% and 0.7%, respectively. In addition, A. platys was also detected in R. turanicus pools (0.7%). A. phagocytophilum was found only in I. ricinus pools (3.93%). Morulae of three species were detected in buffy coat and blood smears. While anemia was observed in dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected (with one or more species), thrombocytopenia was observed only in co-infected dogs. This is the first study providing evidence for the presence of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs and ticks in the Thrace Region of Turkey. Based on the results of the tests used in this study

  13. Molecular epidemiology of the emerging zoonosis agent Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Foggie, 1949) in dogs and ixodid ticks in Brazil.

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    Santos, Huarrisson A; Thomé, Sandra M G; Baldani, Cristiane D; Silva, Claudia B; Peixoto, Maristela P; Pires, Marcus S; Vitari, Gabriela L V; Costa, Renata L; Santos, Tiago M; Angelo, Isabele C; Santos, Leandro A; Faccini, João L H; Massard, Carlos L

    2013-12-11

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging pathogen of humans, dogs and other animals, and it is transmitted by ixodid ticks. The objective of the current study was a) detect A. phagocytophilum in dogs and ixodid ticks using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR); and b) Determine important variables associated to host, environment and potential tick vectors that are related to the presence of A. phagocytophilum in dogs domiciled in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We tested blood samples from 398 dogs and samples from 235 ticks, including 194 Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, 15 Amblyomma cajennense, 8 Amblyomma ovale and 18 pools of Amblyomma sp. nymphs. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied by interviewing each dog owner. Deoxyribonucleic acid obtained from ticks and dog buffy coat samples were amplified by qPCR (msp2 gene). The sequencing of 16S rRNA and groESL heat shock operon genes and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. The multiple logistic regression model was created as a function of testing positive dogs for A. phagocytophilum. Among the 398 blood samples from dogs, 6.03% were positive for A. phagocytophilum. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in one A. cajennense female tick and in five R. sanguineus sensu lato ticks (four males and one female). The partial sequences of the 16S rRNA, and groESL genes obtained were highly similar to strains of A. phagocytophilum isolated from wild birds from Brazil and human pathogenic strains. The tick species collected in positive dogs were R. sanguineus sensu lato and A. cajennense, with A.cajennense being predominant. Tick infestation history (OR = 2.86, CI = 1.98-14.87), dog size (OR = 2.41, IC: 1.51-12.67), the access to forest areas (OR = 3:51, CI: 1.52-16.32), hygiene conditions of the environment in which the dogs lived (OR = 4.35, CI: 1.86-18.63) and Amblyomma sp. infestation (OR = 6.12; CI: 2.11-28.15) were associated with A. phagocytophilum infection in dogs. This is the

  14. Infection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia spp. in Opossums and Dogs in Campeche, Mexico: The Role of Tick Infestation

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    Edgar Rojero-Vázquez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some tick-borne diseases such as anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis became widespread worldwide, threatening the health of humans, domestic animals and wildlife. The aims of this study were to determine the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis in 102 opossums (Didelphis spp. and 44 owned free-ranging dogs in southeastern Mexico using a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR. A. phagocytophilum was detected in opossums and dogs with a prevalence of 3 and 27%, respectively. E. canis was only present in 7% of dogs, while we didn't detect E. chaffeensis in any host. We report the first evidence of infections of A. phagocytophilum in Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis in Mexico. The infection rates and patterns we found of A. phagocytophilum suggest that dogs are more directly involved in the ecology of this pathogen than opossums. Despite the small prevalence found, our results are of public health concern because of the zoonotic capabilities of A. phagocytophilum, the high tick infestation rates found and because both opossums and free-ranging dogs can achieve high population densities in the region.

  15. Occurrence of Leishmania chagasi, Trypanosoma cruzi, Babesia canis vogeli, Anaplasma platys, and Ehrlichia canis in canine blood donors

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    Felipe Augusto Constantino Seabra da Cruz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The transfusion of blood components is common in a veterinary clinic; however, the safety of this therapeutic measure cannot always be guaranteed. Studies show a high risk of haemoparasite transmission during blood transfusion in canines. These parasites include Leishmania chagasi, Anaplasma platys, and Ehrlichia canis, which are endemic to the city of Cuiabá. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of L. chagasi, Trypanosoma cruzi, Babesia (canis vogeli, A. platys, and E. canis in canine blood donor candidates, and identify possible factors associated with the infection of these agents. Sixty-six canines were evaluated using serologic and molecular tests, for the presence of the Leishmania species. While one canine sample showed a positive result for L. chagasi with indirect fluorescent antibody test, with titer of 1:40, and seven canine samples were positive using DPP, all other samples were negative when using PCR and ELISA. All canines were negative for T. cruzi when using PCR. The B. (c. vogeli infection was identified in one canine and A. platys was identified in six canines. E. canis was identified in 17 canines, with a prevalence of 25.7%. There were no significant factors associated with the infection of the pathogens investigated. Given the observation of infection, even in the absence of clinical symptoms, emphasis must be placed on the need for the use of more sensitive and specific diagnostic methods for the screening of donor canines.

  16. Molecular epidemiology of Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis and Babesia vogeli in stray dogs in Paraná, Brazil

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    Claudia M. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Hemoparasitic infections are tick-borne diseases, which affect animals and humans. Considering the importance of canine hemoparasitic infections in veterinary clinics, this study aimed to determine the occurrence of Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis and Babesia vogeli in blood samples from 182 dogs not domiciled in the city of Pato Branco, southwestern region of Paraná State, Brazil, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The prevalence of A. platys and B. vogeli was 32.9% and 10.9% respectively, and A. platys infection prevailed (p<0.001. The number of dogs positive for A. platys was larger in Winter (p<0.05. All blood samples were negative for E. canis. In the dogs, infestation by Amblyomma cajennense predominated over that by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (p<0.001; but there was no significant association between PCR and the variables presence of ticks, sex and age. Dogs infected by A. platys and B. vogeli showed thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and leukocytosis; but there was no correlation between such hematological changes and infection by hemoparasites. This appears to be the first molecular study that demonstrates the existence of A. platys and B. vogeli in dogs from the southwestern region of Paraná.

  17. EL NIVEL EDUCATIVO Y SOCIOECONÓMICO DEL HOGAR Y HABILIDADES PRE-LECTORAS EN ESCUELAS URBANO Y URBANO-MARGINALES DE LA PROVINCIA DE MENDOZA-ARGENTINA

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    Yanina Canales Jara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En Argentina, las dificultades en la adquisición de la lectura se originan en diferencias lingüísticas asociadas al nivel sociocultural donde se desarrollan los niños. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar, en escolares de 4 y 5 años, la relación entre el nivel educativo y socioeconómico del hogar con habilidades lingüísticas precursoras de la lectura. Esta es una investigación de carácter cuantitativo y de profundidad comparativa. Se evaluaron 120 niños y niñas de salas de 4 y 5 años de Jardín de Infantes de escuelas urbanas (n= 60 y urbano-marginales (n= 60. El nivel socioeconómico del hogar y educativo de los padres se calculó a partir de datos de los registros escolares. En los niños y niñas se evaluó el nivel de vocabulario, conocimiento del nombre y sonido de la letra y conciencia fonológica. Se observó un efecto significativo de la zona sobre el nivel educativo de los padres y el socioeconómico. Se obtuvieron correlaciones positivas del nivel socioeconómico y educativo con el conocimiento del nombre y sonido de la letra. Ambas variables contextuales explicaron parte de la varianza en el conocimiento del nombre y sonido de las letras en niños y niñas de 4 años únicamente: 6% y 13% respectivamente. Los resultados sugieren que las variables contextuales influyen en el conocimiento alfabético pre-escolar que presentan los niños y las niñas y que la intervención pedagógica recibida en la escuela promueve el desarrollo de habilidades lingüísticas. Frente a contextos socioeconómicos heterogéneos, la educación escolar es una variable protectora que regula las desigualdades de orden social promoviendo el desarrollo de habilidades lingüísticas precursoras de la lectura al inicio de la escolaridad.

  18. Occurrence of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in household dogs from northern Parana Ocorrência de Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em cães domiciliados da região norte do Paraná

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    Gislaine Cristina Ferreira da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused primarily by Ehrlichia canis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis induced by Anaplasma platys are important emerging zoonotic tick-borne diseases of dogs. There is evidence that these pathogens can also affect humans. This study evaluated the presence of E. canis and A. platys in blood samples collected from 256 domiciled dogs in the municipality of Jataizinho, located in north region of the State of Parana, Brazil, by PCR assay. The occurrence of E. canis and A. platys was 16.4% (42/256 and 19.4% (49/256, respectively; while 5.47% (14/256 of the dogs evaluated were co-infected by these two organisms. The presence of E. canis and A. platys was not significantly associated with the variables evaluated (sex, age, outdoor access, and presence of ticks during blood collection. Infection of dogs by E. canis was associated with anemia and thrombocytopenia, while infection induced by A. platys was related only to thrombocytopenia. Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis should be included in the differential diagnoses when these hematological alterations are observed during routine laboratory evaluation of dogs.Erliquiose monocítica canina, causada principalmente por Ehrlichia canis, e anaplasmose trombocítica canina, devida a infecção com Anaplasma platys, são importantes doenças transmitidas por carrapatos que acometem os cães, com evidências que podem também acometer o homem. O presente estudo avaliou a ocorrência desses agentes em amostras de sangue de 256 cães domiciliados na cidade de Jataizinho, na região Norte do Paraná, Brasil, utilizando a técnica da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR. A ocorrência de E. canis e A. platys foi de 16,4% (42/256 e 19,4% (49/256, respectivamente, com 5,47% (14/256 dos animais apresentando coinfecção. Não foi observada associação significativa com as variáveis sexo, idade, acesso à rua e presença de carrapatos no momento da

  19. Detection of Borrelia lusitaniae, Rickettsia sp. IRS3, Rickettsia monacensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes ricinus collected in Madeira Island, Portugal.

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    de Carvalho, Isabel Lopes; Milhano, Natacha; Santos, Ana Sofia; Almeida, Victor; Barros, Silvia C; De Sousa, Rita; Núncio, Maria Sofia

    2008-08-01

    A total of 300 Ixodes ricinus ticks were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Sequence analysis demonstrated 8 (2.7%) ticks infected with B. lusitaniae, 60 (20%) with Rickettsia spp., and 1 (0.3%) with A. phagocytophilum. Seven (2.3%) ticks were coinfected with B. lusitaniae and Rickettsia spp., 2 (0.6%) with R. monacensis, and 5 (1.7%) with Rickettsia sp. IRS3. The results of this study suggest simultaneous transmission of multiple tick-borne agents on Madeira Island, Portugal.

  20. First report of Anaplasma platys infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum in foxes from Portugal.

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    Cardoso, Luís; Gilad, Matan; Cortes, Helder C E; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Simões, Margarida; Rodrigues, Paula A; Baneth, Gad

    2015-03-23

    The bacteria Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis and the protozoan Leishmania infantum are vector-borne agents that cause canine vector-borne diseases, some of which are zoonotic. The present survey investigated the prevalence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Leishmania in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal by molecular analysis, in order to evaluate the epidemiological role of these canids as reservoirs of infection. Blood and/or bone marrow samples were collected from 78 red foxes obtained in eight districts of northern, central and southern Portugal. Real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCR) amplified a 123 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. and a 265 bp fragment of the L. infantum internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) region of the rRNA operon evaluated by PCR-high resolution melt analysis (PCR-HRM), with sequencing of the DNA products. A phylogenetic analysis was carried out to compare these to other sequences from Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. deposited in GenBank. A. platys was detected in 10 (14.5%) and E. canis in two (2.9%) out of 69 foxes; and L. infantum was detected in one (1.3%) of the 78 foxes. The prevalence of A. platys was significantly different from the prevalence of E. canis (p=0.016) and from that of L. infantum (p=0.002). No co-infections were found in any one of the 78 foxes. No statistically significant differences were found between the type of sample (blood and bone marrow), geographic regions (north/centre and south), age (<2 years and ≥2 years) and gender for any one of the agents. This is the first known report of A. platys in red foxes worldwide, as well as the first molecular evidence of E. canis in foxes from Portugal. The moderate prevalence of A. platys suggests that red foxes may play a role in the epidemiology of infection with this bacterium and serve as a reservoir for domestic dogs.

  1. Association between Anaplasma phagocytophilum seroprevalence in dogs and distribution of Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus ticks in Latvia.

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    Berzina, Inese; Capligina, Valentina; Bormane, Antra; Pavulina, Agne; Baumanis, Viesturs; Ranka, Renate; Granta, Rita; Matise, Ilze

    2013-02-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been detected in ticks in Latvia; however, this is the first study to investigate this pathogen in dogs in Latvia. The aims of this study were: (i) to determine A. phagocytophilum seroprevalence in dogs, (ii) to correlate A. phagocytophilum seroprevalence in dogs with the geographic distribution of the tick species Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus, and (iii) to determine if seroprevalence for A. phagocytophilum is higher in dogs with clinical signs suggestive of canine granulocytic anaplasmosis (CGA). Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 3 dog groups: (i) clinically healthy dogs (HD, n=400), (ii) clinically healthy hunting dogs (HHD, n=41), and (iii) dogs with a clinical suspicion of anaplasmosis (SD, n=29). Sampling was carried out in regions inhabited by I. ricinus (IR), I. persulcatus (IP), and in regions where both tick species were present (M). SNAP 4Dx test (IDEXX) was used to detect antibodies against A. phagocytophilum in the blood of all dogs; nested PCR was performed in selected dogs of the SD group. Seroprevalence for A. phagocytophilum was calculated and correlated with the prevalent tick species in the region. A. phagocytophilum seroprevalence was 11.0% in HD, 12% in HHD, and 17% in SD with no significant differences among groups. In the IR region, seroprevalence was 12.5% (34/272) while seroprevalence in the M region was 17% (13/76), and both were significantly higher than the seroprevalence of 2% in the IP region (2/93; pLatvia is within the range reported from other European countries. CGA should be included in the differential list in Latvian dogs with appropriate clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities, especially in I. ricinus habitat areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Romania.

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    Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Matei, Ioana Adriana; Ionică, Angela Monica; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; D'Amico, Gianluca; Sikó-Barabási, Sándor; Ionescu, Dan Traian; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-10-08

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are one of the most widespread wild carnivores in the world, being recognized to harbor and transmit a wide range of vector-borne diseases. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato are zoonotic tick-borne pathogens causing emerging diseases. Wild animals play an essential role in the transmission of diseases and pathogens maintenance in nature. Epidemiological studies regarding the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in red foxes are of public health importance, as they may successfully act as a pathogen transmission interface between wildlife, domestic animals and humans. This study included 14 counties from Romania. A total number of 353 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were examined. Heart tissue samples were collected during necropsy and stored at -20 °C. Genomic DNA extraction was performed and all samples were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Specific primers for A. phagocytophilum, A. platys, E. canis and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were used. Sequence analysis was performed (Macrogen Europe, Amsterdam) and obtained sequences are available at GenBank™. Out of the 353 samples, 9 (2.55 %; 95 % CI: 1.25-4.96 %) were positive for A. phagocytophilum. Positive animals originated from 5 counties. In total, 5 out of 353 heart tissue samples (1.42 %; 95 % CI: 0.52-3.47 %) collected from red foxes were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. Red foxes originated from 4 counties. None of the samples were positive for A. platys or E. canis. No co-infection with A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. was found. This first report of A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. in red foxes from Romania suggests a limited role of foxes in the maintenance of the two related pathogens, but may represent a potential risk from a public health perspective.

  3. Isolation, propagation and preliminary characterisation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in the tick cell line IDE8.

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    Silaghi, Cornelia; Kauffmann, Melanie; Passos, Lygia M F; Pfister, Kurt; Zweygarth, Erich

    2011-12-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium causing granulocytic anaplasmosis in dogs, horses, and humans and tick-borne fever of ruminants. The bacterium has been detected in a variety of other mammals including wild ruminants without overt clinical signs of disease. Isolates in cell culture have been obtained from humans, dogs, horses, sheep, and ticks, but no strain from wild ruminants exists in cell culture in Europe. From September to November 2010, EDTA blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of 19 shot roe deer from a forest in southern Germany. The presence of specific A. phagocytophilum DNA was demonstrated with a real-time PCR targeting the msp2 gene in all 19 animals. Subsequently, blood cells were used to inoculate the tick cell line IDE8. The first infected IDE8 cells were detected in Giemsa-stained smears 57 days post inoculation. Only one roe deer yielded a positive culture which has been propagated for 9 consecutive passages thus far representing 228 days in culture. Further analysis of the A. phagocytophilum strain was performed by PCR followed by sequencing for the partial 16S rRNA, groEL, msp2, and msp4 genes. Phylogenetic topology of groEL and msp4 sequences placed the roe deer isolate in close proximity to sequences available from roe deer and goats from the neighbouring Alpine regions of Austria and Switzerland, and of msp2 with other ruminant species. This represents the first isolation of A. phagocytophilum in a tick cell line directly from an infected wild ruminant reservoir host, Capreolus capreolus, in Europe. The availability of a cultured A. phagocytophilum strain isolated from roe deer will allow us to study the biological characteristics and the pathogenic potential of this strain as well as to compare its host tropism and its genetic and antigenetic properties with those of other A. phagocytophilum strains from other animal species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and tick-transmitted bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in one selected goat farm in Slovakia.

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    Čobádiová, Andrea; Reiterová, Katarina; Derdáková, Markéta; Špilovská, Silvia; Turčeková, Ludmila; Hviščová, Ivana; Hisira, Vladimir

    2013-12-01

    Parasitic diseases of livestock together with poor welfare conditions can negatively affect the health status and production of small ruminants. Protozoan parasites and tick-borne infectious agents are common threat of livestock including small ruminants mostly during the pasture season. Therefore the priority of the study was to analyse the circulation and presence of two protozoan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum as well as tick-transmitted bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum in one selected goat farm in Eastern Slovakia. Throughout a three-year study period we have repeatedly screened the sera and blood of goats and dogs from monitored farm. In total, 343 blood serum samples from 116 goats were examined by ELISA. The mean seropositivity for T. gondii was 56.9% (66/116, CI (95%) = 48-66.0) and 15.5% (18/116, CI (95%) = 9.3-22.7) for N. caninum. The permanent occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma and anti-Neospora antibodies was detected in repeatedly examined goats during the whole monitored period. The presence of both parasites in the flock was analysed by PCR. DNA of T. gondii was confirmed in 12 out of 25 Toxoplasma-seropositive goats and N. caninum in 14 samples out of 18 Neospora-seropositive animals; four goats were co-infected with both pathogens. The risk of endogenous transmission of both parasites was pursued by examination of 41 kid's sera, where seropositivity for toxoplasmosis was 31.7% and for neosporosis 14.6%. In dogs 61.1% seropositivity for T. gondii and 38.9% for N. caninum was found, however, their faeces were negative for coccidian oocysts. Eight out of 108 tested animals were infected with A. phagocytophilum, the causative agent of tick-borne fever. Seven of them were simultaneously infected with T. gondii and A. phagocytophilum, out of which four goats were concurrently infected with all three pathogens.

  5. Major Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  6. Trouver la bonne distance : étrangère, marginale, ethnologue et parente en Corée du Sud

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    Élise Prébin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Trouver la bonne distance : étrangère, marginale, ethnologue et parente en Corée du Sud. Cet article a pour sujet ma relation à la société sud-coréenne, non seulement en tant qu’anthropologue mais aussi en tant que personne adoptée d’origine coréenne. Il relate la manière dont plusieurs sortes de relations ont dû être gérées pendant le terrain. Il a fallu d’un côté me rapprocher de mes informateurs pour pouvoir mener un terrain classique dans une société inconnue, comprendre une culture autre et traiter un sujet relevant des sciences sociales : le retour des adoptés étrangers dans leur pays d’origine. De l’autre, il a fallu établir une bonne distance avec ma famille biologique coréenne en m’en éloignant momentanément. Ma relation avec elle était en effet instable du fait qu’elle reposait sur une contradiction : mon statut d’étrangère en dépit de l’intimité que supposaient les liens du sang. Pourtant, cette relation continue entre ma famille biologique et moi-même a éclairé certaines ambiguïtés relatives au statut des adoptés dans la société sud-coréenne que le temps limité du terrain n’avait pas permis de saisir. Cet article ébauche donc une réflexion épistémologique sur la pertinence d’éléments biographiques dans le traitement anthropologique de certains sujets. Je montre en l’occurrence comment le don en mariage d’une fille biologique adoptée conjure de manière satisfaisante un don en adoption toujours problématique.Finding the right distance: stranger, marginal, ethnologist and relative in south Korea. The topic of this article is my relation to the South Korean society, not only as a social anthropologist but also as a Korean adoptee. I relate the way I had to manage contrasted relations while conducting fieldwork. On one hand, I endeavoured to get closer to my informants in order to conduct classic fieldwork in an unknown society, to understand a different culture

  7. Experimental infection and co-infection of dogs with Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis: hematologic, serologic and molecular findings

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    Diniz PPVP

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a ubiquitous tick responsible for transmitting Ehrlichia canis and most likely Anaplasma platys to dogs, as either single or co-infections. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of either simultaneous or sequential experimental infections with E. canis and A. platys on hematological and serological parameters, duration of infection, and efficacy of doxycycline therapy in dogs infected with one or both organisms. Six dogs per group were either uninfected, A. platys infected, E. canis infected, A. platys and E. canis co-infected, A. platys infected and E. canis challenged or E. canis infected and A. platys challenged at day 112 post-infection (PI. Doxycycline treatment was initiated at 211 days PI, followed by dexamethasone immunosuppression beginning 410 days PI. Results Initially, transient decreases in hematocrit occurred in all groups infected with E. canis, but the mean hematocrit was significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. All dogs except the controls developed marked thrombocytopenia after initial infection followed by gradually increased platelet counts by 112 days PI in groups with the single infections, while platelet counts remained significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. Both sequential and simultaneous infections of A. platys and E. canis produced an enhanced humoral immune response to A. platys when compared to infection with A. platys alone. Likewise, co-infection with E. canis and A. platys resulted in a more persistent A. platys infection compared to dogs infected with A. platys only, but nearly all A. platys infected dogs became A. platys PCR negative prior to doxycycline treatment. E. canis infected dogs, whether single or co-infected, remained thrombocytopenic and E. canis PCR positive in blood for 420 days. When treated with doxycycline, all E. canis infected dogs became E. canis PCR negative and the

  8. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and mouflon (Ovis musimon) in Germany.

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    Kauffmann, Melanie; Rehbein, Steffen; Hamel, Dietmar; Lutz, Walburga; Heddergott, Mike; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2017-02-01

    Infections with the tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. can cause febrile disease in several mammalian species, including humans. Wild ruminants in Europe are suggested to serve as reservoir hosts for particular strains or species of these pathogens. The aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and mouflon (Ovis musimon orientalis) in Germany, and the diversity and host association of genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia species. From 2009 to 2010, 364 spleen samples from 153 roe deer, 43 fallow deer and 168 mouflon from 13 locations in Germany were tested for DNA of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. by real-time PCR or conventional PCR, respectively. Variants of A. phagocytophilum were investigated with a nested PCR targeting the partial 16S rRNA gene, and species of piroplasms were identified by sequencing. DNA of A. phagocytophilum was detected in 303 (83.2%) samples: roe deer, 96.1% (147/153); fallow deer, 72.1% (31/43); and mouflon, 74.4% (125/168). Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA-PCR products revealed the presence of nine different genetic variants. DNA of Babesia spp. was found in 113 (31.0%) samples: roe deer, 62.8% (96/153); fallow deer, 16.3% (6/43); and mouflon, 6.5% (11/168). Babesia capreoli, Babesia sp. EU1 (referred to also as B. venatorum), B. odocoilei-like and a Theileria species were identified. Co-infections with A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. were detected in 30.0% of the animals which were tested positive for A. phagocytophilum and/or Babesia spp. Roe deer had a significantly higher percentage of co-infections (60.8%), followed by fallow deer (14.0%) and mouflon (6.5%). Thus, the results suggest that roe deer plays a key role in the endemic cycles of the pathogens investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence of the importance of host habitat use in predicting the dilution effect of wild boar for deer exposure to Anaplasma spp.

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    Agustín Estrada-Peña

    Full Text Available Foci of tick-borne pathogens occur at fine spatial scales, and depend upon a complex arrangement of factors involving climate, host abundance and landscape composition. It has been proposed that the presence of hosts that support tick feeding but not pathogen multiplication may dilute the transmission of the pathogen. However, models need to consider the spatial component to adequately explain how hosts, ticks and pathogens are distributed into the landscape. In this study, a novel, lattice-derived, behavior-based, spatially-explicit model was developed to test how changes in the assumed perception of different landscape elements affect the outcome of the connectivity between patches and therefore the dilution effect. The objective of this study was to explain changes in the exposure rate (ER of red deer to Anaplasma spp. under different configurations of suitable habitat and landscape fragmentation in the presence of variable densities of the potentially diluting host, wild boar. The model showed that the increase in habitat fragmentation had a deep impact on Habitat Sharing Ratio (HSR, a parameter describing the amount of habitat shared by red deer and wild boar, weighted by the probability of the animals to remain together in the same patch (according to movement rules, the density of ticks and the density of animals at a given vegetation patch, and decreased the dilution effect of wild boar on deer Anaplasma ER. The model was validated with data collected on deer, wild boar and tick densities, climate, landscape composition, host vegetation preferences and deer seropositivity to Anaplasma spp. (as a measure of ER in 10 study sites in Spain. However, although conditions were appropriate for a dilution effect, empirical results did not show a decrease in deer ER in sites with high wild boar densities. The model showed that the HSR was the most effective parameter to explain the absence of the dilution effect. These results suggest that host

  10. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in relation to the density of wild cervids

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    Paulauskas Algimantas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been considered as pathogens in animals and humans. The role of wild cervids in the epidemiology is not clear. We analyzed questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in spring for these pathogens from sites with high (Fjelløyvær and Strøm and low density (Tjore, Hinnebu and Jomfruland of wild cervids to study the spread of the pathogens in questing ticks. Methods For detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum a 77-bp fragment in the msp2 gene was used. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was performed using the FL6 and FL7 primers according to sequences of conserved regions of the fla gene. The OspA gene located on the linear 49-kb plasmid was used as target in multiplex PCR for genotyping. Genospecies-specific primers were used in the PCR for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii and B. garinii. Results Infection rates with Borrelia spp. were significantly lower at Fjelløyvær and Strøm compared to Tjore and Hinnebu; Fjelløyvær vs. Tjore (χ2 = 20.27, p 2 = 24.04, p 2 = 11.47, p = 0.0007 and Strøm vs. Hinnebu (χ2 = 16.63, p Borrelia genospecies were dominated by. B. afzelii (82% followed by B. garinii (9.7% and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (6.9%. B. burgdorferi s.s. was only found on the island of Jomfruland. The infection rate of Anaplasma phagocytophilum showed the following figures; Fjelløyvær vs Hinnebu (χ2 = 16.27, p = 0.0001; Strøm vs. Tjore (χ2 = 13.16, p = 0.0003; Strøm vs. Hinnebu (χ2 = 34.71, p 2 = 3.19, p = 0.0742 and Fjelløyvær vs. Støm (χ2 = 5.06, p = 0.0245. Wild cervids may serve as a reservoir for A. phagocytophilum. Jomfruland, with no wild cervids but high levels of migrating birds and rodents, harboured both B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum in questing I. ricinus ticks. Birds and rodents may play an important role in maintaining the pathogens on Jomfruland. Conclusion The high abundance of roe deer

  11. Surveillance for Ixodes pacificus and the tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi in birds from California's Inner Coast Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingler, Regina J; Wright, Stan A; Donohue, Ann M; Macedo, Paula A; Foley, Janet E

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the involvement of birds in the ecology of the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus, and its associated zoonotic bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, at two interior coast-range study sites in northern California. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA), and B. burgdorferi s.s., the agent of Lyme disease (LD), are tick-borne pathogens that are well established in California. We screened blood and ticks from 349 individual birds in 48 species collected in 2011 and 2012 using pathogen-specific PCR. A total of 617 immature I. pacificus was collected with almost three times as many larvae than nymphs. There were 7.5 times more I. pacificus at the Napa County site compared to the Yolo County site. Two of 74 (3%) nymphal pools from an Oregon junco (Junco hyemalis) and a hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) and 4 individual larvae (all from Oregon juncos) were PCR-positive for B. burgdorferi. Blood samples from a golden-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla) and a European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) were positive for A. phagocytophilum DNA at very low levels. Birds that forage on ground or bark and nest on the ground, as well as some migratory species, are at an increased risk for acquiring I. pacificus. Our findings show that birds contribute to the ecologies of LD and GA in California by serving as a blood-meal source, feeding and transporting immature I. pacificus, and sometimes as a source of Borrelia infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy of sarolaner in the prevention of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum transmission from infected Ixodes scapularis to dogs.

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    Honsberger, Nicole A; Six, Robert H; Heinz, Thomas J; Weber, Angela; Mahabir, Sean P; Berg, Thomas C

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis) to prevent transmission primarily of Borrelia burgdorferi and secondarily of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from infected wild-caught Ixodes scapularis to dogs was evaluated in a placebo-controlled laboratory study. Twenty-four purpose-bred laboratory Beagles seronegative for B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies were allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups: placebo administered orally on Days 0 and 7, or sarolaner at 2mg/kg administered orally on Day 0 (28 days prior to tick infestation) or on Day 7 (21 days prior to tick infestation). On Day 28, each dog was infested with approximately 25 female and 25 male wild caught adult I. scapularis that were determined to have prevalence of 57% for B. burgdorferi and 6.7% for A. phagocytophilum by PCR. In situ tick counts were conducted on Days 29 and 30. On Day 33, all ticks were counted and removed. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated based on the reduction of geometric mean live tick counts in the sarolaner-treated groups compared to the placebo-treated group for each tick count. Blood samples collected from each dog on Days 27, 49, 63, 77, 91 and 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum antibodies using the SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) Plus Test, and quantitatively assayed for B. burgdorferi antibodies using an ELISA test. Skin biopsies collected on Day 104 were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi by bacterial culture and PCR. Geometric mean live tick counts for placebo-treated dogs were 14.8, 12.8, and 19.1 on Days 29, 30, and 33, respectively. The percent reductions in mean live tick counts at 1, 2, and 5 days after infestation were 86.3%, 100%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 21 days prior to infestation, and 90.9%, 97.1%, and 100% for the group treated with sarolaner 28 days prior to infestation. Geometric mean live tick counts for both sarolaner-treated groups were significantly lower than those for the

  13. A serological survey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs in North America and the Caribbean as assessed by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. platys, Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and Borrelia burgdorferi species-specific peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Qurollo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tick-borne pathogens cause a spectrum of disease manifestations in both dogs and humans. Recognizing regional and temporal shifts in exposure are important as tick distributions change. To better delineate regional exposure to canine tick-borne pathogens, an expanded set of species-specific peptides were used to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Aph, Anaplasma platys (Apl, Ehrlichia canis (Ec, Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Ech, Ehrlichia ewingii (Eew, and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb antibodies in canine serum. Methods: Archived canine serum samples (n=6,582 collected during 2008–2010 and in 2012 from the US, Canada, and the Caribbean were retrospectively screened for antibodies against Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species-specific peptides. Overall, regional and temporal seroprevalence rates were determined. Results: Overall Bb and Eew were the most seroprevalent pathogens. During 2008–2010, seroprevalence rates increased overall for Aph and Ech, and regionally, Bb and Aph seroprevalence rates increased in the South. Canada had unexpectedly high seroprevalence rates for Ec and Apl. The most common co-exposures were Eew+Ech, followed by Aph+Bb and Eew+Bb. Conclusions: This study demonstrated significant shifts in canine vector-borne disease seroprevalence rates. The use of specific peptides facilitated improved geographic delineation of tick-borne pathogen distributions among dogs, which may enhance epidemiological surveillance of vector-borne pathogens shared by dogs and humans.

  14. Prevalence and first molecular characterization of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks attached to dogs from Egypt

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    Mohamed W. Ghafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene integrated with sequence analysis were performed to investigate the prevalence and the molecular identity of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Egyptian Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks attached to dogs. A total of 413 adult and nymphal R. sanguineus ticks were collected while attached to 72 free-roaming dogs from four locations (Imbaba, Boulaq, Haram, Monib in Giza Governorate, Egypt. DNA was successfully extracted from 401 specimens (133 nymphs and 268 adults. The overall prevalence rate was 13.7% and adult ticks showed a significantly higher infection rate (16.4% compared to nymphs (8.3%. Sequence comparisons of 218-bp showed that detected organism belongs to A. phagocytophilum. The sequence showed 99.1% similarity (2 nucleotide differences with some strains described as human pathogens and with that detected in the established tick vectors. Phylogenetic analysis placed the bacteria on a separate branch with that found in R. annulatus from Egypt (DQ379972 (99.5% similarity. Our variant strain was designated as A. phagocytophilum-Ghafar-EGY (AB608266. This report is the first molecular characterization of A. phagocytophilum in R. sanguineus in Egypt, suggesting that this tick species may act as a competent vector for a variant strain of human granulocytic anaplasmosis agent.

  15. Molecular Survey on Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, and Babesia spp. in Ixodes ricinus Ticks Infesting Dogs in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, Giulia; Gavaudan, Stefano; Canonico, Cristina; Ravagnan, Silvia; Olivieri, Emanuela; Diaferia, Manuela; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Antognoni, Maria Teresa; Capelli, Gioia; Silaghi, Cornelia; Veronesi, Fabrizia

    2017-11-01

    Dogs are a common feeding hosts for Ixodes ricinus and may act as reservoir hosts for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) and as carriers of infected ticks into human settings. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of several selected TBPs of significant public health concern by molecular methods in I. ricinus recovered from dogs living in urban and suburban settings in central Italy. A total of 212 I. ricinus specimens were collected from the coat of domestic dogs. DNA was extracted from each specimen individually and tested for Rickettsia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Babesia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, using real-time and conventional PCR protocols, followed by sequencing. Sixty-one ticks (28.8%) tested positive for TBPs; 57 samples were infected by one pathogen, while four showed coinfections. Rickettsia spp. was detected in 39 specimens (18.4%), of which 32 were identified as Rickettsia monacensis and seven as Rickettsia helvetica. Twenty-two samples (10.4%) tested positive for A. phagocytophilum; Borrelia lusitaniae and Borrelia afzelii were detected in two specimens and one specimen, respectively. One tick (0.5%) was found to be positive for Babesia venatorum (EU1). Our findings reveal the significant exposure of dogs to TBPs of public health concern and provide data on the role of dogs in the circulation of I. ricinus-borne pathogens in central Italy.

  16. Prevalence of Babesia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in hard ticks collected from meadows of Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern Poland

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    Dzięgiel Beata

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Babesia canis in adult females and males of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, inhabiting meadows near large forest complexes throughout the Lubelskie Voivodship (eastern region of Poland. Ticks were collected using the flagging method. Among 720 ticks collected, 506 were identified as D. reticulatus, and 214 as I. ricinus. DNA of B. canis and B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 21.3% and 0.6% of D. reticulatus ticks, respectively. In I. ricinus ticks, DNA specific to B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum was detected in 5.6% and 10.3%, respectively. Co-infections of B. burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum were found in two I. ricinus ticks. These results indicate that the Lublin region is an area at risk of tick-borne diseases of humans and animals, which must be considered in clinical practice.

  17. Coinfection of western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) and other sciurid rodents with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in California.

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    Nieto, Nathan C; Leonhard, Sarah; Foley, Janet E; Lane, Robert S

    2010-01-01

    Overlapping geographic distributions of tick-borne disease agents utilizing the same tick vectors are common, and coinfection of humans, domestic animals, wildlife, and ticks with both Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been frequently reported. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the prevalence of both B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (hereinafter referred to as B. burgdorferi) and A. phagocytophilum in several species of sciurid rodents from northern California, USA. Rodents were either collected dead as road-kills or live-trapped in four state parks from 13 counties. Thirty-seven western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus), nine nonnative eastern gray squirrels (S. carolinensis) and an eastern fox squirrel (S. niger), four Douglas squirrels (Tamiasciurus douglasii), and two northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serology for evidence of coinfection. Of the 14 individual S. griseus that were PCR-positive for B. burgdorferi, two (14%) also were PCR-positive for A. phagocytophilum and 11 (79%) had serologic evidence of A. phagocytophilum exposure. Two of the four Douglas squirrels were PCR positive for B. burgdorferi and seropositive to A. phagocytophilum. Evidence of coinfection with these zoonotic pathogens in western gray squirrels suggests that both bacteria may be maintained in a similar transmission cycle involving this sciurid and the western black-legged tick Ixodes pacificus, the primary bridging vector to humans in the far-western US.

  18. Molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens of the family Anaplasmataceae in Brazilian brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira, Fischer, 1814) and marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus, Illiger, 1815).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, J A G; Rabelo, E M L; Ribeiro, M F B

    2012-08-01

    Deer are important natural reservoir hosts of Anaplasmataceae. The present study used nested PCR and nucleotide sequencing to evaluate the occurrence of Anaplasmataceae species in 23 free-living and six captive specimens of the cervids Mazama gouazoubira and Blastocerus dichotomus in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Blood samples were tested for the presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp. using nPCR assays and sequencing of the msp4, msp1 and 16S rRNA genes. The identity of each sequence was confirmed by comparison with sequences available from GenBank using BLAST software. Of the animals investigated, 93.1% (27/29) were infected with haemoparasites including Anaplasma marginale (79.3%), Ehrlichia chaffeensis (3.4%), Anaplasma bovis (3.4%) and Anaplasma spp. (assigned to A. platys and A. phagocytophilum) (17.2%). Co-infection occurred in 20% (6/29) of the deer examined. Four (13.8%) were infected with A. marginale and Anaplasma sp., one (3.4%) was infected with A. marginale and E. chaffeensis, and one (3.4%) was infected with A. marginale and A. bovis. The results of the present study suggest that cross-protection does not occur in these deer. Immunological cross-reaction occurs when sera are tested diagnostically because these bacteria are closely related taxonomically, reinforcing the importance of molecular diagnosis followed by nucleotide sequencing. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Allocation of the transmission service cost with base in marginal costs of the transmission network expansion; Asignacion del costo del servicio de transmision con base en costos marginales de expansion de la red de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Casillas, Manuel E.; Nieva Gomez, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The transmission charges to the users must be completely defined in those systems where the restructuring has broken up the traditional functions of the companies; in order to introduce competition in the generation and commercialization segments of the electrical energy. The fundamentals of a method used are explained to assure the transmission service cases between their users. The method is based on the marginal expansion costs of the transmission network. Their more known applications have been in competitive markets of energy, in particular, where the energy price is the same one in all the localities. Nevertheless, it can be used under other forms of organization of the electrical industry. In order to illustrate results, the obtained ones from their application to the most important part of the transmission network of the Mexican system that operates interconnected, are presented. [Spanish] Los cargos de transmision a los usuarios deben estar completamente definidos en aquellos sistemas donde la reestructuracion ha desagregado las funciones tradicionales de las empresas; para introducir competencia en los segmentos de generacion y comercializacion de la energia electrica. Se explican los fundamentos de un metodo utilizado para asegurar los casos del servicio de transmision entre sus usuarios. El metodo se basa en los costos marginales de expansion de la red de transmision. Sus aplicaciones mas conocidas han sido en mercados competitivos de energia, en particular, donde el precio de la energia es el mismo en todas las localidades. Sin embargo, puede utilizarse bajo otras formas de organizacion de la industria electrica. Con el proposito de ilustrar resultados, se muestran los obtenidos de su aplicacion a la parte mas importante de la red de transmision del sistema mexicano que opera interconectada.

  20. Disaggregating Tropical Disease Prevalence by Climatic and Vegetative Zones within Tropical West Africa.

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    Carl S Beckley

    Full Text Available Tropical infectious disease prevalence is dependent on many socio-cultural determinants. However, rainfall and temperature frequently underlie overall prevalence, particularly for vector-borne diseases. As a result these diseases have increased prevalence in tropical as compared to temperate regions. Specific to tropical Africa, the tendency to incorrectly infer that tropical diseases are uniformly prevalent has been partially overcome with solid epidemiologic data. This finer resolution data is important in multiple contexts, including understanding risk, predictive value in disease diagnosis, and population immunity. We hypothesized that within the context of a tropical climate, vector-borne pathogen prevalence would significantly differ according to zonal differences in rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and vegetation condition. We then determined if these environmental data were predictive of pathogen prevalence. First we determined the prevalence of three major pathogens of cattle, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileria spp, in the three vegetation zones where cattle are predominantly raised in Ghana: Guinea savannah, semi-deciduous forest, and coastal savannah. The prevalence of A. marginale was 63%, 26% for Theileria spp and 2% for B. bigemina. A. marginale and Theileria spp. were significantly more prevalent in the coastal savannah as compared to either the Guinea savanna or the semi-deciduous forest, supporting acceptance of the first hypothesis. To test the predictive power of environmental variables, the data over a three year period were considered in best subsets multiple linear regression models predicting prevalence of each pathogen. Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc were assigned to the alternative models to compare their utility. Competitive models for each response were averaged using AICc weights. Rainfall was most predictive of pathogen prevalence, and EVI also contributed to A. marginale and B

  1. Determination of the Nucleotide Sequences of Heat Shock Operon groESL and the Citrate Synthase Gene (gltA) of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) platys for Phylogenetic and Diagnostic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuma, Hisashi; Fujii, Kaori; Okuda, Masaru; Onishi, Takafumi; Beaufils, Jean-Pierre; Raoult, Didier; Brouqui, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    The 1,670-bp nucleotide sequence of the heat shock operon groESL and the 1,236-bp sequence of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) platys were determined. The topology of the groEL- and gltA-based phylogenetic tree was similar to that derived from 16S rRNA gene analyses with distances. Both groESL- and gltA-based PCRs specific to A. platys were also developed based upon the alignment data. PMID:12204973

  2. Genome-wide Anaplasma phagocytophilum AnkA-DNA interactions are enriched in intergenic regions and gene promoters and correlate with infection-induced differential gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Stephen Dumler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular prokaryote, infects neutrophils and alters cardinal functions via reprogrammed transcription. Large contiguous regions of neutrophil chromosomes are differentially expressed during infection. Secreted A. phagocytophilum effector AnkA transits into the neutrophil or granulocyte nucleus to complex with DNA in heterochromatin across all chromosomes. AnkA binds to gene promoters to dampen cis-transcription and also has features of matrix attachment region (MAR-binding proteins that regulate three-dimensional chromatin architecture and coordinate transcriptional programs encoded in topologically-associated chromatin domains. We hypothesize that identification of additional AnkA binding sites will better delineate how A. phagocytophilum infection results in reprogramming of the neutrophil genome. Using AnkA-binding ChIP-seq, we showed that AnkA binds broadly throughout all chromosomes in a reproducible pattern, especially at: i intergenic regions predicted to be matrix attachment regions (MARs; ii within predicted lamina-associated domains; and iii at promoters ≤3,000 bp upstream of transcriptional start sites. These findings provide genome-wide support for AnkA as a regulator of cis-gene transcription. Moreover, the dominant mark of AnkA in distal intergenic regions known to be AT-enriched, coupled with frequent enrichment in the nuclear lamina, provides strong support for its role as a MAR-binding protein and genome re-organizer. AnkA must be considered a prime candidate to promote neutrophil reprogramming and subsequent functional changes that belie improved microbial fitness and pathogenicity.

  3. Are patients with erythema migrans who have leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum or tick-borne encephalitis virus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Strle

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis (LB, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA are endemic in central part of Slovenia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with erythema migrans (EM from this region, who have leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia (typical findings in HGA and in the initial phase of TBE but not in patients with LB are coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or with TBE virus, i.e. that cytopenia is a result of concomitant HGA or the initial phase of TBE. Comparison of clinical and laboratory findings for 67 patients with EM who disclosed leukopenia/thrombocytopenia with the corresponding results in sex- and age-matched patients with EM and normal blood cell counts revealed no differences. In addition, patients with typical EM and leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia tested negative for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to TBE virus by ELISA as well as for the presence of specific IgG antibodies to A. phagocytophilum antigens by IFA in acute and convalescent serum samples. Thus, none of 67 patients (95% CI: 0 to 5.3% with typical EM (the presence of this skin lesion attests for early Lyme borreliosis and is the evidence for a recent tick bite was found to be coinfected with A. phagocytophilum or had a recent primary infection with TBE virus. The findings in the present study indicate that in Slovenia, and probably in other European countries endemic for LB, TBE and HGA, patients with early LB are rarely coinfected with the other tick-transmitted agents.

  4. Are patients with erythema migrans who have leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum or tick-borne encephalitis virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strle, Franc; Bogovič, Petra; Cimperman, Jože; Maraspin, Vera; Ogrinc, Katarina; Rojko, Tereza; Stupica, Daša; Lusa, Lara; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Smrdel, Katja Strašek; Jelovšek, Mateja; Lotrič-Furlan, Stanka

    2014-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB), tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) are endemic in central part of Slovenia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with erythema migrans (EM) from this region, who have leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia (typical findings in HGA and in the initial phase of TBE but not in patients with LB) are coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or with TBE virus, i.e. that cytopenia is a result of concomitant HGA or the initial phase of TBE. Comparison of clinical and laboratory findings for 67 patients with EM who disclosed leukopenia/thrombocytopenia with the corresponding results in sex- and age-matched patients with EM and normal blood cell counts revealed no differences. In addition, patients with typical EM and leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia tested negative for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to TBE virus by ELISA as well as for the presence of specific IgG antibodies to A. phagocytophilum antigens by IFA in acute and convalescent serum samples. Thus, none of 67 patients (95% CI: 0 to 5.3%) with typical EM (the presence of this skin lesion attests for early Lyme borreliosis and is the evidence for a recent tick bite) was found to be coinfected with A. phagocytophilum or had a recent primary infection with TBE virus. The findings in the present study indicate that in Slovenia, and probably in other European countries endemic for LB, TBE and HGA, patients with early LB are rarely coinfected with the other tick-transmitted agents.

  5. Detecting and characterizing mixed infections with genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) by developing an ankA cluster-specific nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouglin, Maggy; Chagneau, Sophie; Faille, Frédéric; Verheyden, Hélène; Bastian, Suzanne; Malandrin, Laurence

    2017-08-07

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-transmitted Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium able to infect a wide variety of wild and domestic animals worldwide. Based on the genetic diversity observed with different molecular markers, several host-specific lineages have been identified. Roe deer is one of the most important reservoirs of this bacterium and hosts different genetic groups sometimes found on domestic animals. We therefore developed an ankA cluster-specific nested PCR (nPCR) to evaluate the prevalence of the three different ankA genetic groups described in roe deer (clusters II, III and IV) at three locations in France and the level of co-infections. The specificity of the three nPCRs was assessed by partially sequencing 35 amplicons of ankA genes obtained from the different nested PCRs. All three genetic lineages were detected in roe deer from all three geographical locations. Of the infected deer population, 60.7% were co-infected by two or three different genetic variants. Co-infections varied from 42.9 to 70.6% of the infected population depending on the local infection prevalences (from 33.3 to 73.9%). All types of mixed infections occurred, suggesting the absence of a strict variant exclusion by another variant. Mixed infections by two or three genetic variants of A. phagocytopilum are a common feature in roe deer. Genetic variants (cluster IV) also found in domestic ruminants (cattle and sheep) were present in all the roe deer populations analyzed, suggesting a shared epidemiological cycle.

  6. Anaplasma phagocytophilum increases the levels of histone modifying enzymes to inhibit cell apoptosis and facilitate pathogen infection in the tick vector Ixodes scapularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Alberdi, Pilar; Ayllón, Nieves; Valdés, James J; Pierce, Raymond; Villar, Margarita; de la Fuente, José

    2016-04-02

    Epigenetic mechanisms have not been characterized in ticks despite their importance as vectors of human and animal diseases worldwide. The objective of this study was to characterize the histones and histone modifying enzymes (HMEs) of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis and their role during Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. We first identified 5 histones and 34 HMEs in I. scapularis in comparison with similar proteins in model organisms. Then, we used transcriptomic and proteomic data to analyze the mRNA and protein levels of I. scapularis histones and HMEs in response to A. phagocytophilum infection of tick tissues and cultured cells. Finally, selected HMEs were functionally characterized by pharmacological studies in cultured tick cells. The results suggest that A. phagocytophilum manipulates tick cell epigenetics to increase I. scapularis p300/CBP, histone deacetylase, and Sirtuin levels, resulting in an inhibition of cell apoptosis that in turn facilitates pathogen infection and multiplication. These results also suggest that a compensatory mechanism might exist by which A. phagocytophilum manipulates tick HMEs to regulate transcription and apoptosis in a tissue-specific manner to facilitate infection, but preserving tick fitness to guarantee survival of both pathogens and ticks. Our study also indicates that the pathogen manipulates arthropod and vertebrate cell epigenetics in similar ways to inhibit the host response to infection. Epigenetic regulation of tick biological processes is an essential element of the infection by A. phagocytophilum and the study of the mechanisms and principal actors involved is likely to provide clues for the development of anti-tick drugs and vaccines.

  7. A comparative study of clinical manifestations, haematological and serological responses after experimental infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in two Norwegian sheep breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandstedt Karin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been questioned if the old native Norwegian sheep breed, Old Norse Sheep (also called Norwegian Feral Sheep, normally distributed on coastal areas where ticks are abundant, is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds due to a continuously high selection pressure on pasture. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis in an experimental infection study. Methods Five-months-old lambs of two Norwegian sheep breeds, Norwegian White (NW sheep and Old Norse (ON sheep, were experimentally infected with a 16S rRNA genetic variant of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (similar to GenBank accession number M73220. The experiment was repeated for two subsequent years, 2008 and 2009, with the use of 16 lambs of each breed annually. Ten lambs of each breed were inoculated intravenously each year with 0.4 ml A. phagocytophilum-infected blood containing approximately 0.5 × 106 infected neutrophils/ml. Six lambs of each breed were used as uninfected controls. Half of the primary inoculated lambs in each breed were re-challenged with the same infectious dose at nine (2008 and twelve (2009 weeks after the first challenge. The clinical, haematological and serological responses to A. phagocytophilum infection were compared in the two sheep breeds. Results The present study indicates a difference in fever response and infection rate between breeds of Norwegian sheep after experimental infection with A. phagocytophilum. Conclusion Although clinical response seems to be less in ON-lambs compared to NW-lambs, further studies including more animals are needed to evaluate if the ON-breed is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds.

  8. Serological detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis antibodies and Dirofilaria immitis antigen in a countrywide survey in dogs in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Friederike; Schaper, Roland; Schunack, Bettina; Połozowski, Andrzej; Piekarska, Jolanta; Szwedko, Aleksandra; Jodies, Robert; Kowalska, Dagmara; Schüpbach, Dörte; Pantchev, Nikola

    2014-09-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of attention in the past few years. Nevertheless, in many parts of Europe information on their occurrence is still scarce. In a large study in Poland 3,094 serum samples taken from dogs throughout all 16 Polish provinces were tested using a commercial kit for the detection of circulating antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis and of Dirofilaria immitis antigen. A total of 12.31% (381/3,094; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.18-13.52%) and 3.75% (116/3,094; 95% CI: 3.11-4.48%) of the dogs were positive for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. antibodies, respectively. Furthermore, 0.26% (8/3,094; 95% CI: 0.11-0.51%) were positive for E. canis antibodies and 0.16% (5/3,094; 95% CI: 0.05-0.38%) for D. immitis antigen. The highest percentages of A. phagocytophilum-positive dogs were noted in Lesser Poland, Silesia and Łódź Provinces. For B. burgdorferi s.l., the highest prevalence was recorded in Łódź Province. Co-infections with A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. were recorded in 1.71% of all examined dogs (53/3,094; 95% CI: 1.29-2.23%). One dog even had a triple infection, testing positive for E. canis too. Both A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. have previously been reported in Poland and were confirmed in the present study by positive samples from all 16 provinces. Concerning E. canis and D. immitis travel history or importation cannot be excluded as factors which may have determined the occurrence of these pathogens in the relevant animals. Practitioners in Poland should be aware of the above mentioned CVBDs and of prophylactic measures to protect dogs and their owners.

  9. Are Apodemus spp. mice and Myodes glareolus reservoirs for Borrelia miyamotoi, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Rickettsia helvetica, R. monacensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, C; Schumann, O; Schumann, C; Gern, L

    2014-04-01

    In Europe, in addition to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus, other zoonotic pathogens, like B. miyamotoi, a species related to the relapsing fever spirochaetes, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (N. mikurensis), Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported in the ixodid tick Ixodes ricinus. No study was conducted to identify reservoir hosts for these pathogens. Here, we investigated the role played by wild rodents in the natural transmission cycle of B. miyamotoi, N. mikurensis, R. helvetica, R. monacensis, and A. phagocytophilum in Switzerland. In 2011 and 2012, small mammals were captured in an area where these pathogens occur in questing ticks. Ixodes ricinus ticks infesting captured small mammals were analysed after their moult by PCR followed by reverse line blot to detect the different pathogens. Xenodiagnostic larvae were used to evaluate the role of rodents as reservoirs and analysed after their moult. Most of the 108 captured rodents (95.4%) were infested by I. ricinus ticks; 4.9%, 3.9%, 24.0%, and 0% of the rodents were infested by Borrelia, N. mikurensis, Rickettsia spp., and A. phagocytophilum-infected larvae, respectively. Borrelia afzelii, B. miyamotoi, N. mikurensis, Rickettsia spp., and A. phagocytophilum were detected in 2.8%, 0.17%, 2.6%, 6.8%, and 0% of the ticks attached to rodents, respectively. Borrelia afzelii was transmitted by 4 rodents to 41.2% of the xenodiagnostic ticks, B. miyamotoi by 3 rodents to 23.8%, and N. mikurensis was transmitted by 6 rodents to 41.0% of the xenodiagnostic ticks. None of the tested rodent transmitted Rickettsia spp. or A. phagocytophilum to I. ricinus xenodiagnostic larvae. This study showed that rodents are reservoir hosts for B. miyamotoi and N. mikurensis in Europe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. El nivel educativo y socioeconómico del hogar y habilidades pre-lectoras en escuelas urbano y urbano-marginales de la provincia de Mendoza-Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanina Canales, Jara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available En Argentina, las dificultades en la adquisición de la lectura se originan en diferencias lingüísticas asociadas al nivel sociocultural donde se desarrollan los niños. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar, en escolares de 4 y 5 años, la relación entre el nivel educativo y socioeconómico del hogar con habilidades lingüísticas precursoras de la lectura. Esta es una investigación de carácter cuantitativo y de profundidad comparativa. Se evaluaron 120 niños y niñas de salas de 4 y 5 años de Jardín de Infantes de escuelas urbanas (n= 60 y urbano-marginales (n= 60. El nivel socioeconómico del hogar y educativo de los padres se calculó a partir de datos de los registros escolares. En los niños y niñas se evaluó el nivel de vocabulario, conocimiento del nombre y sonido de la letra y conciencia fonológica. Se observó un efecto significativo de la zona sobre el nivel educativo de los padres y el socioeconómico. Se obtuvieron correlaciones positivas del nivel socioeconómico y educativo con el conocimiento del nombre y sonido de la letra. Ambas variables contextuales explicaron parte de la varianza en el conocimiento del nombre y sonido de las letras en niños y niñas de 4 años únicamente: 6% y 13% respectivamente. Los resultados sugieren que las variables contextuales influyen en el conocimiento alfabético pre-escolar que presentan los niños y las niñas y que la intervención pedagógica recibida en la escuela promueve el desarrollo de habilidades lingüísticas. Frente a contextos socioeconómicos heterogéneos, la educación escolar es una variable protectora que regula las desigualdades de orden social promoviendo el desarrollo de habilidades lingüísticas precursoras de la lectura al inicio de la escolaridad.

  11. Longitudinal field study on bovine Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections during a grazing season in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Lempereur, Laetitia; Lebrun, Maude; Cuvelier, Pascale; Sepult, Geraldine; Caron, Yannick; Saegerman, Claude; Shiels, Brian; Losson, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Anaplasmosis and babesiosis are major tick-borne diseases with a high economic impact but are also a public health concern. Blood samples collected in the spring, summer, and autumn of 2010 from 65 cows in seven different farms in Belgium were monitored with an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test to assess seroprevalence against these pathogens. Seroprevalences to Babesia spp. were measured as 10.7%, 20%, and 12.3% in spring, summer, and autumn, respectively, whereas seroprevalences to ...

  12. Prevalencia de trastornos mentales comunes en barrios marginales urbanos con población desplazada en Colombia The prevalence of common mental disorders in urban slums with displaced persons in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Puertas

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Investigar la prevalencia de trastornos mentales comunes en grupos con un alto porcentaje de familias desplazadas que viven en barrios marginales urbanos en Sincelejo (Sucre, Colombia. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal con muestreo aleatorio bietápico por conglomerados en barrios considerados marginales de Sincelejo que contienen un alto porcentaje de población desplazada. Se realizó una encuesta domiciliaria para determinar la presencia de trastornos mentales comunes -trastornos psicosomáticos, ansiedad y depresión- en la población estudiada. Se fijó como valor discriminatorio para determinar la presencia de un trastorno mental común en personas de 18 años o más una puntuación de 7 en las 20 primeras preguntas del Cuestionario de declaración de síntomas (Self-Reporting Questionnaire, SRQ de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se buscaron asociaciones entre las variables recogidas (grupo de edad, sexo, tipo de carné sanitario y tiempo de residencia en el barrio, y entre ellas y la puntuación obtenida en el SRQ. Se utilizó la prueba de ji al cuadrado, con un valor de significación estadística de 0,05, y se realizó una regresión logística con todas las variables relacionadas. RESULTADOS: Se encontró una prevalencia de 27,2% (intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC95%]: 24,0% a 30,0% de trastornos mentales comunes en la población adulta de los barrios estudiados. En general, 13,6% (IC95%: 11,4% a 16,1% de la población encuestada reconoció tener problemas de consumo excesivo de alcohol. Se encontró una asociación entre la prevalencia de trastornos mentales comunes y el tipo de carné usado para acceder a la atención de salud (razón de posibilidades [RP]: 1,66 para el carné de desplazado frente a cualquiera de los otros dos y el sexo (RP: 1,78 para mujeres frente a hombres; dicha asociación persistió aun después del ajuste en función de las demás variables explicativas. CONCLUSIÓN: La prevalencia

  13. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depressive Episode Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Major Depression Definitions Major depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the United States. For some individuals, major depression can result in severe impairments that interfere with ...

  14. Immunisation of smallholder dairy cattle against anaplasmosis and babesiosis in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Lawrence, J. A.; Kafuwa, P. T.

    1997-01-01

    A field study was conducted in the Southern Region of Malawi to evaluate the possible benefits of immunisation of improved dairy cattle against Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis. Friesian crossbred heifers were immunised when they were being reared on Government farms. They ...... disease as compared to only 3/28 vaccinates....

  15. Molecular approaches to detect and study the organisms causing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review will summarise the molecular approaches used to detect and analyse the genomes of Babesia bovis, B. bigemina and Anaplasma marginale which cause bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. These tick borne diseases are widely distributed in Africa, Asia, Australia, and Central and South America and for ...

  16. Tick- and fly-borne bacteria in ungulates: the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, haemoplasmas and rickettsiae in water buffalo and deer species in Central Europe, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; Sugár, László; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; de la Fuente, José; Horváth, Gábor; Kovács, Tibor; Micsutka, Attila; Gönczi, Enikő; Flaisz, Barbara; Takács, Nóra; Farkas, Róbert; Meli, Marina L; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2018-03-20

    Hunting constitutes an important industry in Europe. However, data on the prevalence of vector-borne bacteria in large game animal species are lacking from several countries. Blood or spleen samples (239 and 270, respectively) were taken from red, fallow and roe deer, as well as from water buffaloes, mouflons and wild boars in Hungary, followed by DNA extraction and molecular analyses for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, haemoplasmas and rickettsiae. Based on blood samples, the prevalence rate of A. phagocytophilum infection was significantly higher in red deer (97.9%) than in fallow deer (72.7%) and roe deer (60%), and in all these compared to mouflons (6.3%). In addition, 39.2% of the spleen samples from wild boars were PCR positive for A. phagocytophilum, but none of the buffalos. Based on blood samples, the prevalence rates of both Mycoplasma wenyonii (Mw) and 'Candidatus M. haemobos' (CMh) infections were significantly higher in buffaloes (Mw: 91.2%; CMh: 73.3%) than in red deer (Mw: 64.6%; CMh: 45.8%), and in both of them compared to fallow deer (Mw: 30.3%; CMh: 9.1%) and roe deer (Mw: 20%; CMh: 1.5%). The prevalence of Mw and CMh infection significantly correlated with the body sizes of these hosts. Furthermore, Mw was significantly more prevalent than CMh in buffaloes, red and roe deer. Mycoplasma ovis was detected in mouflons, M. suis in wild boars, R. helvetica in one fallow deer and one mouflon, and an unidentified Rickettsia sp. in a fallow deer. Forest-dwelling game animal species were found to be important carriers of A. phagocytophilum. In contrast, animals grazing grassland (i.e. buffaloes) were less likely to get infected with this Ixodes ricinus-borne pathogen. Water buffaloes, deer species, mouflons and wild boars harbored haemoplasmas that may affect domestic ungulates. Evaluated animals with larger body size had significantly higher prevalence of infection with haemoplasmas compared to smaller deer species. The above host species rarely carried

  17. Detection and quantification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in Ixodes ricinus ticks from urban and rural environment, northern Poland, by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stańczak, Joanna; Cieniuch, Stella; Lass, Anna; Biernat, Beata; Racewicz, Maria

    2015-05-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. are emerging tick-borne pathogens which can threaten human health. A duplex real-time PCR and qPCRs with primers and probes targeting 97 and 116 bp fragments of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes, respectively, were used for qualitative and quantitative detection of both pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks. Altogether 1875 ticks (1084 adults and 791 nymphs) were collected from rural and urban habitats in northern Poland. Of them, at least 0.9% were found to be infected with A. phagocytophilum while 2.5% with Babesia spp. A comparison of the infection rates by the tick stage, the type of area, the collection site, habitats of different tick density and by the month of collection was done. The prevalence of pathogens was significantly lower in nymphs than in adult ticks (p = 0.02) and in rural areas than in urban areas (p = 0.007). Four different 16S rRNA gene variants of A. phagocytophilum were determine, however none of them showed 100% identity with compared sequences isolated from human patients. The dominant Babesia species was B. venatorum. Results of qPCRs with circular and linearized forms of plasmids used as the standards showed significant difference in the pathogen loads (p = 0.001). The copy numbers of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. estimated from the linear plasmids were 28.7 and 5.1 times lower, respectively, when compared with their circular forms, and were accepted as more reliable. The average number of copies of 16S rRNA gene of A. phagocytophilum in the positive I. ricinus samples were 3.39 × 10(5) ± 6.09 × 10(5). The mean copy number of 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp. was ~2.55 × 10(5) ± 1.04 × 10(6). We confirmed the presence of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in I. ricinus in both rural and urban environments. The determined low infection rates suggests, however, that the risk for local population and tourists to acquire infection is also low. Moreover, we confirmed recent findings that serious

  18. Major Sport Venues

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Major Public Venues dataset is composed of facilities that host events for the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Indy Racing League, Major League...

  19. Prospects after Major Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. After patients survived major trauma, their prospects, in terms of the consequences for functioning, are uncertain, which may impact severely on patient, family and society. The studies in this thesis describes the long-term outcomes of severe injured patients after major trauma. In

  20. A major safety overhaul

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.

  1. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  2. Longitudinal study of risk factors for anaplasmosis and transplacental transmission in herd cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale, bacteria that occurs in tropical and subtropical areas throughout the world, is responsible for causing a disease that is one of the most constraint to cattle production in many countries. The present work aimed to investigate potential risk factors for anaplasmosis and the occurrence of transplacental transmission by molecular and serological assays in cattle. A total of 22 calves were randomly sampled and monitored during four years; the presence of infection/exposure to A. marginale was assessed by a semi-nested PCR assay targeting msp-5 gene of A. marginale, indirect ELISA for detection of IgG antibodies to A. marginale and blood smears. The A. marginale infection prevalence data were analyzed in relation to risk factors, using chi-squared, odds ratio and multiple logistic regressions. DNA amplification results revealed a frequency of infection with A. marginale of 41% (9/22 in the newborn calves before colostrum suckling. However, only 14% (3/22 of newborn calves were seropositive for A. marginale. All calves were positive to A. marginale by PCR and microscopic examination of blood smears before the two and fourth month of age, respectively. The main risk factors associated with seroprevalence were breed (OR=36.2, tick infestation (OR=3.44 and stocking density (OR=3.28. The results indicated that exposure of cattle to A. marginale was common in dairy herds and endemic instability situation probably is due to inadequate antibody production in cows or genetic variability of pathogen. This study still demonstrated that in addition to transmission of A. marginale by ticks and flies, the transplacental transmission is very important and should be the target of disease control programs in Brazil.

  3. Bovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne pathogens in cattle of the Galapagos Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, G V; Vinueza, R L; Marsot, M; Devillers, E; Cruz, M; Petit, E; Boulouis, H J; Moutailler, S; Monroy, F; Coello, M A; Gondard, M; Bournez, L; Haddad, N; Zanella, G

    2018-03-22

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the species of Anaplasma spp. and estimate its prevalence in cattle of the three main cattle-producing Galapagos Islands (Santa Cruz, San Cristóbal and Isabela) using indirect PCR assays, genetic sequencing and ELISA. Ticks were also collected from cattle and scanned for 47 tick-borne pathogens in a 48 × 48 real-time PCR chip. A mixed effects logistic regression was performed to identify potential risk factors explaining Anaplasma infection in cattle. A. phagocytophilum was not detected in any of the tested animals. Genetic sequencing allowed detection of A. platys-like strains in 11 (36.7%) of the 30 Anaplasma spp.-positive samples analysed. A. marginale was widespread in the three islands with a global between-herd prevalence of 100% [89; 100] 95% CI and a median within-herd prevalence of 93%. A significant association was found between A. marginale infection and age with higher odds of being positive for adults (OR = 3.3 [1.2; 9.9] 95% Bootstrap CI ). All collected ticks were identified as Rhipicephalus microplus. A. marginale, Babesia bigemina, Borrelia theileri and Francisella-like endosymbiont were detected in tick pools. These results show that the Galapagos Islands are endemic for A. marginale. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. [Major's and Schirmer's Gaustad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvattum, Mari

    2016-07-01

    The psychiatrist Herman Wedel Major planned Gaustad asylum in collaboration with his brother-in-law, the architect Heinrich Ernst Schirmer. The planning of Gaustad took place in parallel with the preparation of the first Norwegian Mental Health Act, adopted by the Storting on 30 July 1848, and Gaustad's architecture provides a good illustration of the ideals behind the mental health reform of the 19th century. In particular, Major's and Schirmer's Gaustad represents a break with Frederik Holst's ideal of the panoptic institution. Whereas Holst and his architect Christian Heinrich Grosch promoted a radial plan institution based on the type used for penitentiaries, Schirmer and Major designed a modern, pavilion-style hospital with wards placed independently in the landscape.

  5. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  6. Prehabilitation Before Major Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson Francis

    2018-01-01

    Prehabilitation is a new term for preoperative rehabilitation before major surgery. Some authors use the short form 'Prehab', though it is not so widely used. Prehabilitation involves measures to improve the physical, physiological, metabolic and psychosocial reserves in preparation for an elective surgery. This involves exercise, nutrition, education and psychosocial interventions.

  7. Major New Initiatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Major New Initiatives. Multi-party multi-rate video conferencing OOPS. Live Lecture OOPS. Rural ATM Machine Vortex. Finger print detection HP-IITM. Medical Diagnostic kit NeuroSynaptic. LCD projection system TeNeT. Web Terminal MeTeL Midas. Entertainment ...

  8. Major SSC tunneling begins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    In Texas, work has been completed on the first on the Superconducting Supercollider's major shafts. Now a boring machine has started driving the fifty-four mile elliptical accelerator tunnel. To date, contracts let for the tunnel have come in far below preliminary estimates. Five of the main fourteen foot diameter tunnel contracts have been awarded for a total of 107.4 million dollars, about forty million dollars below estimates. These contracts represent %60 percent of the total tunneling project

  9. The risk of exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Babesia sp. and co-infections in Ixodes ricinus ticks on the territory of Niepołomice forest (southern Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asman, Marek; Nowak, Magdalena; Cuber, Piotr; Strzelczyk, Joanna; Szilman, Ewa; Szilman, Piotr; Trapp, Gizela; Siuda, Krzysztof; Solarz, Krzysztof; Wiczkowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Niepołomice Forest is located about 20 kilometers east of Cracow (Malopolska province, southern Poland). Its natural and touristic values, as well as wide range of hosts occurring within indicate this to be an area of high risk of exposure to Ixodes ricinus and tick-borne diseases it transfers. I. ricinus is a common species in Poland and Europe. Its seasonal activity begins in Poland in the early spring, and ends with late autumn. A total number of 129 specimens of I. ricinus was collected by flagging in Niepołomice Forest. DNA was isolated by ammonia method from 30 randomly-selected individuals. PCR was used to detect tick-borne pathogens with primers specific for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Babesia sp. Molecular studies confirmed the presence of all three pathogens in I. ricinus. A. phagocytophilum was found in 76.7%, Babesia sp., 60%, B. burgdorferi s. l., in 3.3% of studied ticks. A. phagocytophilum co-infection with Babesia sp., was found in 46.7% of the specimens. A co-infection of all three tested pathogens was recorded in one case (3.3%). In Poland the problem of tick-borne diseases is a growing issue, therefore people residing in southern Polish touristic areas should be informed about the prevention and protection against ticks.

  10. Ramadan major dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest.

  11. The Ursa Major supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    An optical and a radio survey have been carried out. The optical observations consist of a spectroscopic survey in which redshift data for cluster galaxies and optical identifications of radio sources were obtained with the 98-inch Isaac Newton telescope at the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and the 200-inch Hale telescope; the photographic survey in B, V and R colors was made with the 48-inch Schmidt telescope at Palomar. Some results on the galaxy distribution in the Ursa Major supercluster are briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Securing Major Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeoef, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    When asked why the IAEA should provide nuclear security support to countries that organize large public events, Nuclear Security Officer Sophia Miaw answers quickly and without hesitation. ''Imagine any major public event such as the Olympics, a football championship, or an Expo. If a dirty bomb were to be exploded at a site where tens of thousands of people congregate, the radioactive contamination would worsen the effects of the bomb, increase the number of casualties, impede a rapid emergency response, and cause long term disruption in the vicinity,'' she said. Avoiding such nightmarish scenarios is the driving purpose behind the assistance the IAEA offers States that host major sporting or other public events. The support can range from a single training course to a comprehensive programme that includes threat assessment, training, loaned equipment and exercises. The type and scope of assistance depends on the host country's needs. ''We incorporate nuclear security measures into their security plan. We don't create anything new,'' Miaw said

  13. Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Grobler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment guideline draws on several international guidelines: (iPractice Guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association (APAfor the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, SecondEdition;[1](ii Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of DepressiveDisorders by the Canadian Psychiatric Association and the CanadianNetwork for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT;[2](iiiNational Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines;[3](iv RoyalAustralian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Clinical PracticeGuidelines Team for Depression (RANZCAP;[4](v Texas MedicationAlgorithm Project (TMAP Guidelines;[5](vi World Federation ofSocieties of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP Treatment Guideline forUnipolar Depressive Disorder;[6]and (vii British Association forPsychopharmacology Guidelines.[7

  14. Molecular detection of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa in cervids and wild boars from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André; Parreira, Ricardo; Nunes, Mónica; Casadinho, Afonso; Vieira, Maria Luísa; Campino, Lenea; Maia, Carla

    2016-05-10

    Wildlife can act as reservoir of different tick-borne pathogens, such as bacteria, parasites and viruses. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance in cervids and wild boars from the Centre and South of Portugal. One hundred and forty one blood samples from free-ranging ungulates including 73 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 65 wild boars (Sus scrofa) and three fallow deer (Dama dama) were tested for the presence of Anaplasma marginale/A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp., Babesia/Theileria spp., Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) (s.l.), and Rickettsia spp. DNA by PCR. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in 33 (43.4 %) cervids (31 red deer and two fallow deer) and in two (3.1 %) wild boars while Theileria spp. were found in 34 (44.7 %) cervids (32 red deer and two fallow deer) and in three (4.6 %) wild boar blood samples. Sequence analysis of msp4 sequences identified A. marginale, A. ovis, while the analysis of rDNA sequence data disclosed the presence of A. platys and A. phagocytophilum and T. capreoli and Theileria sp. OT3. Anaplasma spp./Theileria spp. mixed infections were found in 17 cervids (22.4 %) and in two wild boars (3.1 %). All samples were negative for Babesia sp., B. burgdorferi (s.l.), Ehrlichia sp. or Rickettsia sp. This is the first detection of Anaplasma marginale, A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, A. platys, Theileria capreoli and Theileria sp. OT3 in cervids and wild boars from Portugal. Further studies concerning the potential pathogenicity of the different species of  Anaplasma and Theileria infecting wild ungulates, the identification of their vector range, and their putative infectivity to domestic livestock and humans should be undertaken.

  15. Investigação molecular de Ehrlichia spp. e Anaplasma platys em felinos domésticos: alterações clínicas, hematológicas e bioquímicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete S Correa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia sp. e Anaplasma platys são micro-organismos Gram negativos, parasitos intracelulares obrigatórios, residindo em vacúolos citoplasmáticos de leucócitos e plaquetas, encontrados no sangue periférico ou em tecidos. Poucos relatos têm sido feitos sobre erliquiose e anaplasmose em gatos no Brasil, os quais são baseados na presença de mórulas em leucócitos e plaquetas, ou pela detecção de anticorpos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a infecção natural por Ehrlichia sp. e A.platys em gatos no Município de Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ, através da hematoscopia e pela detecção do DNA desses agentes. Foram utilizadas amostras de sangue total e de soro de 91 gatos, independente de raça, sexo e idade. Realizaram-se hemograma, bioquímica sérica e PCR, utilizando oligonucleotídes para Ehrlichia sp. e A.platys. Os dados de hematoscopia mostraram que 9,89% dos gatos apresentaram mórulas em macroplaquetas. O DNA de A.platys foi detectado em 13,18% dos 91 animais e em 44,44% das amostras positivas à hematoscopia. O DNA de Ehrlichia sp. não foi detectado em nenhuma amostra. Nenhuma alteração foi observada nos sinais clínicos nem nos resultados laboratoriais nos animais estudados. Os dados sugerem que os felinos domésticos podem atuar como potenciais reservatórios para A. platys, como forma não sintomática das enfermidades relacionadas

  16. Weaving History through the Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  17. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non–STEM Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students—including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences—if any exist—between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non–STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non–STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non–STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non–STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non–STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse—with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills—than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. PMID:28798210

  18. Interdisciplinary Project Experiences: Collaboration between Majors and Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarkusky, Debra L.; Toman, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Students in computer science and information technology should be engaged in solving real-world problems received from government and industry as well as those that expose them to various areas of application. In this paper, we discuss interdisciplinary project experiences between majors and non-majors that offered a creative and innovative…

  19. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non-STEM Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students-including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences-if any exist-between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non-STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non-STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non-STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non-STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse-with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills-than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. © 2017 S. Cotner et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. Major depression with psychotic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... depression References American Psychiatric Association. Major depressive disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013; ...

  1. Majorization and extremal PH distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Q.M.; Zhang, H.; Vera, J.C.; Latouche, G.; Ramaswami, V.; Sethuraman, J.; Sigman, K.; Squillante, M.S.; Yao, D.D.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents majorization results for PH generators. Based on the majorization results, bounds on the moments and Laplace–Stieltjes transforms of phase-type distributions are found. Exponential distributions and Coxian distributions are identified to be extremal PH distributions with

  2. Do You Have Major Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  3. Stenting of major airway constriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaomei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlated issues in the stenting treatment of major airway constriction. Methods: Nineteen cases of major airway stenting procedure were studied retrospectively. The clinical choice of stents of different advantages or deficiencies were discussed. The importance of intravenous anesthesia supporting, life-parameters monitoring during the procedures and the prevention of complications were analysed. Results: Under intravenous and local anesthesia, 19 Wallstents had been successively placed and relieved 19 cases of major airway constrictions due to malignant or benign diseases (15 of tumors, 3 of tuberculosis, 1 of tracheomalacia). Intravenous anesthesia and life-parameters monitoring had made the procedures more safe and precise. Conclusions: Major airway stenting is an reliable method for relieving tracheobronchial stenosis; and intravenous anesthesia supporting and life-parameters monitoring guarantee the satisfactions of procedures

  4. Major hazards onshore and offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This symposium continues the tradition of bringing together papers on a topic of current interest and importance in terms of process safety - in this case, Major Hazards Onshore and Offshore. Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster has, in effect, suggested that the experience gained in the control of major hazards onshore during the 1980s should be applied to improve safety offshore during the 1990s. This major three-day symposium reviews what has been learned so far with regard to major hazards and considers its present and future applications both onshore and offshore. The topics covered in the programme are wide ranging and deal with all aspects of legislation, the application of regulations, techniques for evaluating hazards and prescribing safety measures in design, construction and operation, the importance of the human factors, and recent technical developments in protective measures, relief venting and predicting the consequences of fires and explosions. (author)

  5. Cake Division by Majority Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Gersbach; Bernhard Pachl

    2006-01-01

    We consider a collective choice process where three players make proposals sequentially on how to divide a given quantity of resources. Afterwards, one of the proposals is chosen by majority decision. If no proposal obtains a majority, a proposal is drawn by lot. We establish the existence of the set of subgame perfect equilibria, using a suitable refinement concept. In any equilibrium, the first agent offers the whole cake to the second proposal-maker, who in turn offers the whole cake back ...

  6. Major Decisions: Motivations for Selecting a Major, Satisfaction, and Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a major…

  7. Pectoralis major fascia in rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rui

    2015-06-01

    Fascia is frequently used in rhinoplasty, for several different purposes. The deep temporalis fascia is most often chosen, though harvesting this fascia requires a separate surgical field that adds surgical time to the procedure and morbidity to the patient. In augmentation rhinoplasty cases as well as in many revision rhinoplasty cases, costal cartilage may be required. In these cases, when costal cartilage is harvested from the 5(th) to 7(th) ribs, pectoralis major fascia is in the surgical field and must be incised to provide access to the costal cartilage. Pectoralis major fascia is similar to the deep temporalis fascia, sharing many physical and histological characteristics with it. Pectoralis major fascia can be harvested from the same surgical field as costal cartilage and used in the nose whenever autologous costal cartilage is harvested, thus precluding the need for a separate surgical field for fascia harvest. The surgical technique for harvesting pectoralis major fascia is demonstrated, and two clinical cases of patients in whom this fascia was harvested and used in the nose are presented. Pectoralis major fascia may be considered an alternative option for use in rhinoplasty cases whenever autologous costal cartilage is used. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  8. Enzootic instability for bovine anaplasmosis on family farms located in southwestern Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sott, Tatiane; Franciscato, Carina; Silva, Adolfo Firmino da; Nascif, Iucif Abrão; Freitas, Fagner Luiz da Costa

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the occurence of animals seropositive for Anaplasma marginale in the municipality of Realeza, Paraná State, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 344 cows on 18 small farms in the municipality of Realeza-PR. The animals'serum samples were forwarded to the Federal University of Fronteira do Sul, in order to investigate the occurrence of anti-A. marginale IgG antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay commercial kit. IgG antibodies to A. marginale were detected in cattle from 77.7% of the farms. To the best author's knowledge, this is the first report of occurrence of A. marginale in cattle in southwestern Paraná. The serological assay showed that 24.4% of the animals were seropositive, thus characterizing the location investigated as an area of enzootic instability for the disease. The family farms located in the municipality of Realeza-PR showed enzootic instability for bovine anaplasmosis. It is necessary to conduct disease monitoring programs in association with preventive measures in order to ensure the sanitary quality of the herds and to reduce economic losses for the farmers. In addition, it is essential to implement educational extension actions that allow farmers to acquire knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding the risk factors that contribute towards herd A. marginale-infection.

  9. Enzootic instability for bovine anaplasmosis on family farms located in southwestern Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Sott

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the occurence of animals seropositive for Anaplasma marginale in the municipality of Realeza, Paraná State, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 344 cows on 18 small farms in the municipality of Realeza-PR. The animals’serum samples were forwarded to the Federal University of Fronteira do Sul, in order to investigate the occurrence of anti-A. marginale IgG antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay commercial kit. IgG antibodies to A. marginale were detected in cattle from 77.7% of the farms. To the best author's knowledge, this is the first report of occurrence of A. marginale in cattle in southwestern Paraná. The serological assay showed that 24.4% of the animals were seropositive, thus characterizing the location investigated as an area of enzootic instability for the disease. The family farms located in the municipality of Realeza-PR showed enzootic instability for bovine anaplasmosis. It is necessary to conduct disease monitoring programs in association with preventive measures in order to ensure the sanitary quality of the herds and to reduce economic losses for the farmers. In addition, it is essential to implement educational extension actions that allow farmers to acquire knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding the risk factors that contribute towards herd A. marginale-infection.

  10. Bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis complex: diagnosis and evaluation of the risk factors from Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Souza Amorim

    Full Text Available Direct diagnoses were made by using - blood smears and nested PCR (nPCR tests on 309 blood samples from crossbred dairy cattle in the municipality of Ibicaraí, Bahia. From diagnostic blood smear slides, the observed parasitic frequencies were 31.1% for Anaplasma marginale and 20.4% for Babesia sp. From nPCR diagnoses, they were 63% for A. marginale, 34% for Babesia bigemina and 20.4% for Babesia bovis. There were significant differences (P <0.01 between the two diagnostic methods (nPCR and blood smear slides. The compliance obtained from the kappa test was 0.41 and 0.48 for A. marginale and Babesia sp., respectively. The tick samples from the six farms analyzed using nPCR were only positive for A. marginale. Evaluation of the risk factors relating to the presence of ticks and the age of the animals showed that there was a significant association (P <0.01 with the frequency of animals infected with both pathogens. Therefore, under the conditions studied, nPCR proved to be a good tool for diagnosing the agents of the bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis complex because of its sensitivity and specificity in comparison with blood smears. The municipality of Ibicaraí is an area with endemic prevalence of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis confirmed by nPCR and A. marginale is the main agent of the disease.

  11. Personality, academic majors and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anna; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Larsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Personality–performance research typically uses samples of psychology students without questioning their representativeness. The present article reports two studies challenging this practice. Study 1: group differences in the Big Five personality traits were explored between students (N = 1067......) in different academic majors (medicine, psychology, law, economics, political science, science, and arts/humanities), who were tested immediately after university enrolment. Study 2: six and a half years later the students’ academic records were obtained, and predictive validity of the Big Five personality...... traits and their subordinate facets was examined in the various academic majors in relation to Grade Point Average (GPA). Significant group differences in all Big Five personality traits were found between students in different academic majors. Also, variability in predictive validity of the Big Five...

  12. Anaplasma phagocytophilum: deceptively simple or simply deceptive?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Severo, M. S.; Stephens, K. D.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2012), s. 719-731 ISSN 1746-0913 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : obligate intracellular bacterium * rickettsial agents * ticks * vector-borne diseases Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.018, year: 2012

  13. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

    This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

  14. Dirichlet polynomials, majorization, and trumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Rajesh; Plosker, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Majorization and trumping are two partial orders which have proved useful in quantum information theory. We show some relations between these two partial orders and generalized Dirichlet polynomials, Mellin transforms, and completely monotone functions. These relations are used to prove a succinct generalization of Turgut’s characterization of trumping. (paper)

  15. Endocrinopathies in thalassemia major patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, D. A.; Yunir, E. M.

    2018-03-01

    Advanced in chelation therapy and regular blood transfusion have marked improvements in the life expectancy of patients with thalassemia major, however these patients still have to deal with several complications. We report a 19-year-old male, presented with multiple endocrine complication-related thalassemia; hypogonadism, short stature, osteoporosis with history of fracture, and subclinical hypothyroid.

  16. Major purchasers view customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, H; Kerr, V; Lynn, D

    1998-01-01

    While managed care organizations may select a variety of strategies toward customer service, the most successful will be adapting their approach to the expectation and requirements of major purchasers. In order to better understand the perspective of the individuals who are responsible for policy decisions at that level, Managed Care Quarterly (MCQ) conducted interviews with three highly respected representatives.

  17. Physics momentum 'stars' draw majors

    CERN Multimedia

    Lindström, I

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, the number of University of Arizona students declaring physics as their major has doubled, amid a national decline. According to a recent report by the National Task Force on Undergraduate Physics, it is the university's dedication to its undergraduate physics program which draws students in (1 page).

  18. Trastornos por consumo de alcohol (AUDIT en adolescentes y jovenes marginales de bandas juveniles de Mexico Transtornos por consumo de álcool (AUDIT em adolescentes e jovens marginais de bandos juvenis do México Alcohol consumption disorder (AUDIT for marginal adolescents and youth from juvenile gangs of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Guzmán Facundo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescentes y jóvenes que pertenecen a bandas juveniles con frecuencia son omitidos de las encuestas nacionales sobre consumo de alcohol y drogas. El objetivo del estudio fue conocer los trastornos por consumo de alcohol, y analizar el efecto de factores personales sobre estos, en 125 adolescentes y jóvenes margínales de bandas juveniles de Monterrey, NL. México. Los resultados indicaron que 70% mostró consumo excesivo, 62% se clasificó con consumo perjudicial y el 50% con dependencia. Los factores que más contribuyeron en la predicción del consumo excesivo fueron la edad, sexo y el bajo nivel educativo, para el consumo perjudicial fueron la edad y problemas de salud mental, y para el consumo dependiente fueron la edad, los años de escolaridad y los problemas de salud mental. Estos resultados posibilitarán la reflexión de la necesidad de diseñar programas adecuados dirigidos a la prevención en este grupo de jóvenes marginales.Adolescentes e jovens que pertencem a bandos juvenis com freqüência são omitidos dos estudos nacionais sobre consumo de álcool e drogas. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi conhecer os transtornos por consumo de álcool e analisar o efeito de fatores pessoais sobre estes, em 125 adolescentes e jovens marginais de bandos juvenis do México. Os resultados mostraram que 70% têm consumo excessivo, 62% se classificou em um consumo prejudicial, e o 50% com dependência. Os fatores que maior contribuíram na predição do consumo excessivo foram a idade, sexo e o baixo nível educacional, para o consumo prejudicial foram a idade e os problemas de saúde mental, e para o consumo dependente foram a idade, os anos de escolaridade e os problemas de saúde mental. Estes resultados possibilitaram a reflexão da necessidade de elaboração de programas adequados direcionados à prevenção neste grupo de jovens.Adolescents and youngers who are involved in gangs, are frequently excluded from the national surveys about

  19. Potensia : Denkgereedschappen voor het werk met marginale groepen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothfusz, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Potensia. Thinking tools for the reflection on professional work with marginal groups. In modern society, much is done to allow marginalised groups to participate in the ‘normal’ order. This PhD thesis focuses on power and counterforce within the network around marginalised groups. Starting point is

  20. Anaplasmataceae in wild ungulates and carnivores in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, A L; Oporto, B; Espí, A; del Cerro, A; Barral, M; Povedano, I; Barandika, J F; Hurtado, A

    2016-03-01

    Wild vertebrates are essential hosts for tick-borne diseases but data on the prevalence and diversity of Anaplasma spp. in wildlife are scarce. In this study, we used real-time PCR to investigate the distribution of Anaplasma species in spleen samples collected from 625 wild animals (137 cervids, 227 wild boar, and 261 carnivores) in two regions in northern Spain. A first generic real-time PCR assay was used to screen for the presence of Anaplasma spp. followed by a second species-specific multiplex real-time PCR or partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for species identification. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was highly prevalent in cervids (64.2%), but it was absent from wild boar and carnivores. Interestingly, Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma ovis were not detected in cervids, but Anaplasma centrale was identified in 1 roe deer and 1 red deer, A. bovis in 4 roe deer, and a novel Ehrlichia sp. in one badger. These findings were highly associated with the tick burden identified in the different hosts. Thus, Ixodes ricinus, the recognized vector of A. phagocytophilum in Europe, was the main tick species parasitizing cervids (93.5%, 1674/1791), whereas Dermacentor reticulatus was the most abundant in wild boar (76.1%, 35/46) and Ixodes hexagonus in carnivores (58.4%, 265/454). More investigations are needed to assess the impact of the different Anaplasma species in wildlife and the risk of transmission to domestic animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Neurobiology of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Villanueva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We survey studies which relate abnormal neurogenesis to major depressive disorder. Clinically, descriptive gene and protein expression analysis and genetic and functional studies revised here show that individual alterations of a complex signaling network, which includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; the production of neurotrophins and growth factors; the expression of miRNAs; the production of proinflammatory cytokines; and, even, the abnormal delivery of gastrointestinal signaling peptides, are able to induce major mood alterations. Furthermore, all of these factors modulate neurogenesis in brain regions involved in MDD, and are functionally interconnected in such a fashion that initial alteration in one of them results in abnormalities in the others. We highlight data of potential diagnostic significance and the relevance of this information to develop new therapeutic approaches. Controversial issues, such as whether neurogenesis is the basis of the disease or whether it is a response induced by antidepressant treatments, are also discussed.

  2. Hypogonadism in thalassemia major patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasima Srisukh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in iron chelation therapy, excess iron deposition in pituitary gonadotropic cells remains one of the major problems in thalassemic patients. Hypogonadism, mostly hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, is usually detected during puberty. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for normal pubertal development and to reduce the complications of hypogonadism. The risks and benefits of hormonal replacement therapy, especially regarding the thromboembolic event, remain a challenge for providers caring for thalassemic patients.

  3. Candidemia in major burns patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau Escrig, Ana I; Salavert, Miguel; Vivó, Carmen; Cantón, Emilia; Pérez Del Caz, M Dolores; Pemán, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Major burn patients have characteristics that make them especially susceptible to candidemia, but few studies focused on this have been published. The objectives were to evaluate the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical aspects of candidemia in major burn patients, determining factors associated with a poorer prognosis and mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of candidemia between 1996 and 2012 in major burn patients admitted to the La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. The study included 36 episodes of candidemia in the same number of patients, 55.6% men, mean age 37.33 years and low associated comorbidity. The incidence of candidemia varied between 0.26 and 6.09 episodes/1000 days stay in the different years studied. Candida albicans was the most common species (61.1%) followed by Candida parapsilosis (27.8%). Candidemia by C. krusei, C. glabrata or C. tropicalis were all identified after 2004. Central vascular catheter (CVC) was established as a potential source of candidemia in 36.1%, followed by skin and soft tissues of thermal injury (22.2%) and urinary tract (8.3%). Fluconazole was used in 19 patients (52.7%) and its in vitro resistance rate was 13.9%. The overall mortality was 47.2%, and mortality related to candidemia was 30.6%. Factors associated with increased mortality were those related to severe infection and shock. CVC was the most usual focus of candidemia. Fluconazole was the most common antifungal drug administered. The management of candidemia in major burn patients is still a challenge. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Cancers of major salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Aru; Kozel, Jessica A; Lydiatt, William M

    2015-07-01

    Major salivary gland malignancies are a rare but histologically diverse group of entities. Establishing the diagnosis of a malignant salivary neoplasm may be challenging because of the often minimally symptomatic nature of the disease, and limitations of imaging modalities and cytology. Treatment is centered on surgical therapy and adjuvant radiation in selected scenarios. Systemic therapy with chemotherapeutic agents and monoclonal antibodies lacks evidence in support of its routine use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. DIAGNÓSTICO EM ANAPLASMOSE BOVINA DIAGNOSIS IN BOVINE ANAPLASMOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Vidotto

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale (THEILER 1910 é uma rickettsia intra-eritrocitária obrigatória de ruminantes susceptíveis, transmitida biológica e mecanicamente por carrapatos e insetos hematófagos. Ela determina o aparecimento de formas clínicas aguda, superaguda, leve e/ou crônica, com um período pré-patente de 20 a 40 dias seguido por parasitemia e intensa anemia, provocando perdas com um custo estimado de 40 milhões de dólares anuais; está amplamente distribuída nas regiões tropicais, subtropicais e temperadas do mundo. A. marginale confere imunidade de origem humoral e celular que não é dependente de infecção persistente. O diagnóstico é baseado em sinais clínicos, detecção do microrganismo no sangue, anticorpos no soro ou alterações patológicas post mortem. O objetivo deste trabalho é reunir informações sobre aspectos de diagnóstico da anaplasmose bovina.Anaplasma marginale (THEILER, 1910, a rickettsial hemoparasite of ruminants, is transmited biologically and mecanically by ticks and haematofagous insects. It has a pre-patent period of 20 to 40 days, followed by high parasitemia and severe anemia. Infected animals can develop a mild, aguda, hiperaguda or cronic clinical forms of the disease. A. marginale has an worldwide distribuition with high incidence in tropical and subtropical regions. A. marginale promove an immunity not dependent of a persistent infection, involving both, humural and celular immunological mechanisms. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, detection of the microrganisms on the blood, antibodies on the serum or post-mortem pathological changes. Informations about the diagnostic aspects of anaplasmosis are reviewed.

  6. Vanpooling: the three major approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, P.M.

    1979-08-01

    The manual provides technical assistance to existing or prospective vanpool sponsors. It is designed to help them promote vanpooling in its three major approaches: employer sponsored, third party sponsored, and driver owned and operated. The first chapter is an overview of vanpooling and a second chapter, on vanpool marketing, is addressed to ridesharing coordinators and others whose responsibilities include the promotion of vanpooling. Some fact sheets on the three approaches provide convenient summaries of the needs and opportunities of each approach and suggest solutions to practical problems likely to be encountered in starting new vanpool programs.

  7. Societal risk and major disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    A disaster can be defined as an event, or a series of events, in which a large number of people is adversely affected by a single cause. This definition includes man-made accidents, like that at Chernobyl, as well as the natural disasters that insurance companies are sometimes pleased to describe as Acts of God. In 1986 alone, 12,000 people died and 2.2 million were made homeless by 215 major accidents or disasters. The nature of risk is examined in this paper. (author)

  8. Majority rule on heterogeneous networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambiotte, R

    2008-01-01

    We focus on the majority rule (MR) applied on heterogeneous networks. When the underlying topology is homogeneous, the system is shown to exhibit a transition from an ordered regime to a disordered regime when the noise is increased. When the network exhibits modular structures, in contrast, the system may also exhibit an asymmetric regime, where the nodes in each community reach an opposite average opinion. Finally, the node degree heterogeneity is shown to play an important role by displacing the location of the order-disorder transition and by making the system exhibit non-equipartition of the average spin

  9. Dynamic range majority data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Given a set P of n coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range α-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on P. More specifically, for a query range Q, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an α-fraction of the points contained in Q. We present a new......((lg n/(α lglg n)). For constant values of α, this improved query time matches an existing lower bound, for any data structure with polylogarithmic update time. We also generalize our data structure to handle sets of points in d-dimensions, for d ≥ 2, as well as dynamic arrays, in which each entry...

  10. Major plasma disruptions in TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onega, R.J.; Becraft, W.R.; Bettis, E.S.

    1979-02-01

    Evaluation of the instrumentation and control of a power producing tokamak fusion reactor such as The Next Step (TNS) requires an assessment of the consequences of a major plasma disruption during reactor operation. The most important consequence of a disruption will be damage to the first wall from thermal and magnetic stress. Severe temperature gradients will cause thermal stress, placing a limit on the number of disruptions that can occur before the integrity of the wall is lost, and eddy currents induced in the wall will interact with the magnetic energy of the plasma and the →B/sub T/ field to create mechanical forces. Consequences to the ohmic heating (OH) coils, their power supplies, and other coils must also be taken into account

  11. Detection of Parasites and Parasitic Infections of Free-Ranging Wildlife on a Game Ranch in Zambia: A Challenge for Disease Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor M.; Munyeme, Musso; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo

    2012-01-01

    Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37% (n = 95) with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus); Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus) and puku (Kobus vardonii) for the first time in Zambia. The majority of worm species isolated from bovids were not detected in equids and, vice versa. Our findings intimate ecological and behavioural patterns of some animals as deterministic to exposure. Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) had the widest range of worm species with more infected organs than other animals suggesting their semi aquatic nature contributory to prolonged worm exposure compared to other animals. On the other hand, Kafue lechwe had the least tick infections attributable more to shorter attachment periods as they spend prolonged periods submerged in water. Our findings indicate the vital role that wildlife plays in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. To reduce the infection burden, control measures should be focused on reducing transmission to highly susceptible animal species as described herein. PMID:22701163

  12. Detection of Parasites and Parasitic Infections of Free-Ranging Wildlife on a Game Ranch in Zambia: A Challenge for Disease Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37% (n=95 with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus; Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus and puku (Kobus vardonii for the first time in Zambia. The majority of worm species isolated from bovids were not detected in equids and, vice versa. Our findings intimate ecological and behavioural patterns of some animals as deterministic to exposure. Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis had the widest range of worm species with more infected organs than other animals suggesting their semi aquatic nature contributory to prolonged worm exposure compared to other animals. On the other hand, Kafue lechwe had the least tick infections attributable more to shorter attachment periods as they spend prolonged periods submerged in water. Our findings indicate the vital role that wildlife plays in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. To reduce the infection burden, control measures should be focused on reducing transmission to highly susceptible animal species as described herein.

  13. Psychosocial implications of Thalassemia Major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinok, Yesim; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagihan; Yilmaz, Deniz; Solak, Ufuk

    2005-02-01

    Many causes including the chronicity of disease, burden of treatment modalities, morbidities, and the expectation of early death resulting from the disease complications, may lead to psychosocial burden in Thalassemia Major (TM) patients. A total of 38 patients with TM and their mothers were recruited to evaluate the psychosocial burden as well as to disclose whether the psychological status of the patients contribute to the compliance with the therapy or to the contrary. Demographic and disease variables were obtained. Child Behavior Check-list (CBCL) was completed by the mothers of the patients. A detailed psychiatric interview based on the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual diagnostic criteria was performed for each patient. Symptom Distress Checklist 90 (SCL-90) scale was given to all mothers for evaluating their psychopathology. Although CBCL scores remained between the normal ranges, desferrioxamine mesylate (DFO)-compliant patients and the patients with lower ferritin values had significantly higher scores. A total of 24% of the patients had a psychiatric diagnosis including major depression, anxiety disorder, tic disorder, and enuresis nocturnal. The psychiatric diagnosis was significantly higher in the patients who were compliant with desferrioxamine compared with the non-compliant group (P = 0.007). The SCL-90 scores indicated that the mothers who had a child with good adherence to DFO had higher scale scores than the mothers with a poor adherent child. The increase risk of psychosocial and behavioral problems in thalassemics and their parents indicated the importance of a lifelong psychosocial support for the prevention of mental health issues. The patients and their parents, who were more conscious of the illness, were more worried but more compliant with the therapy and need stronger psychiatric support.

  14. Thalassaemia major and the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malcolm Walker

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of haemoglobin synthesis are the commonest monogenetic disorders worldwide. When first described, thalassaemia was universally fatal in childhood, but after the adoption of regular blood transfusion survival until early teenage and adulthood was to be expected. At that stage in the life of these affected individuals organ failure followed, due to accumulated iron, for which the human has no excretory capacity. Principal amongst the tissues affected by iron overload is the heart and even to the present day, heart disease accounts for the overwhelming majority of premature deaths in this population. Managing transfusion derived iron overload was the next hurdle for clinicians and the families of the patients. For nearly four decades the only available treatment was the demanding regime of parenteral chelation therapy, required on a daily basis, to achieve growth, development and survival with limited or no organ damage. Despite the adoption of these treatment strategies the outlook for thalassaemia patients remained poor, with a 30% to 40% mortality occurring between late teenage and 30 years of age, even in well organised health care systems, such as in the UK, where regular transfusion and desferioxamine treatment were readily available. This dreadful early mortality, largely as a consequence of myocardial iron overload, (1,2 is now improving so that in the UK and other developed nations, heart failure in thalassaemic patients has become uncommon and premature death a much rarer tragedy. This editorial reviews, from a personal viewpoint of a cardiologist involved in the care of these patients for the last 20 years, the progress in the management of the cardiovascular complications of thalassaemia major (TM, which has followed better techniques of identifying those thalassaemic individuals at greatest risk, improved chelation strategies making best use of the three chelating agents that are now available and improved co

  15. [Beta thalassemia major in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Feliu Aurora; Bonduel, Mariana; Sciuccati, Gabriela; del Pozo, Ana; Roldán, Ariel; Ciaccio, Marta; Orazi, Virginia; Fano, Virginia; Ozuna, Blanca; Lejarraga, Horacio; Muriel, Sackmann Federico

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of beta thalassemia major patients seen at Hospital Juan P. Garrahan was carried out in order to determine the characteristics and outcome of the population. From August 1987 to July 2000, 45 patients were admitted (27 males-18 females). The most common beta globin gene defects were C-39 (30.7%); IVS-I nt 110 (20%); IVS-I nt 6 (13.3%); IVS-I nt 1(4%). alpha globin genes were normal in 42 patients, 1 patient had triplicate and cuadriplicate alpha globin genes and 2 patients were not analyzed. Six patients of 5 families were heterozygous for -158G gamma mutation. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation was performed in 7 patients, with an identical sibling. Transfusion-related infections and alloantibodies were detected in 6.7% patients. Growth assessment showed no significant difference in the stature of girls compared to the reference population, but 5 boys had short stature. There is a tendency to short trunk. Growth velocity was normal at prepubertal age. No X-ray lesions related to desferrioxamine were observed. Delayed puberty and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were found in 35.7% and abnormalities in GH/IGF-I axis in 12.5% of the patients. Impaired glucose tolerance was found in 2 patients. No patient developed diabetes mellitus, thyroid or adrenal insufficiency. One patient had cardiac complications. Forty-two patients are alive and 3 died (cardiac failure 1, central nervous system bleeding 1, sepsis 1). We conclude that beta thalassemia major, originated mainly from Italian immigrants, has a cumbersome treatment and is severely hindered by the lack of adequate economic resources in our patients.

  16. [Extrapair paternity in Parus major].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li-Xian; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Peng; Li, Jing; Wan, Dong-Mei

    2013-02-01

    Mating systems, as an evolutionary stable strategy, play an important role in animal reproductive process and result from an animal's adaption to their environment, including their inter-specific environment. In the 1980s, extrapair paternity (EPP) was first noted in the eurychoric species, the Great Tit, Parus major. As earlier studies indicated, morphology, physiology, behavior, ecological characteristics and mating systems of eurychoric species differ greatly between areas or populations. Accordingly, we analyzed the mating system of the Great Tit (P.m.minor) in Fairy Cave National Nature Reserve, Liaoning, China. We collected total parent-offspring blood samples from 22 broods. We used 8 hypervariable loci, which were selected from 11 reported microsatellite loci for paternity test. In conjunction with the known genetic pattern of the female parent, the accuracy of the paternity testing reached 99.98% with this genetic data. Results of paternity testing showed that 7 of 22 broods (31.8%) had extra-pair nestling, with 16 of 197 nestlings (8.12%) a result of extra-pair fertilizations. The EPP rate of the Great Tit we noted in Liaoning is obviously lower than those in other passerine forest birds (less than 10%). Though between 55.6% and 9.1% extrapair offspring were found among the different nests, we were, however, unable to find any explanatory rule.

  17. Tilecal meets two major milestones

    CERN Multimedia

    Cavalli-Sforza, M.

    Over the last two months the Tile Calorimeter passed not one but two major milestones. In early May, the last of the 64 modules that make up one of the two Extended Barrels arrived at CERN from IFAE-Barcelona, equipped with optical components and tested. And during the Overview Week in Clermont-Ferrand, the last of the 64 Barrel modules, mechanically assembled, arrived from JINR-Dubna. Just a brief reminder: the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is composed of 3 cylinders ("barrels") of steel, scintillating tiles and optical fibers, altogether about 12 m long, with an outer diameter of 8.4 m, and weighing about 2700 tons. The central cavity will contain the Liquid Argon cryostats, and the whole calorimetry system will measure the direction and energy of jets produced at the LHC, as well as the missing transverse energy, which as everyone knows is one of the telltale signals of new and exciting physics. Each of the three cylinders is divided azimuthally into 64 modules - much like the slices of an orange. The modules ar...

  18. Major transitions in information technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    When looking at the history of technology, we can see that all inventions are not of equal importance. Only a few technologies have the potential to start a new branching series (specifically, by increasing diversity), have a lasting impact in human life and ultimately became turning points. Technological transitions correspond to times and places in the past when a large number of novel artefact forms or behaviours appeared together or in rapid succession. Why does that happen? Is technological change continuous and gradual or does it occur in sudden leaps and bounds? The evolution of information technology (IT) allows for a quantitative and theoretical approach to technological transitions. The value of information systems experiences sudden changes (i) when we learn how to use this technology, (ii) when we accumulate a large amount of information, and (iii) when communities of practice create and exchange free information. The coexistence between gradual improvements and discontinuous technological change is a consequence of the asymmetric relationship between complexity and hardware and software. Using a cultural evolution approach, we suggest that sudden changes in the organization of ITs depend on the high costs of maintaining and transmitting reliable information. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The major synthetic evolutionary transitions’. PMID:27431527

  19. Aplicación de modelos estructurales marginales para estimar los efectos de la terapia antirretroviral en 5 cohortes de seroconvertores al virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana Marginal structural models application to estimate the effects of antiretroviral therapy in 5 cohorts of HIV seroconverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Pérez-Hoyos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Los métodos convencionales tienen limitaciones para ajustar por factores de confusión dependientes del tiempo para evaluar la efectividad poblacional de tratamientos en estudios observacionales. En este trabajo se muestra un nuevo tipo de metodología, los modelos estructurales marginales (MEM, y se estima la efectividad de la terapia antirretroviral de gran actividad (TARGA sobre la incidencia de sida o muerte. Sujetos y métodos: Se identificaron los sujetos sin TARGA seguidos a partir de 1997 en las cohortes de seroconvertores al virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH del proyecto GEMES (Grupo de Estudio Multicéntrico Español de Seroconvertores. Para estimar el efecto sobre la incidencia de sida o muerte, se obtuvieron los parámetros de un MEM mediante una regresión logística ponderada por probabilidad inversa. La estimación de los pesos se basó en el recuento de CD4, el tiempo desde la seroconversión, el sexo, la edad, la categoría de trasmisión y el tratamiento previo. Resultados: Los 917 sujetos elegibles se siguieron durante una media de 3,4 años, durante los cuales se observaron 139 desenlaces de interés. El 42,1% de los participantes recibió TARGA durante el estudio. La tasa relativa fue de 1,01 (intervalo de confianza &(IC& del 95%, 0,68-1,49 mediante un modelo de Cox convencional sin covariables, y de 0,90 (IC del 95%, 0,61-1,32 mediante un modelo de Cox convencional con covariables cambiantes en el tiempo. La tasa relativa causal estimada por un MEM fue de 0,74 (IC del 95%, 0,49-1,12. Conclusiones: El efecto beneficioso del TARGA encontrado por los MEM está bien establecido, pero los modelos convencionales no pudieron detectarlo. El uso de un MEM permitió ajustar apropiadamente por la variable CD4, que es a la vez una variable de confusión dependiente del tiempo y está afectada por el uso previo de tratamiento.Objectives: Standard methods to evaluate population effectiveness of treatments in observational

  20. [Oromaxillofacial changes in thalassemia major].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mattia, D; Pettini, P L; Sabato, V; Rubini, G; Laforgia, A; Schettini, F

    1996-01-01

    Sixty patients (31 male and 29 female) with thalassemia major, aged between 6 and 26 years, 18 of which were splenectomized, were observed in this study evaluating the oro-maxillo-facial alterations and correlating them to transfusion indexes, serum ferritin levels, splenectomy and age. For each patient a haematologic and odontostomatologic card was filed with a view to report the medical and clinical history regarding: the haematologic picture, the prevention of caries and parodontal disease, the facies characteristics, the odonto-stomatologic examination, the orthodontic diagnosis, the skull X-rays and the orthopantomography. Poor oral hygiene as well as misknowledge of prevention were generally observed. All the patients showed carious lesions but most of them had never seen a dentist for therapy. The disharmonious growth of splanchnocranium, with the enlargement of the jaw and of its alveolar process, induced by the bone marrow hyperplasia, produced various and serious malocclusion stages (Angle's II class, deep bite, open bite), gnathologic alterations, hypodiaphanous paranasal sinuses and orbital hypertelorism, with a typical oriental-like facies. Malocclusion and the poor oral hygienic conditions determined the occurrence of marginal gingivitis, mainly localized at the level of the lower frontal teeth. In only 3 patients the oral mucous membrane was pale and atrophic. During this investigation agenesia and dental retention were reported in 30% and in 26% of the examined cases respectively, while no patients had supernumerary teeth. Tooth volume, position and shape abnormalities rarely occurred. Only in two patients was enamel hypoplasia described. The caries frequency greatly varied in number and in degree. Only five patients did not show any carious lesions. The caries index (DMF) for the permanent teeth calculated in all the 60 subjects was 5, 12 +/- 4.76. By utilizing Spearman's rank test the number of teeth with caries in the permanent dentition (DFM

  1. Success in major transport infrastructure projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, M.

    2009-01-01

    Major transport infrastructure projects have a calamitous history of cost overruns, delays, and overestimated travel demand forecasts. Costs and construction periods for major transport infrastructure projects are frequently underestimated, and benefits overestimated. This leads to suboptimal

  2. The Relevance of Chemistry to Nonscience Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bal Ram

    1995-01-01

    Provides examples and a summary of the results of a survey completed by nonscience majors (n=57). Students provided information about the importance of chemistry to their majors and argued their point of view in a paper. (DDR)

  3. Major Highway Lines, US, 2015, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Major Highways for the United States. The Major Highways layer contains Road Network features based on the Functional Class attribute value on each link...

  4. Why It Pays to Major in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Thomas; Assane, Djeto; Busker, Jared

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors use a large, recent, and accessible data set to examine the effect of economics major on individual earnings. They find a significant positive earnings gain for economics majors relative to other majors, and this advantage increases with the level of education. Their findings are consistent with Black, Sanders, and…

  5. The Prototypical Majority Effect Under Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriat, Asher; Adiv-Mashinsky, Shiri; Undorf, Monika; Schwarz, Norbert

    2018-05-01

    Majority views are reported with greater confidence and fluency than minority views, with the difference increasing with majority size. This Prototypical Majority Effect (PME) was attributed generally to conformity pressure, but Koriat et al. showed that it can arise from the processes underlying decision and confidence independent of social influence. Here we examined the PME under conditions that differ in social influence. In Experiment 1, a robust PME emerged in the absence of information about the majority views, but the provision sof that information increased the choice of the majority view and magnified the PME. In Experiment 2, a PME emerged in a minority-biased condition that misled participants to believe that the majority view was the minority view, but the PME was stronger in a majority-biased condition. The results were discussed in terms of a dual-process view: The PME observed under social influence may contain externally driven and internally driven components.

  6. Immunisation of smallholder dairy cattle against anaplasmosis and babesiosis in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Lawrence, J. A.; Kafuwa, P. T.

    1997-01-01

    A field study was conducted in the Southern Region of Malawi to evaluate the possible benefits of immunisation of improved dairy cattle against Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis. Friesian crossbred heifers were immunised when they were being reared on Government farms....... They were then issued to smallholder farmers, together with unvaccinated controls, where many of them were exposed to heavy tick infestation. Vaccination was shown to provide a significant degree of protection against babesiosis on the smallholder farms; 15/32 unvaccinated controls developed clinical...... disease as compared to only 3/28 vaccinates....

  7. Infecção natural por hemoparasitos em bezerros submetidos à quimio-profilaxia aos 30 dias de idade

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Rosângela A. Da; Corrêa,Fabíola Do N.; Botteon,Rita De Cássia C.M.; Botteon,Paulo De Tarso L.

    2007-01-01

    O complexo Tristeza Parasitária acarreta grandes prejuízos à pecuária bovina nacional. Os principais agentes etiológicos são Babesia bigemina, B. bovis e Anaplasma marginale, sendo o carrapato Boophilus microplus o principal vetor. Este trabalho relata a ocorrência de infecção natural por hemoparasitos da tristeza parasitária bovina em 36 bezerros com alta infestação natural por carrapatos e submetidos à quimioprofilaxia aos 30 dias de idade. Babesia bigemina (33,3%), B. bovis (11,1%) e A. ma...

  8. HEMOPARASITOSIS EN GANADERÍA DOBLE PROPÓSITO VENEZOLANA, DIAGNÓSTICO Y CONTROL: UNA REVISIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Tamasaukas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo de revisión de tesis doctoral incluye resultados de investigaciones realizadas en el periodo 1971 a 2009 sobre cuatro hemoparasitosis causados por protozoarios y rickettsiales en Venezuela y otros países, con énfasis en la infección mixta en rebaños bovinos, y su diagnóstico y control. En Venezuela, las afecciones causadas por agentes hemotrópicos parasitarios están distribuidas en todos los estados del país con vocación ganadera, en especial, en rebaños bovinos y bufalinos. Entre aquellos encontramos a especies del género Anaplasma (Anaplasma marginale, Babesia (Babesia bigemina y B. bovis, y Trypanosoma (Trypanosoma vivax, con una frecuencia endémica y con variaciones estacionales.

  9. Gender Equality in Muslim-Majority Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gouda, Moamen; Potrafke, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination has been documented against women in Muslim-majority countries. Constitutions differ among Muslim-majority countries. By using women’s rights indicators and exploiting cross-country variation, we find that discrimination against women is more pronounced in countries where Islam is the source of legislation. Constitutions changed in only four Muslim-majority countries since 1980. We discuss anecdotal evidence to what extent women’s rights changed as a consequence of new constitu...

  10. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  11. Contract miner is a major producer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, P.C.; Chironis, N.P.

    1983-10-01

    Morrison-Knudsen Co., Inc. is a major construction company and a major coal producer. It is now broadening its engineering capabilities, moving into other coal areas, and is aiming to shift into midwestern and eastern USA coalfields, as well as expanding into foreign markets. The major subsidiaries of the company are given, illustrating its diversity. The organization of Morrison-Knudsen's Mining Group is discussed. Three major computer systems for geologic modelling, mine planning and operation monitoring are outlined, and, the operation of some of its mines, including brown coal mines in Texas, is detailed.

  12. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1991 is the fifteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1991, as well as reviews important trends. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report.

  13. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1991 is the fifteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1991, as well as reviews important trends. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report

  14. Multiple Pathogens Including Potential New Species in Tick Vectors in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Bilé Ehounoud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to assess the presence of different pathogens in ticks collected in two regions in Côte d'Ivoire.Real-time PCR and standard PCR assays coupled to sequencing were used. Three hundred and seventy eight (378 ticks (170 Amblyomma variegatum, 161 Rhipicepalus microplus, 3 Rhipicephalus senegalensis, 27 Hyalomma truncatum, 16 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, and 1 Hyalomma impressum were identified and analyzed. We identified as pathogenic bacteria, Rickettsia africae in Am. variegatum (90%, Rh. microplus (10% and Hyalomma spp. (9%, Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. (23%, Rickettsia massiliae in Rh. senegalensis (33% as well as Coxiella burnetii in 0.2%, Borrelia sp. in 0.2%, Anaplasma centrale in 0.2%, Anaplasma marginale in 0.5%, and Ehrlichia ruminantium in 0.5% of all ticks. Potential new species of Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Wolbachia were detected. Candidatus Borrelia africana and Candidatus Borrelia ivorensis (detected in three ticks are phylogenetically distant from both the relapsing fever group and Lyme disease group borreliae; both were detected in Am. variegatum. Four new genotypes of bacteria from the Anaplasmataceae family were identified, namely Candidatus Anaplasma ivorensis (detected in three ticks, Candidatus Ehrlichia urmitei (in nine ticks, Candidatus Ehrlichia rustica (in four ticks, and Candidatus Wolbachia ivorensis (in one tick.For the first time, we demonstrate the presence of different pathogens such as R. aeschlimannii, C. burnetii, Borrelia sp., A. centrale, A. marginale, and E. ruminantium in ticks in Côte d'Ivoire as well as potential new species of unknown pathogenicity.

  15. Multiple Pathogens Including Potential New Species in Tick Vectors in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehounoud, Cyrille Bilé; Yao, Kouassi Patrick; Dahmani, Mustapha; Achi, Yaba Louise; Amanzougaghene, Nadia; Kacou N'Douba, Adèle; N'Guessan, Jean David; Raoult, Didier; Fenollar, Florence; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Our study aimed to assess the presence of different pathogens in ticks collected in two regions in Côte d'Ivoire. Real-time PCR and standard PCR assays coupled to sequencing were used. Three hundred and seventy eight (378) ticks (170 Amblyomma variegatum, 161 Rhipicepalus microplus, 3 Rhipicephalus senegalensis, 27 Hyalomma truncatum, 16 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, and 1 Hyalomma impressum) were identified and analyzed. We identified as pathogenic bacteria, Rickettsia africae in Am. variegatum (90%), Rh. microplus (10%) and Hyalomma spp. (9%), Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. (23%), Rickettsia massiliae in Rh. senegalensis (33%) as well as Coxiella burnetii in 0.2%, Borrelia sp. in 0.2%, Anaplasma centrale in 0.2%, Anaplasma marginale in 0.5%, and Ehrlichia ruminantium in 0.5% of all ticks. Potential new species of Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Wolbachia were detected. Candidatus Borrelia africana and Candidatus Borrelia ivorensis (detected in three ticks) are phylogenetically distant from both the relapsing fever group and Lyme disease group borreliae; both were detected in Am. variegatum. Four new genotypes of bacteria from the Anaplasmataceae family were identified, namely Candidatus Anaplasma ivorensis (detected in three ticks), Candidatus Ehrlichia urmitei (in nine ticks), Candidatus Ehrlichia rustica (in four ticks), and Candidatus Wolbachia ivorensis (in one tick). For the first time, we demonstrate the presence of different pathogens such as R. aeschlimannii, C. burnetii, Borrelia sp., A. centrale, A. marginale, and E. ruminantium in ticks in Côte d'Ivoire as well as potential new species of unknown pathogenicity.

  16. Work Values and College Major Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Michela; Lauriola, Marco; Saggino, Aristide

    2013-01-01

    Our study sought to clarify the nature of the known individual differences in work values associated with academic college major choice, specifically the question whether these precede or follow the choice of an academic major. To rule out environmental influences during academic study, group differences in five value orientations were evaluated…

  17. Writing and Rhetoric Majors, Disciplinarity, and "Techne"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. Blake; Meloncon, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    How we argue for, create, and mobilize around writing and rhetoric majors will continue to shape our field's disciplinarity in crucial ways, including our recognition, resources, and relationships. The range of such majors and their institutional contexts, and the disparate field-level efforts to track and build consensus around them, generate…

  18. Inflammatory mechanisms in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raedler, Thomas J

    2011-11-01

    As the 'monoamine hypothesis of depression' fails to explain all aspects of major depression, additional causes are being investigated. Several observations suggest that inflammatory mechanisms pay a role in the cause of major depressive disorder (MDD). This article reviews their role in major depression. Recent studies support the concept that inflammatory mechanisms play a crucial role in the pathomechanisms of major depression. Major depression shares similarities with 'sickness behavior', a normal response to inflammatory cytokines. Elevations in proinflammatory cytokines and other inflammation-related proteins in major depression were found in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as well as in postmortem studies. Elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines persist after clinical symptoms of depression are in remission and can also predict the onset of a depressive episode. Antidepressant treatment can lead to a normalization of elevated cytokine levels in major depression. Finally, we understand how inflammatory mechanisms affect the metabolism of tryptophan and how nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can interfere with the effects of antidepressants. Further studies are needed to fully understand the role of inflammatory mechanisms in major depression and the potential treatment implications.

  19. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 43 - Recording of Major Repairs and Major Alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspected. (d) For extended-range fuel tanks installed within the passenger compartment or a baggage... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recording of Major Repairs and Major... to Part 43—Recording of Major Repairs and Major Alterations (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b...

  20. Personal and interpersonal risk factors in the consumption of illicit drugs by marginal adolescents and young people from juvenile gangs Factores de riesgo personales e interpersonales en el consumo drogas ilícitas en adolescentes y jóvenes marginales de bandas juveniles Fatores de risco pessoais e interpessoais no consumo de drogas ilícitas em adolescentes e jovens marginais de bandos juvenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Guzmán Facundo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Marginal populations are groups which are known to present higher risks of drug consumption. It is possible to identify adolescents and young people from juvenile gangs that constitute this group. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of personal and interpersonal risk factors of drug consumption in 175 marginal adolescents and young people who belong to juvenile gangs in Mexico. Results showed a significant effect of personal factors on drug use, with an estimated variation of 26.1%. The factors that presented the highest rates were: gender, age and mental problems. The interpersonal factors (relationships with friends who have maladaptive behaviors and inappropriate relationships with parents showed an effect with an estimated variation of 15%. These results will allow for reflection and, in the future, the elaboration of adequate preventive programs aimed at this group of young people.Grupos reconocidos con mayor riesgo para consumir drogas, son los marginales, dentro de estos podemos localizar a los adolescentes y jóvenes de bandas juveniles. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar el efecto de los factores de riesgo personales e interpersonales sobre el consumo de drogas, en 175 adolescentes y jóvenes margínales de bandas juveniles de México. Los resultados mostraron efecto significativo de los factores personales sobre el consumo de drogas, con una varianza explicada del 26.1%, los factores que mostraron una mayor contribución fueron; el sexo, edad y problemas de salud mental. Los factores interpersonales (relación con amigos con conductas mal adaptadas y relación inapropiada con padres mostraron un efecto sobre el consumo de drogas, con una varianza explicada del 15%. Estos resultados posibilitarán la reflexión y en un futuro diseñar programas adecuados dirigidos a la prevención en este grupo de jóvenes.Grupos reconhecidos com maior risco para o consumo de drogas, são os de populações marginais, e, dentro destas

  1. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine year-to-year developments in the operations of 26 major US energy companies on a corporate level and also by major line of energy business and by major functions within each line of business. The period covered is 1977 to 1979. Comparisons of income and investment flow are featured and related to functionally allocated net investment in place. The presentation seeks to identify similarities and dissimilarities in results across lines-of-business activity or by firm size

  2. Inequalities theory of majorization and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Olkin, Ingram

    1980-01-01

    Although they play a fundamental role in nearly all branches of mathematics, inequalities are usually obtained by ad hoc methods rather than as consequences of some underlying ""theory of inequalities."" For certain kinds of inequalities, the notion of majorization leads to such a theory that is sometimes extremely useful and powerful for deriving inequalities. Moreover, the derivation of an inequality by methods of majorization is often very helpful both for providing a deeper understanding and for suggesting natural generalizations.Anyone wishing to employ majorization as a tool in applicati

  3. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  4. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations

  5. Management of major blood loss: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P I; Ostrowski, S R; Secher, N H

    2010-01-01

    Haemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Trauma and massive transfusion are associated with coagulopathy secondary to tissue injury, hypoperfusion, dilution and consumption of clotting factors and platelets. Concepts of damage control surgery have evolved, prioritizing...

  6. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  7. Researchers Realize Major Breakthrough in Understanding Endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 16, 2014 Researchers Realize Major Breakthrough in Understanding Endometriosis For a disease that affects an estimated 6 ... 10% of women, surprisingly little is known about endometriosis — a disorder that causes uterine tissue to grow ...

  8. Rupture of pectoralis major muscle: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guity MR

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Rupture of pectoralis major muscle is a very rare and often athletic injury. These days in our country this injury occurs more frequently. This could be due to increase in professional participation of amateur people in different types of sport, like body building and weight-lifting (especially bench-pressing without adequate preparation, training and taking necessary precautions. In this article, we have tried to review several aspects of complex anatomy of pectoralis major muscle, epidemiology, mechanism, clinical presentations, imaging modalities, surgical indications and techniques of its rupture. Complex and especial anatomy of pectoralis major muscle, in its humeral insertion particularly, have a major role of its vulnerability to sudden and eccentric contraction as the main mechanism of rupture. Also, restoration of this complex anatomy seems to be important during surgical repair to have normal function of the muscle again.

  9. Data Sets from Major NCI Initiaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Data Catalog includes links to data collections produced by major NCI initiatives and other widely used data sets, including animal models, human tumor cell lines, epidemiology data sets, genomics data sets from TCGA, TARGET, COSMIC, GSK, NCI60.

  10. Major Benno Leesiku mälestuseks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Järelehüüe 2006. aastal surnud Kaitseliidu juhile, Eesti Laskurliidu asepresidendile ja võimlemistreenerite klubi Kartek presidendile major Benno Leesikule, kes oleks 17. jaanuaril 2010. aastal saanud 50-aastaseks

  11. Atmospheric pollution from the major mobile telecommunication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT The extent of pollution from five major mobile telephone companies in Tanzania was investigated. ... with the mobile telecommunication companies' .... Measurement site. Function. House holds. Living, resting and socializing. Schools. Learning. Health centres. Providing and acquiring health services. Hotels.

  12. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  13. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs.

  14. April 2006. 32 Major Orthopaedic Procedures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-04-01

    @yahoo.com,. Objective: This study was aimed at determining the trends in the proportions of major ..... Potter MA, Nixon SJ, Aitken RJ. A 10-year analysis of caseload and weighted workload in a single Health board. Ann R ...

  15. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs

  16. Characterizing the epistemological development of physics majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Gire

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Students in introductory physics courses are likely to have views about physics that differ from those of experts. However, students who continue to study physics eventually become experts themselves. Presumably these students either possess or develop more expertlike views. To investigate this process, the views of introductory physics students majoring in physics are compared with the views of introductory physics students majoring in engineering. In addition, the views of physics majors are assessed at various stages of degree progress. The Colorado learning attitudes about science survey is used to evaluate students’ views about physics, and students’ overall survey scores and responses to individual survey items are analyzed. Beginning physics majors are significantly more expertlike than nonmajors in introductory physics courses, and this high level of sophistication is consistent for most of undergraduate study.

  17. Total intravenous anesthesia for major burn surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Cuenca, Phillip B; Walker, Stephen C; Shepherd, John M

    2013-01-01

    Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is frequently used for major operations requiring general anesthesia in critically ill burn patients. We reviewed our experience with this approach. Methods: During a 22-month period, 547 major burn surgeries were performed in this center’s operating room and were staffed by full-time burn anesthesiologists. The records of all 123 TIVA cases were reviewed; 112 records were complete and were included. For comparison, 75 cases were selected at random from a t...

  18. Ethnic Minority-Majority Unions in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Tammaru, Tiit

    2011-08-01

    Ethnic minority-majority unions-also referred to as mixed ethnic unions-are often seen as the ultimate evidence of the integration of ethnic minorities into their host societies. We investigated minority-majority unions in Estonia, where ethnic minorities account for one-third of the total population (Russians 26%, followed by Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Finns and other smaller groups). Using data from the 2000 Estonian census and regression models, we found that Slavic women are less likely to be in minority-majority unions than are members of other minority groups, with Russians being the least likely. Finns, who are culturally most similar to the Estonian majority population, are the most likely to form a union with an Estonian. For ethnic minority women, the likelihood of being in minority-majority unions is highest in rural areas and increases over generations, with third-generation immigrants being the most likely. Estonian women are most likely to have a minority partner when they or their parents were born abroad and when they live in urban areas. Our findings suggest that both the opportunity to meet potential partners and openness to other ethnic groups are important factors for understanding the dynamics of minority-majority unions.

  19. The pectoralis major footprint: An anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antonio de Figueired

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the insertion of the pectoralis major tendon to the humerus, through knowledge of its dimensions in the coronal and sagittal planes. Methods: Twenty shoulders from 10 cadavers were dissected and the pectoralis major tendon insertion on the humerus was identified and isolated. The dimensions of its "footprint" (proximal to distal and medial to lateral borders and the distance from the top edge of the pectoralis major tendon to apex of the humeral head structures were measured. Results: The average proximal to distal border length was 80.8 mm (range: 70 -90 and the medial-to-lateral border length was 6.1 mm (5 -7. The average distance (and range from the apex of the pectoralis major tendon to the humeral head was 59.3 mm. Conclusions: We demonstrate that the insertion of the pectoralis major tendon is laminar, and the pectoralis major tendon has an average footprint height and width of 80.8 mm and 6.1 mm, respectively.

  20. Personality disorders in dysthymia and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garyfallos, G; Adamopoulou, A; Karastergiou, A; Voikli, M; Sotiropoulou, A; Donias, S; Giouzepas, J; Paraschos, A

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the comorbidity of personality disorders in patients with primary dysthymia compared to those with episodic major depression. A total of 177 out-patients with primary dysthymia and 187 outpatients with episodic major depression were administered a structured diagnostic interview for DSM-III-R Axis II disorders. In addition, all of these patients completed the BDI, and those with the appropriate level of education also completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). A significantly higher proportion of dysthymic patients than patients with major depression met the criteria for a personality disorder, for borderline, histrionic, avoidant, dependent, self-defeating types and for personality disorders of clusters B and C. Further analysis revealed that the above differences were mainly due to the subgroup of patients with 'early-onset dysthymia'. Finally, patients with a personality disorder, both dysthymics and those with major depression, had significantly higher scores on the BDI and on the majority of the MMPI scales compared to those without a personality disorder. The data indicated that (i) dysthymia--mainly that of early onset--is associated with significantly higher personality disorder comorbidity than episodic major depression, and (ii) the presence of a personality disorder is related to more severe overall psychopathology.

  1. Psychology Degree Beliefs and Stereotypes: Differences in the Perceptions of Majors and Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Hurst, Jennifer R.; Johnson, Quinn R.

    2016-01-01

    Very little research examines the beliefs and stereotypes students have about the discipline and major of psychology. Previous research has found that psychology majors report hearing a variety of such beliefs and stereotypes more often from their fellow students than from their family members. In the current study, psychology majors/minors and…

  2. Bipolar disorder: Evidence for a major locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, M.A.; Flodman, P.L. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Sadovnick, A.D.; Ameli, H. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: (1) dominant, (2) recessive, (3) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, (4) environmental, and (5) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis {open_quotes}affected{close_quotes} for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. and Blangero and Elston. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Majorities and voting in the Finance Committee

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    At the Finance Committee meeting of 12 November 1999 three issues were raised concerning the Organization's voting and majority rules: 1) the definition of voting majorities in force in the Organization; 2) the interpretation of the double majority rule laid down in the Council Resolution set out in document CERN/2074 of 16 December 1994; 3) the relationship between the ordinary rules of procedure and those laid down by document CERN/RTG/8. At its December 1999 meeting the Committee of Council agreed to examine these issues at its meeting in March 2000. This document sets out the various points that constitute the necessary basis for that discussion. The Committee of Council is invited to take note of the list of majorities in force within the Organization and to decide on the proposal to revise Resolution CERN/2074 relating to the double majority. It is also invited to decide on the proposed clarification of the relationship between the normal rules of procedure applicable to the Finance Committee and the pr...

  4. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-13

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations.

  5. Exercise for patients with major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Speyer, Helene; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    is to investigate the beneficial and harmful effects of exercise, in terms of severity of depression, lack of remission, suicide, and so on, compared with treatment as usual with or without co-interventions in randomized clinical trials involving adults with a clinical diagnosis of major depression. A meta......BACKGROUND: The lifetime prevalence of major depression is estimated to affect 17% of the population and is considered the second largest health-care problem globally in terms of the number of years lived with disability. The effects of most antidepressant treatments are poor; therefore, exercise...... has been assessed in a number of randomized clinical trials. A number of reviews have previously analyzed these trials; however, none of these reviews have addresses the effect of exercise for adults diagnosed with major depression. METHODS/DESIGN: The objective of this systematic review...

  6. Major economies Forum on energy and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Major Economies Forum is intended to facilitate an open dialogue among major developed and developing economies, help generate the political leadership necessary to achieve a successful outcome at the United Nations climatic change conference in Copenhagen, and advance the exploration of concrete initiatives and joint ventures that increase the supply of clean energy while cutting greenhouse gas emissions. The Forum's second preparatory meeting was held in Paris in May 2009, mainly focused on greenhouse gas emissions reduction actions and objectives, the diffusion of clean technologies, the financing of activities for climate protection and adaptation to climatic change impacts

  7. Migraine symptomatology and major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, Lannie; Penninx, Brenda; Nyholt, Dale R.; Distel, Marijn A.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Smit, Johannes H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    Introduction and objective: Migraine and major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently co-occur, but it is unclear whether depression is associated with a specific subtype of migraine. The objective of this study was to investigate whether migraine is qualitatively different in MDD patients (N = 1816)

  8. 5 CFR 9701.311 - Major features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9701.311 Major features. Through the...

  9. 5 CFR 9901.311 - Major features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT... (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9901.311 Major features. Through the issuance...) Policies on base salary administration, including movement between career groups, positions, pay schedules...

  10. Combining two major ATLAS inner detector components

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The semiconductor tracker is inserted into the transition radiation tracker for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. These make up two of the three major components of the inner detector. They will work together to measure the trajectories produced in the proton-proton collisions at the centre of the detector when the LHC is switched on in 2008.

  11. Major Greenwood (1880–1949): the biography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Background is provided on the discovery of an unpublished biography of Major Greenwood written by one of his sons. The motivation and preparation for online publication of the biography in Statistics in Medicine are outlined. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27654632

  12. Minerals in thalassaemia major patients: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Zeynep; Genc, Gizem Esra; Gumuslu, Saadet

    2017-05-01

    Thalassaemia major (TM) is a hereditary blood disease characterised by reduced or absent production of beta globin chains. Erythrocyte transfusions are given to raise the haemoglobin level in patients with thalassaemia major. However, transfusions have been related to increased risk of iron overload and tissue damage related to excess iron. Both elevated oxidative stress due to iron overload and increased hemolysis lead to over utilisation of minerals required for antioxidant enzymes activities. Iron chelators have been used to prevent iron overload in thalassaemia major patients, but these chelators have the possibility of removing minerals from the body. Thalassaemia patients are more at risk for mineral deficiency because of increased oxidative stress and iron chelation therapies. Growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis are the complications of thalassaemia. Minerals may play a particular role to prevent these complications. In the current review, we provide an overview of minerals including zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in thalassaemia major patients. We, also, underline that some complications of thalassaemia can be caused by an increased need for minerals or lack of the minerals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Major development communication paradigms and practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modernization, Dependency, and Multiplicity are three major concepts of development, which have occasioned the use of hierarchical and/or participatory communication practices in our society today. These significantly impact on the mediation role of the graphic encoder during media production process that could either ...

  14. Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in Thermally Degraded Low Density Polyethylene Films. ... There were alkanes, alkenes, halogenated alkanes, and very few aromatics in the liquid product and, the hydrocarbons were observed to range between C10 - C27. The FTIR and GC-MS results show the ...

  15. Preparing for major incidents in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.W. Wachira*

    2013-12-01

    This report provides a review of some of the major incidents in Kenya for the period 2000–2012, with the hope of highlighting the importance of developing an integrated and well-trained Ambulance and Fire and Rescue service appropriate for the local health care system.

  16. Majorization in Euclidean Geometry and Beyond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 466, 1 February (2015), s. 233-240 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Majorization * Doubly stochastic matrix * Euclidean simplex * Star * Regular simplex * Volume of a simplex Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.965, year: 2015

  17. Major hindrance to the dev't

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. In order to find out the major hindrances to the development of autonomy among Grade. Nine students at Baso General Secondary School in learning English, necessary data were collected from one hundred-fifty students, three English teachers and ten students through questionnaire, semi-structured interview ...

  18. Exercise Attenuates the Major Hallmarks of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garatachea, Nuria; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Morán, María; Emanuele, Enzo; Joyner, Michael J.; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Regular exercise has multi-system anti-aging effects. Here we summarize how exercise impacts the major hallmarks of aging. We propose that, besides searching for novel pharmaceutical targets of the aging process, more research efforts should be devoted to gaining insights into the molecular mediators of the benefits of exercise and to implement effective exercise interventions for elderly people. PMID:25431878

  19. European Regulation on Major Shareholdings and Takeovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jul Clausen, Nis; Engsig Sørensen, Karsten

    2002-01-01

    Even though the rules on disclosure of major shareholdings in listed companies has been partly harmonised in the EU large difference remains. This is documented in the article and it is further debated whether these difference are acceptable, especially in light of the ongoing efforts to harmonise...

  20. Students Facing Poverty: The New Majority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suitts, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Low-income students are now a majority in U.S. public schools. Steve Suitts, formerly of the Southern Education Foundation, reviews statistics showing that the percentage of students in K-12 schools coming from low-income families has increased to 52 percent. Meanwhile, state funding for K-12 schools has increased much more modestly, so that…

  1. Associating an ionospheric parameter with major earthquake ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With time, ionospheric variation analysis is gaining over lithospheric monitoring in serving precursors for earthquake forecast. The current paper highlights the association of major (Ms ≥ 6.0) and medium (4.0 ≤ Ms > 6.0) earthquake occurrences throughout the world in different ranges of the Ionospheric Earthquake ...

  2. Major and minor form of hereditary hyperekplexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Vergouwe, MN; van Dijk, JG; Rees, M; Frants, RR; Brown, P

    Hyperekplexia is a hereditary neurological disorder characterized by excessive startle responses. Within the disorder two clinical forms can be distinguished. The major form is characterized by continuous generalized stiffness in the first year of life and an exaggerated startle reflex, accompanied

  3. Predicting Undergraduate Music Education Majors' Collegiate Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    In order for teachers to guide students in their preparation to be music majors, it would be useful to know those musical components that best predict overall collegiate success. The purpose of this study was to measure the relationship of predictor variables (Lessons, Music History, Music Theory, and Piano) to collegiate grade point average (GPA)…

  4. Identification of major sources controlling groundwater chemistry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 117; Issue 1. Identification of major sources controlling groundwater chemistry from a hard rockterrain – A case study from Mettur taluk, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India. K Srinivasamoorthy S Chidambaram M V Prasanna John Peter P Anandhan. Volume 117 Issue ...

  5. 75 FR 39492 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 611 [Docket No. FTA-2010-0009] RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Public meetings on ANPRM. SUMMARY: This document announces the date, time, and location of an...

  6. 77 FR 3847 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Administration 49 CFR Part 611 Major Capital Investment Projects; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77... Capital Investment Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Proposed... the project justification and local financial commitment criteria specified in statute and this...

  7. 75 FR 33757 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 611 [Docket No. FTA-2010-0009] RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Public meetings on ANPRM. SUMMARY: This document announces the dates, times, and locations of...

  8. Exploring Pair Programming Benefits for MIS Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongo, Tendai; Reed, April H.; O'Hara, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Pair programming is a collaborative programming practice that places participants in dyads, working in tandem at one computer to complete programming assignments. Pair programming studies with Computer Science (CS) and Software Engineering (SE) majors have identified benefits such as technical productivity, program/design quality, academic…

  9. Delayed mood transitions in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, Jakob

    The hypothesis defended here is that the process of mood-normalizing transitions fails in a significant proportion of patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Such a failure is largely unrelated to the psychological content. Evidence for the hypothesis is provided by the highly variable

  10. Atmospheric pollution from the major mobile telecommunication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent of pollution from five major mobile telephone companies in Tanzania was investigated. These companies are Airtel, tIGO, Zantel, Sasatel and Vodacom. The parameters measured were the noise levels, NOx concentrations, and Particulate matter. The noise levels and exhaust gases were determined at 10 ...

  11. Major dicaffeoylquinic acids from Artemisia vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnat, A; Heitz, A; Fraisse, D; Carnat, A P; Lamaison, J L

    2000-09-01

    The two major caffeoylquinic acids, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, were new-isolated from the flowering tops of Artemisia vulgaris (yield 2.0% and 0.3% on dry weight, respectively) and characterized by spectroscopic analysis.

  12. Rank reduction of correlation matrices by majorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pietersz (Raoul); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a novel method is developed for the problem of finding a low-rank correlation matrix nearest to a given correlation matrix. The method is based on majorization and therefore it is globally convergent. The method is computationally efficient, is straightforward to implement,

  13. Physics for the Medical Science Major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Richard P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how one professor makes his physics course relevant to pharmacy majors. The course emphasizes the relation of basic physics concepts (like forces and thermodynamics) to the human body and uses problems drawn from the medical profession. Student course evaluations show a favorable view of content learned and its relevance. (DB)

  14. Acoustics for Music Majors-- A Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Perry F.

    1972-01-01

    Brief descriptions of several of the laboratory experiments which have been incorporated into an acoustics course for music majors. Includes vibratory motion and sound generation, nature, speed, and pitch of sound, spectrum analysis and electronic synthesis of musical sound and some conventional sound experiments. (Author/TS)

  15. International Program for Undergraduate Business Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Tom

    This report describes a project to create an interdisciplinary specialization in international business for undergraduate business majors and to internationalize the existing business program at Mercy College (New York). Objectives were to help students acquire a working knowledge of the international dimension of business, appreciate…

  16. Major depressive disorder in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Flemming M; Kessing, Lars V; Sørensen, Tine M

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) were at an increased risk of developing major depression compared with patients having other medical illnesses with a comparable degree of disability. METHOD: Case register linkage study of Danish Psychiatric Central Register...

  17. Minor and major health: a Nietzschean reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biato, Emília Carvalho Leitão; Costa, Luciano Bedin da; Monteiro, Silas Borges

    2017-03-01

    This paper aims to discuss the concept of health, understood as multiple and plural. We use Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophical thought as an analytical tool, allowing us to reach a typology involving minor and major health. While the first is normative and sustained by an ideal of healing, the second is an expanding strength, a condition constantly achieved. If minor health follows a preset life moralization script, major health relates to the expanded living being, which affirms its creative nature and transcends established rules. The notion of major health embraces the overcoming of imperative models rooted in biomedicine-based practices and approaches to health collective actions. Nevertheless, on the one hand, if this movement extends the co-participatory nature between staff and users of the health system, on the other hand, it lacks more radical actions to break with the moral nature of health-disease processes. Not refusing life's own vicissitudes, major health understands the need to incorporate pain and suffering involved in individuation movements.

  18. Major Development Communication Paradigms and Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    Abstract. Modernization, Dependency, and Multiplicity are three major concepts of development, which have occasioned the use of hierarchical and/or participatory communication practices in our society today. These significantly impact on the mediation role of the graphic encoder during media production process that ...

  19. Major and chronic diseases, report 2007.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giampaoli, S.; Oyen, H. van; Devillé, W.; Verschuuren, M.

    2008-01-01

    Blind spots in European health information On June 6th 2008 the European Commission has published the Major and Chronic Diseases Report 2007. This report describes the state of the art of health information in Europe on 13 prevalent chronic conditions. Large differences between the Member States of

  20. China English and ELT for English Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingjuan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a general study of one of varieties of English--China English and its influence on English Language Teaching (ELT) for English majors. The status of English as an International language breaks the situation in which British English or American English is the sole standard. English becomes World Englishes, taking on a plural form,…

  1. Production rates of major regional Floras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polhill, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    The ambitious programme of major regional Floras for developing countries initiated in the late 1940’s to 1960’s is now mostly under serious reappraisal because of the slow rates of progress, coupled with political changes, financial restrictions and evolving technology. From our present viewpoint

  2. The Major Players in Adaptive Immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 5. The Major Players in Adaptive Immunity - Humoral Immunity. Asma Ahmed Banishree Saha Anand Patwardhan Shwetha Shivprasad Dipankar Nandi. General Article Volume 14 Issue 5 May 2009 pp 455-471 ...

  3. Major ions in spitsbergen snow samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semb, A.; Braekkan, R.; Joranger, E.

    1984-01-01

    Chemical analysis of Spitsbergen snow cores sampled in spring 1983, reveals a spatial pattern consistent with orographic deposition of major anthropogenic pollutants with air movements from southeast towards northwest. The highest concentrations of pollutant species were found at an altitude of 700 metres above sea level, and are higher than for any other recorded snow samples from the Arctic

  4. Involvement of Leishmania donovani major surface glycoprotein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The major surface glycoprotein gp63 of the kinetoplastid protozoal parasite Leishmania is implicated as a ligand mediating uptake of the parasite into, and survival within, the host macrophage. By expressing gp63 antisense RNA from an episomal vector in L. donovani promastigotes, gp63-deficient transfectants were ...

  5. Sex segregation in undergraduate engineering majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzler, Elizabeth

    Gender inequality in engineering persists in spite of women reaching parity in college enrollments and degrees granted. To date, no analyses of educational sex segregation have comprehensively examined segregation within one discipline. To move beyond traditional methods of studying the long-standing stratification by field of study in higher education, I explore gender stratification within one field: engineering. This dissertation investigates why some engineering disciplines have a greater representation of women than other engineering disciplines. I assess the individual and institutional factors and conditions associated with women's representation in certain engineering departments and compare the mechanisms affecting women's and men's choice of majors. I use national data from the Engineering Workforce Commission, survey data from 21 schools in the Project to Assess Climate in Engineering study, and Carnegie Foundation classification information to study sex segregation in engineering majors from multiple perspectives: the individual, major, institution, and country. I utilize correlations, t-tests, cross-tabulations, log-linear modeling, multilevel logistic regression and weighted least squares regression to test the relative utility of alternative explanations for women's disproportionate representation across engineering majors. As a whole, the analyses illustrate the importance of context and environment for women's representation in engineering majors. Hypotheses regarding hostile climate and discrimination find wide support across different analyses, suggesting that women's under-representation in certain engineering majors is not a question of choice or ability. However, individual level factors such as having engineering coursework prior to college show an especially strong association with student choice of major. Overall, the analyses indicate that institutions matter, albeit less for women, and women's under-representation in engineering is not

  6. Biological substrates underpinning diagnosis of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, Etienne; French, Beverly

    2013-09-01

    Major depression is characterized by low mood, a reduced ability to experience pleasure and frequent cognitive, physiological and high anxiety symptoms. It is also the leading cause of years lost due to disability worldwide in women and men, reflecting a lifelong trajectory of recurring episodes, increasing severity and progressive treatment resistance. Yet, antidepressant drugs at best treat only one out of every two patients and have not fundamentally changed since their discovery by chance >50 yr ago. This status quo may reflect an exaggerated emphasis on a categorical disease classification that was not intended for biological research and on oversimplified gene-to-disease models for complex illnesses. Indeed, genetic, molecular and cellular findings in major depression suggest shared risk and continuous pathological changes with other brain-related disorders. So, an alternative is that pathological findings in major depression reflect changes in vulnerable brain-related biological modules, each with their own aetiological factors, pathogenic mechanisms and biological/environment moderators. In this model, pathological entities have low specificity for major depression and instead co-occur, combine and interact within individual subjects across disorders, contributing to the expression of biological endophenotypes and potentially clinical symptom dimensions. Here, we discuss current limitations in depression research, review concepts of gene-to-disease biological scales and summarize human post-mortem brain findings related to pyramidal neurons, γ-amino butyric acid neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, as prototypical brain circuit biological modules. Finally we discuss nested aetiological factors and implications for dimensional pathology. Evidence suggests that a focus on local cell circuits may provide an appropriate integration point and a critical link between underlying molecular mechanisms and neural network dysfunction in major depression.

  7. The SNARE protein family of Leishmania major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mottram Jeremy C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania major is a protozoan parasite with a highly polarised cell shape that depends upon endocytosis and exocytosis from a single area of the plasma membrane, the flagellar pocket. SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor adaptor proteins receptors are key components of the intracellular vesicle-mediated transports that take place in all eukaryotic cells. They are membrane-bound proteins that facilitate the docking and fusion of vesicles with organelles. The recent availability of the genome sequence of L. major has allowed us to assess the complement of SNAREs in the parasite and to investigate their location in comparison with metazoans. Results Bioinformatic searches of the L. major genome revealed a total of 27 SNARE domain-containing proteins that could be classified in structural groups by phylogenetic analysis. 25 of these possessed the expected features of functional SNAREs, whereas the other two could represent kinetoplastid-specific proteins that might act as regulators of the SNARE complexes. Other differences of Leishmania SNAREs were the absence of double SNARE domain-containing and of the brevin classes of these proteins. Members of the Qa group of Leishmania SNAREs showed differential expressions profiles in the two main parasite forms whereas their GFP-tagging and in vivo expression revealed localisations in the Golgi, late endosome/lysosome and near the flagellar pocket. Conclusion The early-branching eukaryote L. major apparently possess a SNARE repertoire that equals in number the one of metazoans such as Drosophila, showing that the machinery for vesicle fusion is well conserved throughout the eukaryotes. However, the analysis revealed the absence of certain types of SNAREs found in metazoans and yeast, while suggesting the presence of original SNAREs as well as others with unusual localisation. This study also presented the intracellular localisation of the L. major SNAREs from the Qa group

  8. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in college music majors and nonmusic majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Warner Henning

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence and absence of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs as well as DPOAE amplitudes were compared between college music majors and a control group of nonmusic majors. Participants included 28 music majors and 35 nonmusic majors enrolled at a university with ages ranging from 18-25 years. DPOAEs and hearing thresholds were measured bilaterally on all the participants. DPOAE amplitudes were analyzed at the following f2 frequencies: 1,187 Hz, 1,500 Hz, 1,906 Hz, 2,531 Hz, 3,031 Hz, 3812 Hz, 4,812 Hz, and 6,031 Hz. Significantly more music majors (7/28 than nonmusic majors (0/35 exhibited absent DPOAEs for at least one frequency in at least one ear. Both groups of students reported similar histories of recreational and occupational noise exposures that were unrelated to studying music, and none of the students reported high levels of noise exposure within the previous 48 h. There were no differences in audiometric thresholds between the groups at any frequency. At DPOAE f2 frequencies from 3,031 Hz to 6,031 Hz, nonsignificantly lower amplitudes of 2-4 dB were seen in the right ears of music majors versus nonmajors, and in the right ears of music majors playing brass instruments compared to music majors playing nonbrass instruments. Given the greater prevalence of absent DPOAEs in university music majors compared to nonmusic majors, it appears that early stages of cochlear damage may be occurring in this population. Additional research, preferably longitudinal and across multiple colleges/universities, would be beneficial to more definitively determine when the music students begin to show signs of cochlear damage, and to identify whether any particular subgroups of music majors are at a greater risk of cochlear damage.

  9. Major gene mutations and domestication of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashri, A.

    1989-01-01

    From the approximately 200,000 species of flowering plants known, only about 200 have been domesticated. The process has taken place in many regions over long periods. At present there is great interest in domesticating new species and developing new uses for existing ones in order to supply needed food, industrial raw materials, etc. It is proposed that major gene mutations were important in domestication; many key characters distinguishing cultivated from related wild species are controlled by one or very few major genes. The deliberate effort to domesticate new species requires at least the following: identification of needs and potential sources, establishment of suitable niches, choice of taxa to be domesticated, specification of the desired traits and key characters to be modified, as well as the potential role of induced mutations. (author). 14 refs

  10. Electromagnetic safety analysis during major disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chunming; Wang Yafei; Chen Zhi; Feng Kaiming

    2006-01-01

    The electromagnetic safety analysis during major disruption is important for safety analysis of the CH HCSB TBM. In this paper, using finite element method, the electromagnetic safety analysis of the CH HCSB TBM is carried out in consideration of major disruption. First, the finite element models of the CH HCSB TBM and its sub-module are established; second, the distributions of the induced eddy currents and electromagnetic forces on the whole CH HCSB TBM module and its sub-module are calculated; third, the torquemoment on whole CH HCSB TBM module and its sub-module are calculated from the distributions of the electromagnetic forces. Comparing the maximum allowable values of the parameters of the materials with the calculated data, the electromagnetic safety of the CH HCSB TBM is investigated. (authors)

  11. Major congenital anomalies in a Danish region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Birkelund, Anne Sofie

    2014-01-01

    congenital anomaly, 13.9% had a chromosomal anomaly and 7.7% were multiple congenital anomalies. The combined foetal and infant mortality in the study area was 11.6 per 1,000 births. 19% (2.2 per 1,000) of these deaths were foetuses and infants with major congenital anomalies. Combined foetal and infant......INTRODUCTION: This study describes the prevalence of congenital anomalies and changes over time in birth outcome, mortality and chronic maternal diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was based on population data from the EUROCAT registry covering the Funen County, Denmark, 1995......-2008. The registry covers live births, foetal deaths with a gestational age (GA) of 20 weeks or more, and terminations of pregnancy due to congenital anomalies (TOPFA). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of congenital anomalies was 2.70% (95% confidence interval: 2.58-2.80). The majority of cases had an isolated...

  12. Modelling and Simulation for Major Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Pacciani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a rise in Major Incidents with big impact on the citizens health and the society. Without the possibility of conducting live experiments when it comes to physical and/or toxic trauma, only an accurate in silico reconstruction allows us to identify organizational solutions with the best possible chance of success, in correlation with the limitations on available resources (e.g. medical team, first responders, treatments, transports, and hospitals availability and with the variability of the characteristic of event (e.g. type of incident, severity of the event and type of lesions. Utilizing modelling and simulation techniques, a simplified mathematical model of physiological evolution for patients involved in physical and toxic trauma incident scenarios has been developed and implemented. The model formalizes the dynamics, operating standards and practices of medical response and the main emergency service in the chain of emergency management during a Major Incident.

  13. Major depressive disorder: reification and (maybe) rheostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, S B

    2015-12-01

    The heterogeneity of clinical syndromes subsumed by diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) is regarded by some as a reason to abandon or modify the criteria. However, heterogeneity may be unavoidable because of the biopsychosocial complexity of depression. MDD may be characterised by complexities that cannot be distilled down to any brief set of diagnostic criteria. Psychiatrists and psychiatric epidemiologists may need to revise their expectations of this diagnosis in order to avoid over-estimating its ability to guide the selection of treatments and prediction of prognosis. An opposing perspective is that of reification, in which the diagnosis is viewed as being more real than it really is. The concept of rheostasis may help to explain some features of this condition, such as why major depressive episodes sometimes seem understandable or even adaptive (e.g. in the context of bereavement) whereas at other times such episodes are inexplicable and maladaptive.

  14. Statistical mechanics of the majority game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, P; Marsili, M

    2003-01-01

    The majority game, modelling a system of heterogeneous agents trying to behave in a similar way, is introduced and studied using methods of statistical mechanics. The stationary states of the game are given by the (local) minima of a particular Hopfield-like Hamiltonian. On the basis of replica symmetric calculations, we draw the phase diagram, which contains the analogue of a retrieval phase. The number of metastable states is estimated using the annealed approximation. The results are confronted with extensive numerical simulations

  15. Mechanical components: fabrication of major reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, S.

    1985-01-01

    The paper examines the validity of criticisms of quality assurance of mechanical plant and welded products within major reactor structures, taking into account experience gained on the AGR's. Various constructive recommendations are made aimed at furthering the objectives of quality assurance in the nuclear industry and making it more cost-effective. Current levels of quality related costs in the fabrication industry are provided as a basis for discussion. (U.K.)

  16. Information support for major public events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The unique capabilities of the IAEA illicit trafficking database is used to provide information on and assesment of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials to national authorities in charge of nuclear security of major public events. The information communicated to state parties cooperating with IAEA is on incidences confirmed to the agency on illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials and also incidences reported in open sources which have not been confirmed.

  17. Frequent flyer business travelers: major exposure hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Olga S; Randolph, Susan A; Ostendorf, Judith S

    2005-02-01

    Bagshaw (2004) notes "the modern commercial aircraft cabin is maintained with adequate environmental control for the comfort of most healthy individuals" (p. 417). Occupational health nurses frequently deal with a population that may include unhealthy individuals or those with pre-existing conditions. It is critical for occupational health nurses to stay current with major hazards faced by frequent flyer business travelers to assist in identifying and preventing adverse health effects associated with these exposures.

  18. Plasma fibronectin in patients undergoing major surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, M.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma fibronectin in patients undergoing major surgery had been determined before and after operation. The study was done on 15 patients and 15 normal healthy individuals. The study revealed that patients subjected to major operation, their fibronectin level was normal before operation followed by reduction one day post-operation. After one week, fibronectin level raised again nearly to the pre-operations levels. The probable mechanisms of fibronectin in healing processes were discussed. Fibronectin (FN) is a family of structurally and immunologically related high molecular weight glycoproteins that are present in many cell surfaces, in extracellular fluids, in connective tissues and in most membranes. Interaction with certain discrete extracellular substances, such as a glucosaminoglycans (e.g. heparin), fibrin and collagen and with cell surface structure seem to account for many of its biological activities, among which are regulation of adhesion, spreading and locomotion (Mosesson and amrani, 1980). The concentration of Fn in human plasma decreases after extensive destruction such as that occurs in major surgery, burns or other trauma. This decrease has been generally though to be due to increased consumption of soluble plasma Fn in opsonization of particulate and soluble debris from circulation by the reticuloendothelial (RE) system. Fn rapidly appears in injury areas, in experimentally induced blisters, wounded and epithelium tissues (Petersen et al., 1985). Fn accumulates at times of increased vascular permeability and it is produced by cell of blood vessels in response to injury

  19. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The energy industry generally and petroleum and natural gas operations in particular are frequently reacting to a variety of unsettling forces. Falling oil prices, economic upswings, currency devaluations, increasingly rigorous environmental quality standards, deregulation of electricity markets, and continued advances in exploration and production technology were among the challenges and opportunities to the industry in 1997. To analyze the extent to which these and other developments have affected energy industry financial and operating performance, strategies, and industry structure, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains the Financial Reporting Systems (FRS). Through Form EIA-28, major US energy companies annually report to the FRS. Financial and operating information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production (upstream), petroleum refining and marketing (downstream), other energy operations, and nonenergy business. Performance Profiles of Major Producers 1997 examines the interplays of energy markets, companies` strategies, and government policies (in 1997 and in historical context) that gave rise to the results given here. The report also analyzes other key aspects of energy company financial performance as seen through the multifaceted lens provided by the FRS data and complementary data for industry overall. 41 figs., 77 tabs.

  20. Music Piracy--Differences in the Ethical Perceptions of Business Majors and Music Business Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Susan Lee

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the author investigated the ethical perceptions of business majors and music business majors from a private university and observed whether the taking of a business ethics course affected students' perceptions regarding the ethical aspects of downloading, sharing, copying, and selling copyrighted music from Internet and non-Internet…

  1. Age at Menarche and Choice of College Major: Implications for STEM Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner-Shuman, Anna; Waren, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Even though boys and girls in childhood perform similarly in math and spatial thinking, after puberty fewer young women pursue majors that emphasize abilities such as science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in college. If postpubertal feminization contributes to a lower likelihood of choosing STEM majors, then young women who enter…

  2. Science Motivation Questionnaire II: Validation with Science Majors and Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Brickman, Peggy; Armstrong, Norris; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of social cognitive theory, the motivation of students to learn science in college courses was examined. The students--367 science majors and 313 nonscience majors--responded to the Science Motivation Questionnaire II, which assessed five motivation components: intrinsic motivation, self-determination, self-efficacy, career…

  3. Biological characterization of venom peptides from the neotropical social waps Polistes major major (Dominican Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slaninová, Jiřina; Fučík, Vladimír; Borovičková, Lenka; Čeřovský, Václav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 151, S1 (2007), s. 87-89 ISSN 1213-8118. [Pharmacological Days. Czech and Slovak Pharmacological Meeting /57./. Olomouc, 12.09.2007-14.09.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : venom peptides * Polistes major major Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  4. Molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens in cattle from Southwestern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerihun Hailemariam

    Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases (TBDs cause significant losses among livestock and impact the livelihoods of resource-poor farming communities worldwide. In Ethiopia, detailed studies on the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs in cattle using sensitive molecular detection methods are scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and species composition of bovine TBPs of veterinary significance in local cattle populations. A comprehensive cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in cattle populations of Illubabor zone in Southwestern Ethiopia from June to August 2013. For this purpose, blood samples were collected from 392 cattle. A combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR and a Reverse Line Blot (RLB hybridization assay was employed for the detection of TBPs in these samples. The PCR/RLB results of the 392 blood samples indicated a high overall prevalence of 96.9% for TBPs, including Theileria mutans (66.1%, Theileria orientalis (51.8%, Anaplasma sp. Omatjenne (25.5%, Anaplasma marginale (14.5%, Babesia bigemina (14.0% and Theileria velifera (13.0% and minor occurrences of Ehrlichia ruminantium (0.5% and Ehrlichia minasensis (0.26%. Moreover, three novel Anaplasma genotypes were detected in bovine blood samples. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that they most likely represent three, but at least two, new species. The prevalence of the three novel Anaplasma species, preliminary designated as Anaplasma sp. Hadesa, Anaplasma sp. Saso and Anaplasma sp. Dedessa, was 12.5%, 14.3% and 5.6%, respectively. Overall, a total of 227 cattle (57.9% were found to be co-infected with two or more TBPs simultaneously and 86 different species combinations were observed. The findings show a very high burden of infection of cattle with TBPs in Ethiopia. The high frequency of co-infections suggests that clinical manifestations might be complex. Further research is required to determine the pathogenicity, host cell types and vector of

  5. Understanding Anaplasmataceae pathogenesis using ‘Omics’ approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic ePruneau

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how Omics approaches improve our understanding of Anaplasmataceae pathogenesis, through a global and integrative strategy to identify genes and proteins involved in biochemical pathways key for pathogen-host-vector interactions.The Anaplasmataceae family comprises obligate intracellular bacteria mainly transmitted by arthropods. These bacteria are responsible for major human and animal endemic and emerging infectious diseases with important economic and public health impacts. In order to improve disease control strategies, it is essential to better understand their pathogenesis. Our work focused on four Anaplasmataceae, which cause important animal, human and zoonotic diseases: Anaplasma marginale, A. phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. ruminantium. Wolbachia spp. an endosymbiont of arthropods was also included in this review as a model of a non-pathogenic Anaplasmataceae.A gap analysis on Omics approaches on Anaplasmataceae was performed, which highlighted a lack of studies on the genes and proteins involved in the infection of hosts and vectors. Furthermore, most of the studies have been done on the pathogen itself, mainly on infectious free-living forms and rarely on intracellular forms. In order to perform a transcriptomic analysis of the intracellular stage of development, researchers developed methods to enrich bacterial transcripts from infected cells. These methods are described in this paper. Bacterial genes encoding outer membrane proteins, post-translational modifications, eukaryotic repeated motif proteins, proteins involved in osmotic and oxidative stress and hypothetical proteins have been identified to play a key role in Anaplasmataceae pathogenesis. Further investigations on the function of these outer membrane proteins and hypothetical proteins will be essential to confirm their role in the pathogenesis. Our work underlines the need for further studies in this domain and on host and vector responses

  6. Major gene mutations in fruit tree domestication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel-Roy, P.

    1989-01-01

    Though fruit gathering from the wild began long before domestication, fruit tree domestication started only after the establishment of grain agriculture. Banana, fig, date, grape and olive were among the first fruit trees domesticated. Most fruit trees are outbreeders, highly heterozygous and vegetatively propagated. Knowledge of genetics and economic traits controlled by major genes is limited. Ease of vegetative propagation has played a prominent part in domestication; advances in propagation technology will play a role in domestication of new crops. Changes toward domestication affected by major genes include self-fertility in peach, apricot and sour cherry, while the emergence of self-fertile almond populations is more recent and due probably to introgression from Amygdalus webbii. Self-compatibility in the sweet cherry has been attained only by pollen irradiation. A single gene controls sex in Vitis. Wild grapes are dioecious, with most domesticated cultivars hermaphrodite, and only a few females. In the papaya changes from dioecism to hermaphroditism have also occurred. Self-compatible systems have also been selected during domestication in Rubus. Changes towards parthenocarpy and seedlessness during domestication occurred in the banana, citrus, grape, fig and pineapple. In the banana, parthenocarpy is due to three complementary dominant genes; stenospermocarpy in the grape depends on two complementary recessive genes; parthenocarpy and sterility in citrus seems more complicated; however, it can be induced in genetic material of suitable background with ease by irradiation. Presence of persistent syconia in the fig is controlled by a mutant allele P dominant to wild +. Thornlessness in blackberry is recessive, while in the pineapple spineless forms are dominant. Changes affecting fruit composition owing to major genes include the disappearance of amygdalin present in bitter almonds (bitter kernel recessive to sweet), shell hardness in almond, and a recessive

  7. Thyroid activity in patients with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipcević, Tamara; Pivac, Nela; Kozarić-Kovacić, Dragica; Mück-Seler, Dorotea

    2008-09-01

    Hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis dysfunction has been associated with pathophysiology of major depression. The aim of the study was to determine serum levels of total 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating-hormone (TSH) in patients with major depression and healthy controls. The study included 53 medication-free patients with depression and 49 healthy controls. Exclusion criteria for patients was: other axis-I and axis-II diagnoses, intensive psychotherapy or electroconvulsive therapy, prior clinical and/or laboratory evidence of hypo- or hyperthyroidism, alcohol or nicotine dependence, pregnancy, hormone supplement therapy, somatic illnesses (diabetes, renal or hepatic disorders), infections or autoimmune diseases, recent surgical treatment or significantly changed body weight. For controls: the presence of psychiatric disorders and/or thyroid dysfunctions. The diagnosis of major depression was made using structured clinical interview based on DSM-IV criteria. The results showed significantly lower T3 and TSH levels in patients compared to controls. There was no significant difference in T4 values between patients with depression and control subjects. The results showing altered levels of thyroid hormones in depression indicate that further research on thyroid hormone activity can contribute to the better understanding of the biological basis of depression. Based on the high frequency of the subtle neuroendocrine disorders coexisting with depression, the association of thyroid abnormalities and depression should not be underestimated. Future research should identify different behavioral endophenotypes characteristic for depression, which would greatly facilitate delineating the biological phenomena associated with this psychiatric illness.

  8. Parvalbumin--the major tropical fish allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dawn Li-Chern; Neo, Keng Hwee; Yi, Fong Cheng; Chua, Kaw Yan; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Giam, Yoke Chin; Van Bever, Hugo P S; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-08-01

    Fish allergy is common in countries where consumption is high. Asian nations are amongst the world's largest consumers of fish but the allergen profiles of tropical fish are unknown. This study sought to evaluate the allergenicity of four commonly consumed tropical fish, the threadfin (Polynemus indicus), Indian anchovy (Stolephorus indicus), pomfret (Pampus chinensis) and tengirri (Scomberomorus guttatus). Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity with parvalbumin of cod fish (Gad c 1), the major fish allergen, was also studied. Detection of tropical fish and cod specific-IgE was performed by UniCap assay, and skin prick tests were also carried out. The IgE-binding components of tropical fish were identified using IgE immunoblot techniques, and cross-reactivity with Gad c 1 was assessed by ELISA inhibition and IgE immunoblot inhibition. Clinically, nine of 10 patients studied were allergic to multiple fish. All patients exhibited detectable specific-IgE to cod fish (10 of 10 skin prick test positive, eight of 10 UniCap assay positive) despite lack of previous exposure. The major allergen of the four tropical fish was the 12-kDa parvalbumin. IgE cross-reactivity of these allergens to Gad c 1 was observed to be moderate to high in the tropical fish studied. Parvalbumins are the major allergens in commonly consumed tropical fish. They are cross-reactive with each other as well as with Gad c 1. Commercial tests for cod fish appear to be sufficient for the detection of tropical fish specific-IgE.

  9. Access to major overseas research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolderman, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper will describe four schemes which have been established to permit Australian researchers access to some of the most advanced overseas research facilities. These include, access to Major Research Facilities Program, the Australian National Beamline Facility at the Photon Factory, the Australian Synchrotron Research Program and the ISIS Agreement. The details of each of these programs is discussed and the statistics on the scientific output provided. All programs are managed on behalf of the Department of Industry, Science and Tourism by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation. One hundred and thirteen senior scientists plus forty, one postgraduate, students were supported through these schemes during the 1996-1997 financial year

  10. Enhancing the Accounting Major with Online Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hershey Friedman Ph.D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Accounting majors who wish to be successful in life must learn to acquire knowledge using all kinds of platforms. The belief that the only way people can learn is by classroom instruction is not supported by research. The authors show how online learning is an important tool for achieving the various goals of accounting education that should include creativity, collaboration, communication, critical thinking and problem solving. The authors conclude that the optimal method to teach accounting is by combining face-to-face learning with on-line learning.

  11. Arthroscopy Journal Prizes Are Major Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowitz, James H; Brand, Jefferson C; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    According to the Harvard Business Review, the optimal number of people in a decision-making group is no more than 8. Thus, it is no surprise that 18 Arthroscopy journal associate editors had difficulty making a major decision. In the end, 18 editors did successfully select the 2015 winner of the Best Comparative Study Prize. All studies have limitations, but from a statistical standpoint, the editors believe that the conclusions of the winning study are likely correct. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prediction of Major Vascular Events after Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovbiagele, Bruce; Goldstein, Larry B.; Amarenco, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identifying patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) at high risk of major vascular events (MVEs; stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death) may help optimize the intensity of secondary preventive interventions. We evaluated the relationships between...... were analyzed. Hazard ratios (HRs) from Cox regression models were used to determine the risk of subsequent MVEs based on the FCRS predicting 20% or more 10-year coronary heart disease risk. The novel risk model was derived based on multivariable modeling with backward selection. Model discrimination...

  13. Women's decision to major in STEM fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Stephanie

    This paper explores the lived experiences of high school female students who choose to enter into STEM fields, and describes the influencing factors which steered these women towards majors in computer science, engineering and biology. Utilizing phenomenological methodology, this study seeks to understand the essence of women's decisions to enter into STEM fields and further describe how the decision-making process varies for women in high female enrollment fields, like biology, as compared with low enrollment fields like, computer science and engineering. Using Bloom's 3-Stage Theory, this study analyzes how relationships, experiences and barriers influenced women towards, and possibly away, from STEM fields. An analysis of women's experiences highlight that support of family, sustained experience in a STEM program during high school as well as the presence of an influential teacher were all salient factors in steering women towards STEM fields. Participants explained that influential teacher worked individually with them, modified and extended assignments and also steered participants towards coursework and experiences. This study also identifies factors, like guidance counselors as well as personal challenges, which inhibited participant's path to STEM fields. Further, through analyzing all six participants' experiences, it is clear that a linear model, like Bloom's 3-Stage Model, with limited ability to include potential barriers inhibited the ability to capture the essence of each participant's decision-making process. Therefore, a revised model with no linear progression which allows for emerging factors, like personal challenges, has been proposed; this model focuses on how interest in STEM fields begins to develop and is honed and then mastered. This study also sought to identify key differences in the paths of female students pursuing different majors. The findings of this study suggest that the path to computer science and engineering is limited. Computer

  14. India opens 12th major port

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadkarni, S.

    2001-05-01

    It has been a long time coming, but Ennore has become the first Indian port to be corporatised. Its inauguration provides a benchmark for turnkey projects. Most of the major components such as the construction of the breakwaters and the two berths for coal handling and dredging works at the port basin and approach channel have been completed. The article describes the origins of the project and its costing, the construction of breakwaters, equipment for conveying and unloading coal, the port infrastructure, and a planned second expansion phase. 4 photos.

  15. Reduced collagen accumulation after major surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L N; Kallehave, F; Karlsmark, T

    1996-01-01

    The preoperative and postoperative wound-healing capacity of 23 patients undergoing elective major abdominal, thoracic or urological surgery was tested objectively by the subcutaneous accumulation of hydroxyproline and proline in an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) tube. Before scheduled...... surgery two ePTFE tubes were implanted for removal after 5 and 10 days. This was repeated for each patient immediately after surgery. After 10 days a higher amount of hydroxyproline was measured before than after operation (median 2.91 (range 0.37-14.45) versus 1.45 (range 0.26-6.94) micrograms/cm, P = 0...

  16. Anatomy and biomechanics of psoas major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogduk, N; Pearcy, M; Hadfield, G

    1992-05-01

    The fascicular anatomy of the psoas major was determined by dissection in three cadavers. Its actions on the lumbar spine in the sagittal plane were modelled on erect, flexion, and extension radiographs of ten adult males. Calculations revealed that psoas exerts only very small moments that tend to extend the upper lumbar spine and to flex the lower lumbar spine, but at maximum contraction the psoas exerts severe compression forces on the lumbar segments, and large shear forces. Copyright © 1992. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Venous Thromboembolism Following Major Orthopedic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    CIONAC FLORESCU, Simona; ANASTASE, Denisa-Madalina; MUNTEANU, Ana-Maria; STOICA, Ioan Cristian; ANTONESCU, Dinu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important complication of major orthopedic surgery (total hip arthroplasty-THA, total knee arthroplasty-TKA, hip fracture surgery-FHS) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite this, not all patients receive an appropriate prophylaxis, often due to a disproportionate fear of bleeding complications. A challenge in the management of VTE prophylaxis is to balance the benefits of the treatment with the risk of bleeding. In this article, we review the latest guidelines recommendations regarding prevention of postoperative VTE in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. PMID:24371484

  18. Majorization uncertainty relations for mixed quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchała, Zbigniew; Rudnicki, Łukasz; Krawiec, Aleksandra; Życzkowski, Karol

    2018-04-01

    Majorization uncertainty relations are generalized for an arbitrary mixed quantum state ρ of a finite size N. In particular, a lower bound for the sum of two entropies characterizing the probability distributions corresponding to measurements with respect to two arbitrary orthogonal bases is derived in terms of the spectrum of ρ and the entries of a unitary matrix U relating both bases. The results obtained can also be formulated for two measurements performed on a single subsystem of a bipartite system described by a pure state, and consequently expressed as an uncertainty relation for the sum of conditional entropies.

  19. Placebo and antidepressant treatment for major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Esben

    2010-01-01

    Antidepressant medication is generally considered the primary treatment for major depressive disorders (MDD), but antidepressant treatment has recently approached a crisis with shrinking specific effects and growing placebo responses in current trials. The aim of the paper is to review the placebo...... problem within antidepressant treatment for MDD, and to draw lines to similar problems within the field of psychotherapy. Although clinicians might profit from the large placebo response in their treatment of MDD, the small differences between active treatment and placebo groups found in controlled...

  20. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Frase, Lukas

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we will introduce interpersonal psychotherapy as an effective short-term treatment strategy in major depression. In IPT, a reciprocal relationship between interpersonal problems and depressive symptoms is regarded as important in the onset and as a maintaining factor of depressive disorders. Therefore, interpersonal problems are the main therapeutic targets of this approach. Four interpersonal problem areas are defined, which include interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, complicated bereavement, and interpersonal deficits. Patients are helped to break the interactions between depressive symptoms and their individual interpersonal difficulties. The goals are to achieve a reduction in depressive symptoms and an improvement in interpersonal functioning through improved communication, expression of affect, and proactive engagement with the current interpersonal network. The efficacy of this focused and structured psychotherapy in the treatment of acute unipolar major depressive disorder is summarized. This article outlines the background of interpersonal psychotherapy, the process of therapy, efficacy, and the expansion of the evidence base to different subgroups of depressed patients.

  1. Restless legs syndrome associated with major diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard; Högl, Birgit; Paulus, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Recent publications on both the genetics and environmental factors of restless legs syndrome (RLS) defined as a clinical disorder suggest that overlapping genetic risk factors may play a role in primary (idiopathic) and secondary (symptomatic) RLS. Following a systematic literature search of RLS associated with comorbidities, we identified an increased prevalence of RLS only in iron deficiency and kidney disease. In cardiovascular disease, arterial hypertension, diabetes, migraine, and Parkinson disease, the methodology of studies was poor, but an association might be possible. There is insufficient evidence for conditions such as anemia (without iron deficiency), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, multiple sclerosis, headache, stroke, narcolepsy, and ataxias. Based on possible gene–microenvironmental interaction, the classifications primary and secondary RLS may suggest an inappropriate causal relation. We recognize that in some conditions, treatment of the underlying disease should be achieved as far as possible to reduce or eliminate RLS symptoms. RLS might be seen as a continuous spectrum with a major genetic contribution at one end and a major environmental or comorbid disease contribution at the other. PMID:26944272

  2. Developmentally regulated sphingolipid degradation in Leishmania major.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Zhang

    Full Text Available Leishmania parasites alternate between extracellular promastigotes in sandflies and intracellular amastigotes in mammals. These protozoans acquire sphingolipids (SLs through de novo synthesis (to produce inositol phosphorylceramide and salvage (to obtain sphingomyelin from the host. A single ISCL (Inositol phosphoSphingolipid phospholipase C-Like enzyme is responsible for the degradation of both inositol phosphorylceramide (the IPC hydrolase or IPCase activity and sphingomyelin (the SMase activity. Recent studies of a L. major ISCL-null mutant (iscl(- indicate that SL degradation is required for promastigote survival in stationary phase, especially under acidic pH. ISCL is also essential for L. major proliferation in mammals. To further understand the role of ISCL in Leishmania growth and virulence, we introduced a sole IPCase or a sole SMase into the iscl(- mutant. Results showed that restoration of IPCase only complemented the acid resistance defect in iscl(- promastigotes and improved their survival in macrophages, but failed to recover virulence in mice. In contrast, a sole SMase fully restored parasite infectivity in mice but was unable to reverse the promastigote defects in iscl(-. These findings suggest that SL degradation in Leishmania possesses separate roles in different stages: while the IPCase activity is important for promastigote survival and acid tolerance, the SMase activity is required for amastigote proliferation in mammals. Consistent with these findings, ISCL was preferentially expressed in stationary phase promastigotes and amastigotes. Together, our results indicate that SL degradation by Leishmania is critical for parasites to establish and sustain infection in the mammalian host.

  3. Major Depression as a Complex Dynamic System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélique O J Cramer

    Full Text Available In this paper, we characterize major depression (MD as a complex dynamic system in which symptoms (e.g., insomnia and fatigue are directly connected to one another in a network structure. We hypothesize that individuals can be characterized by their own network with unique architecture and resulting dynamics. With respect to architecture, we show that individuals vulnerable to developing MD are those with strong connections between symptoms: e.g., only one night of poor sleep suffices to make a particular person feel tired. Such vulnerable networks, when pushed by forces external to the system such as stress, are more likely to end up in a depressed state; whereas networks with weaker connections tend to remain in or return to a non-depressed state. We show this with a simulation in which we model the probability of a symptom becoming 'active' as a logistic function of the activity of its neighboring symptoms. Additionally, we show that this model potentially explains some well-known empirical phenomena such as spontaneous recovery as well as accommodates existing theories about the various subtypes of MD. To our knowledge, we offer the first intra-individual, symptom-based, process model with the potential to explain the pathogenesis and maintenance of major depression.

  4. An animated depiction of major depression epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patten Scott B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic estimates are now available for a variety of parameters related to major depression epidemiology (incidence, prevalence, etc.. These estimates are potentially useful for policy and planning purposes, but it is first necessary that they be synthesized into a coherent picture of the epidemiology of the condition. Several attempts to do so have been made using mathematical modeling procedures. However, this information is not easy to communicate to users of epidemiological data (clinicians, administrators, policy makers. Methods In this study, up-to-date data on major depression epidemiology were integrated using a discrete event simulation model. The mathematical model was animated in Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML to create a visual, rather than mathematical, depiction of the epidemiology. Results Consistent with existing literature, the model highlights potential advantages of population health strategies that emphasize access to effective long-term treatment. The paper contains a web-link to the animation. Conclusion Visual animation of epidemiological results may be an effective knowledge translation tool. In clinical practice, such animations could potentially assist with patient education and enhanced long-term compliance.

  5. Biomarkers for Major Depressive Disorder: Economic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogavac-Stanojevic, Natasa; Lakic, Dragana

    2016-11-01

    Preclinical Research Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a major psychiatric illness and it is predicted to be the second leading cause of disability by 2020 with a lifetime prevalence of about 13%. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly used therapeutic class for MDD. However, response to SSRI treatment varies considerably between patients. Biomarkers of treatment response may enable clinicians to target the appropriate drug for each patient. Biomarkers need to have accuracy in real life, sensitivity, specificity, and relevance to depression. Introduction of MDD biomarkers into the health care system can increase the overall cost of clinical diagnosis of patients. Because of that, decisions to allocate health research funding must be based on drug effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. The assessment of MDD biomarkers should include reliable evidence of associated drug effectiveness, adverse events and consequences (reduced productivity and quality of life, disability) and effectiveness of alternative approaches, other drug classes or behavioral or alternative therapies. In addition, all the variables included in an economic model (probabilities, outcomes, and costs) should be based on reliable evidence gained from the literature-ideally meta-analyses-and the evidence should also be determined by informed and specific expert opinion. Early assessment can guide decisions about whether or not to continue test development, and ideally to optimize the process. Drug Dev Res 77 : 374-378, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Major evolutionary transitions in ant agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Ted R; Brady, Seán G

    2008-04-08

    Agriculture is a specialized form of symbiosis that is known to have evolved in only four animal groups: humans, bark beetles, termites, and ants. Here, we reconstruct the major evolutionary transitions that produced the five distinct agricultural systems of the fungus-growing ants, the most well studied of the nonhuman agriculturalists. We do so with reference to the first fossil-calibrated, multiple-gene, molecular phylogeny that incorporates the full range of taxonomic diversity within the fungus-growing ant tribe Attini. Our analyses indicate that the original form of ant agriculture, the cultivation of a diverse subset of fungal species in the tribe Leucocoprineae, evolved approximately 50 million years ago in the Neotropics, coincident with the early Eocene climatic optimum. During the past 30 million years, three known ant agricultural systems, each involving a phylogenetically distinct set of derived fungal cultivars, have separately arisen from the original agricultural system. One of these derived systems subsequently gave rise to the fifth known system of agriculture, in which a single fungal species is cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Leaf-cutter ants evolved remarkably recently ( approximately 8-12 million years ago) to become the dominant herbivores of the New World tropics. Our analyses identify relict, extant attine ant species that occupy phylogenetic positions that are transitional between the agricultural systems. Intensive study of those species holds particular promise for clarifying the sequential accretion of ecological and behavioral characters that produced each of the major ant agricultural systems.

  7. Global Occurrence of Major Elements in Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybeck, M.

    2003-12-01

    Major dissolved ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, and CO32-) and dissolved silica (SiO2) in rivers have been studied for more than a hundred years for multiple reasons: (i) geochemists focus on the origins of elements and control processes, and on the partitioning between dissolved and particulate forms; (ii) physical geographers use river chemistry to determine chemical denudation rates and their spatial distribution; (iii) biogeochemists are concerned with the use of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, silica species, and other nutrients by terrestrial and aquatic biota; (iv) oceanographers need to know the dissolved inputs to the coastal zones, for which rivers play the dominant role; (v) hydrobiologists and ecologists are interested in the temporal and spatial distribution of ions, nutrients, organic carbon, and pH in various water bodies; (vi) water users need to know if waters comply with their standards for potable water, irrigation, and industrial uses.The concentrations of the major ions are commonly expressed in mg L-1; they are also reported in meq L-1 or μeq L-1, which permits a check of the ionic balance of an analysis: the sum of cations (Σ+ in eq L-1) should equal the sum of anions (Σ- in eq L-1). Dissolved silica is generally not ionized at pH values commonly found in rivers; its concentration is usually expressed in mg L-1 or in μmol L-1. Ionic contents can also be expressed as percent of Σ+ or Σ- (%Ci), which simplifies the determination of ionic types. Ionic ratios (Ci/Cj) in eq eq-1 are also often tabulated (Na+/Cl-, Ca2+/Mg2+, Cl-/SO42-, etc.). As a significant fraction of sodium can be derived from atmospheric sea salt and from sedimentary halite, a chloride-corrected sodium concentration is commonly reported (Na#=Na+-Cl- (in meq L-1)). The export rate of ions and silica, or the yield (YCa2+, YSiO2) at a given station is the average mass transported per year divided by the drainage area: it is expressed in units of t km-2 yr-1

  8. Genetic Diversity of Tick-Borne Rickettsial Pathogens; Insights Gained from Distant Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Aguilar Pierlé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to capture genetic variation with unprecedented resolution improves our understanding of bacterial populations and their ability to cause disease. The goal of the pathogenomics era is to define genetic diversity that results in disease. Despite the economic losses caused by vector-borne bacteria in the Order Rickettsiales, little is known about the genetic variants responsible for observed phenotypes. The tick-transmitted rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale infects cattle in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, including Australia. Genomic analysis of North American A. marginale strains reveals a closed core genome defined by high levels of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs. Here we report the first genome sequences and comparative analysis for Australian strains that differ in virulence and transmissibility. A list of genetic differences that segregate with phenotype was evaluated for the ability to distinguish the attenuated strain from virulent field strains. Phylogenetic analyses of the Australian strains revealed a marked evolutionary distance from all previously sequenced strains. SNP analysis showed a strikingly reduced genetic diversity between these strains, with the smallest number of SNPs detected between any two A. marginale strains. The low diversity between these phenotypically distinct bacteria presents a unique opportunity to identify the genetic determinants of virulence and transmission.

  9. Subcortical brain alterations in major depressive disorder : findings from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmaal, L.; Veltman, D. J.; van Erp, T. G. M.; Saemann, P. G.; Frodl, T.; Jahanshad, N.; Loehrer, E.; Tiemeier, H.; Hofman, A.; Niessen, W. J.; Vernooij, M. W.; Ikram, M. A.; Wittfeld, K.; Grabe, H. J.; Block, A.; Hegenscheid, K.; Voelzke, H.; Hoehn, D.; Czisch, M.; Lagopoulos, J.; Hatton, S. N.; Hickie, I. B.; Goya-Maldonado, R.; Kraemer, B.; Gruber, O.; Couvy-Duchesne, B.; Renteria, M. E.; Strike, L. T.; Mills, N. T.; de Zubicaray, G. I.; McMahon, K. L.; Medland, S. E.; Martin, N. G.; Gillespie, N. A.; Wright, M. J.; Hall, G.B.; MacQueen, G. M.; Frey, E. M.; Carballedo, A.; van Velzen, L. S.; van Tol, M. J.; van der Wee, N. J.; Veer, I. M.; Walter, H.; Schnell, K.; Schramm, E.; Normann, C.; Schoepf, D.; Konrad, C.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.

    The pattern of structural brain alterations associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unresolved. This is in part due to small sample sizes of neuroimaging studies resulting in limited statistical power, disease heterogeneity and the complex interactions between clinical

  10. Human major histocompatibility complex contains genes for the major heat shock protein HSP70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, C.A.; Dunham, I.; Campbell, R.D.; Trowsdale, J.

    1989-01-01

    Little is known as to why a large number of human diseases are influenced by the major histocompatibility complex. In some cases, a direct involvement of the products of the polymorphic class I and class II, as well as the less variable products of the class III, genes has been proposed. During characterization of the class III region for the presence of additional loci, the authors have located a duplicated locus encoding the major heat shock protein HSP70 between the complement and tumor necrosis factor genes. The HSP70 loci are 12 kilobases apart and lie 92 kilobases telomeric of the C2 gene. As HSP70 proteins have been linked with a protective role during and after cellular stress, and HSP70 analogues are often presented as antigens in bacterial and protozoal infections, this finding may have major implications with regard to the major histocompatibility complex and associated diseases

  11. Human major histocompatibility complex contains genes for the major heat shock protein HSP70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargent, C.A.; Dunham, I.; Campbell, R.D. (Medical Research Council Immunochemistry Unit , Oxford (England)); Trowsdale, J. (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (England))

    1989-03-01

    Little is known as to why a large number of human diseases are influenced by the major histocompatibility complex. In some cases, a direct involvement of the products of the polymorphic class I and class II, as well as the less variable products of the class III, genes has been proposed. During characterization of the class III region for the presence of additional loci, the authors have located a duplicated locus encoding the major heat shock protein HSP70 between the complement and tumor necrosis factor genes. The HSP70 loci are 12 kilobases apart and lie 92 kilobases telomeric of the C2 gene. As HSP70 proteins have been linked with a protective role during and after cellular stress, and HSP70 analogues are often presented as antigens in bacterial and protozoal infections, this finding may have major implications with regard to the major histocompatibility complex and associated diseases.

  12. Implementing Major Trauma Audit in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, Conor; Cronin, Marina; Cahill, Fiona; Geary, Una; Houlihan, Patricia; Woodford, Maralyn; Lecky, Fiona; Mealy, Ken; Crowley, Philip

    2016-01-01

    There are 27 receiving trauma hospitals in the Republic of Ireland. There has not been an audit system in place to monitor and measure processes and outcomes of care. The National Office of Clinical Audit (NOCA) is now working to implement Major Trauma Audit (MTA) in Ireland using the well-established National Health Service (NHS) UK Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN). The aim of this report is to highlight the implementation process of MTA in Ireland to raise awareness of MTA nationally and share lessons that may be of value to other health systems undertaking the development of MTA. The National Trauma Audit Committee of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, consisting of champions and stakeholders in trauma care, in 2010 advised on the adaptation of TARN for Ireland. In 2012, the Emergency Medicine Program endorsed TARN and in setting up the National Emergency Medicine Audit chose MTA as the first audit project. A major trauma governance group was established representing stakeholders in trauma care, a national project co-ordinator was recruited and a clinical lead nominated. Using Survey Monkey, the chief executives of all trauma receiving hospitals were asked to identify their hospital's trauma governance committee, trauma clinical lead and their local trauma data co-ordinator. Hospital Inpatient Enquiry systems were used to identify to hospitals an estimate of their anticipated trauma audit workload. There are 25 of 27 hospitals now collecting data using the TARN trauma audit platform. These hospitals have provided MTA Clinical Leads, allocated data co-ordinators and incorporated MTA reports formally into their clinical governance, quality and safety committee meetings. There has been broad acceptance of the NOCA escalation policy by hospitals in appreciation of the necessity for unexpected audit findings to stimulate action. Major trauma audit measures trauma patient care processes and outcomes of care to drive quality improvement at hospital and

  13. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Morgan, Craig D.; Bon, Roger L.

    2003-01-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m 3 ). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m 3 ) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the third quarter of the first project year (January 1 through March 31, 2003). This work included gathering field data and analyzing best practices in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah, and the Colorado portion of the Paradox Basin. Best practices used in oil fields of the eastern Uinta Basin consist of conversion of all geophysical well logs into digital form, running small fracture treatments, fingerprinting oil samples from each producing zone, running spinner surveys biannually, mapping each producing zone, and drilling on 80-acre (32 ha) spacing. These practices ensure that induced fractures do not extend vertically out of the intended zone, determine the percentage each zone contributes to the overall production of

  14. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Grant C. Willis

    2003-09-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the fourth quarter of the first project year (April 1 through June 30, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs to the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone and Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation, the major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view, often in three dimensions, of reservoir-facies characteristics and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. The Nugget Sandstone was deposited in an extensive dune field that extended from Wyoming to

  15. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidsey, Thomas C.; Morgan, Craig D.; McClure, Kevin; Willis, Grant C.

    2003-01-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m 3 ). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m 3 ) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the fourth quarter of the first project year (April 1 through June 30, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs to the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone and Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation, the major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view, often in three dimensions, of reservoir-facies characteristics and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. The Nugget Sandstone was deposited in an extensive dune field that extended from Wyoming to Arizona. Outcrop analogs are

  16. Progress on resolution of major surety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, C.R.; Boudreau, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the major surety issues (safety, environmental protection, sageguards, reliability, quality assurance) that have been identified during Phase I of the SP-100 Program and the progress that has been made in analyzing the most important of these issues in the context of the conceptual design effort. These issues have been identified as inadvertent criticality, toxic material release and dispersion, radiation exposure following end-of-life reentry, potential diversion of special nuclear material, failure to achieve end-of-life neutronic shutdown, and structural predictability for end-of-life re-entry or boost. Because of the complexity of these issues, a simplified conservative approach was taken during Phase I. Progress on these issues has been mainly in the area of increased understanding of the issues, identification of design features to resolve the issues, and quantitative evaluations of the surety characteristics of the various design concepts

  17. Neuroinflammatory Hypothesis in Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulfizar Sozeri-Varma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Faced with stress and acute instances, brain cells trigger neuroinflammation and increase inflam-mation response and can cause cell damage, cell death and thereby functional insufficiencies, behavioral disorders and autonomic imbalances. Cytokines that play an important role in inflamma-tory processes affect neurotransmitter metabolism, neuroendocrine functions and synaptic plasticity. It has been proven that inflammatory activity increases in depression. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF- and #945; along with acute phase reactants increase in depression. If the inflammatory response becomes chronic and cannot be balanced, inflammation and cytokines may cause behavioral symptoms and neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depression and anxiety disorders. In this article, the changes that occur in inflammatory processes in depressive disorder will be summarized; the effects of pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic approaches on these changes will be reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 1-9

  18. Epigenetic Modifications of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Saavedra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is a chronic disease whose neurological basis and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Initially, it was proposed that genetic variations were responsible for the development of this disease. Nevertheless, several studies within the last decade have provided evidence suggesting that environmental factors play an important role in MDD pathophysiology. Alterations in epigenetics mechanism, such as DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression could favor MDD advance in response to stressful experiences and environmental factors. The aim of this review is to describe genetic alterations, and particularly altered epigenetic mechanisms, that could be determinants for MDD progress, and how these alterations may arise as useful screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring biomarkers of depressive disorders.

  19. p-Democracy a Pervasive Majority Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniades, Kyriacos A.

    Today, group decision making in our democratic society uses the non-ranked method. What we need is an improved method that allows decision makers to indicate not only their chosen alternative, but also their order of preference by which all alternatives will be placed. We classify this as a particular Social Choice Function, where choice is a group decision-making methodology in an ideal democratic society that gives the expression of the will of the majority. We use the Eigenvector Function to obtain individual priorities of preferences and Borda's Function to obtain the Ranking or otherwise, the Group Choice. Our conclusions give rise to new directions for pervasive democracy with an innovative degenerative quantum scale to allow even for strong to very strong preferences.

  20. Coping with ecological catastrophe: crossing major thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns, Jr.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The combination of human population growth and resource depletion makes catastrophes highly probable. No long-term solutions to the problems of humankind will be discovered unless sustainable use of the planet is achieved. The essential first step toward this goal is avoiding or coping with global catastrophes that result from crossing major ecological thresholds. Decreasing the number of global catastrophes will reduce the risks associated with destabilizing ecological systems, which could, in turn, destabilize societal systems. Many catastrophes will be local, regional, or national, but even these upheavals will have global consequences. Catastrophes will be the result of unsustainable practices and the misuse of technology. However, avoiding ecological catastrophes will depend on the development of eco-ethics, which is subject to progressive maturation, comments, and criticism. Some illustrative catastrophes have been selected to display some preliminary issues of eco-ethics.

  1. International gas trade: Potential major projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haamsoe, B.; Mashayekhi, A.; Razavi, H.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper reviews some key factors affecting continued expansion of the use and trade of natural gas, with a particular focus on a group of major gas trade and transport projects now in various stages of consideration. The paper begins by outlining the distribution of potential gas supplies, it also sketches the sectorial and regional structures of potential demand for natural gas. It continues by considering current and emerging trends in the international trade of natural gas by pipeline and as liquefied natural gas (LNG). Within the context thus provided, the paper then details a number of significant potential gas trade and transportation projects individually. Finally, the paper comments on the challenges in financing and implementing gas projects, especially with regard to economic, political, and institutional issues in the producing, transit, and consuming countries

  2. Major Intrinsic Proteins in Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    will generally have finite permeabilities to both electrolytes and non-electrolytes. The feasibility of a biomimetic MIP device thus depends on the relative transport contribution from both protein and biomimetic support matrix. Also the biomimetic matrix must be encapsulated in order to protect it and make....../separation technology, a unique class of membrane transport proteins is especially interesting the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). Generally, MIPs conduct water molecules and selected solutes in and out of the cell while preventing the passage of other solutes, a property critical for the conservation of the cells...... it sufficiently stable in a final application. Here, I specifically discuss the feasibility of developing osmotic biomimetic MIP membranes, but the technical issues are of general concern in the design of biomimetic membranes capable of supporting selective transmembrane fluxes....

  3. Emerging antidepressants to treat major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Samantha G; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2014-12-01

    Depression is a common disorder with an annual risk of a depressive episode in the United States of 6.6%. Only 30-40% of patients remit with antidepressant monotherapy, leaving 60-70% of patients who do not optimally respond to therapy. Unremitted depressive patients are at increased risk for suicide. Considering the prevalence of treatment resistant depression and its consequences, treatment optimization is imperative. This review summarizes the latest treatment modalities for major depressive disorder including pharmacotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and psychotherapy. Through advancements in research to better understand the pathophysiology of depression, advances in treatment will be realized. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized...... to the perpetuation of negative emotional states in MDD. Limited success in the identification of susceptibility genes in MDD has led to great research interest in identifying vulnerability biomarkers or endophenotypes. Emerging evidence points to the persistence of 'hot' cognition dysfunction during remission...... databases in May 2014 augmented by hand searches of reference lists. We included original articles in which MDD participants (or their healthy first-dregree relatives) and a healthy control group were compared on standard measures of emotional processing or reward/ punishment processing as well...

  5. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized...... of negative emotional states in MDD. Limited success in the identification of susceptibility genes in MDD has led to great research interest in identifying vulnerability biomarkers or endophenotypes. Emerging evidence points to the persistence of 'hot' cognition dysfunction during remission and to subtle 'hot...... databases in May 2014 augmented by hand searches of reference lists. We included original articles in which MDD participants (or their healthy first-degree relatives) and a healthy control group were compared on standard measures of emotional processing or reward/ punishment processing as well as systematic...

  6. MAJOR PROJECTS THAT INFLUENCE WORLD TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE CORNEL DUMITRESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1869, with the opening of the Suez Canal, world trade entered a new era of development. The commercial routes linking the Far East to the western countries were shortened considerably as compared to the maritime corridor around the Cape of Good Hope. In 1914, the opening of the Panama Canal sealed the new deal in world trade, opening for business the shortest commercial routes around the world. After 145 years from the inauguration of the Suez Canal, world trade is on the eve of a new expansion. Two major projects: the expansion of both the Suez and Panama canals, planned to be completed in the next two years, will double their transit capacity. This paper does a comparative analysis of these two strategic projects, underlining the main benefits for Egypt, Panama and world trade, based on the available statistical data, reports and literature in the field.

  7. Novel Augmentation Strategies in Major Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    open psychiatric wards. Only a few patients were re-cruited through advertisements (in the PEMF and Chronos studies). Inclusion criteria Inclusion criteria were major depression according to the DSM-IV, including a depressive episode as part of a bipolar disorder. For the PEMF study, treatment...... The results from the Pindolol study showed that pindolol did not augment the effect of venlafaxine for the whole sample. However, for those patients classified as slow metabolizers, based on their O-desmethylvenlafaxine/venlafaxine ratio (ODV/V), pindolol did augment the antidepressant effect. For patients...... classified as fast metabolizers, pindolol worsened the outcome. This interaction between ODV/V ratio and treatment group was statistically significant (p = 0.01). Results from the PEMF study The results from the PEMF Study showed that treatment with active versus sham PEMF augmented the effect of the ongoing...

  8. Cognitive hypnotherapy for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alladin, Assen

    2012-04-01

    Since the publication of the special issue on cognitive hypnotherapy in the Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly (1994), there have been major developments in the application of hypnosis to the treatment of depression. However, there is no "one-size-fits-all" treatment for depressive disorders as the conditions represent a complex set of heterogeneous symptoms, involving multiple etiologies. It is thus important for therapists to promote a multimodal approach to treating depressive disorders. This article describes cognitive hypnotherapy (CH), an evidence-based multimodal psychological treatment that can be applied to a wide range of depressed patients. CH combines hypnosis with cognitive behavior therapy as the latter provides the best integrative lodestone for assimilating empirically supported treatment techniques derived from various psychotherapies.

  9. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized...... to the perpetuation of negative emotional states in MDD. Limited success in the identification of susceptibility genes in MDD has led to great research interest in identifying vulnerability biomarkers or endophenotypes. Emerging evidence points to the persistence of 'hot' cognition dysfunction during remission...... and to subtle 'hot' cognition deficits in healthy relatives of patients with MDD. Taken together, these findings suggest that abnormalities in 'hot' cognition may constitute a candidate neurocognitive endophenotype for depression....

  10. Tree ring record chronicles major Mesoamerican droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-05-01

    A new tree ring record chronicles major Mesoamerican droughts in the past millennium that may have contributed to the decline of some pre-Hispanic civilizations. Although there is other evidence of droughts during the past millennium, the paleoclimate record had gaps. Stahle et al. used core samples from Montezuma bald cypress trees found in Barranca de Amealco, Querétaro, Mexico, to develop a 1238-year tree ring chronology. They reconstructed the soil moisture record from the tree ring growth patterns. The new record provides the first dated, annually resolved climate record for Mexico and Central America spanning this time period.(Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2010GL046472, 2011)

  11. Advances in biomarkers of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tiao-Lai; Lin, Chin-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by mood, vegetative, cognitive, and even psychotic symptoms and signs that can cause substantial impairments in quality of life and functioning. Biomarkers are measurable indicators that could help diagnosing MDD or predicting treatment response. In this chapter, lipid profiles, immune/inflammation, and neurotrophic factor pathways that have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of MDD are discussed. Then, pharmacogenetics and epigenetics of serotonin transport and its metabolism pathway, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and abnormality of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis also revealed new biomarkers. Lastly, new techniques, such as proteomics and metabolomics, which allow researchers to approach the studying of MDD with new directions and make new discoveries are addressed. In the future, more data are needed regarding pathophysiology of MDD, including protein levels, single nucleotide polymorphism, epigenetic regulation, and clinical data in order to better identify reliable and consistent biomarkers for diagnosis, treatment choice, and outcome prediction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Forensic odontology, part 2. Major disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-03-26

    We have only to look back over the last 12 months to realise that time and time again, an incident occurs where there are mass fatalities. These incidents have instant and long-lasting impact on families, communities and sometimes whole countries. The aim of this paper is to emphasise the need for an efficient and sensitive response to assist in the identification of victims of such incidents and the necessity for trained team responses. Many countries now have Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) teams that are multi-disciplinary, and plans and protocols in place in readiness. The paper can only hope to give a brief overview of the disaster situation for the reader: whole books have been written on this topic. The forensic odontologist has a major role in disaster incidents when there are accurate and available antemortem dental records.

  13. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized......-limbic network with hyper-activity in limbic and ventral prefrontal regions paired with hypo-activity of dorsal prefrontal regions subserve these abnormalities. A cross-talk of 'hot' and 'cold' cognition disturbances in MDD occurs. Disturbances in 'hot cognition' may also contribute to the perpetuation......' cognition deficits in healthy relatives of patients with MDD. Taken together, these findings suggest that abnormalities in 'hot' cognition may constitute a candidate neurocognitive endophenotype for depression....

  14. Major neutrophil functions subverted by Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Ingar; Hajishengallis, George

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) constitute an integrated component of the innate host defense in the gingival sulcus/periodontal pocket. However, the keystone periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has in the course of evolution developed a number of capacities to subvert this defense to its own advantage. The present review describes the major mechanisms that P. gingivalis uses to subvert neutrophil homeostasis, such as impaired recruitment and chemotaxis, resistance to granule-derived antimicrobial agents and to the oxidative burst, inhibition of phagocytic killing while promoting a nutritionally favorable inflammatory response, and delay of neutrophil apoptosis. Studies in animal models have shown that at least some of these mechanisms promote the dysbiotic transformation of the periodontal polymicrobial community, thereby leading to inflammation and bone loss. It is apparent that neutrophil–P. gingivalis interactions and subversion of innate immunity are key contributing factors to the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. PMID:26993626

  15. Major neutrophil functions subverted by Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingar Olsen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils constitute an integrated component of the innate host defense in the gingival sulcus/periodontal pocket. However, the keystone periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has in the course of evolution developed a number of capacities to subvert this defense to its own advantage. The present review describes the major mechanisms that P. gingivalis uses to subvert neutrophil homeostasis, such as impaired recruitment and chemotaxis, resistance to granule-derived antimicrobial agents and to the oxidative burst, inhibition of phagocytic killing while promoting a nutritionally favorable inflammatory response, and delay of neutrophil apoptosis. Studies in animal models have shown that at least some of these mechanisms promote the dysbiotic transformation of the periodontal polymicrobial community, thereby leading to inflammation and bone loss. It is apparent that neutrophil–P. gingivalis interactions and subversion of innate immunity are key contributing factors to the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

  16. [Sequence learning in major depressive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbély-Ipkovich, Emöke; Németh, Dezsö; Janacsek, Karolina; Gonda, Xénia

    2014-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric diagnoses, accompanied by several psychological, behavioural and emotional symptoms, and in addition to the symptoms affecting the quality of life, it can lead to severe consequences, including suicide. Sequence learning plays a key role in adapting to the environment, neural plasticity, first language acquisition, social learning and skills, at the same time it defines the behaviour of the patient and also therapeutic possibilities. The aim of this paper is to review sequence learning and its consolidation in MDD. We know little about the effects of mood disorders on sequence learning; the results are contradictory, therefore, further studies are needed to test the effects of MDD on sequence learning and on the consolidation of implicitly acquired sequence knowledge.

  17. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized...... reviews and meta-analyses. A total of 116 articles met the inclusion criteria of which 97 were original studies. Negative biases in perception, attention and memory for emotional information, and aberrant reward/punishment processing occur in MDD. Imbalanced responses to negative stimuli in a fronto......-limbic network with hyper-activity in limbic and ventral prefrontal regions paired with hypo-activity of dorsal prefrontal regions subserve these abnormalities. A cross-talk of 'hot' and 'cold' cognition disturbances in MDD occurs. Disturbances in 'hot cognition' may also contribute to the perpetuation...

  18. The Major Histocompatibility Complex in Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Ayala García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplant of organs is one of the greatest therapeutic achievements of the twentieth century. In organ transplantation, the adaptive immunity is considered the main response exerted to the transplanted tissue, since the principal target of the immune response is the MHC (major histocompatibility complex molecules expressed on the surface of donor cells. However, we should not forget that the innate and adaptive immunities are closely interrelated and should be viewed as complementary and cooperating. When a human transplant is performed, HLA (human leukocyte antigens molecules from a donor are recognized by the recipient's immune system triggering an alloimmune response Matching of donor and recipient for MHC antigens has been shown to have a significant positive effect on graft acceptance. This paper will present MHC, the innate and adaptive immunities, and clinical HLA testing.

  19. The Major Histocompatibility Complex in Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala García, Marco Antonio; González Yebra, Beatriz; López Flores, Andrea Liliana; Guaní Guerra, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The transplant of organs is one of the greatest therapeutic achievements of the twentieth century. In organ transplantation, the adaptive immunity is considered the main response exerted to the transplanted tissue, since the principal target of the immune response is the MHC (major histocompatibility complex) molecules expressed on the surface of donor cells. However, we should not forget that the innate and adaptive immunities are closely interrelated and should be viewed as complementary and cooperating. When a human transplant is performed, HLA (human leukocyte antigens) molecules from a donor are recognized by the recipient's immune system triggering an alloimmune response Matching of donor and recipient for MHC antigens has been shown to have a significant positive effect on graft acceptance. This paper will present MHC, the innate and adaptive immunities, and clinical HLA testing. PMID:22778908

  20. Major Oil Plays in Utah and Vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Douglas A. Sprinkel; Roger L. Bon; Hellmut H. Doelling

    2003-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play. This report covers research activities for the sixth quarter of the project (October 1 through December 31, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs for the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone and Mississippian Leadville Limestone, major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively, and analyzing best practices used in the southern Green River Formation play of the Uinta Basin. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view of reservoir petrophysics, facies characteristics, and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. In the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province, the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone produces from subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the low-porosity limestone beds are extensively

  1. Major Oil Plays In Utah And Vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Chidsey

    2007-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.33 billion barrels (211 million m{sup 3}) of oil and hold 256 million barrels (40.7 million m{sup 3}) of proved reserves. The 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m3) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. However, in late 2005 oil production increased, due, in part, to the discovery of Covenant field in the central Utah Navajo Sandstone thrust belt ('Hingeline') play, and to increased development drilling in the central Uinta Basin, reversing the decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming can continue this new upward production trend. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios include descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary recovery techniques for each play. The most prolific oil reservoir in the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province is the eolian, Jurassic Nugget Sandstone, having produced over 288 million barrels (46 million m{sup 3}) of oil and 5.1 trillion cubic feet (145 billion m{sup 3}) of gas. Traps form on discrete subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the depositionally heterogeneous Nugget is also extensively fractured. Hydrocarbons in Nugget reservoirs were generated from subthrust Cretaceous source rocks. The seals for the producing horizons are overlying argillaceous and gypsiferous beds in

  2. Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Markus

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania represent a complex of important human pathogens that belong to the systematic order of the kinetoplastida. They are transmitted between their human and mammalian hosts by different bloodsucking sandfly vectors. In their hosts, the Leishmania undergo several differentiation steps, and their coordination and optimization crucially depend on numerous interactions between the parasites and the physiological environment presented by the fly and human hosts. Little is still known about the signalling networks involved in these functions. In an attempt to better understand the role of cyclic nucleotide signalling in Leishmania differentiation and host-parasite interaction, we here present an initial study on the cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major. Results This paper presents the identification of three class I cyclic-nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs from L. major, PDEs whose catalytic domains exhibit considerable sequence conservation with, among other, all eleven human PDE families. In contrast to other protozoa such as Dictyostelium, or fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida ssp or Neurospora, no genes for class II PDEs were found in the Leishmania genomes. LmjPDEA contains a class I catalytic domain at the C-terminus of the polypeptide, with no other discernible functional domains elsewhere. LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 are coded for by closely related, tandemly linked genes on chromosome 15. Both PDEs contain two GAF domains in their N-terminal region, and their almost identical catalytic domains are located at the C-terminus of the polypeptide. LmjPDEA, LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were further characterized by functional complementation in a PDE-deficient S. cerevisiae strain. All three enzymes conferred complementation, demonstrating that all three can hydrolyze cAMP. Recombinant LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were shown to be cAMP-specific, with Km values in the low micromolar range

  3. Thermal Radiation Anomalies Associated with Major Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Kafatos, Menas C.; Taylor, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments of remote sensing methods for Earth satellite data analysis contribute to our understanding of earthquake related thermal anomalies. It was realized that the thermal heat fluxes over areas of earthquake preparation is a result of air ionization by radon (and other gases) and consequent water vapor condensation on newly formed ions. Latent heat (LH) is released as a result of this process and leads to the formation of local thermal radiation anomalies (TRA) known as OLR (outgoing Longwave radiation, Ouzounov et al, 2007). We compare the LH energy, obtained by integrating surface latent heat flux (SLHF) over the area and time with released energies associated with these events. Extended studies of the TRA using the data from the most recent major earthquakes allowed establishing the main morphological features. It was also established that the TRA are the part of more complex chain of the short-term pre-earthquake generation, which is explained within the framework of a lithosphere-atmosphere coupling processes.

  4. Potentialities of robots in major accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, M.

    2013-01-01

    The INTRA group was founded in 1988, 2 years after the Chernobyl accident with the purpose of a cooperation between EDF, Cogema and CEA in order to develop and operate a fleet of robots able to intervene and replace man in a nuclear facility in case of major accident. Now INTRA disposes of 5 types of equipment: first, robots for the inside of buildings (they can overcome 40 cm high obstacles, open doors, go upstairs) they are wire-guided and enjoy a battery life of 6 to 8 hours. Secondly, robots for the open air that are able to move in very degraded grounds, they are remote controlled through radio-waves and their autonomy range nears 5 km. Thirdly, public works vehicles, INTRA has developed an excavator and a dump truck, both are remote controlled, they allow the making of any earth work. Fourthly, INTRA has developed 2 systems of contamination measurement: Skylink and Helinuc. Skylink is a system of 20 radiation monitors that can be dispatched on the contaminated zone, their data is collected through radio waves. Helinuc is a kind of gamma spectrometer that is helicopter-borne and can draw a map of the contamination around the installation. Fifthly, 2 drones are being tested, they will be fitted with radiation monitors. (A.C.)

  5. Major new sources of biological ice nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, B. F.; Hill, T.; Henderson-Begg, S. K.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all research on biological ice nucleation has focussed on a limited number of bacteria. Here we characterise several major new sources of biogenic ice nuclei. These include mosses, hornworts, liverworts and cyanobacteria. Ice nucleation in the eukaryotic bryophytes appears to be ubiquitous. The temperature at which these organisms nucleate is that at which the difference in vapour pressure over ice and water is at or close to its maximum. At these temperatures (-8 to -18 degrees C) ice will grow at the expense of supercooled water. These organisms are dependent for their water on occult precipitation - fog, dew and cloudwater which by its nature is not collected in conventional rain gauges. Therefore we suggest that these organism produce ice nuclei as a water harvesting mechanism. Since the same mechanism would also drive the Bergeron-Findeisen process, and as moss is known to become airborne, these nuclei may have a role in the initiation of precipitation. The properties of these ice nuclei are very different from the well characterised bacterial nuclei. We will also present DNA sequence data showing that, although related, the proteins responsible are only very distantly related to the classical bacterial ice nuclei.

  6. Contraction of online response to major events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szell, Michael; Grauwin, Sébastian; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying regularities in behavioral dynamics is of crucial interest for understanding collective social events such as panics or political revolutions. With the widespread use of digital communication media it has become possible to study massive data streams of user-created content in which individuals express their sentiments, often towards a specific topic. Here we investigate messages from various online media created in response to major, collectively followed events such as sport tournaments, presidential elections, or a large snow storm. We relate content length and message rate, and find a systematic correlation during events which can be described by a power law relation--the higher the excitation, the shorter the messages. We show that on the one hand this effect can be observed in the behavior of most regular users, and on the other hand is accentuated by the engagement of additional user demographics who only post during phases of high collective activity. Further, we identify the distributions of content lengths as lognormals in line with statistical linguistics, and suggest a phenomenological law for the systematic dependence of the message rate to the lognormal mean parameter. Our measurements have practical implications for the design of micro-blogging and messaging services. In the case of the existing service Twitter, we show that the imposed limit of 140 characters per message currently leads to a substantial fraction of possibly dissatisfying to compose tweets that need to be truncated by their users.

  7. Pharmacotherapy of major depressive disorder in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Liboni, Francesca; Brovedani, Paola

    2010-02-01

    At any one time, major depressive disorder (MDD) affects 4 - 6% of adolescents. When untreated, MDD leads to a high immediate and subsequent suicide risk, long-term chronicity and a poor psychosocial outcome. Whereas psychotherapy can be effective in mild depression, it seems to be less effective in moderate and severe depression. However, although the use of antidepressants increased markedly during the 1990s, in recent years it has decreased as a result of concerns regarding the emergence of suicidality during antidepressant treatment. Are antidepressants truly effective? What is the relationship between different treatments for depression - psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy - alone or in combination? Can antidepressants increase the risk of suicide in some adolescents? Can antidepressants reduce suicide risk in suicidal adolescents? There is evidence that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can improve adolescent depression better than placebo, although the magnitude of the antidepressant effect is 'small to moderate', because of a high placebo response. The SSRI with the best rate of response compared to placebo is fluoxetine. The increased risk of suicidality in adolescents, compared to adults, is weak but consistent across most studies. However, epidemiological studies do not support a relationship between use of antidepressants and suicide rate. A cautious and well-monitored use of antidepressant medications is a first-line treatment option in adolescents with moderate to severe depression. Low rates of remission with current treatment strategies indicate that further research in both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy is warranted.

  8. Successful Control of Major Project Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Lichtenberg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper differs from scientific papers describing current research. In line with the theme of this special issue, it challenges conventional risk management practice against the background of former research results successfully finished decades ago. It is well-known that conventional practice frequently results in budget overruns of large projects. International reviews document that. Severe delays of schedules are also well-known. This paper describes successful research results from almost three decades ago, which successfully challenges this severe problem and has led to new practices. The research involved is an unusual mix: Scandinavian researchers from psychology, statistical theory and engineering economy. The resulting procedure has been widely used since around 1990 and challenges conventional procedures. The procedure is documented to be able to yield statistically correct prognoses, when the “rules of the game” have been correctly followed. After a short summary of the basic situation, this paper summarizes the research, followed by some resulting experiences, focusing on two recent studies each of 40 infrastructures and other major projects. In both sets, the actual final cost largely equaled the expected project cost. This result is a marked change from international past and present experience. Finally, the need for further research and progress is discussed.

  9. Corruption – A Major Global Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cristina Pană

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCorruption in the public sector is seen by citizens and public authorities as a major problem for the of system integrity across Europe.The aim of the work was to perform a comparative analysis in terms of corruption in EU globally in 2014, with emphasis on institutionalized corruption. Variables were used on the dynamics of corruption, such as the index of perception of corruption and the corruption level  in public institutions. In this regard, we used surveys initiated by Transparency International, Global Integrity and the European Commission and DNA. It is not to be neglected the answer to the question Why have you not reported an incident of corruption? 58% of Romanians said it would not make any difference, and 20% of respondents said they fear the consequences.Comprehensive anti-corruption policy is expressed in the most efficient manner, through a national program to prevent corruption, articulated in sector prevention strategies directed towards the most vulnerable targets: politics, administration and justice.Keywords: public institutions, transparency, corruption, perception index of corruption, the corruption level in institutions.

  10. The Chernobyl Forum: major findings and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.

    2007-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986 was the most severe in the history of the nuclear industry, causing a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. The recently completed Chernobyl Forum concluded that after a number of years, along with reduction of radiation levels and accumulation of humanitarian consequences, severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem to be addressed by the authorities. The majority of the affected land is now safe for life and economic activities. However, in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and in some limited areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine some restrictions on land-use should be retained for decades to come. Most of the 600,000 emergency and recovery operation workers and five million residents of the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine received relatively minor radiation doses which are comparable with the natural background levels. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed at a young age and some increase of leukaemia and solid cancer in most exposed workers, there is no clearly demonstrated increase in the somatic diseases due to radiation

  11. Contraction of online response to major events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Szell

    Full Text Available Quantifying regularities in behavioral dynamics is of crucial interest for understanding collective social events such as panics or political revolutions. With the widespread use of digital communication media it has become possible to study massive data streams of user-created content in which individuals express their sentiments, often towards a specific topic. Here we investigate messages from various online media created in response to major, collectively followed events such as sport tournaments, presidential elections, or a large snow storm. We relate content length and message rate, and find a systematic correlation during events which can be described by a power law relation--the higher the excitation, the shorter the messages. We show that on the one hand this effect can be observed in the behavior of most regular users, and on the other hand is accentuated by the engagement of additional user demographics who only post during phases of high collective activity. Further, we identify the distributions of content lengths as lognormals in line with statistical linguistics, and suggest a phenomenological law for the systematic dependence of the message rate to the lognormal mean parameter. Our measurements have practical implications for the design of micro-blogging and messaging services. In the case of the existing service Twitter, we show that the imposed limit of 140 characters per message currently leads to a substantial fraction of possibly dissatisfying to compose tweets that need to be truncated by their users.

  12. Immunoenhancing properties of Plantago major leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Flores, R; Calderon, C L; Scheibel, L W; Tamez-Guerra, P; Rodriguez-Padilla, C; Tamez-Guerra, R; Weber, R J

    2000-12-01

    Plantago major (PM), also known as plantain, is a weed found in temperate zones worldwide. PM leaves have been associated with various biological properties ranging from antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumour to wound healing. However, its mechanism of action associated with boosting of the immune function remains to be elucidated. We found that endotoxin-free methanol extracts from PM leaves, at doses of 50, 100, 250, and 500 microg/mL, were associated with 4.4 +/- 1, 6 +/- 1, 12 +/- 0.4, and 18 +/- 0.4-fold increases of nitric oxide (NO) production, and increased TNF-alpha production (621 +/- 31, 721 +/- 36, 727 +/- 36, and 1056 +/- 52 U/mL, respectively) by rat peritoneal macrophages, in the absence of IFN-gamma or LPS. NO and TNF-alpha production by untreated macrophages was negligible. In addition, PM extracts potentiated Con A-induced lymphoproliferation (3- to 12-fold increases) in a dose-dependent fashion, compared with the effect of Con A alone. The regulation of immune parameters induced by plant extracts may be clinically relevant in numerous diseases including chronic viral infections, tuberculosis, AIDS and cancer.

  13. Osteoporosis Syndrome in Thalassaemia Major: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meropi Toumba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in thalassaemia major (TM represents a prominent cause of morbidity. The mechanism of pathogenesis of bone disease (BD in TM is multifactorial and complicated. Peak bone mass is achieved shortly after completion of puberty and normally remains stable until the third decade of life when age-related bone mass begins. Growth hormone (GH and sex steroids play a crucial role in bone remodeling and in the maintenance of skeletal architecture during adult life. GH and insulin growth factors (IGFs have anabolic effect in bone formation. Sex steroids act probably by increasing the expression of RANKL by osteoblastic cells and alterations in the RANK/RANKL/OPG system in favor of osteoclasts. Impaired GH secretion and lack of sex steroids in thalassemic patients due to pituitary damage, contribute to failure of achieving optimal peak bone mass. Other endocrine complications such as hypoparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency have also a detrimental role on bones in TM. It is still questionable whether the international criteria for defining osteopenia and osteoporosis are relevant to patients with TM; also a question arises for the diagnostic methods such as DEXA scan and management of osteoporosis with known treatment protocols, in the thalassaemic patient.

  14. Major histocompatibility complex genomics and human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowsdale, John; Knight, Julian C

    2013-01-01

    Over several decades, various forms of genomic analysis of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been extremely successful in picking up many disease associations. This is to be expected, as the MHC region is one of the most gene-dense and polymorphic stretches of human DNA. It also encodes proteins critical to immunity, including several controlling antigen processing and presentation. Single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) imputation now permit the screening of large sample sets, a technique further facilitated by high-throughput sequencing. These methods promise to yield more precise contributions of MHC variants to disease. However, interpretation of MHC-disease associations in terms of the functions of variants has been problematic. Most studies confirm the paramount importance of class I and class II molecules, which are key to resistance to infection. Infection is likely driving the extreme variation of these genes across the human population, but this has been difficult to demonstrate. In contrast, many associations with autoimmune conditions have been shown to be specific to certain class I and class II alleles. Interestingly, conditions other than infections and autoimmunity are also associated with the MHC, including some cancers and neuropathies. These associations could be indirect, owing, for example, to the infectious history of a particular individual and selective pressures operating at the population level.

  15. Serum proteomic profiling of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, M; Chan, M K; Jansen, R; Lamers, F; Vogelzangs, N; Steiner, J; Leweke, F M; Rothermundt, M; Cooper, J; Bahn, S; Penninx, B W J H

    2015-07-14

    Much has still to be learned about the molecular mechanisms of depression. This study aims to gain insight into contributing mechanisms by identifying serum proteins related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large psychiatric cohort study. Our sample consisted of 1589 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, comprising 687 individuals with current MDD (cMDD), 482 individuals with remitted MDD (rMDD) and 420 controls. We studied the relationship between MDD status and the levels of 171 serum proteins detected on a multi-analyte profiling platform using adjusted linear regression models. Pooled analyses of two independent validation cohorts (totaling 78 MDD cases and 156 controls) was carried out to validate our top markers. Twenty-eight analytes differed significantly between cMDD cases and controls (P depression. Changes were more prominent in cMDD, suggesting that molecular alterations in serum are associated with acute depression symptomatology. These findings may help to establish serum-based biomarkers of depression and could improve our understanding of its pathophysiology.

  16. Perceptive biases in major depressive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Marine; Carl, Tatiana; Surguladze, Simon; Guillen, Catherine; Gaillard, Philippe; Belzung, Catherine; El-Hage, Wissam; Atanasova, Boriana

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in emotional processing occur during a major depressive episode (MDE), and olfaction and facial expressions have implications in emotional and social interactions. To gain a better understanding of these processes, we characterized the perceptive sensorial biases, potential links, and potential remission after antidepressant treatment of MDE. We recruited 22 patients with acute MDE, both before and after three months of antidepressant treatment, and 41 healthy volunteers matched by age and smoking status. The participants underwent a clinical assessment (Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Physical and Social Anhedonia scales, Pleasure-Displeasure Scale), an olfactory evaluation (hedonic aspect, familiarity and emotional impact of odors), and a computerized Facial Affect Recognition task. MDE was associated with an olfactory bias concerning hedonic and emotional aspects, including negative olfactory alliesthesia (unpleasant odorants perceived as more unpleasant), facial emotion expression recognition (happy facial expressions), and in part olfactory anhedonia (pleasant odorants perceived as less pleasant). In addition, the results revealed that these impairments represent state markers of MDE, suggesting that the patients recovered the same sensory processing as healthy subjects after antidepressant treatment. This study demonstrated that MDE is associated with negative biases toward olfactory perception and the recognition of facial emotional expressions. The link between these two sensory parameters suggests common underlying processes.

  17. Perceptive biases in major depressive episode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Naudin

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Alterations in emotional processing occur during a major depressive episode (MDE, and olfaction and facial expressions have implications in emotional and social interactions. To gain a better understanding of these processes, we characterized the perceptive sensorial biases, potential links, and potential remission after antidepressant treatment of MDE. METHODS: We recruited 22 patients with acute MDE, both before and after three months of antidepressant treatment, and 41 healthy volunteers matched by age and smoking status. The participants underwent a clinical assessment (Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Physical and Social Anhedonia scales, Pleasure-Displeasure Scale, an olfactory evaluation (hedonic aspect, familiarity and emotional impact of odors, and a computerized Facial Affect Recognition task. RESULTS: MDE was associated with an olfactory bias concerning hedonic and emotional aspects, including negative olfactory alliesthesia (unpleasant odorants perceived as more unpleasant, facial emotion expression recognition (happy facial expressions, and in part olfactory anhedonia (pleasant odorants perceived as less pleasant. In addition, the results revealed that these impairments represent state markers of MDE, suggesting that the patients recovered the same sensory processing as healthy subjects after antidepressant treatment. DISCUSSION: This study demonstrated that MDE is associated with negative biases toward olfactory perception and the recognition of facial emotional expressions. The link between these two sensory parameters suggests common underlying processes.

  18. Trochleoplasty in major trochlear dysplasia: current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaufils Philippe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trochleoplasty is the theoretical solution to persistent symptoms (pain and/or instability related to trochlear dysplasia where there is not only a trochlear flatness but also a trochlear prominence. The threshold of prominence indicating surgical intervention has as yet not been determined. A bump of 5 mm is generally accepted as the inferior limit. Given the interventional nature of this demanding procedure, it should be proposed in selected cases after considerable discussion with the patient. Trochleoplasty is indicated as a primary procedure for major trochlear dysplasia with a prominence > 5 mm. Stabilization is obtained in most of the cases with the risk of residual mild anterior knee pain. It is also indicated as a salvage procedure when a previous surgery failed. Despite the reputation of the procedure, the published results are encouraging in terms of prevention of re-dislocation, satisfaction index, and radiological outcomes. Post-operative stiffness is the main complication, which may require manipulation under anaesthesia or arthroscopic arthrolysis. There are few other complications reported and to date secondary necrosis of the trochlea has not been reported. Technically speaking, the deepening trochleoplasty is a difficult procedure without reliable landmarks. We propose a recession wedge trochleoplasty which is an easier procedure. It is never undertaken as an isolated procedure, but always in conjunction with other realignment procedures of the extensor apparatus according to the "a la carte" surgery concept.

  19. Resource Demand Scenarios for the Major Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshkaki, Ayman; Graedel, T E; Ciacci, Luca; Reck, Barbara K

    2018-03-06

    The growth in metal use in the past few decades raises concern that supplies may be insufficient to meet demands in the future. From the perspective of historical and current use data for seven major metals-iron, manganese, aluminum, copper, nickel, zinc, and lead-we have generated several scenarios of potential metal demand from 2010 to 2050 under alternative patterns of global development. We have also compared those demands with various assessments of potential supply to midcentury. Five conclusions emerge: (1) The calculated demand for each of the seven metals doubles or triples relative to 2010 levels by midcentury; (2) The largest demand increases relate to a scenario in which increasingly equitable values and institutions prevail throughout the world; (3) The metal recycling flows in the scenarios meet only a modest fraction of future metals demand for the next few decades; (4) In the case of copper, zinc, and perhaps lead, supply may be unlikely to meet demand by about midcentury under the current use patterns of the respective metals; (5) Increased rates of demand for metals imply substantial new energy provisioning, leading to increases in overall global energy demand of 21-37%. These results imply that extensive technological transformations and governmental initiatives could be needed over the next several decades in order that regional and global development and associated metal demand are not to be constrained by limited metal supply.

  20. Burkholderia glumae: next major pathogen of rice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jong Hyun; Melanson, Rebecca A; Rush, Milton C

    2011-05-01

    Burkholderia glumae causes bacterial panicle blight of rice, which is an increasingly important disease problem in global rice production. Toxoflavin and lipase are known to be major virulence factors of this pathogen, and their production is dependent on the TofI/TofR quorum-sensing system, which is mediated by N-octanoyl homoserine lactone. Flagellar biogenesis and a type III secretion system are also required for full virulence of B. glumae. Bacterial panicle blight is thought to be caused by seed-borne B. glumae; however, its disease cycle is not fully understood. In spite of its economic importance, neither effective control measures for bacterial panicle blight nor rice varieties showing complete resistance to the disease are currently available. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying B. glumae virulence and of the rice defence mechanisms against the pathogen would lead to the development of better methods of disease control for bacterial panicle blight. Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; Burkholderiaceae; Burkholderia. Gram-negative, capsulated, motile, lophotrichous flagella, pectolytic. Aborted seed, empty grains as a result of failure of grain filling, brown spots on panicles, seedling rot. Seed sterilization, planting partially resistant lines (no completely resistant line is available). KNOWN VIRULENCE FACTORS: Toxoflavin, lipase, type III effectors. © 2010 LSU AGCENTER. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2010 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  1. Communication Apprehension: A Comparison between English Majors and Non-majors in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Shi-Yong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using the scale of communication apprehension developed by McCroskey, a comparative study has been conducted between English majors and non-majors of different English learning experiences in a Chinese university. Whereas all the subjects remain at the medium level of communication apprehension, no significant difference was found across different communication scenarios among students of different majors as well as different grades. The results imply that the cause of communication apprehension might not be necessarily associated with differences in learning experience, syllabi or even teaching approaches. The characteristics of the high-contextual Chinese culture may be interpretable to this non-difference result. Thus, we may hypothesize with confidence that psychological approaches may be more effective to reduce the phenomenon of mute English of Chinese learners and their reticence in English class.

  2. Human major histocompatibility complex contains genes for the major heat shock protein HSP70.

    OpenAIRE

    Sargent, C A; Dunham, I; Trowsdale, J; Campbell, R D

    1989-01-01

    Little is known as to why a large number of human diseases are influenced by the major histocompatibility complex. In some cases, a direct involvement of the products of the polymorphic class I and class II, aas well as the less variable products of the class III, genes has been proposed. During characterization of the class III region for the presence of additional loci, we have located a duplicated locus encoding the major heat shock protein HSP70 between the complement and tumor necrosis f...

  3. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area

  4. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area.

  5. Photoinactivation of major bacterial pathogens in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyong Jin Roh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant increases in the bacterial resistance to various antibiotics have been found in fish farms. Non-antibiotic therapies for infectious diseases in aquaculture are needed. In recent years, light-emitting diode technology has been applied to the inactivation of pathogens, especially those affecting humans. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of blue light (wavelengths 405 and 465 nm on seven major bacterial pathogens that affect fish and shellfish important in aquaculture. Results We successfully demonstrate inactivation activity of a 405/465-nm LED on selected bacterial pathogens. Although some bacteria were not fully inactivated by the 465-nm light, the 405-nm light had a bactericidal effect against all seven pathogens, indicating that blue light can be effective without the addition of a photosensitizer. Photobacterium damselae, Vibrio anguillarum, and Edwardsiella tarda were the most susceptible to the 405-nm light (36.1, 41.2, and 68.4 J cm−2, respectively, produced one log reduction in the bacterial populations, whereas Streptococcus parauberis was the least susceptible (153.8 J cm−2 per one log reduction. In general, optical density (OD values indicated that higher bacterial densities were associated with lower inactivating efficacy, with the exception of P. damselae and Vibrio harveyi. In conclusion, growth of the bacterial fish and shellfish pathogens evaluated in this study was inactivated by exposure to either the 405- or 465-nm light. In addition, inactivation was dependent on exposure time. Conclusions This study presents that blue LED has potentially alternative therapy for treating fish and shellfish bacterial pathogens. It has great advantages in aspect of eco-friendly treating methods differed from antimicrobial methods.

  6. Major depression and secondhand smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Scott B; Williams, Jeanne V A; Lavorato, Dina H; Woolf, Benjamin; Wang, Jian Li; Bulloch, Andrew G M; Sajobi, Tolulope

    2018-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently linked smoking to poor mental health. Among non-smokers, some studies have also reported associations between secondhand smoke exposure and psychological symptoms. However, an association between secondhand smoke exposure and depressive disorders has not been well established. This analysis used cross-sectional data from a series of 10 population surveys conducted in Canada between 2003 and 2013. The surveys targeted the Canadian household population, included a brief structured interview for past year major depressive episode (MDE) and included items assessing secondhand smoke exposure. We used two-stage individual-level random-effects meta-regression to synthesize results from these surveys. Over the study interval, about 20% of non-smokers reported substantial exposure to secondhand smoke. In this group, the pooled annual prevalence of MDE was 6.1% (95% CI 5.3-6.9) compared to 4.0% (95% CI 3.7-4.3) in non-smokers without secondhand smoke exposure. The crude odds ratio was 1.5 (95% CI 1.4-1.7). With adjustment for a set of potential confounding variables the odds ratio was unchanged, 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 - 1.6). These results provide additional support for public health measures aimed at reducing secondhand smoke exposure. A causal connection between secondhand smoke exposure and MDEs cannot be confirmed due to the cross-sectional nature of the data. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish temporal sequencing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Major advances in fundamental dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drackley, J K; Donkin, S S; Reynolds, C K

    2006-04-01

    Fundamental nutrition seeks to describe the complex biochemical reactions involved in assimilation and processing of nutrients by various tissues and organs, and to quantify nutrient movement (flux) through those processes. Over the last 25 yr, considerable progress has been made in increasing our understanding of metabolism in dairy cattle. Major advances have been made at all levels of biological organization, including the whole animal, organ systems, tissues, cells, and molecules. At the whole-animal level, progress has been made in delineating metabolism during late pregnancy and the transition to lactation, as well as in whole-body use of energy-yielding substrates and amino acids for growth in young calves. An explosion of research using multicatheterization techniques has led to better quantitative descriptions of nutrient use by tissues of the portal-drained viscera (digestive tract, pancreas, and associated adipose tissues) and liver. Isolated tissue preparations have provided important information on the interrelationships among glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism in liver, adipose tissue, and mammary gland, as well as the regulation of these pathways during different physiological states. Finally, the last 25 yr has witnessed the birth of "molecular biology" approaches to understanding fundamental nutrition. Although measurements of mRNA abundance for proteins of interest already have provided new insights into regulation of metabolism, the next 25 yr will likely see remarkable advances as these techniques continue to be applied to problems of dairy cattle biology. Integration of the "omics" technologies (functional genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) with measurements of tissue metabolism obtained by other methods is a particularly exciting prospect for the future. The result should be improved animal health and well being, more efficient dairy production, and better models to predict nutritional requirements and provide rations to meet

  8. Entropy vs. Majorization: What Determines Complexity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Seitz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of a microcanonical statistical ensemble of states of isolated systems from order to disorder as determined by increasing entropy, is compared to an alternative evolution that is determined by mixing character. The fact that the partitions of an integer N are in one-to-one correspondence with macrostates for N distinguishable objects is noted. Orders for integer partitions are given, including the original order by Young and the Boltzmann order by entropy. Mixing character (represented by Young diagrams is seen to be a partially ordered quality rather than a quantity (See Ruch, 1975. The majorization partial order is reviewed as is its Hasse diagram representation known as the Young Diagram Lattice (YDL.Two lattices that show allowed transitions between macrostates are obtained from the YDL: we term these the mixing lattice and the diversity lattice. We study the dynamics (time evolution on the two lattices, namely the sequence of steps on the lattices (i.e., the path or trajectory that leads from low entropy, less mixed states to high entropy, highly mixed states. These paths are sequences of macrostates with monotonically increasing entropy. The distributions of path lengths on the two lattices are obtained via Monte Carlo methods, and surprisingly both distributions appear Gaussian. However, the width of the path length distribution for diversity is the square root of the mixing case, suggesting a qualitative difference in their temporal evolution. Another surprising result is that some macrostates occur in many paths while others do not. The evolution at low entropy and at high entropy is quite simple, but at intermediate entropies, the number of possible evolutionary paths is extremely large (due to the extensive branching of the lattices. A quantitative complexity measure associated with incomparability of macrostates in the mixing partial order is proposed, complementing Kolmogorov complexity and Shannon entropy.

  9. Generalized Anxiety and Major Depressive syndrome ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Environmental exposure to manganese (Mn) may cause generalized anxiety (GA) and major depression (MD) in residents living in Mn-exposed areas. Marietta and East Liverpool are two Ohio towns identified as having elevated levels of Mn. The objective was to determine if levels of Mn exposure were associated with levels of GA and MD.Participants and methods: 186 participants (Mean age: 55.0 ± 10.80) were examined. Levels of air-Mn were assessed over a period of ten years using U.S. EPA’s AERMOD dispersion model. Average air-Mn exposure was 0.53 μg/m3 in the two towns. The GA syndrome was comprised of anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and phobic scales from the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R). The MD syndrome was comprised of depression, anxiety, and psychoticism scales also from the SCL-90-R. Linear regression models were used to determine the relationship between Mn and GA, MD and the specific components of each.Results: Elevated air-Mn was associated with GA (β= 0.240, p=0.002), and MD (β= 0.202, p=0.011). Air-Mn was associated with specific components of GA anxiety (β= 0.255, p=0.001), phobic anxiety (β= 0.159, p=0.046), and obsessive-compulsive (β= 0.197, p=0.013). Similarly, components of MD syndrome suggested an association as well: depression (β= 0.180, p=0.023), anxiety (β= 0.255, p=0.001), and psychoticism (β= 0.188, p=0.018). Conclusions: The results suggest that residents with elevated exposure to environmental Mn have elevated levels of

  10. Cambodia's recent history has major population impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article describes major demographic patterns and programs for reducing fertility in Cambodia, based on the 1996 Demographic Survey. A population census will be undertaken in 1998. Cambodia has a very low sex ratio among persons aged 40-44 years, and a loss of population aged 35-39 years. This population pattern is accounted for by the number of men who died during the war period of 1975-79. Over 24% of households are headed by women. Population is about 10.8 million. Population will double in about 25 years. The rate of natural increase was 2.6% annually. The Royal Government Public Investment Program for 1996-2000, will increase investment in family planning and birth spacing to increase contraceptive supplies, improve distribution, and expand the scope of IEC. In 1995, a KAP survey estimated that the total fertility rate was 4.9 children/woman. The 1996 Demographic Survey estimated a rate of 5.2 children/woman. Only 12.6% of currently married women used contraception, and only 6.9% were using modern contraception. With a child mortality rate of 181/1000, Cambodia is a country with one of the highest rates in the world. A national maternal mortality survey based on the sisterhood method estimated maternal mortality at 473 maternal deaths/100,000 live births. The National Maternal and Child Health Centers offers birth spacing services nationwide. The UNFPA funded program offers birth spacing and sexually transmitted disease services in 13 provinces and extensive technical and management training. Regular meetings are held between governmental and nongovernmental groups.

  11. Aspergillus flavus: the major producer of aflatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klich, Maren A

    2007-11-01

    SUMMARY Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen of crops. It is important because it produces aflatoxin as a secondary metabolite in the seeds of a number of crops both before and after harvest. Aflatoxin is a potent carcinogen that is highly regulated in most countries. In the field, aflatoxin is associated with drought-stressed oilseed crops including maize, peanut, cottonseed and tree nuts. Under the right conditions, the fungus will grow and produce aflatoxin in almost any stored crop seed. In storage, aflatoxin can be controlled by maintaining available moisture at levels below that which will support growth of A. flavus. A number of field control measures are being utilized or explored, including: modification of cultural practices; development of resistant crops through molecular and proteomic techniques; competitive exclusion using strains that do not produce aflatoxin; and development of field treatments that would block aflatoxin production. Aspergillus flavus Link (teleomorph unknown) kingdom Fungi, phyllum Ascomycota, order Eurotiales, class Eurotiomycetes, family Trichocomaceae, genus Aspergillus, species flavus. Aspergillus flavus has a broad host range as an opportunistic pathogen/saprobe. It is an extremely common soil fungus. The major concern with this fungus in agriculture is that it produces highly carcinogenic toxins called aflatoxins which are a health hazard to animals. In the field, A. flavus is predominantly a problem in the oilseed crops maize, peanuts, cottonseed and tree nuts. Under improper storage conditions, A. flavus is capable of growing and forming aflatoxin in almost any crop seed. It also is a pathogen of animals and insects. In humans it is predominantly an opportunistic pathogen of immunosuppressed patients. http://www.aspergillusflavus.org, http://www.aflatoxin.info/health.asp, plantpathology.tamu.edu/aflatoxin, http://www.aspergillus.org.uk.

  12. Berkeley's Advanced Labs for Undergraduate Astronomy Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiles, C.

    1998-12-01

    We currently offer three advanced laboratory courses for undergraduate majors: optical, IR, and radio. These courses contain both intellectual and practical content; in this talk we focus on the radio lab as a representative example. The first half of the semester concentrates on fundamentals of microwave electronics and radio astronomy techniques in four formal laboratory exercises which emphasize hands-on use of microwave devices, laboratory instruments, and computer-controlled data taking. The second half of the course emphasizes astronomy, using a horn with ~ 1 m(2) aperture to map the HI in the Galaxy and a two-element interferometer composed of ~ 1 m diameter dishes on a ~ 10 m baseline to measure accurate positions of radio sources and accurate diameters for the Sun and Moon. These experiments and observations offer ideal opportunities for teaching coordinates, time, rotation matrices, data reduction techniques, least squares, signal processing, image processing, Fourier transforms, and laboratory and astronomical instrumentation. The students can't get along without using computers as actually used by astronomers. We stay away from packaged software such as IRAF, which are ``black boxes''; rather, students learn far more by writing their own software, usually for the first time. They use the IDL language to take and reduce data and prepare them for the lab reports. We insist on quality reports---including tables, postscript graphs and images, correct grammar, spelling, and all the rest---and we strongly urge (successfully!) the students to use LATEX. The other two lab courses have the same emphasis: the guiding spirit is to place the students in a real-life research-like situation. There is too much to do, so students perform the work in small groups of 3 or 4 and groups are encouraged to share their knowledge. Lab reports are written individually. These courses are very demanding, requiring an average of 20 hours per week from the students (and probably

  13. A major genetic component of BSE susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juling, Katrin; Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Williams, John L; Fries, Ruedi

    2006-01-01

    Background Coding variants of the prion protein gene (PRNP) have been shown to be major determinants for the susceptibility to transmitted prion diseases in humans, mice and sheep. However, to date, the effects of polymorphisms in the coding and regulatory regions of bovine PRNP on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility have been considered marginal or non-existent. Here we analysed two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP in BSE affected animals and controls of four independent cattle populations from UK and Germany. Results In the present report, we show that two previously reported 23- and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP are strongly associated with BSE incidence in cattle. Genotyping of BSE-affected and control animals of UK Holstein, German Holstein, German Brown and German Fleckvieh breeds revealed a significant overrepresentation of the deletion alleles at both polymorphic sites in diseased animals (P = 2.01 × 10-3 and P = 8.66 × 10-5, respectively). The main effect on susceptibility is associated with the 12-bp indel polymorphism. Compared with non-carriers, heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the 12-bp deletion allele possess relatively higher risks of having BSE, ranging from 1.32 to 4.01 and 1.74 to 3.65 in the different breeds. These values correspond to population attributable risks ranging from 35% to 53%. Conclusion Our results demonstrate a substantial genetic PRNP associated component for BSE susceptibility in cattle. Although the BSE risk conferred by the deletion allele of the 12-bp indel in the regulatory region of PRNP is substantial, the main risk factor for BSE in cattle is environmental, i.e. exposure to feedstuffs contaminated with the infectious agent. PMID:17014722

  14. A major genetic component of BSE susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams John L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coding variants of the prion protein gene (PRNP have been shown to be major determinants for the susceptibility to transmitted prion diseases in humans, mice and sheep. However, to date, the effects of polymorphisms in the coding and regulatory regions of bovine PRNP on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE susceptibility have been considered marginal or non-existent. Here we analysed two insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP in BSE affected animals and controls of four independent cattle populations from UK and Germany. Results In the present report, we show that two previously reported 23- and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP are strongly associated with BSE incidence in cattle. Genotyping of BSE-affected and control animals of UK Holstein, German Holstein, German Brown and German Fleckvieh breeds revealed a significant overrepresentation of the deletion alleles at both polymorphic sites in diseased animals (P = 2.01 × 10-3 and P = 8.66 × 10-5, respectively. The main effect on susceptibility is associated with the 12-bp indel polymorphism. Compared with non-carriers, heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the 12-bp deletion allele possess relatively higher risks of having BSE, ranging from 1.32 to 4.01 and 1.74 to 3.65 in the different breeds. These values correspond to population attributable risks ranging from 35% to 53%. Conclusion Our results demonstrate a substantial genetic PRNP associated component for BSE susceptibility in cattle. Although the BSE risk conferred by the deletion allele of the 12-bp indel in the regulatory region of PRNP is substantial, the main risk factor for BSE in cattle is environmental, i.e. exposure to feedstuffs contaminated with the infectious agent.

  15. Dichotomy of major genes and polygenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.

    1989-01-01

    In order to facilitate domestication and breeding of new or underexploited crop species, the genetic basis of many traits must be critically investigated, and both naturally occurring and induced mutations should be utilized. Classically, most breeding procedures have invoked the dichotomy of major genes versus polygenes (or discrete versus continuously varying traits) which is briefly reviewed here from several viewpoints. Clearly, the evidence for two distinct classes of genes (or gene effects on phenotype) and traits is largely a product of different forms of genetic analyses and their primary objectives as well as of researchers' expectations. Superimposed on the simplest Mendelian ratios and genome maps are numerous sources of molecular variation and gene expression at many levels of phenotypic description. Many attempts to delineate developmental pathways and to identify genes controlling discrete vs. quantitative phenotypic variation have resulted in emphasis on multigenic models with specific gene effects at mappable loci but nonetheless modified by small effects. Thus, quantitative genetic variation may arise from multi-genic and multi-allelic systems of both structural and regulatory gene action and gene interactions which, from an empirical breeding perspective, might be adequately described by the biometrical and evolutionary models. Polygenic analyses were conceptually based on genetic parameters in these models (as caricatures of reality) but efforts to modify or reject them by identifying and mapping sources of phenotypic variation through newer genetic methods are likely to enrich and not displace biometrical methods. Domestication programmes, in particular, should employ the entire array of genetic discoveries and methodologies. (author). 71 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  16. On Linear Maps Preserving g-Majorization from to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armandnejad Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Let and be the usual spaces of n-dimensional column and m-dimensional row vectors on , respectively, where is the field of real or complex numbers. In this paper, the relations gs-majorization, lgw-majorization, and rgw-majorization are considered on and . Then linear maps preserving lgw-majorization or gs-majorization and linear maps , preserving rgw-majorization are characterized.

  17. Seroprevalence and risk factors for cattle anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and trypanosomiasis in a Brazilian semiarid region Soroprevalência e fatores de risco para anaplasmose, babesiose e tripanosomíase bovina em uma região semiárida do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Medeiros de Mendonça Costa

    Full Text Available The seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Trypanosoma vivax and the risk factors for these infections were investigated in 509 cows on 37 farms in the semiarid region of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Cow serum samples were tested by means of immunofluorescence assay (IFA against each specific antigen. The mean seroprevalence values per farm were 15.0% (range: 0-75% for A. marginale, 9.5% (range: 0-40% for B. bigemina and 26.9% (range: 0-73.7% for B. bovis. All cows tested negative for T. vivax. Higher prevalence for A. marginale was significantly associated with less frequent acaricide spraying per year and with higher use of injectable antihelminthics. Presence of cows positive for B. bigemina was significantly associated with acaricide use and with presence of horse flies on the farm. Both occurrence and higher prevalence of B. bovis were significantly associated with recent observations of ticks on cattle. Overall, the present results indicate that the region investigated is an enzootically unstable area for A. marginale, B. bigemina and B. bovis, since most animals were seronegative to at least one agent.A soroprevalência de Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis e Trypanosoma vivax, assim como os fatores de risco para estas infecções, foram investigadas em 37 fazendas (total de 509 vacas da região semiárida da Paraíba, nordeste do Brasil. A presença de anticorpos nos soros dos animais foi detectada pela técnica de imunofluorescência indireta, utilizando antígenos específicos. Os valores médios de soroprevalência por fazenda foram 15,0% (0-75% para A. marginale, 9,5% (0-40% para B. bigemina, e 26,9% (0-73,7% para B. bovis. Todas as vacas foram soronegativas para T. vivax. As maiores prevalências de A. marginale foram significativamente associadas com menor uso de carrapaticidas por ano e com uso mais frequente de antihelmínticos injetáveis. A soroprevalência de B. bigemina

  18. The Discouraged-Business-Major Hypothesis Revisited: Could Economics Be the Encouraged-Business-Major?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarta, Carlos J.; Butters, Roger B.

    2012-01-01

    The term "Discouraged-Business-Major" (DBM) describes students who become discouraged with the rigorous standards of colleges of business and migrate to colleges of arts and sciences to complete a degree in economics under relaxed requirements (Salemi and Eubanks 1996). Following Salemi and Eubanks, the present authors examine a decade…

  19. A New Majority: Low Income Students Now a Majority in the Nation's Public Schools. Research Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Education Foundation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For the first time in recent history, a majority of the schoolchildren attending the nation's public schools come from low income families. The latest data collected from the states by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), evidence that 51 percent of the students across the nation's public schools were low income in 2013. The…

  20. Majoring in Information Systems: Reasons Why Students Select (or Not) Information Systems as a Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Johnny; Slauson, Gayla Jo

    2014-01-01

    Filling the pipeline for information systems workers is critical in the information era. Projected growth rates for jobs requiring information systems expertise are significantly higher than the projected growth rates for other jobs. Why then do relatively few students choose to major in information systems? This paper reviews survey results from…

  1. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 43 - Major Alterations, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and control surfaces. (xxviii) Repairing, including rebottoming, of removable or integral fuel tanks and oil tanks. (2) Powerplant major repairs. Repairs of the following parts of an engine and repairs... of fuel tank filler openings provided the specific device has been made a part of the aircraft type...

  2. Major advances in applied dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastridge, M L

    2006-04-01

    Milk yield per cow continues to increase with a slower rate of increase in dry matter intake; thus, efficiency of ruminal fermentation and digestibility of the dietary components are key factors in improving the efficiency of feed use. Over the past 25 yr, at least 2,567 articles relating to ruminant or dairy nutrition have been published in the Journal of Dairy Science. These studies have provided important advancements in improving feed efficiency and animal health by improving quality of feeds, increasing feedstuff and overall diet digestibility, better defining interactions among feedstuffs in diets, identifying alternative feed ingredients, better defining nutrient requirements, and improving efficiency of ruminal fermentation. The publications are vital in continuing to make advancements in providing adequate nutrition to dairy cattle and for facilitating exchange of knowledge among scientists. Forages have been studied more extensively than any other type of feed. Cereal grains continue to be the primary contributors of starch to diets, and thus are very important in meeting the energy needs of dairy cattle. Processing of cereal grains has improved their use. Feeding by-products contributes valuable nutrients to diets and allows feedstuffs to be used that would otherwise be handled as wastes in landfills. Many of these by-products provide a considerable amount of protein, nonforage fiber, fat, and minerals (sometimes a detriment as in the case of P) to diets. The primary feeding system today is the total mixed ration, with still considerable use of the pasture system. Major improvements have occurred in the use of protein, carbohydrates, and fats in diets. Although advancements have been made in feeding practices to minimize the risk of metabolic diseases, the periparturient period continues to present some of the greatest challenges in animal health. Computers are a must today for diet formulation and evaluation, but fewer software programs are developed by

  3. Teleneonatology: a major tool for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Stephen; Allan, Mark; Valdes, Wesley

    2014-02-01

    Hospitals have, for centuries, maintained a central position in the health care system, providing care for critically ill patients. Despite being a cornerstone of health care delivery, we are witnessing the beginning of a major transformation in their function. There are several forces driving this transformation, including health care costs, shortage of health care professionals, volume of people with chronic diseases, consumerism, health care reform, and hospital errors. The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Utah Valley Regional Medical Center in Provo, Utah, began an aggressive redesign/quality improvement effort in 1990. It became obvious that our care processes were designed for health care deliverers and not for the families. An ongoing revamp of our care delivery processes was undertaken using significant input from a parent focus meeting, parental interviews, and development of a parent-to-parent support group. As a result of this work, it became obvious we needed a new model to truly empower parents. The idea of "NICU is Home" was born. We elected to make a mind shift, not to focus on what families think, but rather on how they think. Web cams and other video apparatus have been used in a number of NICUs across the country. We decided our equipment requirements would need to include high-resolution cameras, full high-definition video recording, autofocus, audio microphones, automatic noise reduction, and automatic low-light correction. Our conferencing software needed to accommodate multiple users and have multiple-picture capabilities, low band width, and inexpensive technology. It was recognized that a single video camera feed was insufficient to adequately capture the desired amount of information. Verbal communication between parents and their babies' principal care providers is critical. Parents loved the idea of expanding the remote NICU web cam of their baby to a two-way physician-parent communication bedside monitor. Doctors at Utah Valley

  4. 2016 Status Report on Major Equipment Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Perry

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Department of National Defence made some progress in procurement in 2016 despite obstacles that included a continued drop in spending, the advent of a new federal Liberal government and uncertainty over the outcome of the Defence Policy Review. Four trends affected defence acquisitions in 2016. These include an ongoing slippage in recapitalizing the Canadian Armed Forces, some encouraging moves made on the shipbuilding and fighter jet files, mixed progress on implementing the 2014 Defence Procurement Strategy, and uncertainty over the Defence Policy Review. It is also too early to tell how the Trudeau government’s Policy on Results, known as the “deliverology” approach, will play out for defence procurement. However, Budget 2016’s major focus was not on defence, and it shifted some funding for capital equipment to a new endpoint of 2045. This suggests that delay in the overall defence procurement program continues. While the Liberals kept their pledge to make investment in the Royal Canadian Navy a priority, they also made good last year on a negative promise – not to purchase the F-35 stealth fighter bomber. However, further slowing things is the Liberals’ refusal to launch a competition to replace it until the Defence Policy Review is published. The government has made this situation more fraught with its intention to buy 18 Boeing Super Hornet fighter jets as interim aircraft, since Liberal policy requires the Royal Canadian Air Force to be capable of meeting both NORAD’s and NATO’s operational needs simultaneously. Prior to the release of the new defence policy, both the interim and permanent fighter aircraft projects lacked adequate funding. They were among several large projects that have been approved, but have not yet moved to the contract stage, and whose budgets were inadequate to move forward. Adding to this mix is the fact that a government-wide effort initiated in 2014 to streamline the defence procurement

  5. Keynote on lessons from major radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, P.; Oresegun, M.; Wheatley, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency (Austria)

    2000-05-01

    Generic lessons have been learned from a relatively large number of accidents in the most relevant practices (a set of analysis have been made on about 90 radiotherapy events, 43 industrial radiography and nine from industrial irradiations); more specific lessons have been drawn from in-depth investigations of individual accidents. The body of knowledge is grouped as follows: a) radiotherapy is very unique in that humans (patients) are purposely given very high radiation doses (20-75 Gy) by placing them in the radiation beam or by placing radioactive sources in contact with tissues. Intended deterministic effects are the essence of the normal radiotherapy practice and relatively small deviation from the intended doses, i.e,, slightly higher or lower than intended may cause increased rate of severe complication or reduce probability of cure. Consequences of major accidents have been devastating, affecting tens, even hundreds of patients and causing death (directly or indirectly) to a large number of them; b) accidents involving industrial radiography are the most frequent cause of overexposure to workers (radiographers); c) accidents with industrial irradiators have lower probability of occurrence, however, they are deemed to be fatal, especially when whole body exposure to panoramic gamma irradiators occur; partial body irradiation from industrial or research accelerator beams has led to amputation of hands and legs; d) when control of sources was relinquished ('orphan' sources) this has resulted in severe injuries, in some cases death and widespread contamination of the environment. A tool for further dissemination of lessons will be an international reporting system of unusual radiation events (RADEV), being introduced world-wide. Accidents were rarely due to a single human error or isolated equipment failure. In most cases there was a combination of elements such as: a) unawareness of the potential for an accident, b) poor education, which usually did

  6. Novel Augmentation Strategies in Major Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiny, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Hypothesis The hypotheses of all the four included studies share the common idea that it is possible to augment the effect of antidepressant drug treatment by applying different interventions and with each intervention attain a clinically meaningful better effect compared to a control condition, and with minor side effects, thus improving the short- and medium-term outcome in major depression. Procedures Study design The basic study design has been the double blind randomised controlled trial (RCT). In the light therapy study, all patients were treated with sertraline for the whole of the study duration. In the first five weeks of the study, patients were randomised to treatment with either 60 minutes of bright white or 30 minutes of dim red light (sham condition). In the four weeks follow-up period, patients were treated with sertraline alone. In the Pindolol study, all patients were treated with venlafaxine and randomised to augmentation with either active or placebo matching pindolol tablets. In the PEMF study patients were continued on ongoing medication and randomised to augmentation with active or inactive (sham) 30 minutes daily PEMF treatment on weekdays. In the Chronos study all patients were treated with duloxetine and randomized to either a combination of three wake therapies with daily bright light treatment and sleep time stabilisation (wake group) or to daily exercise of minimum 30 minutes as an active control intervention (exercise group). The Chronos study was divided into: (1) a one-week run-in phase where duloxetine were started (and continued for the whole 29 week study period), (2) a one-week inpatient intervention phase where patient in the wake group did three wake therapies (sleep abstinence for the whole night and the following day until evening) in combination with daily light therapy and guidance on sleep time stabilisation and patients in the exercise group started a daily exercise program, (3) a seven week continuation phase where

  7. Keynote on lessons from major radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, P.; Oresegun, M.; Wheatley, J.

    2000-01-01

    Generic lessons have been learned from a relatively large number of accidents in the most relevant practices (a set of analysis have been made on about 90 radiotherapy events, 43 industrial radiography and nine from industrial irradiations); more specific lessons have been drawn from in-depth investigations of individual accidents. The body of knowledge is grouped as follows: a) radiotherapy is very unique in that humans (patients) are purposely given very high radiation doses (20-75 Gy) by placing them in the radiation beam or by placing radioactive sources in contact with tissues. Intended deterministic effects are the essence of the normal radiotherapy practice and relatively small deviation from the intended doses, i.e,, slightly higher or lower than intended may cause increased rate of severe complication or reduce probability of cure. Consequences of major accidents have been devastating, affecting tens, even hundreds of patients and causing death (directly or indirectly) to a large number of them; b) accidents involving industrial radiography are the most frequent cause of overexposure to workers (radiographers); c) accidents with industrial irradiators have lower probability of occurrence, however, they are deemed to be fatal, especially when whole body exposure to panoramic gamma irradiators occur; partial body irradiation from industrial or research accelerator beams has led to amputation of hands and legs; d) when control of sources was relinquished ('orphan' sources) this has resulted in severe injuries, in some cases death and widespread contamination of the environment. A tool for further dissemination of lessons will be an international reporting system of unusual radiation events (RADEV), being introduced world-wide. Accidents were rarely due to a single human error or isolated equipment failure. In most cases there was a combination of elements such as: a) unawareness of the potential for an accident, b) poor education, which usually did not

  8. Major Conference about Astronomical Technology in Munich

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Press Conference on Monday, March 27, 2000 Which are the latest astronomical discoveries made with the new 8-10 metre class astronomical telescopes? Will it be possible to construct even more powerful instruments on the ground and in space to explore the near and distant Universe at all wavelengths from gamma-rays to radio waves? Which research areas in this dynamical science are likely to achieve break-throughs with emerging new technologies? These are some of the central themes that will be discussed by more than 600 specialists from all over the world at an international conference in Munich (Germany), "Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments 2000" , beginning on Monday, March 27, 2000. During five days, the modern architecture of the new International Congress Center in the Bavarian capital will be the scene of lively exchanges about recent progress at the world's top-class astronomical research facilities and the presentation of inspired new ideas about future technological opportunities. The conference will be accompanied by numerous on-site exhibition stands by the major industries and research organisations in this wide field. This meeting is the latest in a series, organised every second year, alternatively in the USA and Europe by the International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE) , this year with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) as co-sponsor and host institution. The conference will be opened in the morning of March 27 by the Bavarian Minister of Science, Research and Arts, Hans Zehetmair . His address will be followed by keynote speeches by Massimo Tarenghi (European Southern Observatory), James B. Breckenridge (National Science Foundation, USA), Harvey Butcher (Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy) and Albrecht Ruediger (Max Planck Institut für Quantenoptik, Germany). The conference is subtitled "Power Telescopes and Instrumentation into the New Millennium" and will be attended by leading scientists and engineers from all

  9. Mammography screening: A major issue in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autier, Philippe; Boniol, Mathieu

    2018-02-01

    Breast cancer mortality is declining in most high-income countries. The role of mammography screening in these declines is much debated. Screening impacts cancer mortality through decreasing the incidence of number of advanced cancers with poor prognosis, while therapies and patient management impact cancer mortality through decreasing the fatality of cancers. The effectiveness of cancer screening is the ability of a screening method to curb the incidence of advanced cancers in populations. Methods for evaluating cancer screening effectiveness are based on the monitoring of age-adjusted incidence rates of advanced cancers that should decrease after the introduction of screening. Likewise, cancer-specific mortality rates should decline more rapidly in areas with screening than in areas without or with lower levels of screening but where patient management is similar. These two criteria have provided evidence that screening for colorectal and cervical cancer contributes to decreasing the mortality associated with these two cancers. In contrast, screening for neuroblastoma in children was discontinued in the early 2000s because these two criteria were not met. In addition, overdiagnosis - i.e. the detection of non-progressing occult neuroblastoma that would not have been life-threatening during the subject's lifetime - is a major undesirable consequence of screening. Accumulating epidemiological data show that in populations where mammography screening has been widespread for a long time, there has been no or only a modest decline in the incidence of advanced cancers, including that of de novo metastatic (stage IV) cancers at diagnosis. Moreover, breast cancer mortality reductions are similar in areas with early introduction and high penetration of screening and in areas with late introduction and low penetration of screening. Overdiagnosis is commonplace, representing 20% or more of all breast cancers among women invited to screening and 30-50% of screen

  10. Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) in plants: a complex gene family with major impacts on plant phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Kerrie L; Bhave, Mrinal

    2007-10-01

    The ubiquitous cell membrane proteins called aquaporins are now firmly established as channel proteins that control the specific transport of water molecules across cell membranes in all living organisms. The aquaporins are thus likely to be of fundamental significance to all facets of plant growth and development affected by plant-water relations. A majority of plant aquaporins have been found to share essential structural features with the human aquaporin and exhibit water-transporting ability in various functional assays, and some have been shown experimentally to be of critical importance to plant survival. Furthermore, substantial evidence is now available from a number of plant species that shows differential gene expression of aquaporins in response to abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, or cold and clearly establishes the aquaporins as major players in the response of plants to conditions that affect water availability. This review summarizes the function and regulation of these genes to develop a greater understanding of the response of plants to water insufficiency, and particularly, to identify tolerant genotypes of major crop species including wheat and rice and plants that are important in agroforestry.

  11. Thalassemia major is a major risk factor for pediatric melioidosis in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Siew M; Wong, Ke J; Fukushima, Masako; Yeo, Tsin W

    2015-06-15

    Melioidosis is an important cause of community-acquired infection in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Studies from endemic countries have demonstrated differences in the epidemiology and clinical features among children diagnosed with melioidosis. This suggests that local data are needed to determine the risk factors and outcome in specific areas. This was a retrospective study of all children admitted to Likas Women's and Children Hospital, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, with a blood or clinical sample positive for Burkholderia pseudomallei from 2001 to 2012. Of 28 children with confirmed melioidosis, 27 records were reviewed including 11 (41%) children with thalassemia major. Twenty of the children had bacteremia, and 16 (59%) had a fatal outcome. Six children had chronic disease, and none died. Empiric use of antibiotics not specific for B. pseudomallei was associated with increased risk of death (P Sabah is associated with a high proportion of bacteremia and death. Thalassemia major was a major risk factor for melioidosis among children from 2001 to 2010, but infections decreased markedly from 2011 to 2012 after universal availability of iron chelation therapy. Inappropriate empiric therapy was associated with an increased risk of death. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A Student's Guide to Einstein's Major Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The core of this volume is formed by four chapters (2–5) with detailed reconstructions of the arguments and derivations in four of Einstein's most important papers, the three main papers of his annus mirabilis 1905 (on the light quantum, Brownian motion, and special relativity) and his first systematic exposition of general relativity of 1916. The derivations are given in sufficient detail and in sufficiently modernized notation (without any serious distortion of the originals) for an undergraduate physics major to read and understand them with far less effort than it would take him or her to understand (English translations of) Einstein's original papers. Each of these four papers is accompanied by a detailed introduction, which covers the conceptual development of the relevant field prior to Einstein's contribution to it and corrects some of the myths surrounding these papers that still have not been fully eradicated among physicists. (One quibble: though Kennedy correctly points out that the goal of the light quantum paper was not to explain the photoelectric effect, it is also not quite right to say that 'it was written to explain the Wien region of blackbody radiation' (p. xv). Einstein used this explanatory feat as the central argument for his light quantum hypothesis.) These four chapters then are the most valuable part of the volume. They could be used, independently of one another, but preferably in conjunction with Einstein's original texts, in courses on quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, electrodynamics, and general relativity, respectively, to add a historical component to such courses. As a historian of science embedded in a physics department who is regularly called upon to give guest lectures in such courses on the history of their subjects, I can highly recommend the volume for this purpose. However, I would not adopt this volume as (one of) the central text(s) for a course on the history of modern physics. For one thing, chapter 1, which

  13. Genetic analysis of atherosclerosis identifies a major susceptibility locus in the major histocompatibility complex of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Andrew T; Jones, Michael B; Li, Jing; Chen, Mei-Hua; Manichaikul, Ani; Shi, Weibin

    2016-11-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 50 significant loci containing common variants associated with coronary artery disease. However, these variants explain only 26% of the genetic heritability of the disease, suggesting that many more variants remain to be discovered. Here, we examined the genetic basis underlying the marked difference between SM/J-Apoe -/- and BALB/cJ-Apoe -/- mice in atherosclerotic lesion formation. 206 female F 2 mice generated from an intercross between the two Apoe -/- strains were fed 12 weeks of western diet. Atherosclerotic lesion sizes in the aortic root were measured and 149 genetic markers genotyped across the entire genome. A significant locus, named Ath49 (LOD score: 4.18), for atherosclerosis was mapped to the H2 complex [mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC)] on chromosome 17. Bioinformatic analysis identified 12 probable candidate genes, including Tnfrsf21, Adgrf1, Adgrf5, Mep1a, and Pla2g7. Corresponding human genomic regions of Ath49 showed significant association with coronary heart disease. Five suggestive loci on chromosomes 1, 4, 5, and 8 for atherosclerosis were also identified. Atherosclerotic lesion sizes were significantly correlated with HDL but not with non-HDL cholesterol, triglyceride or glucose levels in the F 2 cohort. We have identified the MHC as a major genetic determinant of atherosclerosis, highlighting the importance of inflammation in atherogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nódulos opalinos en facies marginales del salar Olaroz (Puna Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, R.

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of a petrological and geochemical study of silica nodules from Quaternary alluvial fallS of the Olaroz Salar. The nodules are mainly constituted by C-T opal, d. (101 spacing to 4,11 A, implying a high-disorder; this is commonly observed in opa! rocks formed in near surface environments, without burial and heating. The chemical composition of the nodules is anomalous when compared with other typical silica-rocks formed in arid continental closed basin, without any eruptive environments (for instance the Cuenca del Tajo in Spain. The siliceous nodules do not have the characteristics of the silcretes and are not associated to the evaporitic facies of the salar. Their genesis is probably related to contamination of groundwater of the alluvial fan with high-silica thermal water. The C-T opal would thus precipitate by either displacing tbe terrigenous host-rock or replacing previous ulexite nodules.Se realiza un estudio petrológico y geoquímico de los nódulos silíceos que se encuentran incluidos en sedimentos terrígenos cuaternarios de la Cuenca de Olaroz (La Puna, Argentina. Estos nódulos se localizan en abanicos aluviales que aparecen encajados, debido a los cambios en el nivel de base que se produce desde el Pleistoceno a la actualidad, durante la evolución de los cuerpos lacustres a salares. Un estudio mediante DRX revela que son rocas constituidas por ópalo C-T, con un espaciado (101 a 4,11 A, que implica un grado de desorden alto, típico de las rocas silíceas formadas en superficie y que no han sufrido enterramiento ni influencia térmica. Su composición química es anómala si se compara con rocas silíceas continentales formadas en ambiente endorreico y fuera de un marco volcánico (Mioceno de la Cuenca del Tajo. No poseyendo características de silcretas y no estando asociadas a la sedimentación evaporítica de los salares, se considera la influencia de aguas termales. La contaminación local y en un momento dado de las aguas freáticas de los abanicos aluviales por aguas termales ricas en sílice, propiciaría junto con la evaporización la precipitación de la silíceo Los nódulos silíceos crecerían desplazando el sedimento terrígeno que constituye la roca caja o reemplazando nódulos previa de ulexita.

  15. Maras y barras : Pandillas y violencia juvenil en los barrios marginales de Centroamérica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, W.

    2009-01-01

    Street gangs -especially ‘Mara Salvatrucha’ [MS] and 18th Street Gang [18]- and student gangs are feared throughout Central America. This study looks at the violent and criminal acts they engage in, the attraction they hold over other young people, the solidarity among their members, and the

  16. Domingo de Ramos, dalla violenza urbana alla solidarietà marginale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Badini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyze the poetry of Domingo de Ramos (Peru 1960 through themes like violence, urban decay and migration and presents the translation of an unpublished poem. A path is traced from the vanguards to the socio historical and political context of the  80s Peru, not to mention the innate inclination of the poet for marginal realities.

  17. TAMIZAJE CERVICOUTERINO USANDO PAPANICOLAOU EN MUJERES DE BARRIOS MARGINALES DE LA REGION LORETO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Nuñez Rengifo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación, tiene como objetivo conocer la frecuencia de las mujeres portadoras de lesiones producidas por la infección con Papiloma Virus Humano en las zonas y lugares de difícil acceso geográfico en la región Loreto, donde escasean los recursos y las posibilidades de acceder al servicio de salud sexual y reproductiva son difíciles. Se usó para ello la prueba de Papanicolaou como tamizaje de dichas lesiones. Con ello se pretende reforzar la gestión para la obtención de vacunas contra el PVH, para la nueva generación de mujeres de Loreto; capacitación a los profesionales obstetras para reforzar el manejo en el tratamiento y reducción del cáncer de cuello uterino de la región Loreto. Este estudio tiene un Diseño descriptivo transversal. Se realizó teniendo como estratégica básica los Barridos de Papanicolaou entre los años 2008 y 2009. Se realizaron cientos de intervenciones, lográndose sensibilizar a 25,000 mujeres en Loreto, utilizando la estrategia de Promoción de la Salud, el perifoneo, volanteo, charlas educativas, 5,000 visitas domiciliarias, entre otras. De las 2000 mujeres estudiadas 348 tuvieron algún tipo de normalidad de las células epiteliales. En 45 casos se encontró lesiones intra epiteliales de alto grado ó carcinoma escamoso invasivo.

  18. TAMIZAJE CERVICOUTERINO USANDO PAPANICOLAOU EN MUJERES DE BARRIOS MARGINALES DE LA REGION LORETO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Nuñez-Rengifo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación, tiene como objetivo conocer la frecuencia de las mujeres portadoras de lesiones producidas por la infección con Papiloma Virus Humano en las zonas y lugares de difícil acceso geográfico en la región Loreto, donde escasean los recursos y las posibilidades de acceder al servicio de salud sexual y reproductiva son difíciles. Se usó para ello la prueba de Papanicolaou como tamizaje de dichas lesiones. Con ello se pretende reforzar la gestión para la obtención de vacunas contra el PVH, para la nueva generación de mujeres de Loreto; capacitación a los profesionales obstetras para reforzar el manejo en el tratamiento y reducción del cáncer de cuello uterino de la región Loreto. Este estudio tiene un Diseño descriptivo transversal. Se realizó teniendo como estratégica básica los Barridos de Papanicolaou entre los años 2008 y 2009. Se realizaron cientos de intervenciones, lográndose sensibilizar a 25,000 mujeres en Loreto, utilizando la estrategia de Promoción de la Salud, el perifoneo, volanteo, charlas educativas, 5,000 visitas domiciliarias, entre otras. De las 2000 mujeres estudiadas 348 tuvieron algún tipo de normalidad de las células epiteliales. En 45 casos se encontró lesiones intra epiteliales de alto grado ó carcinoma escamoso invasivo.

  19. EL CINE ESPAÑOL COMO FUENTE DOCUMENTAL PARA EL ESTUDIO DE LOS BARRIOS MARGINALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramis López Juan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El cine como arte nuevo y técnico se instala en una sociedad moderna que tiene una percepción del mundo basada en la imagen. El cine y la fotografía son los introductores de esta modalidad perceptiva de la modernidad. Esta experiencia sensorial sitúa al hombre en un universo más amplio. El hombre contemporáneo comprende los mecanismos representativos del cine, sus códigos, sus metáforas e iconos. El cine ha nacido al mismo tiempo que los abuelos de los espectadores actuales, ha crecido con sus padres, y es conocido y comprendido universalmente

  20. 78 FR 64232 - North Carolina; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... amended, Michael Bolch, of FEMA is appointed to act as the Federal Coordinating Officer for this major... this major disaster: Alleghany, Ashe, Avery, Buncombe, Burke, Caldwell, Jackson, Macon, Madison...