WorldWideScience

Sample records for anamorphs

  1. The Widescreen Anamorphic Lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Steven; Fossati, Giovanna; van den Oever, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the transformative impact of anamorphic widescreen technology on film aesthetics, in two parts: first, I discuss how the affordances of early anamorphic widescreen technology (primarily CinemaScope) played a key role in standardizing widescreen formats in the Hollywood film ind

  2. Cyclic anamorphic cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ijjas, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic models of the universe have the advantage of avoiding initial conditions problems related to postulating any sort of beginning in time. To date, the only known viable examples of cyclic models have been ekpyrotic. In this paper, we show that the recently proposed anamorphic scenario can also be made cyclic. The key to the cyclic completion is a classically stable, non-singular bounce. Remarkably, even though the bounce construction was originally developed to connect a period of contraction with a period of expansion both described by Einstein gravity, we show here that it can naturally be modified to connect an ordinary contracting phase described by Einstein gravity with a phase of anamorphic smoothing. The paper will present the basic principles and steps in constructing cyclic anamorphic models.

  3. New genera in the Calosphaeriales: Togniniella and its anamorph Phaeocrella, and Calosphaeriophora as anamorph of Calosphaeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Réblová, M.; Mostert, L.; Gams, W.; Crous, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    During a survey of perithecial ascomycetes in New Zealand, two collections of a Togninia-like fungus were made on decayed wood. In culture, colonies produced a Phaeoacremonium-like anamorph. In order to reveal the phylogenetic relationships of the unknown fungus and its affinity to Togninia and othe

  4. Redisposition of phoma-like anamorphs in Pleosporales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gruyter, J; Woudenberg, J H C; Aveskamp, M M; Verkley, G J M; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The anamorphic genus Phoma was subdivided into nine sections based on morphological characters, and included teleomorphs in Didymella, Leptosphaeria, Pleospora and Mycosphaerella, suggesting the polyphyly of the genus. Recent molecular, phylogenetic studies led to the conclusion that Pho

  5. Microjet printing of anamorphic microlens arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Weldon R.; Chen, Ting; Ussery, Daryl W.; Hayes, Donald J.; Hoenigman, R. F.; MacFarlane, Duncan L.; Rabinovich, Emmanuil M.

    1996-03-01

    The microjet printing method of micro-optical element fabrication is being used to make arrays of high-performance hemi-elliptical and hemi-cylindrical microlenses for potential use in applications such as collimation of edge-emitting diode laser array beams. The printing method enables both the fabrication of very fast (e.g., f/0.75) microlenses and the potential for reducing costs and increasing flexibility in micro-optics manufacture. The process for fabricating anamorphic microlenses, including those of square or rectangular shape, involves the dispensing and placing of precisely sized microdroplets of optical material onto optical substrates, and then controlling their coalescence and solidification. By varying the number, diameter and spacing of adjacent microdroplets of optical materials deposited at elevated temperatures onto heated substrate, both the dimensional aspect ratios and the ratio of `fast'- to-`slow' focal lengths of a printed hemi-elliptical microlens may be varied over a very wide range. Arrays of hemi-elliptical and hemi-cylindrical microlenses on the order of 100 - 300 micrometers in width and 150 micrometers to 20 mm long, with focal length ratios (fast/slow) from 1 (circular) to 0 (cylindrical), have been printed. A model for predicting printed hemi-elliptical microlens focal lengths from printed lenslet geometry is illustrated, along with an interferometric method of detecting lenslet defects and aberrations.

  6. Cordyceps bassiana and production of stromata in vitro showing Beauveria anamorph in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Cordyceps species was found with Beauveria anamorph state on larval insect cadavers on Obong Mountsin in Gangwon Pronvince, Republic of Korea. Cultures from discharged ascospores formed an anamorph identifiable as Beauveria bassiana. This teleomorph-anamorph connection was also confirmed by the in...

  7. Anamorphic integral field spectrometer for diffuse ultraviolet astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Timothy

    2013-12-20

    We present the design of a novel anamorphic integral field spectrometer for diffuse ultraviolet astronomy. The system is designed to be able to measure emissions from faint diffuse astrophysical sources across a large field with good spectral resolving power. The design uses a standard focal plane image slicer and an anamorphic relay mirror and spectrometer to achieve an exceptional area, field of view, resolving power (AΩR) product, the key figure of merit for a spectroscopic system intended to study line emission from extended or diffuse sources. We present a typical design with R∼1000 and an effective etendue (AΩ) of 1.5×10(-4)cm2 sr.

  8. Fatal cutaneous mycosis in tentacled snakes caused by the chrysosporium anamorph of nannizziposis vriesii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Crawshaw, Graham J.; Sigler, Lynne;

    2005-01-01

    The fungus Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii was identified as the caurse of fatal, multifocal, heterophilic dermatitis in for freshwater aquatic captive-bred tentacled snakes......The fungus Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii was identified as the caurse of fatal, multifocal, heterophilic dermatitis in for freshwater aquatic captive-bred tentacled snakes...

  9. A study of Cyathicula strobilina and its Chalara anamorph in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Gams, Walter; Philippi, Susanne

    1992-01-01

    The connection of Cyathicula strobilina (Fr.: Fr.) Korf & Dixon with the Chalara strobilina Sacc. anamorph is confirmed by means of ascospore isolations. The in vitro morphology of the latter is described in detail and the heterogeneity of the genus Chalara is pointed out.

  10. Nonminimally coupled inflation with initial conditions from a preinflation anamorphic contracting era

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, John

    2016-08-01

    Inflation due to a nonminimally coupled scalar field, as first proposed by Salopek, Bardeen and Bond (SBB), is in good agreement with the observed value of the spectral index and constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Here we explore the possibility that SBB inflation represents the late stage of a Universe which emerges from an early contracting era. We present a model in which the Universe smoothly transitions from an anamorphic contracting era to late-time SBB inflation without encountering a singular bounce. This corresponds to a continuous expansion in the Einstein frame throughout. We show that the anamorphic contracting era is able to provide the smooth superhorizon initial conditions necessary for subsequent SBB inflation to occur. The model predicts corrections to the nonminimal coupling, kinetic term and potential of SBB inflation which can observably increase the spectral index relative to its SBB prediction.

  11. Non-Minimally Coupled Inflation with a Pre-Inflation Anamorphic Contracting Era

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, John

    2015-01-01

    Inflation due to a non-minimally coupled scalar field, as first proposed by Salopek, Bardeen and Bond (SBB), is in good agreement with the observed value of spectral index and constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Here we explore the possibility that SBB inflation represents the late stage of a Universe which emerges from an early contracting era. We present a model in which the Universe smoothly transitions from an anamorphic contracting era to late-time SBB inflation without encountering a singular bounce. This corresponds to a continuous expansion in the Einstein frame throughout. We show that the anamorphic contracting era is able to provide the smooth superhorizon initial conditions necessary for subsequent SBB inflation to occur. The model predicts corrections to the non-minimal coupling, kinetic term and potential of SBB inflation which can observably increase the observed spectral index relative to its SBB prediction.

  12. The anamorphic genus Monotosporella (Ascomycota) from Eocene amber and from modern Agathis resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Beimforde, Christina; Gube, Matthias; Rikkinen, Jouko; Singh, Hukam; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Heinrichs, Jochen; Nascimbene, Paul C; Reitner, Joachim; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2012-10-01

    The anamorphic fungal genus Monotosporella (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes) has been reco-vered from a piece of Early Eocene Indian amber, as well as from the surface of extant resin flows in New Caledonia. The fossil fungus was obtained from the Tarkeshwar Lignite Mine of Gujarat State, western India, and was part of the biota of an early tropical angiosperm rainforest. The amber inclusion represents the second fossil record of Sordariomycetes, as well as the first fossil of its particular order (either Savoryellales or Chaetosphaeriales). The fossil fungus is distinguished from extant representatives by possessing both short conidiophores and small two-septate pyriform conidia, and is described as Monotosporella doerfeltii sp. nov. Inside the amber, the anamorph is attached to its substrate, which is likely the degraded thallus of a cladoniform lichen. The extant New Caledonian species is assigned to Monotosporella setosa. It was found growing on semi-solidified resin flows of Agathis ovata (Araucariaceae), and is the first record of Monotosporella from modern resin substrates. PMID:23063189

  13. Multiple gene genealogies and phenotypic characters differentiate several novel species of Mycosphaerella and related anamorphs on banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Fullerton, R.A.; Abeln, E.C.A.; Carlier, J.; Zapater, M.-F.; Buddenhagen, I.W.; Viljoen, A.; Crous, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    Three species of Mycosphaerella, namely M. eumusae, M. fijiensis, and M. musicola are involved in the Sigatoka disease complex of bananas. Besides these three primary pathogens, several additional species of Mycosphaerella or their anamorphs have been described from Musa. However, very little is kno

  14. Anamorphic Spectrum Transform and its Application to Time-Bandwidth Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Asghari, Mohammad H

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical transform for compressing the time-bandwidth product of analog signals is introduced. As one of its applications, this physics-based signal grooming allows a conventional digitizer to sample and digitize the analog signal with variable resolution. The net result is that frequency components that were beyond the digitizer bandwidth can now be captured and, at the same time, the total digital data volume is reduced. This analog compression is loss-less and is made possible because the proposed transformation, performed prior to sampling, causes more samples to be allocated to higher frequencies, where they are needed, and less to lower frequencies, where they are redundant. Our method is inspired by operation of Fovea centralis in human eye and by anamorphic transformation in visual arts. The proposed transform can also be performed in digital domain as a data compression algorithm to alleviate the storage and transmission bottlenecks of big data.

  15. Implications of Planck2015 for inflationary, ekpyrotic and anamorphic bouncing cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Ijjas, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The results from Planck2015, when combined with earlier observations from WMAP, ACT, SPT and other experiments, were the first observations to disfavor the "classic" inflationary paradigm. To satisfy the observational constraints, inflationary theorists have been forced to consider plateau-like inflaton potentials that introduce more parameters and more fine-tuning, problematic initial conditions, multiverse-unpredictability issues, and a new 'unlikeliness problem.' Some propose turning instead to a "postmodern" inflationary paradigm in which the cosmological properties in our observable universe are only locally valid and set randomly, with completely different properties (and perhaps even different physical laws) existing in most regions outside our horizon. By contrast, the new results are consistent with the simplest versions of ekpyrotic cyclic models in which the universe is smoothed and flattened during a period of slow contraction followed by a bounce, and another promising bouncing theory, anamorphic...

  16. A monograph of the entomopathogenic genera Hypocrella, Moelleriella, and Samuelsia gen. nov. (Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Clavicipitaceae), and their aschersonia-like anamorphs in the Neotropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverri, P.; Liu, M.; Hodge, K.T.

    2008-01-01

    The present taxonomic revision deals with Neotropical species of three entomopathogenic genera that were once included in Hypocrella s. l.: Hypocrella s. str. (anamorph Aschersonia), Moelleriella (anamorph aschersonia-like), and Samuelsia gen. nov (anamorph aschersonia-like). Species of Hypocrella, Moelleriella, and Samuelsia are pathogens of scale insects (Coccidae and Lecaniidae, Homoptera) and whiteflies (Aleyrodidae, Homoptera) and are common in tropical regions. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from nuclear ribosomal large subunit (28S), translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF 1-α), and RNA polymerase II subunit 1 (RPB1) and analyses of multiple morphological characters demonstrate that the three segregated genera can be distinguished by the disarticulation of the ascospores and shape and size of conidia. Moelleriella has filiform multi-septate ascospores that disarticulate at the septa within the ascus and aschersonia-like anamorphs with fusoid conidia. Hypocrella s. str. has filiform to long-fusiform ascospores that do not disarticulate and Aschersonia s. str. anamorphs with fusoid conidia. The new genus proposed here, Samuelsia, has filiform to long-fusiform ascospores that do not disarticulate and aschersonia-like anamorphs with small allantoid conidia. In addition, the present study presents and discusses the evolution of species, morphology, and ecology in Hypocrella, Moelleriella, and Samuelsia based on multigene phylogenetic analyses. PMID:18490956

  17. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the ascomycetous yeast genus Zygoascus, with proposal of Zygoascus meyerae sp. nov. and related anamorphic varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maudy Th; Robert, V; Poot, G A; Epping, Wendy; de Cock, A W A M

    2005-05-01

    Physiological characters, mating compatibility, PCR-RAPD fingerprints, mol% G + C content, DNA-DNA relatedness, and large-subunit and internal transcribed spacer rRNA gene sequences of strains assigned to the genus Zygoascus were re-examined. On the basis of those data, and after phylogenetic analyses, an emendation of Zygoascus hellenicus (type material is a cross of CBS 6736(T) x CBS 5839(T)) is proposed, comprising two novel anamorphic varieties, Candida steatolytica var. steatolytica (CBS 6736(T)) and C. steatolytica var. inositophila (CBS 5839(T)). A novel teleomorphic species, Zygoascus meyerae sp. nov. (type material is a cross of CBS 4099(T) x CBS 7521(T)) is described, together with two novel anamorphic varieties corresponding to it, Candida hellenica var. hellenica (CBS 4099(T)) and C. hellenica var. acidophila (CBS 7115(T)).

  18. 打造出色的光学性能 Schneider Cine-Digitar Anamorphic 1.33x

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Cine-Digitar Anamorphic 1.33x是Schneider推出的高品质变形镜头,采用全肖特(SCHOTT)玻璃镜片,具有最高的MIF值,控制四角变形达到最低值;减损的亮度控制在极限的-2%内,忠实再现接近100%的画面本质。

  19. Identification of Anamorph Yeast of Tremella aurantialba and Optimization of Medium Composition for Production of Exopolysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春卉; 杨秀伟; 俞建国; 马维新; 瞿伟菁; 包艳洁; 武文斌; 庄秀园

    2012-01-01

    A yeast-like fungus strain B1 isolated from wild fungus Tremella aurantialba was identified and initially characterized.Two phylogenetic trees were generated based on the sequences of large subunit ribosomal RNA gene D1/D2 regions and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of related fungi,respectively.The analysis of D1/D2 regions and ITS sequences showed that fungus B1 was clustered together with T.aurantialba,T.aurantia and T.microspore in the phylogenetic trees.Both the morphological characteristic and phylogenetic analysis established that fungus B1 was one of the anamorph strains of T.aurantialba and belongs to Tremella genus.A fermentation medium for exopolysaccharides (EPS)production by T.aurantialba B1.Plackett-Burmen design was used to evaluate the effects of different components in the culture medium.Glucose and yeast extract have significant influence on the EPS production.The concentrations of two factors were optimized subsequently using central composite design and response surface analysis.The results showed that 49.2 g/L glucose and 10.4 g/L yeast extract could lead to the maximum production of EPS (4.99 g/L).The optimized medium led to a 1.5-fold enhancement of the production of EPS by T.aurantialba B1,as compared with that without optimization.

  20. Cryptococcus randhawai sp nov., a novel anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast isolated from tree trunk hollow of Ficus religiosa (peepal tree) from New Delhi, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Z.U.; Ahmad, S.; Hagen, F.; Fell, J.W.; Kowshik, T.; Chandy, R.; Boekhout, T.

    2010-01-01

    A novel anamorphic Cryptococcus species is described, which was isolated in New Delhi (India) from decaying wood of a tree trunk hollow of Ficus religiosa. On the basis of sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene and the internally transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 and ITS-2 region seque

  1. Seed-borne Botryosphaeria spp. from native Prunus and Podocarpus trees in Ethiopia, with a description of the anamorph Diplodia rosulata sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gure, Abdella; Slippers, Bernard; Stenlid, Jan

    2005-09-01

    Botryosphaeria spp. from seeds of the native afromontane forest tree species, Podocarpus falcatus and Prunus africana, in Ethiopia have been identified. This is achieved by combining anamorph morphological characters and ITS sequence data. From a relatively small sample, four Botryosphaeria spp. were encountered. Two of the species from P. falcatus and the one from P. africana have not been previously described. The two species from P. falcatus were represented by only one isolate each and are not named here. The morphology of their Diplodia and Dothiorella anamorphs is, however, characterised. The anamorph of the other Botryosphaeria sp. from P. africana is described here as Diplodia rosulata sp. nov. Furthermore, B. parva is identified from P. falcatus based on ITS phylogeny. This species is also an important pathogen of various commercially important tree species in Ethiopia and elsewhere. This study highlights the ability of Botryosphaeria spp. to infect seeds and the possibility that they might be distributed in this way. The study also contributes to recent attempts to stabilize the taxonomy of Botryosphaeria anamorphs, especially regarding Diplodia, which is currently in taxonomic disarray.

  2. Deep fungal dermatitis caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii in captive coastal bearded dragons (Pogona barbata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R S P; Sangster, C R; Sigler, L; Hambleton, S; Paré, J A

    2011-12-01

    Deep fungal dermatitis caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV) was diagnosed in a group of coastal bearded dragons (Pogona barbata). The outbreak extended over a 6-month period, with four of six lizards from the same zoological outdoor enclosure succumbing to infection. A fifth case of dermatomycosis was identified in a pet lizard originally sourced from the wild. Diagnosis of infection with the CANV was based on similar clinical signs and histopathology in all animals and confirmed by culture and sequencing of the fungus from one animal. This is the first report of the CANV causing disease in a terrestrial reptile species in Australia and the first in the coastal bearded dragon. PMID:22103953

  3. Anthraquinone dyes decolorization capacity of anamorphic Bjerkandera adusta CCBAS 930 strain and its HRP-like negative mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniłłowicz-Kowalska, Teresa; Rybczyńska, Kamila

    2014-06-01

    Cultures of the anamorphic fungus Bjerkandera adusta CCBAS 930 decolorizing, in stationary cultures, 0.01 % solutions of carminic acid and Poly R-478, were characterised by a strong increase in the activity of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP-like) and manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) at a low activity of lignin peroxidase. Genotypically modified mutants of B. adusta CCBAS 930: 930-5 and 930-14, with total or partial loss of decolorization capabilities relative to anthraquinonic dyes, showed inhibition of the activity of HRP-like peroxidase and MnP. Whereas, compared to the parental strain, in the mutant cultures there was an increase in the activity of lignin peroxidase and laccase. The paper presents a discussion of the role of the studied enzymatic activities in the process of decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes by the strain B. adusta CCBAS 930. PMID:24415463

  4. Evolution and ecophysiology of the industrial producer Hypocrea jecorina (Anamorph Trichoderma reesei and a new sympatric agamospecies related to it.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina S Druzhinina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trichoderma reesei, a mitosporic green mould, was recognized during the WW II based on a single isolate from the Solomon Islands and since then used in industry for production of cellulases. It is believed to be an anamorph (asexual stage of the common pantropical ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined molecular evolutionary analysis and multiple methods of phenotype profiling in order to reveal the genetic relationship of T. reesei to H. jecorina. The resulting data show that the isolates which were previously identified as H. jecorina by means of morphophysiology and ITS1 and 2 (rRNA gene cluster barcode in fact comprise several species: i H. jecorina/T. reesei sensu stricto which contains most of the teleomorphs (sexual stages found on dead wood and the wild-type strain of T. reesei QM 6a; ii T. parareesei nom. prov., which contains all strains isolated as anamorphs from soil; iii and two other hypothetical new species for which only one or two isolates are available. In silico tests for recombination and in vitro mating experiments revealed a history of sexual reproduction for H. jecorina and confirmed clonality for T. parareesei nom. prov. Isolates of both species were consistently found worldwide in pantropical climatic zone. Ecophysiological comparison of H. jecorina and T. parareesei nom. prov. revealed striking differences in carbon source utilization, conidiation intensity, photosensitivity and mycoparasitism, thus suggesting adaptation to different ecological niches with the high opportunistic potential for T. parareesei nom. prov. CONCLUSIONS: Our data prove that T. reesei belongs to a holomorph H. jecorina and displays a history of worldwide gene flow. We also show that its nearest genetic neighbour--T. parareesei nom. prov., is a cryptic phylogenetic agamospecies which inhabits the same biogeographic zone. These two species thus provide a so far rare example of sympatric speciation

  5. Cytological Characterization of Anamorphic Fungus Lecanicillium pui and Its Relationship with Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wei; Zhang, Guren; Wu, Guangguo; Liu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), one of the most valuable medicinal mushrooms, has great economic importance on the Tibetan Plateau. We isolated an anamorphic fungus Lecanicillium pui from natural O. sinensis specimens and found that the optimal temperature for its culture on potato dextrose agar media was 25°C. Cell ultrastructure in L. pui hyphae and spores was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, and it was observed that some primary organelles showed the typical fungal features. Five chemical elements were determined in this fungus and niobium was discovered for the first time even with trace amounts. A species-specific method, nested polymerase chain reaction, was established to investigate the colonization of this fungus. Thus, the extensive distribution of L. pui on O. sinensis, in the shape of hyphae or mycelia, suggested that it may have subtle and chronic effects on the growth of the O. sinensis teleomorphic stage. These findings provide a potential reference, in the view of microbial ecology, for the study on the occurrence and mechanism of development of O. sinensis. PMID:27279447

  6. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from the anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma antarctica, which produces glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2006-07-15

    Pseudozyma antarctica T-34 secretes a large amount of biosurfactants (BS), mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL), from different carbon sources such as hydrocarbons and vegetable oils. The detailed biosynthetic pathway of MEL remained unknown due to lack of genetic information on the anamorphic basidiomycetous yeasts, including the genus Pseudozyma. Here, in order to obtain genetic information on P. antarctica T-34, we constructed a cDNA library from yeast cells producing MEL from soybean oil and identified the genes expressed through the creation of an expressed sequence tags (EST) library. We generated 398 ESTs, assembled into 146 contiguous sequences. Based upon a BLAST search similarity cut-off of E

  7. Light-dependent roles of the G-protein α subunit GNA1 of Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubicek Christian P

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The filamentous ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei is primarily known for its efficient enzymatic machinery that it utilizes to decompose cellulosic substrates. Nevertheless, the nature and transmission of the signals initiating and modulating this machinery are largely unknown. Heterotrimeric G-protein signaling represents one of the best studied signal transduction pathways in fungi. Results Analysis of the regulatory targets of the G-protein α subunit GNA1 in H. jecorina revealed a carbon source and light-dependent role in signal transduction. Deletion of gna1 led to significantly decreased biomass formation in darkness in submersed culture but had only minor effects on morphology and hyphal apical extension rates on solid medium. Cellulase gene transcription was abolished in Δgna1 on cellulose in light and enhanced in darkness. However, analysis of strains expressing a constitutively activated GNA1 revealed that GNA1 does not transmit the essential inducing signal. Instead, it relates a modulating signal with light-dependent significance, since induction still required the presence of an inducer. We show that regulation of transcription and activity of GNA1 involves a carbon source-dependent feedback cycle. Additionally we found a function of GNA1 in hydrophobin regulation as well as effects on conidiation and tolerance of osmotic and oxidative stress. Conclusion We conclude that GNA1 transmits a signal the physiological relevance of which is dependent on both the carbon source as well as the light status. The widespread consequences of mutations in GNA1 indicate a broad function of this Gα subunit in appropriation of intracellular resources to environmental (especially nutritional conditions.

  8. Trichosporon wieringae sp.nov., an anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast from soil, and assimilation of some phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and other non-conventional carbon sources by saprophytic Trichosporon species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    A morphological and physiological description of an anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast species isolated from soil, named Trichosporon wieringae, is presented. The phylogenetic position within the genus, based on nuclear base sequencing of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit of rDNA and of the ITS re

  9. Neosartorya fischeri var fischeri (Wehmer) Malloch and Cain 1972 (anamorph: Aspergillus fischerianus Samson and Gams 1985) as a cause of mycotic keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coriglione, G; Stella, G; Gafa, L; Spata, G; Oliveri, S; Padhye, A A; Ajello, L

    1990-12-01

    The first case of mycotic keratitis caused by Neosartorya fischeri var. fischeri the teleomorph of Aspergillus fischerianus, is described. The patient, a 62-year-old man, had no history of trauma to his infected left eye. The infection progressed despite treatment with ketoconazole and the eye had to be eviscerated. Histological studies revealed the presence of hyaline, septate mycelium in the eye tissue. Cultures gave rise to a thermotolerant mould that developed both its asexual and sexual forms. The isolate was identified on the basis of the morphologic features of its anamorphic and teleomorphic states. In the literature only seven other species of Aspergillus have been unequivocally reported as causing mycotic keratitis. PMID:2091938

  10. Cryptococcus randhawai sp. nov., a novel anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast isolated from tree trunk hollow of Ficus religiosa (peepal tree) from New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zia U; Ahmad, Suhail; Hagen, Ferry; Fell, Jack W; Kowshik, Tusharantak; Chandy, Rachel; Boekhout, Teun

    2010-03-01

    A novel anamorphic Cryptococcus species is described, which was isolated in New Delhi (India) from decaying wood of a tree trunk hollow of Ficus religiosa. On the basis of sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene and the internally transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 and ITS-2 region sequences, the isolate belonged to the Cryptococcus albidus cluster (Filobasidiales, Tremellomycetes) and was closely related to Cryptococcus saitoi, Cryptococcus cerealis and Cryptococcus friedmannii with 98% sequence identity. Phenotypically, the species differed from C. saitoi with respect to growth temperature (up to 37degrees C), presence of a thin capsule, ability to grow in the absence of vitamins, and inability to assimilate citrate and ethylamine. With respect to C. friedmannii, it differed in growth temperature, ability to assimilate lactose, raffinose, L: -rhamnose, myo-inositol, and inability to utilize citrate. Furthermore, our isolate also differed from C. cerealis in growth temperature, presence of capsule and inability to assimilate L: -sorbose. In view of the above phenotypic differences and unique rDNA sequences, we consider that our isolate represents a new species of Cryptococcus, and therefore, a new species, Cryptococcus randhawai is proposed for this taxon. The type strain J11/2002 has been deposited in the culture collection of the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS10160) and CABI Biosciences (IMI 393306). PMID:20091225

  11. An isolate of Arthroderma benhamiae with Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei anamorph isolated from a four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoko; Haritani, Kuniko; Sano, Ayako; Takizawa, Kayoko; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Miyaji, Makoto; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2002-01-01

    A female four-toed hedgehog probably imported from Africa and kept as a pet by a family suffered from depilation and mite (Caparinia tripilis) infection. Depilated quills were inoculated on a commercially available medium and an isolate of the dermatophytes was obtained. A giant colony after 14 days incubation on yeast extract Sabourauds agar had a central umbo with white granular surface and a yellow pigment ring in the reverse. The hedgehog isolate produced numerous elongated microconidia singly attached along the sides of hyphae. Macroconidia were somewhat irregular in shape and size and 2-6 septa. Abundant intermediate sized spores between micro- and macro conidia and few spirals were observed. Hair perforation and urease activity tests were positive. Maximum growth temperature was 40 C. In the mating tests using the tester strains of both African and Americano-European races of Arthroderma benhamiae, the strain produced numerous gymnothecia only when paired with the African race mating type minus(-). In addition, 591 bases of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA gene including the 5.8S region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) were sequenced and corresponded to those of T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank accession numbers Z97996 and Z97997) by more than 99.7%. Therefore, our case is the first isolation of A. benhamiae with T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei anamorph in Japan. PMID:12402026

  12. Molecular Characterization of Reptile Pathogens Currently Known as Members of the Chrysosporium Anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii Complex and Relationship with Some Human-Associated Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambleton, Sarah; Paré, Jean A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV), Chrysosporium guarroi, Chrysosporium ophiodiicola, and Chrysosporium species have been reported as the causes of dermal or deep lesions in reptiles. These infections are contagious and often fatal and affect both captive and wild animals. Forty-nine CANV isolates from reptiles and six isolates from human sources were compared with N. vriesii based on their cultural characteristics and DNA sequence data. Analyses of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal gene revealed that the reptile pathogens and human isolates belong in well-supported clades corresponding to three lineages that are distinct from all other taxa within the family Onygenaceae of the order Onygenales. One lineage represents the genus Nannizziopsis and comprises N. vriesii, N. guarroi, and six additional species encompassing isolates from chameleons and geckos, crocodiles, agamid and iguanid lizards, and humans. Two other lineages comprise the genus Ophidiomyces, with the species Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola occurring only in snakes, and Paranannizziopsis gen. nov., with three new species infecting squamates and tuataras. The newly described species are Nannizziopsis dermatitidis, Nannizziopsis crocodili, Nannizziopsis barbata, Nannizziopsis infrequens, Nannizziopsis hominis, Nannizziopsis obscura, Paranannizziopsis australasiensis, Paranannizziopsis californiensis, and Paranannizziopsis crustacea. Chrysosporium longisporum has been reclassified as Paranannizziopsis longispora. N. guarroi causes yellow fungus disease, a common infection in bearded dragons and green iguanas, and O. ophiodiicola is an emerging pathogen of captive and wild snakes. Human-associated species were not recovered from reptiles, and reptile-associated species were recovered only from reptiles, thereby mitigating concerns related to zoonosis. PMID:23926168

  13. Use of Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) as a model system for Trichoderma biocontrol of Pythium blight identifies new targets for genetic strain improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seidl V; Schmoll M; Scherm B; Balmas V; Seiboth B; Migheli Q; Kubicek C P

    2004-01-01

    @@ Biocontrol by Trichoderma has been studied mainly with selected isolates of T. harzianum, T.atroviride and T. asperellum, which are members of sections Pachybasium and Trichoderma. In contrast, species from section Longibrachiatum have only rarely been studied. On the other hand, one taxon from this section-Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph: Trichoderma reesei)-has been widely used for the production of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes and recombinant proteins. As far as Trichoderma is concerned, molecular genetic methods and tools are most advanced in H. jecorina,and its genome has recently been fully sequenced, thus making this taxon a model organism for the genus. Here we will demonstrate that H. jecorina is able to antagonize plant pathogenic fungi in plate confrontation tests, and can protect tomato and cucumber plants against Pythium ultimum blight.Using this as a model case, we made use of available H. jecorina mutants to investigate (a) whether carbon catabolite repression via the Cre1-regulator protein has an impact on biocontrol, and (b)whether cellulase gene expression is necessary for biocontrol of P. ultimum. In the first case, plate confrontation tests and in planta experiments yielded opposite results, i.e. while a Cre1 mutant was more active in antagonization of fungi on plates, the survival rates of P. ultimum-inoculated cucumber plants was lower than with the H. jecorina wild-type strain. Mutants of H. jecorina,unable to form cellulases, were still able to antagonize fungi on plates and provided similar protection of tomatos against P. ultimum as the wild type, indicating that the pronounced biocontrol ability of H.jecorina against fungi with cellulose-containing cell-walls is not due to its high cellulolytic activity. A strain disrupted in the light-modulator gene envoy (Schmoll et al., ms submitted) exhibited in planta biocontrol activity strongly exceeding that of the wild-type strain, thereby providing a first link between Trichoderma

  14. 卓越的画质,专为发烧级玩家而设计 Schneider(施耐德)CINE-DIGITAR ANAMORPHIC 1.33×XL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王韦

    2010-01-01

    为了满足想消除投影画面上那两条粗大的黑边、追求更广阔视野又不愿意牺牲接近1/3投影机像素的挑剔玩家,2.35:1的变形镜头出现了。但是许多玩家发现使用了变形镜头之后,对画面的亮度、锐度、清晰度的损失实在是非常严重,于是进一步催生了高价高品质的顶级变形镜头的诞生。其中由德国著名光学大厂Schneider Optics(施耐德光学)所推出的CINE-DIGITARANAMORPHIC 1.33×系列就是高素质变形镜头的代表,绝佳的画面畸变的控制,优秀的色彩还原能力,都是普通变形镜头难以望其项背的。而来到编辑部视听室的则是最高端的CINE-DIGITAR ANAMORPHIC 1.33×XL。

  15. Diversidad de Anamorfos de Ascomycota en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (Ulmaceae en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Diversity of anamorphic fungi in Celtis tala (Ulmaceae native forest from Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Allegrucci

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizó la diversidad de microhongos que constituyen la comunidad fúngica saprótrofa (anamorfos de Ascomycota presente en hojarasca y suelo en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (tala en el partido de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales durante dos años (2004-2005 y se aislaron e identificaron los hongos presentes. Se calculó la frecuencia relativa porcentual de cada taxón; estos datos fueron utilizados para evaluar la diversidad fúngica mediante el cálculo del Indice de Diversidad de Shanon y Weaver ( H '. Para discriminar las comunidades fúngicas se utilizó el coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen ( S '. Se identificaron 104 taxones de anamorfos de Ascomycota, de los cuales 54 fueron aislados de hojarasca y 58 de suelo, registrándose 8 especies en común para ambos tipos de muestra. De las especies compartidas, las que presentaron frecuencias más altas para hojarasca fueron las menos representadas en suelo y viceversa. El resultado del cálculo del coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen fue de 0.14, indicando que la comunidad de hongos saprótrofos que crece en la hojarasca de tala está integrada por diferentes especies a las que caracterizan la micobiota del suelo de la misma área. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el índice de diversidad.In this paper we analyze the diversity of species that compose the saprotrophic (anamorphic Ascomycota fungi community in the leaf litter and soil in Celtis tala forest in Magdalena , located in the province of Buenos Aires . Seasonal samples were taken during two years (2004-2005, and fungi were isolated and identified. The relative frequencies of fungi were calculated. To compare the similarity of the fungi composition between different habitats, Sorensen's index of similarity (S´ was applied. The frequencies of occurrence of these fungi were recorded and Shannon Weaver index (H´ was applied to evaluate fungal

  16. Onychomycosis caused by Scytalidium dimidiatum. Report of two cases. Review of the taxonomy of the synanamorph and anamorph forms of this coelomycete Onicomicose por Scytalidium dimidiatum. Registro de dois casos. Revisão da taxonomia das formas sinanamorfas e anaforma deste celomiceto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos da Silva LACAZ

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors report two cases of onychomycosis in the dystrophic form, one of them involving an HIV-positive patient, provoked by Scytalidium dimidiatum, previously called Scytalidium lignicola. The subject is reviewed from the taxonomic viewpoint, considering the anamorph Hendersonula toruloidea as a synonym of Nattrassia mangiferae, and having Scytalidium dimidiatum as the major synanamorph. According to many mycologists, Scytalidium hyalinum may be a separate species or a hyaline mutant of Scytalidium dimidiatum. Scytalidium lignicola Pesante 1957 was considered to be the type-species of the genus by ELLIS (197113 and later to be a "conidial state" of Hendersonula toruloidea by the same author, today known as Nattrassia mangiferae. The microorganism lives only on the roots of certain plants (mainly Platanus and Pinus. It produces pycnidia and is not considered to be a pathogen, although it is considered as a possible emerging agent capable of provoking opportunistic fungal lesions. The importance of this topic as one of the most outstanding in fungal taxonomy, so likely to be modified over time, as well as its interest in the field of dermatologic mycology, are emphasized.Os Autores registraram dois casos de onicomicose sob forma distrófica, sendo um em paciente HIV-positivo, provocados pelo Scytalidium dimidiatum, no passado considerado como Scytalidium lignicola. Fazem uma revisão da matéria sob o ponto de vista taxonômico, considerado o anamorfo Hendersonula toruloidea como sinônimo de Nattrassia mangiferae, tendo como sinanamorfo principal o Scytalidium dimidiatum. Scytalidium hyalinum seria para muitos micologistas espécie à parte ou mutante hialina do Scytalidium dimidiatum. Scytalidium lignicola Pesante 1957, foi considerada por ELLIS (197113 como espécie-tipo do gênero e mais tarde (197614, pelo mesmo Autor como "estado conidiano" de Hendersonula toruloidea, atualmente Nattrassia mangiferae. Vive somente em raízes de

  17. Reactions of winter wheat to Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph Septoria tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomir Věchet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of six winter wheat cultivars and lines (Vlasta, Šárka, Charger, 00ST022, SG-U8044C a SG-U2113B to Mycosphaerella graminicola isolate BR-331 and UH-05 on leaf segments of the detached second seedling leaf of cultivars placed on water agar with bezimidazole in clear plastic box were tested. The isolate BR-331 produced high occurrence of the disease in the cultivar Šárka, middle occurrence (the percentage covered by lesions bearing pycnidia in the cultivar Vlasta and SG-U8044C and low occurrence in the line 00ST0022. The isolate UH-105 produced high occurrence in the cultivar 00ST022 and middle occurrence in the cultivar Vlasta. The cultivar Charger was resistant. The cultivar Šárka was attacked at least. Results show on different virulence of M. graminicola isolates to wheat cultivars.

  18. Microascus cinereus (Anamorph Scopulariopsis) Brain Abscess in a Bone Marrow Transplant Recipient

    OpenAIRE

    Baddley, John W.; Moser, Stephen A.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Pappas, Peter G.

    2000-01-01

    We report the first documented case of brain abscess due to the dematiaceous fungus Microascus cinereus, an organism common in soil and stored grain. M. cinereus was isolated from brain abscess material from a bone marrow transplant recipient. The patient responded well to treatment by amphotericin B lipid complex, itraconazole, and a craniotomy but later died from secondary complications caused by graft-versus-host disease.

  19. The Encounter of the Emblematic Tradition with Optics. The Anamorphic Elephant of Simon Vouet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez López, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In his excellent work Anamorphoses ou perspectives curieuses (1955), Baltrusaitis concluded the chapter on catoptric anamorphosis with an allusion to the small engraving by Hans Tröschel (1585-1628) after Simon Vouet's drawing Eight satyrs observing an elephant reflected on a cylinder, the first known representation of a cylindrical anamorphosis made in Europe. This paper explores the Baroque intellectual and artistic context in which Vouet made his drawing, attempting to answer two central sets of questions. Firstly, why did Vouet make this image? For what purpose did he ideate such a curious image? Was it commissioned or did Vouet intend to offer it to someone? And if so, to whom? A reconstruction of this story leads me to conclude that the cylindrical anamorphosis was conceived as an emblem for Prince Maurice of Savoy. Secondly, how did what was originally the project for a sophisticated emblem give rise in Paris, after the return of Vouet from Italy in 1627, to the geometrical study of catoptrical anamorphosis? Through the study of this case, I hope to show that in early modern science the emblematic tradition was not only linked to natural history, but that insofar as it was a central feature of Baroque culture, it seeped into other branches of scientific inquiry, in this case the development of catoptrical anamorphosis. Vouet's image is also a good example of how the visual and artistic poetics of the baroque were closely linked--to the point of being inseparable--with the scientific developments of the period. PMID:27356338

  20. The Encounter of the Emblematic Tradition with Optics. The Anamorphic Elephant of Simon Vouet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez López, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In his excellent work Anamorphoses ou perspectives curieuses (1955), Baltrusaitis concluded the chapter on catoptric anamorphosis with an allusion to the small engraving by Hans Tröschel (1585-1628) after Simon Vouet's drawing Eight satyrs observing an elephant reflected on a cylinder, the first known representation of a cylindrical anamorphosis made in Europe. This paper explores the Baroque intellectual and artistic context in which Vouet made his drawing, attempting to answer two central sets of questions. Firstly, why did Vouet make this image? For what purpose did he ideate such a curious image? Was it commissioned or did Vouet intend to offer it to someone? And if so, to whom? A reconstruction of this story leads me to conclude that the cylindrical anamorphosis was conceived as an emblem for Prince Maurice of Savoy. Secondly, how did what was originally the project for a sophisticated emblem give rise in Paris, after the return of Vouet from Italy in 1627, to the geometrical study of catoptrical anamorphosis? Through the study of this case, I hope to show that in early modern science the emblematic tradition was not only linked to natural history, but that insofar as it was a central feature of Baroque culture, it seeped into other branches of scientific inquiry, in this case the development of catoptrical anamorphosis. Vouet's image is also a good example of how the visual and artistic poetics of the baroque were closely linked--to the point of being inseparable--with the scientific developments of the period.

  1. Extensive colonization of apples by smut anamorphs causes a new posthavest disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout, T.; Gildemacher, P.R.; Theelen, B.; Müller, W.H.; Heijne, B.; Lutz, M.

    2006-01-01

    Colonization of apples by ballistoconidium-forming fungi causes a new disorder, here named 'white haze'. White haze may occur in mild form in the field, but only becomes problematic after Ultra-Low Oxygen storage, and, therefore, may be considered as a postharvest disorder. All isolates, obtained us

  2. System and method for ultrafast optical signal detecting via a synchronously coupled anamorphic light pulse encoded laterally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heebner, John E.

    2010-08-03

    In one general embodiment, a method for ultrafast optical signal detecting is provided. In operation, a first optical input signal is propagated through a first wave guiding layer of a waveguide. Additionally, a second optical input signal is propagated through a second wave guiding layer of the waveguide. Furthermore, an optical control signal is applied to a top of the waveguide, the optical control signal being oriented diagonally relative to the top of the waveguide such that the application is used to influence at least a portion of the first optical input signal propagating through the first wave guiding layer of the waveguide. In addition, the first and the second optical input signals output from the waveguide are combined. Further, the combined optical signals output from the waveguide are detected. In another general embodiment, a system for ultrafast optical signal recording is provided comprising a waveguide including a plurality of wave guiding layers, an optical control source positioned to propagate an optical control signal towards the waveguide in a diagonal orientation relative to a top of the waveguide, at least one optical input source positioned to input an optical input signal into at least a first and a second wave guiding layer of the waveguide, and a detector for detecting at least one interference pattern output from the waveguide, where at least one of the interference patterns results from a combination of the optical input signals input into the first and the second wave guiding layer. Furthermore, propagation of the optical control signal is used to influence at least a portion of the optical input signal propagating through the first wave guiding layer of the waveguide.

  3. Rhodotorula subericola sp. nov., an anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast species isolated from bark of Quercus suber (cork oak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloch, C; Villa-Carvajal, M; Alvarez-Rodríguez, M L; Coque, J J R

    2007-07-01

    Two yeasts strains, Y-31(T) and Y-20B, pertaining to a previously unknown yeast species were isolated from bark of cork oak in Spain. Physiological characterization revealed a pattern of assimilation of carbon and nitrogen compounds compatible with members of the genus Rhodotorula. From sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene, Rhodotorula cycloclastica and Rhodotorula philyla were related to the unknown species. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on the D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene showed that the novel species clustered in a branch together with R. cycloclastica. The name Rhodotorula subericola sp. nov. is proposed, with isolate Y-31(T) (=CECT 11976(T)=CBS 10442(T)) the type strain of this novel taxon in the Microbotryum lineage, subclass Microbotryomycetidae, class Urediniomycetes of basidiomycetous yeasts.

  4. The occurrence of Pyrenomycetes, Loculoascomycetes and their anamorphs in the plant communities of Babia Góra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chlebicki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes a descriptions of fungi belonging to Pyrenomycetes, Loculoascomycetes,Coelomycetes and Hyphomycetes which were found on Mt. Babia Góra in the years 1983 -1988. Also presented ara comparative studies of thę mycoflora of the selected trees and comparative studies of the vertical ranges of fungi and vascular plants. The investigations show that Pyrenomycetes fungi depend on the plant communities in which they occur.

  5. 竹黄无性型的多态性及孢子个体发育研究%Polymorphism and Spore Ontogenesis of Anamorph Shiraia banmbusicola

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩燕峰; 杜文; 梁宗琦; 梁建东; 董旋

    2010-01-01

    为了解竹黄菌的生长发育情况,采用光学显微镜对其无性孢子的类型和产孢方式进行了观察和研究.结果表明:竹黄无性型存在着梭形砖隔状的大分生孢子和椭圆形至近球形的共无性型小分生孢子,并首次报道了大分生孢子形态的多样性和能产生瓶梗孢子及芽生孢子产孢方式的多型现象.

  6. Cryptococcus allantoinivorans sp.nov., an anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast (Tremellales) physiologicallt resembling other species of the Cryptococcus laurentii complex that degrade polysaccharides and C2 compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Middelhoven, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    A novel Cryptococcus species is proposed to accommodate a yeast strain (CBS 9604) able to assimilate allantoin as sole carbon source, a characteristic very uncommon among yeasts. By traditional methods, the strain could not be distinguished from Cryptococcus laurentii, but nucleotide sequences of the D1D2 region of the large subunit (26S) and of the ITS region of ribosomal DNA showed relationship to the Bulleromyces clade of the genus Cryptococcus (order Tremellales) with some Tremella spp. a...

  7. Cryptococcus allantoinivorans sp.nov., an anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast (Tremellales) physiologicallt resembling other species of the Cryptococcus laurentii complex that degrade polysaccharides and C2 compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    A novel Cryptococcus species is proposed to accommodate a yeast strain (CBS 9604) able to assimilate allantoin as sole carbon source, a characteristic very uncommon among yeasts. By traditional methods, the strain could not be distinguished from Cryptococcus laurentii, but nucleotide sequences of th

  8. Fungos anamorfos (hyphomycetes) da Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, Pará, Brasil: novos registros para o Neotrópico Anamorphic fungi (hyphomycetes) from Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará, Brazil: new records for the Neotropics

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane Santana Monteiro; Antonio Hernández Gutiérrez; Helen Maria Pontes Sotão

    2010-01-01

    Os hifomicetos são importantes decompositores e recicladores da matéria orgânica morta no ambiente e podem ser importantes patógenos de plantas e animais. Como parte do inventário da diversidade dos fungos sobre palmeiras da Amazônia Oriental, no sítio do Programa de Biodiversidade da Amazônia (PPBIO), na Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, Pará, foram identificados cinco novos registros de hifomicetos para o Neotrópico: Camposporium fusisporum Whitton, McKenzie & Hyde; Cylindrocarpon curtum Bugni...

  9. Phylogenetic lineages in the Botryosphaeriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, Pedro W; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J; Rheeder, John; Marasas, Walter F O; Philips, Alan J L; Alves, Artur; Burgess, Treena; Barber, Paul; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2006-01-01

    Botryosphaeria is a species-rich genus with a cosmopolitan distribution, commonly associated with dieback and cankers of woody plants. As many as 18 anamorph genera have been associated with Botryosphaeria, most of which have been reduced to synonymy under Diplodia (conidia mostly ovoid, pigmented, thick-walled), or Fusicoccum (conidia mostly fusoid, hyaline, thin-walled). However, there are numerous conidial anamorphs having morphological characteristics intermediate between Diplodia and Fusicoccum, and there are several records of species outside the Botryosphaeriaceae that have anamorphs apparently typical of Botryosphaeria s.str. Recent studies have also linked Botryosphaeria to species with pigmented, septate ascospores, and Dothiorella anamorphs, or Fusicoccum anamorphs with Dichomera synanamorphs. The aim of this study was to employ DNA sequence data of the 28S rDNA to resolve apparent lineages within the Botryosphaeriaceae. From these data, 12 clades are recognised. Two of these lineages clustered outside the Botryosphaeriaceae, namely Diplodia-like anamorphs occurring on maize, which are best accommodated in Stenocarpella (Diaporthales), as well as an unresolved clade including species of Camarosporium/Microdiplodia. We recognise 10 lineages within the Botryosphaeriaceae, including an unresolved clade (Diplodia/Lasiodiplodia/Tiarosporella), Botryosphaeria s.str. (Fusicoccum anamorphs), Macrophomina, Neoscytalidium gen. nov., Dothidotthia (Dothiorella anamorphs), Neofusicoccum gen. nov. (Botryosphaeria-like teleomorphs, Dichomera-like synanamorphs), Pseudofusicoccum gen. nov., Saccharata (Fusicoccum- and Diplodia-like synanamorphs), "Botryosphaeria" quercuum (Diplodia-like anamorph), and Guignardia (Phyllosticta anamorphs). Separate teleomorph and anamorph names are not provided for newly introduced genera, even where both morphs are known. The taxonomy of some clades and isolates (e.g. B. mamane) remains unresolved due to the absence of ex-type cultures

  10. A survey of Daldinia species with large ascospores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, M.; Læssøe, Thomas; Simpson, J.A.;

    2004-01-01

    structures, but no conidiogenous structures referable to known xylariaceous anamorphs were observed. D. grandis is reconsidered and viewed as a species of warmer climates in the Americas. Three new species are recognised from new combinations of anamorphic and teleomorphic characters: (1) D. novaezelandiae...

  11. Structural insights into the inhibition of cellobiohydrolase Cel7A by xylo‐oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momeni, Majid Haddad; Ubhayasekera, Wimal; Sandgren, Mats;

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph of Trichoderma reesei) is the predominant source of enzymes for industrial saccharification of lignocellulose biomass. The major enzyme, cellobiohydrolase Cel7A, constitutes nearly half of the total protein in the secretome. The performance...

  12. Asperisporium and Pantospora (Mycosphaerellaceae): epitypifications and phylogenetic placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnis, A.M.; Kennedy, A.H.; Grenier, D.B.; Rehner, S.A.; Bischoff, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The species-rich family Mycosphaerellaceae contains considerable morphological diversity and includes numerous anamorphic genera, many of which are economically important plant pathogens. Recent revisions and phylogenetic research have resulted in taxonomic instability. Ameliorating this problem req

  13. Neopetromyces gen. nov and an overview of teleomorphs of Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    products. This new classification is in accord with DNA sequence data. Strains identified as A. melleus producing ochratoxin A proved to be the anamorph of N. muricatus, while no strains of A. melleus sensu stricto produced ochratoxin A. This is the first report on ochratoxin A production of N. muricatus....... Ochratoxin A is thus produced by some species in both sections Flavi and Circumdati. Several options are discussed for integrating the taxonomy and nomenclature of anamorphs and teleomorphs that lack coincident generic concepts....

  14. Asperisporium and Pantospora (Mycosphaerellaceae): epitypifications and phylogenetic placement

    OpenAIRE

    Minnis, A.M.; Kennedy, A.H.; Grenier, D.B.; Rehner, S.A.; Bischoff, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The species-rich family Mycosphaerellaceae contains considerable morphological diversity and includes numerous anamorphic genera, many of which are economically important plant pathogens. Recent revisions and phylogenetic research have resulted in taxonomic instability. Ameliorating this problem requires phylogenetic placement of type species of key genera. We present an examination of the type species of the anamorphic Asperisporium and Pantospora. Cultures isolated from recent port intercep...

  15. Biodiversity of endophytic fungi from seven herbaceous medicinal plants of Malnad region, Western Ghats, southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Shankar Naik; M. Krishnappa; Y. L. Krishnamurthy

    2014-01-01

    A total of 3611 fungal isolates were recovered from 4200 leaf segments incubated from 7 medicinal herbs during monsoon, winter and summer seasons. These fungal isolates belonged to teleomorphic Asco-mycota (23.5%), anamorphic Ascomycota producing conidiomata (17.4%), anamorphic Ascomycota without conidiomata (46.9%), Zygo-mycota (1.42%) and sterile forms (10.6%). Chaetomium globosum, As-pergillus niger, Aureobasidium pullulans, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., Pestalotiopsis spp., Trichoderma viridae, Cladosporium cladosporioides, were frequently isolated from more than one host plant. The number of endophytic isolates was higher in winter than in monsoon and summer seasons.

  16. Zygoascus hellenicus gen. nov., sp. nov., the teleomorph of Candida hellenica (= C. inositophila = C. steatolytica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M T

    1986-01-01

    The anamorphic yeast species Candida hellenica, C. inositophila and C. steatolytica were found to constitute haploid mating types of an undescribed, filamentous heterothallic Endomycete. The new genus Zygoascus is proposed for the teleomorph. Descriptions are given of the genus and type species, Z. hellenicus.

  17. Molecular systematics of the Amphisphaeriaceae based on cladistic analyses of partial LSU rDNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeewon, Rajesh; Liew, Edward C Y; Hyde, Kevin D

    2003-12-01

    The Amphisphaeriaceae is an important family of ascomycetes within the Xylariales. There has been, however, disagreement regarding the taxonomic placement of many genera within this family and whether it should be confined to ascomycetes producing Pestalotiopsis-like anamorphs. In this study, phylogenetic relationships among members of the Amphisphaeriaceae are investigated using partial sequences of the 28S rDNA. Molecular data provided further evidence to support the association of several coelomycetous genera with the ascomycetous Amphisphaeriaceae. Phylogenetic analyses also show that all ascomycetous genera possessing Pestalotiopsis-like anamorphs are monophyletic and confirm the anamorphic-teleomorphic connections of some. There is, however, insufficient evidence to support the restriction of Amphisphaeriaceae to genera, which produce Pestalotiopsis-like anamorphs, because the phylogenetic placement of Amphisphaeria umbrina is not fully resolved and its affinities with other members received low bootstrap support. The results also indicate that Iodosphaeria and Arecophila should be excluded from the Amphisphaeriaceae. The placement of Lanceispora in the Amphisphaeriaceae is doubtful. A broad concept of the family Amphisphaeriaceae is advocated until further data are available.

  18. First localities in Poland of the recently described fungus Cordyceps bifusispora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bujakiewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two localities of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bifusispora, hitherto not reported from Poland, are characterised by their site conditions and co-occurring macrofungi during the period of the appearance of its stromata. Description of this fungus culture is given and some remarks on the resemblance of its teleomorphs and anamorphs from different collections are discussed.

  19. Genetic mapping of 14 avirulence genes in an EU-B04 x 1639 progeny of Venturia inaequalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broggini, G.A.L.; Bus, V.G.M.; Parravicini, G.; Kumar, S.; Groenwold, R.; Gessler, C.

    2011-01-01

    Durable resistance to apple scab (Venturia inaequalis (Cke) Wint; anamorph Spilocaea pomi Fries) is one of the major goals of apple (Malus) breeding programs. Since current scab resistance breeding is heavily reliant on genes with gene-for-gene relationships, a good understanding of the genetic basi

  20. Phyllosticta species associated with freckle disease of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, M.H.; Crous, P.W.; Henderson, J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Drenth, A.

    2012-01-01

    The identity of the casual agent of freckle disease of banana was investigated. The pathogen is generally referred to in literature under its teleomorphic name, Guignardia musae, or that of its purported anamorph, Phyllosticta musarum. Based on morphological and molecular data from a global set of b

  1. Multiple gene sequences delimit Botryosphaeria australis sp. nov. from B. lutea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slippers, B.; Fourie, G.; Crous, P.W.; Coutinho, T.A.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Botryosphaeria lutea (anamorph Fusicoccum luteum) most easily is distinguished from other Botryosphaeria spp. by a yellow pigment that is formed in young cultures. This fungus has been reported from a number of cultivated hosts in New Zealand and Portugal. During a survey of Botryosphaeria fungi tha

  2. Cladosporium herbarum is a cause of a leaf spot disease on Caltha leptosepala (marsh-marigold) in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caltha leptosepala ssp. howellii and Caltha leptosepala ssp. leptosepala (marsh-marigold, Ranunculaceae) inhabit stream banks and wet meadows in subalpine zones in the northern Rocky and Cascade mountain ranges of North America. Cladosporium herbarum (anamorphic Davidiellaceae) is a cosmopolitan sap...

  3. The genus Cladosporium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bench, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Dav

  4. Phylogeny, detection, and mating behaviour of Mycosphaerella spp. occurring on banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.

    2008-01-01

    The genus Mycosphaerella is phylogenetically heterogeneous, and has been linked to more than 30 anamorphic genera. Plant pathogenic species of Mycosphaerella are among the most common and destructive plant pathogens, causing considerable economic losses on a wide range of hosts by invading leaf and

  5. Cylindrocarpon root rot: multi-gene analysis reveals novel species within the Ilyonectria radicicola species complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabral, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Rego, C.; Oliveira, H.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Ilyonectria radicicola and its Cylindrocarpon-like anamorph represent a species complex that is commonly associated with root rot disease symptoms on a range of hosts. During the course of this study, several species could be distinguished from I. radicicola sensu stricto based on morphological and

  6. Phylogeny and taxonomic revision of Thelonectria discophora (Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelonectria discophora (Thelonectria, Nectriaceae, Hypocreales) is a conspicuous group of saprobic fungi on decaying plant material, characterized by red perithecia each with a broad mammiform (nipple-like) apex. The anamorphic state is characterized by a cylindrocarpon-like morphology, with 3–5 se...

  7. Taxonomy and phylogeny of new wood- and soil-inhabiting Sporothrix species in the Ophiostoma stenoceras-Sporothrix schenckii complex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meyer, E.M.; de Beer, Z.W.; Summerbell, R.C.; Moharram, A.M.; de Hoog, G.S.; Vismer, H.F.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Sporothrix, one of the anamorph genera of Ophiostoma, includes the important human pathogen S. schenckii and various fungi associated with insects and sap stain of wood. A survey of fungi from wood utility poles in South Africa yielded two distinct groups of Sporothrix isolates from different geogra

  8. Hyphal fusion in Magnaporthe grisea and the pathogenic variation of its progeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENYing; ZHAOXinhua; YUANXiaoping; WANGYanli; LIChengyun; LUOCaoxi

    1997-01-01

    Many fungi have hyphal fusion ability, including rice blast fungus [ Magnaporthe grisea( Hebert ) Barr nov. Comb, ( Anamorph Pyricularia oryzae Cavara)], and which is one of the major causes to pathogenic variation.Santo H has obserced the phenomenon of hyphal fusion in rice plant under electron rnieroscope and isolated some races which were different from parental ones.

  9. Population structure and pathotype diversity of the wheat blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae 25 years after its emergence in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Maciel, J.L.; Ceresini, P.; Castroagudin, V.L.; Zala, M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Since its first report in Brazil in 1985, wheat blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph: Pyricularia oryzae), has become increasingly important in South America, where the disease is still spreading. We used 11 microsatellite loci to elucidate the population structure of the wheat blast pathog

  10. Observations on Neobarya, including new species and new combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candoussau, F.; Boqueras, M.; Gómez-Bolea, A.;

    2007-01-01

     Technical abstract:  New combinations and new species are proposed in Neobarya: N. aurantiaca comb. nov., N. byssicola comb. nov., N. lichenicola comb. nov., N. lutea sp. nov., N. peltigerae sp. nov., N. xylariicola sp. nov. Neobarya agaricicola, and N. parasitica are redescribed. Anamorphs asso...

  11. Phylogenetic and morphological re-evaluation of the Botryosphaeria species causing diseases of Mangifera indica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slippers, B.; Johnson, G.I.; Crous, P.W.; Coutinho, T.A.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Species of Botryosphaeria are among the most serious pathogens that affect mango trees and fruit. Several species occur on mangoes, and these are identified mainly on the morpholopy of the anamorphs. Common taxa include Dothiorella dominicana, D. mangiferae (= Natrassia mangiferae), D. aromatica and

  12. Identification of Pyrenophora teres f. maculata, Causal Agent of Spot Type Net Blotch of Barley in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Net blotch of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), caused by the fungus Pyrenophora teres (anamorph: Drechslera teres) can be differentiated into two forms, net form net blotch (NFNB) and spot form net blotch (SFNB). The pathogen forms causing the two different symptoms are P. teres f. teres and P. teres f....

  13. Evaluation of a barley core collection for spot form net blotch reaction reveals distinct genotype specific pathogen virulence and host susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spot form net blotch (SFNB) caused by Pyrenophora teres Drechs. f. maculata Smedeg., (anamorph Drechslera teres [Sacc.] Shoem.) is a major foliar disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) worldwide. SFNB epidemics have recently been observed in major barley producing countries, suggesting that the loca...

  14. Rapid Identification of Pseudallescheria and Scedosporium Strains by Using Rolling Circle Amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Lackner, Michaela; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Sun, Jiufeng; Lu, Qiaoyun; De Hoog, G. Sybren

    2012-01-01

    The Pseudallescheria boydii complex, comprising environmental pathogens with Scedosporium anamorphs, has recently been subdivided into five main species: Scedosporium dehoogii, S. aurantiacum, Pseudallescheria minutispora, P. apiosperma, and P. boydii, while the validity of some other taxa is being debated. Several Pseudallescheria and Scedosporium species are indicator organisms of pollution in soil and water. Scedosporium dehoogii in particular is enriched in soils contaminated by aliphatic...

  15. Books received by the Rijksherbarium library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1992-01-01

    The Ascomycete genus Monilinia Honey with its anamorph Monilia includes many parasites of woody perennials, including economically important fruit-trees. This study treats the morphology in vivo and in vitro and detailed life histories; it evaluates, describes and selects criteria for the generic an

  16. Clinical characteristics and epidemiology of pulmonary pseudallescheriasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantarcioglu, A.S.; de Hoog, G.S.; Guarro, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some members of the Pseudallescheria (anamorph Scedosporium) have emerged as an important cause of life-threatening infections in humans. These fungi may reach the lungs and bronchial tree causing a wide range of manifestations, from colonization of airways to deep pulmonary infections.

  17. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Diffraction Analysis of the Glucuronoyl Esterase Catalytic Domain from Hypocrea jecorina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The catalytic domain of the glucuronoyl esterase from Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) was over-expressed, purified, and crystallized by sitting-drop vapor-diffusion method using 1.4 M sodium/potassium phosphate pH 6.9. Crystals had space group P212121 and X-ray diffraction data were...

  18. Aspects of sexual reproduction in Mycosphaerella species on wheat and barley : genetic studies on specificity, mapping, and fungicide resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ware, S.B.

    2006-01-01

    Mycosphaerella species are haploid ascomycetes that cause major economic losses in crops that include cereals, citrus fruits, and bananas, among others. Two organisms in this genus are Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel) .I. Schröt (anamorph Sepioria tritici) and Septoriapasserinii. M graminicola is

  19. Mating type-correlated molecular markers and demonstration of heterokaryosis in the phytopathogenic fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani) AG 1-IC by AFLP DNA fingerprinting analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julian, M.C.; Acero, J.; Salazar, O.; Keijer, J.; Rubio, O.

    1999-01-01

    The destructive soil-borne plant pathogenic basidiomycetous fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk [anamorph: Rhizoctonia solani Kühn] is not a homogeneous species, but is composed of at least twelve anastomosis groups (AG), which seem to be genetically isolated. The genetics of several T. cucu

  20. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov and Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Fourie, P.H.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal

  1. A fissitunicate ascus mechanism in the Calosphaeriaceae, and novel species of Jattaea and Calosphaeria on Prunus wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    During a survey of Prunus wood from South Africa, isolations were made of three presumably Calosphaerialean fungi that formed hyphomycetous, phialidic anamorphs in culture. In order to reveal the phylogenetic relationship of these fungi, they were characterised on a morphological and molecular (LSU

  2. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov. And Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Fourie, P.H.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal

  3. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov. and Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Fourie, P.H.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal

  4. Barriopsis iraniana and Phaeobotryon cupressi: two new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae from trees in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdollahzadeh, J.; Mohammadi Goltapeh, E.; Javadi, A.; Shams-bakhsh, M.; Zare, R.; Phillips:, A.J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Species in the Botryosphaeriaceae are well known as pathogens and saprobes of woody hosts, but little is known about the species that occur in Iran. In a recent survey of this family in Iran two fungi with diplodia-like anamorphs were isolated from various tree hosts. These two fungi were fully char

  5. Thai marine fungal diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattaket Choeyklin

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungal diversity of Thailand was investigated and 116 Ascomycota, 3 Basidiomycota, 28 anamorphic fungi, 7 Stramenopiles recorded, with 30 tentatively identified. These species have primarily been collected from driftwood and attached decayed wood of mangrove trees. The holotype number of 15 taxa is from Thailand and 33 are new records from the country.

  6. Apple anthracnose canker life cycle and disease cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple anthracnose [caused by Neofabraea malicorticis (H.S. Jacks) anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck)] is a fungal disease that impacts apple production. The pathogen produces cankers on trees as well as a rot on the fruit known as ‘Bull’s-eye rot’. The cankers cause severe damage to trees...

  7. Management of apple anthracnose canker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple anthracnose (caused by Neofabraea malicorticis anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora) is a fungal disease that causes cankers on trees and ‘Bull’s-eye rot’ on fruit. In western Washington, it is the canker phase of apple anthracnose that is considered most serious as it can result in death of ...

  8. Variation and Transgression of Aggressiveness Among Two Gibberella Zeae Crosses Developed from Highly Aggressive Parental Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibberella zeae (anamorph: Fusarium graminearum) is the most common cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Aggressiveness is the most important fungal trait affecting disease severity and stability of host resistance. Objectives were to analyze in two field exper...

  9. NUEVAS ESPECIES PARA LA UREDOBIOTA NEOTROPICAL NEW SPECIES FOR THE NEOTROPICAL UREDOBIOTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Salazar Yepes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen seis especies teliomórficas y dos anamórficas nuevas para la ciencia; una nueva combinación anamórfica es propuesta; los Uredinales fueron colectados sobre los hospedantes: Thumbergia sp., Baccharis nitida, Baccharis decussata, Bidens sp., Tabebuia rosea, Euphorbia laurifolia, Crotalaria nitens, Artocarpus communis y Polypodium adnatum. Esta investigación permite inferir una alta diversidad de Uredinales en la zona cafetera colombiana.Six teliomorphic and two anamorphic new rust species are described on: Thumbergia sp., Baccharis nitida, Baccharis decussata, Bidens sp., Tabebuia rosea, Euphorbia laurifolia, Crotalaria nitens, and Polypodium adnatum in the Colombian coffee area. A new anamorphic combination is proposed on: Artocarpus communis. This study allows to infer a high diversity of rust fungi in this area.

  10. Ruwenzoria, a new genus of the Xylariaceae from Central Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, M.; Læssøe, Thomas; Fournier, J.;

    2010-01-01

    Abstract During a foray to the mountain rainforests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, a peculiar species of Xylariaceae was found, which could not be accommodated in any of the existing genera. It is recognised as representative of a new genus, named Ruwenzoria, owing to the presence...... of a new combination of teleomorphic and anamorphic characters that are regarded as significant for generic segregation within the Xylariaceae. Studies on its secondary metabolites in stromata and cultures by high performance liquid chromatography, coupled with diode array and mass spectrometric detection......, and an anamorph featuring enteroblastic rather than holoblastic conidiogenesis. A specimen from the same geographic region, previously identified as Daldinia bakeri by R.W.G. Dennis was found to constitute a mixture of stromata of Ruwenzoria and an additional, undescribed Daldinia species. The latter fungus...

  11. Coherent temporal imaging with analog time-bandwidth compression

    CERN Document Server

    Asghari, Mohammad H

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the concept of coherent temporal imaging and its combination with the anamorphic stretch transform. The new system can measure both temporal profile of fast waveforms as well as their spectrum in real time and at high-throughput. We show that the combination of coherent detection and warped time-frequency mapping also performs time-bandwidth compression. By reducing the temporal width without sacrificing spectral resolution, it addresses the Big Data problem in real time instruments. The proposed method is the first application of the recently demonstrated Anamorphic Stretch Transform to temporal imaging. Using this method narrow spectral features beyond the spectrometer resolution can be captured. At the same time the output bandwidth and hence the record length is minimized. Coherent detection allows the temporal imaging and dispersive Fourier transform systems to operate in the traditional far field as well as in near field regimes.

  12. Preliminary studies of fungi in the Biebrza National Park (NE Poland. Part III. Micromycetes – new data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Ruszkiewicz-Michalska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological information concerning 292 fungal taxa is reported as a result of two surverys in the Biebrza National Park. Most data presented come from the 5-day all-fungi inventory of the Polish Mycological Society in 2013, and 47 species were recorded during studies in the Biele Suchowolskie fen in 2008/2009. In total, 27 species of zygomycetes, 232 ascomycetes (including anamorphs and 27 basidiomycetes (mainly Pucciniales. Additionaly some representatives of fungi-like organisms from Stramenopiles (4 species and Dictyostelia (2 were identified. Fungal groups included were the same as in the previous survey in 2012: 190 taxa associated with plants, 15 with animals, 8 with fungi and 71 isolated from soil, plant debris and animal excrements. The most numerous were anamorphic ascomycetes (159 species. Nineteen species have not been previously known from Poland and 31 species are rare (1–3 localities. For the Biebrza National Park 197 species (67.5% are new.

  13. [Keratinophilic fungal flora isolated from small wild mammals and rabbit-warren in France. Discussion on the fungal species found].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabasse, D; Guiguen, C; Couatarmanac'h, A; Launay, H; Reecht, V; de Bièvre, C

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi was investigated in 237 small wild mammals and 125 european rabbit. The purpose of the investigation was to determine what were the species of fungi present in the these animals. Four species of dermatophytes were isolated: Trichophyton ajelloi, Trichophyton terrestre, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum persicolor. Trichophyton terrestre was the most frequently isolated and it occurred more frequently than its presence could be explained by the contamination from soil. Members of the genus Chrysosporium were found in many animals: Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Chrysosporium tropicum, Chrysosporium multifidum, Chrysosporium pannorum, Chrysosporium georgii, Chrysosporium merdarium, Chrysosporium anamorph of Arthroderma curreyi, Chrysosporium anamorph of Arthroderma cuniculi, Anixiopsis stercoraria, Chrysosporium parvum. Wild small mammals and european rabbits in France, not only act as carrier of keratinophilic fungi and allied dermatophytes but also provide a suitable habitat for their survival as saprophytes. The recurrence of numerous species present on the coat, isolated fort the first time in France was remarkable.

  14. Optic-electronic systems for measurement the three-dimension angular deformation of axles at the millimeter wave range radiotelescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyakhin, Igor A.; Kopylova, Tatyana V.; Konyakhin, Alexsey I.; Smekhov, Andrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Researches in the millimetre wave range require the high accuracy for position of the mirror components of the radiotelescope. A mirror weight is the cause of the three-dimension angular deformation of the elevation axle and azimuth axle relatively bearings. At result the elevation angle and azimuth angle of a parabolic mirror axis orientation is not equal to the set values. For the measuring roll, pitch and yaw angular deformations the autocollimation system with new type of the reflector are used. Reflector for autocollimation measurements as compositions of the anamorphic prism and special tetrahedral reflector is described. New methods for roll, pitch, yaw angles measuring are discussed. Optical scheme for the measurement system, structure the anamorphic prism and tetrahedral reflector are proposed. Equations for the static characteristic of the measuring system are shown.

  15. Synthetic gauge fields for light beams in optical resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    A method to realize artificial magnetic fields for light waves trapped in passive optical cavities with anamorphic optical elements is theoretically proposed. In particular, when a homogeneous magnetic field is realized, a highly-degenerate Landau level structure for the frequency spectrum of the transverse resonator modes is obtained, corresponding to a cyclotron motion of the optical cavity field. This can be probed by transient excitation of the passive optical resonator.

  16. Adhesion of Macroconidia to the Plant Surface and Virulence of Nectria haematococca

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Margaret J.; Epstein, Lynn

    1990-01-01

    To study spore attachment of the cucurbit pathogen Nectria haematococca (anamorph, Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae), mutants with adhesion-deficient macroconidia were isolated. The adhesion-deficient mutants were selected after treatment with N-methyl-N′ -nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine followed by repeated enrichment for macroconidia which did not attach to polystyrene. Two independently derived mutants produced macroconidia with an approximately 50% reduction in attachment to polystyrene and to ...

  17. Interactions between science and precision engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, D. P.; McClure, E. R.; Saito, T. T.

    1987-11-01

    The history of scientific progress is intertwined intimately with precision engineering. Precision engineering and science have synergistically interacted in stimulating each other to significant advances. Furthermore, tangible benefits to the quality of human life, through often unexpected industrial applications, occur. High energy lasers, astrophysical telescopes, and anamorphic optics, along with developments in ultraprecision machining and measurement, are discussed as examples of evolution in science and precision engineering. Possibilities for ultimate by-products for mankind's welfare are explored.

  18. Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina (LINNAEUS, 1758 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae as a host of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana LI, LI, HUANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartnik Czesław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes, for the first time, the occurrence of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana (anamorph: Beauveria bassiana on the imago of the endangered beetle Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina from the Low Beskid Mountains (the Carpathians, SE Poland. Furthermore, an isolate of the saprotrophic fungus Hypoxylon fragiforme was obtained as a result of laboratory tests on R. alpina specimens. Relationships between the identified fungi and R. alpina are discussed.

  19. Disseminated Microascus cirrosus infection in pediatric bone marrow transplant recipient.

    OpenAIRE

    Krisher, K K; Holdridge, N B; M. M. Mustafa; Rinaldi, M. G.; McGough, D A

    1995-01-01

    Microascus cirrosus Curzi and its associated anamorphic state, Scopulariopsis, were recovered from the cutaneous lesion of a 12-year-old male who had undergone an autologous bone marrow transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia. Histopathology sections from the biopsied lesion demonstrated septate hyphae consistent with a fungal etiology. Radiographic studies of the lungs subsequent to progression of the lesion revealed a consolidation in the right upper lobe suggesting a primary focus o...

  20. 安徽的虫草及其相关真菌Ⅱ%The genus Cordyceps and its allies from Anhui Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇飞; 张琪; 李春如; Spatafora Joey; 樊美珍; 李增智

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, 20 species of Cordyceps and its allies from some nature preserves in Anhui Province were reported as follows: Cordyceps brongniartii and its anamorph Beauveria brongniartii, C. cylindrica and its anamorph Nomuraea atypicola, Metacordyceps guniujiangensis and its anamorph Metarhizium aff. cylindro-sporum, Ophiocordyceps heteropoda var. langyashanensis and its anamorph Hirsutella heteropoda, O. mel-olonthae, O. odonatae, O. gryllotalpae, C, kusanagiensis and so on. Among them, O. melolonthae is a new record to China mainland and a minor error in original description of O. odonatae was revised. Specimens examined are deposited in Research Center on Entomogenous Fungi, Anhui Agricultural University (RCEFAAU).%对安徽省分布的布氏虫草Cordyceps brongniartii及其无性型布氏白僵菌Beauveria brongniartii、柱形虫草Cordyceps cylindrica及其无性型紫色野村菌Nomuraea atypicola、牯牛降异虫草Metacordyceps guniujiangensis及其无性型柱孢绿僵菌近似种Metarhizium aff.cylindrosporum、根足线虫草琅琊山变种Ophiocordyceps heteropoda var.langyashanensis及其无性型根足被毛孢Hirsutella heteropoda、腮金龟线虫草O.melolonthae、蜻蜓线虫草O.odonatae、蝼蛄线虫草(朝鲜虫草)O.gryllotalpae和草剃虫草Cordyceps kusanagiensis等20个虫草及其相关真菌种类重新整理发表,其中腮金龟虫草为中国大陆首次报道;同时,纠正了蜻蜓线虫草原始描述中的错误.鉴定标本保存在安徽农业大学虫生真菌研究中心(RCEFAAU).

  1. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata

    OpenAIRE

    Specian, Vânia; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Pamphile, João Alencar; Edmar CLEMENTE

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorph...

  2. Michelson interferometer null may confirm transverse Doppler Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Woodruff, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    We analyze fringe formation within Michelson-like experiments as viewed by relativistic inertial observers. Our analysis differs from previous work because we include optical misalignment of the beamsplitter of the interferometer due to the anamorphic geometry of relativistic Lorentz contraction. We conclude that inertial frame equivalence of Michelson-like experiments provide verification of the transverse Doppler Effect and exclude any model incorporating the relativistic Lorentz contraction effect.

  3. Phylogeny and pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolated from greenhouse melon soil in Liaoning Province

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Baixia; Yan, Jianfang; Zhang, Shuo; Liu, Xian; Gao, Zenggui

    2013-01-01

    Fungi of the Fusarium oxysporum are widely distributed around the world in all types of soils, and they are all anamorphic species. In order to investigate the relationships and differences among Fusarium spp., 25 Fusarium spp. were isolated from greenhouse melon soils in Liaoning Province, China. With these 25 strains, three positive control Fusarium strains were analyzed using universally primed PCR (UP-PCR). Seventy-three bands appeared after amplification using 6 primers, and 66 of these ...

  4. Multiple Didymella teleomorphs are linked to the Phoma clematidina morphotype

    OpenAIRE

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Aveskamp, M.M.; Gruyter, de, J.; Spiers, A.G.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Phoma clematidina is used as a biological agent to control the invasive plant species Clematis vitalba in New Zealand. Research conducted on P. clematidina as a potential biocontrol agent against C. vitalba, led to the discovery of two perithecial-forming strains. To assess the diversity of P. clematidina and to clarify the teleomorph-anamorph relationship, phylogenetic analyses of 18 P. clematidina strains, reference strains representing the Phoma sections in the Didymell...

  5. Autofluorescence of grape berries following Botrytis cinerea infection

    OpenAIRE

    Belanger, M.C.; Roger, J.M.; Cartolaro, P.; Fermaud, M.

    2011-01-01

    Gray mold is caused by Botrytis cinerea (anamorph of an ascomycete fungus) infecting over 200 plant species worldwide and causing tremendous harvest losses in vineyards. Even though all grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinfera L.) are susceptible to the disease, defense mechanisms are induced to counteract or slow down infection and colonization by the pathogen. One of the key inducible defense molecule is resveratrol, a blue fluorescent stilbenic compound. Considering early fungal detection as a c...

  6. Morphological characteristics and DNA sequence analysis of Petriella setifera and Oidiodendron setiferum from twigs of diseased oak

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Kwaśna; Piotr Łakomy; Andrzej Łabędzki

    2014-01-01

    Examination of isolates of Petriella setifera and Oidiodendron setiferum revealed new diagnostic morphological charactcristics. Chlamydosporcs formed by P. setifera, isolated from twigs of sessile oak (Quercus petraea) showing symptoms of oak decline, are described for the first time. The first pictures of P. setifera anamorphs since the publication of its original description in 1912 are presented. Isolates of O. setiferum, from sessile oak twigs and from a log of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestri...

  7. First report of Thielaviopsis punctulata causing black scorch disease on date palm in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Naemi, F.A.; Nishad, R.; Ahmed, T. A.; Radwan, O.

    2014-01-01

    Ceratocystis radicicola (anamorph: Thielaviopsis paradoxa) was reported as an economically important pathogen causing serious diseases on date palm such as rhizosis (2) and black scorch (3) or as an associated pathogen with diseased date palm (1). In this study, we report for the first time that C. radicicola also causes black scorch disease in Qatar. In April to May 2013, we conducted a disease survey in 11 farms located in northern and southern Qatar where three infected farms had an averag...

  8. 安徽的虫草及其相关真菌I.%THE GENUS CORDYCEPS AND I0TS ALLIES FROM ANHUI I.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春如; 樊美珍; 黄勃; 王四宝; 李增智

    2002-01-01

    报道疣孢虫草Cordyceps phymatospora为新种;球孢虫草C. bassiana 及其无性型Beauveria bassiana, 长座虫草C. longissima 及其无性型 Hirsutella longissima, 台湾虫草C. formosana 及其无性型 Hirsutella sp., 拟细虫草C. gracilioides和丝虫草C. filiformis 等19种虫草及其部分相关真菌.模式标本保存在安徽农业大学虫生菌研究中心(RCEFAAU).%19 species of Cordyceps and its allies from some nature preserves in Anhui Province, southeastern China are reported. They are Cordyceps phymatospora sp. nov., C. bassiana and its anamorph Beauveria bassiana, C. longissima and its anamorph Hirsutella longissima, C. formosana and its anamorph Hirsutella sp., C. gracilioides, C. filiformis and so on. Specimens examined are deposited in Research Center on Entomogenous Fungi, Anhui Agricultural University (RCEFAAU).

  9. A fissitunicate ascus mechanism in the Calosphaeriaceae, and novel species of Jattaea and Calosphaeria on Prunus wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, U; Crous, P W; Fourie, P H

    2008-06-01

    During a survey of Prunus wood from South Africa, isolations were made of three presumably Calosphaerialean fungi that formed hyphomycetous, phialidic anamorphs in culture. In order to reveal the phylogenetic relationship of these fungi, they were characterised on a morphological and molecular (LSU and ITS rDNA) basis. Two isolates that formed a teleomorph in culture are newly described as Calosphaeria africana sp. nov. Although asci of Calosphaeria are characterised by having non-amyloid apical rings, two functional wall layers were observed in asci of C. africana, which has hitherto not been observed in any member of the Calosphaeriaceae. However, Calosphaeriaceae (Calosphaeriales, Sordariomycetes) are not closely related to other bitunicate fungi like Dothideomycetes, Chaetothyriales and bitunicate lichens. Possession of two separating wall layers is considered to be a result of both inherited abilities and convergent evolution under a strong selection pressure of the environmental conditions that favour an extension of the ascus. The other two species represented a separate lineage within Calosphaeriaceae, and formed phialophora-like anamorphs. By obtaining the teleomorph in culture, one of them could be identified as a species of Jattaea, described here as Jattaea prunicola sp. nov., while the second, which only produced the anamorph, is named as Jattaea mookgoponga sp. nov. These findings suggest that some species of Jattaea are true members of the Calosphaeriaceae, though the phylogenetic relation of the type, J. algeriensis, remains unknown. Furthermore, it also represents the first report of Jattaea on Prunus wood, and from South Africa.

  10. A six-gene phylogeny reveals the evolution of mode of infection in the rice blast fungus and allied species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Shuang; Shen, Qirong

    2011-01-01

    The family Magnaporthaceae contains devastating fungal cereal and grass pathogens, such as Magnaporthe oryzae (rice blast fungus, formerly known as M. grisea), M. poae (summer patch pathogen of turf grasses) and Gaeumannomyces graminis (take-all fungus of various cereals and grasses), which are popular model organisms in fungal biology and host-pathogen interaction studies. Despite their ecological and economic importance, the phylogenetic relationships among the constituent species remain ambiguous due to the lack of convincing morphological characters and paucity of molecular data for the majority of the non-model species in the family. In this study our multilocus phylogeny suggests that both Magnaporthe and Gaeumannomyces are polyphyletic genera. The phylogeny also provides insights into fungal biology and pathogenesis. Magnaporthe oryzae formed a basal clade, while M. poae and M. rhizophila formed another well supported clade with G. incrustans and G. graminis. The basal species infect both root and aerial parts of the plant host, while the aerial infection capacity seems to be lost in the taxa of the latter clade. The phylogeny is corroborated by evolution of the anamorphs and a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (CPKA) gene. Magnaporthe oryzae produces Pyricularia, while taxa in the latter clade all produce Phialophora-like anamorphs. CPKA is present in animals and many fungal lineages with various functions. In M. oryzae CPKA is essential for the formation of functional appressoria for leaf penetration. In root-infecting G. graminis var. tritici and M. poae however only non-functional CPKA homologous pseudogenes were found in their genomes. The study indicates that anamorphic and ecological features are more informative than the teleomorphic characters in defining monophyletic groups among these taxa. PMID:21642347

  11. [Characteristic of the yeast isolated from patients with leukaemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorovskaia, E A; Rybal'skaia, A P; Skachkova, N K; Mel'nik, E A; Nemirovskaia, L N; Nagornaia, S S; Babich, T V; Polishchuk, L V

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that biotopes of upper respiratory system and intestine were contaminated with yeast in 44.6% of patients with leukaemia (of 112 examined ones). Their quantity exceeds the boundary value for practically healthy people and is > or = 10(2) KOE/ml in the nasal activity and fauces and leucemia the mycotic complications are mainly caused by anamorphous yeast of ascomycetic affinity. Candida albicans, as well as C. glabrata, C. rugosa and Candida sp. play the leading role. The Candida genus species are mainly sensitive to amphotericine B, clotrisamol and nistatin.

  12. Extended studies on the diversity of arthropod-pathogenic fungi in Austria and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Tkaczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of studies on diversity of arthropod-pathogenic fungi in selected habitats in Austria and Poland carried out in the years 2006-2007 and 2009-2010 are discussed. In total 47 species of entomopathogenic fungi were found as pathogens of different arthropods in Austria. Twenty six entomophthoralean species from different insects and one species from mites were identified and 16 of them are recorded as new to Austria. From among 21 species of anamorphic Hypocreales (Ascomycota affecting arthropods in Austria, 13 species so far have not been known from this country. In total 51 species of fungi affecting different arthropods in Poland were recorded, among them 28 species of Entomophthorales and 23 anamorphic Hypocreales (Ascomycota were separated. The most frequent species of the entomopathogenic fungi both in agricultural and afforested areas in Austria were the common and usually worldwide distributed cordycipitaceous anamorphs Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea and in areas of this study less numerous I. farinosa. The most frequent pathogens occurring in mite communities on plants and in wood infested by insects were Hirsutella species. Several entomophthoralean species developed epizootics that caused high reduction in host populations of different arthropods in both countries. Especially interesting is the first record of mycoses (up to 60% mortality, caused by Zoophthora spp. on Phyllobius beetles in a mixed forest near Białowieża. During our joint research, we found the first time in Poland and Europe, the presence of the fungus Furia cf. shandongensis on earwigs and Hirsutella entomophila on Ips typographus adults in forest habitats. From the feeding sites of the latter bark beetle and other subcortical species in oak bark (mostly Dryocoetes villosus and D. alni in black alder over a dozen of various Lecanicillium strains - including few of the features not allowing to classify them to any of so far known species – were

  13. On the appendage regeneration of Eupolybothrus transsylvanicus (Latzel (Chilopoda: Lithobiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed and discussed the indirect evidence of regeneration of the forcipular telopodites and the walking legs (reduced in size or abnormal characteristics such as atypical morphology and a reduced number of articles in wild populations of the lithobiomorph centipede Eupolybothrus transsylvanicus (Latzel. In our opinion, these morphological defects can be interpreted as a result of incomplete regeneration. In some cases, the full segmentation of the regenerating appendages will be completed later in ontogeny through an anamorphic schedule of post-embryonic segment addition.

  14. Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-kai WANG; Kevin D. HYDE; Kasem SOYTONG; Fu-cheng LIN

    2008-01-01

    Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed.

  15. Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Kai; Hyde, Kevin D; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2008-10-01

    Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed. PMID:18837113

  16. Small Angle Neutron Scattering Reveals pH-dependent Conformational Changes in Trichoderma reesei Cellobiohydrolase I: IMPLICATIONS FOR ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY*

    OpenAIRE

    Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O'Neill, Hugh M.; McGaughey, Joseph; Urban, Volker S.; Rempe, Caroline S.; Petridis, Loukas; Jeremy C Smith; Evans, Barbara R.; Heller, William T.

    2011-01-01

    Cellobiohydrolase I (Cel7A) of the fungus Trichoderma reesei (now classified as an anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina) hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose to soluble sugars, making it of key interest for producing fermentable sugars from biomass for biofuel production. The activity of the enzyme is pH-dependent, with its highest activity occurring at pH 4–5. To probe the response of the solution structure of Cel7A to changes in pH, we measured small angle neutron scattering of it in a series of solut...

  17. Efficient Coupler for a Bessel Beam Dispersive Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Matsko, Andrey; Le, Thanh; Yu, nan; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses overcoming efficient optical coupling to high orbital momentum modes by slightly bending the taper dispersive element. This little shape distortion is not enough to scramble the modes, but it allows the use of regular, free-beam prism coupling, fiber coupling, or planar fiber on-chip coupling with, ultimately, 100 percent efficiency. The Bessel-beam waveguide is bent near the contact with the coupler, or a curved coupler is used. In this case, every Bessel-beam mode can be successfully coupled to a collimated Gaussian beam. Recently developed Bessel-beam waveguides allow long optical delay and very high dispersion. Delay values may vary from nanoseconds to microseconds, and dispersion promises to be at 100 s/nm. Optical setup consisted of a red laser, an anamorphic prism pair, two prism couplers, and a bent, single-mode fiber attached to prisms. The coupling rate increased substantially and corresponded to the value determined by the anamorphic prism pair.

  18. 木霉菌属的定义及其属下分类%Delineation of the genus Trichoderma and its sub-genus division

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨合同; 唐文华; 徐砚珂; 王加宁; 姚碗生

    2002-01-01

    本文总结了木霉菌属的界定以及木霉菌属的属下分类.Bissett等人把木霉菌属(Trichoderma)分为5个组,共31个种.Hypocreanum组包括一个种,即T.lactea;Longibrachiatum组包括4个种,即T.longibrachiatum, T. citroviride, T. pseudokoingii 和 T. parceramosum; Saturnisporum 组包括2个种, 即T. saturnisporum 和 T. ghaneuse ; Pach ybasium 组包括20个种, 即T. crassum , T. croceum , T. f asciculatum , T. fertile, T. flavo f uscum , Trichoderma anamorph of Hypocrea gelatinosa, T. hamatum, T. harzianum, T. longipilis, T. minutisporum, T. oblongisporum, T. polysporum, T. pubescens, Trichoderma anamorph of Hypocrea semiorbis, T. spirale,T. strictipilis, T. striggosum, T. tomentosum 和 T. virens; Trichoderma 组包括4个种, 即T. viride,T.aureoviride,T.koningii和T.atroviride.以上是木霉菌属目前最完整的分类体系.

  19. Chirped microlens arrays for diode laser circularization and beam expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Peter; Dannberg, Peter; Hoefer, Bernd; Beckert, Erik

    2005-08-01

    Single-mode diode lasers are well-established light sources for a huge number of applications but suffer from astigmatism, beam ellipticity and large manufacturing tolerances of beam parameters. To compensate for these shortcomings, various approaches like anamorphic prism pairs and cylindrical telescopes for circularization as well as variable beam expanders based on zoomed telescopes for precise adjustment of output beam parameters have been employed in the past. The presented new approach for both beam circularization and expansion is based on the use of microlens arrays with chirped focal length: Selection of lenslets of crossed cylindrical microlens arrays as part of an anamorphic telescope enables circularization, astigmatism correction and divergence tolerance compensation of diode lasers simultaneously. Another promising application of chirped spherical lens array telescopes is stepwise variable beam expansion for circular laser beams of fiber or solid-state lasers. In this article we describe design and manufacturing of beam shaping systems with chirped microlens arrays fabricated by polymer-on-glass replication of reflow lenses. A miniaturized diode laser module with beam circularization and astigmatism correction assembled on a structured ceramics motherboard and a modulated RGB laser-source for photofinishing applications equipped with both cylindrical and spherical chirped lens arrays demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system design approach.

  20. SPHERE IRDIS and IFS astrometric strategy and calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Maire, Anne-Lise; Dohlen, Kjetil; Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Gratton, Raffaele; Chauvin, Gael; Desidera, Silvano; Girard, Julien H; Milli, Julien; Vigan, Arthur; Zins, Gerard; Delorme, Philippe; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Claudi, Riccardo U; Feldt, Markus; Mouillet, David; Puget, Pascal; Turatto, Massimo; Wildi, Francois

    2016-01-01

    We present the current results of the astrometric characterization of the VLT planet finder SPHERE over 2 years of on-sky operations. We first describe the criteria for the selection of the astrometric fields used for calibrating the science data: binaries, multiple systems, and stellar clusters. The analysis includes measurements of the pixel scale and the position angle with respect to the North for both near-infrared subsystems, the camera IRDIS and the integral field spectrometer IFS, as well as the distortion for the IRDIS camera. The IRDIS distortion is shown to be dominated by an anamorphism of 0.60+/-0.02% between the horizontal and vertical directions of the detector, i.e. 6 mas at 1". The anamorphism is produced by the cylindrical mirrors in the common path structure hence common to all three SPHERE science subsystems (IRDIS, IFS, and ZIMPOL), except for the relative orientation of their field of view. The current estimates of the pixel scale and North angle for IRDIS are 12.255+/-0.009 milliarcseco...

  1. Asperisporium and Pantospora (Mycosphaerellaceae): epitypifications and phylogenetic placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, A M; Kennedy, A H; Grenier, D B; Rehner, S A; Bischoff, J F

    2011-12-01

    The species-rich family Mycosphaerellaceae contains considerable morphological diversity and includes numerous anamorphic genera, many of which are economically important plant pathogens. Recent revisions and phylogenetic research have resulted in taxonomic instability. Ameliorating this problem requires phylogenetic placement of type species of key genera. We present an examination of the type species of the anamorphic Asperisporium and Pantospora. Cultures isolated from recent port interceptions were studied and described, and morphological studies were made of historical and new herbarium specimens. DNA sequence data from the ITS region and nLSU were generated from these type species, analysed phylogenetically, placed into an evolutionary context within Mycosphaerellaceae, and compared to existing phylogenies. Epitype specimens associated with living cultures and DNA sequence data are designated herein. Asperisporium caricae, the type of Asperisporium and cause of a leaf and fruit spot disease of papaya, is closely related to several species of Passalora including P. brachycarpa. The status of Asperisporium as a potential generic synonym of Passalora remains unclear. The monotypic genus Pantospora, typified by the synnematous Pantospora guazumae, is not included in Pseudocercospora sensu stricto or sensu lato. Rather, it represents a distinct lineage in the Mycosphaerellaceae in an unresolved position near Mycosphaerella microsora. PMID:22403473

  2. Phylogeny and nomenclature of the genus Talaromyces and taxa accommodated in Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R.A.; Yilmaz, N.; Houbraken, J.;

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomic history of anamorphic species attributed to Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium is reviewed, along with evidence supporting their relationship with teleomorphic species classified in Talaromyces. To supplement previous conclusions based on ITS, SSU and/or LSU sequencing that Talarom......The taxonomic history of anamorphic species attributed to Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium is reviewed, along with evidence supporting their relationship with teleomorphic species classified in Talaromyces. To supplement previous conclusions based on ITS, SSU and/or LSU sequencing...... that Talaromyces and subgenus Biverticillium comprise a monophyletic group that is distinct from Penicillium at the generic level, the phylogenetic relationships of these two groups with other genera of Trichocomaceae was further studied by sequencing a part of the RPB1 (RNA polymerase II largest subunit) gene....... Talaromyces species and most species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium sensu Pitt reside in a monophyletic clade distant from species of other subgenera of Penicillium. For detailed phylogenetic analysis of species relationships, the ITS region (incl. 5.8S nrDNA) was sequenced for the available type...

  3. A Beauveria phylogeny inferred from nuclear ITS and EF1-alpha sequences: evidence for cryptic diversification and links to Cordyceps teleomorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehner, Stephen A; Buckley, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    Beauveria is a globally distributed genus of soil-borne entomopathogenic hyphomycetes of interest as a model system for the study of entomopathogenesis and the biological control of pest insects. Species recognition in Beauveria is difficult due to a lack of taxonomically informative morphology. This has impeded assessment of species diversity in this genus and investigation of their natural history. A gene-genealogical approach was used to investigate molecular phylogenetic diversity of Beauveria and several presumptively related Cordyceps species. Analyses were based on nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-alpha) sequences for 86 exemplar isolates from diverse geographic origins, habitats and insect hosts. Phylogenetic trees were inferred using maximum parsimony and Bayesian likelihood methods. Six well supported clades within Beauveria, provisionally designated A-F, were resolved in the EF1-alpha and combined gene phylogenies. Beauveria bassiana, a ubiquitous species that is characterized morphologically by globose to subglobose conidia, was determined to be non-monophyletic and consists of two unrelated lineages, clades A and C. Clade A is globally distributed and includes the Asian teleomorph Cordyceps staphylinidaecola and its probable synonym C. bassiana. All isolates contained in Clade C are anamorphic and originate from Europe and North America. Clade B includes isolates of B. brongniartii, a Eurasian species complex characterized by ellipsoidal conidia. Clade D includes B. caledonica and B. vermiconia, which produce cylindrical and comma-shaped conidia, respectively. Clade E, from Asia, includes Beauveria anamorphs and a Cordyceps teleomorph that both produce ellipsoidal conidia. Clade F, the basal branch in the Beauveria phylogeny includes the South American species B. amorpha, which produces cylindrical conidia. Lineage diversity detected within clades A, B and C suggests that prevailing morphological

  4. CODEX optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabre, Bernard; Manescau, Antonio

    2010-07-01

    CODEX is a high resolution spectrograph for the ESO E-ELT. A classical spectrograph can only achieve a resolution of about 120.000 on a 42 m telescope with extremely large echelle gratings and cameras. This paper describes in detail the optical concept of CODEX, which uses only optical elements size similar to those in current high resolution spectrographs. This design is based on slicers, anamorphic beams and slanted VPHG as cross dispersers. In this new version of the CODEX design, no special expensive materials as calcium fluoride or abnormal dispersion glasses are needed. The optical quality is excellent and compatible with 10K x 10K detectors with 10 μm pixels.

  5. Security enhancement of a phase-truncation based image encryption algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu

    2011-12-20

    The asymmetric cryptosystem, which is based on phase-truncated Fourier transforms (PTFTs), can break the linearity of conventional systems. However, it has been proven to be vulnerable to a specific attack based on iterative Fourier transforms when the two random phase masks are used as public keys to encrypt different plaintexts. An improvement from the asymmetric cryptosystem may be taken by relocating the amplitude values in the output plane. In this paper, two different methods are adopted to realize the amplitude modulation of the output image. The first one is to extend the PTFT-based asymmetrical cryptosystem into the anamorphic fractional Fourier transform domain directly, and the second is to add an amplitude mask in the Fourier plane of the encryption scheme. Some numerical simulations are presented to prove the good performance of the proposed cryptosystems. PMID:22193194

  6. Species concepts and biodiversity in Trichoderma and Hypocrea: from aggregate species to species clusters?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DRUZHININA Irina; KUBICEK Christian P.

    2005-01-01

    Trichoderma/Hypocrea is a genus of soil-borne or wood-decaying fungi containing members important to mankind as producers of industrial enzymes and biocontrol agents against plant pathogens, but also as opportunistic pathogens of immunocompromised humans. Species identification, while essential in view of the controversial properties of taxa ofthis genus, has been problematic by traditional methods. Here we will present a critical survey of the various identification methods in use. In addition,we will present an update on the taxonomy and phylogeny of the 88 taxa (which occur as 14 holomorphs, 49 teleomorphs and 25 anamorphs in nature) of Trichoderma/Hypocrea that have been confirmed by a combination of morphological, physiological and genetic approaches.

  7. Ten inch Planar Optic Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiser, L. [Beiser (Leo) Inc., Flushing, NY (United States); Veligdan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A Planar Optic Display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (I to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A Digital Micromirror Device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.

  8. Metulocladosporiella gen. nov. for the causal organism of Cladosporium speckle disease of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, Pedro W; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Braun, Uwe; Schubert, Konstanze

    2006-03-01

    Cladosporium musae, a widespread leaf-spotting hyphomycete on Musa spp., is genetically and morphologically distinct from Cladosporium s. str. (Davidiella anamorphs, Mycosphaerellaceae, Dothideales). DNA sequence data derived from the ITS and LSU gene regions of C. musae isolates show that this species is part of a large group of hyphomycetes in the Chaetothyriales with dematiaceous blastoconidia in acropetal chains. Cladosporium adianticola, a foliicolous hyphomycete known from leaf litter in Cuba is also a member of this clade and is closely related to C. musae. A comparison with other genera in the Cladosporium complex revealed that C. musae belongs to a lineage for which no generic name is currently available, and for which the genus Metulocladosporiella gen. nov. is proposed. Two species of Metulocladosporiella are currently known, namely M. musae, which is widely distributed, and M. musicola sp. nov., which is currently known from Africa.

  9. Security enhancement of a phase-truncation based image encryption algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu

    2011-12-20

    The asymmetric cryptosystem, which is based on phase-truncated Fourier transforms (PTFTs), can break the linearity of conventional systems. However, it has been proven to be vulnerable to a specific attack based on iterative Fourier transforms when the two random phase masks are used as public keys to encrypt different plaintexts. An improvement from the asymmetric cryptosystem may be taken by relocating the amplitude values in the output plane. In this paper, two different methods are adopted to realize the amplitude modulation of the output image. The first one is to extend the PTFT-based asymmetrical cryptosystem into the anamorphic fractional Fourier transform domain directly, and the second is to add an amplitude mask in the Fourier plane of the encryption scheme. Some numerical simulations are presented to prove the good performance of the proposed cryptosystems.

  10. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the maintenance of the list of QPS biological agents intentionally added to food and feed (2011 update)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    agents is reviewed and updated annually. Therefore, the only valid list is the one in the most recent scientific opinion. The 2011 update reviews microorganisms previously assessed including bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi and viruses used for plant protection purposes and confirms the previous...... recommendations. The anamorph yeast form Phaffia rhodozyma of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous was included on the QPS list and to the qualification for yeasts ‘absence of resistance to antimycotics used for medical treatment of yeast infections’, the sentence was added that ‘in the case of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...... this qualification applies for yeast strains able to grow above 37 °C’. The body of knowledge of filamentous fungi and enterococci was updated and their ineligibility for the QPS list confirmed....

  11. Candida middelhoveniana sp. nov., a new yeast species found on the rhizoplane of organically cultivated sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José R de A; Carvalho, Patrícia M B de; Cabral, Anderson de S; Macrae, Andrew; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda C S; Berbara, Ricardo L L; Hagler, Allen N

    2011-10-01

    A novel yeast species within the Metschnikowiaceae is described based on a strain from the sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) rhizoplane of an organically managed farm in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The D1/D2 domain of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis showed that the closest related species were Candida tsuchiyae with 86.2% and Candida thailandica with 86.7% of sequence identity. All three are anamorphs in the Clavispora opuntiae clade. The name Candida middelhoveniana sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate this highly divergent organism with the type strain Instituto de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMUFRJ) 51965(T) (=Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS) 12306(T), Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)-70(T), DBVPG 8031(T)) and the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession number for the D1/D2 domain LSU rDNA sequence is FN428871. The Mycobank deposit number is MB 519801.

  12. Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto isolated from soil in an armadillo's burrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Bagagli, Eduardo; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes

    2014-04-01

    Sporotrichosis is a polymorphic disease of man and animals caused by traumatic implantation of propagules into the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Pathogenic species includes S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii, S. globosa and S. luriei. The disease is remarkable for its occurrence as sapronoses and/or zoonosis outbreaks in tropical and subtropical areas; although, the ecology of the clinical clade is still puzzling. Here, we describe an anamorphic Sporothrix strain isolated from soil in an armadillo's burrow, which was located in a hyper endemic area of Paracoccidioidomycosis in Brazil. This isolate was identified as S. schenckii sensu stricto (Clade IIa) based on morphological and physiological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of calmodulin sequences. We then discuss the role of the nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus as a natural carrier of Sporothrix propagules to better understand Sporothrix sources in nature and reveal essential aspects about the pathogen's eco-epidemiology.

  13. Chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Thamnomyces (Xylariaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, M.; Fournier, J.; Læssøe, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    The tropical genus Thamnomyces is characterized by having wiry, black, brittle stromata and early deliquescent asci, lacking an amyloid apical apparatus. Thamnomyces is regarded as a member of the Xylariaceae because the morphology of its ascospores and the anamorphic structures are typical...... for this family. However, its relationship to other xylariaceous genera remained to be clarified. Cultures of three Thamnomyces species were obtained and studied for morphological characters, and their secondary metabolite profiles as inferred from high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass...... corroborated by a comparison of their 5.8S/ITS nrDNA sequences. We conclude that Thamnomyces, Daldinia, and Phylacia are derived from the same evolutionary lineage, despite these genera differing drastically in their stromatal morphology and anatomy. Along with Entonaema and Rhopalostoma, these fungi comprise...

  14. Nanolaminate Membranes as Cylindrical Telescope Reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Jennifer; Dragovan, Mark; Hickey, Gregory; Lih, Shyh-Shiu Lih

    2010-01-01

    A document discusses a proposal to use axially stretched metal nanolaminate membranes as lightweight parabolic cylindrical reflectors in the Dual Anamorphic Reflector Telescope (DART) - a planned spaceborne telescope in which the cylindrical reflectors would be arranged to obtain a point focus. The discussion brings together a combination of concepts reported separately in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, the most relevant being "Nanolaminate Mirrors With Integral Figure-Control Actuators" NPO -30221, Vol. 26, No. 5 (May 2002), page 90; and "Reflectors Made From Membranes Stretched Between Beams" NPO -30571, Vol. 33, No. 10 (October 2009), page 11a. The engineering issues receiving the greatest emphasis in the instant document are (1) the change in curvature associated with the Poisson contraction of a stretched nanolaminate reflector membrane and (2) the feasibility of using patches of poly(vinylidene fluoride) on the rear membrane surface as piezoelectric actuators to correct the surface figure for the effect of Poisson contraction and other shape errors.

  15. Optical telecommunications: performance of the qualification model SILEX beacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Michel; Dobie, Paul J.; Gollier, Jacques; Heinrichs, Theo; Woszczyk, Pawel; Sobeczko, Andre

    1995-04-01

    The Beacon is a powerful non-coherent CW infra-red laser source which is developed under the Semi-conductor Inter-satellite Link Experiment (SILEX). It will provide a high divergence beam used during the first tracking acquisition sequence of the Spot 4/Artemis optical communication link. The Beacon uses high efficiency anamorphic couplers to deliver output from 19 laser diodes into a single multi-mode Mixing Fiber, the exit of which is integrated at the focal plane of a collimator. Beacon output is maintained at the required level during unit life using an Optical Monitoring System and a Beacon output Tele-Command. The Engineering Qualification Model is now complete and overall performance with respect to the SILEX requirements is presented.

  16. Conflation: a new type of accelerated expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertig, Angelika; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Mallwitz, Enno

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of scalar-tensor theories of gravity, we construct a new kind of cosmological model that conflates inflation and ekpyrosis. During a phase of conflation, the universe undergoes accelerated expansion, but with crucial differences compared to ordinary inflation. In particular, the potential energy is negative, which is of interest for supergravity and string theory where both negative potentials and the required scalar-tensor couplings are rather natural. A distinguishing feature of the model is that, for a large parameter range, it does not significantly amplify adiabatic scalar and tensor fluctuations, and in particular does not lead to eternal inflation and the associated infinities. We also show how density fluctuations in accord with current observations may be generated by adding a second scalar field to the model. Conflation may be viewed as complementary to the recently proposed anamorphic universe of Ijjas and Steinhardt.

  17. Distribution of Erysiphe platani (Erysiphales in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl P. Heluta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Information is provided on Erysiphe platani, a newly invasive fungus in Ukraine. The anamorph of this North American powdery mildew was first recorded in Ukraine in 1986 on Platanus orientalis in the Nikita Botanical Garden (Crimea. Later, it was found in other localities of the Crimean peninsula, and in Odessa and Odessa region on three species of plane, namely P. × hispanica, P. occidentalis and P. orientalis. Spread of the fungus was epiphytotic. This mildew significantly reduces the ornamental value of plane trees, which are often planted in public open spaces within urban areas of southern Ukraine. Recently, E. platani has formed the teleomorph in this region. Morphologically, the Ukrainian material is slightly different from the species description, viz. appendages are longer (up to 3 times the chasmothecial diam., often with less compact apices.

  18. Sensitivity of Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates to demethylation-inhibiting (DMI) fungicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronis, Antanas; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Semaskiene, Roma;

    2014-01-01

    collected from different locations of Lithuania were tested in vitro for sensitivity to demethylation-inhibiting (DMI) fungicides epoxiconazole, cyproconazole and prothioconazole. Fungicide concentrations were chosen from the proposed Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) methods. Microtitre plates......Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel) J. Schröt. (anamorph Zymoseptoria tritici (Desm.) Quaedvlieg & Crous) causes Septoria leaf blotch disease of wheat. The disease can be responsible for yield losses of 30–50% and, when severe, requires management with a fungicide. Single picnidia isolates...... that fungicides epoxiconazole and prothioconazole significantly reduced the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) values of Septoria leaf blotch compared with untreated plots in winter wheat. In most cases, a single fungicide application significantly increased grain yield and a thousand grain weight...

  19. Molecular identification of Aspergillus and Eurotium species isolated from rice and their toxin-producing ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, D; Zainal Abidin, M A; Tan, Y H; Kamaruzaman, S

    2011-01-01

    Thirty milled rice samples were collected from retailers in 4 provinces of Malaysia. These samples were evaluated for Aspergillus spp. infection by direct plating on malt extract salt agar (MESA). All Aspergillus holomorphs were isolated and identified using nucleotide sequences of ITS 1 and ITS 2 of rDNA. Five anamorphs (Aspergillus flavus, A. oryzae, A. tamarii, A. fumigatus and A. niger) and 5 teleomorphs (Eurotium rubrum, E. amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. cristatum and E. tonophilum) were identified. The PCR-sequencing based technique for sequences of ITS 1 and ITS 2 is a fast technique for identification of Aspergillus and Eurotium species, although it doesn't work flawlessly for differentiation of Eurotium species. All Aspergillus and Eurotium isolates were screened for their ability to produce aflatoxin and ochratoxin A (OTA) by HPLC and TLC techniques. Only A. flavus isolate UPM 89 was able to produce aflatoxins B1 and B2. PMID:22168015

  20. Morphological characteristics and DNA sequence analysis of Petriella setifera and Oidiodendron setiferum from twigs of diseased oak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kwaśna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Examination of isolates of Petriella setifera and Oidiodendron setiferum revealed new diagnostic morphological charactcristics. Chlamydosporcs formed by P. setifera, isolated from twigs of sessile oak (Quercus petraea showing symptoms of oak decline, are described for the first time. The first pictures of P. setifera anamorphs since the publication of its original description in 1912 are presented. Isolates of O. setiferum, from sessile oak twigs and from a log of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, were found to have swollen, hyaline, thin-walled, sterile apices on the non-fertile hairs surrounding the fertile heads of conidiophores. They also had numerous coils formed by thin hyphae in the submerged mycelium in agar culture. The taxonomy of both fungi was confirmed by rDNA sequence analysis.

  1. Product inhibition of five Hypocrea jecorina cellulases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, Leigh; Westh, Peter; Bohlin, Christina;

    2013-01-01

    Product inhibition of cellulolytic enzymes has been deemed a critical factor in the industrial saccharification of cellulosic biomass. Several investigations have addressed this problem using crude enzyme preparations or commercial (mixed) cellulase products, but quantitative information...... cellulose may be monitored by calorimetry. The key advantage of this approach is that it directly measures the rate of hydrolysis while being essentially blind to the background of added product. We investigated the five major cellulases from Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph: Tricoderma reesei), Cel7A (formerly...... by cellobiose, but showed the highest sensitivity to glucose among all investigated enzymes. The endoglucanases Cel12A and Cel7B were moderately inhibited by cellobiose (IC50 = 60–80 mM), and weakly inhibited by glucose (IC50 = 350–380 mM). The highest resistance to both products was found for Cel5A, which...

  2. A phylogenetic study on galactose-containing Candida species based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Suh, Sung-Oui; Sugita, Takashi; Nakase, Takashi

    1999-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of 33 Candida species containing galactose in the cells were investigated by using 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Galactose-containing Candida species and galactose-containing species from nine ascomycetous genera were a heterogeneous assemblage. They were divided into three clusters (II, III, and IV) which were phylogenetically distant from cluster I, comprising 9 galactose-lacking Candida species, C. glabrata, C. holmii, C. krusei, C. tropicalis (the type species of Candida), C. albicans, C. viswanathii, C. maltosa, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, and C. lusitaniae, and 17 related ascomycetous yeasts. These three clusters were also phylogenetically distant from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which contains galactomannan in its cell wall. Cluster II comprised C. magnoliae, C. vaccinii, C. apis, C. gropengiesseri, C. etchellsii, C. floricola, C. lactiscondensi, Wickerhamiella domercqiae, C. versatilis, C. azyma, C. vanderwaltii, C. pararugosa, C. sorbophila, C. spandovensis, C. galacta, C. ingens, C. incommunis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Galactomyces geotrichum, and Dipodascus albidus. Cluster III comprised C. tepae, C. antillancae and its synonym C. bondarzewiae, C. ancudensis, C. petrohuensis, C. santjacobensis, C. ciferrii (anamorph of Stephanoascus ciferrii), Arxula terrestris, C. castrensis, C. valdiviana, C. paludigena, C. blankii, C. salmanticensis, C. auringiensis, C. bertae, and its synonym C. bertae var. chiloensis, C. edax (anamorph of Stephanoascus smithiae), Arxula adeninivorans, and C. steatolytica (synonym of Zygoascus hellenicus). Cluster IV comprised C. cantarellii, C. vinaria, Dipodascopsis uninucleata, and Lipomyces lipofer. Two galactose-lacking and Q-8-forming species, C. stellata and Pichia pastoris, and 5 galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. apicola, C. bombi, C. bombicola, C. geochares, and C. insectalens, were included in Cluster II. Two galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. drimydis and C

  3. Dendryphion penicillatum and Pleospora papaveracea, Destructive Seedborne Pathogens and Potential Mycoherbicides for Papaver somniferum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, N R; Jennings, J C; Bailey, B A; Farr, D F

    2000-07-01

    ABSTRACT Dendryphion penicillatum and Pleospora papaveracea were isolated from blighted Papaver somniferum and Papaver bracteatum plants grown in growth chambers and the field in Beltsville, MD. The etiology of the diseases was determined, and the fungi are being investigated as potential mycoherbicides to control the narcotic opium poppy plant. P. papaveracea is known to be a highly destructive seedborne pathogen of Papaver somniferum, causing seedling blight, leaf blight, crown rot, and capsule rot. Single conidia and ascospores were isolated and cultures established from naturally infested seed and diseased foliage and pods of opium poppy from Iran, Colombia, Venezuela, Sweden, India, and the United States (Maryland and Washington). Mycelia and conidia of P. papaveracea and D. penicillatum produced on necrotic leaf tissues appear morphologically similar, and the fungi were previously considered to be anamorph and teleomorph. However, no anamorph/teleomorph connection could be established, and the fungi appear to be distinct taxa. P. papaveracea produced conidia, mature pseudothecia, and chlamydospores in vitro and on infected stems. D. penicillatum produced conidia, microsclerotia, and macronematous conidiophores. Although both fungi were pathogenic to three poppy cultivars, conidial inoculum from P. papaveracea cultures was more virulent than conidial inoculum from D. penicillatum. Eight-week-old plants became necrotic and died 8 days after inoculation with a conidial suspension of P. papaveracea at 2 x 10(5) spores per ml. Disease severity was significantly enhanced by inoculum formulations that contained corn oil, by higher conidial inoculum concentrations, and by increased wetness periods. Symptoms on plants inoculated with either pathogen included leaf and stem necrosis, stem girdling, stunting, necrotic leaf spots, and foliar and pod blight. Inoculated seedlings exhibited wire stem, damping-off, and root rot. Conidia, and less frequently pseudothecia, of P

  4. Hidden diversity behind the zombie-ant fungus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis: four new species described from carpenter ants in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry C Evans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ophiocordyceps unilateralis (Clavicipitaceae: Hypocreales is a fungal pathogen specific to ants of the tribe Camponotini (Formicinae: Formicidae with a pantropical distribution. This so-called zombie or brain-manipulating fungus alters the behaviour of the ant host, causing it to die in an exposed position, typically clinging onto and biting into the adaxial surface of shrub leaves. We (HCE and DPH are currently undertaking a worldwide survey to assess the taxonomy and ecology of this highly variable species. METHODS: We formally describe and name four new species belonging to the O. unilateralis species complex collected from remnant Atlantic rainforest in the south-eastern region (Zona da Mata of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Fully illustrated descriptions of both the asexual (anamorph and sexual (teleomorph stages are provided for each species. The new names are registered in Index Fungorum (registration.indexfungorum.org and have received IF numbers. This paper is also a test case for the electronic publication of new names in mycology. CONCLUSIONS: We are only just beginning to understand the taxonomy and ecology of the Ophiocordyceps unilateralis species complex associated with carpenter ants; macroscopically characterised by a single stalk arising from the dorsal neck region of the ant host on which the anamorph occupies the terminal region and the teleomorph occurs as lateral cushions or plates. Each of the four ant species collected--Camponotus rufipes, C. balzani, C. melanoticus and C. novogranadensis--is attacked by a distinct species of Ophiocordyceps readily separated using traditional micromorphology. The new taxa are named according to their ant host.

  5. Analysis of the mating-type loci of co-occurring and phylogenetically related species of Ascochyta and Phoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudenberg, Joyce H C; De Gruyter, Johannes; Crous, Pedro W; Zwiers, Lute-Harm

    2012-05-01

    Ascochyta and Phoma are fungal genera containing several important plant pathogenic species. These genera are morphologically similar, and recent molecular studies performed to unravel their phylogeny have resulted in the establishment of several new genera within the newly erected Didymellaceae family. An analysis of the structure of fungal mating-type genes can contribute to a better understanding of the taxonomic relationships of these plant pathogens, and may shed some light on their evolution and on differences in sexual strategy and pathogenicity. We analysed the mating-type loci of phylogenetically closely related Ascochyta and Phoma species (Phoma clematidina, Didymella vitalbina, Didymella clematidis, Peyronellaea pinodes and Peyronellaea pinodella) that co-occur on the same hosts, either on Clematis or Pisum. The results confirm that the mating-type genes provide the information to distinguish between the homothallic Pey. pinodes (formerly Ascochyta pinodes) and the heterothallic Pey. pinodella (formerly Phoma pinodella), and indicate the close phylogenetic relationship between these two species that are part of the disease complex responsible for Ascochyta blight on pea. Furthermore, our analysis of the mating-type genes of the fungal species responsible for causing wilt of Clematis sp. revealed that the heterothallic D. vitalbina (Phoma anamorph) is more closely related to the homothallic D. clematidis (Ascochyta anamorph) than to the heterothallic P. clematidina. Finally, our results indicate that homothallism in D. clematidis resulted from a single crossover between MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 sequences of heterothallic ancestors, whereas a single crossover event followed by an inversion of a fused MAT1/2 locus resulted in homothallism in Pey. pinodes. PMID:22014305

  6. Non-mycorrhizal fungal endophytes in two orchids of Kaiga forest (Western Ghats), India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naga M. Sudheep; Kandikere R. Sridhar

    2012-01-01

    We used standard isolation protocols to explore the endophytic fungal communities in three tissue types of two dominant orchids (Bulbophyllum neilgherrense and Vanda testacea) of the Kaiga forest of the Western Ghats.We surface sterilized and assessed 90 segments of each orchid for the occurrence and diversity of endophytic fungal taxa.The 118 fungal isolates were obtained from root,bulb and leaves of B.neilgherrense,consisting of 17 anamorphic taxa (range,10-15 taxa) with 1.3 fungal taxa per segment (range,1.2-1.4 taxa).Four taxa (Aspergillus flavus,A.niger,Penicillium sp.and morpho sp.1 ) belonged to the core group (11.1%-32.2%).The relative abundance ofA.flavus and morpho sp.1 was more than 10%.A total of 130 fungal isolates from roots,stems and leaves of V.testacea yielded 20 anamorphic taxa (range,11-15 taxa)with 1.4 fungal taxa per segment (range,1.4-1.5 taxa).Aspergillusflavus,A.niger,A.ochraceus,Gliocladium viride,Penicillium sp.and morpho sp.1 belonged to the core group.Relative abundance exceeded 10% for A.flavus,A.niger,and morpho sp.1.The Simpson and Shannon diversity indices were higher in leaf than root or bulb/stem of both orchids.Jaccard's similarity coefficient was higher between root and leaf in both orchids (56.3%-60%) than between other pairs.Our study revealed that the endophytic fungal assemblage and diversity ofB.neilgherrense and V.testacea of Kaiga forest of the Western Ghats were relatively similar between orchids and their tissues.

  7. Polarization/Spatial Combining of Laser-Diode Pump Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelsinger, Paul; Liu, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    A breadboard version of an optical beam combiner is depicted which make it possible to use the outputs of any or all of four multimode laser diodes to pump a non-planar ring oscillator (NPRO) laser. The output of each laser diode has a single-mode profile in the meridional plane containing an axis denoted the 'fast' axis and a narrower multimode profile in the orthogonal meridional plane, which contains an axis denoted the 'slow' axis and a narrower multimode profile in the orthogonal meridional plane, which contains an axis denoted the 'slow' axis. One of the purposes served by the beam-combining optics is to reduce the fast-axis numerical aperture (NA) of the laser-diode output to match the NA of the optical fiber. Along the slow axis, the unmodified laser-diode NA is already well matched to the fiber optic NA, so no further slow-axis beam shaping is needed. In this beam combiner, the laser-diode outputs are collimated by aspherical lenses, then half-wave plates and polarizing beam splitters are used to combine the four collimated beams into two beams. Spatial combination of the two beams and coupling into the optical fiber is effected by use of anamorphic prisms, mirrors, and a focusing lens. The anamorphic prisms are critical elements in the NA-matching scheme, in that they reduce the fast-axis beam width to 1/6 of its original values. Inasmuch as no slow-axis beam shaping is needed, the collimating and focusing lenses are matched for 1:1 iumaging. Because these lenses are well corrected for infinite conjugates the combiner offers diffraction-limited performance along both the fast and slow axes.

  8. Two Newly Recorded Fungal Species from the Rhizosphere Soil of Medicinal Plants in China%从药用植物根际土壤中分离出的2个中国新记录种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慕东艳; 吕国忠; 孙晓东; 王娜; 赵志慧

    2012-01-01

    During investigation of the rhizospheric soil-fungi of medicinal plants in Heilongjiang province of China, two newly recorded fungal species for China were isolated and identified. They are Acremonium pteridii and Chrysosporium anamorph of Arthroderma cuniculi. A. pteridii produces simple or branched conidiophores with one to three septa, and its ovate or subglobose conidia are often formed in slimy heads, containing one droplet. Chrysosporium anamorph of Arthroderma euuiculi produces orthotropic short side branches in hyphae, bearing terminal and lateral conidia. They are sessile or on very short protrusions or orthotropic side branches, thin-walled, obovoid to clavate, 1-celled or sometimes 2- to 3- celled. The two species were described in detail in this paper. All the fungal isolates were deposited in the fungal culture collection of Dalian Nationalities University.%在进行黑龙江省药用植物根际土壤真菌多样性的研究中,分离获得了2个中国新记录种:蕨枝顶孢[Acremonium pteridii(J.C.Frankland)W.Gains]和穴形节皮菌的金孢属无性型[Chrysosporium anamowh of Arthroderma cuniculi(Dawson)C.A.N.van Oorschot]。蕨枝顶孢的主要形态特征为分生孢子梗单生或二次及三次分支,具有1~3个隔膜,顶端着生单个分生孢子;分生孢子以假头状着生,卵形或者近圆形,内含1个油球。穴形节皮菌的金孢属无性型主要形态特征为短的侧分支与可育菌丝呈直角伸出,分生孢子具柄,生于短的突起上或者直立的侧分支上;分生孢子卵形或棍棒形,顶端钝圆,基部平截,大多数单胞,极少数为由2~3个细胞组成。文中对它们进行了详细的形态特征描述,标本保存于大连民族学院菌种保藏中心。

  9. Epidemic and research advance of Citrus Black Spot%柑橘黑斑病(Citrus Black Spot)发生危害现状和研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴红; 陈国庆; 王卫芳; 李红叶

    2011-01-01

    柑橘黑斑病(Citrus Black Spot,CBS)主要危害果实,在果皮上形成各种病斑而影响果实的外观品质和销售价格,严重时可造成田间落果和贮藏期果实腐烂。同时,黑斑病被欧盟列为A1类外来有害生物,美国对此也有严格的限制。因此,该病害影响柑橘鲜果的国际贸易。黑斑病的病原属球座菌(Guignardia),其无性态为叶点霉菌(Phyl-losticta)。宽皮柑橘(Citrus reticulata)、橙类(C.sinensis)和柠檬(C.limon)上为柑橘球座菌(G.citricarpa),无性态为%Citrus Black Spot(CBS) attacks citrus fruits,produces various spots on citrus rind,gives rise to the decrease in external quality and commercial value.It causes immature fruit-dropping in fields or postharvest decaying in storage houses when disease occurs severely.Meanwhile,CBS is regulated as an A1 quarantine pest by several countries of European Union,as well as USA,so international trade of fresh citrus is restricted by this disease.The causal agents of CBS belong to genus Guignardia(anamorph Phyllosticta).G.citricarpa(anamorph P.citricarpa) is responsible to the CBS of mandarins(C.reticulata),oranges(C.sinensis) and lemon(C.limon),whereas P.citriasiana(teleomorph unknown) is responsible to tan spot of pomeloes(C.grandis).In addition,an endophyte,P.capitalensis is commonly present on citrus,which often interferes the detection of CBS.CBS is a common disease in China,significant losses often be leaded to some susceptible varieties.However,the knowledge of CBS is handful in China.To satisfy the requirement of broad readers to full scenario of CBS,in current paper,we integrate the published information of inter-and intra-nation regarding CBS,and give a detail introduction on the aspects of disease history,distribution,significance,symptom,etiology,prevalence,detection control,etc.

  10. Safety evaluation of nuclease P1 from Penicillium citrinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Kazushige; Mizuhashi, Fukutaro; Lynch, Barry S; Vo, Trung D; Roberts, Ashley S

    2016-02-01

    Nuclease P1 has been widely used in the food industry to enhance or create flavor. One commercial source of this enzyme is Penicillium citrinum, an anamorphic mesophilic fungus with a long history of safe use in Europe and Asia as a fermentation organism used in the production of ribonucleases. Given the intended use in food for human consumption, and noting its potential presence at trace levels in finished products, a series of safety studies including an in vitro Ames and chromosome aberration assay, an in vivo rat erythrocyte micronucleus assay and a 90-day oral toxicity study in rats were conducted. No mutagenic activity was observed in the Ames assay. Equivocal activity in the chromosome aberration assay was not replicated in the micronucleus assay at doses of up to 1007 mg total organic solids (TOS)/kg body weight (bw)/day. Following oral administration of nuclease P1 at dosages of 10.1, 101 or 1007 mg TOS/kg bw/day to Sprague-Dawley rats, no adverse effects on any study parameter were observed. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was considered to be 1007 mg TOS/kg bw/day. The results of the genotoxicity studies and subchronic rat study support the safe use in food production of nuclease P1 produced from P. citrinum.

  11. The influence of some factors on β-1,4-xylanase activity of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei QM9414

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Manoliu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The mesophyllic fungus Trichoderma reesei (anamorph to Hypocrea jecorina is an important biotechnological tool, known for its ability to secrete large quantities of hydrolytic enzymes. Renewable biomass, such as agricultural and forest wastes are used to produce microbial enzymes in various industrial processes such as food, feed and bioethanol industries. In raw biomass materials, such as wheat straws, barley straws and maize stalks, the main polysaccharide is cellulose which is closely associated with hemicelluloses like xylan, manan and xyloguclan. In consequence, the hydrolysis of these materials requires the concerted action of several enzymes, namely cellulases and xylanases. Endo-xylanase (endo-1,4--xylanase, EC 3.2.1.8 is the key enzyme involved in xylan hydrolysis, the mainhemicellulosic component of plant cell walls. The metabolic activity and enzyme productivity of Trichoderma reesei isinfluenced by various environmental conditions. In this context, we analysed the effect of pH, cultivation period, thenature of the substrate used and the nitrogen source on enzymatic activity. The maximum xylanase yield was recorded at a initial pH of 4 (116.189 IU/ml for barley and 5 for wheat (88.578 IU/ml, respectively maize (116.583 IU/ml. The bestsubstrate for endo-xylanase activity was maize stalks (90.446 IU/ml at a a concentration of 30g/L.

  12. Graphical user interfaces for teaching and design of GRIN lenses in optical interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) enables the implementation of practical teaching methodologies to make the comprehension of a given subject easier. GUIs have become common tools in science and engineering education, where very often, the practical implementation of experiences in a laboratory involves much equipment and many people; they are an efficient and inexpensive solution to the lack of resources. The aim of this work is to provide primarily physics and engineering students with a series of GUIs to teach some configurations in optical communications using gradient-index (GRIN) lenses. The reported GUIs are intended to perform a complementary role in education as part of a ‘virtual lab’ to supplement theoretical and practical sessions and to reinforce the knowledge acquired by the students. In this regard, a series of GUIs to teach and research the implementation of GRIN lenses in optical communications applications (including a GRIN light deflector and a beam-size controller, a GRIN fibre lens for fibre-coupling purposes, planar interconnectors, and an anamorphic self-focusing lens to correct astigmatism in laser diodes) was designed using the environment GUIDE developed by MATLAB. Numerical examples using available commercial GRIN lens parameter values are presented. (paper)

  13. Identification of the Causal Agent of Stem and Branch Canker Disease of Jatropha curcas L.%麻疯树枝干溃疡病的病原鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴跃开; 欧国腾; 孙建昌

    2012-01-01

    Stem and branch canker disease is one of the most serious diseases occurred in the biofuel plantation (Jatropha curcas L.) in Luodian County of Guizhou province, usually resulting in the death of the seedlings, branches, stems or even the whole big trees. The damage characteristics and the sypotoms of the disease were introduced; and according to the results of morphological study and pathogenicity inoculation test, the causal agent of the canker disease was identified as Botryosphaeria.dothidea(anamorph:Fusicoccum aesculi).%麻疯树(Jatropha curcas L.)枝干溃疡病是麻疯树主要病害种类之一,常引起幼苗、枝干枯死,甚至全株死亡.对该病的危害特点、病症特征进行了介绍,并根据形态学特征观测及致病性接种试验的结果,将其病原鉴定为Botryosphaeria dothidea,其无性型为Fusicoccum aesculi.

  14. Quantitative inheritance of resistance to Septoria tritici blotch in durum wheat in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Berraies

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Septoria tritici blotch, causal agent Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel J. Schrot. (anamorph: Zymoseptoria tritici Desm., is the major foliar disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in Tunisia causing frequent epidemics on T. turgidum L. var. durum (Desf. Bowden, and important yield and grain quality losses. To determine the inheritance of resistance to septoria, a cross was made using resistant ('Salim' and susceptible ('Karim' cultivars. Parents, and the 149 derived recombinant lines, were tested for resistance to septoria under field conditions during the 2009 and 2010 crop seasons. The inheritance of resistance to septoria was quantitative where a continuous and normal distribution (W = 0.93 was shown among segregate progenies. During 2009 and 2010 crop seasons, the mean disease severities of recombinant inbred lines (RILs ranged from 29.1% to 41.8%, respectively, and 53% of RILs were associated with lower disease severity than the mid-parent value. The severity was significantly affected by Genotype x Year interaction (p < 0.01. Broad sense heritability was 0.55 suggesting a quantitative inheritance of resistance to M. graminicola. These results would imply that genetic resistance to STB could be attributed to additive gene effects. Thus, using identified sources of tolerance to STB in a breeding program would enhance the development of cultivars that are adapted to the prevailing isolates in field conditions.

  15. Palaeoanellus dimorphus gen. et sp. nov. (Deuteromycotina): a Cretaceous predatory fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander R; Dörfelt, Heinrich; Perrichot, Vincent

    2008-10-01

    In habitats where nitrogen is the limiting factor, carnivorous fungi gain an advantage by preying on nematodes and other microorganisms. These fungi are abundant in modern terrestrial ecosystems, but they are not predestined for preservation as fossils. Conclusions on their evolutionary history are therefore mainly based on molecular studies that are generally limited to those taxa that have survived until today. Here we present a fossil dimorphic fungus that was found in Late Albian amber from southwestern France. This fungus possessed unicellular hyphal rings as trapping devices and formed blastospores from which a yeast stage developed. The fossil probably represents an anamorph of an ascomycete and is described as Palaeoanellus dimorphus gen. et sp. nov. Because predatory fungi with regular yeast stages are not known from modern ecosystems, the fungus is assumed to not be related to any Recent carnivorous fungus and to belong to an extinct lineage of carnivorous fungi. The inclusions represent the only record of fossil fungi that developed trapping devices, so far. The fungus lived c. 100 million years ago in a limnetic-terrestrial microhabitat, and it was a part of a highly diverse biocenosis at the forest floor of a Cretaceous coastal amber forest. PMID:21632336

  16. The Contemporary Situation of Dothistroma Needle Blight Outbreak in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEDNAROVA, Miroslava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dothistroma needle blight Mycosphaerella pini E. Rostrup resp. its anamorphic stage Dothistroma septospora (Dorog. Morelet was for the first time noted in the region of the Czech Republic in a consignment of imported plants of Austrian pine Pinus nigra Arnold in 1999. In 2000, it was also found on Pinus nigra in an open planting in a plantation of Christmas trees near the village of Jedovnice by Brno in the South Moravia. In the Czech Republic, Dothistroma needle blight was identified on 19 species of pines and 5 species of spruces. The critical period for infection is in the Czech Republic from the second half of May until the end of June, when the new shoots and needles develop. The incubation period lasts about 2–4 months depending on climatic conditions. The first symptoms on the needles infected in the current year appear in August being clearly expressed from September to November. In the CR, Dothistroma needle blight spread probably with infected planting stock obtained from import at the end of the 80s and at the beginning of the 90s.

  17. Neoerysiphe kerribeeensis sp. nov. (Ascomycota: Erysiphales), a new species of Neoerysiphe on native and introduced species of Senecio (Asteraceae) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilharz, Vyrna; Cunnington, James H; Pascoe, Ian G

    2010-04-01

    Anamorphic powdery mildew fungi on introduced taxa of Senecio and Pericallis × hybrida in Australia have previously been identified as Neoerysiphe cumminsiana on the basis of a combination of Euoidium-type conidiophores and lobed mycelial and germ tube appressoria. But, two specimens with chasmothecia on the indigenous Senecio glossanthus did not agree with published descriptions of N. cumminsiana. The teleomorph of the S. glossanthus mildew differed from that of N. cumminsiana in the morphology of its peridial cells, the pigmentation of its appendages, and the morphology and pigmentation of some secondary hyphae. Ribosomal DNA ITS sequences from the two S. glossanthus mildew specimens and five other specimens of Senecio mildews from south-eastern Australia demonstrated that all Australian Senecio mildews are conspecific and distinct from the northern hemisphere Senecio mildew (N. cumminsiana) and from other Neoerysiphe taxa. Based on morphological characters and rDNA sequence data, the Australian Senecio mildew is described as a new species, Neoerysiphe kerribeeensis. This is the first native teleomorphic powdery mildew described from Australia. PMID:20943143

  18. Identifying beneficial qualities of Trichoderma parareesei for plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, M Belén; Quijada, Narciso M; Pérez, Esclaudys; Domínguez, Sara; Monte, Enrique; Hermosa, Rosa

    2014-03-01

    Trichoderma parareesei and Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) produce cellulases and xylanases of industrial interest. Here, the anamorphic strain T6 (formerly T. reesei) has been identified as T. parareesei, showing biocontrol potential against fungal and oomycete phytopathogens and enhanced hyphal growth in the presence of tomato exudates or plant cell wall polymers in in vitro assays. A Trichoderma microarray was used to examine the transcriptomic changes in T6 at 20 h of interaction with tomato plants. Out of a total 34,138 Trichoderma probe sets deposited on the microarray, 250 showed a significant change of at least 2-fold in expression in the presence of tomato plants, with most of them being downregulated. T. parareesei T6 exerted beneficial effects on tomato plants in terms of seedling lateral root development, and in adult plants it improved defense against Botrytis cinerea and growth promotion under salt stress. Time course expression patterns (0 to 6 days) observed for defense-related genes suggest that T6 was able to prime defense responses in the tomato plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. Such responses undulated, with a maximum upregulation of the jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-related LOX1 and EIN2 genes and the salt tolerance SOS1 gene at 24 h and that of the salicylic acid (SA)-related PR-1 gene at 48 h after T6 inoculation. Our study demonstrates that the T. parareesei T6-tomato interaction is beneficial to both partners.

  19. A versatile toolkit for high throughput functional genomics with Trichoderma reesei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Andre; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Collett, James R.; Baker, Scott E.; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P.; Schmoll, Monika

    2012-01-02

    The ascomycete fungus, Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina), represents a biotechnological workhorse and is currently one of the most proficient cellulase producers. While strain improvement was traditionally accomplished by random mutagenesis, a detailed understanding of cellulase regulation can only be gained using recombinant technologies. RESULTS: Aiming at high efficiency and high throughput methods, we present here a construction kit for gene knock out in T. reesei. We provide a primer database for gene deletion using the pyr4, amdS and hph selection markers. For high throughput generation of gene knock outs, we constructed vectors using yeast mediated recombination and then transformed a T. reesei strain deficient in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) by spore electroporation. This NHEJ-defect was subsequently removed by crossing of mutants with a sexually competent strain derived from the parental strain, QM9414.CONCLUSIONS:Using this strategy and the materials provided, high throughput gene deletion in T. reesei becomes feasible. Moreover, with the application of sexual development, the NHEJ-defect can be removed efficiently and without the need for additional selection markers. The same advantages apply for the construction of multiple mutants by crossing of strains with different gene deletions, which is now possible with considerably less hands-on time and minimal screening effort compared to a transformation approach. Consequently this toolkit can considerably boost research towards efficient exploitation of the resources of T. reesei for cellulase expression and hence second generation biofuel production.

  20. Fruiting Body Production of the Medicinal Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes), in Artificial Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Ye, Yunshou; Han, Richou

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), regarded as the "Himalayan Viagra", is widely used for medicinal treatment and health foods. The price of O. sinensis has continued to increase over the past few years because of the growing worldwide demand and resource limitations. Artificial cultivation of the fruiting bodies to substitute natural O. sinensis is urgently needed for the effective protection of a valuable bioresource and environment in the Tibetan plateau, and for commercial trade. In this study, the anamorph of 3 isolates was separated from natural O. sinensis and identified by molecular markers as Hirsutella sinensis. These fungal isolates were cultured in a rice-based medium at 9-13 °C for 50 days for mycelial growth, at 4 °C for 100 days for stromatal induction, and at 13 °C for 40 days for fruiting body formation. The mature fruiting bodies with mature perithecium were harvested in about 140 days. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of stable fruiting body production of O. sinensis by artificial media in the low-altitude area outside the Tibetan plateau. PMID:26853966

  1. Hirsutella sinensis mycelium attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tsung-Teng; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Ko, Yun-Fei; Ojcius, David M; Lan, Ying-Wei; Martel, Jan; Young, John D; Chong, Kowit-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Hirsutella sinensis mycelium (HSM), the anamorph of Cordyceps sinensis, is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been shown to possess various pharmacological properties. We previously reported that this fungus suppresses interleukin-1β and IL-18 secretion by inhibiting both canonical and non-canonical inflammasomes in human macrophages. However, whether HSM may be used to prevent lung fibrosis and the mechanism underlying this activity remain unclear. Our results show that pretreatment with HSM inhibits TGF-β1-induced expression of fibronectin and α-SMA in lung fibroblasts. HSM also restores superoxide dismutase expression in TGF-β1-treated lung fibroblasts and inhibits reactive oxygen species production in lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, HSM pretreatment markedly reduces bleomycin-induced lung injury and fibrosis in mice. Accordingly, HSM reduces inflammatory cell accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and proinflammatory cytokines levels in lung tissues. The HSM extract also significantly reduces TGF-β1 in lung tissues, and this effect is accompanied by decreased collagen 3α1 and α-SMA levels. Moreover, HSM reduces expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome and P2X7R in lung tissues, whereas it enhances expression of superoxide dismutase. These findings suggest that HSM may be used for the treatment of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:26497260

  2. Snake fungal disease: An emerging threat to wild snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Knowles, Susan N.; Lankton, Julia S.; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L.; Kapfer, Joshua M.; Staffen, Richard A.; Wild, Erik R.; Schmidt, Katie Z.; Ballmann, Anne; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M.; Glorioso, Brad M.; Last, Lisa A.; Price, Steven J.; Schuler, Krysten L.; Smith, Christopher E.; Wellehan, James F. X.; Blehert, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused byOphidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.

  3. Colony-PCR Is a Rapid Method for DNA Amplification of Hyphomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Walch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pure cultures identified with both classical morphological methods and through barcoding sequences are a basic requirement for reliable reference sequences in public databases. Improved techniques for an accelerated DNA barcode reference library construction will result in considerably improved sequence databases covering a wider taxonomic range. Fast, cheap, and reliable methods for obtaining DNA sequences from fungal isolates are, therefore, a valuable tool for the scientific community. Direct colony PCR was already successfully established for yeasts, but has not been evaluated for a wide range of anamorphic soil fungi up to now, and a direct amplification protocol for hyphomycetes without tissue pre-treatment has not been published so far. Here, we present a colony PCR technique directly from fungal hyphae without previous DNA extraction or other prior manipulation. Seven hundred eighty-eight fungal strains from 48 genera were tested with a success rate of 86%. PCR success varied considerably: DNA of fungi belonging to the genera Cladosporium, Geomyces, Fusarium, and Mortierella could be amplified with high success. DNA of soil-borne yeasts was always successfully amplified. Absidia, Mucor, Trichoderma, and Penicillium isolates had noticeably lower PCR success.

  4. Isolation of Pseudozyma churashimaensis sp. nov., a novel ustilaginomycetous yeast species as a producer of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Ogura, Yuki; Takashima, Masako; Hirose, Naoto; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kondo, Yukishige; Kitamoto, Dai

    2011-08-01

    An ustilaginomycetous anamorphic yeast species isolated from the leaves of Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) in Okinawa, Japan, was identified as a novel Pseudozyma species based on morphological and physiological aspects and molecular taxonomic analysis using the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8S-ITS2 regions. The name Pseudozyma churashimaensis sp. nov. was proposed for the novel species, with JCM 16988(T) as the type strain. Interestingly, P. churashimaensis was found to produce glycolipid biosurfactants, a mixture of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), including a novel tri-acetylated derivative (MEL-A2), from glucose. The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface tension at CMC of MEL-A2 were 1.7 × 10⁻⁶ M and 29.2 mN/m, respectively. Moreover, on a water-penetration scan, MEL-A2 efficiently formed different lyotropic liquid crystalline phases, including the lamella phase at a wide range of concentrations, indicating its excellent surface-active and self-assembling properties. The novel strain of the genus Pseudozyma should thus facilitate the application of glycolipid biosurfactants in combination with other MEL producers. PMID:21606002

  5. Development of an inspection system using an UV wavelength for defects on the thin electrode in a multilayer pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgung, Kee; Lim, Sanghee; Kim, Jaewan; Kim, Jaisoon; Choi, Wonshik; Pak, James Jungho

    2014-09-01

    Generally, the Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED), Light-Emitting Diode (LCD), Touch Screen Panel (TSP) glass and Thin Film Transistor (TFT) pattern consists of multiple layers of electrodes separated by thin insulating films. In multilayered devices, when using visible light to inspect the electrode pattern and the defect, the critical shapes of a specific layer are difficult to define. To increase the image contrast between the materials and the layers, this study uses a UV wavelength, which has larger selective differences in reflectance than a visible wavelength. The newly-developed optical system and image analysis units are made to focus on a specific UV range to precisely define a top electrode layer. Two types of magnification systems are developed. Direct side illumination is available in a magnification 1.2 (1.2x) system with a large back focal length (BFL). However, in a magnification 3 (3x) system, on-axis line beam illumination is needed. A multi-point LED source (custom-made) and an anamorphic optical system is used to increase the light efficiency and decrease the noise. Electric units and an algorithm for high-speed image processing and data transfer are also developed. The final images have good selective contrast between the layers despite the high-depth condition decided by the required NA for the target resolution. This system can be used for the inspection of general display panels, Printed Circuit Board (PCB) patterns, and mobile glasses that are composed of multilayered films.

  6. Diffraction analysis of beams for barcode scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Jay M.; Quinn, Anna M.

    1991-02-01

    Laser based bar code scanners utilize large f/# beams to attain a large depth of focus. The intensity cross-section of the laser beam is generally not uniform but is frequently approximated by a Gaussian intensity profile. In the case of laser diodes the beam cross-section is a two dimensional distribution. It is well known that the focusing properties of large f/# Gaussian beams differ from the predictions of ray tracing techniques. Consequently analytic modeling of laser based bar code scanning systems requires techniques based on diffraction rather than on ray tracing in order to obtain agreement between theory and practice. The line spread function of the focused laser beam is generally the parameter of interest due to the one-dimensional nature of the bar code symbol. Some bar code scanners utilize an anamorphic optical system to produce a beam that that maintains an elliptical cross-section over an extended depth of focus. This elliptical beam shape is used to average over voids and other printing defects that occur in real world symbols. Since the scanner must operate over the maximum possible depth of field the beam emergent from the scanner must be analyzed in both its near field and far field regions in order to properly model the performance of the scanner.

  7. Ergot species of the Claviceps purpurea group from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, Elna J; Pešicová, Kamila; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Stodůlková, Eva; Flieger, Miroslav; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2016-08-01

    Results of a survey and study of the Claviceps purpurea group of species in South Africa are being presented and five new species are described. Morphological descriptions are based on the anamorphs and four nuclear genetic loci. Claviceps fimbristylidis sp. nov. on Fimbristylis complanata was discovered wide-spread across five provinces of the country associated with water and represents the fourth Claviceps species recorded from the Cyperaceae. Claviceps monticola sp. nov. is described from Brachypodium flexum growing in mountain forests in Mpumalanga Province, as well as the northern Drakensberg southwards into the Eastern Cape Province. Claviceps pazoutovae sp. nov. is recorded from Stipa dregeana var. dregeana and Ehrharta erecta var. erecta, also associated with these mountain ranges. Claviceps macroura sp. nov. is recorded from Cenchrus macrourus from the Eastern Cape and Claviceps capensis sp. nov. from Ehrharta villosa var. villosa is recorded from the Western Cape Province. Claviceps cyperi, only recorded from South Africa is included in the study. Ergot alkaloid profiles of all species are provided and showed similarity to C. purpurea. Only C. cyperi and in lesser degree C. capensis, C. macroura, and C. pazoutovae produced ergot alkaloids in clinically significant amounts. Several reported species infect invasive grass species, native to South Africa, and thus represent potentially invasive species. PMID:27521625

  8. Freeform grinding and polishing with PROSurf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfs, Franciscus; Fess, Edward; DeFisher, Scott; Torres, Josh; Ross, James

    2015-10-01

    Recently, the desire to use freeform optics has been increasing, including shapes such as torics and anamorphic aspheres. Freeform optics can be used to expand capabilities of optical systems. They can compensate for limitations in rotationally symmetric optics. These same traits that give freeform optics the ability to improve optical systems also makes them more challenging to manufacture. This holds true for grinding, polishing, and metrology. As freeform optics become more prevalent in the industry, tolerances will become more stringent, requiring deterministic manufacturing processes. To generate freeforms, it is crucial to have control over all aspects of the process. Controlling the surface definition is important for achieving a better surface finish during processing. Metrology will be required to adjust tool paths at various stages in manufacturing. During grinding, metrology will be used to adjust tool positions relative to the nominal tool path to compensate for repeatable machine and tooling error. For polishing, metrology will be used to deterministically adjust dwell relative to the amount of the error in different surface locations, allowing for convergence towards the desired surface at a uniform rate. OptiPro has developed PROSurf, a CAM software package for creating freeform tool paths and applying metrology-based corrections. The software can be used for both grinding and polishing freeform optics. The software has flexibility to allow for different methods of modelling the surface: mathematical equations, solid models, and point clouds. The software is designed to make it easier to manufacture and polish complex freeform optics.

  9. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specian, Vânia; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Pamphile, João Alencar; Clemente, Edmar

    2012-07-01

    Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorphic phase) is available worldwide, especially in Europe, Asia and America. Isolated in Europe as an agent of the sunflower stem cancer, it has also been endophytically isolated from tropical and temperate plants. A D. helianthi strain isolated from Luehea divaricata has been employed in current research. An investigation of the secondary metabolite from D. helianthi by CC and NMR of (1)H and (13)C yielded the separation of 10 fractions and the identification of the phenolic compound 2(-4 hydroxyphenyl)-ethanol (Tyrosol). Its antimicrobial reaction was tested and the ensuing antagonistic effects on the human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, phytopathogenic Xanthomonas asc. phaseoli and phytopathogenic fungi were demonstrated. Results show that bioactive compounds and Tyrosol produced by D. helianthi have a biotechnological potential. PMID:24031942

  10. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Specian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorphic phase is available worldwide, especially in Europe, Asia and America. Isolated in Europe as an agent of the sunflower stem cancer, it has also been endophytically isolated from tropical and temperate plants. A D. helianthi strain isolated from Luehea divaricata has been employed in current research. An investigation of the secondary metabolite from D. helianthi by CC and NMR of ¹H and 13C yielded the separation of 10 fractions and the identification of the phenolic compound 2(-4 hydroxyphenyl-ethanol (Tyrosol. Its antimicrobial reaction was tested and the ensuing antagonistic effects on the human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, phytopathogenic Xanthomonas asc. phaseoli and phytopathogenic fungi were demonstrated. Results show that bioactive compounds and Tyrosol produced by D. helianthi have a biotechnological potential.

  11. Phylogenomic and functional domain analysis of polyketide synthases in Fusarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A.; Baker, Scott E.; Proctor, Robert H.

    2012-02-01

    Fusarium species are ubiquitous in nature, cause a range of plant diseases, and produce a variety of chemicals often referred to as secondary metabolites. Although some fungal secondary metabolites affect plant growth or protect plants from other fungi and bacteria, their presence in grain based food and feed is more often associated with a variety of diseases in plants and in animals. Many of these structurally diverse metabolites are derived from a family of related enzymes called polyketide synthases (PKSs). A search of genomic sequence of Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and Nectria haematococca (anamorph F. solani) identified a total of 58 PKS genes. To gain insight into how this gene family evolved and to guide future studies, we conducted a phylogenomic and functional domain analysis. The resulting genealogy suggested that Fusarium PKSs represent 34 different groups responsible for synthesis of different core metabolites. The analyses indicate that variation in the Fusarium PKS gene family is due to gene duplication and loss events as well as enzyme gain-of-function due to the acquisition of new domains or of loss-of-function due to nucleotide mutations. Transcriptional analysis indicate that the 16 F. verticillioides PKS genes are expressed under a range of conditions, further evidence that they are functional genes that confer the ability to produce secondary metabolites.

  12. Categorial compositionality III: F-(co)algebras and the systematicity of recursive capacities in human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H

    2012-01-01

    Human cognitive capacity includes recursively definable concepts, which are prevalent in domains involving lists, numbers, and languages. Cognitive science currently lacks a satisfactory explanation for the systematic nature of such capacities (i.e., why the capacity for some recursive cognitive abilities-e.g., finding the smallest number in a list-implies the capacity for certain others-finding the largest number, given knowledge of number order). The category-theoretic constructs of initial F-algebra, catamorphism, and their duals, final coalgebra and anamorphism provide a formal, systematic treatment of recursion in computer science. Here, we use this formalism to explain the systematicity of recursive cognitive capacities without ad hoc assumptions (i.e., to the same explanatory standard used in our account of systematicity for non-recursive capacities). The presence of an initial algebra/final coalgebra explains systematicity because all recursive cognitive capacities, in the domain of interest, factor through (are composed of) the same component process. Moreover, this factorization is unique, hence no further (ad hoc) assumptions are required to establish the intrinsic connection between members of a group of systematically-related capacities. This formulation also provides a new perspective on the relationship between recursive cognitive capacities. In particular, the link between number and language does not depend on recursion, as such, but on the underlying functor on which the group of recursive capacities is based. Thus, many species (and infants) can employ recursive processes without having a full-blown capacity for number and language. PMID:22514704

  13. Population structure and pathotype diversity of the wheat blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae 25 years after its emergence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, João L Nunes; Ceresini, Paulo C; Castroagudin, Vanina L; Zala, Marcelo; Kema, Gerrit H J; McDonald, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Since its first report in Brazil in 1985, wheat blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph: Pyricularia oryzae), has become increasingly important in South America, where the disease is still spreading. We used 11 microsatellite loci to elucidate the population structure of the wheat blast pathogen in wheat fields in central-western, southeastern, and southern Brazil. No subdivision was found among the wheat-infecting populations, consistent with high levels of gene flow across a large spatial scale. Although the clonal fraction was relatively high and the two mating type idiomorphs (MAT1-1 and MAT1-2) were not at similar frequencies, the clone-corrected populations from Distrito Federal and Goiás, Minas Triangle, and São Paulo were in gametic equilibrium. Based on these findings, we propose that populations of the wheat blast pathogen exhibit a mixed reproductive system in which sexual reproduction is followed by the local dispersal of clones. Seedling virulence assays with local wheat cultivars differentiated 14 pathotypes in the current population. Detached head virulence assays differentiated eight virulence groups on the same wheat cultivars. There was no correlation between seedling and head reactions. PMID:23901831

  14. Magnaporthiopsis, a new genus in Magnaporthaceae (Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among taxa in the Magnaporthaceae are investigated based on DNA sequences of multiple genes including SSU, ITS, LSU, MCM7, RPB1 and TEF1. The genera Magnaporthe and Gaeumannomyces are shown to be polyphyletic and their members are divided into four major groups based on the phylogenetic analyses. Considering morphological, biological and molecular data, we establish a new genus, Magnaporthiopsis. It is characterized by black and globose perithecia with a cylindrical neck, two-layered perithecial wall, clavate asci with a refractive apical ring, fusiform to fusoid and septate ascospores, simple hyphopodia, and Phialophora-like anamorph. Species in this genus are necrotrophic parasites infecting roots of grasses. Three new combinations, Magnaporthiopsis poae, M. rhizophila and M. incrustans, are proposed accordingly. Pyricularia is suggested as the generic name for the rice blast fungus over Magnaporthe, following Article 59.1 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. A new combination, Nakataea oryzae, is proposed for the rice stem rot fungus. PMID:23449077

  15. Telomere hypervariability in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farman, Mark L; Kim, Yun-Sik

    2005-05-01

    SUMMARY The gray leaf spot disease of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue is caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph = Pyricularia oryzae). A collection of single-copy and repetitive DNA markers was used to investigate genetic diversity among 22 isolates of the gray leaf spot pathogen. The single-copy DNA markers revealed only three polymorphisms among 95 restriction fragments spanning approximately 0.6% of the genome. In addition, Southern hybridization analysis and mating tests revealed that all isolates possessed the MAT1-2 mating-type allele. Fingerprinting of repetitive DNA loci using the Pot2 and MGR583 probes also revealed a high degree of genetic similarity (> 85%) among isolates. These data are consistent with the gray leaf spot pathogens having a recent evolutionary origin. In contrast to the results obtained with probes for internal chromosome loci, a telomere probe revealed that the chromosome ends of the very same isolates are highly divergent, with most isolates sharing less than 20% fingerprint similarity with any other isolate. Telomere mutations arise extremely frequently and changes in telomere fingerprint profiles were readily observed during vegetative growth and among cultures derived from single spores isolated from agar medium and from lesions on perennial ryegrass leaves. PMID:20565657

  16. Genetic studies of fertility and pathogenicity in Magnaporthe grisea (Pyricularia oryzae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valent, B.; Crawford, M.S.; Weaver, C.G.; Chumley, F.G.

    1984-01-01

    Crosses between field isolates of Magnaporthe grisea (anamorph, Pyricularia oryzae Cav. and Pyricularia grisea) have led to the development of fertile laboratory strains that infect goosegrass and/or weeping lovegrass. These strains may now be utilized in a rigorous genetic analysis of host species specificity and general pathogenicity. Attempts to improve the fertility of rice pathogens for the goal of undertaking a genetic analysis of host cultivar specificity have so far been unsuccessful. Crosses between M. grisea strains that infect rice, goosegrass or weeping lovegrass demonstrate that host species specificity differences between field isolates of this fungus in some cases have a complete genetic basis, and in other cases have a simple genetic basis. Crosses between a field isolate of the pathogen that infects weeping lovegrass and a field isolate that infects goosegrass have resulted in the identification of a single gene difference that determines pathogenicity toward weeping lovegrass and a second unlinked single gene difference that determines pathogenicity toward goosegrass. 35 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Development of microsatellite markers for the genetic analysis of Magnaporthe grisea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brondani Claudio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available An AG microsatellite-enriched genomic DNA library was constructed for Magnaporthe grisea (anamorph Pyricularia grisea, the causal agent of rice blast. Seventy-two DNA clones containing microsatellite repeats were isolated and sequenced in order to develop a series of new PCR-based molecular markers to be used in genetic studies of the fungus. Twenty-four of these clones were selected to design primer pairs for the PCR amplification of microsatellite alleles. Single spore cultures of M. grisea isolated from rice and wheat in Brazil, Colombia and China were genotyped at three microsatellite loci. Isolates from southern Brazil were predominantly monomorphic at the tested SSR loci, indicating a low level of genetic variability in these samples. However, seven alleles were observed at the MGM-1 locus in isolates from Central Brazil and at least nine alleles were detected at the same locus in a sample of Colombian isolates. Polymorphism analysis at SSR loci is a simple and direct approach for estimating the genetic diversity of M. grisea isolates and a powerful tool for studying M. grisea genetics.

  18. Ceratocystis larium sp. nov., a new species from Styrax benzoin wounds associated with incense harvesting in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, M; Wingfield, B D; Clegg, P A; Wingfield, M J

    2009-06-01

    Styrax benzoin trees, native to the island Sumatra, Indonesia are wounded to produce resin that is collected and burned as incense. These wounds on trees commonly develop into expanding cankers that lead to tree death. The aim of this study was to consider whether Ophiostomatoid fungi, typically associated with wounds on trees might be associated with resin harvesting on S. benzoin. Samples were collected from the edges of artificially induced wounds, and particularly where cankers and staining of the vascular tissue was evident. Tissue samples were incubated in moist chambers and carrot baiting was also used to detect the presence of Ceratocystis spp. Fruiting structures with morphology typical of species in the C. fimbriata s.l. species complex and species in the anamorph genus Thielaviopsis were found, on both the incubated wood and the carrot baits. DNA sequences were generated for the Internal Transcribed Spacer regions 1 and 2 including the 5.8S rRNA gene, part of the beta-tubulin and the Transcription Elongation Factor 1-alpha gene regions. These data were compared with those of other species in the C. fimbriata s.l. species complex and Thielaviopsis using phylogenetic analysis. Morphology of the isolates in culture as well as phylogenetic inference showed that the Thielaviopsis sp. present on the wounds was T. basicola. The Ceratocystis sp. from S. benzoin represents a new taxon in the C. fimbriata s.l. complex described here as C. larium sp. nov.

  19. Novel compact panomorph lens based vision system for monitoring around a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Simon

    2008-04-01

    Automotive applications are one of the largest vision-sensor market segments and one of the fastest growing ones. The trend to use increasingly more sensors in cars is driven both by legislation and consumer demands for higher safety and better driving experiences. Awareness of what directly surrounds a vehicle affects safe driving and manoeuvring of a vehicle. Consequently, panoramic 360° Field of View imaging can contributes most to the perception of the world around the driver than any other sensors. However, to obtain a complete vision around the car, several sensor systems are necessary. To solve this issue, a customized imaging system based on a panomorph lens will provide the maximum information for the drivers with a reduced number of sensors. A panomorph lens is a hemispheric wide angle anamorphic lens with enhanced resolution in predefined zone of interest. Because panomorph lenses are optimized to a custom angle-to-pixel relationship, vision systems provide ideal image coverage that reduces and optimizes the processing. We present various scenarios which may benefit from the use of a custom panoramic sensor. We also discuss the technical requirements of such vision system. Finally we demonstrate how the panomorph based visual sensor is probably one of the most promising ways to fuse many sensors in one. For example, a single panoramic sensor on the front of a vehicle could provide all necessary information for assistance in crash avoidance, lane tracking, early warning, park aids, road sign detection, and various video monitoring views.

  20. Characterization of a non-pigment producing Monascus purpureus mutant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheva, Tanya V; Nedeva, Trayana S; Hallet, Jean-Noel; Kujumdzieva, Anna V

    2003-01-01

    A characterization of a non-pigment producing mutant Monascus purpureus M12 compared with its parental strain Monascus purpureus Went CBS 109.07 has been performed aiming to investigate the relation between pigment biosynthesis and other characteristics of these fungi. A comparison has been made of morphological features, some physiological properties and biochemical activities of both strains. The albino mutant exhibits an anamorph life cycle, high conidia forming capability, slower radial growth rate and temperature sensitivity. The assimilation capacity of both strains for mono-, disaccharides and some alcohols is in the same range (Yx/c 0.2 - 0.35), while the red strain has a higher fermentation capacity. In a selected albino mutant, the growth rate, metabolic activity and capacity for production of typical for Monascus fungi secondary metabolites were reduced considerably. Hydrolytic activity towards natural substrates expressed through glucoamylase and protease was approximately 10 fold lower in the non pigment producing strain (0.05 - 0.08 U/mg protein and 0.01 - 0.07 U/mg protein respectively) compared with the red one. Important qualitative differences between both strains was found in fatty acid composition and in the production of citrinin and monacolin. The mutant strain possessed C17, C20 and C22 fatty acids and did not produce citrinin. PMID:12777069

  1. Genetic and metabolic biodiversity of Trichoderma from Colombia and adjacent neotropic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos-Carvajal, Lilliana; Orduz, Sergio; Bissett, John

    2009-09-01

    The genus Trichoderma has been studied for production of enzymes and other metabolites, as well as for exploitation as effective biological control agents. The biodiversity of Trichoderma has seen relatively limited study over much of the neotropical region. In the current study we assess the biodiversity of 183 isolates from Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil and Colombia, using morphological, metabolic and genetic approaches. A comparatively high diversity of species was found, comprising 29 taxa: Trichoderma asperellum (60 isolates), Trichoderma atroviride (3), Trichoderma brevicompactum (5), Trichoderma crassum (3), Trichoderma erinaceum (3), Trichoderma gamsii (2), Trichoderma hamatum (2), Trichoderma harzianum (49), Trichoderma koningiopsis (6), Trichoderma longibrachiatum (3), Trichoderma ovalisporum (1), Trichoderma pubescens (2), Trichoderma rossicum (4), Trichoderma spirale (1), Trichoderma tomentosum (3), Trichoderma virens (8), Trichoderma viridescens (7) and Hypocrea jecorina (3) (anamorph: Trichoderma reesei), along with 11 currently undescribed species. T. asperellum was the prevalent species and was represented by two distinct genotypes with different metabolic profiles and habitat preferences. The second predominant species, T. harzianum, was represented by three distinct genotypes. The addition of 11 currently undescribed species is evidence of the considerable unresolved biodiversity of Trichoderma in neotropical regions. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the ribosomal repeat could not differentiate some species, and taken alone gave several misidentifications in part due to the presence of nonorthologous copies of the ITS in some isolates.

  2. Fabrication of metal mirror modules for snap-together VIS telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Matthias; Hartung, Johannes; Kinast, Jan; Gebhardt, Andreas; Burmeister, Frank; Zeitner, Uwe D.; Risse, Stefan; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The assembly effort of an optical system naturally relies on the degrees of freedom and the maximum allowable tolerances each optical surface introduces into the overall budget. Snap-together approaches traditionally can be regarded as attractive solutions for IR systems having moderate tolerances, where the required precision is achieved by simultaneously machining optical surfaces and mounting interfaces in a single machine setup. Recent improvements in manufacturing and metrology enable a transfer of the assembly approach to shorter wavelength applications, where sub-aperture figuring techniques are used in combination with suitable amorphous polishing layers to achieve the increased requirements on figure and finish. A further decrease of the assembly effort is gained by machining several optical surfaces on common mechanical substrates and fixing the relative position with uncertainties as low as the machine precision. The article presents the fabrication of large electroless nickel coated aluminum mirror modules having two functional freeform surfaces and references for metrology and system integration. The modules are part of an all metal anamorphic imaging telescope operating in the visual spectral range. Presented methods open up a rapid and reliable assembly of metal mirror based VIS telescopes to be used in ground and space based astronomy or remote sensing applications.

  3. Optical telecommunications: performance of the protoflight model SILEX beacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Michel; Dobie, Paul J.; Grodent, C.; Woszczyk, Pawel; Sobeczko, Andre

    1996-04-01

    The beacon is a powerful non-coherent cw infra-red laser source which will provide a high divergence beam used during the first tracking acquisition sequence of the Spot 4/Artemis optical communication link. The beacon uses high efficiency anamorphic couplers to deliver output from 19 laser diodes into a single multi-mode mixing fiber, the exit of which is integrated at the focal plane of a collimator. Beacon output is maintained at the required level (nominally 8 KW/Sr) during unit life using an optical monitoring system and a beacon output tele-command. Following successful environmental testing, the proto-flight model (PFM) has recently been delivered ready for integration onto the SILEX terminal. This paper describes the overall performance of the PFM beacon with respect to SILEX requirements. An improved beacon using 1.2 W laser diodes which will be capable of delivering up to 17 KW/Sr is currently under construction. An analysis of the design aspects to be considered when using high power laser diodes in this type of application is presented. Finally, a brief summary is given of SPACEBEL activities associated with high power and more compact optical communication units for future missions.

  4. Microscopic fungi on Nymphaeaceae plants of the Lake Płociczno in Drawa National Park (NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Mazurkiewicz-Zapałowicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of micromycetes associated with disease symptoms on the leaves and flowers of three plant species, Nymphaea alba (NA, Nymphaea candida (NC, and Nuphar lutea (NL, forming nympheid phytocoenoses on Lake Płociczno in Drawa National Park during the years 2009 to 2012. From all collected plant specimens, an overall number of 38 distinct taxa of fungi and chromistan fungal analogues was isolated. The largest diversity of taxa was found on NL (37 taxa, the lowest was on NC (4 taxa, and NA contained 12 taxa. Each year, anamorphic forms of Ascomycota were dominant in the taxonomic structure. For the first time in Poland, Septoria nupharis (NA, NL, NC and Colletotrichum nymphaeae (NL, NC were found on their spotted leaves. For both of the mentioned pathogens, Nymphaea candida is a new host plant in Poland. Botrytis cinerea, Elongisporangium undulatum (= Pythium undulatum, Epicoccum nigrum, Fusarium incarnatum (= F. semitectum, and Gibberella avenacea (= Fusarium avenaceum were found each year in the studied phytocoenoses. The confirmation of NA and NL flower infections by Botrytis cinerea, which leads to gangrene, is an important aspect of the gray mold epidemiology. Until now, the occurrence of smut fungi on nympheids in Drawa National Park was not observed. The taxonomic structure and the predomination of asexual stages of fungi, as well as the similarity coefficients, suggest that the seasonal decomposition of nympheids run naturally and contribute to maintaining the stability of the lake ecosystem.

  5. Comparative transcriptome analysis of fruiting body and sporulating mycelia of Villosiclava virens reveals genes with putative functions in sexual reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun-Jie; Yu, Mi-Na; Nie, Ya-Feng; Sun, Wen-Xian; Yin, Xiao-Le; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Ya-Hui; Ding, Hui; Qi, Zhong-Qiang; Du, Yan; Huang, Li; Liu, Yong-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Sexual reproduction of heterothallic clavicipitaceous fungus Villosiclava virens (anamorph: Ustilaginoidea virens) generates ascospores, which is considered as primary infection source of rice false smut disease. However, little is known about the molecular underpinnings of sexual reproduction in V. virens. In this study, transcriptomes of V. virens in fruiting body (FB) and sporulating mycelia (SM) were compared using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. A total of 33,384,588 and 23,765,275 clean reads of FB and SM transcriptome profiles could be used to map cDNA of V. virens, respectively. We evaluated the gene expression variations between FB and SM, a total of 488 genes therein were significantly higher expressed in FB than SM, and 342 genes were significantly higher expressed genes in SM than FB. These differentially expressed genes were annotated using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Gene Ontology databases. Several genes were found to specifically function in sexual reproduction, involving in mating type, pheromone synthesis, signaling transduction, transcription factors, and meiosis; additionally, a few of genes were presumed to function in conidia sporulation and infection. Comparative transcriptome analysis of V. virens during FB and SM provided an overview of gene expression profiles at the transcriptional level and provided hints to better understand the molecular mechanisms of sexual development. Additionally, the data presented here also proved benefit for mining of essential genes contributing to sexual conidiation and infection. PMID:26905382

  6. Breakthrough Scedosporium apiospermum (Pseudallescheria boydii) brain abscess during therapy for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis following high-risk allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Scedosporiasis and recent advances in antifungal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, A; Papadopoulos, E B; Young, J W

    2002-12-01

    Systemic scedosporiasis due to the anamorph or asexual form Scedosporium apiospermum (Pseudallescheria boydii) has become an important cause of opportunistic mycosis, especially in patients undergoing high-risk hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We report a case of rapidly progressive cerebellar hyalohyphomycosis due to Scedosporium apiospermum in an allogeneic marrow graft recipient receiving treatment for severe graft-versus-host disease. This fatal breakthrough intracranial abscess, due to amphotericin B-resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration > 16 micro g/ml) mold, developed during the course of systemic antifungal therapy given for multicentric pulmonary aspergillosis. Despite treatment with high-dose Abelcet (10 mg/kg daily), free amphotericin B was not detected in postmortem cerebellar tissue. A broad-spectrum triazole-based agent (voriconazole/UK-109, 496--Vfend), and a novel fungal cell wall inhibitor, an echinocandin/pneumocandin analog (caspofungin/MK-0991--Cancidas), which exhibit excellent in vitro activity against most clinical Pseudallescheria boydii-Scedosporium apiospermum isolates, have recently become available in the United States and may provide much needed treatment options for patients at risk. PMID:12535265

  7. Candida famata (Debaryomyces hansenii) DNA sequences containing genes involved in riboflavin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronovsky, Andriy Y; Abbas, Charles A; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Ishchuk, Olena P; Kshanovska, Barbara V; Sybirna, Kateryna A; Gaillardin, Claude; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2004-11-01

    Previously cloned Candida famata (Debaryomyces hansenii) strain VKM Y-9 genomic DNA fragments containing genes RIB1 (codes for GTP cyclohydrolase II), RIB2 (encodes specific reductase), RIB5 (codes for dimethylribityllumazine synthase), RIB6 (encodes dihydroxybutanone phosphate synthase) and RIB7 (codes for riboflavin synthase) were sequenced. The derived amino acid sequences of C. famata RIB genes showed extensive homology to the corresponding sequences of riboflavin synthesis enzymes of other yeast species. The highest identity was observed to homologues of D. hansenii CBS767, as C. famata is the anamorph of this hemiascomycetous yeast. The D. hansenii CBS767 RIB3 gene encoding specific deaminase was cloned. This gene successfully complemented riboflavin auxotrophy of the rib3 mutant of flavinogenic yeast, Pichia guilliermondii. Putative iron-responsive elements (potential sites for binding of the transcription factors Fep1p or Aft1p and Aft2p) were found in the upstream regions of some C. famata and D. hansenii RIB genes. The sequences of C. famata RIB genes have been submitted to the EMBL data library under Accession Nos AJ810169-AJ810173. PMID:15543522

  8. PTK1, a mitogen-activated-protein kinase gene, is required for conidiation, appressorium formation, and pathogenicity of Pyrenophora teres on barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Roldán, M C; Maier, F J; Schäfer, W

    2001-02-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a group of protein kinases that execute a wide variety of roles in cellular signal transduction pathways such as osmoregulation, cell wall biosynthesis, growth, and differentiation. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with degenerate primers based on conserved regions of known MAPKs was used to clone the MAPK gene PTK1 from the leaf pathogen Pyrenophora teres (anamorph Drechslera teres), the causal agent of net blotch of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The predicted amino acid sequence shows high homology with MAPKs from other phytopathogenic fungi. The gene is present in the genome as a single copy. PTK1 is expressed during in vitro growth on complete medium, under conidiation-inducing conditions and during infection of barley leaves, as shown by reverse transcription-PCR studies. In order to assess the role of PTK1 in the life cycle of P. teres, targeted gene disruption was conducted. Mutants carrying an interrupted copy of the gene were deficient in conidiation, did not form appressoria on glass surfaces or on barley leaves, lost their ability to infect barley leaves, and could not colonize host tissues following artificial wounding.

  9. Conservation of XYN11A and XYN11B xylanase genes in Bipolaris sorghicola, Cochliobolus sativus, Cochliobolus heterostrophus, and Cochliobolus spicifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Kaveh; Hack, Ethan

    2002-10-01

    Two types of xylanase gene, XYN11A ( XYL1) and XYN11B ( XYL2), were amplified by PCR and partially sequenced in four phytopathogenic species of the ascomycete fungal genus Cochliobolus (anamorph genus Bipolaris). Three of the species, C. heterostrophus ( B. maydis), C. sativus ( B. sorokiniana), and Bipolaris sorghicola (no teleomorph known), are interrelated; the fourth, C. spicifer ( B. spicifera), was found, through analysis of the 5.8S RNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of its ribosomal DNA, to be more distantly related to the other three. Isolates from all four species contain orthologous XYN11A and XYN11B genes, but a set of laboratory strains of C. heterostrophus gave no product corresponding to the XYN11B gene. The patterns of evolution of the two xylanase genes and ribosomal DNA sequences are mutually consistent; the results indicate that the two genes were present in the common ancestor of all Cochliobolus species and are evolving independently of each other.

  10. Brachypodium distachyon-Cochliobolus sativus Pathosystem is a New Model for Studying Plant-Fungal Interactions in Cereal Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shaobin; Ali, Shaukat; Leng, Yueqiang; Wang, Rui; Garvin, David F

    2015-04-01

    Cochliobolus sativus (anamorph: Bipolaris sorokiniana) causes spot blotch, common root rot, and kernel blight or black point in barley and wheat. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of C. sativus or the molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility in the hosts. This study aims to establish the model grass Brachypodium distachyon as a new model for studying plant-fungus interactions in cereal crops. Six B. distachyon lines were inoculated with five C. sativus isolates. The results indicated that all six B. distachyon lines were infected by the C. sativus isolates, with their levels of resistance varying depending on the fungal isolates used. Responses ranging from hypersensitive response-mediated resistance to complete susceptibility were observed in a large collection of B. distachyon (2n=2x=10) and B. hybridum (2n=4x=30) accessions inoculated with four of the C. sativus isolates. Evaluation of an F2 population derived from the cross between two of the B. distachyon lines, Bd1-1 and Bd3-1, with isolate Cs07-47-1 showed quantitative and transgressive segregation for resistance to C. sativus, suggesting that the resistance may be governed by quantitative trait loci from both parents. The availability of whole-genome sequences of both the host (B. distachyon) and the pathogen (C. sativus) makes this pathosystem an attractive model for studying this important disease of cereal crops.

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PATHOGENICITY AND FUNGICIDE TOLERANCE IN THE WHEAT PATHOGEN MYCOSPHAERELLA GRAMINICOLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, A; Deweer, C; Tisserant, B; Randoux, B; Halama, P; Reignault, Ph

    2015-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph: Zymoseptoria tritici) is currently the most devastating disease on wheat crops worldwide, especially in regions with suitable climate conditions such as Western Europe. Pathogen control relies mainly on the use of fungicides and resistant cultivars. However, the durability of chemical and genetic control strategies is increasingly compromised in the field since the fungus frequently develops resistance to fungicides and overcomes host resistance. Here, we assessed the association between pathogenicity and fungicide tolerance in eighteen different M. graminicola strains isolated in 2009 from Northern France. These strains were chosen because they exhibited in preliminary experiments a wide range of in vitro tolerance levels against six demethylation inhibitors (epoxiconazole, cyproconazole, fluquinconazole, propiconazole, prothioconazole and pyrefenox). Inoculation of the Scorpion susceptible wheat cultivar in the greenhouse with these strains revealed a great variability in their pathogenicity levels (disease symptoms ranged from 0 to 66% of leaf area bearing pycnidia). Interestingly, strains with high fungicide tolerance levels caused overall the highest disease symptoms (45% of diseased leaf area on average) when compared to those with low fungicide tolerance levels (22% of diseased leaf area on average), thus confirming the association between pathogenicity level and fungicide tolerance in M. graminicola. The occurrence and selection in the field of fungal genotypes combining both pathogenicity and fungicide resistance should be taken into account in disease management strategies.

  12. Widespread mycorrhizal specificity correlates to mycorrhizal function in the neotropical, epiphytic orchid Ionopsis utricularioides (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, J Tupac; Flanagan, Nicola S; Herre, E Allen; Ackerman, James D; Bayman, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Tropical orchids constitute the greater part of orchid diversity, but little is known about their obligate mycorrhizal relationships. The specificity of these interactions and associated fungal distributions could influence orchid distributions and diversity. We investigated the mycorrhizal specificity of the tropical epiphytic orchid Ionopsis utricularioides across an extensive geographical range. DNA ITS sequence variation was surveyed in both plants and mycorrhizal fungi. Phylogeographic relationships were estimated for the mycorrhizal fungi. Orchid functional outcomes were determined through in vitro seed germination and seedling growth with a broad phylogenetic representation of fungi. Most fungal isolates derived from one clade of Ceratobasidium (anamorphs assignable to Ceratorhiza), with 78% within a narrower phylogenetic group, clade B. No correlation was found between the distributions of orchid and fungal genotypes. All fungal isolates significantly enhanced seed germination, while fungi in clade B significantly enhanced seedling growth. These results show that I. utricularioides associates with a phylogenetically narrow, effective fungal clade over a broad distribution. This preference for a widespread mycorrhizae may partly explain the ample distribution and abundance of I. utricularioides and contrasts with local mycorrhizal diversification seen in some nonphotosynthetic orchids. Enhanced orchid function with a particular fungal subclade suggests mycorrhizal specificity can increase orchid fitness.

  13. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specian, Vânia; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Pamphile, João Alencar; Clemente, Edmar

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorphic phase) is available worldwide, especially in Europe, Asia and America. Isolated in Europe as an agent of the sunflower stem cancer, it has also been endophytically isolated from tropical and temperate plants. A D. helianthi strain isolated from Luehea divaricata has been employed in current research. An investigation of the secondary metabolite from D. helianthi by CC and NMR of 1H and 13C yielded the separation of 10 fractions and the identification of the phenolic compound 2(-4 hydroxyphenyl)-ethanol (Tyrosol). Its antimicrobial reaction was tested and the ensuing antagonistic effects on the human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, phytopathogenic Xanthomonas asc. phaseoli and phytopathogenic fungi were demonstrated. Results show that bioactive compounds and Tyrosol produced by D. helianthi have a biotechnological potential. PMID:24031942

  14. Candida famata (Debaryomyces hansenii) DNA sequences containing genes involved in riboflavin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronovsky, Andriy Y; Abbas, Charles A; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Ishchuk, Olena P; Kshanovska, Barbara V; Sybirna, Kateryna A; Gaillardin, Claude; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2004-11-01

    Previously cloned Candida famata (Debaryomyces hansenii) strain VKM Y-9 genomic DNA fragments containing genes RIB1 (codes for GTP cyclohydrolase II), RIB2 (encodes specific reductase), RIB5 (codes for dimethylribityllumazine synthase), RIB6 (encodes dihydroxybutanone phosphate synthase) and RIB7 (codes for riboflavin synthase) were sequenced. The derived amino acid sequences of C. famata RIB genes showed extensive homology to the corresponding sequences of riboflavin synthesis enzymes of other yeast species. The highest identity was observed to homologues of D. hansenii CBS767, as C. famata is the anamorph of this hemiascomycetous yeast. The D. hansenii CBS767 RIB3 gene encoding specific deaminase was cloned. This gene successfully complemented riboflavin auxotrophy of the rib3 mutant of flavinogenic yeast, Pichia guilliermondii. Putative iron-responsive elements (potential sites for binding of the transcription factors Fep1p or Aft1p and Aft2p) were found in the upstream regions of some C. famata and D. hansenii RIB genes. The sequences of C. famata RIB genes have been submitted to the EMBL data library under Accession Nos AJ810169-AJ810173.

  15. Phylogenetic placement of plant pathogenic Sclerotium species among teleomorph genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhihan; Harrington, Thomas C; Gleason, Mark L; Batzer, Jean C

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses and morphological characteristics were used to assess the taxonomic placement of eight plant-pathogenic Sclerotium species. Members of this genus produce only sclerotia and no fruiting bodies or spores, so Sclerotium species have been difficult to place taxonomically. Sequences of rDNA large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were determined for isolates of Sclerotium cepivorum, S. coffeicola, S. denigrans, S. hydrophilum, Ceratorhiza oryzae-sativae, S. perniciosum, S. rhizodes, S. rolfsii and S. rolfsii var. delphinii. Parsimony analysis grouped two species previously thought to be in the Basidiomycota, S. denigrans and S. perniciosum, within the Ascomycota; these species were found to have affinities with the teleomorph genera Sclerotinia and Stromatinia and the asexual Sclerotium cepivorum, which was known earlier to be related to Sclerotinia species. The other Sclerotium species were placed in one of two basidiomycetous groups, genera Athelia or Ceratobasidium. Based on rDNA analysis and morphology the basidiomycetous Sclerotium hydrophilum and S. rhizodes were transferred to genus Ceratorhiza, the anamorph of Ceratobasidium species. Sclerotium coffeicola was found to be close to S. rolfsii var. delphinii and S. rolfsii var. rolfsii, which was shown earlier to have an Athelia teleomorph. PMID:20361501

  16. Phytopatological monitoring of Inonotus rickii and GPS-GIS applications, Rome, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriondo M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant disease management may be improved by collecting, storing, manipulating, analysing and displaying epidemiological information using a Geographic Information System (GIS, a useful tool to evaluate plant disease problems in a spatial context. In this study, GIS analysis was applied along with global positioning systems (GPS to integrate field data-collected with the spatial distribution of the pathogen Inonotus rickii. This pathogen provokes a decay of sapwood/heartwood and cankers, determining a progressive crown dieback and structural weakness of the trees, therefore increasing risk of branch breaks and tree failures. It is widespread in tropical and subtropical countries and it has already been recorded in many areas in Rome on Acer negundo, Albizia julibrissin, Koelreuteria paniculata, Celtis australis and Platanus x acerifolia. A survey was carried out in different boulevards of A. negundo and A. julibrissin with the aim of evaluating disease symptoms such as sparse foliage, dead twigs and branches, wood decay and presence of fungal structures. In this survey, I. rickii was recorded also on Robinia pseudoacacia, which is a new host. The study allowed to obtain thematic maps showing the spatial distribution of all infected trees, as well as the presence of anamorph and/or teleomorph structures of the fungus. Moreover, a map representing the incidence of the pathogen in different boulevards was obtained. The usefulness of GIS analysis in studies aimed to support and refine management strategies for disease control in urban trees is discussed.

  17. Novel Endophytic Trichoderma spp. Isolated from Healthy Coffea arabica Roots are Capable of Controlling Coffee Tracheomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temesgen Belayneh Mulaw

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest threats to coffee growers in East Africa are emerging vascular wilt diseases (tracheomycosis caused by Fusarium spp. Many Trichoderma species are known to be natural antagonists of these pathogens and are widely used in biological control of fungal plant diseases. More recently, several Trichoderma spp., which exhibited high antifungal activity have been isolated as endophytes. Consequently, we have investigated the presence and the antagonistic activity of endophytic Trichoderma isolated from roots of healthy coffee plants (Coffea arabica from the major coffee growing regions of Ethiopia. Our results showed that community of Trichoderma spp. in roots of C. arabica contains fungi from coffee rhizosphere, as well as putatively obligate endophytic fungi. The putatively “true” endophytic species, until now, isolated only from coffee plant ecosystems in Ethiopia and recently described as T. flagellatum and novel T. sp. C.P.K. 1812 were able to antagonize Fusarium spp., which cause coffee tracheomycosis. Moreover, we found that strains of these species are also highly antagonistic against other phytopathogenic fungi, such as Alternaria alternata, Botryotinia fuckeliana (anamorph: Botrytis cinerea, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

  18. Trichothecene genotypes of Fusarium graminearum from wheat in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Dinorah; Calero, Natalia; Mionetto, Ana; Bettucci, Lina

    2013-03-01

    Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch (anamorph F. graminearum Schwabe) is the primary causal agent of FHB of wheat in Uruguay. In the last decade, F. graminearum has produced destructive epidemics on wheat in Uruguay, causing yield losses and price discounts due to reduced seed quality. Strains of F. graminearum clade usually express one of three strain-specific profiles of trichothecene metabolites: nivalenol and its acetylated derivatives (NIV chemotype), deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-AcDON chemotype), or deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-AcDON chemotype). A multiplex PCR assay of Tri3, Tri5, and Tri7 was used to determine the trichothecene genotype of 111 strains of F. graminearum collected during 2003 and 2009 growing seasons from fields located in the major wheat production area of Uruguay. The result showed that all except one of the isolates were of DON genotype, with the remainder of NIV genotype in years 2003 and 2009. All strains with the DON genotype were also of the 15-AcDON genotype in 2003 and nearly all (45/50) in 2009. No DON/3-AcDON genotypes were found in either growing season. No potential shifts in the populations were found in the trichothecene genotypes between 2003 and the 2009 epidemic FHB harvest seasons. This study provides the first data on trichothecene genotypes of F. graminearum strains isolated from wheat in Uruguay and add to the current regional knowledge of trichothecene genotypes.

  19. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov. and Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, U; Fourie, P H; Crous, P W

    2010-06-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal their phylogenetic relationships, these fungi were studied on a morphological and molecular (5.8S nrDNA, ITS-1, ITS-2, GAPDH, EF-1alpha, 28S nrDNA, 18S nrDNA) basis. Some of the isolates were identified as Coniochaeta (Sordariomycetes), including C. velutina and two new species, C. africana and C. prunicola. The majority of the isolates, however, formed pycnidial or pseudopycnidial synanamorphs and were not closely related to Coniochaeta. According to their 28S nrDNA phylogeny, they formed two distinct groups, one of which was closely related to Helotiales (Leotiomycetes). The new genus Collophora is proposed, comprising five species that frequently occur in necrotic peach and nectarine wood, namely Co. africana, Co. capensis, Co. paarla, Co. pallida and Co. rubra. The second group was closely related to Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Eurotiomycetes), occurring mainly in plum wood. Besides P. zymoides occurring on Prunus salicina, four new species are described, namely P. dura, P. effusa, P. prunicola and P. tardicola. In a preliminary inoculation study, pathogenicity was confirmed for some of the new species on apricot, peach or plum wood.

  20. Novel Phaeoacremonium species associated with necrotic wood of Prunus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, U; Mostert, L; Crous, P W; Fourie, P H

    2008-06-01

    The genus Phaeoacremonium is associated with opportunistic human infections, as well as stunted growth and die-back of various woody hosts, especially grapevines. In this study, Phaeoacremonium species were isolated from necrotic woody tissue of Prunus spp. (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) from different stone fruit growing areas in South Africa. Morphological and cultural characteristics as well as DNA sequence data (5.8S rDNA, ITS1, ITS2, beta-tubulin, actin and 18S rDNA) were used to identify known, and describe novel species. From the total number of wood samples collected (257), 42 Phaeoacremonium isolates were obtained, from which 14 species were identified. Phaeoacremonium scolyti was most frequently isolated, and present on all Prunus species sampled, followed by Togninia minima (anamorph: Pm. aleophilum) and Pm. australiense. Almost all taxa isolated represent new records on Prunus. Furthermore, Pm. australiense,Pm. iranianum, T. fraxinopennsylvanica and Pm. griseorubrum represent new records for South Africa, while Pm. griseorubrum, hitherto only known from humans, is newly reported from a plant host. Five species are newly described, two of which produce a Togninia sexual state. Togninia africana, T. griseo-olivacea and Pm. pallidum are newly described from Prunus armeniaca, while Pm. prunicolum and Pm. fuscum are described from Prunus salicina.

  1. Naturally-Occurring Entomopathogenic Fungi on Three Bark Beetle Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavimira A. Draganova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae belong to one of the most damaging groups of forest insects and the activity of their natural enemies –pathogens, parasitoids,parasites or predators suppressing their population density,is of great importance. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic fungi on bark beetles in Bulgaria has been investigated sporadically. The aim of this preliminary study was to find, identify and study morphological characteristics of fungal entomopathogens naturally-occurring in populations of three curculionid species – Ips sexdentatus Boern, Ips typographus (L. and Dryocoetes autographus (Ratz.. Dead pest adults were found under the bark of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies trees collectedfrom forests in the Maleshevska and Vitosha Mountains. Fungal pathogens were isolated into pure cultures on SDAY (Sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract and were identified based on morphological characteristics both on the host and in a culture.Morphological characteristics of the isolates were studied by phenotypic methods. The fungal isolates obtained from dead adults of Ips sexdentatus, Ips typographus and D. autographus were found to belong to the species Beauveria bassiana (Bals. – Criv. Vuillemin,Beauveria brongniartii (Saccardo Petch and Isaria farinosa (Holmsk. Fries (anamorph Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes: Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae. Morphological traits of the isolates are described.

  2. Mycopopulations of alfalfa silage with particular review on toxigenic Fusarium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bočarov-Stančić Aleksandra S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycological and mycotoxicological investigations of alfalfa samples (initial not fermented plant material, as well as silage obtained from unfaded and faded state of the same were performed during the year 2003. Total of 14 fungal species, included in 11 genera, were identified during the present study. The most frequent moulds were Chaetomium piluliferum and their anamorph Botryotrichum piluliferum (83.3% and 66.7% respectively. Potentially toxigenic Fusarium spp. (F. culmorum, F. semitectum and F. sporotrichioides were observed less frequently (from 16.7% to 33.0% and only on initial not fermented alfalfa. From the sample of alfalfa faded state contaminated with 0.25 mg/kg of diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS and 1.28 mg/kg of zearalenone (ZEA F. semitectum SL-B was isolated. The production of fusariotoxins by this strain was later on tested in vitro conditions. Different aeration treatments in semisynthetic medium with glucose (GPK or sucrose (SPK, as well as cultivation on sterilized corn kernels (moisture content 47% were used. The highest yield of DAS (64.0 mg/l was obtained during submerged cultivation of F. semitectum SL-B in GPK (210 rpms, 3 days room temperature. Production of T-2 toxin, but rather poor (0.08 mg/1, was detected only in SPK (150 rpms, 3 days, room temperature. ZEA was found exclusively after 25 days of cultivation on corn kernels at room temperature (21-25°C.

  3. Site index for teak in Colombia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danny A. Torres; Jorge I. del Valle; Guillermo Restrepo

    2012-01-01

    Determination of site quality is a basic tool for proper selection of locations and species,in management of forest plantations.Throughout the Caribbean studies of site quality are few and are hampered by statistical limitations,inappropriate growth models,and limited data.We fitted growth curves for dominant height to evaluate and classify site quality ofteak (Tectona grandis) plantations by using data from 44 permanent sample plots established since 1990 in 3-22 years old teak plantations in the Colombian Caribbean region.We used Korf's and von Bertalanffy's models to fit curves as non-linear effects models.Both models,with a single random parameter,were considered as adequate for dominant height growth modelling,but Korf's model was superior.The resulting curves were anamorphic and closely reflected high variability in site quality.Five site classes were clarified:at a base age of 12 years old,teak reached a mean dominant height of 24.8 m on the best sites,9.8 m in the worst sites,and in the averages sites,15.8-18.8 m.Using this model,we identified the best and the worst sites for teak plantations in the Caribbean region.This model proved a useful tool,not only for site quality evaluation,but also for improved teak plantation planning and management.

  4. Screening of thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi aiming β-xylosidase and arabinanase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Machado Benassi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell wall is mainly composed by cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The heterogeneous structure and composition of the hemicellulose are key impediments to its depolymerization and subsequent use in fermentation processes. Thus, this study aimed to perform a screening of thermophilic and thermotolerant filamentous fungi collected from different regions of the São Paulo state, and analyze the production of β-xylosidase and arabinanase at different temperatures. These enzymes are important to cell wall degradation and synthesis of end products as xylose and arabinose, respectively, which are significant sugars to fermentation and ethanol production. A total of 12 fungal species were analyzed and 9 of them grew at 45 ºC, suggesting a thermophilic or thermotolerant character. Additionally Aspergillus thermomutatus anamorph of Neosartorya and A. parasiticus grew at 50 ºC. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus thermomutatus were the filamentous fungi with the most expressive production of β-xylosidase and arabinanase, respectively. In general for most of the tested microorganisms, β-xylosidase and arabinanase activities from mycelial extract (intracellular form were higher in cultures grown at high temperatures (35-40 ºC, while the correspondent extracellular activities were favorably secreted from cultures at 30 ºC. This study contributes to catalogue isolated fungi of the state of São Paulo, and these findings could be promising sources for thermophilic and thermotolerant microorganisms, which are industrially important due to their enzymes.

  5. Microfungal-community diversity in Zygophyllum dumosum and Hammada scoparia root zones in the northern Negev Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun; Grishkan, Isabella; Steinberger, Yosef

    2013-04-01

    The soil dilution plate method was used to determine the influences of perennial shrubs on the species diversity and density of cultivable microfungal communities inhabiting the root zones of two perennial shrubs, Zygophyllum dumosum and Hammada scoparia, in the northern Negev Desert, Israel. Soil samples were collected under the canopies of shrubs and the open spaces between them (serving as control) from five depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-50 cm) during the wet and dry seasons of 2010. Fifty-one species belonging to 31 genera were identified from Zygomycota, teleomorphic and anamorphic Ascomycota, including Coelomycetes. During the wet and dry seasons, 4-10 and 2-6 species were identified at different soil depths beneath perennial shrubs and in the open spaces, while the corresponding colony-forming units (CFUs) varied from 3071 to 27687 and from 3201 to 15247 g(-1) dry soil. More diverse microfungal communities were collected in the vicinity of perennial shrubs compared to the open spaces during the wet season, while a reverse trend was observed during the dry season. Further study is needed to provide insights into the correlation between compounds of litter and root exudates of perennial shrubs and microfungal-community structure by a combination of molecular and physiological tools. PMID:22736431

  6. Discussion on Transformable Near Space Airship Technology%临近空间变体飞艇技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖益军

    2013-01-01

    介绍临近空间飞艇国外发展现状,分析变体飞艇系统重量轻、飞行升限高、环境适应性和持续驻空能力强的独特优势,论述临近空间飞艇的高效变体模式,阐述临近空间变体飞艇的关键技术,如飞艇变体控制技术、飞艇飞行控制技术,为临近空间飞艇后续研究提供参考。%This paper introduces the state of the development of near-space airship ,analyzes the advantages of anamorphic airship ,such as light weight ,high ceiling ,atmospheric feasibility and long endurance ,dem-onstrates the high-efficiency transformation mode for near-space airship ,and expounds the key techniques in detail ,such as transformation control technique and airship flight control technique so as to offer refer-ences for the follow-up study of transformable near space airship .

  7. Edge effect on the decomposition process of leaf litter in cloud forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest fragments are physically delimited by edges and encircled by a surrounding matrix. The interaction between these communities dissimilar in structure and composition is defined as the edge effect. This occurrence generates local abiotic and biotic changes altering soil ecosystem processes. To determine the existence of the effect on leaf litter decomposition and its control factors, two fragments of cloud forest in the southwest region of the Bogota savannah were selected. within each, two 64 m long transects were laid out bearing east and west from edge to center respectively, a leaf litter decomposition experiment of a 90 to 180 day duration was set up at seven distances measured from the starting point of each transect. The percentage of leaf litter moisture and decomposition, vegetation density, anamorphic fungi density and carbon: Nitrogen ratios were estimated at each point. The maximum distance of the edge effect on the decomposition was determined, and the interaction between orientation, distance and the regulating factors of the decomposition process were ascertained. The results established an effect of the cardinal orientation of the edge on the decomposition and its regulating factors. Marked edge effects on leaf litter moisture extending up to 7 m and up to 30 m on vegetation density were displayed in eastern border areas. In forest areas, decomposition was regulated by leaf litter moisture and its c:n ratio. The limited penetration of edge effect suggests minor effects regarding nutrient cycles and provides justification and additional value to the use of small fragments.

  8. IDIOSYNCRASY OF LOCAL FUNGAL ISOLATE HYPOCREA RUFA STRAIN P2: PLANT GROWTH PROMOTION AND MYCOPARASITISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth Thakor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma viride an anamorph of Hypocrea rufa, is a known bio-control agent against various fungal phytopathogens. In the present study, H. rufa strain P2 was tested for plant growth promoting (PGP traits and antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Sclerotium rolfsii. In-vitro assessment of H. rufa strain P2 showed maximum IAA production of 68 µg ml-1, solubilised tri-calcium phosphate up to 72 µg ml-1 and showed production of chitinase enzyme 120 U ml-1. In order to determine in-vivo plant growth promotion, talc based formulation of H. rufa strain P2 was prepared and tested on Arachis hypogaea L. using seed and soil application. After 15 days, treated plants showed six-fold increases in the fresh and dry root mass whereas, fresh and dry shoot mass was increased up to two folds. The result indicates the local isolate H. rufa strain P2 can be categorized as phyto-friendly fungi which can be used as both, bio-control agent as well as phyto-augmenting bio-fertilizer.

  9. Ascomycetous yeasts associated with naturally occurring fruits in a tropical rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, G M; Pagnocca, F C

    1997-01-01

    Fruits from twenty different species of angiosperms were collected during the period from November, 1991 to January, 1992. Two hundred and two strains of yeasts and yeast-like fungi were isolated, of which 74% showed ascomycetic affinity. Candida was the predominant genus, followed by (in descending order of occurrence): Cryptococcus, Kloeckera, Sporobolomyces, Pichia, Hanseniaspora and Bullera. Black yeasts and other strains showing basidiomycetic affinity were also isolated. The genus Candida represented the highest number of identified species and the greatest variety of associated substrates. Among the ascomycetes and their anamorphs, 38 species were identified, with Kloeckera apiculata being the most frequent among the isolates and the one which occurred in the largest variety of substrates. Some of the biotypes designated as Candida sp. A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, and Pichia sp. did not correspond to the standard species description found in the literature, and may represent new species. The strains of yeasts isolated in this study were characterized and incorporated into the Tropical Culture Collection of the Fundaao Tropical de Pesquisas e Tecnologia Andŕe Tosello, Campinas, São Paulo.

  10. Fumonisin production by Gibberella fujikuroi strains from Pinus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirete, S; Patiño, B; Vázquez, C; Jiménez, M; Hinojo, M J; Soldevilla, C; González-Jaén, M T

    2003-12-31

    Fumonisins are important mycotoxins basically produced by strains from the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (with anamorphs in Fusarium genus) which contaminate food and feed products representing a risk to human and animal health. In this work, we report for the first time the fumonisin production of Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon strains associated to edible pine nuts of Pinus pinea. P. pinea is an important and widely distributed Pinus species in the Mediterranean area where their pine nuts are consumed raw or slightly processed in diverse food products. In this work, characterization and further identification of those strains were performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) of the intergenic spacer region of the rDNA (IGS) with the aid of the eight mating populations (A-H) described for G. fujikuroi species complex. The method was powerful to detect polymorphism, allowing discrimination between individuals and could be used to study the genetic relationships among them and within the G. fujikuroi species complex. Fusarium strains associated to Pinus radiata were also included in the present study. These strains did not produce fumonisins and showed no close relation with the strains isolated from P. pinea. The approach used in this work was rapid and proved to be efficient to assist identification and to characterize and analyse relatedness of new isolates within the G. fujikuroi species complex.

  11. 海南热带雨林腐木上两个无性型子囊菌酵母新种%Candida pseudocylindracea sp. nov. and Candida wuzhishanensis sp. nov. from Hainan Island, southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辰; 王启明; 贾建华; 白逢彦

    2009-01-01

    SWains X2WZ07-4 and G2WZ06-1 isolated from rotten wood collected flom the tropical rainforests in Hainan Island were revealed to represent two new anamorphic, ascomycetous yeast species by molecular taxonomic characterization. Sequence analysis from the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain showed that strains X2WZ07-4 and G2WZ06-1 were closely related with Candida cylindracea and C llanquihuensis, respectively. The two strains differed from their closest described relatives by 2.5% to 3.9% mismatches, indicating that they represent two novel species. Since sexual states were not observed in the cultures of the two strains in various media, two anamorphic names Candida pseudocylindracea sp. nov. (type strain X2WZ07-4T = AS 2.3788T = CBS 10854T) and C wuzhishanensis sp. nov. (type strain G2WZ06-1T = AS 2.3784T = CBS 10850T) are proposed for them, respectively.%用含木糖为唯一碳源和含葡萄糖及7.6%乙醇的两种富集培养基对采自海南热带雨林腐木样品中的酵母菌进行了分离培养.对分离出的酵母菌株进行的分子分类学研究表明,其中两株酵母菌X2WZ07-4和G2WZ06-1代表两个无性型子囊菌酵母新种.大亚基(268)rRNA基因D1/D2域序列分析显示,与X2WZ07-4和G2WZ06-1亲缘关系最近的已知种分别为Candida cylindracea和C llanquihuensis.在D1/D2域,X2WZ07-4与C cylindracea模式菌株的碱基序列差异为2.5%;G2WZ06-1与C. llanquihuensis模式菌株的序列差异为3.9%,均远大于酵母菌种间在此区域的序列差异(~1%).这两个新种分别被命名为拟柱形假丝酵母Candida pseudocylindracea sp.nov.(模式菌株:X2WZ07-4T=AS 2.3788T=CBS 10854T)和五指山假丝酵母Candida wuzhishanensis sp.nov.(模式菌株:G2WZ06-1T=AS 2.3784T=CBS 10850T).

  12. Performance comparison of polynomial representations for optimizing optical freeform systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brömel, A.; Gross, H.; Ochse, D.; Lippmann, U.; Ma, C.; Zhong, Y.; Oleszko, M.

    2015-09-01

    Optical systems can benefit strongly from freeform surfaces, however the choice of the right representation isn`t an easy one. Classical representations like X-Y-polynomials, as well as Zernike-polynomials are often used for such systems, but should have some disadvantage regarding their orthogonality, resulting in worse convergence and reduced quality in final results compared to newer representations like the Q-polynomials by Forbes. Additionally the supported aperture is a circle, which can be a huge drawback in case of optical systems with rectangular aperture. In this case other representations like Chebyshev-or Legendre-polynomials come into focus. There are a larger number of possibilities; however the experience with these newer representations is rather limited. Therefore in this work the focus is on investigating the performance of four widely used representations in optimizing two ambitious systems with very different properties: Three-Mirror-Anastigmat and an anamorphic System. The chosen surface descriptions offer support for circular or rectangular aperture, as well as different grades of departure from rotational symmetry. The basic shapes are for example a conic or best-fit-sphere and the polynomial set is non-, spatial or slope-orthogonal. These surface representations were chosen to evaluate the impact of these aspects on the performance optimization of the two example systems. Freeform descriptions investigated here were XY-polynomials, Zernike in Fringe representation, Q-polynomials by Forbes, as well as 2-dimensional Chebyshev-polynomials. As a result recommendations for the right choice of freeform surface representations for practical issues in the optimization of optical systems can be given.

  13. Heterologous overexpression of Glomerella cingulata FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background FAD dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) currently raises enormous interest in the field of glucose biosensors. Due to its superior properties such as high turnover rate, substrate specificity and oxygen independence, GDH makes its way into glucose biosensing. The recently discovered GDH from the ascomycete Glomerella cingulata is a novel candidate for such an electrochemical application, but also of interest to study the plant-pathogen interaction of a family of wide-spread, crop destroying fungi. Heterologous expression is a necessity to facilitate the production of GDH for biotechnological applications and to study its physiological role in the outbreak of anthracnose caused by Glomerella (anamorph Colletotrichum) spp. Results Heterologous expression of active G. cingulata GDH has been achieved in both Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, however, the expressed volumetric activity was about 4800-fold higher in P. pastoris. Expression in E. coli resulted mainly in the formation of inclusion bodies and only after co-expression with molecular chaperones enzymatic activity was detected. The fed-batch cultivation of a P. pastoris transformant resulted in an expression of 48,000 U L-1 of GDH activity (57 mg L-1). Recombinant GDH was purified by a two-step purification procedure with a yield of 71%. Comparative characterization of molecular and catalytic properties shows identical features for the GDH expressed in P. pastoris and the wild-type enzyme from its natural fungal source. Conclusions The heterologous expression of active GDH was greatly favoured in the eukaryotic host. The efficient expression in P. pastoris facilitates the production of genetically engineered GDH variants for electrochemical-, physiological- and structural studies. PMID:22151971

  14. Morphology and enzyme production of Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 are affected by the physical and structural characteristics of cellulosic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peciulyte, Ausra; Anasontzis, George E; Karlström, Katarina; Larsson, Per Tomas; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2014-11-01

    The industrial production of cellulolytic enzymes is dominated by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina). In order to develop optimal enzymatic cocktail, it is of importance to understand the natural regulation of the enzyme profile as response to the growth substrate. The influence of the complexity of cellulose on enzyme production by the microorganisms is not understood. In the present study we attempted to understand how different physical and structural properties of cellulose-rich substrates affected the levels and profiles of extracellular enzymes produced by T. reesei. Enzyme production by T. reesei Rut C-30 was studied in submerged cultures on five different cellulose-rich substrates, namely, commercial cellulose Avicel® and industrial-like cellulosic pulp substrates which consist mainly of cellulose, but also contain residual hemicellulose and lignin. In order to evaluate the hydrolysis of the substrates by the fungal enzymes, the spatial polymer distributions were characterised by cross-polarisation magic angle spinning carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS (13)C-NMR) in combination with spectral fitting. Proteins in culture supernatants at early and late stages of enzyme production were labeled by Tandem Mass Tags (TMT) and protein profiles were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001304. In total 124 proteins were identified and quantified in the culture supernatants, including cellulases, hemicellulases, other glycoside hydrolases, lignin-degrading enzymes, auxiliary activity 9 (AA9) family (formerly GH61), supporting activities of proteins and enzymes acting on cellulose, proteases, intracellular proteins and several hypothetical proteins. Surprisingly, substantial differences in the enzyme profiles were found even though there were minor differences in the chemical composition between the cellulose-rich substrates.

  15. Entomopathogenic fungi from 'El Eden' Ecological Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Barragán; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Alatorre, Raquel; Toriello, Conchita

    2004-07-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were isolated and identified from insects collected from the tropical forest and an agricultural area at El Eden Ecological Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico. These fungi were studied to determine their potential as biological control agents of greenhouse Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), and to contribute to the knowledge of biodiversity of this area. No pest insects were observed in the tropical forest. In contrast, all insects collected in the agricultural area were considered important pests by the local farmers, with the whitefly, as the most relevant, plentiful in Cucurbitaceae plants. From approximately 3400 collected insects in three different surveys, different anamorphic Ascomycetes were recovered. One isolate of Aspergillus sp., two of Penicillium sp., three of Paecilomyces marquandii, and three of Verticillium sp. out of 308 insects (2.9%) from three insect orders, Hymenoptera, Diptera and Isoptera in the tropical forest. In contrast, a higher number of fungal isolates were recovered from the agricultural area: three isolates from Aspergillus parasiticus, 100 of Fusarium moniliforme, one of Aschersonia sp., and 246 of Fusarium oxysporum out of 3100 insects (11.3%) from three insect orders, Homoptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. The results of this study show Fusarium moniliforme and F oxysporum as highly virulent to infected insects in the agricultural area, with 100 and 246 isolates respectively, out of 350 infected insects of 3100 studied specimens. Laboratory whitefly nymph bioassays with isolates Ed29a of F. moniliforme, Ed322 of F. oxysporum, and Ed22 of P marquandii showed 96 to 97.5% insect mortality with no significant differences (P < 0.05) among them. F. oxysporum Ed322 produced no mortality when inoculated on tomato, bean, squash and maize seedlings (with and without injuries) compared to the 100% mortality caused by phytopathogenic strains, F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis

  16. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Dothistroma septosporum (Dorog. M. Morelet (Mycosphaerella pini E. Rostrup, syn. Scirrhia pini and Dothistroma pini Hulbary to the EU territory with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Scirrhia pini for the European Union (EU territory, identified risk management options and evaluated their effectiveness. The risk assessment was conducted taking into account current EU legislation. The Panel also provided an opinion on the effectiveness of the present EU requirements against this organism listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Considering that there has been taxonomic confusion over the pest mentioned in the EU plant health legislation, the assessment was carried out for Dothistroma septosporum (the anamorph of S. pini, the latter renamed to Mycosphaerella pini and Dothistroma pini (teleomorph unknown, both of which cause Dothistroma needle blight. Three major pathways for entry were identified: host plants intended for planting/grafting (excluding fruit and seeds, natural means (wind, rain, wind-driven rain, etc., and host plants and plant parts with foliage not intended for planting (e.g., fresh branches, cut Christmas trees, etc.; probability of entry was considered very likely, likely and unlikely, respectively, with high uncertainty. The establishment and further spread were both considered very likely. The current consequences were considered major and they include loss of wood volume, tree mortality, and losses in terms of landscape value, amenity value, recreational uses and tourism. The Panel concluded that introduction and spread of the two pests are not fully prevented by Council Directive 2000/29/EC, mainly because of the possibility to import and trade host plant material other than Pinus plants for planting. In order to prevent the potentially serious impacts in those parts of the risk assessment area where the pathogens are currently not known to occur, additional risk reduction options have been identified, in the form of simultaneous implementation of measures targeted at reducing the movement of infected host plants and the further spread of the

  17. Diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration in the town and rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Kasprzyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Airborne fungal spores were monitored in 2001-2002 in Rzeszów (town and its neighborhood. The aim of investigations was to ascertain if there were differences in diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration between town and rural area. The sampling was carried out using volumetric method. Traps were located at the same heights - app. 12 m. Airborne spores were sampled continuously. Microscopical slides were prepared for each day. Analysis was carried out on one longitudinal band of 48 mm long divided into 24 segments corresponding following hours of day. The results were expressed as mean number of fungal spores per cubic meter per 24 hours. For this survey, five geni of allergenic fungi were selected: Alternaria, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma. The concentrations of their airborne spores were high or very high. It was calculated theoretical day, where the hourly count was the percentage mean of number of spores at that time every chosen day without rainfall from 2001 and 2001 years. The diurnal periodicity of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum and Ganoderma showed one peak, while Botrytis two. Anamorphic spores peaked in the afternoon, while their minima occurred in the morning. The highest concentrations of Ganoderma basidiospores were at down or at night, but minima during the day. There were no clear differences in the peak values between two studied sites. The results indicate that maximum concentrations of all spores generally occurred a few hour earlier in the rural area than in the town. Probably, in the rural area airborne spores came from many local sources and their diurnal periodicity reflected rhythm of spore liberation. Towns are characterized by specific microclimate with higher temperature and wind blowing to the centre. In Rzeszów fungal spores could be transported outside and carried out by wind from distant sources. This study showed, among others, that habitat conditions are an important factors

  18. Delimitation of the species of the Debaryomyces hansenii complex by intron sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Noémie; Mallet, Sandrine; Casaregola, Serge

    2009-05-01

    The delineation of species among strains assigned to Debaryomyces hansenii was examined using a gene genealogies-based approach in order to compare spliceosomal intron sequences found in four housekeeping genes (ACT1, TUB2, RPL31 and RPL33). This revealed four distinct groups of strains containing, respectively, D. hansenii var. hansenii CBS 767(T), D. hansenii var. fabryi CBS 789(T), Candida famata var. flareri CBS 1796(T) (the anamorph of D. hansenii var. fabryi CBS 789(T)) and Debaryomyces tyrocola CBS 766(T), whose species status was no longer accepted. The sequence divergence between these groups, reaching in some cases over 20 %, unambiguously isolated the groups as separate taxa, leading to a proposal for the reinstatement of the originally described species D. hansenii CBS 767(T) and D. tyrocola CBS 766(T). The variety D. hansenii var. fabryi was further subdivided into two taxa, Debaryomyces fabryi CBS 789(T) and Candida flareri CBS 1796(T) (previously C. famata var. flareri and Blastodendrion flareri). The comparison of intron sequences therefore exposed cryptic species whose phenotypic traits are not distinguishable from known species, but which have significantly diverged from the genetic point of view. Hence, we describe the new taxon Debaryomyces macquariensis sp. nov. CBS 5571(T) is related to, but clearly distinct from, the Debaryomyces species mentioned above. The approach used in this work has also revealed the existence of populations within the newly delineated species D. hansenii and genetic exchanges between these populations, indicating an unexpected genetic diversity within this part of the genus Debaryomyces. PMID:19406826

  19. A newly developed real-time PCR assay for detection and quantification of Fusarium oxysporum and its use in compatible and incompatible interactions with grafted melon genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegi, Anita; Catalano, Valentina; Luongo, Laura; Vitale, Salvatore; Scotton, Michele; Ficcadenti, Nadia; Belisario, Alessandra

    2013-08-01

    A reliable and species-specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed for detection of the complex soilborne anamorphic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The new primer pair, designed on the translation elongation factor 1-α gene with an amplicon of 142 bp, was highly specific to F. oxysporum without cross reactions with other Fusarium spp. The protocol was applied to grafted melon plants for the detection and quantification of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a devastating pathogen of this cucurbit. Grafting technologies are widely used in melon to confer resistance against new virulent races of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, while maintaining the properties of valuable commercial varieties. However, the effects on the vascular pathogen colonization have not been fully investigated. Analyses were performed on 'Charentais-T' (susceptible) and 'Nad-1' (resistant) melon cultivars, both used either as rootstock and scion, and inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 and race 1,2. Pathogen development was compared using qPCR and isolations from stem tissues. Early asymptomatic melon infections were detected with a quantification limit of 1 pg of fungal DNA. The qPCR protocol clearly showed that fungal development was highly affected by host-pathogen interaction (compatible or incompatible) and time (days postinoculation). The principal significant effect (P ≤ 0.01) on fungal development was due to the melon genotype used as rootstock, and this effect had a significant interaction with time and F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis race. In particular, the amount of race 1,2 DNA was significantly higher compared with that estimated for race 1 in the incompatible interaction at 18 days postinoculation. The two fungal races were always present in both the rootstock and scion of grafted plants in either the compatible or incompatible interaction.

  20. Anthracnose disease of centipedegrass turf caused by Colletotrichum eremochloae, a new fungal species closely related to Colletotrichum sublineola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Jo Anne; Tomaso-Peterson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Colletotrichum is a cosmopolitan, anamorphic fungal genus responsible for anthracnose disease in hundreds of plant species worldwide, including members of the Poaceae. Anthracnose disease of the widely planted, non-native, warm-season lawn grass, Eremochloae ophiuroides (centipedegrass), is commonly encountered in the southern United States, but the causal agent has never been identified. We use DNA sequence data from modern cultures and archival fungarium specimens in this study to determine the identity of the fungus responsible for centipedegrass anthracnose disease and provide experimental confirmation of pathogenicity. C. eremochloae sp. nov., a pathogen of centipedegrass, is proposed based on phylogenetic evidence from four sequence markers (Apn2, Apn2/ Mat1, Sod2, ITS). C. eremochloae isolates from centipedegrass shared common morphology and phenotype with C. sublineola, a destructive pathogen of cultivated sorghum and Johnsongrass weeds (Sorghum halepense, S. vulgaris). Molecular phylogenetic analysis identified C. eremochloae and C. sublineola as closely related sister taxa, but genealogical concordance supported their distinction as unique phylogenetic species. Fixed nucleotide differences between C. eremochloae and C. sublineola were observed from collections of these fungi spanning 105 y, including the 1904 lectotype specimen of C. sublineola. C. eremochloae was identified from a fungarium specimen of centipedegrass intercepted at a USA port from a 1923 Chinese shipment; the multilocus sequence from this specimen was identical to modern samples of the fungus. Thus, it appears that the fungus might have migrated to the USA around the same time that centipedegrass first was introduced to the USA in 1916 from China, where the grass is indigenous. The new species C. eremochloae is described and illustrated, along with a description and discussion of C. sublineola based on the lectotype and newly designated epitype.

  1. Artificial induction of fruiting body of Ophiocordyceps longissima%长座虫草子实体的人工诱导研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 潘丹丹; 丁海燕; 李春如; 樊美珍

    2012-01-01

    The fruiting bodies of Ophiocordyceps longissima were cultured successfully using the strain of Hirsutella longissima RCEF3 891, the anamorph of O. longissima, and the effect of different growth factors on fruiting bodies formation was studied in this paper. The results showed that the optimal culture conditions for fruiting bodies of O. longissima were as follows: 9 d of the liquid fermentation period of H. longissima, with addi- tion of 10% animal protein in the medium, pH 6.0 of the nutrient solution, cultivation at 25 ℃, mycelia culture stage under the condition of complete darkness and continuous light (1-200 lx) after covering with mycelia.%首次应用长座虫草的无性型长座被毛孢对长座虫草子实体的生长条件进行了研究,并确立了最佳的培养工艺.结果表明,长座被毛孢液体摇瓶最佳培养时间为9d,在营养液中添加10%的动物性蛋白(黄粉虫粉)有助于提高子实体产量,其所需营养液最佳pH为6.0,培养温度为25℃,初期菌丝培养时间为完全黑暗培养,待菌丝长满后给予1 ~ 200 lx连续光照,可获得更多的子实体.

  2. Categorial compositionality III: F-(coalgebras and the systematicity of recursive capacities in human cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Phillips

    Full Text Available Human cognitive capacity includes recursively definable concepts, which are prevalent in domains involving lists, numbers, and languages. Cognitive science currently lacks a satisfactory explanation for the systematic nature of such capacities (i.e., why the capacity for some recursive cognitive abilities-e.g., finding the smallest number in a list-implies the capacity for certain others-finding the largest number, given knowledge of number order. The category-theoretic constructs of initial F-algebra, catamorphism, and their duals, final coalgebra and anamorphism provide a formal, systematic treatment of recursion in computer science. Here, we use this formalism to explain the systematicity of recursive cognitive capacities without ad hoc assumptions (i.e., to the same explanatory standard used in our account of systematicity for non-recursive capacities. The presence of an initial algebra/final coalgebra explains systematicity because all recursive cognitive capacities, in the domain of interest, factor through (are composed of the same component process. Moreover, this factorization is unique, hence no further (ad hoc assumptions are required to establish the intrinsic connection between members of a group of systematically-related capacities. This formulation also provides a new perspective on the relationship between recursive cognitive capacities. In particular, the link between number and language does not depend on recursion, as such, but on the underlying functor on which the group of recursive capacities is based. Thus, many species (and infants can employ recursive processes without having a full-blown capacity for number and language.

  3. In situ stability of substrate-associated cellulases studied by DSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasepp, Kadri; Borch, Kim; Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Badino, Silke; Jensen, Kenneth; Sørensen, Trine H; Windahl, Michael S; Westh, Peter

    2014-06-24

    This work shows that differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) can be used to monitor the stability of substrate-adsorbed cellulases during long-term hydrolysis of insoluble cellulose. Thermal transitions of adsorbed enzyme were measured regularly in subsets of a progressing hydrolysis, and the size of the transition peak was used as a gauge of the population of native enzyme. Analogous measurements were made for enzymes in pure buffer. Investigations of two cellobiohydrolases, Cel6A and Cel7A, from Trichoderma reesei, which is an anamorph of the fungus Hypocrea jerorina, showed that these enzymes were essentially stable at 25 °C. Thus, over a 53 h experiment, Cel6A lost less than 15% of the native population and Cel7A showed no detectable loss for either the free or substrate-adsorbed state. At higher temperatures we found significant losses in the native populations, and at the highest tested temperature (49 °C) about 80% Cel6A and 35% of Cel7A was lost after 53 h of hydrolysis. The data consistently showed that Cel7A was more long-term stable than Cel6A and that substrate-associated enzyme was less long-term stable than enzyme in pure buffer stored under otherwise equal conditions. There was no correlation between the intrinsic stability, specified by the transition temperature in the DSC, and the long-term stability derived from the peak area. The results are discussed with respect to the role of enzyme denaturation for the ubiquitous slowdown observed in the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

  4. The epidemiology and mating behavior of Arthroderma benhamiae var. erinacei in household four-toed hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoko; Sano, Ayako; Takizawa, Kayoko; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Miyaji, Makoto; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiological survey of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei in the household hedgehog and other rodents was made between January 17, 2002 and February 28, 2002 in Japan. Quills and hairs were collected from sources identified via the internet. The fungus was isolated only from the quills of four-toed hedgehogs (7/18; 39%) from Kanto to Kyushu regions. Isolates were examined morphologically, physiologically and genetically, and identified as T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei anamorph. The isolates were also genetically compared with European hedgehog (Erinaceus europeus)-borne T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei and Kenyan hedgehog (Aterelix albiventris)-borne Arthroderma benhamiae, and their genotypes of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA were all identical. The isolates were crossed with A. benhamiae Americano-European race and African race, A. vanbreuseghemii and A. simii, with the result that they mated only with African race (+) or (-). Mating types of the isolates were (+) in 6 isolates and (-) in one. An intra-isolate mating between one of the 6 plus isolates and the minus one formed abundant mature gymnothesia, the mating type ratio of the F1 progeny was approximately 1:1, and the sib crossings of F1 progeny produced abundant fertile gymnothesia. The present study revealed that the intra-Japanese hedgehog-borne isolate crossing showed complete fertility and that the sexual degeneration pointed out by Takashio (Mycologia 71: 968-976, 1979) did not exist. Two pairs of mating, (+) and (-) mating types of Japanese isolates with (-) and (+) tester strains of A. benhamiae African race formed less gymnothesia, mating type ratios were unbalanced, and sib crossings of F1 progeny produced small gymnothesia containing a low number of asci, pseudogymothesia, or none, respectively. These results show that A. benhamiae var. erinacei, the teleomorph of T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei, belongs to a different mating group (e.g. hedgehog race) than the Americano-European and

  5. 车前草穗枯病菌分子鉴定%Molecular Identification of Pathogen of Plantain Head Blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁艳; 涂怀妹; 崔朝宇; 蒋军喜

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, two isolates of pathogen of plantain head blight from Ji'an county in Jiangxi province were molecularly identified. RDNA-ITS region of each of the two isolates was amplified by PCR, and the PCR products were sequenced. Both of them are 579 nt in length, and they have a consensus sequence. The sequence shares 99.0% homology with sequence of either Diaporthe angelicae or its anamorph Phomopsis subordinaria. Based on the criterion of rDNA-ITS sequence homology in fungus species classification, pathogen of plantain head blight was identified as Diaporthe angelicae.%采用真核生物通用引物ITS1/ITS4,对来自江西省吉安县2个车前草穗枯病菌菌株进行rDNA-ITS区段的PCR扩增,对扩增产物进行测序,结果获得2个长度均为579 nt且序列完全一致的rDNA-ITS序列,该序列与GenBank中当归间座壳菌(Diaporthe angelicae)及其无性态拟茎点霉菌(Phomopsis subordinaria)对应序列的同源性高达99.0%,根据以rDNA-ITS序列同源性大小划分种类的标准,将车前草穗枯病菌鉴定为当归间座壳菌。

  6. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Adriana Ferreira; Rodriguez, Dayana M; Ribeaux, Daylin R; Luna, Marcos A C; Lima E Silva, Thayse A; Andrade, Rosileide F Silva; Gusmão, Norma B; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

    2016-01-01

    Almost all oleaginous microorganisms are available for biodiesel production, and for the mechanism of oil accumulation, which is what makes a microbial approach economically competitive. This study investigated the potential that the yeast Candida lipolytica UCP0988, in an anamorphous state, has to produce simultaneously a bioemulsifier and to accumulate lipids using inexpensive and alternative substrates. Cultivation was carried out using waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor in accordance with 2² experimental designs with 1% inoculums (10⁷ cells/mL). The bioemulsifier was produced in the cell-free metabolic liquid in the late exponential phase (96 h), at Assay 4 (corn steep liquor 5% and waste soybean oil 8%), with 6.704 UEA, IE24 of 96.66%, and showed an anionic profile. The emulsion formed consisted of compact small and stable droplets (size 0.2-5 µm), stable at all temperatures, at pH 2 and 4, and 2% salinity, and showed an ability to remove 93.74% of diesel oil from sand. The displacement oil (ODA) showed 45.34 cm² of dispersion (central point of the factorial design). The biomass obtained from Assay 4 was able to accumulate lipids of 0.425 g/g biomass (corresponding to 42.5%), which consisted of Palmitic acid (28.4%), Stearic acid (7.7%), Oleic acid (42.8%), Linoleic acid (19.0%), and γ-Linolenic acid (2.1%). The results showed the ability of C. lipopytica to produce both bioemulsifier and biodiesel using the metabolic conversion of waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor, which are economic renewable sources. PMID:27669227

  7. 佛肚竹枯萎病的研究%A STUDY ON THE WILT DISEASE OF BAMBUSA VENTRICOSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋漳; 林毓银

    2001-01-01

    The wilt disease of Bambusa ventricosa was a serious disease occured in Nanping city, Fujian Province. Thesymptoms of the disease, identification, inoculation, biological characteristics of the causal organism and bionomics of thewilt disease were studied. The species was identified as Nectria ditissirna Tul. at sexual phase, and as Fusarium semitec tum Berk. &Rav. at anamorphic state. The causal organism of wilt disease grew vigorously on the PSA and PSA + 10%decoction of culm media, and formed white coloured colonies. After incubation of 7 days at 28℃ , a great amount of macro-conidia was produced, no stroma and perithecia were formed after 30 days. The stroma and ascospore were only producedunder natural condition. The preference temperature for mycelia growth was between 25 ~ 28 ℃ , and the optimum pH val-ues was at 6 ~ 7. The optimum temperature for conidia and ascospores germination was between 25 ~ 28℃, and the opti-mum pH values was at 6 ~ 7. The high relative humidity ( RH 96.1% ~ 100% ) was necessary for the germination ofconidia and ascospores. The results of experiments showed that the pathogen of the wilt disease overwintered on the soil,and disseminated by winds and rains to infect the wounded stem base of Bambusa ventricosa. The primary infection occurredfrom the last ten days of February or the first days of March. The peak infection occurred from the first ten days of Marchto the second ten days of April during early summer rains. The infection ceased from the second ten days or the last tendays of May. The freeze injury was possibly important factor to induce infection of the wilt disease.

  8. RNA-mediated gene silencing in the cereal fungal pathogen Cochliobolus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Yueqiang; Wu, Chengxiang; Liu, Zhaohui; Friesen, Timothy L; Rasmussen, Jack B; Zhong, Shaobin

    2011-04-01

    A high-throughput RNA-mediated gene silencing system was developed for Cochliobolus sativus (anamorph: Bipolaris sorokiniana), the causal agent of spot blotch, common root rot and black point in barley and wheat. The green fluorescent protein gene (GFP) and the proteinaceous host-selective toxin gene (ToxA) were first introduced into C. sativus via the polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated transformation method. Transformants with a high level of expression of GFP or ToxA were generated. A silencing vector (pSGate1) based on the Gateway cloning system was developed and used to construct RNA interference (RNAi) vectors. Silencing of GFP and ToxA in the transformants was demonstrated by transformation with the RNAi construct expressing hairpin RNA (hpRNA) of the target gene. The polyketide synthase gene (CsPKS1), involved in melanin biosynthesis pathways in C. sativus, was also targeted by transformation with the RNAi vector (pSGate1-CsPKS1) encoding hpRNA of the CsPKS1 gene. The transformants with pSGate1-CsPKS1 exhibited an albino phenotype or reduced melanization, suggesting effective silencing of the endogenous CsPKS1 in C. sativus. Sectors exhibiting the wild-type phenotype of the fungus appeared in some of the CsPKS1-silenced transformants after subcultures as a result of inactivation or deletions of the RNAi transgene. The gene silencing system established provides a useful tool for functional genomics studies in C. sativus and other filamentous fungi.

  9. Characterisation of yeasts isolated from ‘Nduja of Spilinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Giarratana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Nduja of Spilinga protected geographical indication (PGI is a spreadable italian salami, obtained by using fat (50%, lean of pork (25%, chili pepper (25% and NaCl, stuffed into natural pork casing. Its predominant flora is represented by yeasts, reaching at the end of seasoning values of 6 log CFU/g. Considering the need to enhance and protect traditional local products, it seemed interesting to carry out a characterisation of yeasts of the ‘Nduja of Spilinga PGI. A total of 127 strains of yeast isolated from samples of ‘Nduja of Spilinga PGI (79 strains from samples at different days of curing and 48 from samples of commerce was subjected to morphological identification, hydrolysis of urea, lipolytic activity and identification with API 20C AUX, ID 32C and simplified identification systems. One hundred twenty three (96.8% strains were attributable to the phylum Ascomycetes (urease-negative, the remaining 4 strains (3.2% were Basidiomycetes (urease-positive. Debaryomyces hansenii and its anamorph shape, Candida famata, represented the most prevalent species (61.42 and 17.32% respectively, followed by Candida glabrata (8.66%, Pichia (Candida guilliermondii (5.17%, Candida parapsilosis and Rhodotorula glutinis (1.57%. Candida catenulata, Criptococcus uniguttulatus, Rhodotorula minuta, Candida zeylanoides and Candida utilis were observed with 0.79%. The lipolytic activity was observed only in 10 strains of D. hansenii and in one of C. zeylanoides. Further investigation will contribute to the selection of indigenous strains that could be used for the creation of specific starter, useful to improve the process of characterisation of the ‘Nduja of Spilinga and also to guarantee its safety.

  10. [Taxonomic study of clinic isolates of Trichophyton in Rosario, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartabini, Mirta L; Bonino, Guillermo S; Racca, Liliana; Luque, Alicia G

    2013-01-01

    Due to the pleomorphism and cultural variability displayed by species of the genus Trichophyton, the identification methods based solely on morphological features are usually insufficient for their classification. The goal of the present work was to test a set of phenotypic methods in order to identify fungal isolates that belong to the aforementioned genus. These methods were based on a molecular taxonomic technique used as standard. Clinical isolates (56) were used as samples along with 6 reference strains. Macro and micromorphological studies were performed as well as biochemical and physiological tests such as in vitro hair perforation, nutritional requirements in Trichophyton agar media, urease production and growth on bromocresol purple-milk. solids-glucose (BCP-MS-G) agar. Additionally, PCR fingerprinting using the (GACA)4 primer was employed. As a result of the PCR method, specific profiles were observed for Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale. Identical profiles were obtained for Arthroderma benhamiae y Trichophyton erinacei. Of the total number of clinical isolates, 39 matched the T. rubrum profile while 13 corresponded to A. benhamiae and 4 to T. interdigitale. The most useful phenotypic test to differentiate between T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex strains was alkalinization of the BCP-MS-G medium. Phenotypic tests did not allow differentiation among the T. mentagrophytes complex species. On the other hand, the molecular technique allowed characterization of T. rubrum isolates as well as of those observed in our study and included in the T. mentagrophytes complex: T. interdigitale and Trichophyton sp., the anamorph of A. benhamiae.

  11. Preliminary in vitro insights into the use of natural fungal pathogens of leaf-cutting ants as biocontrol agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folgarait, Patricia; Gorosito, Norma; Poulsen, Michael; Currie, Cameron R

    2011-09-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are one of the main herbivores of the Neotropics, where they represent an important agricultural pest. These ants are particularly difficult to control because of the complex network of microbial symbionts. Leaf-cutting ants have traditionally been controlled through pesticide application, but there is a need for alternative, more environmentally friendly, control methods such as biological control. Potential promising biocontrol candidates include the microfungi Escovopsis spp. (anamorphic Hypocreales), which are specialized pathogens of the fungi the ants cultivate for food. These pathogens are suppressed through ant behaviors and ant-associated antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria. In order to be an effective biocontrol agent, Escovopsis has to overcome these defenses. Here, we evaluate, using microbial in vitro assays, whether defenses in the ant-cultivated fungus strain (Leucoagaricus sp.) and Actinobacteria from the ant pest Acromyrmex lundii have the potential to limit the use of Escovopsis in biocontrol. We also explore, for the first time, possible synergistic biocontrol between Escovopsis and the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium lecanii. All strains of Escovopsis proved to overgrow A. lundii cultivar in less than 7 days, with the Escovopsis strain isolated from a different leaf-cutting ant species being the most efficient. Escovopsis challenged with a Streptomyces strain isolated from A. lundii did not exhibit significant growth inhibition. Both results are encouraging for the use of Escovopsis as a biocontrol agent. Although we found that L. lecanii can suppress the growth of the cultivar, it also had a negative impact on Escovopsis, making the success of simultaneous use of these two fungi for biocontrol of A. lundii questionable. PMID:21739253

  12. Molecular Prediction of Pea Footrot Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebimieowei Etebu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available PCR based assays were developed in this study to quantitatively predict pea footrot infections in agricultural soils prior to cultivation. Pea footrot disease due to Nectria haematococca (anamorph Fusarium solani f.sp. pisi is linked to the presence of six pea pathogenicity (PEP genes (PDA1, PEP1, PEP2, PEP3, PEP4 and PEP5. Whilst molecular assays have been used recently to selectively detect these genes in soil- DNA, quantitative molecular assay has been extended to only the PEP3 gene whose role in pea pathogenicity is yet unknown. In this research, PCR-based quantification assays were developed to quantify the two pea pathogenicity genes (PDA and PEP5 with identified roles in pea pathogenicity from soil-DNA obtained from fields with pea footrot histories. Results showed that the quantitative molecular assays developed herein were both efficient. Amplification efficiency of the Q-PCR assay for the PDA and PEP5 gene were 97 and 89%, respectively. PDA and PEP5 gene copy numbers were shown to vary significantly (p = 0.01 between fields. However, the PDA gene copy numbers were relatively higher than those of the PEP5 gene in agricultural fields. The genes, especially PEP5 gene, were comparable to and positively correlated to the number of spores of pathogenic N. haematococca, and footrot disease. The PDA gene alone in soil could not cause footrot disease in peas after 8 weeks of planting; assays directed at it alone may therefore be insufficient to predict pea footrot disease. However, the molecular assay targeting the PDA alongside the PEP5 gene offers the opportunity for quantitative prediction of pea footrot infections in agricultural soils prior to cultivation.

  13. A group-I intron in the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, I; Anderson, J B; Kohn, L M

    1995-01-01

    A 1,380-bp intervening sequence within the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA (mt SSU rRNA) gene of the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been sequenced and identified as a group-I intron. This is the first report of an intron in the mt SSU rRNA gene. The intron shows close similarity in secondary structure to the subgroup-IC2 introns from Podospora (ND3i1, ND5i2, and COIi5) and Neurospora (ND5i1). The intron has an open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a putative protein of 420 amino acids which contains two copies of the LAGLI-DADG motif. The ORF belongs to a family of ORFs identified in Podospora (ND3i1, ND4Li1, ND4Li2, ND5i2, and COIi5) and Neurospora (ND5i1). The putative 420-aa polypeptide is also similar to a site-specific endonuclease in the chloroplast large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA) gene of the green alga Chlamydomonas eugametos. In each clone of S. sclerotiorum examined, including several clones which were sampled over a 3-year period from geographically separated sites, all isolates either had the intron or lacked the intron within the mt SSU rRNA gene. Screening by means of Southern hybridization and PCR amplification detected the intron in the mt SSU rRNA genes of S. minor, S. trifoliorum and Sclerotium cepivorum, but not in other members of the Sclerotiniaceae, such as Botrytis anamorphs of Botryotinia spp., or in other ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi. PMID:7788720

  14. Effects of experimental warming on fungal disease progress in oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebold, Magdalena; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Global warming will influence the growth and development of both crops and pathogens. The aims of this study were to investigate potential effects of future warming on oilseed rape growth and the epidemiology of the three economically important pathogens Verticillium longisporum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Leptosphaeria maculans (anamorph: Phoma lingam). We utilized climate chambers and a soil warming facility, where treatments represented regional warming scenarios for Lower Saxony, Germany, by 2050 and 2100, and compared results of both approaches on a thermal time scale by calculating degree-days (dd) from day of sowing, December 1st and March 1st until sampling, the latter correlating best with disease progress. Regression analysis showed that plant growth and growth stages in spring responded almost linearly to increasing thermal time until 1000-1500 dd. Colonization of plant tissue by V. longisporum showed an exponential increase when exceeding 1300-1500 dd and reaching plant growth stage BBCH 74/75 (pod development). V. longisporum colonization of plants may be advanced, potentially leading to higher inoculum densities after harvest and increased economic importance of this pathogen under future warming. Sclerotia germination of S. sclerotiorum reached its maximum at 600-900 dd. Advance of these critical degree-days may lead to earlier apothecia production, potentially advancing the infection window, whereas the future importance of S. sclerotiorum may remain constant. Severity of phoma crown canker increased linearly with increasing thermal time, but showed also large variation in response to the warming scenarios, suggesting that factors such as canopy microclimate in fall or leaf shedding over winter may play a bigger role for L. maculans infection and disease severity than higher soil temperatures. Thermal time was a suitable tool to combine and integrate data on biological responses to soil and air temperature increases from climate chamber and field

  15. HONGOS NATIVOS CON POTENCIAL DEGRADADOR DE TINTES INDUSTRIALES EN EL VALLE DE ABURRÁ, COLOMBIA NATIVE FUNGI WITH INDUSTRIAL DYE DEGRADING POTENTIAL IN THE ABURRÁ VALLEY, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiomara Chanagá Vera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Los colorantes industriales poseen estructuras químicas estables que dificultan su tratamiento mediante procesos fisicoquímicos convencionales. En los últimos años, como una alternativa biotecnológica para la degradación de compuestos recalcitrantes, se han utilizado hongos ligninolíticos de diferentes grupos taxonómicos, que producen enzimas oxidantes de dichas moléculas. El aislamiento e identificación de especies fúngicas nativas con potencial decolorante, resulta promisorio para biorremediar efluentes provenientes de industrias textiles. En esta investigación se identificaron, con base en análisis de secuencias de las regiones ITS1 e ITS2 y 28S del ADNr, y por sus características morfológicas, cuatro hongos nativos aislados de material lignocelulósico colectado en el Valle de Aburrá (Antioquia, Colombia. Los aislamientos fueron identificados como el ascomycete Leptosphaerulina sp., y los hongos anamórficos Trichoderma viride (dos cepas y Aspergillus niger.Abstract. Synthetic dyes have stable chemical structures that hinder their treatment by conventional physicochemical processes. In recent years, as a biotechnological alternative for degradation of these recalcitrant compounds, wood degrading fungi of different taxonomic groups have been used. These fungi produced enzymes with oxidative potential for those molecules. The isolation and identification of ligninolytic fungi with potential for discoloration is promising for bioremediation of effluents from textile industries. In this research, we identified four native fungi isolated from lignocellulosic material in the Aburra Valley (Antioquia, Colombia. Identification was made based on sequence analysis of ITS1-ITS2 regions and 28S rDNA as well as morphological characteristics. The fungi were identified as the ascomycete Leptosphaerulina sp., and the anamorphic species Trichoderma viride (two strains and Aspergillus niger.

  16. Molecular Characterization and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of 316 Clinical Isolates of Dermatophytes in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Saham; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pakshir, Keyvan; Badali, Hamid; Rafiei, Abdollah; Ravandeh, Mostafa; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2016-02-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common mycotic infection of the skin, nail, and hair, associated with major public health concern worldwide. Various species of dermatophytes show significant differences in susceptibility to antifungals. Here, we present the antifungal susceptibility of a large collection of molecularly identified dermatophyte isolates obtained from tropical region of south of Iran. A total of 9485 patients clinically suspected to have cutaneous fungal infections were examined. Dermatophytosis was confirmed in 1502 cases by direct microscopy and culture. Three hundred and sixteen isolates recovered in culture were identified to species level using PCR sequencing of ITS region and RFLP. Tinea corporis was the most prevalent type of clinical manifestation (35.2 %), followed by tinea cruris (17 %), tinea capitis (12.8 %), tinea pedis (11.3 %), tinea manuum (11 %), tinea unguium (6.9 %), and tinea barbae (5.8 %). Trichophyton interdigitale was the most common isolate (49.36 %), followed by Trichophyton rubrum (18.98 %), Epidermophyton floccosum (13.29 %), Microsporum canis (9.17 %), Arthroderma benhamiae (T. anamorph of A. benhamiae; 5.38 %), and Trichophyton tonsurans (3.79 %). Overall, irrespective of the geographical region, terbinafine was the most potent antifungal against all isolates, with an MIC range of 0.002-0.25 μg/mL, followed by itraconazole (0.004-0.5 μg/mL), griseofulvin (0.125-8 μg/mL), and fluconazole (4-128 μg/mL). Analysis of our data revealed a significant increase in the frequency of A.benhamiae, which definitely warrants further investigation to explore source of this infection in south of Iran. Moreover, terbinafine was the most effective antifungal against all isolates, in vitro.

  17. Molecular Characterization and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of 316 Clinical Isolates of Dermatophytes in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Saham; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pakshir, Keyvan; Badali, Hamid; Rafiei, Abdollah; Ravandeh, Mostafa; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2016-02-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common mycotic infection of the skin, nail, and hair, associated with major public health concern worldwide. Various species of dermatophytes show significant differences in susceptibility to antifungals. Here, we present the antifungal susceptibility of a large collection of molecularly identified dermatophyte isolates obtained from tropical region of south of Iran. A total of 9485 patients clinically suspected to have cutaneous fungal infections were examined. Dermatophytosis was confirmed in 1502 cases by direct microscopy and culture. Three hundred and sixteen isolates recovered in culture were identified to species level using PCR sequencing of ITS region and RFLP. Tinea corporis was the most prevalent type of clinical manifestation (35.2 %), followed by tinea cruris (17 %), tinea capitis (12.8 %), tinea pedis (11.3 %), tinea manuum (11 %), tinea unguium (6.9 %), and tinea barbae (5.8 %). Trichophyton interdigitale was the most common isolate (49.36 %), followed by Trichophyton rubrum (18.98 %), Epidermophyton floccosum (13.29 %), Microsporum canis (9.17 %), Arthroderma benhamiae (T. anamorph of A. benhamiae; 5.38 %), and Trichophyton tonsurans (3.79 %). Overall, irrespective of the geographical region, terbinafine was the most potent antifungal against all isolates, with an MIC range of 0.002-0.25 μg/mL, followed by itraconazole (0.004-0.5 μg/mL), griseofulvin (0.125-8 μg/mL), and fluconazole (4-128 μg/mL). Analysis of our data revealed a significant increase in the frequency of A.benhamiae, which definitely warrants further investigation to explore source of this infection in south of Iran. Moreover, terbinafine was the most effective antifungal against all isolates, in vitro. PMID:26369643

  18. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Adriana Ferreira; Rodriguez, Dayana M.; Ribeaux, Daylin R.; Luna, Marcos A. C.; Lima e Silva, Thayse A.; Andrade, Rosileide F. Silva; Gusmão, Norma B.; Campos-Takaki, Galba M.

    2016-01-01

    Almost all oleaginous microorganisms are available for biodiesel production, and for the mechanism of oil accumulation, which is what makes a microbial approach economically competitive. This study investigated the potential that the yeast Candida lipolytica UCP0988, in an anamorphous state, has to produce simultaneously a bioemulsifier and to accumulate lipids using inexpensive and alternative substrates. Cultivation was carried out using waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor in accordance with 22 experimental designs with 1% inoculums (107 cells/mL). The bioemulsifier was produced in the cell-free metabolic liquid in the late exponential phase (96 h), at Assay 4 (corn steep liquor 5% and waste soybean oil 8%), with 6.704 UEA, IE24 of 96.66%, and showed an anionic profile. The emulsion formed consisted of compact small and stable droplets (size 0.2–5 µm), stable at all temperatures, at pH 2 and 4, and 2% salinity, and showed an ability to remove 93.74% of diesel oil from sand. The displacement oil (ODA) showed 45.34 cm2 of dispersion (central point of the factorial design). The biomass obtained from Assay 4 was able to accumulate lipids of 0.425 g/g biomass (corresponding to 42.5%), which consisted of Palmitic acid (28.4%), Stearic acid (7.7%), Oleic acid (42.8%), Linoleic acid (19.0%), and γ-Linolenic acid (2.1%). The results showed the ability of C. lipopytica to produce both bioemulsifier and biodiesel using the metabolic conversion of waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor, which are economic renewable sources. PMID:27669227

  19. Biodiversity and distribution of Hypocrea/Trichoderma species in New Zealand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah L Dodd; Alison Stewart

    2004-01-01

    @@ With increased imports of foreign microbes either as commercial biocontrol products or for the purposes of research, there is potentially an increased threat to indigenous beneficial microflora. In the present study, indigenous species of the fungal genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma are being used as a model system to determine the impact of foreign microbes on the native microflora of New Zealand. In order to protect such microflora, one has to first be aware of what is currently present and what sites, if any,are most vulnerable. A preliminary survey for the presence and diversity of species of Hypocrea/Trichoderma is currently underway in New Zealand and samples are being assessed from forest soils,agricultural soils, orchards, garden soils, sclerotia of various plant pathogens and pasture land. To date 238 isolates have been identified using both morphological characters and DNA sequence data from the ITS regions of the ribosomal gene cluster (ITS1 & ITS2) and, in some instances, sequence of the elongation factor gene (EF1-α) . Isolates were found to represent 16 known species plus three species as yet undescribed. In forest soils T. harzianum /T. inhamatum (31%) and T. viride (29%)followed by T. fertile (13%), were clearly the most abundant species and the remaining five species found in forests ( T. atroviride, T. koningii, T. aureoviride, H. cf. flavovirens anamorph and one unknown) each accounting for <8% of the total. Dominance by the species T. harzianum/inhamatum is consistent with studies done in South-East Asia, a mid-European primeval floodplainforest and Moscow. In contrast, when isolations were conducted with a bias for biocontrol capabilities it was found that the species T. atroviride (29%), T. koningii (17%), T. harzianum (15%)and T. viride (12%) dominated respectively. This survey is currently ongoing in New Zealand.Future studies will monitor indigenous species and strains following inoculation of specific microbes to assess the impact of the

  20. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Adriana Ferreira; Rodriguez, Dayana M; Ribeaux, Daylin R; Luna, Marcos A C; Lima E Silva, Thayse A; Andrade, Rosileide F Silva; Gusmão, Norma B; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

    2016-09-23

    Almost all oleaginous microorganisms are available for biodiesel production, and for the mechanism of oil accumulation, which is what makes a microbial approach economically competitive. This study investigated the potential that the yeast Candida lipolytica UCP0988, in an anamorphous state, has to produce simultaneously a bioemulsifier and to accumulate lipids using inexpensive and alternative substrates. Cultivation was carried out using waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor in accordance with 2² experimental designs with 1% inoculums (10⁷ cells/mL). The bioemulsifier was produced in the cell-free metabolic liquid in the late exponential phase (96 h), at Assay 4 (corn steep liquor 5% and waste soybean oil 8%), with 6.704 UEA, IE24 of 96.66%, and showed an anionic profile. The emulsion formed consisted of compact small and stable droplets (size 0.2-5 µm), stable at all temperatures, at pH 2 and 4, and 2% salinity, and showed an ability to remove 93.74% of diesel oil from sand. The displacement oil (ODA) showed 45.34 cm² of dispersion (central point of the factorial design). The biomass obtained from Assay 4 was able to accumulate lipids of 0.425 g/g biomass (corresponding to 42.5%), which consisted of Palmitic acid (28.4%), Stearic acid (7.7%), Oleic acid (42.8%), Linoleic acid (19.0%), and γ-Linolenic acid (2.1%). The results showed the ability of C. lipopytica to produce both bioemulsifier and biodiesel using the metabolic conversion of waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor, which are economic renewable sources.

  1. Thermal-structure coupled deformation in an optical-mechanical system for radiometric calibration of satellite IR remote sensor%卫星红外遥感器辐射定标光机系统热-结构耦合变形分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖庆生; 杨林华; 赵寿根

    2011-01-01

    The thermal deformation of a radiometric calibration optical-structure system under simulated space environments would cause a great damage to the imaging quality of the system, and reduce the precision of the calibration test eventually.In this paper, a finite element model of such a system is built.Based on the model, with the temperature values at nodes obtained in the radiometric calibration test for the satellite multi-spectral scanner, the distribution of the thermal-structure coupling deformation is calculated and analyzed.The results show that the thermal distortion of the optical bracket would cause rigid displacements of the primary mirror and the primary reflector,making them off the axis or acclivitous and the black body off the focus, and changing the focal distance of the system in a non-uniform steady-state Iow temperature condition.But the root-mean-square (RMS) values of deformation of the anamorphic mirrors are both less than one fortieth of the wave length, within the actual surface shape accuracy requirements of the optical system.%辐射定标光机系统在模拟空间环境下的热变形直接影响定标光学系统成像质量,并决定星载遥感器辐射定标试验精度.文章建立的辐射定标光机系统有限元模型,以某卫星多光谱扫描仪辐射定标试验中的实测温度变化作为温度载荷,计算和研究了该系统在真空低温环境下的热-结构耦合变形的分布情况和分布规律.结果表明:在非均匀稳态低温环境下,该系统光学支架热变形使主镜及主反射镜发生刚性位移,引起垂轴方向位移、倾斜,黑体的离焦和光学系统焦距变化;反射镜表面畸变RMS值均为1/40波长以下,可以满足实际光学系统的面形准确度要求.

  2. Biodiversity and new records of microfungi in the Ruhrarea (north Rhine Westfalia), Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, Nosrathollah; Brassmann, Markus; Jensen, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    During our investigations of the microflora in NRW (Duisburg, Düsseldorf and Essen incl. the greenhouse of the Botanical Garden) in 2007 and 2008, we were able to collect and identify about 55 species on trees, bushes and ornamental plants as parasites and saprophytes. Some of these species are new for Germany or have been only rarely found until now. Most of the species belong the Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina for example Arthrocladiella mougeotii (Lév.) Vassilkov. on Lycium barbarum L., Caudospora taleola (Fr.) Starb on Quercus robur L., Colletotrichum coffeanum F. Noak on Coffea arabica L. (new for Germany) Colletotrichum trichellum (Fr.) Duke on Hedera helix L., Erysiphe buhrii U. Braun on Lychnis cf. coronaria (L.) Desr. (Anamorph. Oidium dianthi Jacz.), Erysiphe spec. on Acer opalus Mill (new host), Erysiphe flexuosa (Peck) U. Braun & S. Takam. on Aesculus spec. (new for Europe)), Erysiphe heraclei DC. on Tinguarra montana (Webb ex Christ ) A.Hansen & G.Kunkel, Erysiphe necator Schwein. = Uncinula necator (Schwein.) Burrill on Cissus cf. rhombifolia Vahl. (new for NRW), Erysphe trifolii Grev. on Trigonella caerulea (L.) Ser., Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC.) V.P.Gelyuta (Oidium spec.) on Argyranthemum pinnatifidum (L.f.) R.T. Lowe (new host), Lobatopedis foliicola P.M. Kirk on Quercus robur L. (new for NRW), Lophodermium juniperinum (Fr.) de Not. on Juniperus communis L., Mamiania coryli De Not. on Corylus avellana L., Marssonina juglandis (Lib.) Magnus on Juglans regia L., Oidium hortensia Jørst on Philadelphus coronarius L., Oidium spec. on Dahlia variabilis (Willd.) Desf. (new for Germany), Oidium longipes Noordeloos & Loerak on Petunia hybrida Vilm., Oidium pedilanthi M. Yen on Pedilanthus titymaloides (L.) Poit, Oidium pedaliacearum H.D. Shin sp. nov. (= Oidium sesami H.D. Shin) on Ibicella lutea (Lindl.) van Eselt. (= Martynia lutea Lindl.), Passalora pastinacae (Sacc.) U. Braun = Pseudocercosporella pastinacae (P. Karst.) U

  3. Isolation and characterization of two Meira geulakonigii strains with different colonymorphologies from Phyllostachys edulis%毛竹上两株不同菌落形态的格氏梅拉菌Meira geulakonigii菌株

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金群英; 彭华正; 李海波; 李楠; 华锡奇

    2010-01-01

    The genus Meira originally discovered from cadavers of the citrus rust mite contains anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast-like fungi belonging to the Exobasidiomycetidae of the Ustilaginomycetes.Although their endophytic nature in plants is later verified,the host range,regional distribution and growth characteristics of Meira species in plants are still poorly understood.In this study,two new strains(PM1 and PM2)of Meira geulakonigii,the type species of Meira,were isolated from bamboo for the first time.They were physiologically and morphologically characterized and compared with two M.geulakonigii isolates PFS004 and AS004 which were reported previously.Strains PM1 and PM2 exhibited different hypha formation ability.They were closer to AS004 molecular-phylogenetically but closer to PFS004 physiologically.These two isolates axe possibly valuable for further studies on hypha formation and functions of Meira species in bamboo.%格氏梅拉菌 Meira geulakonigii最早是在柑桔锈螨病的枯枝中发现的,它是一种担子菌类酵母样无性态真菌,归属于黑粉菌纲外担子菌亚纲.目前仅了解这种真菌在植物中的生长状态,关于它的宿主范围、区域分布和生长特性依然知之甚少.首次从竹子中分离了两株新的Meira geulakonigii菌株(PM1和PM2),并且更深一步地描述了他们的生理特性,尤其着重表述了菌丝体的独特生长现象.与先前报导的两株M.geulakonigii菌株PFS004和AS004相比较,PM1和PM2在分子系统上与AS004更相近,而生理现象与PFS004更相似.这两株菌株的成功分离可能有助于毛竹中Meira真菌菌丝体形成和功能的进一步研究.

  4. 桉树焦枯病菌(Calonectria pseudoreteaudii)生物学特性测定%Biological characteristics of Calonectria pseudoreteaudii associated with Cylindrocladium leaf blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈全助; 陈慧洁; 郭文硕; 叶小真; 沈金清

    2014-01-01

    丽赤壳属多数种是桉树焦枯病( Cylindrocladium leaf blight)重要致病菌,掌握病原菌生物学特性有助于从病原角度了解病害发生发展,科学指导防治。对桉树焦枯病致病菌株Calonectria pseudoreteaudii生物学特性进行测定。结果表明:该菌株菌丝生长以燕麦片琼脂培养基生长最快,最适温度为24-26℃,最适pH值为7.0,而光照条件不影响菌丝生长;菌株产孢最适温度为25℃,最适pH值为6.0,以光照、PDA培养基产孢量较高;分生孢子萌发与相对湿度成正相关,最适温度为28℃,最适pH值为6.0,黑暗有助于孢子萌发。%Absrt act:Calonectria spp., particularly in their Cylindrocladium anamorph form, are well-known pathogens associated with Cylin-drocladium leaf blight.For the purpose of understanding the biological characteristics of Ca.pseudoreteaudii YA5j2 and guiding how to control this disease, biological characteristics of this isolate were determined.The optimal conditions for mycelium growth were oatmeal agar medium with pH 7.0 cultivated at 24-26℃, and illuminance had no significant effect on hyphae growth.The suitable conditions for spore production were potato dextrose agar medium with pH 6.0 cultivated at 25℃in the light.Conidium germination had a positive correlation with relative humidity, and conidium under the circumstance with high humidity, pH 6.0, temperature at 28 ℃, and without illumination contributed to germination.

  5. DNA分子标记技术在真菌系统学研究中的应用及影响%DNA molecular marker techniques: application to and influence on fungal systematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余知和; 曾昭清

    2013-01-01

    investigation of molecular markers technique influences the fields such as fungal species concept recognition, the connection of teleomorph and anamorph, and molecular fungal ecology, etc.

  6. The diversity of aquatic Hyphomycetes in South America A diversidade dos Hyphomycetes aquáticos nas águas continentais da América do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema Helena Schoenlein-Crusius

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic Hyphomycetes, also named Ingoldian or freshwater fungi, constitute a group of anamorphic fungi that are typically aquatic, producing tetraradiate, sigmoid or spherical conidia on submerged plant debris (leaf litter, petioles, bark, etc.. Mainly occurring in lotic systems, these fungi are considered to be one of the most active groups of organisms in the decomposition of leaf litter, and play a crucial role in the trophic chain. In South America, aquatic Hyphomycetes are mentioned for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela, totalizing the report of about 90 species. Almost all studies are taxonomical, some with proper drawings and complete descriptions, but no keys have been provided yet, nor there is a specific culture collection for preserved strains. The published papers are still sporadic and dispersed, emphasizing a great need to improve the knowledge of the diversity of South American aquatic Hyphomycetes. The present review contents the check list of reported species until now, and has the aim to encourage the research concerned with aquatic Hyphomycetes in non explored regions of the continent.Os Hyphomycetes aquáticos, também denominados fungos "Ingoldeanos", constituem grupo de fungos anamórficos tipicamente aquáticos, que produzem conídios tetrarradiados, sigmóides ou esféricos sobre substratos vegetais submersos (folhedo, pecíolos, cortiça, etc.. Ocorrendo principalmente em sistemas lóticos, estes fungos são considerados como um dos grupos de organismos mais ativos na decomposição de folhedo, assumindo papel crucial na cadeia trófica. Na América do Sul os Hyphomycetes aquáticos são mencionados para a Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Equador, Peru e Venezuela, totalizando a citação de aproximadamente 90 espécies. Quase todos os estudos são taxonômicos, com ilustrações adequadas e descrições completas, porém ainda não foram elaboradas chaves sistemáticas ou coleções de culturas de linhagens

  7. Coregulated expression of loline alkaloid-biosynthesis genes in Neotyphodium uncinatum cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Xiu; Stromberg, Arnold J; Spiering, Martin J; Schardl, Christopher L

    2009-08-01

    Epichloë endophytes (holomorphic Epichloë spp. and anamorphic Neotyphodium spp.) are systemic, often heritable symbionts of cool-season grasses (subfamily Pooideae). Many epichloae provide protection to their hosts by producing anti-insect compounds. Among these are the loline alkaloids (LA), which are toxic and deterrent to a broad range of herbivorous insects but not to mammalian herbivores. LOL, a gene cluster containing nine genes, is associated with LA biosynthesis. We investigated coordinate regulation between LOL-gene expression and LA production in minimal medium (MM) cultures of Neotyphodium uncinatum. Expression of all LOL genes significantly fit temporal quadratic patterns during LA production. LOL-gene expression started before LA were detectable, and increased while LA accumulated. The highest gene expression level was reached at close to the time of most rapid LA accumulation, and gene expression declined to a very low level as amounts of LA plateaued. Temporal expression profiles of the nine LOL genes were tightly correlated with each other, but not as tightly correlated with proC and metE (genes for biosynthesis of precursor amino acids). Furthermore, the start days and peak days of expression significantly correlated with the order of the LOL-cluster genes in the genome. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated three pairs of genes-lolA and lolC, lolO and lolD, and lolT and lolE-expression of which was especially tightly correlated. Of these, lolA and lolC tended to be expressed early, and lolT and lolE tended to be expressed late, in keeping with the putative roles of the respective gene products in the LA-biosynthesis pathway. Several common transcriptional binding sites were discovered in the LOL upstream regions. However, low expression of P(lolC2)uidA and P(lolA2)uidA in N. uncinatum transformants suggested induced expression of LOL genes might be subject to position effect at the LOL locus. PMID:19366635

  8. Contribución a la identificación de esporas del Reino Fungi en la atmósfera de La Plata, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela S. Nitiu

    2010-12-01

    belonging to the Phylum Zygomycota, Basidiomycota and Ascomycota and their anamorphs, assigned to generic level. Characters that define such associations are: Absidia Group, hyaline amerospores; Cortinarius Group, pigmented amerospores; Didymella Group, hyalines or slightly colored didymospores; Didymosphaeria Group, pigmented didymospores and didymoconidia; Leptosphaeria Group, hyaline to pigmented phragmospores and Helminthosporium Group, hyaline to pigmented distoseptated phragmoconidia. The aim of this work is to give a tool to facilitate the task of data processing by providing new qualitative elements to prior classifications and contributing to the complex problem of identification of fungal spores presents in atmosphere.

  9. Corallomycetella属及以C.jatrophae为模式建立新属Corallonectria(丛赤壳科,肉座菌目)%Revision of the genus Corallomycetella with Corallonectria gen.nov.for C.jatrophae (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.S.HERRERA; A.Y.ROSSMAN; G.J.SAMUELS; Christian LECHAT; P.CHAVERRI

    2013-01-01

    The genus Corallomycetella (Ascomycota,Sordariomycetes,Hypocreales,Nectriaceae) has been defined to include red nectrioid fungi associated with rhizomorphs in nature and culture.With the recent collection of an unusual specimen having striated ascospores,the genus was re-examined using this and previously obtained cultures.A multilocus tree was constructed based on three loci (ITS,mcm7,β-tubulin) to determine phylogenetic relationships.Our results indicate that Corallomycetella repens sensu lato forms two clades associated with biogeography.Corallomycetella repens sensu stricto is restricted to specimens from Asia while C.elegans is resurrected for specimens from Africa and America.Minute striations in the ascospores are an overlooked character in species of Corallomycetella.Corallomycetellajatrophae is related to Neonectria sensu lato and unrelated to C.repens and C.elegans; thus,a new genus,Corallonectria,is described to accommodate this species.Corallonectria is characterized by furfuraceous perithecia and synnematous fusarium-like anamorph.%对Corallomycetella属的概念进行了阐述,该属包括子实体为红色、在自然和培养条件下产生菌索的丛赤壳类真菌.根据对近期采集的标本的观察和多基因系统树分析的结果,广义的Corallomycetella repens形成2个分支,它们与生物地理因素相关联.狭义的Corallomycetella repens限于来自亚洲的标本,而C.elegans来自非洲和美洲.Corallomycetella属成熟的子囊孢子表面具有纤细条纹,此特征过去曾被忽略,C.jatrophae与广义的Neonectria属关系接近,而与C.repens和C.elegans关系较远;因而建立新属Corallonectria,其子囊壳表面细粉状,无性型为束丝结构并与镰孢菌相似.

  10. 红螯光壳螯虾白斑综合症血液病理学研究%HAEMOLYMPH PATHOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON WHITE SPOT SYNDROME (WSS) OF CHERAX QUADRICARINATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹丽; 孙婷; 左迪; 王兰梅; 赵云龙

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) as the pathogenic agent caused acute and lethal infect ion of shrimp, resulting in mass economic losses to shrimp aquaculture industry all around the world especially in China. In recent years, the cultivation of redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) is developing, and the disease of C. quadricarinatus is one of the major factors in its culture and even causes redclaw crayfish to die. The viral disease was found in poly-culture of redclaw crayfish with Penaeus vannamei. To explore the pathogenic mechanism of C. quadricarinatus infected by WSSV (white spot syndrome virus), the pathological research in haemolymph on WSS of C. quadricarinatus infected by WSSV artificially was studied by means of Wright-Geimsa staining and electron microscope techniques. The results indicated that total haemocyte count in diseased shrimps was lower heavily than that in healthy shrimps (P0.05) after treated with WSSV-infected. The main micro-pathological changes of haemocyte showed that there was a decreasing hemocytes in haemolymph smear from diseased shrimps, in which the number of AH was lower heavily than that in healthy shrimps and the number of large granule hemocyte was higher than that in healthy shrimps. Synchronously broken and disintegrated cells could often be seen in the haemolymph smear, and contractive nucleus and anamor-phic nuclear membrane in hyaline hemocyte, bubbles in denaturalized small granule hemocyte, pyknosis nucleus and bulgy cells in large granule hemocyte. There was a typical haemolysis in danger experimental shrimp. The ultra-micro-pathological changes showed that there were necrotic changes in every kind of haemocytes. Golgi apparatus was transmutative, mitochondria was damaged and incomplete in structure; Parts of nuclear membrane were anamorphic and parts of nucleus were contractive, while nucleus heterochromatinization in blood cells; Organelle and chromatin were dissolved, kytoplasm was dropsical in danger

  11. A case of apple moldy-core disease caused by Discostroma fuscellum in Gansu Province%甘肃省一例苹果霉心病病原鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白滨; 文朝慧; 何苏琴

    2012-01-01

    [目的]对甘肃省天水市苹果霉心病病果中分离到的真菌进行病原鉴定.[方法]通过Koch's法则证病,采用形态学和分子生物学方法对病菌进行种类鉴定.[结果]从甘肃省天水市苹果霉心病病果中分离得到一株淡灰褐色真菌,用该菌的分生孢子悬浮液接种苹果果实,可引起与自然发病相同的苹果霉心病症状.该菌的分生孢子具有不同的形态:产生于分生孢子盘上的分生孢子具3个隔膜,极少数4-5个隔膜,纺锤形或长椭圆形,淡褐色至褐色,基细胞色稍淡,附属丝缺,孢子大小为(12.95-20.42) μm×(4.98-7.97) μm[av.(16.75±1.89) μm×(6.47±0.86) μm];产生于丝状分生孢子梗及分生孢子堆上的分生孢子具2-9个隔膜,纺锤形、棒状或蠕虫状,初始色淡,渐呈褐色,(12.45-59.76) μm×(4.98-11.21) μm [av.(30.10±11.16) μm×(7.26±l.28) μm].[结论]经形态学和分子生物学鉴定(GenBank登录号JF320818),将该病菌鉴定为Discostroma fuscellum (Berk.&Broome)Huhndorf.这是Discostroma fuscellum引起苹果霉心病在我国的首次报道.%[Objective] Identification of the pathogen of moldy-core disease of apple in Gansu Province.[Methods] The pathogenicity of fungal isolate was confirmed by Koch's rule, and identification of the pathogen was performed according to anamorphic morphological characteristics and ITS rDNA sequence analysis result.[Results] A fungus isolated from moldy-core disease of apple in Tianshui County, Gansu Province, in January 2009.The fungus caused the same symptom compared to the natural mouldy-core disease while injected inoculation through the calyx tube of apple fruits.The fungus produced conidia with different morphological types: Conidia formed on acervuli (black conidiomata developed on mycelial mat in potato sucrose liquid medium after cultured 7 months at 3 ℃-7 ℃), (12.95 -20.42) μm× (4.98-7.97)μm [av.(16.75±1.89) um×(6.47±0.86) μm], 3 septa, rarely 4-5 septa, fusiform or

  12. Disease symptoms and their frequency of occurrence in sycamores (Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Rymanów Forest Unit stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kowalski

    2012-12-01

    local unhealed cankers and widespread bark cankers, sometimes taking the form of a sector reaching the part near the pith, and greyish - green or greenish - brown wood discolorations in the form of numerous stains, especially in the trunk periphery part. On the trunks of 184 (14.2% sycamores, perithecia of Nectria coccinea were present. They formed in the area of cankers on bark and exposed wood alike. Fruiting bodies of Nectria cinnabarina, Eutypa acharii, Melanomma pulvis-pyrius, conidiomata of Cytospora ambiens, Aposphaeria cf. pulviscula and conidiomata of Stegonsporium pyriforme occurred sporadically. From wood, the following were isolated predominantly: Basidiomycetes sp. 1, Chalara sp. 1, Cadophora fastigiata, Nectria cinnabarina and Cytospora ambiens. Chalara sp.1, with its morphological features, best matched the anamorph of Ceratocystis coerulescens sensu lato.

  13. A Study on Fungal Diversity in Tobacco Rhizosphere Soil in Shandong Province%山东省烟草根际土壤真菌多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 吕国忠; 孙晓东; 慕东艳; 赵志慧; 王凤龙

    2012-01-01

    In order six areas of tobacco to explore the relationship of tobacco rhizosphere soil fungi and diseases, we selected fields in Shandong province to conduct the investigation of rhizosphere soil fungal diversity. In 2010 summer, 122 soil samples were collected and investigated by means of soil dilution plate method, totally 536 fungal isolates were obtained. From them, 79 fungal species belonging to 22 genera were morphologically identified, including 6 species belonging to 4 genera of Zygomycota, 1 species belonging to one genus of Ascomycota, and 72 species belonging to 17 genera of anamorphic fungi. The fungal population analysis indicates that Penicillium, Trichoderma, Aspergillus and Fusarium were the dom- inant fungal groups in tobacco-growing soil, which account for 22.39%, 13.22%, 12.69% and 9.88% respectively. The fungal diversities in tobacco rhizosphere soil in Shandong province were significantly different in the six soil-sampling regions. Zhucheng was the highest in Shannon diversity index (H' = 2.066 6), Pielou evenness index ( J = 0. 689 8) and the highest in Margalef richness index ( R = 3.730 1). It is concluded that fungi diversity is plentiful in tobacco rhizospheric soil and the mycobiota are different in various tobacco growing areas. More fungal species in tobacco rhizosphere soil are of potential significance in biological control of tobacco soil-borne diseases.%为了有助于研究烟草根际土壤真菌与根茎病害发生程度的相互关系,文中对采自山东省6个地区的122份烟草根际土壤样品进行了真菌的分离和培养,采用形态学方法进行鉴定,并分析了菌群的多样性组成。从山东烟草根际土壤中分离和鉴定出真菌22属79种,其中接合菌门4属6种,子囊菌门1属1种,无性型真菌17属72种。优势真菌种群为青霉属(Penieillium)、木霉属(Trichoderma)、镰孢菌属(Fusarium)和曲霉属(Aspergillus),所占分离真菌

  14. Identification and characterization of sesame southern blight pathogen%芝麻白绢病病原菌的分离鉴定及其生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅; 黄思良; 何朋朋; 牛小瑞; 黎起秦

    2013-01-01

    为了明确芝麻白绢病的病原菌,采用常规组织分离法分离病原菌,依据柯赫法则、形态特征及核糖体基因内转录间隔区(rDNA-ITS)序列进行鉴定,同时检测其部分生物学特性.结果表明:引起芝麻白绢病的病原菌为罗氏阿太菌Athelia rolfsii(无性世代:齐整小核菌Sclerotium rolfsii);该菌适宜生长温度为22 ~ 34C,最适生长温度为31℃;在pH4.0 ~ 9.0范围内均可生长,以pH6.5 ~ 7.0生长最好,表明微酸性至中性环境最有利于菌体生长;该菌虽能利用供试的13种碳源和8种氮源进行营养生长,但在以可溶性淀粉、蔗糖、葡萄糖、麦芽糖、L-阿拉伯糖和菊糖分别作为唯一碳源并配以硝酸盐为氮源的生长条件下不产生菌核,而在以葡萄糖为碳源并配以铵盐为氮源的生长条件下可产生菌核.与合成培养基相比,A.rolfsii在天然培养基上生长更好,可形成更多、更大的菌核.%To identify and characterize the pathogen causing sesame southern blight, the pathogen was isolated and its pathogenicity to sesame plants was confirmed based on Koch's postulates. Pathogen identification was carried out based on morphological characteristics and ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer ( rDNA - ITS) sequences. Partial biological characteristics of the pathogen were tested in vitro. The pathogen causing sesame southern blight was identified as Athelia rolfsii (anamorph: Sclerotium rolfsii). The temperatures suitable for its growth were 22 to 34℃ with the optimum temperature at 31℃. A. rolfsii grew well at a pH range of 4.0 to 9. 0 with the optimum pH at 6. 5 to 7. 0, indicating that slight acidic to neutral environment was more suitable for vegetative growth of the pathogen. The pathogen could utilize all of the 13 tested carbon sources for its vegetative growth. However, no sclerotia were developed on the media containing each of the seven substances (soluble starch, saccharose, glucose, maltose

  15. Primer reporte de susceptibilidad del clon de caucho natural FX-3864 a Microcyclus ulei en la altillanura colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibonne Aidee García

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available First report of susceptibility of natural rubber clone FX-3864 a Microcyclus ulei en la altillanuera colombiana ResumenEl mal suramericano de las hojas (SALB, enfermedad endémica del caucho (Hevea brasiliensis, es causado por Microcyclus ulei (forma imperfecta Fusicladium macrosporum y constituye el principal limitante del cultivo en América, área donde el microorganismo patógeno es endémico. En forma semejante al de otros cultivos agrícolas, el manejo de esta enfermedad está condicionado a la disponibilidad de resistencia genética en el hospedero. En razón de su productividad y condición de resistencia genética, el clon FX 3864 ha sido ampliamente plantado en zonas con diferente potencialidad epidémica a la incidencia del SALB en Colombia, particularmente las denominadas de “no escape” a la enfermedad. Durante el 2010, plantaciones con el clon FX 3864 en fase productiva presentaron síntomas de SALB en zonas de escape ubicadas en la altillanura colombiana (departamento del Meta. En parcelas trampa ubicadas en áreas aledañas a los cultivos se estableció que la severidad promedio de la enfermedad alcanzó niveles de 5,78% en este clon. Verificada la causalidad de la enfermedad mediante observaciones al microscopio se procedió a confirmar el origen del material sobre el cual se desarrollaban las lesiones, utilizando marcadores moleculares (4 microsatélites específicos. Los resultados de la prueba permitieron confirmar la susceptibilidad del hasta hace poco resistente clon FX 3864 al SALB en Colombia. Se sugiere tomar en consideración la nueva condición de este clon y, en concordancia, reorientar los programas de fomento del cultivo advirtiendo a los agricultores sobre los riesgos potenciales de ocurrencia de la enfermedad en las nuevas áreas programadas. Palabras clave: SALB, Hevea brasiliensis, Fusicladium macrosporum, cultivo de caucho. AbstractSouth American Leaf Blight (SALB, caused by Microcyclus ulei (anamorph

  16. EFECTO DE BORDE SOBRE EL PROCESO DE DESCOMPOSICIÓN DE HOJARASCA EN BOSQUE NUBLADO Edge Effect on the Decomposition Process of Leaf Litter in Cloud Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO ROMERO-TORRES

    2011-08-01

    effect on leaf litter decomposition and its control factors, two fragments of cloud forest in the southwest region of the Bogotá Savannah were selected. Within each, two 64 m long transects were laid out bearing east and west from edge to center respectively, a leaf litter decomposition experiment of a 90 to 180 day duration was set up at seven distances measured from the starting point of each transect. The percentage of leaf litter moisture and decomposition, vegetation density, anamorphic fungi density and carbon:nitrogen ratio were estimated at each point. The maximum distance of the edge effect on the decomposition was determined, and the interaction between orientation, distance and the regulating factors of the decomposition process were ascertained. The results established an effect of the cardinal orientation of the edge on the decomposition and its regulating factors. Marked edge effects on leaf litter moisture extending up to 7 m and up to 30 m on vegetation density were displayedin Eastern border areas. In forest areas, decomposition was regulated by leaf litter moisture and its C:N ratio. The limited penetration of edge effect suggests minor effects regarding nutrient cycles and provides justification and additional value to the use of small fragments.

  17. Insect pathogens as biological control agents: Back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, L A; Grzywacz, D; Shapiro-Ilan, D I; Frutos, R; Brownbridge, M; Goettel, M S

    2015-11-01

    combine the advantages of chemical pesticides and MCAs: they are fast acting, easy to produce at a relatively low cost, easy to formulate, have a long shelf life and allow delivery using conventional application equipment and systemics (i.e. in transgenic plants). Unlike broad spectrum chemical pesticides, B. thuringiensis toxins are selective and negative environmental impact is very limited. Of the several commercially produced MCAs, B. thuringiensis (Bt) has more than 50% of market share. Extensive research, particularly on the molecular mode of action of Bt toxins, has been conducted over the past two decades. The Bt genes used in insect-resistant transgenic crops belong to the Cry and vegetative insecticidal protein families of toxins. Bt has been highly efficacious in pest management of corn and cotton, drastically reducing the amount of broad spectrum chemical insecticides used while being safe for consumers and non-target organisms. Despite successes, the adoption of Bt crops has not been without controversy. Although there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding their detrimental effects, this controversy has created the widespread perception in some quarters that Bt crops are dangerous for the environment. In addition to discovery of more efficacious isolates and toxins, an increase in the use of Bt products and transgenes will rely on innovations in formulation, better delivery systems and ultimately, wider public acceptance of transgenic plants expressing insect-specific Bt toxins. Fungi are ubiquitous natural entomopathogens that often cause epizootics in host insects and possess many desirable traits that favor their development as MCAs. Presently, commercialized microbial pesticides based on entomopathogenic fungi largely occupy niche markets. A variety of molecular tools and technologies have recently allowed reclassification of numerous species based on phylogeny, as well as matching anamorphs (asexual forms) and teleomorphs (sexual forms) of several

  18. High molecular diversity of the fungus Guignardia citricarpa and Guignardia mangiferae and new primers for the diagnosis of the citrus black spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyelle Stringari

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available RAPD markers were used to investigate the distribution of genetic variability among a group of Guignardia citricarpa, G. mangiferae, and Phyllosticta spinarum isolates obtained from several hosts in Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Costa Rica, Thailand, Japan, United States and South Africa. Pathogenic isolates G. citricarpa Kiely (anamorph form P. citricarpa McAlp Van Der Aa are the etiological agent of the Citrus Black Spot (CBS, a disease that affects several citric plants and causes substantial injuries to the appearance of their fruits, thus preventing their export. Several previous studies have demonstrated the existence of an endophytic species with high morphological similarity to the causal agent of CBS that could remain latent in the same hosts. Consequently, the identification of the plants and fruits free from the causal agent of the disease is severely hampered. The RAPD analysis showed a clear discrimination among the pathogenic isolates of G. citricarpa and endophytic isolates (G. mangiferae and P. spinarum. In addition, a Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCO based on a matrix of genetic similarity estimated by the RAPD markers showed four clusters, irrespective of their host or geographical origin. An Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA indicated that 62.8% of the genetic variation was found between the populations (G. citricarpa, G. mangiferae, P. spinarum and Phyllosticta sp.. Substantial variation was found in the populations (37.2%. Exclusive RAPD markers of isolates of G. citricarpa were cloned, sequenced and used to obtain SCARS (Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions, which allowed the development of new specific primers for the identification of G. citricarpa PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis using a pair of primers specific to pathogenic isolates corroborating the groupings obtained by the RAPD markers, underscoring its efficiency in the identification of the causal agent of CBS.Marcadores de RAPD foram utilizados para

  19. Insect pathogens as biological control agents: Back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, L A; Grzywacz, D; Shapiro-Ilan, D I; Frutos, R; Brownbridge, M; Goettel, M S

    2015-11-01

    combine the advantages of chemical pesticides and MCAs: they are fast acting, easy to produce at a relatively low cost, easy to formulate, have a long shelf life and allow delivery using conventional application equipment and systemics (i.e. in transgenic plants). Unlike broad spectrum chemical pesticides, B. thuringiensis toxins are selective and negative environmental impact is very limited. Of the several commercially produced MCAs, B. thuringiensis (Bt) has more than 50% of market share. Extensive research, particularly on the molecular mode of action of Bt toxins, has been conducted over the past two decades. The Bt genes used in insect-resistant transgenic crops belong to the Cry and vegetative insecticidal protein families of toxins. Bt has been highly efficacious in pest management of corn and cotton, drastically reducing the amount of broad spectrum chemical insecticides used while being safe for consumers and non-target organisms. Despite successes, the adoption of Bt crops has not been without controversy. Although there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding their detrimental effects, this controversy has created the widespread perception in some quarters that Bt crops are dangerous for the environment. In addition to discovery of more efficacious isolates and toxins, an increase in the use of Bt products and transgenes will rely on innovations in formulation, better delivery systems and ultimately, wider public acceptance of transgenic plants expressing insect-specific Bt toxins. Fungi are ubiquitous natural entomopathogens that often cause epizootics in host insects and possess many desirable traits that favor their development as MCAs. Presently, commercialized microbial pesticides based on entomopathogenic fungi largely occupy niche markets. A variety of molecular tools and technologies have recently allowed reclassification of numerous species based on phylogeny, as well as matching anamorphs (asexual forms) and teleomorphs (sexual forms) of several

  20. Study on the hemodynamic changes in benign and malignant breast tumors by ultrasound contrast quantitative analysis%超声造影定量分析对乳腺良恶性肿瘤血流灌注异质性的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖嘉; 文戈; 何洁

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the differences in histological morphology and hemodynamics between benign and malignant tumor, as well as differences between the different perfusional regions in tumors of the same type. Methods Thirty cases with malignant breast carcinoma and 30 cases with fibroadenoma were inspected by contrast enhanced ultrasound with time-intensity quantitive analysis. Perfusion index like peak intensity(PI), area under the curve(AUC), time to peak(TTP) and wash-out time (WOT) were collected both inside and at the margin of focus. The ultrastructures of new microvessesl were observed routinely with microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Results The curve of malignant tumor group was characterized as ascend rapidly and drop slowly while the benign group presented as ascend slowly and drop rapidly. The AUC and WOT of malignant tumor group were significantly higher than that of benign group,while the PI and TTP had no statistical difference. In malignant tumor group,PI, AUC and WOT of the margin of focus were significantly higher than that of inside region of focus,while TTP was the opposite. However,there was no statistical differences between the perfusion parameter inside and outside of focus in benign group. The ultrastructures of newly built blood vessels in malignant group had strong ability to split,which was different from normal endothelium cells but was similar to other tumor foci. The margin of foci were characterized with dilatating and distorting vessels,and the center of the foci were occupied by narrow,occlusive new vessels and contracted anamorphic endothelium cells and pericytes. Rich microvessel areas located in the margin of foci. Conclusions The perfusion pattern,modality of time-intensity curve, mean perfusion parameter and variance of regional perfusion parameters are valuable diagnostic basis in discriminating benign and malignant breast tumor. The density,modality,distribution,structure and function of new microvessels in

  1. 虫草属EST-SSR标记系统的建立研究%Study of EST-SSR marker system of Cordyceps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管俊娇; 虞泓; 解云峰; 左世梅; 马荣锋; 曾文波

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish the EST-SSR marker system for Cordyceps by using ESTs of C. Bassiana and C. mUitaris. Method; The ESTs of Cordyceps were downloaded from the public database of NCBI, and the redundant ESTs with low quality were removed. The EST-SSR primers were designed by Sequece Seiner 1.2. And the primers were screened through PAGE-Electrophoresis. Result; The 4 556 non-redundant ESTs which from C. Bassiana with total length of 2 953 173 bp were selected. 718 EST-SSRs distributed in 616 ESTs were totally screened out, accounting for 15. 8%of the non-redundant ESTs. It was discovered that the average distance of EST-SSSR was 1/4 0% bp in EST-SSRs distribution of C. Bassiana. Trinucleotide repeats were the most abundant types with 419 repeated sequences. Regarding to C. Militaris, totally 1 363 non-redundant ESTs were acquired, from which 1 117 EST-SSRs were screened, and rate of SSR sites in ESTs was 81. 95%. The leading motif of SSR was nucleotide A. The 50 pairs of EST-SSR primers were designed according to the ESTs of C. Bassiana,and preliminary test showed the 34 pairs of primers amplified clear fragments,accounting for 68% of all primers. Furthermore, the 39 of the 40 pairs of primers from the ESTs of C. Militaris were found to be amplified as the clear fragments, accounting for 97. 5%. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that different anamorph of Cordyceps spieces were divided into four branches. Conclusion: The EST-SSR of Cordyceps had comparably higher utility value. The EST-SSR markers developed from ESTs of C. Bassiana and C. Militaris had well transferability in Cordyceps. And it was suggested that the EST-SSR markers should be an easy and effective way to assay molecular genetic structure of Cordyceps.%目的:通过球孢虫草、蛹虫草EST设计EST-SSR引物,建立虫草属EST-SSR标记系统.方法:从NCBI公共数据库下载获得虫草EST,利用Sequece Seiners 1.2软件去除冗余序列并设计引物,进行PAGE电泳.结果:通过去

  2. A baseline analysis of the distribution, host-range, and severity of the rust Puccinia Psidii in the Hawaiian islands, 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    westward. Although possibly present earlier, P. psidii was found in California in November 2005 in a nursery in San Diego County on Myrtus communis and documented by a report in a nursery newsletter (Mellano 2006). Puccinia psidii was first found in Hawai`i on a young plant of `ōhi`a (Metrosideros polymorpha) in April 2005, in a nursery on the island of O`ahu (Killgore and Heu 2005; Uchida et al. 2006). The fungus subsequently spread to most islands of the Hawaiian chain, infecting `ōhi`a and other myrtaceous hosts (Hauff 2006, Anderson et al. 2007). P. psidii was first found in Japan in May 2007 on cultivated `ōhi`a (Kawanishi et al. 2009). Most recently, a rust identified as Uredo rangelii was discovered in April 2010 in New South Wales, Australia (Carnegie et al. 2010). This rust is closely related to Puccinia psidii and is part of the guava rust complex described by Simpson et al. (2006). Although treated as a separate species by Simpson et al. (2006), many authors now consider U. rangelii a synonym for U. psidii, which is the anamorph (asexual stage) of P. psidii, and therefore, the same species (Glen et al. 2007, Carnegie et al. 2010). Because of the large diversity of native Myrtaceae present in Australia, the number of Myrtaceae hosts attacked by species of the guava rust complex will likely grow now that U. rangelii has arrived and is spreading in the country. As of this writing (June 2011), 94 species of Myrtaceae have been identified as hosts of U. rangelii in the states of New South Wales and Queensland. Damage is severe on nearly one-third of the species affected, and 16 of these species are threatened or endangered native species (Secretary of Australia, May 2011). The presence of Puccinia psidii in Hawai`i is particularly alarming for at least two reasons: (1) M. polymorpha is the dominant overstory tree of the native forest, and (2) P. psidii is now established in the Pacific region, where numerous Myrtaceae species are native. Native ecosystems in Hawai

  3. Fungai diversity in rhizosphere soil of medicinal plants in Heilongjiang Province%黑龙江省药用植物根际土壤真菌多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慕东艳; 吕国忠; 孙晓东; 王娜; 赵志慧

    2013-01-01

    Heilongjiang Province is one of the major medicinal plant-growing areas in China. In order to understand the population structure and distribution characteristics of fungal species in rhizosphere soil of cultivated medicinal plants, the authors investigated and collected 220 rhizosphere soil samples in the fields of 14 medicinal plants grown in Yichun, Tieli, Suihua, Harbin, Mudanjiang and Jiamusi regions of Heilongjiang Province during July to October, 2010. The mainly investigated medicinal plants included Acanthopanax senticosus, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Arctium lappa, Belamcanda chinensis, Bupleurum chinense, Carthamus tinctorius, Codonopsis pilosula, Dioscorea nipponica, Fritillaria ussuriensis, Leonurusa artemisia, Platycodon grandiflorus, Saposhnikovia divaricata, Schisandra chinensis, and Scutellaria baicalensis. In this paper, we took the traditional morphological methods to identify fungal species. This study is aimed at the following three aspects: to investigate the detailed species and distribution pattern of sporulating fungi in rhizosphere soil of cultivated medicinal plants in six regions of Heilongjiang Province, to analyze the fungal diversity in rhizosphere soil of different medicinal plants, to collect potentially economic fungal resources, and to understand ecological characteristics of rhizosphere soil fungi of medicinal plants in the studied areas. After fungal isolation by means of soil dilution plate and soil particle plate and culture on standard media, totally 1016 fungal isolates were obtained. Based on colony and spore production, 86 fungal species belonging to 35 genera were morphologically identified, including ten species in seven genera of Zygomycetes (7. 78% ) , two species in one genus of Ascomycetes (0. 69% ) , and 74 species in 27 genera of anamorphic fungi (70. 76% ) , the left 20. 77% of all isolates were sterile on media. The results indicated that plentiful fungal diversity was present in the cultivated medicinal plant