WorldWideScience

Sample records for anamorphs

  1. The Widescreen Anamorphic Lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Steven; Fossati, Giovanna; van den Oever, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the transformative impact of anamorphic widescreen technology on film aesthetics, in two parts: first, I discuss how the affordances of early anamorphic widescreen technology (primarily CinemaScope) played a key role in standardizing widescreen formats in the Hollywood film

  2. The anamorphic universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J., E-mail: aijjas@princeton.edu, E-mail: steinh@princeton.edu [Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We introduce ''anamorphic'' cosmology, an approach for explaining the smoothness and flatness of the universe on large scales and the generation of a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations. The defining feature is a smoothing phase that acts like a contracting universe based on some Weyl frame-invariant criteria and an expanding universe based on other frame-invariant criteria. An advantage of the contracting aspects is that it is possible to avoid the multiverse and measure problems that arise in inflationary models. Unlike ekpyrotic models, anamorphic models can be constructed using only a single field and can generate a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of tensor perturbations. Anamorphic models also differ from pre-big bang and matter bounce models that do not explain the smoothness. We present some examples of cosmological models that incorporate an anamorphic smoothing phase.

  3. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of anamorphic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid Lorca, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Anamorphic fungi (those reproducing asexually) are a big part of kingdom Fungi. Most of them occur as saprobes in nature, but numerous species are pathogenic to plants and animals including man. With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of the diversity and distribution of anamorphic fungi, we performed a phenotypic and molecular characterization of environmental and clinical isolates of these fungi. Based on a polyphasic taxonomy approach which included morphology, physiology and DNA seq...

  4. Cyclic completion of the anamorphic universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijjas, Anna

    2018-04-01

    Cyclic models of the universe have the advantage of avoiding initial conditions problems related to postulating any sort of beginning in time. To date, the best known viable examples of cyclic models have been ekpyrotic. In this paper, we show that the recently proposed anamorphic scenario can also be made cyclic. The key to the cyclic completion is a classically stable, non-singular bounce. Remarkably, even though the bounce construction was originally developed to connect a period of contraction with a period of expansion both described by Einstein gravity, we show here that it can naturally be modified to connect an ordinary contracting phase described by Einstein gravity with a phase of anamorphic smoothing. The paper will present the basic principles and steps in constructing cyclic anamorphic models.

  5. Clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes in Hordeum germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes, non-choke inducing endosymbiotic fungi of the genus Neotyphodium that systemically infect grasses, in eighteen Hordeum species from the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System was examined using light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Seventeen plant inventory accessions...

  6. New genera in the Calosphaeriales: Togniniella and its anamorph Phaeocrella, and Calosphaeriophora as anamorph of Calosphaeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Réblová, M.; Mostert, L.; Gams, W.; Crous, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    During a survey of perithecial ascomycetes in New Zealand, two collections of a Togninia-like fungus were made on decayed wood. In culture, colonies produced a Phaeoacremonium-like anamorph. In order to reveal the phylogenetic relationships of the unknown fungus and its affinity to Togninia and

  7. First report of clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes in hordeum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. Wilson; S.L. Clement; W.J. Kaiser; D.G. Lester

    1991-01-01

    Clavicipitaceous endophytes systemically infect many grass species and produce alkaloids that confer resistance to insects (2) and toxicity to mammals (1). The mutualistic anamorphic forms (e.g., Acremonium spp.) do not sporulate or cause symptoms, but they produce distinctive mycelium in their hosts. The incidence of anamorphic endophytes in a portion of the U.S....

  8. Anamorphs of the Bolbitiaceae (Basidiomycota, Agaricales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Grit; Weiss, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We describe and illustrate thallic conidiogenesis in 14 species of the Bolbitiaceae sensu Singer studied in culture. Conidiogenesis of 12 species is shown for the first time. Bolbitius vitellinus and the investigated species of Conocybe (C. albipes, C. appendiculata, C. magnicapitata, C. semiglobata, C. subovalis, C. subpubescens, C. sulcatipes and C. teneroides) possessed a similar mode of conidiogenesis. Species of both genera formed mostly coiled conidiogenous hyphae arising sympodially from differentiated conidiophores. The anamorphs of the Agrocybe species were not uniform and predominantly differed from those of Conocybe and Bolbitius. The conidia of Agrocybe dura, A. firma and A. praecox developed by the simple fragmentation of normally branched hyphae. Sympodially proliferating conidiophores occurred in Agrocybe arvalis and A. aegerita. Secretory cells of different size and shape were found in Agrocybe and in Conocybe. Our results corroborate a close phylogenetic relationship between Bolbitius and Conocybe as well as the polyphyly of the Bolbitiaceae as currently treated, which is consistent with recent molecular phylogenetic studies. Consequently we emend the family concept based on anamorphic characters.

  9. Optical proximity correction for anamorphic extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Chris; Lam, Michael; Raghunathan, Ananthan; Jiang, Fan; Fenger, Germain; Adam, Kostas

    2017-10-01

    The change from isomorphic to anamorphic optics in high numerical aperture (NA) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) scanners necessitates changes to the mask data preparation flow. The required changes for each step in the mask tape out process are discussed, with a focus on optical proximity correction (OPC). When necessary, solutions to new problems are demonstrated, and verified by rigorous simulation. Additions to the OPC model include accounting for anamorphic effects in the optics, mask electromagnetics, and mask manufacturing. The correction algorithm is updated to include awareness of anamorphic mask geometry for mask rule checking (MRC). OPC verification through process window conditions is enhanced to test different wafer scale mask error ranges in the horizontal and vertical directions. This work will show that existing models and methods can be updated to support anamorphic optics without major changes. Also, the larger mask size in the Y direction can result in better model accuracy, easier OPC convergence, and designs which are more tolerant to mask errors.

  10. Cordyceps bassiana and production of stromata in vitro showing Beauveria anamorph in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Cordyceps species was found with Beauveria anamorph state on larval insect cadavers on Obong Mountsin in Gangwon Pronvince, Republic of Korea. Cultures from discharged ascospores formed an anamorph identifiable as Beauveria bassiana. This teleomorph-anamorph connection was also confirmed by the in...

  11. Cercospora berteroae and Pseudocercosporella gei, rare anamorphic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Połeć

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents two species of hyphomycetous fungi, presumably Mycosphaerella anamorphs, recently collected in central and north-eastern Poland. Habit and morphology, illustrated with macro- and microphotographs, and worldwide distribution of the species are characterized. Both species have been collected in Poland for the first time.

  12. Fatal cutaneous mycosis in tentacled snakes caused by the chrysosporium anamorph of nannizziposis vriesii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Crawshaw, Graham J.; Sigler, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    The fungus Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii was identified as the caurse of fatal, multifocal, heterophilic dermatitis in for freshwater aquatic captive-bred tentacled snakes......The fungus Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii was identified as the caurse of fatal, multifocal, heterophilic dermatitis in for freshwater aquatic captive-bred tentacled snakes...

  13. Versatile anamorphic electronic fingerprinting: design and manufacturing considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzmann, David E.; Koudelka, Lubomir; Fishbine, Glenn M.

    1995-08-01

    Many electronic fingerprinting devices are required to have a distortion-free high-contrast imaging capability, with diffraction-limited resolution. That is, no software correction of image distortion is allowed, and all fingerprint scaling correction must be accomplished with optical components. For such systems, a minimum of four key requirements must be satisfied simultaneously in the optical design: (1) Total internal reflection (TIR) at the fingerprinting surface; (2) Optical compensation for producing zero distortion; (3) Variable anamorphic scaling capability in two axes for producing correct image sizing; (4) Diffraction-limited imagery across the entire field of view. In the mechanical design for manufacture and assembly of the imaging system, generally a number of mechanical implementations are needed to provide for each of alignment. Thus a strong interaction between the optical designer, the mechanical engineer, and the marketing company which dictates the system specification is essential all throughout the design process. In this paper we present several optical design principles involved with electronic fingerprinting. A discussion of the Scheimpflug condition, its attendant keystone distortion, tilted object and image planes to assist the correction of distortion, tilted lens elements to assist in the correction of defocus, and variable anamorphic prism pairs (or cylinders) will illustrate how a unified design solution is arrived at for a complex imaging system. Illumination concepts involving TIR and non-TIR approaches are also discussed.

  14. Measurement of steep aspheric surfaces using an anamorphic probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Amiya; Coupland, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic aperture interferometry has been previously proposed as a possible in-process method to measure aspheric form (R. Tomlinson, Appl. Opt.42, 701, 2003.APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.42.000701). Preliminary demonstration utilized a scanning probe consisting of a pair of bare single mode fibers to perform source and receive functions. It was found that this probe did not have sufficient numerical aperture (NA) to measure steep surfaces and that simply increasing the NA decreases the light gathering efficiency substantially. In this paper, we introduce supplementary optics to increase the NA, and the light gathering efficiency has been increased by adopting an anamorphic design. A spherical test optic of known form is measured to demonstrate the capability of the new probe design

  15. Measurement of steep aspheric surfaces using an anamorphic probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Amiya; Coupland, Jeremy

    2008-04-01

    Synthetic aperture interferometry has been previously proposed as a possible in-process method to measure aspheric form (R. Tomlinson, Appl. Opt.42, 701, 2003.APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.42.000701). Preliminary demonstration utilized a scanning probe consisting of a pair of bare single mode fibers to perform source and receive functions. It was found that this probe did not have sufficient numerical aperture (NA) to measure steep surfaces and that simply increasing the NA decreases the light gathering efficiency substantially. In this paper, we introduce supplementary optics to increase the NA, and the light gathering efficiency has been increased by adopting an anamorphic design. A spherical test optic of known form is measured to demonstrate the capability of the new probe design.

  16. Challenges of anamorphic high-NA lithography and mask making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Stephen D.; Liu, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    .1117/12.2086074). To ensure no assist feature printing, the assist feature sizes need to be scaled with λ/NA. The extremely small SRAF width (below 25 nm on the reticle) is difficult to fabricate across the full reticle. In this paper, we introduce an innovative `attenuated SRAF' to improve SRAF manufacturability and still maintain the process window benefit. A new mask fabrication process is proposed to use existing mask-making capability to manufacture the attenuated SRAFs. The high-NA EUV system utilizes anamorphic reduction; 4× in the horizontal (slit) direction and 8× in the vertical (scanning) direction (J. van Schoot, K. van Ingen Schenau, G. Bottiglieri, K. Troost, J. Zimmerman, et al., `Proc. SPIE. 9776, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII', vol. 97761I (2016) doi: 10.1117/12.2220150; B. Kneer, S. Migura, W. Kaiser, J. T. Neumann, J. van Schoot, in `Proc. SPIE9422, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VI', vol. 94221G (2015) doi: 10.1117/12.2175488). For an anamorphic system, the magnification has an angular dependency, and thus, familiar mask specifications such as mask error factor (MEF) need to be redefined. Similarly, mask-manufacturing rule check (MRC) needs to consider feature orientation.

  17. Control of clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes with fungicides, aerated steam and supercritical fluid CO2-seed extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson; Donald G. Lester; Brian K. Luckenbill

    2008-01-01

    The effects of soil drenches with systemic fungicides on viability of clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes, non-choke inducing endosymbiotic fungi of the genus Neotyphodium that systemically infect grasses, were tested in endophyte-infected seedlings of Hordeum brevisubulatum subsp. violaceum, Lolium perenne...

  18. The Visual Journal as an Image Sphere: Interpreting Artworks with an Anamorphic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinner, Anita

    2011-01-01

    During a 1-year study, the visual journal of a preservice teacher was explored as an image sphere, or "bildraum", in relation to teacher culture. Artworks created in the visual journal offered an anamorphic perspective on the materiality of teacher culture, tracing the lived experiences of a student of art in the process of becoming an art teacher…

  19. Phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the Planistromellaceae including its coelomycetous anamorphs: contributions towards a monograph of the genus Kellermania

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.M. Minnis; A.H. Kennedy; D.B. Grenier; M.E. Palm; A.Y. Rossman

    2012-01-01

    The core species of the family Planistromellaceae are included in the teleomorphic genera Planistroma and Planistromella and the connected anamorphic, coelomycetous genera Alpakesa, Kellermania, and Piptarthron. These genera have been defined primarily on the basis of...

  20. The refractive anamorphic viewer of J.-F. Niceron: Reconstructing a 17th century optical toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James L.; Sharp, John

    2011-10-01

    We have analyzed and reconstructed the refractive anamorphic viewer described by J.-F. Niceron in his book, La Perspective Curieuse, which created a sensation in 17th century intellectual circles. We deduced the morphology of one of the polyprisms that he described, and constructed the refractive element in the apparatus. The optical elements of the apparatus were simulated using a ray tracing program to determine the parameters of the viewer so that a working replica could be constructed. The analysis is a good example of the use of mathematics and physics in a problem of art history.

  1. Stray light characterization of an InGaAs anamorphic hyperspectral imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mike; Swanson, Rand; Moon, Thomas; Smith, Casey; Kehoe, Michael; Brown, Steven W; Lykke, Keith R

    2010-08-02

    Compact hyperspectral sensors potentially have a wide range of applications, including machine vision, quality control, and surveillance from small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). With the development of Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) focal plane arrays, much of the Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR) spectral regime can be accessed with a small hyperspectral imaging system, thereby substantially expanding hyperspectral sensing capabilities. To fully realize this potential, system performance must be well-understood. Here, stray light characterization of a recently-developed push-broom hyperspectral sensor sensitive in the 1 microm -1.7 microm spectral regime is described. The sensor utilizes anamorphic fore-optics that partially decouple image formation along the spatial and spectral axes of the instrument. This design benefits from a reduction in complexity over standard high-performance spectrometer optical designs while maintaining excellent aberration control and spatial and spectral distortion characteristics. The stray light performance characteristics of the anamorphic imaging spectrometer were measured using the spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations using uniform sources (SIRCUS) facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). A description of the measurements and results are presented. Additionally, a stray-light matrix was assembled for the instrument to improve the instrument's spectral accuracy. Transmittance of a silicon wafer was measured to validate this approach.

  2. Multiple gene genealogies and phenotypic characters differentiate several novel species of Mycosphaerella and related anamorphs on banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Fullerton, R.A.; Abeln, E.C.A.; Carlier, J.; Zapater, M.-F.; Buddenhagen, I.W.; Viljoen, A.; Crous, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    Three species of Mycosphaerella, namely M. eumusae, M. fijiensis, and M. musicola are involved in the Sigatoka disease complex of bananas. Besides these three primary pathogens, several additional species of Mycosphaerella or their anamorphs have been described from Musa. However, very little is

  3. Orthonormal aberration polynomials for anamorphic optical imaging systems with circular pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Virendra N

    2012-06-20

    In a recent paper, we considered the classical aberrations of an anamorphic optical imaging system with a rectangular pupil, representing the terms of a power series expansion of its aberration function. These aberrations are inherently separable in the Cartesian coordinates (x,y) of a point on the pupil. Accordingly, there is x-defocus and x-coma, y-defocus and y-coma, and so on. We showed that the aberration polynomials orthonormal over the pupil and representing balanced aberrations for such a system are represented by the products of two Legendre polynomials, one for each of the two Cartesian coordinates of the pupil point; for example, L(l)(x)L(m)(y), where l and m are positive integers (including zero) and L(l)(x), for example, represents an orthonormal Legendre polynomial of degree l in x. The compound two-dimensional (2D) Legendre polynomials, like the classical aberrations, are thus also inherently separable in the Cartesian coordinates of the pupil point. Moreover, for every orthonormal polynomial L(l)(x)L(m)(y), there is a corresponding orthonormal polynomial L(l)(y)L(m)(x) obtained by interchanging x and y. These polynomials are different from the corresponding orthogonal polynomials for a system with rotational symmetry but a rectangular pupil. In this paper, we show that the orthonormal aberration polynomials for an anamorphic system with a circular pupil, obtained by the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization of the 2D Legendre polynomials, are not separable in the two coordinates. Moreover, for a given polynomial in x and y, there is no corresponding polynomial obtained by interchanging x and y. For example, there are polynomials representing x-defocus, balanced x-coma, and balanced x-spherical aberration, but no corresponding y-aberration polynomials. The missing y-aberration terms are contained in other polynomials. We emphasize that the Zernike circle polynomials, although orthogonal over a circular pupil, are not suitable for an anamorphic system as

  4. Rhexocercosporidium panacis sp. nov., a new anamorphic species causing rusted root of ginseng (Panax [corrected] quinquefolius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeleder, R D

    2007-01-01

    A new species of the anamorphic genus Rhexocercosporidium is described. Isolates of a Rhex-Rhexocercosporidium sp. were obtained from ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) roots with symptoms of rusted root. These isolates were found to be genetically and morphologically distinct from the only described species in this genus, R. carotae. Sequence data from the ribosomal DNA region spanning the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and from a portion of the 3-tubulin gene of the ginseng Rhexocercosporidium were compared to those of R. carotae. Parsimony analyses of sequence data showed that R. carotae and the ginseng isolates belonged to distinct but closely related clades. Conidia of a typical ginseng isolate were significantly shorter and possessed fewer septa than R. carotae but shared rhexolytic secession of conidia with R. carotae. The binomial Rhexocercosporidium panacis is proposed to accommodate isolates of this genus that are associated with the rusted root disease.

  5. Phylogenetic reassessment of Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs occurring on Eucalyptus. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, Pedro W; Wingfield, Michael J; Mansilla, J Pedro; Alfenas, Acelino C; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2006-01-01

    Species of Eucalyptus are widely planted as exotics in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere and to some extent in southern Europe, for timber and fibre production. Species of Mycosphaerella are commonly associated with leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus and can result in defoliation, dieback, and even tree death. In the present study, numerous isolates of Mycosphaerella species were collected from leaf litter, living leaves exhibiting leaf spot symptoms or severe Mycosphaerella leaf blotch symptoms. Isolates were compared based on DNA sequence data for the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1 & ITS2) and the 5.8S gene. These data, together with characteristics of the fungal growth on three different media, morphology of the anamorph and teleomorph structures as well as ascospore germination patterns were used to describe 21 new species.

  6. Dermatitis and cellulitis in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplon, D E; Terrell, S P; Sigler, L; Jacobson, E R

    2013-07-01

    An epizootic of ulcerative to nodular ventral dermatitis was observed in a large breeding colony of 8-month to 5-year-old leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) of both sexes. Two representative mature male geckos were euthanized for diagnostic necropsy. The Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV) was isolated from the skin lesions, and identification was confirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene. Histopathology revealed multifocal to coalescing dermal and subcutaneous heterophilic granulomas that contained septate fungal hyphae. There was also multifocal epidermal hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis, and similar hyphae were present within the stratum corneum, occasionally with terminal chains of arthroconidia consistent with the CANV. In one case, there was focal extension of granulomatous inflammation into the underlying masseter muscle. This is the first report of dermatitis and cellulitis due to the CANV in leopard geckos.

  7. A monograph of Allantonectria, Nectria, and Pleonectria (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and their pycnidial, sporodochial, and synnematous anamorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, Y.; Rossman, A.Y.; Samuels, G.J.; Lechat, C.; Chaverri, P.

    2012-01-01

    Although Nectria is the type genus of Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Sordariomycetes, Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota), the systematics of the teleomorphic and anamorphic state of Nectria sensu Rossman has not been studied in detail. The objectives of this study are to 1) provide a phylogenetic overview to determine if species of Nectria with Gyrostroma, Tubercularia, and Zythiostroma anamorphs form a monophyletic group; 2) define Nectria, segregate genera, and their species using morphologically informative characters of teleomorphic and anamorphic states; and 3) provide descriptions and illustrations of these genera and species. To accomplish these objectives, results of phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data from six loci (act, ITS, LSU, rpb1, tef1 and tub), were integrated with morphological characterisations of anamorphs and teleomorphs. Results from the phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that species previously regarded as the genus Nectria having Gyrostroma, Tubercularia, and Zythiostroma anamorphs belong in two major paraphyletic clades. The first major clade regarded as the genus Pleonectria contains 26 species with ascoconidia produced by ascospores in asci, perithecial walls having bright yellow scurf, and immersed or superficial pycnidial anamorphs (Zythiostroma = Gyrostroma). A lineage basal to the Pleonectria clade includes Nectria miltina having very small, aseptate ascospores, and trichoderma-like conidiophores and occurring on monocotyledonous plants. These characteristics are unusual in Pleonectria, thus we recognise the monotypic genus Allantonectria with Allantonectria miltina. The second major clade comprises the genus Nectria sensu stricto including the type species, N. cinnabarina, and 28 additional species. Within the genus Nectria, four subclades exist. One subclade includes species with sporodochial anamorphs and another with synnematous anamorphs. The other two paraphyletic subclades include species that produce abundant stromata in which the

  8. Edge placement error control and Mask3D effects in High-NA anamorphic EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Setten, Eelco; Bottiglieri, Gerardo; de Winter, Laurens; McNamara, John; Rusu, Paul; Lubkoll, Jan; Rispens, Gijsbert; van Schoot, Jan; Neumann, Jens Timo; Roesch, Matthias; Kneer, Bernhard

    2017-10-01

    To enable cost-effective shrink at the 3nm node and beyond, and to extend Moore's law into the next decade, ASML is developing a new high-NA EUV platform. The high-NA system is targeted to feature a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.55 to extend the single exposure resolution limit to 8nm half pitch. The system is being designed to achieve an on-product-overlay (OPO) performance well below 2nm, a high image contrast to drive down local CD errors and to obtain global CDU at sub-1nm level to be able to meet customer edge placement error (EPE) requirements for the devices of the future. EUV scanners employ reflective Bragg multi-layer mirrors in the mask and in the Projection Optics Box (POB) that is used to project the mask pattern into the photoresist on the silicon wafer. These MoSi multi-layer mirrors are tuned for maximum reflectivity, and thus productivity, at 13.5nm wavelength. The angular range of incident light for which a high reflectivity at the reticle can be obtained is limited to +/- 11o, exceeding the maximum angle occurring in current 0.33NA scanners at 4x demagnification. At 0.55NA the maximum angle at reticle level would extend up to 17o in the critical (scanning) direction and compromise the imaging performance of horizontal features severely. To circumvent this issue a novel anamorphic optics design has been introduced, which has a 4x demagnification in the X- (slit) direction and 8x demagnification in the Y- (scanning) direction as well as a central obscuration in the exit pupil. In this work we will show that the EUV high-NA anamorphic concept can successfully solve the angular reflectivity issues and provide good imaging performance in both directions. Several unique imaging challenges in comparison to the 0.33NA isomorphic baseline are being studied, such as the impact of the central obscuration in the POB and Mask-3D effects at increased NA that seem most pronounced for vertical features. These include M3D induced contrast loss and non

  9. Ghost reflections of Gaussian beams in anamorphic optical systems with an application to Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Maksoud, Rania H

    2016-02-20

    In this paper, a methodology is developed to model and analyze the effect of undesired (ghost) reflections of Gaussian beams that are produced by anamorphic optical systems. The superposition of these beams with the nominal beam modulates the nominal power distribution at the recording plane. This modulation may cause contrast reduction, veiling parts of the nominal image, and/or the formation of spurious interference fringes. The developed methodology is based on synthesizing the beam optical paths into nominal and ghost optical beam paths. Similar to the nominal beam, we present the concept that each ghost beam is characterized by a beam size, wavefront radius of curvature, and Gouy phase in the paraxial regime. The nominal and ghost beams are sequentially traced through the system and formulas for estimating the electric field magnitude and phase of each ghost beam at the recording plane are presented. The effective electric field is the addition of the individual nominal and ghost electric fields. Formulas for estimating Gouy phase, the shape of the interference fringes, and the central interference order are introduced. As an application, the theory of the formation of the interference fringes by Michelson interferometer is presented. This theory takes into consideration the ghost reflections that are formed by the beam splitter. To illustrate the theory and to show its wide applicability, simulation examples that include a Mangin mirror, a Michelson interferometer, and a black box optical system are provided.

  10. Multiple gene genealogies and phenotypic characters differentiate several novel species of Mycosphaerella and related anamorphs on banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzanlou, M; Groenewald, J Z; Fullerton, R A; Abeln, E C A; Carlier, J; Zapater, M-F; Buddenhagen, I W; Viljoen, A; Crous, P W

    2008-06-01

    Three species of Mycosphaerella, namely M. eumusae, M. fijiensis, and M. musicola are involved in the Sigatoka disease complex of bananas. Besides these three primary pathogens, several additional species of Mycosphaerella or their anamorphs have been described from Musa. However, very little is known about these taxa, and for the majority of these species no culture or DNA is available for study. In the present study, we collected a global set of Mycosphaerella strains from banana, and compared them by means of morphology and a multi-gene nucleotide sequence data set. The phylogeny inferred from the ITS region and the combined data set containing partial gene sequences of the actin gene, the small subunit mitochondrial ribosomal DNA and the histone H3 gene revealed a rich diversity of Mycosphaerella species on Musa. Integration of morphological and molecular data sets confirmed more than 20 species of Mycosphaerella (incl. anamorphs) to occur on banana. This study reconfirmed the previously described presence of Cercospora apii, M. citri and M. thailandica, and also identified Mycosphaerella communis, M. lateralis and Passalora loranthi on this host. Moreover, eight new species identified from Musa are described, namely Dissoconium musae, Mycosphaerella mozambica, Pseudocercospora assamensis, P. indonesiana, P. longispora, Stenella musae, S. musicola, and S. queenslandica.

  11. Decolorization of humic acids and alkaline lignin derivative by an anamorphic Bjerkandera adusta E59 strain isolated from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornillowicz-Kowalska, T.; Ginalska, G.; Belcarz, A.; Iglik, H. [University of Life Sciences, Lublin (Poland). Dept. of Microbiology

    2008-07-01

    An anamorphic Bjerkandera adusta R59 strain, isolated from soil, was found to decolorize post-industrial lignin alkaline fraction, humic acids isolated from two kinds of soil and from brown coal. The drop of methoxyphenolic compound levels in liquid B. adusta cultures containing lignin or humic acids was correlated with decolorization of studied biopolymers, which suggests their partial biodegradation. It was shown that this process was Coupled with the induction of secondary metabolism (idiophase), and highest peroxidase activity in culture medium and appearance of aerial mycelium. Decolorization of lignin and humic acids from lessive soil and brown coal depended on glucose presence (cometabolism). Decolorization of humic acid from chernozem was related partially to adsorption by fungal mycelium.

  12. Wickerhamomyces mori sp. nov., an anamorphic yeast species found in the guts of wood-boring insect larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Feng-Li; Chen, Liang; Chu, Xue-Ying; Niu, Qiu-Hong; Ke, Tao

    2013-03-01

    A novel anamorphic yeast species is described to accommodate three isolates recovered from the guts of three different wood-boring insect larvae collected in Henan, central China. On the basis of sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer regions, the three strains are assigned to a novel species of the genus Wickerhamomyces, although the formation of ascospores was not observed. These strains also exhibited a number of distinct morphological and physiological characteristics that clearly differentiated them from Wickerhamomyces mucosus, Candida odintsovae and Wickerhamomyces rabaulensis, the most closely related species. In view of the phenotypic differences and unique rRNA gene sequences, we consider that these three isolates represent a novel species of the genus Wickerhamomyces, Wickerhamomyces mori sp. nov. The type strain is NYNU 1216(T) ( = CICC 1983(T)  = CBS 12678(T)).

  13. Evolution and ecophysiology of the industrial producer Hypocrea jecorina (Anamorph Trichoderma reesei and a new sympatric agamospecies related to it.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina S Druzhinina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trichoderma reesei, a mitosporic green mould, was recognized during the WW II based on a single isolate from the Solomon Islands and since then used in industry for production of cellulases. It is believed to be an anamorph (asexual stage of the common pantropical ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined molecular evolutionary analysis and multiple methods of phenotype profiling in order to reveal the genetic relationship of T. reesei to H. jecorina. The resulting data show that the isolates which were previously identified as H. jecorina by means of morphophysiology and ITS1 and 2 (rRNA gene cluster barcode in fact comprise several species: i H. jecorina/T. reesei sensu stricto which contains most of the teleomorphs (sexual stages found on dead wood and the wild-type strain of T. reesei QM 6a; ii T. parareesei nom. prov., which contains all strains isolated as anamorphs from soil; iii and two other hypothetical new species for which only one or two isolates are available. In silico tests for recombination and in vitro mating experiments revealed a history of sexual reproduction for H. jecorina and confirmed clonality for T. parareesei nom. prov. Isolates of both species were consistently found worldwide in pantropical climatic zone. Ecophysiological comparison of H. jecorina and T. parareesei nom. prov. revealed striking differences in carbon source utilization, conidiation intensity, photosensitivity and mycoparasitism, thus suggesting adaptation to different ecological niches with the high opportunistic potential for T. parareesei nom. prov. CONCLUSIONS: Our data prove that T. reesei belongs to a holomorph H. jecorina and displays a history of worldwide gene flow. We also show that its nearest genetic neighbour--T. parareesei nom. prov., is a cryptic phylogenetic agamospecies which inhabits the same biogeographic zone. These two species thus provide a so far rare example of sympatric speciation

  14. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from the anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma antarctica, which produces glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2006-07-15

    Pseudozyma antarctica T-34 secretes a large amount of biosurfactants (BS), mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL), from different carbon sources such as hydrocarbons and vegetable oils. The detailed biosynthetic pathway of MEL remained unknown due to lack of genetic information on the anamorphic basidiomycetous yeasts, including the genus Pseudozyma. Here, in order to obtain genetic information on P. antarctica T-34, we constructed a cDNA library from yeast cells producing MEL from soybean oil and identified the genes expressed through the creation of an expressed sequence tags (EST) library. We generated 398 ESTs, assembled into 146 contiguous sequences. Based upon a BLAST search similarity cut-off of E

  15. Light-dependent roles of the G-protein α subunit GNA1 of Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubicek Christian P

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The filamentous ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei is primarily known for its efficient enzymatic machinery that it utilizes to decompose cellulosic substrates. Nevertheless, the nature and transmission of the signals initiating and modulating this machinery are largely unknown. Heterotrimeric G-protein signaling represents one of the best studied signal transduction pathways in fungi. Results Analysis of the regulatory targets of the G-protein α subunit GNA1 in H. jecorina revealed a carbon source and light-dependent role in signal transduction. Deletion of gna1 led to significantly decreased biomass formation in darkness in submersed culture but had only minor effects on morphology and hyphal apical extension rates on solid medium. Cellulase gene transcription was abolished in Δgna1 on cellulose in light and enhanced in darkness. However, analysis of strains expressing a constitutively activated GNA1 revealed that GNA1 does not transmit the essential inducing signal. Instead, it relates a modulating signal with light-dependent significance, since induction still required the presence of an inducer. We show that regulation of transcription and activity of GNA1 involves a carbon source-dependent feedback cycle. Additionally we found a function of GNA1 in hydrophobin regulation as well as effects on conidiation and tolerance of osmotic and oxidative stress. Conclusion We conclude that GNA1 transmits a signal the physiological relevance of which is dependent on both the carbon source as well as the light status. The widespread consequences of mutations in GNA1 indicate a broad function of this Gα subunit in appropriation of intracellular resources to environmental (especially nutritional conditions.

  16. Sulphur metabolism and cellulase gene expression are connected processes in the filamentous fungus Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremel, Gabriela; Dorrer, Marcel; Schmoll, Monika

    2008-10-08

    Sulphur compounds like cysteine, methionine and S-adenosylmethionine are essential for the viability of most cells. Thus many organisms have developed a complex regulatory circuit that governs the expression of enzymes involved in sulphur assimilation and metabolism. In the filamentous fungus Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) little is known about the participants in this circuit. Analyses of proteins binding to the cellulase activating element (CAE) within the promotor of the cellobiohydrolase cbh2 gene led to the identification of a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase protein named LIMPET (LIM1), which is an orthologue of the sulphur regulators SCON-2 of Neurospora crassa and Met30p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Transcription of lim1 is specifically up-regulated upon sulphur limitation and responds to cellulase inducing conditions. In addition, light dependent stimulation/shut down of cellulase gene transcription by methionine in the presence of sulphate was observed. Further, lim1 transcriptionally reacts to a switch from constant darkness to constant light and is subject to regulation by the light regulatory protein ENVOY. Thus lim1, despite its function in sulphur metabolite repression, responds both to light as well as sulphur- and carbon source. Upon growth on cellulose, the uptake of sulphate is dependent on the light status and essential for growth in light. Unlike other fungi, growth of H. jecorina is not inhibited by selenate under low sulphur conditions, suggesting altered regulation of sulphur metabolism. Phylogenetic analysis of the five sulphate permeases found in the genome of H. jecorina revealed that the predominantly mycelial sulphate permease is lacking, thus supporting this hypothesis. Our data indicate that the significance of the sulphate/methionine-related signal with respect to cellulase gene expression is dependent on the light status and reaches beyond detection of sulphur availability.

  17. Sulphur metabolism and cellulase gene expression are connected processes in the filamentous fungus Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmoll Monika

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulphur compounds like cysteine, methionine and S-adenosylmethionine are essential for the viability of most cells. Thus many organisms have developed a complex regulatory circuit that governs the expression of enzymes involved in sulphur assimilation and metabolism. In the filamentous fungus Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei little is known about the participants in this circuit. Results Analyses of proteins binding to the cellulase activating element (CAE within the promotor of the cellobiohydrolase cbh2 gene led to the identification of a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase protein named LIMPET (LIM1, which is an orthologue of the sulphur regulators SCON-2 of Neurospora crassa and Met30p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Transcription of lim1 is specifically up-regulated upon sulphur limitation and responds to cellulase inducing conditions. In addition, light dependent stimulation/shut down of cellulase gene transcription by methionine in the presence of sulphate was observed. Further, lim1 transcriptionally reacts to a switch from constant darkness to constant light and is subject to regulation by the light regulatory protein ENVOY. Thus lim1, despite its function in sulphur metabolite repression, responds both to light as well as sulphur- and carbon source. Upon growth on cellulose, the uptake of sulphate is dependent on the light status and essential for growth in light. Unlike other fungi, growth of H. jecorina is not inhibited by selenate under low sulphur conditions, suggesting altered regulation of sulphur metabolism. Phylogenetic analysis of the five sulphate permeases found in the genome of H. jecorina revealed that the predominantly mycelial sulphate permease is lacking, thus supporting this hypothesis. Conclusion Our data indicate that the significance of the sulphate/methionine-related signal with respect to cellulase gene expression is dependent on the light status and reaches beyond detection of sulphur

  18. Cutaneous hyalohyphomycosis in a girdled lizard (Cordylus giganteus) caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii and successful treatment with voriconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Baert, Kris; Pasmans, Frank; Van Waeyenberghe, Lieven; Beernaert, Lies; Chiers, Koen; De Backer, Patrick; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An

    2010-08-01

    The Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii was associated with dermatomycosis and high mortality in a group of captive giant girdled lizards (Cordylus giganteus). Treatment of one of the infected girdled lizards with voriconazole, which was selected on the basis of in vitro sensitivity testing of the isolate, resulted in resolution of lesions and negative fungal cultures from the skin. Three hours after oral administration of 10 mg/kg, the plasma level of voriconazole exceeded the 0.25-μg/mL minimal inhibitory concentration tenfold. In conclusion, administration of voriconazole at 10 mg/kg of body weight once daily for 10 weeks resulted in clinical cure and was well tolerated. A longer follow-up time and larger studies will be necessary to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of this treatment in giant girdled lizards. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.

  19. Fungos anamórficos (Hyphomycetes da Chapada Diamantina: novos registros para o Estado da Bahia e Brasil Anamorphic fungi (Hyphomycetes from the Chapada Diamantina: new records from Bahia State and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Cardoso Rodrigues da Cruz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available (Fungos anamórficos (Hyphomycetes da Chapada Diamantina: novos registros para o Estado da Bahia e Brasil. Os fungos anamórficos, caracterizados pela produção de estruturas de reprodução assexuadas, são habitantes comuns do folhedo onde desempenham papel importante na decomposição. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um inventário dos fungos anamórficos associados ao folhedo de plantas da Chapada Diamantina, BA. Foram realizadas 13 expedições, de dezembro/2002 a outubro/2003, para coleta de folhedo. Para verificação da presença de fungos anamórficos o material foi submetido à técnica de lavagem sucessiva com água destilada esterilizada e posteriormente incubado em câmaras-úmidas. Lâminas permanentes com as estruturas reprodutivas dos espécimes foram confeccionadas com resina PVL e depositadas no herbário HUEFS. Das 57 espécies de fungos anamórficos identificados, nove constituem novas ocorrências para o Estado da Bahia e cinco para o Brasil: Fusariella atrovirens (Berk. Sacc., Kiliophora ubiensis (Caneva & Rambelli Kuthub. & Nawawi, Paraceratocladium silvestre Castañeda, Pleurotheciopsis setiformis Castañeda e Triscelophorus deficiens (Matsush. Matsush. Incluem-se comentários e distribuição geográfica dos novos registros para o Estado da Bahia; descrições e ilustrações são apresentadas para as novas ocorrências para o Brasil.(Anamorphic fungi (Hyphomycetes from the Chapada Diamantina: new records from Bahia State and Brazil. The anamorphic fungi are characterized by production of asexual reproductive structures and are common inhabitants of the leaf litter, where they play an important role in decomposition. The aim of this work was to survey the anamorphic fungi associated with leaf litter from Chapada Diamantina, B ahia state. Thirteen expeditions took place from December/2002 to October/2003 to collect leaf litter. The serial washing technique with sterile distilled water followed by incubation in

  20. Adjustable magnification anamorphic beam expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, S. R.

    1990-08-01

    A visible laser diode package is proposed to substitute a Krpton-Ion laser for alignment purposes. The proposed system uses 5 Melles Griot AR coated stock lenses. Tests performed to the optics reveal some undesirable properties, such as, astigmatism and spherical aberration; however, the interference pattern and star test reveals what seems to be a good quality wavefront. The interference fringes seem to be very good, but there still is a small presence of a comalike aberration at the fringes extreme. The star test revealed the system to be about 3 times diffraction limited. The system has yet to be tested in an alignment situation. As for now, it is ready to be tested with some minor alignment adjustments necessary for a good wavefront quality. A safety memo was written for testing the prototype system at the alignment lab. The initial laser diode system alignment method suggested, uses a reverse alignment procedure. In this procedure, the expected output (30 mm diameter beam) is input into the system output and alignment is performed by moving the components until the desired system input is found; an elliptical beam with 1 mm in the horizontal axis and 4 mm in the vertical axis. Once this reverse alignment procedure is completed the laser diode is placed at the system input. Fine alignment is done with the help of shear plate interference patterns in both, the 1 mm axis and 4 mm axis. The proposed final opto-mechanical packaging of this system is formed with squared adapter plates that are connected by means of four support rods where the center of the plate becomes the optical axis. These components are commercially available and provide high mechanical stability.

  1. Fungos anamórficos (Hyphomycetes no Semi-árido do Estado da Bahia, Brasil Anamorphic fungi (Hyphomycetes in the Semi-arid Region of Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Rodrigues Barbosa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante o levantamento de fungos anamórficos associados à folhas em decomposição de diferentes plantas na região semi-árida do Estado da Bahia, 23 espécies, pertencentes a 19 gêneros foram encontradas. Dessas, uma espécie constitui novo registro para a Bahia e três para o Brasil, respectivamente: Drechslera victoriae (F. Meehan & H.C. Murphy Subram. & B.L. Jain, Ochroconis crassihumicola (Matsush. de Hoog & Arx, Pyricularia caffera Matsush. e Tretopileus sphaerophorus (Berk & M.A. Curtis Hughes & Deighton. Descrições, comentários e ilustrações são apresentados para essas espécies.During a survey of the anamorphic fungi associated with leaf litter of different plants from the semi-arid region of Bahia state, 23 species belonging to 19 genera were found. One species is recorded for the first time for Bahia and three for Brazil, respectively: Drechslera victoriae (F. Meehan & H.C. Murphy Subram. & B.L. Jain, Ochroconis crassihumicola (Matsush. de Hoog & Arx, Pyricularia caffera Matsush. and Tretopileus sphaerophorus (Berk & M.A. Curtis Hughes & Deighton. Descriptions, comments and illustrations are provided for these species.

  2. Diversidad de Anamorfos de Ascomycota en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (Ulmaceae en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Diversity of anamorphic fungi in Celtis tala (Ulmaceae native forest from Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Allegrucci

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizó la diversidad de microhongos que constituyen la comunidad fúngica saprótrofa (anamorfos de Ascomycota presente en hojarasca y suelo en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (tala en el partido de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales durante dos años (2004-2005 y se aislaron e identificaron los hongos presentes. Se calculó la frecuencia relativa porcentual de cada taxón; estos datos fueron utilizados para evaluar la diversidad fúngica mediante el cálculo del Indice de Diversidad de Shanon y Weaver ( H '. Para discriminar las comunidades fúngicas se utilizó el coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen ( S '. Se identificaron 104 taxones de anamorfos de Ascomycota, de los cuales 54 fueron aislados de hojarasca y 58 de suelo, registrándose 8 especies en común para ambos tipos de muestra. De las especies compartidas, las que presentaron frecuencias más altas para hojarasca fueron las menos representadas en suelo y viceversa. El resultado del cálculo del coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen fue de 0.14, indicando que la comunidad de hongos saprótrofos que crece en la hojarasca de tala está integrada por diferentes especies a las que caracterizan la micobiota del suelo de la misma área. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el índice de diversidad.In this paper we analyze the diversity of species that compose the saprotrophic (anamorphic Ascomycota fungi community in the leaf litter and soil in Celtis tala forest in Magdalena , located in the province of Buenos Aires . Seasonal samples were taken during two years (2004-2005, and fungi were isolated and identified. The relative frequencies of fungi were calculated. To compare the similarity of the fungi composition between different habitats, Sorensen's index of similarity (S´ was applied. The frequencies of occurrence of these fungi were recorded and Shannon Weaver index (H´ was applied to evaluate fungal

  3. Diffusion studies of anamorphic GRIN lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekh, Md. Asraful; SoodBiswas, Nisha; Sarkar, Samir; Basuray, Amitabha

    2016-12-01

    The present paper reports the diffusion study of cylindrical GRIN rod with elliptical cross section, developed by ion exchange process. The diffusion equation takes the form of Mathieu equations when transform into elliptic coordinate system and the solutions are derived in terms of angular and radial Mathieu functions. Computations of eigenvalues and expansion coefficients as well as angular and radial Mathieu functions are made which shows good agreement with the existing results. Simpler expression for ionic concentration is derived using asymptotic formulae of the functions which are used for final computation of ionic concentration of diffusing cations in elliptic GRIN. The plot of change in concentration versus diffusion depth along different directions approximately correlates with the results obtained by an earlier experimental study.

  4. New genera in the Calosphaeriales: Togniniella and its anamorph Phaeocrella, and Calosphaeriophora as anamorph of Calosphaeria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Réblová, Martina; Mostert, L.; Gams, W.; Crous, P. W.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2004), s. 533-550 ISSN 0166-0616 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB6005106; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Calosphaeriales * phylogeny * systematics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.682, year: 2004

  5. Candida xinjiangensis sp. nov., a new anamorphic yeast species isolated from Scolytus scheryrewi Semenov in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Dian-Peng; Yang, Sen; Zhang, Qing-Wen

    2017-03-01

    Three yeast strains designated as S44, XF1 and XF2, respectively, were isolated from Scolytus scheryrewi Semenov of apricot tree in Shule County, Xinjiang, China, and were demonstrated to be a new member of the genus Candida by sequence comparisons of 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. BLASTn alignments on NCBI showed that the similarity of 26S rRNA gene sequences of S44 (type strain) to all sequences of other Candida yeasts was very low (≦93 %). The phylogenetic tree based on the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and ITS region sequences revealed that the strain S44 is closely related to C. blattae, C. dosseyi, C. pruni, C. asparagi, C. fructus and C. musae. However, the strain S44 is distinguished from these Candida species by the physiological characteristics. Moreover, the strain S44 formed typical pseudohyphae when grown on cornmeal agar at 25 °C for 7 days, but did not form ascospores in sporulation medium for 3-4 weeks. Therefore, the name Candida xinjiangensis is proposed for the novel species, with S44 (=KCTC T 27747) as the type strain.

  6. Phylogenetic reassessment of Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs occurring on Eucalyptus. II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.; Mansilla, J.P.; Alfenas, A.C.; Groenewald, Ewald

    2006-01-01

    Species of Eucalyptus are widely planted as exotics in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere and to some extent in southern Europe, for timber and fibre production. Species of Mycosphaerella are commonly associated with leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus and can result in defoliation, dieback, and even

  7. Phylogenetic reassessment of Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs occurring on Eucalyptus. II

    OpenAIRE

    Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.; Mansilla, J.P.; Alfenas, A.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2006-01-01

    Species of Eucalyptus are widely planted as exotics in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere and to some extent in southern Europe, for timber and fibre production. Species of Mycosphaerella are commonly associated with leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus and can result in defoliation, dieback, and even tree death. In the present study, numerous isolates of Mycosphaerella species were collected from leaf litter, living leaves exhibiting leaf spot symptoms or severe Mycosphaerella leaf blotch symptom...

  8. Phylogenetic reassessment of Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs occurring on Eucalyptus. II.

    OpenAIRE

    Crous, Pedro W.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Mansilla, J. Pedro; Alfenas, Acelino C.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.

    2006-01-01

    Species of Eucalyptus are widely planted as exotics in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere and to some extent in southern Europe, for timber and fibre production. Species of Mycosphaerella are commonly associated with leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus and can result in defoliation, dieback, and even tree death. In the present study, numerous isolates of Mycosphaerella species were collected from leaf litter, living leaves exhibiting leaf spot symptoms or severe Mycosphaerella leaf blotch symptom...

  9. Phylogenetic reassessment of Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs occurring on Eucalyptus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Mansilla, J.P.; Hunter, G.C.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Species of Eucalyptus, mostly native to Australia, are widely planted as exotics in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere. These plantations represent an important source of fuel-wood, structural timber and pulp. Eucalyptus plantations are, however, vulnerable to infection by pathogens, including

  10. Ejection mechanics and trajectory of the ascospores of Gibberella zeae (anamorph Fuarium graminearum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trail, Frances; Gaffoor, Iffa; Vogel, Steven

    2005-06-01

    Since wind speed drops to zero at a surface, forced ejection should facilitate spore dispersal. But for tiny spores, with low mass relative to surface area, high ejection speed yields only a short range trajectory, so pernicious is their drag. Thus, achieving high speeds requires prodigious accelerations. In the ascomycete Gibberella zeae, we determined the launch speed and kinetic energy of ascospores shot from perithecia, and the source and magnitude of the pressure driving the launch. We asked whether the pressure inside the ascus suffices to account for launch speed and energy. Launch speed was 34.5 ms-1, requiring a pressure of 1.54 MPa and an acceleration of 870,000 g--the highest acceleration reported in a biological system. This analysis allows us to discount the major sugar component of the epiplasmic fluid, mannitol, as having a key role in driving discharge, and supports the role of potassium ion flux in the mechanism.

  11. Polyphasic taxonomy of the heat resistant ascomycete genus Byssochlamys and its Paecilomyces anamorphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R.A.; Houbraken, J.; Varga, J.

    2009-01-01

    Byssochlamys and related Paecilomyces strains are often heat resistant and may produce mycotoxins in contaminated pasteurised foodstuffs. A comparative study of all Byssochlamys species was carried out using a polyphasic approach to find characters that differentiate species and to establish...... accurate data on potential mycotoxin production by each species. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS region, parts of the P-tubulin and calmodulin genes, macro- and micromorphological examinations and analysis of extrolite profiles were applied. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the genus Byssochlamys...

  12. Polyphasic taxonomy of the heat resistant ascomycete genus Byssochlamys and its Paecilomyces anamorphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, R.A.; Houbraken, J.; Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Byssochlamys and related Paecilomyces strains are often heat resistant and may produce mycotoxins in contaminated pasteurised foodstuffs. A comparative study of all Byssochlamys species was carried out using a polyphasic approach to find characters that differentiate species and to establish

  13. A new fungal genus, Teracosphaeria, with a phialophora-like anamorph (Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Réblová, Martina; Seifert, K. A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 111, - (2007), s. 287-298 ISSN 0953-7562 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Ceratosphaeria * phylogeny * Phialophora Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.861, year: 2007

  14. Extensive colonization of apples by smut anamorphs causes a new posthavest disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout, T.; Gildemacher, P.R.; Theelen, B.; Müller, W.H.; Heijne, B.; Lutz, M.

    2006-01-01

    Colonization of apples by ballistoconidium-forming fungi causes a new disorder, here named 'white haze'. White haze may occur in mild form in the field, but only becomes problematic after Ultra-Low Oxygen storage, and, therefore, may be considered as a postharvest disorder. All isolates, obtained

  15. New combinations for ergot species described under their anamorphic names by S. Pažoutová and colleagues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolařík, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2015), s. 135-136 ISSN 1211-0981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00788S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Claviceps * Sphacelia * nomenclature Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  16. Phylogenetic classification of Pleurothecium and Pleurotheciella gen. nov. and its dactylaria-like anamorph (Sordariomycetes) based on nuclear ribosomal and protein-coding genes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Réblová, Martina; Seifert, K. A.; Fournier, J.; Štěpánek, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 6 (2012), s. 1299-1314 ISSN 0027-5514 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/0038 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : holoblastic denticulate conidiogenesis * life cycles * Steringmatobotrys Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 2.110, year: 2012

  17. Inhibition of sodium glucose cotransporter-I expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by 4-acetoxyscirpendiol from Cordyceps takaomantana (anamorph = Paecilomyces tenuipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ocki; Lee, Dong-Hee

    2006-02-01

    Cordyceps contains many health-promoting constituents. Recent studies revealed that the fruiting body of cordyceps significantly alleviates hyperglycemia which usually accompanies diabetes mellitus. The mechanism of the anti-hyperglycemic effect by cordyceps, however, is not fully understood. In this study, methanolic extracts were prepared from fruiting bodies of Paecilomyces tenuipes, and 4-beta acetoxyscirpendiol (ASD) was eventually purified from the extracts. The Na+/ glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1) was expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and the effect of ASD on it was analyzed using voltage clamp and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DOG) uptake studies. Fluorescence microscopy was performed to monitor the effect of ASD on glucose uptake using HEK293 cells expressing recombinant SGLT-1. ASD inhibited SGLT-1 activity, and its two derivatives (2-acetoxyscirpenol and 15-acetoxyscirpendiol), were also effective; 15-acetoxyscirepenol was as inhibitory as ASD while diacetoxyscirpenol had less effect. Thus, the ASD in P. tenuipes may play an important role in lowering blood sugar in the circulatory system along with its derivatives as specific inhibitors of SGLT-1.

  18. Extended ABCD matrix formalism for the description of femtosecond diffraction patterns; application to femtosecond digital in-line holography with anamorphic optical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunel, Marc; Shen, Huanhuan; Coetmellec, Sebastien; Lebrun, Denis

    2012-03-10

    We present a new model to predict diffraction patterns of femtosecond pulses through complex optical systems. The model is based on the extension of an ABCD matrix formalism combined with generalized Huygens-Fresnel transforms (already used in the CW regime) to the femtosecond regime. The model is tested to describe femtosecond digital in-line holography experiments realized in situ through a cylindrical Plexiglas pipe. The model allows us to establish analytical relations that link the holographic reconstruction process to the experimental parameters of the pipe and of the incident beam itself. Simulations and experimental results are in good concordance. Femtosecond digital in-line holography is shown to allow significant coherent noise reduction, and this model will be particularly efficient to describe a wide range of optical geometries. More generally, the model developed can be easily used in any experiment where the knowledge of the precise evolution of femtosecond transverse patterns is required.

  19. Fungos anamorfos (hyphomycetes da Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, Pará, Brasil: novos registros para o Neotrópico Anamorphic fungi (hyphomycetes from Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará, Brazil: new records for the Neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Santana Monteiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os hifomicetos são importantes decompositores e recicladores da matéria orgânica morta no ambiente e podem ser importantes patógenos de plantas e animais. Como parte do inventário da diversidade dos fungos sobre palmeiras da Amazônia Oriental, no sítio do Programa de Biodiversidade da Amazônia (PPBIO, na Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, Pará, foram identificados cinco novos registros de hifomicetos para o Neotrópico: Camposporium fusisporum Whitton, McKenzie & Hyde; Cylindrocarpon curtum Bugnicourt; Minimidochium microsporum Matsush.; Sporidesmiella aspera Kuthub. & Nawawi; Sporidesmium ghanaense M.B. Ellis. Stachybotrys theobromae Hansf. é citado pela primeira vez para o Brasil.The hyphomycetes are important decomposers and recyclers of dead organic matter in the environment and may be important pathogens of plants and animals. As part of the diversity inventory of palm-tree fungi from Eastern Amazonia, in Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará, five new records of hyphomycetes for the Neotropics were found: Camposporium fusisporum Whitton, McKenzie & Hyde; Cylindrocarpon curtum Bugnicourt; Minimidochium microsporum Matsush.; Sporidesmiella aspera Kuthub. & Nawawi; Sporidesmium ghanaense M.B. Ellis. Stachybotrys theobromae Hansf. is cited for the first time for Brazil.

  20. AFLP fingerprinting for identification of infra-species groups of Rhizoctonia solani and Waitea circinata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch diseases caused by Thanatephorus cucumeris and Waitea circinata varieties (anamorphs: Rhizoctonia species) pose a serious threat to successful maintenance of several important turfgrass species. Reliance on field symptoms to identify Rhizoctonia causal agents can be difficult and misleading. D...

  1. Fabrication of Micro-Optics for Diode Lasers and Amplifiers Using Ink-Jet Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, W

    1997-01-01

    ...) and flexibility (data driven process). Using print heads capable of dispensing picoliter droplets of optical thermal plastic and UV-curing resin formulations at temperatures up to 230 deg C, both hemispherical and anamorphic plano/convex...

  2. Calonectria (Cylindrocladium) species associated with dying Pinus cuttings

    OpenAIRE

    Lombard, L.; Rodas, C.A.; Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Calonectria (Ca.) species and their Cylindrocladium (Cy.) anamorphs are well-known pathogens of forest nursery plants in subtropical and tropical areas of the world. An investigation of the mortality of rooted Pinus cuttings in a commercial forest nursery in Colombia led to the isolation of two Cylindrocladium anamorphs of Calonectria species. The aim of this study was to identify these species using DNA sequence data and morphological comparisons. Two species were identified, namely one unde...

  3. Assemblage and diversity of fungi on wood and seaweed litter of seven northwest portuguese beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, K R; Karamchand, K S; Pascoal, C; Cássio, F

    2012-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty woody litter and one hundred and forty seaweed litter sampled from seven beaches of Northwest Portugal were assessed for the filamentous fungal assemblage and diversity. The woody litter was screened for fungi up to 42 months using damp chamber incubation. They consisted of 36 taxa (ascomycetes, 21; basidiomycetes, 3; anamorphic taxa, 12) comprising 10 core group taxa (≥10%) (ascomycetes, 8; basidiomycete, 1; anamorphic taxa, 1). The total fungal isolates ranged between 150 and 243, while the number of fungal taxa per wood ranged between 3 and 4.9. The seaweed litter was screened up to four months in damp chamber incubation. They encompassed 29 taxa (ascomycetes, 16; basidiomycetes, 2; anamorphic taxa, 11) comprising 15 core group taxa (ascomycetes, 9; basidiomycete, 1; anamorphic taxa, 5). Total fungal isolates ranged between 56 and 120, while the number of fungal taxa per seaweed segment ranged between 4.8 and 6.3. Fifteen taxa of ascomycetes, two of basidiomycetes, and four anamorphic taxa were common to wood and seaweed litter. On both the substrates, two arenicolous fungi Arenariomyces trifurcates and Corollospora maritima were the predominant fungi (72.6-85.9%). The species abundance curves showed higher frequency of occurrence of fungal taxa in seaweed than woody litter. Our study revealed rich assemblage and diversity of marine fungi on wood and seaweed litter of Northwest Portugal beaches. The fungal composition and diversity of this survey have been compared with earlier investigations on marine fungi of Portugal coast.

  4. The systematic relevance of conidiogenesis modes in the gilled Agaricales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Grit; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Weiss, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Dikaryotic and haploid mycelia of more than 150 gilled species of euagarics were studied morphologically and by molecular phylogenetic methods. The morphological investigations revealed anamorphs in more than 90 species that were often specific at the genus or family level. Thallic conidiogenesis dominated and varied from fragmentation of normally branched hyphae to the formation of differentiated sympodially branched conidiophores. Secession modes, coiling of the conidiogenous hyphae or the swelling of the conidia were additional distinguishing features. Phylogenetic analysis of the D1-D3 domains of the nuclear gene for the ribosomal large subunit using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo approach resulted in several well-supported groups that are consistent with anamorph morphology. These results indicate that the anamorphs provide valuable characters for a natural classification of the Agaricales.

  5. A survey of Daldinia species with large ascospores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, M.; Læssøe, Thomas; Simpson, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    structures, but no conidiogenous structures referable to known xylariaceous anamorphs were observed. D. grandis is reconsidered and viewed as a species of warmer climates in the Americas. Three new species are recognised from new combinations of anamorphic and teleomorphic characters: (1) D. novaezelandiae...... sp. nov. from New Zealand, a fungus obviously related to D. bakeri, which is also reported from that country; (2) D. dennisii sp. nov., from Australia and New Zealand, of which two varieties are erected; and (3) D. loculatoides sp. nov., from the UK and Canada with affinities to D. loculata. The type...

  6. Multiple gene sequences delimit Botryosphaeria australis sp. nov. from B. lutea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slippers, B.; Fourie, G.; Crous, P.W.; Coutinho, T.A.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Botryosphaeria lutea (anamorph Fusicoccum luteum) most easily is distinguished from other Botryosphaeria spp. by a yellow pigment that is formed in young cultures. This fungus has been reported from a number of cultivated hosts in New Zealand and Portugal. During a survey of Botryosphaeria fungi

  7. Borisade et al (10)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    cosmopolitan entomopathogenic fungi. They are anamorphs of Hypocreales which are virulent against important tropical agricultural pests. (Shahid, 2012; Borisade, 2015; Borisade and. Magan, 2015) and they are natural pest population regulators wherever they exist freely. (Augustyniuk-Kram, 2012). They occur in nature.

  8. Physiological performance of an Alaskan shrub (Alnus fruticosa) in response to disease (Valsa melanodiscus) and water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer K. Rohrs-Richey; Christa P.H. Mulder; Loretta M. Winton; Glen. Stanosz

    2011-01-01

    Following the decades-long warming and drying trend in Alaska, there is mounting evidence that temperature-induced drought stress is associated with disease outbreaks in the boreal forest. Recent evidence of this trend is an outbreak of Cytospora canker disease (fungal pathogen Valsa melanodiscus [anamorph = Cytospora umbrina...

  9. Cylindrocarpon root rot: multi-gene analysis reveals novel species within the Ilyonectria radicicola species complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabral, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Rego, C.; Oliveira, H.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Ilyonectria radicicola and its Cylindrocarpon-like anamorph represent a species complex that is commonly associated with root rot disease symptoms on a range of hosts. During the course of this study, several species could be distinguished from I. radicicola sensu stricto based on morphological and

  10. Salisapiliaceae – a new family of oomycetes from marsh grass litter of southeastern North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulvey, J.; Telle, S.; Nigrelli, L.; Lamour, K.; Thines, M.

    2010-01-01

    Leptographium spp. are anamorphs of Grosmannia residing in the order Ophiostomatales. These fungi are typically associated with bark-beetles and are common causal agents of sapstain in lumber and some are important tree pathogens. In this study, Leptographium spp. associated with bark beetles

  11. A complex of three new white-spored, sympatric and host range limited Geosmithia species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolařík, Miroslav; Kubátová, A.; Čepička, I.; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Šrůtka, P.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 12 (2005), s. 1323-1336 ISSN 0953-7562 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/1206; GA ČR GD206/03/H137 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : geosmithia * anamorphic fungi * rapd Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.572, year: 2005

  12. Impact of DNA data on fungal and yeast taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; Crous, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Fungal systematics is an essential part of biological research especially in the context of its ecological and economic implications. The classification of pleomorphic and non-pleomorphic anamorphs, however, is unsettled, which can be attributed to the historical practice of the dual

  13. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov and Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Fourie, P.H.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal

  14. A fissitunicate ascus mechanism in the Calosphaeriaceae, and novel species of Jattaea and Calosphaeria on Prunus wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    During a survey of Prunus wood from South Africa, isolations were made of three presumably Calosphaerialean fungi that formed hyphomycetous, phialidic anamorphs in culture. In order to reveal the phylogenetic relationship of these fungi, they were characterised on a morphological and molecular (LSU

  15. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov. and Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Fourie, P.H.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal

  16. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov. And Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Fourie, P.H.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal

  17. Phylogenetic lineages in the Botryosphaeriaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, M.J.; Rheeder, J.; Marasas, W.F.O.; Philips, A.J.L.; Alves, A.; Burgess, T.; Barber, P.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2006-01-01

    Botryosphaeria is a species-rich genus with a cosmopolitan distribution, commonly associated with dieback and cankers of woody plants. As many as 18 anamorph genera have been associated with Botryosphaeria, most of which have been reduced to synonymy under Diplodia (conidia mostly ovoid, pigmented,

  18. Observations on Neobarya, including new species and new combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candoussau, F.; Boqueras, M.; Gómez-Bolea, A.

    2007-01-01

     Technical abstract:  New combinations and new species are proposed in Neobarya: N. aurantiaca comb. nov., N. byssicola comb. nov., N. lichenicola comb. nov., N. lutea sp. nov., N. peltigerae sp. nov., N. xylariicola sp. nov. Neobarya agaricicola, and N. parasitica are redescribed. Anamorphs...... from Neobarya. A key to species is provided.     ...

  19. Liberomyces gen. nov with two new species of endophytic coelomycetes from broadleaf trees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pažoutová, Sylvie; Šrůtka, P.; Holuša, J.; Chudíčková, Milada; Kubátová, A.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 1 (2012), s. 198-210 ISSN 0027-5514 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0283 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : anamorph * alnus * phylogeny Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.110, year: 2012

  20. Clinical characteristics and epidemiology of pulmonary pseudallescheriasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantarcioglu, A.S.; de Hoog, G.S.; Guarro, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some members of the Pseudallescheria (anamorph Scedosporium) have emerged as an important cause of life-threatening infections in humans. These fungi may reach the lungs and bronchial tree causing a wide range of manifestations, from colonization of airways to deep pulmonary infections.

  1. Spirostaphylotrichin W, a spirocyclic γ-lactam isolated from liquid culture of Pyrenophora semeniperda, a potential mycoherbicide for cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) biocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Masia; Susan Meyer; Suzette Clement; Anna Andolfi; Alessio Cimmino; Antonio. Evidente

    2014-01-01

    A novel spirocyclic γ-lactam, named spirostaphylotrichin W (1), was isolated together with the well known and closely related spirostaphylotrichins A, C, D, R and V, as well as triticone E, from the liquid cultures of Pyrenophora semeniperda (anamorph: Drechslera), a seed pathogen proposed for cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) biocontrol. Spirostaphylotrichin W was...

  2. Aspects of sexual reproduction in Mycosphaerella species on wheat and barley : genetic studies on specificity, mapping, and fungicide resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ware, S.B.

    2006-01-01

    Mycosphaerella species are haploid ascomycetes that cause major economic losses in crops that include cereals, citrus fruits, and bananas, among others. Two organisms in this genus are Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel) .I. Schröt (anamorph Sepioria tritici) and Septoriapasserinii. M graminicola is

  3. Thai marine fungal diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Rattaket Choeyklin; Souwalak Phongpaichit; Ittichai Chatmala; Jariya Sakayaroj; Apiradee Pilantanapak; E.B. Gareth Jones

    2006-01-01

    The marine fungal diversity of Thailand was investigated and 116 Ascomycota, 3 Basidiomycota, 28 anamorphic fungi, 7 Stramenopiles recorded, with 30 tentatively identified. These species have primarily been collected from driftwood and attached decayed wood of mangrove trees. The holotype number of 15 taxa is from Thailand and 33 are new records from the country.

  4. Thai marine fungal diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattaket Choeyklin

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungal diversity of Thailand was investigated and 116 Ascomycota, 3 Basidiomycota, 28 anamorphic fungi, 7 Stramenopiles recorded, with 30 tentatively identified. These species have primarily been collected from driftwood and attached decayed wood of mangrove trees. The holotype number of 15 taxa is from Thailand and 33 are new records from the country.

  5. Endophytic Fungi in a Hordeum Germplasm Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson; S.L. Clement; W.J. Kaiser

    1991-01-01

    The incidence of clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes in a Hordeum spp. germplasm collection is reported. The potential application of endophytes as biocontrol agents against pests of cereal crops is recognized. Suggestions are proposed to modify existing germplasm maintenance procedures to ensure that both seed viability and endophyte viability...

  6. Survey and Detection of Endophytic Fungi in Lolium Germ Plasm by Direct Staining and Aphid Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson; Stephen L. Clement; Walter J. Kaiser

    1991-01-01

    Clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes were detected in 28 of 85 accessions from five of eight species in a collection of Lolium germ plasm. Comparative descriptions of endophytic mycelium in seeds of L. multiflorum, L. perenne, L. persicum, L. rigidum, and L. temulentum revealed morphological characteristics...

  7. First record of Genus Leveillula on a member of the Moraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the basis of morphological characters of the anamorph and telemorph, this fungus was identified as Leveillula taurica. This fungi is the second powdery mildew species in addition to Oidium erysipheoide reported for Moraceae. This is also the first report of genus Leveillula on Moraceae in the world making Moraceae the ...

  8. Taxonomy and phylogeny of new wood- and soil-inhabiting Sporothrix species in the Ophiostoma stenoceras-Sporothrix schenckii complex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meyer, E.M.; de Beer, Z.W.; Summerbell, R.C.; Moharram, A.M.; de Hoog, G.S.; Vismer, H.F.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Sporothrix, one of the anamorph genera of Ophiostoma, includes the important human pathogen S. schenckii and various fungi associated with insects and sap stain of wood. A survey of fungi from wood utility poles in South Africa yielded two distinct groups of Sporothrix isolates from different

  9. Electrophoretic protein patterns of Geotrichum and its teleomorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoog, G S; Amberger, A E

    1990-08-01

    Total patterns of water-soluble proteins of 35 strains (7 species) of Galactomyces and Dipodascus strains with their respective Geotrichum anamorphs are compared. Quantitative differences among a number of species are found with iso-electric focusing; bands that characterize species are selected. Qualitative differences are found between the teleomorph genera.

  10. Structural insights into the inhibition of cellobiohydrolase Cel7A by xylo‐oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momeni, Majid Haddad; Ubhayasekera, Wimal; Sandgren, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph of Trichoderma reesei) is the predominant source of enzymes for industrial saccharification of lignocellulose biomass. The major enzyme, cellobiohydrolase Cel7A, constitutes nearly half of the total protein in the secretome. The performance of su...

  11. Stem cankers on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Australia reveal a complex of pathogenic Diaporthe (Phomopsis) species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, S.M.; Tan, Y.P.; Young, A.J.; Neate, S.M.; Aitken, E.A.B.; Shivas, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of Diaporthe (anamorph Phomopsis) species associated with stem canker of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Australia was studied using morphology, DNA sequence analysis and pathology. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three clades that did not correspond with known taxa, and these are

  12. Chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Thamnomyces (Xylariaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, M.; Fournier, J.; Læssøe, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The tropical genus Thamnomyces is characterized by having wiry, black, brittle stromata and early deliquescent asci, lacking an amyloid apical apparatus. Thamnomyces is regarded as a member of the Xylariaceae because the morphology of its ascospores and the anamorphic structures are typical for t...

  13. Phylogenetic and morphological re-evaluation of the Botryosphaeria species causing diseases of Mangifera indica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slippers, B.; Johnson, G.I.; Crous, P.W.; Coutinho, T.A.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Species of Botryosphaeria are among the most serious pathogens that affect mango trees and fruit. Several species occur on mangoes, and these are identified mainly on the morpholopy of the anamorphs. Common taxa include Dothiorella dominicana, D. mangiferae (= Natrassia mangiferae), D. aromatica and

  14. Evidence of cAMP involvement in cellobiohydrolase expression and secretion by Trichoderma reesei in presence of the inducer sophorose

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Karoline Maria Vieira; Costa, Mariana do Nascimento; de Paula, Renato Graciano; Mendonça-Natividade, Flávia Costa; Ricci-Azevedo, Rafael; Silva, Roberto Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The signaling second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) regulates many aspects of cellular function in all organisms. Previous studies have suggested a role for cAMP in the regulation of gene expression of cellulolytic enzymes in Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina). Methods The effects of cAMP in T. reesei were analyzed through both acti...

  15. Description of Kuraishia piskuri f.a., sp. nov., a new methanol assimilating yeast and transfer of phylogenetically related Candida species to the genera Kuraishia and Nakazawaea as new combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new anamorphic yeast Kuraishia piskuri, f.a., sp. nov. is described for three strains that were isolated from insect frass from trees growing in Florida, USA (type strain, NRRL YB-2544, CBS 13714). Species placement was based on phylogenetic analysis of nuclear gene sequences for the D1/D2 domai...

  16. Phylogeny, detection, and mating behaviour of Mycosphaerella spp. occurring on banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.

    2008-01-01

    The genus Mycosphaerella is phylogenetically heterogeneous, and has been linked to more than 30 anamorphic genera. Plant pathogenic species of Mycosphaerella are among the most common and destructive plant pathogens, causing considerable economic losses on a wide range of hosts by invading leaf and

  17. A Synopsis of the Taxonomic Revisions in the Genus Ceratocystis Including a Review of Blue-Staining Species Associated with Dendroctonus Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelma J. Perry

    1991-01-01

    Taxonomic revisions in both the teleomorphic (sexual) and anamorphic (asexual) forms of the genus Ceratocystis Ellis & Halstead are chronicled in this review. Recognized species associated with Dendroctonus Erichson bark beetles are summarized, and several species that have been published as recombinations, species that were...

  18. Sporangiospore-to-yeast conversion: Model for morphogenesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report reviewed the specific characteristics of Mucor circinelloides in solid cultures and its capacity for multiple anamorphic expressions in synthetic broth, including holoblastic, holothallic, enterothallic conidia, and vesicular conidia head group as well as yeast cells. Attempt was made to show that the sequence of ...

  19. Population structure and pathotype diversity of the wheat blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae 25 years after its emergence in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Maciel, J.L.; Ceresini, P.; Castroagudin, V.L.; Zala, M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Since its first report in Brazil in 1985, wheat blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph: Pyricularia oryzae), has become increasingly important in South America, where the disease is still spreading. We used 11 microsatellite loci to elucidate the population structure of the wheat blast

  20. First localities in Poland of the recently described fungus Cordyceps bifusispora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bujakiewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two localities of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bifusispora, hitherto not reported from Poland, are characterised by their site conditions and co-occurring macrofungi during the period of the appearance of its stromata. Description of this fungus culture is given and some remarks on the resemblance of its teleomorphs and anamorphs from different collections are discussed.

  1. Unique Femtosecond Micromachining Methods in Semi-Insulating and Conducting Silicon Carbide (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brewer, Chris; Dorsey, Don; Campbell, Angela; Juhl, Shane; DesAutels, G. L; Finet, Marc; Ristich, Scott; Whitaker, Matt; Powers, Peter E; Zhan, Qiwen

    2007-01-01

    ...); a wide bandgap semiconductor material provided by Wright-Patterson AFB AFRL/MLPS. Gratings were micro-machined into these materials using a novel anamorphic lens design and an automated x, y, z linear stage to control the sample position...

  2. Romellia is congeneric with Togninia and description of Conidiotheca gen. nov. for one species of this genus with polysporous asci

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Réblová, Martina; Mostert, L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 111, - (2007), s. 299-307 ISSN 0953-7562 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Calosphaeriales * phylogeny * anamorphs Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.861, year: 2007

  3. Calonectria (Cylindrocladium) species associated with dying Pinus cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Rodas, C.A.; Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Calonectria (Ca.) species and their Cylindrocladium (Cy.) anamorphs are well-known pathogens of forest nursery plants in subtropical and tropical areas of the world. An investigation of the mortality of rooted Pinus cuttings in a commercial forest nursery in Colombia led to the isolation of two

  4. Molecular and morphological characterization of Phyllactinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phyllactinia cassiae-fistulae and its Ovulariopsis anamorph, a causal agent of powdery mildew on Cassia fistula, have been found in Thailand for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis using the 28S ribosomal DNA sequences clearly demonstrated that P. cassiae-fistulae distinctly formed a unique clade at the basal part of ...

  5. Candida spencermartinsiae sp. nov., Candida taylorii sp. nov. and Pseudozyma abaconensis sp. nov., novel yeasts from mangrove and coral reef ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statzell-Tallman, Adele; Scorzetti, Gloria; Fell, Jack W

    2010-08-01

    Three species of yeasts are taxonomically described for strains isolated from marine environments. Candida spencermartinsiae sp. nov. (type strain CBS 10894T =NRRL Y-48663T) and Candida taylorii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8508T =NRRL Y-27213T) are anamorphic ascomycetous yeasts in a phylogenetic cluster of marine yeasts in the Debaryomyces/Lodderomyces clade of the Saccharomycetales. The two species were isolated from multiple locations among coral reefs and mangrove habitats. Pseudozyma abaconensis sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8380T =NRRL Y-17380T) is an anamorphic basidiomycete that is related to the smut fungi of the genus Ustilago in the Ustilaginales. P. abaconensis was collected from waters adjacent to a coral reef.

  6. Description of Martiniozyma gen. nov. and transfer of seven Candida species to Saturnispora as new combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2015-10-01

    DNA sequence analysis has shown Candida abiesophila (NRRL Y-11514(T), CBS 5366(T)) and Candida asiatica (NRRL Y-63747(T), CBS 10863(T)) to be members of a small clade that is phylogenetically separate from other yeasts. In view of their isolation from neighboring genera, such as Pichia and Saturnispora, the two anamorphic species are proposed for transfer to Martiniozyma gen. nov. (MycoBank MB 812061) with Martiniozyma abiesophila designated as type species (MycoBank MB 812062). In keeping with the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, which specifies that related anamorphic and teleomorphic species can be assigned to the same genus, the following Candida species are transferred to Saturnispora to conform with their phylogenetic placement: Candida diversa (NRRL Y-5713(T)), Candida halmiae (CBS 11009(T)), Candida sanitii (CBS 10864(T)), Candida sekii (CBS 10931(T)), Candida siamensis (CBS 11022(T)), Candida silvae (NRRL Y-6725(T)) and Candida suwanaritii (CBS 11021(T)).

  7. Three new asexual arthroconidial yeasts, Geotrichum carabidarum sp. nov., Geotrichum histeridarum sp. nov., and Geotrichum cucujoidarum sp. nov., isolated from the gut of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sung-Oui; Blackwell, Meredith

    2006-02-01

    Twenty arthroconidial yeasts were isolated from the digestive tract of basidiome-feeding beetles and lepidopteran larvae. All of the yeasts reproduced only asexually by arthroconidia and some by endo- or blastoconidia as well. Based on the comparisons of sequences in ribosomal RNA genes and other taxonomic characteristics, the yeasts were identified as three unknown Geotrichum species. The three new species are described as Geotrichum carabidarum (NRRL Y-27727T), G. histeridarum (NRRL Y-27729T), and G. cucujoidarum (NRRL Y-27731T). Phylogenetic analyses from ribosomal DNA sequences showed that members of the genus Geotrichum and related arthroconidial yeast taxa were divided into two major clades: (1) Dipodascus and Galactomyces with Geotrichum anamorphs including all the new species; and (2) Magnusiomyces with Saprochaete anamorphs. G. cucujoidarum formed a subclade with G. fermentans and Geotrichum sp. Y-5419, while the two closely related species, G. carabidarum and G. histeridarum, represent a new basal subclade in the clade of Geotrichum and its teleomorphs.

  8. Calonectria (Cylindrocladium) species associated with dying Pinus cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, L; Rodas, C A; Crous, P W; Wingfield, B D; Wingfield, M J

    2009-12-01

    Calonectria (Ca.) species and their Cylindrocladium (Cy.) anamorphs are well-known pathogens of forest nursery plants in subtropical and tropical areas of the world. An investigation of the mortality of rooted Pinus cuttings in a commercial forest nursery in Colombia led to the isolation of two Cylindrocladium anamorphs of Calonectria species. The aim of this study was to identify these species using DNA sequence data and morphological comparisons. Two species were identified, namely one undescribed species, and Cy. gracile, which is allocated to Calonectria as Ca. brassicae. The new species, Ca. brachiatica, resides in the Ca. brassicae species complex. Pathogenicity tests with Ca. brachiatica and Ca. brassicae showed that both are able to cause disease on Pinus maximinoi and P. tecunumanii. An emended key is provided to distinguish between Calonectria species with clavate vesicles and 1-septate macroconidia.

  9. Ultrastructural aspects in perithecia hyphae septal pores of Glomerella cingulata F. SP. Phaseoli

    OpenAIRE

    Roca M.,María Gabriela; Ongarelli,Maria das Graças; Davide,Lisete Chamma; Mendes-Costa,Maria Cristina

    2000-01-01

    Glomerella cingulata (Stonem.) Spauld. & Schrenk f. sp. phaseoli, better known in its anamorphic state Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magn.) Briosi & Cav., is a causal agent of anthracnose in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Ultrastructural aspects of the perithecial hyphae of this pathogen were studied. The perithecia hyphae septal pores were found either plugged by a vesicle or unplugged. Some perithecia hyphae septa presented no pore. The Woronin bodies, close to the sept...

  10. Ultrastructural aspects in perithecia hyphae septal pores of Glomerella cingulata F. SP. Phaseoli Ultraestrutura dos poros septais em hifas de peritécios de Glomerella cingulata f. sp. phaseoli

    OpenAIRE

    María Gabriela Roca M.; Maria das Graças Ongarelli; Lisete Chamma Davide; Maria Cristina Mendes-Costa

    2000-01-01

    Glomerella cingulata (Stonem.) Spauld. & Schrenk f. sp. phaseoli, better known in its anamorphic state Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magn.) Briosi & Cav., is a causal agent of anthracnose in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Ultrastructural aspects of the perithecial hyphae of this pathogen were studied. The perithecia hyphae septal pores were found either plugged by a vesicle or unplugged. Some perithecia hyphae septa presented no pore. The Woronin bodies, close to the septal pores, ap...

  11. Phytotoxic metabolites produced by fungi involvedin cork oak decline

    OpenAIRE

    Maddau, Lucia; Spanu, Emanuela; Linaleddu, B. T.; Franceschini, Antonio; Evidente, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Diplodia corticola, anamorph of Botryosphaeria corticola Phillips, Alves et Luque, and Biscognauxia mediterranea (De Not.) O. Kuntze (= Hypoxylon mediterraneum) have often been associated with serious decline phenomena, which have been affecting the cork oak forest in Italy and other Mediterranean countries for several years. Diplodia corticola is widespread in Sardinian oak forests, and can affect plants of different ages, inducing symptoms which include dieback, cankers and v...

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of cercospora and mycosphaerella based on the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, S B; Dunkle, L D; Zismann, V L

    2001-07-01

    ABSTRACT Most of the 3,000 named species in the genus Cercospora have no known sexual stage, although a Mycosphaerella teleomorph has been identified for a few. Mycosphaerella is an extremely large and important genus of plant pathogens, with more than 1,800 named species and at least 43 associated anamorph genera. The goal of this research was to perform a large-scale phylogenetic analysis to test hypotheses about the past evolutionary history of Cercospora and Mycosphaerella. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data (ITS1, 5.8S rRNA gene, ITS2), the genus Mycosphaerella is monophyletic. In contrast, many anamorph genera within Mycosphaerella were polyphyletic and were not useful for grouping species. One exception was Cercospora, which formed a highly supported monophyletic group. Most Cercospora species from cereal crops formed a subgroup within the main Cercospora cluster. Only species within the Cercospora cluster produced the toxin cercosporin, suggesting that the ability to produce this compound had a single evolutionary origin. Intraspecific variation for 25 taxa in the Mycosphaerella clade averaged 1.7 nucleotides (nts) in the ITS region. Thus, isolates with ITS sequences that differ by two or more nucleotides may be distinct species. ITS sequences of groups I and II of the gray leaf spot pathogen Cercospora zeae-maydis differed by 7 nts and clearly represent different species. There were 6.5 nt differences on average between the ITS sequences of the sorghum pathogen Cercospora sorghi and the maize pathogen Cercospora sorghi var. maydis, indicating that the latter is a separate species and not simply a variety of Cercospora sorghi. The large monophyletic Mycosphaerella cluster contained a number of anamorph genera with no known teleomorph associations. Therefore, the number of anamorph genera related to Mycosphaerella may be much larger than suspected previously.

  13. Gibberella zeae on St. John's wort in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gibberella zeae (anamorph Fusarium graminearum was determined on seed of St. John's wort produced in localities Pančevo, Gorobilje and Kačarevo during 2008 and 2009. Morphological characteristics of monosporial isolates were described. All tested isolates formed in vitro perithecia, and were classified as F. graminearum (syn. F. graminearum Group 2. Pathogenicity was confirmed by the artificial inoculation of St. John's wort seed.

  14. Polyancora globosa gen. sp. nov., an aeroaquatic fungus from Malaysian peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Yule, Catherine M

    2006-10-01

    During an investigation of submerged leaves and twigs sampled from tropical peat swamp forests located in Peninsular Malaysia, an anamorphic fungus not attributable to a described genus was detected and isolated in pure culture. Conidial ontogeny was thoroughly studied and illustrated using both light and SEM, which revealed a unique conidial morphology. Analysis of partial nuLSU rDNA and ITS data revealed a phylogenetic position within the Xylariales (Ascomycota), but family affiliation remained unclear.

  15. New records in the Tubeufiaceae from Andean Patagonian forests of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Romina Magali; Bianchinotti, Maria Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Tubeufiaceae (Pleosporales, Ascomycota) occurring on native trees from the Andean Patagonian forests in Argentina are described and illustrated. Acanthostigma minutum and Tubeufia cerea with its anamorphic state are reported from South America for the first time on Nothofagus dombeyi and N. antarctica, respectively. Both species were up to now only known from the Northern Hemisphere. Fil: Sanchez, Romina Magali. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico ...

  16. Population Structure of the Sour Rot Pathogens Galactomyces citri-aurantii and G. geotrichum and Evaluation of Sterol Demethylation Inhibitors for Postharvest Management of Citrus Decays

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, Alistair Hartley

    2011-01-01

    Sour rot of citrus caused by Galactomyces citri-aurantii (anamorph: Geotrichum citri-aurantii (Ferraris) Butler) is an important postharvest disease that affects all varieties of citrus fruit grown in California and is particularly prevalent in the lemon industry since the fruit is stored at approximately 12°C and 95% relative humidity. The postharvest fungicides currently registered to manage green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum including imazalil, thiabendazole, as well as azoxystrobi...

  17. Recognition of hypoxyloid and xylarioid Entonaema species and allied Xylaria species from a comparison of holomorphic morphology, HPLC profiles, andribosomal DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, M.; Fournier, J.; Læssøe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The genus Entonaema comprises Xylariaceae with hollow, gelatinous stromata that accumulate liquid. Some of its species, including the type species, appear related to Daldinia from a polyphasic approach, comprising morphological studies, comparisons of ribosomal DNA sequences, and high performance...... more promising as chemotaxonomic traits to segregate this genus. As xylaral was also found in Nemania and Stilbohypoxylon spp., while being apparently absent in Hypoxylon and allied genera, it may be a chemotaxonomic marker for Xylariaceae with Geniculosporium-like anamorphs...

  18. Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina (LINNAEUS, 1758 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae as a host of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana LI, LI, HUANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartnik Czesław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes, for the first time, the occurrence of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana (anamorph: Beauveria bassiana on the imago of the endangered beetle Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina from the Low Beskid Mountains (the Carpathians, SE Poland. Furthermore, an isolate of the saprotrophic fungus Hypoxylon fragiforme was obtained as a result of laboratory tests on R. alpina specimens. Relationships between the identified fungi and R. alpina are discussed.

  19. Isolation, Culture and Characterization of Hirsutella sinensis Mycelium from Caterpillar Fungus Fruiting Body

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Yun-Fei; Liau, Jian-Ching; Lee, Chien-Sheng; Chiu, Chen-Yaw; Martel, Jan; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Tseng, Shun-Fu; Ojcius, David M.; Lu, Chia-Chen; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Young, John D.

    2017-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (previously called Cordyceps sinensis) has been used for centuries in Asia as a tonic to improve health and longevity. Recent studies show that O. sinensis produces a wide range of biological effects on cells, laboratory animals and humans, including anti-fatigue, anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor activities. In view of the rarity of O. sinensis fruiting bodies in nature, cultivation of its anamorph mycelium represent...

  20. Zoom lens compensator for a cylindrical window in laser anemometer uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Seasholtz, Richard G.

    1987-01-01

    In laser anemometer systems, the flow fields under study are typically enclosed by a window. Aberration of a flat window can be corrected by a shift of the object distance. A zooming correction lens elimates the astigmatism caused by a thick cylindrical window and yields diffraction-limited performance for a monochromatic laser anemometer system. The effects of residual anamorphic distortion are discussed, and procedures for correcting these effects are presented.

  1. Phylogeny of the Botryosphaeriaceae reveals patterns of host association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wet, Juanita; Slippers, Bernard; Preisig, Oliver; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Three anamorph genera of the Botryosphaeriaceae namely Diplodia, Lasiodiplodia and Dothiorella have typically dark, ovoid conidia with thick walls, and are consequently difficult to distinguish from each other. These genera are well-known pathogens of especially pine species. We generated a multiple gene genealogy to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of Botryosphaeriaceae with dark conidial anamorphs, and mapped host associations based on this phylogeny. The multiple gene genealogy separated Diplodia, Lasiodiplodia and Dothiorella and it revealed trends in the patterns of host association. The data set was expanded to include more lineages of the Botryosphaeriaceae, and included all isolates from different host species for which ITS sequence data are available. Results indicate that Diplodia species occur mainly on gymnosperms, with a few species on both gymnosperms and angiosperms. Lasiodiplodia species occur equally on both gymnosperms and angiosperms, Dothiorella species are restricted to angiosperms and Neofusicoccum species occur mainly on angiosperms with rare reports on Southern Hemisphere gymnosperms. Botryosphaeria species with Fusicoccum anamorphs occur mostly on angiosperms with rare reports on gymnosperms. Ancestral state reconstruction suggests that a putative ancestor of the Botryosphaeriaceae most likely evolved on the angiosperms. Another interesting observation was that both host generalist and specialist species were observed in all the lineages of the Botryosphaeriaceae, with little evidence of host associated co-evolution.

  2. A Systematic Review of the Mysterious Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in Dong-ChongXiaCao (冬蟲夏草 Dōng Chóng Xià Cǎo) and Related Bioactive Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hui-Chen; Hsieh, Chienyan; Lin, Fang-Yi; Hsu, Tai-Hao

    2013-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn.† Cordyceps sinensis), which was originally used in traditional Tibetan and Chinese medicine, is called either “yartsa gunbu” or “DongChongXiaCao (冬蟲夏草 Dōng Chóng Xià Cǎo)” (“winter worm-summer grass”), respectively. The extremely high price of DongChongXiaCao, approximately USD $20,000 to 40,000 per kg, has led to it being regarded as “soft gold” in China. The multi-fungi hypothesis has been proposed for DongChongXiaCao; however, Hirsutella sinensis is the anamorph of O. sinensis. In Chinese, the meaning of “DongChongXiaCao” is different for O. sinensis, Cordyceps spp.,‡ and Cordyceps spƒ. Over 30 bioactivities, such as immunomodulatory, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported for wild DongChongXiaCao and for the mycelia and culture supernatants of O. sinensis. These bioactivities derive from over 20 bioactive ingredients, mainly extracellular polysaccharides, intracellular polysaccharides, cordycepin, adenosine, mannitol, and sterols. Other bioactive components have been found as well, including two peptides (cordymin and myriocin), melanin, lovastatin, γ-aminobutyric acid, and cordysinins. Recently, the bioactivities of O. sinensis were described, and they include antiarteriosclerosis, antidepression, and antiosteoporosis activities, photoprotection, prevention and treatment of bowel injury, promotion of endurance capacity, and learning-memory improvement. H. sinensis has the ability to accelerate leukocyte recovery, stimulate lymphocyte proliferation, antidiabetes, and improve kidney injury. Starting January 1st, 2013, regulation will dictate that one fungus can only have one name, which will end the system of using separate names for anamorphs. The anamorph name “H. sinensis” has changed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants to O. sinensis. PMID:24716152

  3. Conidial germination patterns in powdery mildews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R T A; Braun, U

    2009-05-01

    Four conidial germination types namely, polygoni (syn. Pseudoidium), cichoracearum (syn. Reticuloidium), pannosa (syn. Fibroidium) and fuliginea (syn. Magnicellulatae) are commonly used as an aid in the identification of the Oidium anamorphs of powdery mildews. However, results of germination tests and a survey of the literature showed that these types did not adequately distinguish all taxa and did not reflect the range of species covered. Hence two new main types, Striatoidium and Blumeria, are proposed for the newly created genus Neoerysiphe and for the unique pattern of B. graminis. Two new names, orthotubus and brevitubus subtypes of Fibroidium, are proposed for the pannosa and fuliginea types respectively. Also proposed is a special longitubus pattern for the long, undifferentiated, negatively hydrotropic germ tubes prevalent in Erysiphe trifolii and species in Golovinomyces sect. Depressi. The recognition of the Striatoidium type of N. galeopsidis as distinct from the Pseudoidium type of E. elevata facilitated the detection of a simultaneous infection of Catalpa by these two powdery mildews. A key is provided for the identification of Oidium genera based on germination types. A review of germination patterns in the tribe Phyllactinieae found no consistent differences amongst the genera. Golovinomyces sect. Depressi is re-described to accommodate Golovinomyces spp. often having a longitubus pattern of germination. It includes G. cichoracearum var. latisporus, now considered a separate species based on its germination type, other anamorphic morphology and previous molecular sequence analyses. A new combination, Golovinomyces ambrosiae, is proposed for this species. Other anomalies within G. cichoracearum s. lat. were addressed by proposing another new combination, G. fischeri for the former G. cichoracearum var. fischeri that differs from G. cichoracearum s. str. in having larger chasmothecia and a well distinguished anamorph, and by proposing a new species, G

  4. A Systematic Review of the Mysterious Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in DongChongXiaCao (冬蟲夏草 Dōng Chóng Xià Cǎo and Related Bioactive Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chen Lo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn.† Cordyceps sinensis, which was originally used in traditional Tibetan and Chinese medicine, is called either “yartsa gunbu” or “DongChongXiaCao (冬蟲夏草 Dōng Chóng Xià Cǎo” (“winter worm-summer grass”, respectively. The extremely high price of DongChongXiaCao, approximately USD $20,000 to 40,000 per kg, has led to it being regarded as “soft gold” in China. The multi-fungi hypothesis has been proposed for DongChongXiaCao; however, Hirsutella sinensis is the anamorph of O. sinensis. In Chinese, the meaning of “DongChongXiaCao” is different for O. sinensis, Cordyceps spp.,‡ and Cordyceps spƒ. Over 30 bioactivities, such as immunomodulatory, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported for wild DongChongXiaCao and for the mycelia and culture supernatants of O. sinensis. These bioactivities derive from over 20 bioactive ingredients, mainly extracellular polysaccharides, intracellular polysaccharides, cordycepin, adenosine, mannitol, and sterols. Other bioactive components have been found as well, including two peptides (cordymin and myriocin, melanin, lovastatin, γ-aminobutyric acid, and cordysinins. Recently, the bioactivities of O. sinensis were described, and they include antiarteriosclerosis, antidepression, and antiosteoporosis activities, photoprotection, prevention and treatment of bowel injury, promotion of endurance capacity, and learning-memory improvement. H. sinensis has the ability to accelerate leukocyte recovery, stimulate lymphocyte proliferation, antidiabetes, and improve kidney injury. Starting January 1st, 2013, regulation will dictate that one fungus can only have one name, which will end the system of using separate names for anamorphs. The anamorph name “H. sinensis” has changed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants to O. sinensis.

  5. Hypocrea rufa/Trichoderma viride: a reassessment, and description of five closely related species with and without warted conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaklitsch, Walter M; Samuels, Gary J; Dodd, Sarah L; Lu, Bing-Sheng; Druzhinina, Irina S

    2006-01-01

    The type species of the genus Hypocrea (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi), H. rufa, is re-defined and epitypified using a combination of phenotype (morphology of teleomorphs and anamorphs, and characteristics in culture) and phylogenetic analyses of the translation-elongation factor 1alpha gene. Its anamorph, T. viride, the type species of Trichoderma, is re-described and epitypified. Eidamia viridescens is combined as Trichoderma viridescens and is recognised as one of the most morphologically and phylogenetically similar relatives of T. viride. Its teleomorph is newly described as Hypocrea viridescens. Contrary to frequent citations of H. rufa and T. viride in the literature, this species is relatively rare. Although both T. viride and T. viridescens have a wide geographic distribution, their greatest genetic diversity appears to be in Europe and North America. Hypocrea vinosa is characterised and its anamorph, T. vinosum sp. nov., is described. Conidia of T. vinosum are subglobose and warted. The new species T. gamsii is proposed. It shares eidamia-like morphology of conidiophores with T. viridescens, but it has smooth, ellipsoidal conidia that have the longest L/W ratio that we have seen in Trichoderma. Trichoderma scalesiae, an endophyte of trunks of Scalesia pedunculata in the Galapagos Islands, is described as new. It only produces conidia on a low-nutrient agar to which filter paper has been added. Additional phylogenetically distinct clades are recognised and provisionally delimited from the species here described. Trichoderma neokoningii, a T. koningii-like species, is described from a collection made in Peru on a fruit of Theobroma cacao infected with Moniliophthora roreri.

  6. Ultrastructural aspects in perithecia hyphae septal pores of Glomerella cingulata F. SP. Phaseoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca M. María Gabriela

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomerella cingulata (Stonem. Spauld. & Schrenk f. sp. phaseoli, better known in its anamorphic state Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magn. Briosi & Cav., is a causal agent of anthracnose in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Ultrastructural aspects of the perithecial hyphae of this pathogen were studied. The perithecia hyphae septal pores were found either plugged by a vesicle or unplugged. Some perithecia hyphae septa presented no pore. The Woronin bodies, close to the septal pores, appeared as globose structures which were more electron dense than the occlusions plugging the septal pore.

  7. Peptide inhibitors of appressorium development in Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samarrai, Taha H; Sullivan, Patrick A; Templeton, Matthew D; Farley, Peter C

    2002-04-09

    The phytopathogen Glomerella cingulata (anamorph: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) infects host tissue by means of a specialised infection structure, the appressorium. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-mating factor pheromone, the Saccharomyces kluyveri alpha-mating factor pheromone and a hendecapeptide produced by G. cingulata inhibit appressorium development. The amino acid sequence of the G. cingulata peptide, GYFSYPHGNLF, is different from that of the mature pheromone peptides of other filamentous fungi. The peptide has sequence similarity with the Saccharomyces alpha-mating factor pheromones, but is unable to elicit growth arrest in S. cerevisiae.

  8. Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand* §

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-kai; Hyde, Kevin D.; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed. PMID:18837113

  9. Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Kai; Hyde, Kevin D; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2008-10-01

    Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed.

  10. Diversity of higher marine fungi at Hat Khanom-Mu Ko Thale Tai National Park, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jariya Sakayaroj

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Species occurrence and distribution of higher marine fungi at Hat Khanom-Mu Ko Thale Tai National Park, Nakhon SiThammarat Province, Southern Thailand was investigated. Four collections from four sites yielded 112 higher marine fungirepresenting 79 ascomycetes, 3 basidiomycetes, 30 anamorphic fungi, while others await further identification. Average percentageoccurrence of fungi recorded ranged from 0.05-11.3%. Species diversity, richness, and evenness were greatest atSite IV, Ao Tok, Koh Taen. The most frequently encountered taxa for all sites (>10% were Corollospora maritima andLindra thallasiae. Lindra thallasiae and Swampomyces aegyptiacus were recorded for the first time in Thailand.

  11. Mating Type Protein Mat1-2 from Asexual Aspergillus fumigatus Drives Sexual Reproduction in Fertile Aspergillus nidulans▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pyrzak, Wioletta; Miller, Karen Y.; Miller, Bruce L.

    2008-01-01

    The lack of an experimentally amenable sexual genetic system in Aspergillus fumigatus is a major limitation in the study of the organism's pathogenesis. A recent comparative genome analysis revealed evidence for potential sexuality in A. fumigatus. Homologs of mating type genes as well as other genes of the “sexual machinery” have been identified in anamorphic A. fumigatus. The mat1-2 gene encodes a homolog of MatA, an HMG box mating transcriptional factor (MatHMG) that regulates sexual devel...

  12. Extended studies on the diversity of arthropod-pathogenic fungi in Austria and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Tkaczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of studies on diversity of arthropod-pathogenic fungi in selected habitats in Austria and Poland carried out in the years 2006-2007 and 2009-2010 are discussed. In total 47 species of entomopathogenic fungi were found as pathogens of different arthropods in Austria. Twenty six entomophthoralean species from different insects and one species from mites were identified and 16 of them are recorded as new to Austria. From among 21 species of anamorphic Hypocreales (Ascomycota affecting arthropods in Austria, 13 species so far have not been known from this country. In total 51 species of fungi affecting different arthropods in Poland were recorded, among them 28 species of Entomophthorales and 23 anamorphic Hypocreales (Ascomycota were separated. The most frequent species of the entomopathogenic fungi both in agricultural and afforested areas in Austria were the common and usually worldwide distributed cordycipitaceous anamorphs Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea and in areas of this study less numerous I. farinosa. The most frequent pathogens occurring in mite communities on plants and in wood infested by insects were Hirsutella species. Several entomophthoralean species developed epizootics that caused high reduction in host populations of different arthropods in both countries. Especially interesting is the first record of mycoses (up to 60% mortality, caused by Zoophthora spp. on Phyllobius beetles in a mixed forest near Białowieża. During our joint research, we found the first time in Poland and Europe, the presence of the fungus Furia cf. shandongensis on earwigs and Hirsutella entomophila on Ips typographus adults in forest habitats. From the feeding sites of the latter bark beetle and other subcortical species in oak bark (mostly Dryocoetes villosus and D. alni in black alder over a dozen of various Lecanicillium strains - including few of the features not allowing to classify them to any of so far known species – were

  13. [Indiscriminate use of Latin name for natural Cordyceps sinensis insect-fungi complex and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yi-Sang; Zhu, Jia-Shi

    2016-04-01

    Natural Cordyceps sinensis(Dongchongxiacao) is an insect-fungi complex containing multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis(≡Cordyceps sinensis) fungi and dead body of larva of the family of Hepialidae. But natural C. sinensis and O. sinensis fungi use the same Latin name, resulting in uncertainty of the specific meaning, even disturbing the formulation and implementation of governmental policies and regulations, and influencing consumer psychology onthe market. This paper reviews the history and current status of the indiscriminate use of the Latin name O. sinensis for both the natural insect-fungi complex C. sinensis and O. sinensis fungi and lists the rename suggetions. Some scholars suggested using the term O. sinensis for the fungi and renaming the natural C. sinensis "Chinese cordyceps". Others suggested renaming the natural C. sinensis "Ophiocordyceps & Hepialidae". Both suggestions have not reached general consensus due to various academic concerns. This paper also reviews the exacerbation of the academic uncertainties when forcing implementing the 2011 Amsterdam Declaration "One Fungus=One Name" under the academic debate. Joint efforts of mycological, zoological and botany-TCM taxonomists and properly initiating the dispute systems offered by International Mycology Association may solve the debate on the indiscriminate use of the Latin name O.sinensis for the natural insect-fungi complex,the teleomorph and anamorph(s) of O. sinensis fungi. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Isolation, Culture and Characterization of Hirsutella sinensis Mycelium from Caterpillar Fungus Fruiting Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yun-Fei; Liau, Jian-Ching; Lee, Chien-Sheng; Chiu, Chen-Yaw; Martel, Jan; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Tseng, Shun-Fu; Ojcius, David M; Lu, Chia-Chen; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Young, John D

    2017-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (previously called Cordyceps sinensis) has been used for centuries in Asia as a tonic to improve health and longevity. Recent studies show that O. sinensis produces a wide range of biological effects on cells, laboratory animals and humans, including anti-fatigue, anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor activities. In view of the rarity of O. sinensis fruiting bodies in nature, cultivation of its anamorph mycelium represents a useful alternative for large-scale production. However, O. sinensis fruiting bodies harvested in nature harbor several fungal contaminants, a phenomenon that led to the isolation and characterization of a large number of incorrect mycelium strains. We report here the isolation of a mycelium from a fruiting body of O. sinensis and we identify the isolate as O. sinensis' anamorph (also called Hirsutella sinensis) based on multi-locus sequence typing of several fungal genes (ITS, nrSSU, nrLSU, RPB1, RPB2, MCM7, β-tubulin, TEF-1α, and ATP6). The main characteristics of the isolated mycelium, including its optimal growth at low temperature (16°C) and its biochemical composition, are similar to that of O. sinensis fruiting bodies, indicating that the mycelium strain characterized here may be used as a substitute for the rare and expensive O. sinensis fruiting bodies found in nature.

  15. Co-existence and interaction between myxomycetes and other organisms in shared niches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina O. Dudka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ecology of myxomycetes co-existing with the Latridiidae (Coleoptera, bryophytes and ascomycetous, basidiomycetous and anamorphic fungi were studied in Crimea and at different locations on the left bank of Ukraine. Results from the left bank indicate that the Latridiidae feed on myxomycetes. Colonies of the most common 13 myxomycete species (which included Stemonitis axifera (Bull. Macbr., S. fusca Roth, S. splendens Rost., Fuligo septica (L. Wigg. and Mucilago crustacea Wigg. were inhabited by 5 species of the Latridiidae. Myxomycete spores were present in guts of 19 of the 25 beetle specimens investigated. Beetles Latridius hirtus, Enicmus rugosus and E fungicola seem to be obligate myxomycete feeders, while Corticarina truncatella was clearly facultative. 13 species of myxomycetes were recorded on 9 species of moss and 3 species of liverwort developing on decaying wood or bark in the Crimean Nature Reserve. Relations between myxomycetes and bryophytes on woody substrata are spatial rather than trophic, and are possibly regulated by specific microclimatic conditions inside bryophyte thallomes. 69 species of myxomycetes were found co-existing with 36 species of ascomycetes, 21 species of basidiomycetes and 9 species of anamorphic fungi in the Crimean Nature Reserve. Associations formed by myxomycetes and fungi on different woody substrata are analyzed.

  16. Phylogenetic reassessment supports accommodation of Phaeophleospora and Colletogloeopsis from eucalypts in Kirramyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andjic, Vera; Barber, Paul A; Carnegie, Angus J; Hardy, Giles St J; Wingfield, Michael J; Burgess, Treena I

    2007-10-01

    Species of Phaeophleospora are anamorphs of Mycosphaerella and they include some of the most serious foliar pathogens of Eucalyptus spp. grown in plantations worldwide. Pathogens assigned to this genus and occurring on Eucalyptus spp. were previously treated in Kirramyces and they are also phylogenetically closely related to other anamorphs of Mycosphaerella residing in the genus Colletogloeopsis. The primary aim of this study was to consider the appropriate taxonomic placement of these species. To achieve this goal, morphological characteristics and DNA sequence data from the ITS and translation EF1-alpha gene regions were used to compare the type species P. eugeniae, Phaeophleospora spp. and Colletogloeopsis spp. occurring on eucalypts, using ex-type cultures and herbarium specimens. Phylogenetic data and morphological comparisons supported the separation of P. eugeniae from Phaeophleospora species occurring on eucalypts. The name Phaeophleospora is retained for P. eugeniae and the name Kirramyces is resurrected for the species occurring on eucalypts (genera Eucalyptus, Corymbia, and Angophora). Sequence data from the type specimens of two previously described species of Kirramyces, K. lilianiae and K. delegatensis, show they reside in a clade with other Kirramyces spp. Morphological and DNA sequence comparisons also showed that there is considerable overlap between species of Phaeophleospora and Colletogloeopsis from eucalypts. Based on these findings, Colletogloeopsis is reduced to synonymy with the older Kirramyces and the description of Kirramyces is emended to include species with aseptate, as well as multiseptate, conidia produced in acervuli or pycnidia. Two new species of Kirramyces, K. angophorae and K. corymbiae, are also described.

  17. Asperisporium and Pantospora (Mycosphaerellaceae): epitypifications and phylogenetic placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, A M; Kennedy, A H; Grenier, D B; Rehner, S A; Bischoff, J F

    2011-12-01

    The species-rich family Mycosphaerellaceae contains considerable morphological diversity and includes numerous anamorphic genera, many of which are economically important plant pathogens. Recent revisions and phylogenetic research have resulted in taxonomic instability. Ameliorating this problem requires phylogenetic placement of type species of key genera. We present an examination of the type species of the anamorphic Asperisporium and Pantospora. Cultures isolated from recent port interceptions were studied and described, and morphological studies were made of historical and new herbarium specimens. DNA sequence data from the ITS region and nLSU were generated from these type species, analysed phylogenetically, placed into an evolutionary context within Mycosphaerellaceae, and compared to existing phylogenies. Epitype specimens associated with living cultures and DNA sequence data are designated herein. Asperisporium caricae, the type of Asperisporium and cause of a leaf and fruit spot disease of papaya, is closely related to several species of Passalora including P. brachycarpa. The status of Asperisporium as a potential generic synonym of Passalora remains unclear. The monotypic genus Pantospora, typified by the synnematous Pantospora guazumae, is not included in Pseudocercospora sensu stricto or sensu lato. Rather, it represents a distinct lineage in the Mycosphaerellaceae in an unresolved position near Mycosphaerella microsora.

  18. Rust fungi on rhododendrons in Asia: Diaphanopellisforrestii gen. et sp. nov., new species of Caeoma, and expanded descriptions of Chrysomyxa dietelii and C. succinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Patricia E

    2005-01-01

    Many rust fungi (Uredinales) that infect rhododendrons are difficult to identify because of similar spore size and overall morphology. As part of a morphological study of rusts in the genus Chrysomyxa, herbarium specimens of Asian rhododendron rusts were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. They were compared with similar taxa from Europe and North America. Revised and illustrated descriptions are provided for the uredinia and telia of Chrysomyxa dietelii and Chrysomyxa succinea; details of the conspicuous uredinial peridium of both species are described for the first time. A new genus and species, Diaphanopellis forrestii, is proposed to accommodate a rust fungus with uredinia covered by a peridium of ornamented cells (Aecidium-type) and teliospores enclosed in transparent outer sheaths. This species includes the previously described anamorphs Aecidium rhododendri and A. sino-rhododendri. Three new anamorphic species with unique urediniospore morphology also are described: Caeoma clemensii from Philippines, Caeoma spinulospora from Tibet, and Caeoma yunnanensis from Yunnan, China. For morphological and nomenclatural reasons Uredo rhododendri ('rhododendronis') is renamed as Caeoma dumeticola and Uredo rhododendri-capitati is transferred to Caeoma. A key to Asian rhododendron rusts that form uredinia is provided. In general morphological groups of rhododendron rusts correlate with the subgenera of Rhododendron on which they occur, suggesting coevolution of these parasites with their hosts.

  19. Isolation, Culture and Characterization of Hirsutella sinensis Mycelium from Caterpillar Fungus Fruiting Body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Fei Ko

    Full Text Available The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (previously called Cordyceps sinensis has been used for centuries in Asia as a tonic to improve health and longevity. Recent studies show that O. sinensis produces a wide range of biological effects on cells, laboratory animals and humans, including anti-fatigue, anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor activities. In view of the rarity of O. sinensis fruiting bodies in nature, cultivation of its anamorph mycelium represents a useful alternative for large-scale production. However, O. sinensis fruiting bodies harvested in nature harbor several fungal contaminants, a phenomenon that led to the isolation and characterization of a large number of incorrect mycelium strains. We report here the isolation of a mycelium from a fruiting body of O. sinensis and we identify the isolate as O. sinensis' anamorph (also called Hirsutella sinensis based on multi-locus sequence typing of several fungal genes (ITS, nrSSU, nrLSU, RPB1, RPB2, MCM7, β-tubulin, TEF-1α, and ATP6. The main characteristics of the isolated mycelium, including its optimal growth at low temperature (16°C and its biochemical composition, are similar to that of O. sinensis fruiting bodies, indicating that the mycelium strain characterized here may be used as a substitute for the rare and expensive O. sinensis fruiting bodies found in nature.

  20. MSE spectrograph optical design: a novel pupil slicing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer shall be mainly devoted to perform deep, wide-field, spectroscopic surveys at spectral resolutions from ~2000 to ~20000, at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Simultaneous spectral coverage at low resolution is required, while at high resolution only selected windows can be covered. Moreover, very high multiplexing (3200 objects) must be obtained at low resolution. At higher resolutions a decreased number of objects (~800) can be observed. To meet such high demanding requirements, a fiber-fed multi-object spectrograph concept has been designed by pupil-slicing the collimated beam, followed by multiple dispersive and camera optics. Different resolution modes are obtained by introducing anamorphic lenslets in front of the fiber arrays. The spectrograph is able to switch between three resolution modes (2000, 6500, 20000) by removing the anamorphic lenses and exchanging gratings. Camera lenses are fixed in place to increase stability. To enhance throughput, VPH first-order gratings has been preferred over echelle gratings. Moreover, throughput is kept high over all wavelength ranges by splitting light into more arms by dichroic beamsplitters and optimizing efficiency for each channel by proper selection of glass materials, coatings, and grating parameters.

  1. UREDINALES (RUST FUNGI BIOTA OF THE PARQUE NACIONAL DO ITATIAIA, BRAZIL: AN ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITION, SPECIES DIVERSITY AND ALTITUDINAL DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Yepes Mauricio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzed the composition, species diversity, and altitudinal distributionof rust fungi (Uredinales collected in the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Brazil.Results were compared with other Atlantic Forest locations, the São Paulo Cerradoand some other tropical regions. The Uredinales collections were made over thecourse of two years, covering the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, from500 to 2600m above the sea level. The Uredinales Biota is composed of 38 genera(32 teleomorphs and 6 anamorphs and 207 species, 178 of which were teleomorphicand 29 anamorphic. The genera Puccinia, Uromyces and Phakopsora contained ahigh number of species (58% combined. A hundred and ninety-two hosts belongingto 63 botanical families were recorded. The rust/host ratio for ten of the richestfamilies in number of species was 1:8. A high similarity (50% was found betweentwo altitudinal ranges. The results provide a strong additional argument for the needto preserve and continue studies in such areas

  2. Romellia is congeneric with Togninia, and description of Conidiotheca gen. nov. for one species of this genus with polysporous asci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réblová, Martina; Mostert, Lizel

    2007-03-01

    During a continued survey of fungi accommodated in the Calosphaeriales, we observed that the genus Romellia is morphologically heterogeneous. Historically, four species were placed in the genus. Romellia was introduced for taxa with globose, dark, superficial, papillate perithecia, a paraphysate centrum, and octosporous asci containing eight allantoid, hyaline ascospores. The type species, R. vibratilis, was revised in our study, and its freshly collected material was cultured. The anamorph obtained in vitro matches the generic concept of the hyphomycete genus Phaeoacremonium, the anamorph of Togninia. The phylogenies inferred from newly obtained sequences of LSU rDNA, beta-tubulin, and actin of R. vibratilis revealed that the species is congeneric with Togninia (Togniniaceae) and represents a good species. Revision of type and herbarium material of other Romellia species confirmed they are not congeneric with Togninia. Romellia tympanoides possesses immersed, subglobose perithecia with sessile asci containing eight ascospores, which during maturation produce ascoconidia filling the entire ascus. This maturation process represents a new kind of apparent polyspory known in the ascomycetes. We introduce a new genus, Conidiotheca, and a new combination for R. tympanoides. The species is compared with the genera Barrina and Tympanis. The relationships of two other Romellia species, R. ambigua and R. cornina, lie with Wegelina and Jattaea of the Calosphaeriales.

  3. Phylogeny of the fungus Spilocaea oleagina, the causal agent of peacock leaf spot in olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Lamothe, Rocío; Segura, Rosa; Trapero, Antonio; Baldoni, Luciana; Botella, Miguel A; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2002-04-23

    The fungus Spilocaea oleagina causes peacock leaf spot in olive. Virtually nothing is known about S. oleagina despite the loss of crop yield caused by this fungus. In order to get insight, an in vitro culture of the fungus has been established and its identity confirmed by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. Using this in vitro culture, we have cloned and analysed the DNA sequences of the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) as well as the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and 5.8S rDNA region of S. oleagina. Sequence analysis and comparison to other fungi determined that this fungus belongs to the Dothideomycetes class. We have also determined that S. oleagina is an anamorphic phase of a yet unidentified Venturia species based on phylogenetic analysis using the 28S rDNA and ITS sequences.

  4. Tipe Mating pada Empat Isolat Thanatephorus Cucumeris Anamorf: Rhizoctonia solani Anastomosis Group (AG 1-IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmadi Priyatmojo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Four parent isolates (189, Rh28, BW3 and F-1 of Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorph: Rhizoctonia solani AG 1-IC were induced to produce basidiospores using soil-over culture method. All of four parent isolates could produce basidiospores. Colonies obtained from single basidiospore isolate of each parent isolate were paired on charcoal potato dextrose agar. Single basidiospore isolate having different mating type produced tuft at area of the junction of paired colonies. On the based of tuft formation, single basidiospore isolates of each parent isolate could be divided into two different mating types, therefore it is concluded that each of 189, Rh28, BW3 and F-1 isolate of T. cucumeris AG I-IC has bipolar mating type.

  5. Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics for identification and strain discrimination of the wine spoilage yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, and Brettanomyces bruxellensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Susan B; Thornton, Mark A; Thornton, Roy J

    2013-10-01

    The yeasts Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Dekkera bruxellensis (anamorph, Brettanomyces bruxellensis), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the major spoilage agents of finished wine. A novel method using Raman spectroscopy in combination with a chemometric classification tool has been developed for the identification of these yeast species and for strain discrimination of these yeasts. Raman spectra were collected for six strains of each of the yeasts Z. bailii, B. bruxellensis, and S. cerevisiae. The yeasts were classified with high sensitivity at the species level: 93.8% for Z. bailii, 92.3% for B. bruxellensis, and 98.6% for S. cerevisiae. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that it is possible to discriminate between strains of these species. These yeasts were classified at the strain level with an overall accuracy of 81.8%.

  6. Taking a SHARP look at mask 3D effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benk, Markus P.; Chao, Weilun; Miyakawa, Ryan; Goldberg, Kenneth; Naulleau, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    Mask 3D effects are an area of active research in EUV mask technology. Mask-side numerical aperture, illumination, feature size and absorber thickness are key factors modulating mask 3D effects and affecting printability and process window. Variable mask-side NA and flexible illumination make the SHARP actinic EUV microscope a powerful instrument for the study of mask 3D effects. We show an application example, comparing mask 3D effects for a standard Tantalum Nitride absorber and a thinner, 40-nm Nickel absorber. Data is presented for 0.33 4xNA and anamorphic 0.55 4x/8xNA. The influence of different illumination settings on mask 3D effects is discussed.

  7. Black-foot disease of grapevine: an update on taxonomy, epidemiology and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos AGUSTÍ-BRISACH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Black-foot is one of the most destructive grapevine trunk diseases in nurseries and young vineyards, causing necrotic root lesions, wood necrosis of the rootstock base, and a gradual decline and death of grapevines. Causal agents of the disease are included into the genera Campylocarpon, “Cylindrocarpon”, Cylindrocladiella and Ilyonectria. Recent taxonomical studies of Neonectria and related genera with “Cylindrocarpon”-like anamorphs based on morphological and phylogenetic studies, divided Neonectria into five genera. Thus, the current taxonomical position and classification of the causal agents of black-foot disease, mainly “Cylindrocarpon”/Ilyonectria, comprises one of the main topics of this review. The review also provides an update on geographical distribution, epidemiology and management strategies of the disease.  

  8. Ten inch Planar Optic Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiser, L. [Beiser (Leo) Inc., Flushing, NY (United States); Veligdan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A Planar Optic Display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (I to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A Digital Micromirror Device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.

  9. 10-inch planar optic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiser, Leo; Veligdan, James T.

    1996-05-01

    A planar optic display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (1 to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A digital micromirror device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.

  10. Ochroconis gallopava bronchitis mimicking haemoptysis in a patient with bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, M; Voinea, C; Hauser, P M; Nicod, L P; Lazor, R

    2017-01-01

    Ochroconis gallopava is an anamorphic mould characterized by slow growth rate and production of a maroon pigment, which has been isolated worldwide from soil, thermal springs, decaying vegetation, and chicken litter. It has been reported to cause localized, mostly pulmonary, and systemic infection in severely immunocompromised patients. We describe the case of a 76-year-old woman known for ulcerative colitis-related bronchiectasis treated with low dose oral steroids, who developed a fungal bronchitis with dark, bloody-like, sputum which was initially misinterpreted as haemoptysis. A filamentary mould grew on sputum culture, and was identified by DNA analysis as Ochroconis gallopava . We observed a significant clinical improvement after 6 weeks of itraconazole therapy.

  11. Russian Kefir Grains Microbial Composition and Its Changes during Production Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, I B; Cherdyntseva, T A; Netrusov, A I

    2016-01-01

    By combining DGGE-PCR method, classical microbiological analysis and light- and electron microscopic observations, it was found that the composition of microbial communities of central Russia regions kefir grains, starter and kefir drink include bacteria of the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Lactococcus, and yeast anamorphs of the genera Saccharomyces, Kazachstania and Gibellulopsis. Fifteen prokaryotic and four eukaryotic pure cultures of microorganisms were isolated and identified from kefir grains. It has been shown that members of the genus Lactobacillus prevailed in kefir grains, whereas strains Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Lactococcus lactis dominated in the final product - kefir drink. Yeasts contained in kefir grains in small amounts have reached a significant number of cells in the process of development of this dairy product. The possibility of reverse cell aggregation has been attempted in a mixed cultivation of all isolated pure cultures, but full formation kefir grains is not yet observed after 1.5 years of observation and reinoculations.

  12. The occurrence of Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus apothecia in the leaf litter of Fraxinus excelsior stands with ash dieback symptoms in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kowalski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study performed in 28 ash stands located in Myśleniece and Dynów Forest Districts in southern Poland. The intensity of Fraxinus excelsior disease process was estimated based on the disease symptoms analysis of 1400 trees. The amount of infectious material of Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus (anamorph Chalara fraxinea was estimated by the leaf litter examination on 166 square (0.5 × 0.5 m plots. The total number of ash leaf rachises and apothecia were counted. The analysis shows that the estimated number of H. pseudoalbidus apothecia may reach from 370 thousand to over 13 million per hectare at a time.

  13. Holographic 3D display using MEMS spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Yasuhiro

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a new holographic three-dimensional display technique that increases both viewing zone angle and screen size. In this study, a spatial light modulator (SLM) employing microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology is used for high-speed image generation. The images generated by the MEMS SLM are demagnified horizontally and magnified vertically using an anamorphic imaging system. The vertically enlarged images, which are elementary holograms, are aligned horizontally by a galvano scanner. Reconstructed images with a screen size of 4.3 in and a horizontal viewing zone angle of 15° are generated at a frame rate of 60 fps. The reconstructed images are improved by two methods: one reduces blur caused by scan and focus errors, and the other improves grayscale representation. In addition, accommodation responses of eyes to the reconstructed images are explained.

  14. Emericella venezuelensis, a new species with stellate ascospores producing sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Emericella venezuelensis is a new species, differing from two other species with stellate ascospores, E. variecolor and E. pluriseminata, by triangular flaps on the convex sides of the ascospores, and further from E. variecolor by producing an Aspergillus anamorph only on unconventional growth....... venezuelensis makes this species an attractive model organism for the study of the regulation of this important type of carcinogenic mycotoxins in combination with the knowledge on sterigmatocystin production by E. nidulans, soon to be whole genome sequenced. The isolates were also analyzed cladistically using...... partial sequences of the beta-tubulin gene. Since three species of Emericella have stellate ascospores, and the type material of E. variecolor is equivocal, this species is epitypified with CBS 598.65. Emericella species normally do not appear to cause problems for food safety, as they are most often...

  15. Distribution of Erysiphe platani (Erysiphales in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl P. Heluta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Information is provided on Erysiphe platani, a newly invasive fungus in Ukraine. The anamorph of this North American powdery mildew was first recorded in Ukraine in 1986 on Platanus orientalis in the Nikita Botanical Garden (Crimea. Later, it was found in other localities of the Crimean peninsula, and in Odessa and Odessa region on three species of plane, namely P. × hispanica, P. occidentalis and P. orientalis. Spread of the fungus was epiphytotic. This mildew significantly reduces the ornamental value of plane trees, which are often planted in public open spaces within urban areas of southern Ukraine. Recently, E. platani has formed the teleomorph in this region. Morphologically, the Ukrainian material is slightly different from the species description, viz. appendages are longer (up to 3 times the chasmothecial diam., often with less compact apices.

  16. Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto isolated from soil in an armadillo's burrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Bagagli, Eduardo; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes

    2014-04-01

    Sporotrichosis is a polymorphic disease of man and animals caused by traumatic implantation of propagules into the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Pathogenic species includes S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii, S. globosa and S. luriei. The disease is remarkable for its occurrence as sapronoses and/or zoonosis outbreaks in tropical and subtropical areas; although, the ecology of the clinical clade is still puzzling. Here, we describe an anamorphic Sporothrix strain isolated from soil in an armadillo's burrow, which was located in a hyper endemic area of Paracoccidioidomycosis in Brazil. This isolate was identified as S. schenckii sensu stricto (Clade IIa) based on morphological and physiological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of calmodulin sequences. We then discuss the role of the nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus as a natural carrier of Sporothrix propagules to better understand Sporothrix sources in nature and reveal essential aspects about the pathogen's eco-epidemiology.

  17. Description of Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. for placement of Candida auringiensis, Candida salmanticensis and Candida tartarivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2016-07-01

    DNA sequence analyses have demonstrated that species of the polyphyletic anamorphic ascomycete genus Candida may be members of described teleomorphic genera, members of the Candida tropicalis clade upon which the genus Candida is circumscribed, or members of isolated clades that represent undescribed genera. From phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences from nuclear large subunit rRNA, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and cytochrome oxidase II, Candida auringiensis (NRRL Y-17674(T), CBS 6913(T)), Candida salmanticensis (NRRL Y-17090(T), CBS 5121(T)), and Candida tartarivorans (NRRL Y-27291(T), CBS 7955(T)) were shown to be members of an isolated clade and are proposed for reclassification in the genus Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. (MycoBank MB 815817). Neighbouring taxa include species of the Wickerhamiella clade and Candida blankii.

  18. Species reassignment of Geotrichum bryndzae, Geotrichum phurueaensis, Geotrichum silvicola and Geotrichum vulgare based on phylogenetic analyses and mating compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Coutinho, Teresa; Smith, Maudy Th; van der Walt, J P

    2012-12-01

    The present classification of Galactomyces and its anamorph, Geotrichum, is based on various studies that used morphology, ecology, biochemistry, DNA-DNA reassociation comparisons and gene sequencing. In this study, the identities of strains of the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures yeast culture collection, as well as seven strains from South Africa, were examined by analyses of the nucleotide divergence in the internal transcribed spacer regions of the nuclear rRNA gene (nrRNA) operon, the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene and partial actin gene sequences as well as compatibility studies. The South African strains were assigned to species in the genus Galactomyces. The phylogenetic analyses and mating studies revealed that Geotrichum silvicola and Geotrichum bryndzae are synonyms of Galactomyces candidus and that Geotrichum vulgare is a synonym of Galactomyces pseudocandidus.

  19. Geotrichum bryndzae sp. nov., a novel asexual arthroconidial yeast species related to the genus Galactomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulo, Pavol; Laurencík, Michal; Poláková, Silvia; Minárik, Gabriel; Sláviková, Elena

    2009-09-01

    Ten strains of an asexual arthroconidial yeast species were isolated from Bryndza, a traditional Slovak artisanal sheep cheese, which was manufactured from raw milk during a 4-month summer production period at two Slovakian sites (the northern RuZomberok and the central-southern Tisovec areas). Sequence comparison of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rRNA gene revealed that this yeast represents a novel species of the genus Geotrichum, which contains anamorphs of the ascogenous genus Galactomyces, for which the name Geotrichum bryndzae sp. nov. is proposed (type culture CCY 16-2-1T=NRRL Y-48450T=CBS 11176T). The novel species is most closely related to Geotrichum silvicola NRRL Y-27641T, although yeasts with identical or very similar sequences have been found throughout the world.

  20. Genome comparisons in the genus Dipodascus de Lagerheim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maudy Th; Poot, G A

    2003-05-01

    Phenotypic characteristics of physiology and morphology of 71 strains belonging to the genus Dipodascus de Lagerheim were examined. The GC contents of genomic DNAs of 46 strains were calculated from the thermal denaturation curves using the spectrophotometric method. The first derivatives of the melting curves revealed that the DNAs of these strains are heterogeneous; four categories could be recognized. However, DNA similarity values calculated by using DNA-DNA reassociation kinetics showed that each category could be subdivided further. Two categories were separated into four subgroups each; the other two yielded five subgroups each. Strains belonging to the same subgroup exhibited high levels of DNA similarity ranging from 82 to 100%. The 18 subgroups represented 13 currently accepted Dipodascus species and five anamorphic Geotrichum species, four representing novel taxa. A phenotypic key to distinguish the taxa of Dipodascus, Galactomyces and Geotrichum is presented.

  1. Baudoinia, a new genus to accommodate Torula compniacensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James A; Untereiner, Wendy A; Ewaze, Juliet O; Wong, Bess; Doyle, David

    2007-01-01

    Baudoinia gen. nov. is described to accommodate Torula compniacensis. Reported originally from the walls of buildings near brandy maturation warehouses in Cognac, France, species of Baudoinia are cosmopolitan colonists of exposed surfaces subjected to large diurnal temperature shifts, episodic high relative humidity and wetting, and ambient airborne ethanol. Morphologically B. compniacensis resembles some anamorphic Mycosphaerellaceae in possessing dark brown, nonseptate or uniseptate conidia with coarsely roughened walls that are borne acropetally in unbranched chains and released by schizolytic dehiscence. Analysis of partial nuclear rDNA SSU sequences positions B. compniacensis in the order Capnodiales and reveals that it is most closely related to the microcolonial genus Friedmanniomyces. Heat resistance is induced by brief sublethal temperature exposure.

  2. Nanolaminate Membranes as Cylindrical Telescope Reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Jennifer; Dragovan, Mark; Hickey, Gregory; Lih, Shyh-Shiu Lih

    2010-01-01

    A document discusses a proposal to use axially stretched metal nanolaminate membranes as lightweight parabolic cylindrical reflectors in the Dual Anamorphic Reflector Telescope (DART) - a planned spaceborne telescope in which the cylindrical reflectors would be arranged to obtain a point focus. The discussion brings together a combination of concepts reported separately in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, the most relevant being "Nanolaminate Mirrors With Integral Figure-Control Actuators" NPO -30221, Vol. 26, No. 5 (May 2002), page 90; and "Reflectors Made From Membranes Stretched Between Beams" NPO -30571, Vol. 33, No. 10 (October 2009), page 11a. The engineering issues receiving the greatest emphasis in the instant document are (1) the change in curvature associated with the Poisson contraction of a stretched nanolaminate reflector membrane and (2) the feasibility of using patches of poly(vinylidene fluoride) on the rear membrane surface as piezoelectric actuators to correct the surface figure for the effect of Poisson contraction and other shape errors.

  3. Frequency of endophytic fungi isolated from Dendrobium crumenatum (Pigeon orchid and antimicrobial activity

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    WIBOWO MANGUNWARDOYO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangunwardoyo W, Suciatmih, Gandjar I. 2012. Frequency of endophytic fungi isolated from Dendrobium crumenatum (Pigeon orchid and antimicrobial activity. Biodiversitas 13: 34-39. The aims of this research was to isolate and study the frequency of endophytic fungi from roots, bulbous, stems, and leaves of Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. (pigeon orchid collected from Tanah Baru housing area, Bogor Botanical Garden, and Herbarium Bogoriense; and to assess for antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans ATCC 2091, Candida tropicalis LIPIMC 203, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Twelve species of endophytic fungi were identified from 60 samples obtained from D. crumenatum. Guignardia endophyllicola (anamorph: Phyllosticta capitalensis were the dominant endophytic fungi. Screening of the anti-microorganism activity of the endophytic fungi revealed that Fusarium nivale inhibited C albicans and C. tropicalis. All specimens did not inhibit B. subtilis, E. coli, and S. aureus.

  4. Characteristics and diversity of Rhizoctonia spp. population in soil of selected forest bare-root nurseries in Poland

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    Marta Bełka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fourty three Rhizoctonia isolates obtained from four forest nurseries situated in the Wielkopolska region (central-western Poland has been proved as multinucleate (anamorph – R. solani. They represented four anastomosis groups (AG: AG1-IC, AG-5, AG4-HG2 and AG2-1. Three AGs were found in Jarocin nursery (AG-5, AG4-HG2 and AG2-1, two in Łopuchówko (AG-5 and AG4-HG2 and one in Konstantynowo (AG1-IC and Pniewy (AG-5. All isolates were highly pathogenic to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris seedlings and pose a large damping-off threat to the seedlings in the nurseries with single AG and in those where more AGs exists.

  5. Cultural Characteristics and Fruiting Body Production in Cordyceps bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je-O; Shrestha, Bhushan; Sung, Gi-Ho; Han, Sang-Kuk; Kim, Tae-Wong

    2010-01-01

    Single ascospore isolates of Cordyceps bassiana were observed for their colony pigmentation on Sabouraud Dextrose agar plus Yeast Extract (SDAY) plates and were inoculated in a brown rice medium for production of fruiting bodies. Colony pigmentation did not show any relationship with perithecial stromata formation. The isolates were also grown on opposite sides of SDAY agar plates and were observed for vegetative compatibility. Neither vegetative compatibility nor perithecial stromata could be found to be related to each other. It was concluded that fertile fruiting body production was independent of colony pigmentation and vegetative compatibility. Synnemata formation was found to be more common than perithecial stromata formation. This might be due to its highly conidiogenous anamorphic stage, i.e., Beauveria bassiana. PMID:23956638

  6. First record of Talaromyces udagawae in soil related to decomposing human remains in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchida, María C; Centeno, Néstor D; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N

    2016-01-01

    The morphologic features of Talaromyces udagawae Stolk and Samson are here described and illustrated. This teleomorphic Ascomycota fungus was isolated from soil obtained in Buenos Aires province (Argentina) from beneath a human cadaver in an advanced state of decomposition. After washing and serial dilution of the soil along with moist-chamber techniques for fungal cultivation, T. udagawae formed very restricted colonies of bright yellow color on different growth media with 8-ascospored asci. The ascospores were ellipsoidal and ornamented. The anamorphic state was not observed. Molecular-genetic techniques identified the species. The present record is the first of the species in Argentina, pointing it as a tool to identify soils where cadaver decomposition occurs. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Candida middelhoveniana sp. nov., a new yeast species found on the rhizoplane of organically cultivated sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José R de A; Carvalho, Patrícia M B de; Cabral, Anderson de S; Macrae, Andrew; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda C S; Berbara, Ricardo L L; Hagler, Allen N

    2011-10-01

    A novel yeast species within the Metschnikowiaceae is described based on a strain from the sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) rhizoplane of an organically managed farm in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The D1/D2 domain of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis showed that the closest related species were Candida tsuchiyae with 86.2% and Candida thailandica with 86.7% of sequence identity. All three are anamorphs in the Clavispora opuntiae clade. The name Candida middelhoveniana sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate this highly divergent organism with the type strain Instituto de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMUFRJ) 51965(T) (=Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS) 12306(T), Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)-70(T), DBVPG 8031(T)) and the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession number for the D1/D2 domain LSU rDNA sequence is FN428871. The Mycobank deposit number is MB 519801.

  8. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi from Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. Plant and Their Inhibitory Effect to Fusarium oxysporum Plant Pathogenic Fungi

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    SIHEGIKO KANAYA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has been known as a country with high medicinal plant diversity. One of the most common medicinal plant from Indonesia is red ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.. Nevertheless, limited studies of endophytic fungi associated with these medicinal plants are hitherto available. The objectives of this research were to study the diversity of endophytic fungi on red ginger and to analyze their potential as a source of antifungal agent. All parts of plant organs such as leaf, rhizome, root, and stem were subjected for isolation. Fungal identification was carried out by using a combination of morphological characteristic and molecular analysis of DNA sequence generated from ITS rDNA region. Thirty endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from leaf, rhizome, root, and stem of red ginger plant. Antagonistic activity was tested against Fusarium oxysporum, a pathogenic fungus on plants, using an antagonistic assay. Based on this approach, the fungi were assigned as Acremonium macroclavatum, Beltraniella sp., Cochliobolus geniculatus and its anamorphic stage Curvularia affinis, Fusarium solani, Glomerella cingulata, and its anamorphic stage Colletotrichum gloeosporoides, Lecanicillium kalimantanense, Myrothecium verrucaria, Neonectria punicea, Periconia macrospinosa, Rhizopycnis vagum, and Talaromyces assiutensis. R. vagum was found specifically on root whereas C. affinis, L. kalimantanense, and M. verrucaria were found on stem of red ginger plant. A. macroclavatum was found specifically in red ginger plant’s organ which located under the ground, whereas C. affinis was found from shoot or organ which located above the ground. The antagonistic activity of isolated endophytic fungi against F. oxysporum varied with the inhibition value range from 1.4 to 68.8%. C. affinis (JMbt7, F. solani (JMd14, and G. cingulata (JMr2 had significantly high antagonistic activity with the value above 65%; and R. vagum (JMa4 and C. geniculatus (JMbt9 had

  9. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi from Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. Plant and Their Inhibitory Effect to Fusarium oxysporum Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROHANI CINTA BADIA GINTING

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has been known as a country with high medicinal plant diversity. One of the most common medicinal plant from Indonesia is red ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.. Nevertheless, limited studies of endophytic fungi associated with these medicinal plants are hitherto available. The objectives of this research were to study the diversity of endophytic fungi on red ginger and to analyze their potential as a source of antifungal agent. All parts of plant organs such as leaf, rhizome, root, and stem were subjected for isolation. Fungal identification was carried out by using a combination of morphological characteristic and molecular analysis of DNA sequence generated from ITS rDNA region. Thirty endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from leaf, rhizome, root, and stem of red ginger plant. Antagonistic activity was tested against Fusarium oxysporum, a pathogenic fungus on plants, using an antagonistic assay. Based on this approach, the fungi were assigned as Acremonium macroclavatum, Beltraniella sp., Cochliobolus geniculatus and its anamorphic stage Curvularia affinis, Fusarium solani, Glomerella cingulata and its anamorphic stage Colletotrichum gloeosporoides, Lecanicillium kalimantanense, Myrothecium verrucaria, Neonectria punicea, Periconia macrospinosa, Rhizopycnis vagum, and Talaromyces assiutensis. R. vagum was found specifically on root whereas C. affinis, L. kalimantanense, and M. verrucaria were found on stem of red ginger plant. A. macroclavatum was found specifically in red ginger plant's organ which located under the ground, whereas C. affinis was found from shoot or organ which located above the ground. The antagonistic activity of isolated endophytic fungi against F. oxysporum varied with the inhibition value range from 1.4 to 68.8%. C. affinis (JMbt7, F. solani (JMd14, and G. cingulata (JMr2 had significantly high antagonistic activity with the value above 65%; and R. vagum (JMa4 and C. geniculatus (JMbt9 had significantly

  10. A low cost seeing monitor to measure the isokinetic patch on the edge of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedina, A.; Ragazzoni, R.; Baruffolo, A.; Farinato, J.

    1997-01-01

    In most of the techniques currently proposed to overcome the well known limitation of the laser Guide Star of not providing a useful tip-tilt signal, the size of the isokinetic patch plays a major role. Isokinetic patch size, defined as the distance at which the tilt correlation falls below a given threshold, can be measured, in principle, using a star cluster, as the few available measurements in the literature report. We have used the edge of the moon as a reference for the measurement of the tilt correlation over angles spanning from a few arcsec to several arcminutes. We constructed a seeing monitor using a 20-cm portable telescope coupled, through a pair of commercial objectives, with an anamorphic optical relay and a small commercially available 12-bit CCD. The image of the edge of the moon (relayed using the anamorphic relay) is frame-shifted in groups of six or eight in a fast manner, and it is read out later. In this way there is no need for a fast analog-to-digital converter, and only a minor modification to the original commercially available devices is needed. A three-day run at the Asiago Observatory during January 1997 has been performed. The collected data have been extensively analyzed in order to assure their reliability. A comparison with seeing measurements done simultaneously at the focus of the main observatory is presented, showing good agreement. Dispersion of the edge tilts consistent with Poisson statistics is pointed out. Scaling to the planned run at the Canary Island in order to pursue the Adaptive Optics module for the TNG telescope is briefly discussed together with the implication of the results for the various LGS tilt-recovery techniques.

  11. Hidden diversity behind the zombie-ant fungus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis: four new species described from carpenter ants in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

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    Harry C Evans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ophiocordyceps unilateralis (Clavicipitaceae: Hypocreales is a fungal pathogen specific to ants of the tribe Camponotini (Formicinae: Formicidae with a pantropical distribution. This so-called zombie or brain-manipulating fungus alters the behaviour of the ant host, causing it to die in an exposed position, typically clinging onto and biting into the adaxial surface of shrub leaves. We (HCE and DPH are currently undertaking a worldwide survey to assess the taxonomy and ecology of this highly variable species. METHODS: We formally describe and name four new species belonging to the O. unilateralis species complex collected from remnant Atlantic rainforest in the south-eastern region (Zona da Mata of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Fully illustrated descriptions of both the asexual (anamorph and sexual (teleomorph stages are provided for each species. The new names are registered in Index Fungorum (registration.indexfungorum.org and have received IF numbers. This paper is also a test case for the electronic publication of new names in mycology. CONCLUSIONS: We are only just beginning to understand the taxonomy and ecology of the Ophiocordyceps unilateralis species complex associated with carpenter ants; macroscopically characterised by a single stalk arising from the dorsal neck region of the ant host on which the anamorph occupies the terminal region and the teleomorph occurs as lateral cushions or plates. Each of the four ant species collected--Camponotus rufipes, C. balzani, C. melanoticus and C. novogranadensis--is attacked by a distinct species of Ophiocordyceps readily separated using traditional micromorphology. The new taxa are named according to their ant host.

  12. DNA fingerprinting and anastomosis grouping reveal similar genetic diversity in Rhizoctonia species infecting turfgrasses in the transition zone of USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaradasa, B S; Horvath, B J; Lakshman, D K; Warnke, S E

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoctonia blight is a common and serious disease of many turfgrass species. The most widespread causal agent, Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorph: R. solani), consists of several genetically different subpopulations. In addition, Waitea circinata varieties zeae, oryzae and circinata (anamorph: Rhizoctonia spp.) also can cause the disease. Accurate identification of the causal pathogen is important for effective management of the disease. It is challenging to distinguish the specific causal pathogen based on disease symptoms or macroscopic and microscopic morphology. Traditional methods such as anastomosis reactions with tester isolates are time consuming and sometimes difficult to interpret. In the present study universally primed PCR (UP-PCR) fingerprinting was used to assess genetic diversity of Rhizoctonia spp. infecting turfgrasses. Eighty-four Rhizoctonia isolates were sampled from diseased turfgrass leaves from seven distinct geographic areas in Virginia and Maryland. Rhizoctonia isolates were characterized by ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA-ITS) region and UP-PCR. The isolates formed seven clusters based on ITS sequences analysis and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) clustering of UP-PCR markers, which corresponded well with anastomosis groups (AGs) of the isolates. Isolates of R. solani AG 1-IB (n = 18), AG 2-2IIIB (n = 30) and AG 5 (n = 1) clustered separately. Waitea circinata var. zeae (n = 9) and var. circinata (n = 4) grouped separately. A cluster of six isolates of Waitea (UWC) did not fall into any known Waitea variety. The binucleate Rhizoctonia-like fungi (BNR) (n = 16) clustered into two groups. Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2IIIB was the most dominant pathogen in this study, followed by AG 1-IB. There was no relationship between the geographic origin of the isolates and clustering of isolates based on the genetic associations. To our knowledge this is the first time UP-PCR was used to characterize Rhizoctonia

  13. Reliable differentiation of Meyerozyma guilliermondii from Meyerozyma caribbica by internal transcribed spacer restriction fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romi, Wahengbam; Keisam, Santosh; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy

    2014-02-28

    Meyerozyma guilliermondii (anamorph Candida guilliermondii) and Meyerozyma caribbica (anamorph Candida fermentati) are closely related species of the genetically heterogenous M. guilliermondii complex. Conventional phenotypic methods frequently misidentify the species within this complex and also with other species of the Saccharomycotina CTG clade. Even the long-established sequencing of large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene remains ambiguous. We also faced similar problem during identification of yeast isolates of M. guilliermondii complex from indigenous bamboo shoot fermentation in North East India. There is a need for development of reliable and accurate identification methods for these closely related species because of their increasing importance as emerging infectious yeasts and associated biotechnological attributes. We targeted the highly variable internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and identified seven restriction enzymes through in silico analysis for differentiating M. guilliermondii from M. caribbica. Fifty five isolates of M. guilliermondii complex which could not be delineated into species-specific taxonomic ranks by API 20 C AUX and LSU rRNA gene D1/D2 sequencing were subjected to ITS-restriction fragment length polymorphism (ITS-RFLP) analysis. TaqI ITS-RFLP distinctly differentiated the isolates into M. guilliermondii (47 isolates) and M. caribbica (08 isolates) with reproducible species-specific patterns similar to the in silico prediction. The reliability of this method was validated by ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequencing, mitochondrial DNA RFLP and electrophoretic karyotyping. We herein described a reliable ITS-RFLP method for distinct differentiation of frequently misidentified M. guilliermondii from M. caribbica. Even though in silico analysis differentiated other closely related species of M. guilliermondii complex from the above two species, it is yet to be confirmed by in vitro analysis using reference strains. This method can be used

  14. A phylogenetic study on galactose-containing Candida species based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Suh, Sung-Oui; Sugita, Takashi; Nakase, Takashi

    1999-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of 33 Candida species containing galactose in the cells were investigated by using 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Galactose-containing Candida species and galactose-containing species from nine ascomycetous genera were a heterogeneous assemblage. They were divided into three clusters (II, III, and IV) which were phylogenetically distant from cluster I, comprising 9 galactose-lacking Candida species, C. glabrata, C. holmii, C. krusei, C. tropicalis (the type species of Candida), C. albicans, C. viswanathii, C. maltosa, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, and C. lusitaniae, and 17 related ascomycetous yeasts. These three clusters were also phylogenetically distant from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which contains galactomannan in its cell wall. Cluster II comprised C. magnoliae, C. vaccinii, C. apis, C. gropengiesseri, C. etchellsii, C. floricola, C. lactiscondensi, Wickerhamiella domercqiae, C. versatilis, C. azyma, C. vanderwaltii, C. pararugosa, C. sorbophila, C. spandovensis, C. galacta, C. ingens, C. incommunis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Galactomyces geotrichum, and Dipodascus albidus. Cluster III comprised C. tepae, C. antillancae and its synonym C. bondarzewiae, C. ancudensis, C. petrohuensis, C. santjacobensis, C. ciferrii (anamorph of Stephanoascus ciferrii), Arxula terrestris, C. castrensis, C. valdiviana, C. paludigena, C. blankii, C. salmanticensis, C. auringiensis, C. bertae, and its synonym C. bertae var. chiloensis, C. edax (anamorph of Stephanoascus smithiae), Arxula adeninivorans, and C. steatolytica (synonym of Zygoascus hellenicus). Cluster IV comprised C. cantarellii, C. vinaria, Dipodascopsis uninucleata, and Lipomyces lipofer. Two galactose-lacking and Q-8-forming species, C. stellata and Pichia pastoris, and 5 galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. apicola, C. bombi, C. bombicola, C. geochares, and C. insectalens, were included in Cluster II. Two galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. drimydis and C

  15. Report of the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi - 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Tom W

    2017-06-01

    Ratification of appointment of repositories by the International Mycological Congress is reported. The following two family names are recommended for conservation: Chrysotrichaceae against Pulverariaceae ; and the teleomorph-typified Erysiphaceae against the anamorph-typified Oidiaceae . The following family name is not recommended for conservation: Dothioraceae against Saccotheciaceae . The following 10 generic names are recommended for conservation: the teleomorph-typified name Blumeria against the conserved anamorph-typified name Oidium ; Catenaria Sorokīn ( Fungi ) against Catenaria Roussel ( Algae ); Chrysothrix , nom. cons., against an additional name, Alysphaeria ; Flammula (Fr. : Fr.) P. Kumm. ( Fungi ) against Flammula (Webb ex Spach) Fourr. ( Spermatophyta ) with a conserved type; Fuscopannaria against Moelleropsis ; Geastrum with a conserved type; Hebeloma with a conserved type; Polycaryum with that spelling; Pseudocyphellaria with a conserved type; and Talaromyces against Lasioderma . Conservation of Detonia Freng. ( Algae ) against Detonia Sacc. ( Fungi ) is not opposed. The following generic name is not recommended for conservation: Catillaria with a conserved type. The proposal to conserve the generic name Wickerhamomyces against Hansenula was withdrawn. The following 17 species names are recommended for conservation: Agaricus laterinus ( Hebeloma laterinum ) against the sanctioned A. fastibilis ( H. fastibile ); Agaricus tabescens against A. socialis ; Alectoria fuscescens ( Bryoria fuscescens ) against Lichen chalybeiformis and A. subcana ; Armillariella ostoyae ( Armillaria ostoyae ) against Agaricus obscurus , A. occultans , and Armillaria solidipes ; Ganoderma camphoratum with a conserved type; Hebeloma fragilipes against Hebelomina domardiana ( Hebeloma domardianum ); Helminthosporium maydis Y. Nisik. & C. Miyake ( Bipolaris maydis ) against H. maydis Brond. and Ophiobolus heterostrophus ; Lecidea oederi ( Rhizocarpon oederi ) against L

  16. Regional survey and identification of Bipolaris spp. associated with rice seeds in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil Levantamento regional e identificação de Bipolaris spp. associadas às sementes de arroz no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Renata Jacobsen de Farias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the harvest year of 2004, a random sample of seed lots (n=165 from six rice-growing regions of Rio Grande do Sul (RS State, Brazil, were examined under seed health blotter test. Fungi growth resembling Bipolaris or Drechslera spp. was isolated and identified at the species level. Observations on the anamorphic structures (conidiophores and conidia allowed separation of isolates into three groups. Pseudothecia, asci and ascospores from sexual crosses between isolates from a same anamorphic group but originated from different regions showed the typical characteristics of three recognized species (anamorph/teleomorph: Bipolaris cynodontis (Cochliobolus cynodontis; B. curvispora (C. melinidis and B. oryzae (C. miyabeanus. All species were widely distributed across the rice-growing regions. Overall, the most prevalent species were B. oryzae (44.6% and B. curvispora (42,9% followed by B. cynodontis (24,1%. This is the first report of B. cynodontis associated with rice seeds in Brazil and the preliminary identification of B. curvispora in rice by the observation of the teleomorph phase was confirmed. The regional occurrence of a complex of pathogenic Bipolaris species related to brown spot epidemics in other countries, may have epidemiological consequences in the region which deserve further investigation.Uma amostra aleatória (n=165 de lotes de sementes de seis regiões produtoras de arroz no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brasil, ano de colheita 2004, foi examinada em teste blotter de sanidade de sementes. Fungos semelhantes a espécies de Bipolaris e Drechslera foram isolados para identificação das espécies. A observação de estruturas da fase anamórfica (conidióforos e conídios permitiu separar os isolados em três grupos. Cruzamentos sexuais induzidos em isolados do mesmo grupo, mas originados de diferentes regiões, resultaram em pseudotécio, ascos e ascósporos, permitindo a identificação de três espécies (anamorfo

  17. Dissatisfaction with own body makes patients with eating disorders more sensitive to pain

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    Yamamotova A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anna Yamamotova,1 Josef Bulant,2 Vaclav Bocek,3 Hana Papezova2 1Department of Normal, Pathological and Clinical Physiology, Third Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, First Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Neurology, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Body image represents a multidimensional concept including body image evaluation and perception of body appearance. Disturbances of body image perception are considered to be one of the central aspects of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. There is growing evidence that body image distortion can be associated with changes in pain perception. The aim of our study was to examine the associations between body image perception, body dissatisfaction, and nociception in women with eating disorders and age-matched healthy control women. We measured body dissatisfaction and pain sensitivity in 61 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition diagnoses of eating disorders (31 anorexia nervosa and 30 bulimia nervosa and in 30 healthy women. Thermal pain threshold latencies were evaluated using an analgesia meter and body image perception and body dissatisfaction were assessed using Anamorphic Micro software (digital pictures of their own body distorted into larger-body and thinner-body images. Patients with eating disorders overestimated their body size in comparison with healthy controls, but the two groups did not differ in body dissatisfaction. In anorexia and bulimia patient groups, body dissatisfaction (calculated in pixels as desired size/true image size correlated with pain threshold latencies (r=0.55, p=0.001, while between body image perception (determined as estimation size/true image size and pain threshold, no correlation was found. Thus, we demonstrated that in patients with eating disorders, pain perception is significantly associated with emotional contrary to sensory (visual processing of one

  18. Low cost seeing monitor to measure the isokinetic patch on the edge of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedina, Adriano; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Baruffolo, Andrea; Farinato, Jacopo

    1998-01-01

    In most of the techniques currently proposed to overcome the well known limitation of the laser guide star to do not provide an useful tip-tilt signal, the size of the isokinetic patch plays a major role. Isokinetic patch size, defined as the distance at which the tilt correlation falls below a given threshold, can be measured, in principle, using a star cluster, as the few available measurements in the literature report. The edge of the moon or of the sun have been used to sense the tilt and/or to establish a reference system for speckle transfer function. We have used the edge of the moon as a reference for the measurement of the tilt correlation over angles spanning from a few arcsec to several arcminutes. The edge of the moon is bright, its curvature is negligible for the purposes of this measurement, and, in most places of astronomical interest, it reaches significant elevations over the horizon. We constructed a seeing monitor using a 20 cm portable telescope coupled, through a pair of commercial objectives, with an anamorphic optical relay and a small, commercially available, 12 bit CCD. The image of the edge of the moon (relayed using the anamorphic relay and so allowing to have good tilt resolution even with a large covered field of view along the isokinetic patch measurement direction) is frame-shifted in groups of 6 or 8 in a fast manner and later it is read-out. In this way there is no need of fast analog to digital converter and only a minor modification to the original, commercially available, devices is needed. A 3-days run at the Asiago Observatory during January 1997 has been performed. The collected data have been extensively analyzed in order to assure their reliability. A comparison with seeing measurements done simultaneously at the focus of the main observatory is shown giving good agreement. Dispersion of the edge tilts consistent with Poisson statistics (due to the low number of covered realization) is pointed out. Scaling to the planned run

  19. Leaf-litter microfungal community on poor fen plant debris in Torfy Lake area (Central Poland

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    Mateusz Wilk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to initially evaluate the species diversity of microfungi growing on litter of 15 plant species occurring on the poor fen and neighbouring area of the Torfy Lake, Masovian voivodeship, Poland. The lake is located near the planned road investment (construction of the Warsaw southern express ring road S2. The place is biologically valuable as there are rare plant communities from Rhynchosporion albae alliance protected under the Habitats Directive adopted by the European Union. On the examined plant debris 73 taxa of fungi were recorded (3 basidiomycetes, 13 ascomycetes, 2 zygomycetes, 43 anamorphic ascomycetes, 12 unidentified. Two of them, Dicranidion sp. and Wentiomyces sp. are presented here as new to Poland. Among the plant species examined, the litter of Rhododendron tomentosum harbored the highest number of fungal taxa (16. The highest percents of substrate-specific microfungi (i.e. recorded only on one plant species was noted on R. tomentosum (81.3 %, and Pteridium aquilinum (75%. It is emphasized that the lake area should be protected not only because of rare plant community but also because of the uniqueness and diversity of mycobiota.

  20. Etiology and Population Genetics of Colletotrichum spp. Causing Crown and Fruit Rot of Strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña-Padilla, A R; Mackenzie, S J; Bowen, B W; Legard, D E

    2002-11-01

    ABSTRACT Isolates of Colletotrichum spp. from diseased strawberry fruit and crowns were evaluated to determine their genetic diversity and the etiology of the diseases. Isolates were identified to species using polymerase chain reaction primers for a ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region and their pathogenicity was evaluated in bioassays. Isolates were scored for variation at 40 putative genetic loci with random amplified polymorphic DNA and microsatellite markers. Only C. acutatum was recovered from diseased fruit. Nearly all isolates from crowns were C. gloeosporioides. In crown bioassays, only isolates of C. gloeosporioides from strawberry caused collapse and death of plants. A dendrogram generated from the genetic analysis identified several primary lineages. One lineage included isolates of C. acutatum from fruit and was characterized by low diversity. Another lineage included isolates of C. gloeosporioides from crowns and was highly polymorphic. The isolates from strawberry formed distinctive clusters separate from citrus isolates. Evaluation of linkage disequilibrium among polymorphic loci in isolates of C. gloeosporioides from crowns revealed a low level of disequilibrium as would be expected in sexually recombining populations. These results suggest that epidemics of crown rot are caused by Glomerella cingulata (anamorph C. gloeosporioides) and that epidemics of fruit rot are caused by C. acutatum.

  1. Reduction of quinones and phenoxy radicals by extracellular glucose dehydrogenase from Glomerella cingulata suggests a role in plant pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygmund, Christoph; Klausberger, Miriam; Felice, Alfons K; Ludwig, Roland

    2011-11-01

    The plant-pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata (anamorph Colletotrichum gloeosporoides) secretes high levels of an FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) when grown on tomato juice-supplemented media. To elucidate its molecular and catalytic properties, GDH was produced in submerged culture. The highest volumetric activity was obtained in shaking flasks after 6 days of cultivation (3400 U l⁻¹, 4.2 % of total extracellular protein). GDH is a monomeric protein with an isoelectric point of 5.6. The molecular masses of the glycoforms ranged from 95 to 135 kDa, but after deglycosylation, a single 68 kDa band was obtained. The absorption spectrum is typical for an FAD-containing enzyme with maxima at 370 and 458 nm and the cofactor is non-covalently bound. The preferred substrates are glucose and xylose. Suitable electron acceptors are quinones, phenoxy radicals, 2,6-dichloroindophenol, ferricyanide and ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate. In contrast, oxygen turnover is very low. The GDH-encoding gene was cloned and phylogenetic analysis of the translated protein reveals its affiliation to the GMC family of oxidoreductases. The proposed function of this quinone and phenoxy radical reducing enzyme is to neutralize the action of plant laccase, phenoloxidase or peroxidase activities, which are increased in infected plants to evade fungal attack.

  2. Blue pigment in Hypocrea caerulescens sp. nov. and two additional new species in sect. Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaklitsch, Walter M; Stadler, Marc; Voglmayr, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Three new species of Hypocrea/Trichoderma sect. Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi) are described from recent collections in southern Europe and the Canary Islands. They have been characterized by morphological and molecular methods, including microscopic examination of the teleomorph in thin sections, the anamorph, growth rate experiments and phylogenetic analyses based on a part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha encoding gene (tef1) containing the two last introns and a part of the rpb2 gene, encoding the second largest RNA polymerase subunit. Analyses involving tef1 did not unequivocally resolve the sister clade relationship of Hypocrea caerulescens relative to the Koningii and Viride clades, while analyses based on rpb2 clearly suggest a close relationship with the former, although the phenotype of H. caerulescens is similar to H. viridescens, particularly by its warted conidia and a coconut-like odor in CMD culture. Hypocrea hispanica and T. samuelsii however are clearly related to the Viride clade by both phylogenetic markers, despite their morphological similarity to H. koningii and its relatives. An apparently specific blue pigment is formed in CMD cultures by Hypocrea caerulescens but could not be obtained by extraction with organic solvents.

  3. Development of Ophiocordyceps sinensis through Plant-Mediated Interkingdom Host Colonization

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    Wei Lei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a well-known entomogenous and medicinal fungus. After its anamorphs parasitize the larvae of the genus Thitarodes, fruit-bodies may form to be used as medicine. However, its developmental mechanisms remain unknown. The distribution of O. sinensis was determined in different tissues of the Thitarodes larvae and the dominant plant species using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique, respectively. We found that more fungal material was located in plants than in larvae, especially in Ranunculus tanguticus. A considerable amount was detected in larval intestinal-wall and plant roots. It is suggested that plants are the potential hosts of O. sinensis, which modifies our understanding of the life cycle of O. sinensis and indicates that the phytophagous larvae may become infected as they feed. Our research may contribute to the study of systematic evolution and population ecology of O. sinensis, elucidate its developmental mechanism and promote sustainable harvesting.

  4. Development of Ophiocordyceps sinensis through Plant-Mediated Interkingdom Host Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wei; Zhang, Guren; Peng, Qingyun; Liu, Xin

    2015-07-30

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a well-known entomogenous and medicinal fungus. After its anamorphs parasitize the larvae of the genus Thitarodes, fruit-bodies may form to be used as medicine. However, its developmental mechanisms remain unknown. The distribution of O. sinensis was determined in different tissues of the Thitarodes larvae and the dominant plant species using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, respectively. We found that more fungal material was located in plants than in larvae, especially in Ranunculus tanguticus. A considerable amount was detected in larval intestinal-wall and plant roots. It is suggested that plants are the potential hosts of O. sinensis, which modifies our understanding of the life cycle of O. sinensis and indicates that the phytophagous larvae may become infected as they feed. Our research may contribute to the study of systematic evolution and population ecology of O. sinensis, elucidate its developmental mechanism and promote sustainable harvesting.

  5. Diversity and taxonomy of endophytic xylariaceous fungi from medicinal plants of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Zhang, Li-Chun; Xing, Yong-Mei; Wang, Yun-Qiang; Xing, Xiao-Ke; Zhang, Da-Wei; Liang, Han-Qiao; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Dendrobium spp. are traditional Chinese medicinal plants, and the main effective ingredients (polysaccharides and alkaloids) have pharmacologic effects on gastritis infection, cancer, and anti-aging. Previously, we confirmed endophytic xylariaceous fungi as the dominant fungi in several Dendrobium species of tropical regions from China. In the present study, the diversity, taxonomy, and distribution of culturable endophytic xylariaceous fungi associated with seven medicinal species of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) were investigated. Among the 961 endophytes newly isolated, 217 xylariaceous fungi (morphotaxa) were identified using morphological and molecular methods. The phylogenetic tree constructed using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large subunit of ribosomal DNA (LSU), and beta-tubulin sequences divided these anamorphic xylariaceous isolates into at least 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The diversity of the endophytic xylariaceous fungi in these seven Dendrobium species was estimated using Shannon and evenness indices, with the results indicating that the dominant Xylariaceae taxa in each Dendrobium species were greatly different, though common xylariaceous fungi were found in several Dendrobium species. These findings implied that different host plants in the same habitats exhibit a preference and selectivity for their fungal partners. Using culture-dependent approaches, these xylariaceous isolates may be important sources for the future screening of new natural products and drug discovery.

  6. Occurrence of Scopulariopsis and Scedosporium in nails and keratinous skin. A 5-year retrospective multi-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issakainen, Jouni; Heikkilä, Hannele; Vainio, Eeva; Koukila-Kähkölä, Pirkko; Castren, Mirja; Liimatainen, Oili; Ojanen, Tarja; Koskela, Markku; Meurman, Olli

    2007-05-01

    A 5-year retrospective multicenter study was performed for microascaceous moulds (Microascaceae, Ascomycetes) in Finnish clinical specimens. The files from 1993-1997 of six clinical mycology laboratories in Finland were searched for reports of these fungi, mainly Scopulariopsis and Scedosporium anamorphs in keratinous specimens. From the 521 primary findings, 165 cases were selected for further study based on direct microscopy, colony numbers and accompanying fungi. The clinical records of 148 cases (141 Scopulariopsis, 7 Scedosporium) were studied. Of the nail infections from which Scopulariopsis was recovered, 39 cases were further separated which showed clinical or laboratory-based evidence of dermatophytosis. In the remaining 90 'non-dermatophyte' nail cases, Scopulariopsis spp. were the only documented fungal agents (c. 6 cases/million/year). The patients were mainly elderly, 66% of whom had problems involving their big toe nails. For 74% of them, the nail problem was mentioned as their reason for visiting the physician. However, only 18% had documented benefit from treatment. The Scopulariopsis nail infections seem to be treatment-resistant and the pathogenesis and etiological role of Scopulariopsis remain poorly understood.

  7. Pengaruh Kemasaman, Suhu, dan Cahaya terhadap Golovinomyces sordidus Penyebab Penyakit Embun Tepung pada Plantago major

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    Dini Florina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Unidentified powdery mildew was found on leaves of a medicinal plant, Plantago major in Indonesia. The present studies were aimed to identify the causal fungal species of powdery mildew of  P. major and study the effect of acidity, temperature and light on the causal fungus. Identification was conducted by observing morphological characteristics of the fungus scraped from diseased leaves under light microscope. The infection process was observed by staining the inoculated leaves followed observation under light microscope. Conidia were suspended in various pH solutions to examine effect of pH on conidial germination and hyphal length. For testing effects of temperature on conidial germination and hyphal length, conidial suspensions were dropped onto glass slides then incubated in temperature ranges from 20–35 °C, the germinating conidia and length of the existing hypha were counted and measured 24 hours later. With the same method as above the glass slides were incubated in 25 °C either in the dark or exposed under illuminated white light tube (400 Lux for study effect of light on conidial germination. The causal fungus was identified as Golovinomyces sordidus (syn. Erysiphe sordida with its anamorph state as Oidium. The germinating conidia penetrate directly into leaf tissue within 24 hours. The optimal conditions for the conidia to germinate are pH between 4 and 7, temperature between 25 °C and 30 °C, and dark condition.  

  8. Grosmannia and Leptographium spp. associated with conifer-infesting bark beetles in Finland and Russia, including Leptographium taigense sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnakoski, Riikka; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Duong, Tuan A; Niemelä, Pekka; Pappinen, Ari; Wingfield, Michael J

    2012-08-01

    Species of Grosmannia with Leptographium anamorphs include important forest pathogens and agents of blue stain in timber. They are commonly found in association with forest pests, such as bark beetles. During a survey of ophiostomatoid fungi in eastern parts of Finland and neighboring Russia, species belonging to the genus Grosmannia were isolated from 12 different bark beetle species infesting Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris, the most economically important conifers in the region. Identification of these fungi was based on morphology, DNA sequence comparisons for three gene regions and phylogenetic analyses. A total of ten taxa were identified. These belonged to six different species complexes in Grosmannia. The phylogenetic analyses provided an opportunity to redefine the G. galeiformis-, L. procerum-, L. lundbergii-, G. piceiperda-, G. olivacea- and G. penicillata-complexes, and to consider the species emerging from the survey within the context of these complexes. The species included G. galeiformis, G. olivacea, L. chlamydatum, L. lundbergii, L. truncatum and a novel taxon, described here as L. taigense sp. nov. In addition, species closely related to G. cucullata, G. olivaceapini comb. nov., G. piceiperda and L. procerum were isolated but their identity could not be resolved. The overall results indicate that the diversity of Grosmannia species in the boreal forests remains poorly understood and that further studies are needed to clarify the status of several species or species complexes.

  9. Is Widely Cultivated "Pleurotus sajor-caju", Especially in Asia, Indeed an Independent Species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmitrovich, Ivan V; Wasser, Solomon P

    2016-01-01

    In modern mycology, the name "Pleurotus sajor-caju" has 2 meanings: a strict taxonomical meaning refers to its nomenclatural synonym Lentinus sajor-caju, and a more widely distributed biotechnological meaning refers to a strain determined as "Pleurotus sajor-caju" but that belongs to true Pleurotus. The main purpose of this article is to highlight the taxonomic status and to give the correct name for this problematic member of Pleurotus. Both microscopic analysis and BLAST search results (internal transcribed spacer homology varies between 97% and 100%) provide the position of the fungus in question into the range of infraspecific radiation of P. pulmonarius. It was shown that the fungus represents a tropical ecotype of P. pulmonarius, and a new variety (P. pulmonarius var. stechangii) was described for its taxonomic representation. This variety was named in honor of Professor S.-T. Chang, a great mycologist who introduced this taxon to the mushroom industry. A formal change in the anamorphic name of the fungus in question is provided, too, and a new name is presented: Antromycopsis stechangii.

  10. Phylogenomic and functional domain analysis of polyketide synthases in Fusarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A.; Baker, Scott E.; Proctor, Robert H.

    2012-02-01

    Fusarium species are ubiquitous in nature, cause a range of plant diseases, and produce a variety of chemicals often referred to as secondary metabolites. Although some fungal secondary metabolites affect plant growth or protect plants from other fungi and bacteria, their presence in grain based food and feed is more often associated with a variety of diseases in plants and in animals. Many of these structurally diverse metabolites are derived from a family of related enzymes called polyketide synthases (PKSs). A search of genomic sequence of Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and Nectria haematococca (anamorph F. solani) identified a total of 58 PKS genes. To gain insight into how this gene family evolved and to guide future studies, we conducted a phylogenomic and functional domain analysis. The resulting genealogy suggested that Fusarium PKSs represent 34 different groups responsible for synthesis of different core metabolites. The analyses indicate that variation in the Fusarium PKS gene family is due to gene duplication and loss events as well as enzyme gain-of-function due to the acquisition of new domains or of loss-of-function due to nucleotide mutations. Transcriptional analysis indicate that the 16 F. verticillioides PKS genes are expressed under a range of conditions, further evidence that they are functional genes that confer the ability to produce secondary metabolites.

  11. New species of Mycosphaerella from Myrtaceae in plantations and native forests in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, Angus J; Burgess, Treena I; Beilharz, Vyrna; Wingfield, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    The majority of Mycosphaerella species from eucalypts (Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Angophora) in Australia have been recorded only from trees growing in plantations. This illustrates a bias in research in the past two decades toward commercial enterprise, and it emphasises a lack of understanding of the occurrence of these important fungi under natural conditions. Surveys of foliar fungi in native forests in eastern Australia, as well as adjacent plantations, thus have been initiated in recent years. In this study we describe four new species of Mycosphaerella from Eucalyptus spp. as well as other Myrtaceae. Mycosphaerella tumulosa sp. nov. (anamorph: Pseudocercospora sp.) was found on more than seven species of Eucalyptus and Corymbia in native forests and plantations in northeastern New South Wales and southeastern Queensland and appears to be relatively common, although not damaging to these trees. Mycosphaerella multiseptata sp. nov. was recorded from several locations on species of Angophora in native forests and amenity plantings. Mycosphaerella pseudovespa sp. nov. was found in one location in native forest on E. biturbinata. The first species of Mycosphaerella to be described from Syncarpia, M. syncarpiae sp. nov., was found in native forests in numerous locations from Sydney through to northeastern New South Wales and appears to be relatively common.

  12. Systematic reappraisal of Coniella and Pilidiella, with specific reference to species occurring on Eucalyptus and Vitis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Niekerk, Jan M; Groenewald, J Z Ewald; Verkley, Gerard J M; Fourie, Paul H; Wingfield, Michael J; Crous, Pedro W

    2004-03-01

    The genus Pilidiella, including its teleomorphs in Schizoparme, has a cosmopolitan distribution and is associated with disease symptoms on many plants. In the past, conidial pigmentation has been used as a character to separate Pilidiella (hyaline to pale brown conidia) from Coniella (dark brown conidia). In recent years, however, the two genera have been regarded as synonymous, the older name Coniella having priority. To address the generic question, sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1, ITS2), 5.8S gene, large subunit (LSU) and elongation factor 1-alpha gene (EF 1-alpha) were analysed to compare the type species of Pilidiella and Coniella. All three gene regions supported the separation of Coniella from Pilidiella, with the majority of taxa residing in Pilidiella. Pilidiella is characterised by having species with hyaline to pale brown conidia (avg. length:width > 1.5), in contrast to the dark brown conidia of Coniella (avg. length:width Eucalyptus spp. This species clustered basal to Pilidiella, and may represent yet a third genus within this complex. Pilidiella destruens sp. nov. is newly described as anamorph of Schizoparme destruens, which is associated with twig dieback of Eucalyptus spp. in Hawaii. A key based on morphological characteristics is provided to separate the taxa treated in this study.

  13. Panoramic lens applications revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Simon

    2008-04-01

    During the last few years, innovative optical design strategies to generate and control image mapping have been successful in producing high-resolution digital imagers and projectors. This new generation of panoramic lenses includes catadioptric panoramic lenses, panoramic annular lenses, visible/IR fisheye lenses, anamorphic wide-angle attachments, and visible/IR panomorph lenses. Given that a wide-angle lens images a large field of view on a limited number of pixels, a systematic pixel-to-angle mapping will help the efficient use of each pixel in the field of view. In this paper, we present several modern applications of these modern types of hemispheric lenses. Recently, surveillance and security applications have been proposed and published in Security and Defence symposium. However, modern hemispheric lens can be used in many other fields. A panoramic imaging sensor contributes most to the perception of the world. Panoramic lenses are now ready to be deployed in many optical solutions. Covered applications include, but are not limited to medical imaging (endoscope, rigiscope, fiberscope...), remote sensing (pipe inspection, crime scene investigation, archeology...), multimedia (hemispheric projector, panoramic image...). Modern panoramic technologies allow simple and efficient digital image processing and the use of standard image analysis features (motion estimation, segmentation, object tracking, pattern recognition) in the complete 360° hemispheric area.

  14. A versatile toolkit for high throughput functional genomics with Trichoderma reesei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Andre; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Collett, James R.; Baker, Scott E.; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P.; Schmoll, Monika

    2012-01-02

    The ascomycete fungus, Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina), represents a biotechnological workhorse and is currently one of the most proficient cellulase producers. While strain improvement was traditionally accomplished by random mutagenesis, a detailed understanding of cellulase regulation can only be gained using recombinant technologies. RESULTS: Aiming at high efficiency and high throughput methods, we present here a construction kit for gene knock out in T. reesei. We provide a primer database for gene deletion using the pyr4, amdS and hph selection markers. For high throughput generation of gene knock outs, we constructed vectors using yeast mediated recombination and then transformed a T. reesei strain deficient in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) by spore electroporation. This NHEJ-defect was subsequently removed by crossing of mutants with a sexually competent strain derived from the parental strain, QM9414.CONCLUSIONS:Using this strategy and the materials provided, high throughput gene deletion in T. reesei becomes feasible. Moreover, with the application of sexual development, the NHEJ-defect can be removed efficiently and without the need for additional selection markers. The same advantages apply for the construction of multiple mutants by crossing of strains with different gene deletions, which is now possible with considerably less hands-on time and minimal screening effort compared to a transformation approach. Consequently this toolkit can considerably boost research towards efficient exploitation of the resources of T. reesei for cellulase expression and hence second generation biofuel production.

  15. The Contemporary Situation of Dothistroma Needle Blight Outbreak in the Czech Republic

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    BEDNAROVA, Miroslava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dothistroma needle blight Mycosphaerella pini E. Rostrup resp. its anamorphic stage Dothistroma septospora (Dorog. Morelet was for the first time noted in the region of the Czech Republic in a consignment of imported plants of Austrian pine Pinus nigra Arnold in 1999. In 2000, it was also found on Pinus nigra in an open planting in a plantation of Christmas trees near the village of Jedovnice by Brno in the South Moravia. In the Czech Republic, Dothistroma needle blight was identified on 19 species of pines and 5 species of spruces. The critical period for infection is in the Czech Republic from the second half of May until the end of June, when the new shoots and needles develop. The incubation period lasts about 2–4 months depending on climatic conditions. The first symptoms on the needles infected in the current year appear in August being clearly expressed from September to November. In the CR, Dothistroma needle blight spread probably with infected planting stock obtained from import at the end of the 80s and at the beginning of the 90s.

  16. Seasonal pattern of lesion development in diseased Fraxinus excelsior infected by Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina Barbro Katrin Bengtsson

    Full Text Available Ash dieback is a recent widespread disease on ash (Fraxinus sp. that is causing important economic and ecological losses throughout Europe. The disease is initiated by the ascomycetous fungus Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus (anamorph Chalara fraxinea. The main aim of this study was to investigate seasonal pattern of lesion development associated with ash dieback. We present data on the spread of 324 natural lesions in ash shoots, branches and stems surveyed over a 32 month period. Most lesions were active and showed the greatest rate of growth during the summer; however, lesions were active throughout the year. Tree mortality was high, with more than a third of the surveyed trees dying during the study. Although many lesions permanently ceased to develop, the rate at which new lesions emerged was greater than the rate at which lesions entered a resting phase. The most common cause for a lesion going into a permanent state of rest was that it had encountered a branch-base. Genotype analysis showed that multiple infections can occur in a single tree given that different genotypes were identified in different lesions as well as in single lesions. A weak positive correlation was noted between tree health and tree size and a weak negative correlation was noted between tree overall health and lesion activity. The lower limit for H. pseudoalbidus growth in culture was between 4.0°C and 0.5°C.

  17. Graphical user interfaces for teaching and design of GRIN lenses in optical interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Varela, A I; Bao-Varela, C

    2015-01-01

    The use of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) enables the implementation of practical teaching methodologies to make the comprehension of a given subject easier. GUIs have become common tools in science and engineering education, where very often, the practical implementation of experiences in a laboratory involves much equipment and many people; they are an efficient and inexpensive solution to the lack of resources. The aim of this work is to provide primarily physics and engineering students with a series of GUIs to teach some configurations in optical communications using gradient-index (GRIN) lenses. The reported GUIs are intended to perform a complementary role in education as part of a ‘virtual lab’ to supplement theoretical and practical sessions and to reinforce the knowledge acquired by the students. In this regard, a series of GUIs to teach and research the implementation of GRIN lenses in optical communications applications (including a GRIN light deflector and a beam-size controller, a GRIN fibre lens for fibre-coupling purposes, planar interconnectors, and an anamorphic self-focusing lens to correct astigmatism in laser diodes) was designed using the environment GUIDE developed by MATLAB. Numerical examples using available commercial GRIN lens parameter values are presented. (paper)

  18. A versatile toolkit for high throughput functional genomics with Trichoderma reesei

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    Schuster André

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ascomycete fungus, Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina, represents a biotechnological workhorse and is currently one of the most proficient cellulase producers. While strain improvement was traditionally accomplished by random mutagenesis, a detailed understanding of cellulase regulation can only be gained using recombinant technologies. Results Aiming at high efficiency and high throughput methods, we present here a construction kit for gene knock out in T. reesei. We provide a primer database for gene deletion using the pyr4, amdS and hph selection markers. For high throughput generation of gene knock outs, we constructed vectors using yeast mediated recombination and then transformed a T. reesei strain deficient in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ by spore electroporation. This NHEJ-defect was subsequently removed by crossing of mutants with a sexually competent strain derived from the parental strain, QM9414. Conclusions Using this strategy and the materials provided, high throughput gene deletion in T. reesei becomes feasible. Moreover, with the application of sexual development, the NHEJ-defect can be removed efficiently and without the need for additional selection markers. The same advantages apply for the construction of multiple mutants by crossing of strains with different gene deletions, which is now possible with considerably less hands-on time and minimal screening effort compared to a transformation approach. Consequently this toolkit can considerably boost research towards efficient exploitation of the resources of T. reesei for cellulase expression and hence second generation biofuel production.

  19. Identification and Characterization of Gliocladium viride Isolated from Mushroom Fly Infested Oak Log Beds Used for Shiitake Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Young; Yun, Yeo Hong; Hyun, Min Woo; Kim, Myeong Ho; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2010-03-01

    A green mold species that has not previously been reported in Korea was isolated from oak log beds used for shiitake (Lentinula edodes) cultivation that were infested by mushroom flies. In this study, we identify the mold species as Gliocladium viride (an anamorph of Hypocrea lutea) and describe its mycological properties. The fungus was cottony on both potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Czapek yeast extract agar (CYA), but was colored white on PDA and became yellowish green and brown on CYA. Mycelial growth on PDA attained a diameter of 73 mm at 30℃ after 5 days. The fungus grew faster on malt extract agar (> 80 mm, 5 days at 25℃) compared to CYA and PDA (< 68 mm, 5 days at 25℃). Penicillate conidiophores of the fungus are hyaline, smooth walled, branching above typically in four stages, and 120~240 µm in length. Club-shaped or slender phialides are formed on the metulae. Conidia of the fungus were ovate and elliptic, yellowish brown and green, and 2.5~3.0 µm × 1.8~2.3 µm in size. Typically, slimy conidia are formed in a mass and colored brown to dark green to almost black. The internal transcribed spacer rDNA and translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene sequences of the fungus isolated here show 99% identity with previously identified G. viride strains.

  20. Genetic and metabolic biodiversity of Trichoderma from Colombia and adjacent neotropic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos-Carvajal, Lilliana; Orduz, Sergio; Bissett, John

    2009-09-01

    The genus Trichoderma has been studied for production of enzymes and other metabolites, as well as for exploitation as effective biological control agents. The biodiversity of Trichoderma has seen relatively limited study over much of the neotropical region. In the current study we assess the biodiversity of 183 isolates from Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil and Colombia, using morphological, metabolic and genetic approaches. A comparatively high diversity of species was found, comprising 29 taxa: Trichoderma asperellum (60 isolates), Trichoderma atroviride (3), Trichoderma brevicompactum (5), Trichoderma crassum (3), Trichoderma erinaceum (3), Trichoderma gamsii (2), Trichoderma hamatum (2), Trichoderma harzianum (49), Trichoderma koningiopsis (6), Trichoderma longibrachiatum (3), Trichoderma ovalisporum (1), Trichoderma pubescens (2), Trichoderma rossicum (4), Trichoderma spirale (1), Trichoderma tomentosum (3), Trichoderma virens (8), Trichoderma viridescens (7) and Hypocrea jecorina (3) (anamorph: Trichoderma reesei), along with 11 currently undescribed species. T. asperellum was the prevalent species and was represented by two distinct genotypes with different metabolic profiles and habitat preferences. The second predominant species, T. harzianum, was represented by three distinct genotypes. The addition of 11 currently undescribed species is evidence of the considerable unresolved biodiversity of Trichoderma in neotropical regions. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the ribosomal repeat could not differentiate some species, and taken alone gave several misidentifications in part due to the presence of nonorthologous copies of the ITS in some isolates.

  1. Discovery of the teleomorph of the hyphomycete, Sterigmatobotrys macrocarpa, and epitypification of the genus to holomorphic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réblová, M; Seifert, K A

    2011-01-01

    Sterigmatobotrys macrocarpa is a conspicuous, lignicolous, dematiaceous hyphomycete with macronematous, penicillate conidiophores with branches or metulae arising from the apex of the stipe, terminating with cylindrical, elongated conidiogenous cells producing conidia in a holoblastic manner. The discovery of its teleomorph is documented here based on perithecial ascomata associated with fertile conidiophores of S. macrocarpa on a specimen collected in the Czech Republic; an identical anamorph developed from ascospores isolated in axenic culture. The teleomorph is morphologically similar to species of the genera Carpoligna and Chaetosphaeria, especially in its nonstromatic perithecia, hyaline, cylindrical to fusiform ascospores, unitunicate asci with a distinct apical annulus, and tapering paraphyses. Identical perithecia were later observed on a herbarium specimen of S. macrocarpa originating in New Zealand. Sterigmatobotrys includes two species, S. macrocarpa, a taxonomic synonym of the type species, S. elata, and S. uniseptata. Because no teleomorph was described in the protologue of Sterigmatobotrys, we apply Article 59.7 of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. We epitypify (teleotypify) both Sterigmatobotrys elata and S. macrocarpa to give the genus holomorphic status, and the name S. macrocarpa is adopted for the holomorph. To evaluate the ordinal and familial affinities of Sterigmatobotrys and its relationships with the morphologically similar genera Carpoligna and Chaetosphaeria, phylogenetic relationships were inferred based on aligned sequences of the large subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (ncLSU rDNA).

  2. Phylogenetic classification of yeasts and related taxa within Pucciniomycotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q-M; Yurkov, A M; Göker, M; Lumbsch, H T; Leavitt, S D; Groenewald, M; Theelen, B; Liu, X-Z; Boekhout, T; Bai, F-Y

    2015-06-01

    Most small genera containing yeast species in the Pucciniomycotina (Basidiomycota, Fungi) are monophyletic, whereas larger genera including Bensingtonia, Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, Sporidiobolus and Sporobolomyces are polyphyletic. With the implementation of the "One Fungus = One Name" nomenclatural principle these polyphyletic genera were revised. Nine genera, namely Bannoa, Cystobasidiopsis, Colacogloea, Kondoa, Erythrobasidium, Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces, Sakaguchia and Sterigmatomyces, were emended to include anamorphic and teleomorphic species based on the results obtained by a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis, phylogenetic network analyses, branch length-based methods, as well as morphological, physiological and biochemical comparisons. A new class Spiculogloeomycetes is proposed to accommodate the order Spiculogloeales. The new families Buckleyzymaceae with Buckleyzyma gen. nov., Chrysozymaceae with Chrysozyma gen. nov., Microsporomycetaceae with Microsporomyces gen. nov., Ruineniaceae with Ruinenia gen. nov., Symmetrosporaceae with Symmetrospora gen. nov., Colacogloeaceae and Sakaguchiaceae are proposed. The new genera Bannozyma, Buckleyzyma, Fellozyma, Hamamotoa, Hasegawazyma, Jianyunia, Rhodosporidiobolus, Oberwinklerozyma, Phenoliferia, Pseudobensingtonia, Pseudohyphozyma, Sampaiozyma, Slooffia, Spencerozyma, Trigonosporomyces, Udeniozyma, Vonarxula, Yamadamyces and Yunzhangia are proposed to accommodate species segregated from the genera Bensingtonia, Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, Sporidiobolus and Sporobolomyces. Ballistosporomyces is emended and reintroduced to include three Sporobolomyces species of the sasicola clade. A total of 111 new combinations are proposed in this study.

  3. Taxonomy and phylogeny of new wood- and soil-inhabiting Sporothrix species in the Ophiostoma stenoceras-Sporothrix schenckii complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meyer, Elsie M; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Summerbell, Richard C; Moharram, A M; de Hoog, G Sybren; Vismer, Hester F; Wingfield, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Sporothrix, one of the anamorph genera of Ophiostoma, includes the important human pathogen S. schenckii and various fungi associated with insects and sap stain of wood. A survey of fungi from wood utility poles in South Africa yielded two distinct groups of Sporothrix isolates from different geographical areas. DNA sequence and morphological data derived in this study showed that isolates in these groups represent two novel species in the S. schenckii-O. stenoceras species complex. A new species isolated from pine poles and rosebush wood and phylogenetically closely related to S. pallida is described here as Sporothrix stylites. Phylogenetic analyses also confirmed the synonymy of S. albicans and S. nivea with S. pallida. Sporothrix stylites and S. pallida also are related closely to the isolates from soil, previously treated as "environmental" isolates of S. schenckii. Soil isolates are clearly distinct from human isolates of S. schenckii. We describe the former here as Sporothrix humicola. The isolates from eucalypt poles group peripheral to most other species in the S. schenckii-O. stenoceras complex and are newly described as Sporothrix lignivora. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of isolates from soil and wood together with those of clinical isolates showed that the human-pathogenic strains form an aggregate of several cryptic species.

  4. A case report of a cystic fibrosis patient with repeated isolation of Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans identified by a novel short-extraction method

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    Daniel Goldenberger

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans is a recently described yeast-like fungal organism and its association as a pathogen for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF was reported previously. We show the clinical course of a CF patient over 9 years as well as the applications of modern molecular and proteomic identification techniques of this rare fungus. Case presentation We present the case of a 32-year-old male CF patient with sputum cultures continuously positive with the anamorphic yeast T. mycotoxinivorans during 9 years. Furthermore, susceptibility testing of T. mycotoxinivorans to different antifungals were performed. In addition, a rapid identification method of this novel fungal pathogen with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS was applied using a simple extraction protocol. Conclusions Our case presentation confirms T. mycotoxinivorans as a potential emerging pathogen in patients with CF. However, our CF patient showed mild symptoms over a very long time period of 9 years. A short MALDI-TOF MS procedure allows reliable and rapid identification of T. mycotoxinivorans and therefore should facilitate further study on the clinical relevance and epidemiology of this unusual fungal organism.

  5. A case report of a cystic fibrosis patient with repeated isolation of Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans identified by a novel short-extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberger, Daniel; Hinić, Vladimira; Prince, Spasenija Savic; Tamm, Michael; Balestra, Anna-Maria; Hohler, Doris; Frei, Reno

    2016-10-25

    Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans is a recently described yeast-like fungal organism and its association as a pathogen for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) was reported previously. We show the clinical course of a CF patient over 9 years as well as the applications of modern molecular and proteomic identification techniques of this rare fungus. We present the case of a 32-year-old male CF patient with sputum cultures continuously positive with the anamorphic yeast T. mycotoxinivorans during 9 years. Furthermore, susceptibility testing of T. mycotoxinivorans to different antifungals were performed. In addition, a rapid identification method of this novel fungal pathogen with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was applied using a simple extraction protocol. Our case presentation confirms T. mycotoxinivorans as a potential emerging pathogen in patients with CF. However, our CF patient showed mild symptoms over a very long time period of 9 years. A short MALDI-TOF MS procedure allows reliable and rapid identification of T. mycotoxinivorans and therefore should facilitate further study on the clinical relevance and epidemiology of this unusual fungal organism.

  6. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata

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    Vânia Specian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorphic phase is available worldwide, especially in Europe, Asia and America. Isolated in Europe as an agent of the sunflower stem cancer, it has also been endophytically isolated from tropical and temperate plants. A D. helianthi strain isolated from Luehea divaricata has been employed in current research. An investigation of the secondary metabolite from D. helianthi by CC and NMR of ¹H and 13C yielded the separation of 10 fractions and the identification of the phenolic compound 2(-4 hydroxyphenyl-ethanol (Tyrosol. Its antimicrobial reaction was tested and the ensuing antagonistic effects on the human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, phytopathogenic Xanthomonas asc. phaseoli and phytopathogenic fungi were demonstrated. Results show that bioactive compounds and Tyrosol produced by D. helianthi have a biotechnological potential.

  7. Snake fungal disease: An emerging threat to wild snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Knowles, Susan N.; Lankton, Julia S.; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L.; Kapfer, Joshua M.; Staffen, Richard A.; Wild, Erik R.; Schmidt, Katie Z.; Ballmann, Anne; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M.; Glorioso, Brad M.; Last, Lisa A.; Price, Steven J.; Schuler, Krysten L.; Smith, Christopher; Wellehan, James F. X.; Blehert, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused byOphidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.

  8. Susceptibility of intact germinating Arabidopsis thaliana to human fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warpeha, Katherine M; Park, Yoon-Dong; Williamson, Peter R

    2013-05-01

    The fungus Cryptococcus contributes a large global burden of infectious death in both HIV-infected and healthy individuals. As Cryptococcus is an opportunistic pathogen, much of the evolutionary pressure shaping virulence occurs in environments in contact with plants and soil. The present studies investigated inoculation of intact seeds of the common weed Arabidopsis thaliana with fungal cells over a 21-day period. C. gattii was the more virulent plant pathogen, resulting in disrupted germination as well as increased stem lodging, fungal burden, and plant tissue colocalization. C. neoformans was a less virulent plant pathogen but exhibited prolonged tissue residence within the cuticle and vascular spaces. Arabidopsis mutants of the PRN1 gene, which is involved in abiotic and biotic signaling affecting phenylalanine-derived flavonoids, showed altered susceptibility to cryptoccocal infections, suggesting roles for this pathway in cryptococcal defense. The fungal virulence factor laccase was also implicated in plant pathogenesis, as a cryptococcal lac1Δ strain was less virulent than wild-type fungi and was unable to colonize seedlings. In conclusion, these studies expand knowledge concerning the ecological niche of Cryptococcus by demonstrating the pathogenic capacity of the anamorphic form of cryptococcal cells against healthy seedlings under physiologically relevant conditions. In addition, an important role of laccase in plant as well as human virulence may suggest mechanisms for laccase retention and optimization during evolution of this fungal pathogen.

  9. Diversity and Taxonomy of Endophytic Xylariaceous Fungi from Medicinal Plants of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Zhang, Li-Chun; Xing, Yong-Mei; Wang, Yun-Qiang; Xing, Xiao-Ke; Zhang, Da-Wei; Liang, Han-Qiao; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Dendrobium spp. are traditional Chinese medicinal plants, and the main effective ingredients (polysaccharides and alkaloids) have pharmacologic effects on gastritis infection, cancer, and anti-aging. Previously, we confirmed endophytic xylariaceous fungi as the dominant fungi in several Dendrobium species of tropical regions from China. In the present study, the diversity, taxonomy, and distribution of culturable endophytic xylariaceous fungi associated with seven medicinal species of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) were investigated. Among the 961 endophytes newly isolated, 217 xylariaceous fungi (morphotaxa) were identified using morphological and molecular methods. The phylogenetic tree constructed using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large subunit of ribosomal DNA (LSU), and beta-tubulin sequences divided these anamorphic xylariaceous isolates into at least 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The diversity of the endophytic xylariaceous fungi in these seven Dendrobium species was estimated using Shannon and evenness indices, with the results indicating that the dominant Xylariaceae taxa in each Dendrobium species were greatly different, though common xylariaceous fungi were found in several Dendrobium species. These findings implied that different host plants in the same habitats exhibit a preference and selectivity for their fungal partners. Using culture-dependent approaches, these xylariaceous isolates may be important sources for the future screening of new natural products and drug discovery. PMID:23472167

  10. Diversity and taxonomy of endophytic xylariaceous fungi from medicinal plants of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Chen

    Full Text Available Dendrobium spp. are traditional Chinese medicinal plants, and the main effective ingredients (polysaccharides and alkaloids have pharmacologic effects on gastritis infection, cancer, and anti-aging. Previously, we confirmed endophytic xylariaceous fungi as the dominant fungi in several Dendrobium species of tropical regions from China. In the present study, the diversity, taxonomy, and distribution of culturable endophytic xylariaceous fungi associated with seven medicinal species of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae were investigated. Among the 961 endophytes newly isolated, 217 xylariaceous fungi (morphotaxa were identified using morphological and molecular methods. The phylogenetic tree constructed using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS, large subunit of ribosomal DNA (LSU, and beta-tubulin sequences divided these anamorphic xylariaceous isolates into at least 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs. The diversity of the endophytic xylariaceous fungi in these seven Dendrobium species was estimated using Shannon and evenness indices, with the results indicating that the dominant Xylariaceae taxa in each Dendrobium species were greatly different, though common xylariaceous fungi were found in several Dendrobium species. These findings implied that different host plants in the same habitats exhibit a preference and selectivity for their fungal partners. Using culture-dependent approaches, these xylariaceous isolates may be important sources for the future screening of new natural products and drug discovery.

  11. Sporothrix brunneoviolacea and Sporothrix dimorphospora, two new members of the Ophiostoma stenoceras-Sporothrix schenckii complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, H; Gené, J; Cano, J; Silvera, C; Guarro, J

    2010-01-01

    Sporothrix inflata is a saprobic member of the Ophiostoma stenoceras-Sporothrix schenckii species complex, reported mainly from soil. Ophiostoma bragantinum, an ascomycete described from Brazil, has been proposed as its possible teleomorph. Previous studies revealed that Sporothrix inflata is phenotypically and genetically variable, suggesting the existence of cryptic species. During a continued survey on the biodiversity of microfungi from different countries, seven isolates morphologically similar to S. inflata were obtained from soil samples collected in Spain and USA. In this study their phenotypic features and phylogenetic relationships were assessed. DNA sequence data of two nuclear loci revealed that these isolates correspond to two unnamed clades in S. inflata s.l., one of which also included the type strain of Humicola dimorphospora, a species that traditionally has been considered a synonym of S. inflata. These two groups are proposed herein as Sporothrix brunneoviolacea sp. nov. and Sporothrix dimorphospora comb. nov. S. brunneoviolacea is characterized phenotypically by the production of a diffusible violet-brown pigment in culture and mostly globose, pigmented, lateral blastoconidia. On the other hand S. dimorphospora lacks diffusible pigments and shows mostly subglobose to obovoid pigmented lateral blastoconidia. In contrast to the type strain of S. inflata S. brunneoviolacea and S. dimorphospora assimilate raffinose. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that the proposed anamorph-teleomorph connection between S. inflata and O. bragantinum might not be correct.

  12. Paleomycology of the Princeton Chert. III. Dictyosporic microfungi, Monodictysporites princetonensis gen. et sp. nov., associated with decayed rhizomes of an Eocene semi-aquatic fern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymiuk, Ashley A

    2016-09-01

    This study builds on previous investigations of paleomycological diversity within permineralized plants of a significant Eocene paleobotanical locality, the Princeton Chert. The fungal body fossils described here occur in decayed rhizomes of the extinct semi-aquatic fern Dennstaedtiopsis aerenchymata Fungi include vegetative hyphae throughout the plant tissue, as well as a dense assemblage of >100 dematiaceous spores. The spores occur in a discrete zone surrounding two extraneous rootlets of other plants, which penetrated the fern tissue post-mortem. Spores are obovoid and muriform, composed of 8-12 cells with constricted septa and produced from hyaline or slightly pigmented hyphae. The spores are morphologically similar to both asexual reproductive dictyospores of phylogenetically disparate microfungi attributed to the morphogenus Monodictys and perennating dictyochlamydospores that occur in the anamorph genus Phoma In addition to expanding the early Eocene fossil record for Ascomycota, these specimens also provide new insight into the rapidity of initial phases of the fossilization process in this important paleobotanical locality. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  13. Phylogeny and taxonomy of species in the Grosmannia serpens complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan A; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Grosmannia serpens was first described from pine in Italy in 1936 and it has been recorded subsequently from many countries in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The fungus is vectored primarily by root-infesting bark beetles and has been reported to contribute to pine-root diseases in Italy and South Africa. The objective of this study was to consider the identity of a global collection of isolates not previously available and using DNA sequence-based comparisons not previously applied to most of these isolates. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS2-LSU, actin, beta-tubulin, calmodulin and translation elongation factor-1 alpha sequences revealed that these morphologically similar isolates represent a complex of five cryptic species. Grosmannia serpens sensu stricto thus is redefined and comprises only isolates from Italy including the ex-type isolate. The ex-type isolate of Verticicladiella alacris was shown to be distinct from G. serpens, and a new holomorphic species, G. alacris, is described. The teleomorph state of G. alacris was obtained through mating studies in the laboratory, confirming that this species is heterothallic. Most of the available isolates, including those from South Africa, USA, France, Portugal and some from Spain, represent G. alacris. The remaining three taxa, known only in their anamorph states, are described as the new species Leptographium gibbsii for isolates from the UK, L. yamaokae for isolates from Japan and L. castellanum for isolates from Spain and the Dominican Republic.

  14. Present status of Zymoseptoria tritici (Mycospharella graminicola /Fuckel/ Schroter of the wheat cultures in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Karov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the Republic of Macedonia, wheat is a very important crop and it is grown on an area of around 250.000 ha. The most important regions for wheat growing are: Bitola, Kumanovo, Sveti Nikole, Skopje, Probistip, Kocani, Veles and Stip. The most important deseases on wheat are: Tapesia yallundae Wallwork and Spooner with its anamorphic stage Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides (Fron Deighton causer of the desease „eyespot“ on barley and wheat; Puccinia graminis f. spp. tritici; Puccinia racondita f. spp. tritici; Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici; Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc. Shoemaker; Blumeria graminis var. tritici and Zymoseptoria tritici (Mycospharella graminicola (Fuckel Schroter. Many new diseases on wheat causing significant economic damage to producers are observed in Macedonia. The main aim of this article is to present the symptoms, morphology and protective measures of Zymoseptoria tritici (Mycospharella graminicola, the most widely spread fungal pathogens on wheat in the Republic of Macedonia. In the period between 2014 and 2016, the pathogen fungi on wheat with the highest intensity were: Zymoseptoria tritici, Tapesia yallundae, Puccinia graminis, Puccinia recondita, Gaeumannomyces graminis, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Blumeria graminis. The intensity of the diseases and the damages – yield losses of wheat, differed from year to year and between regions, depended on the sensitivity of the wheat varieties. The smallest yield loss was identified in wheat producers who treated the wheat with pesticides at least twice for vegetation season.

  15. Small angle neutron scattering reveals pH-dependent conformational changes in Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I: implications for enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O'Neill, Hugh M; McGaughey, Joseph; Urban, Volker S; Rempe, Caroline S; Petridis, Loukas; Smith, Jeremy C; Evans, Barbara R; Heller, William T

    2011-09-16

    Cellobiohydrolase I (Cel7A) of the fungus Trichoderma reesei (now classified as an anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina) hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose to soluble sugars, making it of key interest for producing fermentable sugars from biomass for biofuel production. The activity of the enzyme is pH-dependent, with its highest activity occurring at pH 4-5. To probe the response of the solution structure of Cel7A to changes in pH, we measured small angle neutron scattering of it in a series of solutions having pH values of 7.0, 6.0, 5.3, and 4.2. As the pH decreases from 7.0 to 5.3, the enzyme structure remains well defined, possessing a spatial differentiation between the cellulose binding domain and the catalytic core that only changes subtly. At pH 4.2, the solution conformation of the enzyme changes to a structure that is intermediate between a properly folded enzyme and a denatured, unfolded state, yet the secondary structure of the enzyme is essentially unaltered. The results indicate that at the pH of optimal activity, the catalytic core of the enzyme adopts a structure in which the compact packing typical of a fully folded polypeptide chain is disrupted and suggest that the increased range of structures afforded by this disordered state plays an important role in the increased activity of Cel7A through conformational selection.

  16. Snake fungal disease: an emerging threat to wild snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Knowles, Susan; Lankton, Julia S; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L; Kapfer, Joshua M; Staffen, Richard A; Wild, Erik R; Schmidt, Katie Z; Ballmann, Anne E; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M; Glorioso, Brad M; Last, Lisa A; Price, Steven J; Schuler, Krysten L; Smith, Christopher E; Wellehan, James F X; Blehert, David S

    2016-12-05

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Detection of the sour-rot pathogen Geotrichum candidum in tomato fruit and juice by using a highly specific monoclonal antibody-based ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Christopher R; Slaughter, David C; Davis, R Michael

    2010-10-15

    Geotrichum candidum is a common soil-borne fungus that causes sour-rot of tomatoes, citrus fruits and vegetables, and is a major contaminant on tomato processing equipment. The aim of this work was to produce a monoclonal antibody and diagnostic assay for its detection in tomato fruit and juice. Using hybridoma technology, a cell line (FE10) was generated that produced a monoclonal antibody belonging to the immunoglobulin class M (IgM) that was specific to G. candidum and the closely related teleomorphic species Galactomyces geotrichum and anamorphic species Geotrichum europaeum and Geotrichum pseudocandidum in the G. geotrichum/G. candidum complex. The MAb did not cross-react with a wide range of unrelated fungi, including some likely to be encountered during crop production and processing. The MAb binds to an immunodominant high molecular mass (> 200 kDa) extracellular polysaccharide antigen that is present on the surface of arthroconidia and hyphae of G. candidum. The MAb was used in a highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to accurately detect the fungus in infected tomato fruit and juice. Specificity of the ELISA was confirmed by sequencing of the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) 1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA-encoding regions of fungi isolated from naturally-infected tomatoes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolation of Pseudozyma churashimaensis sp. nov., a novel ustilaginomycetous yeast species as a producer of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Ogura, Yuki; Takashima, Masako; Hirose, Naoto; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kondo, Yukishige; Kitamoto, Dai

    2011-08-01

    An ustilaginomycetous anamorphic yeast species isolated from the leaves of Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) in Okinawa, Japan, was identified as a novel Pseudozyma species based on morphological and physiological aspects and molecular taxonomic analysis using the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8S-ITS2 regions. The name Pseudozyma churashimaensis sp. nov. was proposed for the novel species, with JCM 16988(T) as the type strain. Interestingly, P. churashimaensis was found to produce glycolipid biosurfactants, a mixture of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), including a novel tri-acetylated derivative (MEL-A2), from glucose. The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface tension at CMC of MEL-A2 were 1.7 × 10⁻⁶ M and 29.2 mN/m, respectively. Moreover, on a water-penetration scan, MEL-A2 efficiently formed different lyotropic liquid crystalline phases, including the lamella phase at a wide range of concentrations, indicating its excellent surface-active and self-assembling properties. The novel strain of the genus Pseudozyma should thus facilitate the application of glycolipid biosurfactants in combination with other MEL producers. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microscopic fungi on Nymphaeaceae plants of the Lake Płociczno in Drawa National Park (NW Poland

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    Kinga Mazurkiewicz-Zapałowicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of micromycetes associated with disease symptoms on the leaves and flowers of three plant species, Nymphaea alba (NA, Nymphaea candida (NC, and Nuphar lutea (NL, forming nympheid phytocoenoses on Lake Płociczno in Drawa National Park during the years 2009 to 2012. From all collected plant specimens, an overall number of 38 distinct taxa of fungi and chromistan fungal analogues was isolated. The largest diversity of taxa was found on NL (37 taxa, the lowest was on NC (4 taxa, and NA contained 12 taxa. Each year, anamorphic forms of Ascomycota were dominant in the taxonomic structure. For the first time in Poland, Septoria nupharis (NA, NL, NC and Colletotrichum nymphaeae (NL, NC were found on their spotted leaves. For both of the mentioned pathogens, Nymphaea candida is a new host plant in Poland. Botrytis cinerea, Elongisporangium undulatum (= Pythium undulatum, Epicoccum nigrum, Fusarium incarnatum (= F. semitectum, and Gibberella avenacea (= Fusarium avenaceum were found each year in the studied phytocoenoses. The confirmation of NA and NL flower infections by Botrytis cinerea, which leads to gangrene, is an important aspect of the gray mold epidemiology. Until now, the occurrence of smut fungi on nympheids in Drawa National Park was not observed. The taxonomic structure and the predomination of asexual stages of fungi, as well as the similarity coefficients, suggest that the seasonal decomposition of nympheids run naturally and contribute to maintaining the stability of the lake ecosystem.

  20. Phytopatological monitoring of Inonotus rickii and GPS-GIS applications, Rome, Italy

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    Moriondo M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant disease management may be improved by collecting, storing, manipulating, analysing and displaying epidemiological information using a Geographic Information System (GIS, a useful tool to evaluate plant disease problems in a spatial context. In this study, GIS analysis was applied along with global positioning systems (GPS to integrate field data-collected with the spatial distribution of the pathogen Inonotus rickii. This pathogen provokes a decay of sapwood/heartwood and cankers, determining a progressive crown dieback and structural weakness of the trees, therefore increasing risk of branch breaks and tree failures. It is widespread in tropical and subtropical countries and it has already been recorded in many areas in Rome on Acer negundo, Albizia julibrissin, Koelreuteria paniculata, Celtis australis and Platanus x acerifolia. A survey was carried out in different boulevards of A. negundo and A. julibrissin with the aim of evaluating disease symptoms such as sparse foliage, dead twigs and branches, wood decay and presence of fungal structures. In this survey, I. rickii was recorded also on Robinia pseudoacacia, which is a new host. The study allowed to obtain thematic maps showing the spatial distribution of all infected trees, as well as the presence of anamorph and/or teleomorph structures of the fungus. Moreover, a map representing the incidence of the pathogen in different boulevards was obtained. The usefulness of GIS analysis in studies aimed to support and refine management strategies for disease control in urban trees is discussed.

  1. First Report of Lasiodiplodia theobromae Causing Needle Blight and Stem Canker Diseases on Araucaria heterophylla in Ethiopia

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    Darge Wendu Admasu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Canker and needle blight of Araucaria heterophylla (Norfolk Island pine trees were observed during the surveys conducted in Addis Ababa and Adama cities (Ethiopia from November to December 2016. The main objective of this study was to investigate fungal pathogens that cause diseases on Araucaria heterophylla trees. Six localities with Araucaria heterophylla plantings were purposively surveyed for disease symptoms. Samples from symptomatic parts of trees were collected, surface sterilized, cultured on PDA and morphologically identified for genus and species. A total of 36 isolates of fungi were identified. Based on macro- and microscopic morphological features of the colonies, the fungal isolates were found to be the genus Diplodia and species Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat. Griffon & Maubl (syn. Botryodiplodia theobromae, the anamorph of Botryosphaeria rhodina (Berk. & M.A. Curtis Arx. The pathogenicity test showed that the isolates of Lasiodiplodia theobromae, caused stem canker and needle blight on Araucaria heterophylla. This finding is important in the study of management options for future prevention and control of diseases in the country.

  2. First record of Botryosphaeria ribis associated with leaf spots on Magnolia aff. candollei in Brazil Primeiro relato de Botryosphaeria ribis associada com doença foliar em Magnolia aff. candollei no Brasil

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    Davi Mesquita de Macedo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A leaf spot disease was observed attacking some Magnolia aff. candollei plants grown in a private garden in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Such leaf spots coalesced and led to extensive blight of foliage. A fungus was clearly associated to the disease symptoms and was identified as Botryosphaeria ribis. Its anamorph, Fusicoccum ribis, was also present, although less abundant than the teleomorph. This is first report of this fungus on this host in Brazil and the first record of any fungal disease on a member of the genus Magnolia in Brazil.Neste trabalho são apresentadas observações feitas sobre a etiologia de uma doença foliar encontrada atacando alguns indivíduos da espécie Magnolia aff. candollei cultivados em um jardim particular na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Esta doença se apresentava como manchas foliares que tendiam a coalescer levando à queima de áreas extensas das folhas atacadas. Um fungo estava claramente associado a estes sintomas e foi identificado como Botryosphaeria ribis. Seu anamorfo, Fusicoccum ribis, também estava presente, embora sendo menos comum que o teliomorfo. Este é o primeiro relato deste fungo neste hospedeiro no Brasil e o primeiro relato de uma doença fúngica em planta do gênero Magnolia no Brasil.

  3. Efficient transformation of Mycosphaerella fijiensis by underwater shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Tovar, Lina; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Fernández, Francisco; Guzmán-Quesada, Mauricio; Sandoval-Fernández, Jorge A; Ortíz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Loske, Achim M; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A

    2015-12-01

    Black leaf streak disease, also known as black Sigatoka, causes dramatic losses in production of banana and plantains fruits. The disease is caused by the pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis (anamorph Pseudocercospora fijiensis; Mycosphaerellaceae). Genetic transformation of M. fijiensis would allow a better understanding of molecular basis of pathogenicity and design novel approaches to control the infection caused by this pathogen. However, transformation of this fungus has not been easy. We report here a protocol for genetic transformation of M. fijiensis employing underwater shock waves and intact conidia. The recombinant strains recovered showed genetic stability over >10 generations. The frequency of transformation obtained was between 75 and 150 times higher than the efficiency reported in the only article published on transformation of M. fijiensis using spheroplasts. This improvement allowed the use of a thousand times less cells than the amount employed before, avoiding the need for cumbersome successive batch cultures. Our protocol is simple, highly efficient, fast and reproducible and together with the available genomes of M. fijiensis and Musa acuminata, it offers new possibilities to study the diverse mechanisms of pathogenesis of the fungus. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Virulence and genetic diversity among isolates of Mycosphaerella fijiensis in two regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, G F; Santos, V S; Sousa, N R; Hanada, R E; Gasparotto, L

    2016-04-27

    Black sigatoka, caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis (anamorphic stage: Paracercospora fijiensis), was first detected in Brazil in early 1998 in the Benjamin Constant and Tabatinga municipalities in the State of Amazonas, near to where the borders of Brazil, Colombia, and Peru converge. Understanding how cultivars react to the pathogen, and characterizing the genetic variability of isolates from two distant and distinct banana-producing regions, are important for determining the virulence of M. fijiensis. In the present study, the genetic diversity of 22 M. fijiensis isolates was assessed using simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, and their virulence was determined following inoculation on three different banana tree cultivars. All 22 isolates caused symptoms of the disease in the Maçã and Prata Comum cultivars 45 days after inoculation, and at least two virulence groups were identified for the Maçã and Prata Comum cultivars. For the D'Angola cultivars, two virulence groups were observed only after 60 days post-inoculation, and three of the isolates were not virulent. Using SSR markers, the isolates from two different regions of Brazil were placed into two genetic groups, both genetically distant from the Mf 138 isolate collected in Leticia, Colombia. There was no evidence of correlation between the virulence groups and the genetic diversity groups. These results demonstrate variability in virulence between isolates as measured by the severity of black sigatoka in the analyzed cultivars.

  5. Graphical user interfaces for teaching and design of GRIN lenses in optical interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Varela, A. I.; Bao-Varela, C.

    2015-05-01

    The use of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) enables the implementation of practical teaching methodologies to make the comprehension of a given subject easier. GUIs have become common tools in science and engineering education, where very often, the practical implementation of experiences in a laboratory involves much equipment and many people; they are an efficient and inexpensive solution to the lack of resources. The aim of this work is to provide primarily physics and engineering students with a series of GUIs to teach some configurations in optical communications using gradient-index (GRIN) lenses. The reported GUIs are intended to perform a complementary role in education as part of a ‘virtual lab’ to supplement theoretical and practical sessions and to reinforce the knowledge acquired by the students. In this regard, a series of GUIs to teach and research the implementation of GRIN lenses in optical communications applications (including a GRIN light deflector and a beam-size controller, a GRIN fibre lens for fibre-coupling purposes, planar interconnectors, and an anamorphic self-focusing lens to correct astigmatism in laser diodes) was designed using the environment GUIDE developed by MATLAB. Numerical examples using available commercial GRIN lens parameter values are presented.

  6. Screening, isolation, and characterization of glycosyl-hydrolase-producing fungi from desert halophyte plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luziatelli, Francesca; Crognale, Silvia; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Moresi, Mauro; Petruccioli, Maurizio; Ruzzi, Maurizio

    2014-03-01

    Fungal strains naturally occurring on the wood and leaves of the salt-excreting desert tree Tamarix were isolated and characterized for their ability to produce cellulose- and starch-degrading enzymes. Of the 100 isolates, six fungal species were identified by ITS1 sequence analysis. No significant differences were observed among taxa isolated from wood samples of different Tamarix species, while highly salt-tolerant forms related to the genus Scopulariopsis (an anamorphic ascomycete) occurred only on the phylloplane of T. aphylla. All strains had cellulase and amylase activities, but the production of these enzymes was highest in strain D, a Schizophyllum-commune-related form. This strain, when grown on pretreated Tamarix biomass, produced an enzymatic complex containing levels of filter paperase (414 +/- 16 IU/ml) that were higher than those of other S. commune strains. The enzyme complex was used to hydrolyze different lignocellulosic substrates, resulting in a saccharification rate ofpretreated milk thistle (73.5 +/- 1.2%) that was only 10% lower than that obtained with commercial cellulases. Our results support the use of Tamarix biomass as a useful source of cellulolytic and amylolytic fungi and as a good feedstock for the economical production of commercially relevant cellulases and amylases.

  7. Current Status of Conventional and Molecular Interventions for Blast Resistance in Rice

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    Deepti Srivastava

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pyricularia oryzae anamorph of Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most notorious fungal pathogens causing severe economic loss in rice production worldwide. Various methods, viz. cultural, biological and molecular approaches, are utilized to counteract this pathogen. Moreover, some tolerant or resistant rice varieties have been developed with the help of breeding programmes. Isolation and molecular characterization of different blast resistance genes now open the gate for new possibilities to elucidate the actual allelic variants of these genes via various molecular breeding and transgenic approaches. However, the behavioral pattern of this fungus breakups the resistance barriers in the resistant or tolerant rice varieties. This host-pathogen barrier will be possibly countered in future research by comparative genomics data from available genome sequence data of rice and M. oryzae for durable resistance. Present review emphasized fascinating recent updates, new molecular breeding approaches, transgenic and genomics approaches (i.e. miRNA and genome editing for the management of blast disease in rice. The updated information will be helpful for the durable, resistance breeding programme in rice against blast pathogen.

  8. Development of microsatellite markers for the genetic analysis of Magnaporthe grisea

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    Brondani Claudio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available An AG microsatellite-enriched genomic DNA library was constructed for Magnaporthe grisea (anamorph Pyricularia grisea, the causal agent of rice blast. Seventy-two DNA clones containing microsatellite repeats were isolated and sequenced in order to develop a series of new PCR-based molecular markers to be used in genetic studies of the fungus. Twenty-four of these clones were selected to design primer pairs for the PCR amplification of microsatellite alleles. Single spore cultures of M. grisea isolated from rice and wheat in Brazil, Colombia and China were genotyped at three microsatellite loci. Isolates from southern Brazil were predominantly monomorphic at the tested SSR loci, indicating a low level of genetic variability in these samples. However, seven alleles were observed at the MGM-1 locus in isolates from Central Brazil and at least nine alleles were detected at the same locus in a sample of Colombian isolates. Polymorphism analysis at SSR loci is a simple and direct approach for estimating the genetic diversity of M. grisea isolates and a powerful tool for studying M. grisea genetics.

  9. Algorithm-based design of synthetic growth media stimulating virulence properties of Metarhizium anisopliae conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutwimmer, S; Wagner, S; Affenzeller, M; Burgstaller, W; Strasser, H

    2008-12-01

    Synthetic media should be designed for the production of Metarhizium anisopliae conidia with improved virulence properties. A genetic algorithm (GA), demonstrated to be suitable for the design of media for spore mass production (Hutwimmer et al. 2008), was utilized for a multi-objective medium design to improve conidia yield and three proposed virulence properties of conidia: C : N ratio, germination speed and amount of spore-bound Pr1 protease. After five iterative optimizations, 52 media were improved over Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). Four media exhibited medium performances (a factor derived from the four single optimization variables) of around 0.7; cf. SDA = 0.532; media with enhanced properties were reached for each single optimization variable; Bioassays against Tenebrio larvae indicated also a slight improvement in virulence of conidia from designed media. A degenerated phenotype of the same strain did not exhibit differences in colony appearance, spore characteristics and virulence if grown on designed media. The application of a problem-oriented GA is a practical and rapid method to design media for multi-objective purposes. The applicability of a GA for multi-objective medium design was demonstrated for the cultivation of anamorphic fungi on solid media.

  10. Entomopathogens of Amazonian stick insects and locusts are members of the Beauveria species complex (Cordyceps sensu stricto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuan, Tatiana; Tabima, Javier; Restrepo, Silvia; Læssøe, Thomas; Spatafora, Joseph W; Franco-Molano, Ana Esperanza

    2014-01-01

    In the Amazon the only described species of Cordyceps sensu stricto (Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae) that parasitize insects of Orthopterida (orders Orthoptera and Phasmida) are Cordyceps locustiphila and C. uleana. However, the type specimens for both taxa have been lost and the concepts of these species are uncertain. To achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the systematics of these species, collections of Cordyceps from the Amazon regions of Colombia, Ecuador and Guyana were subjected to morphological, ecological and molecular phylogenetic studies. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted on partial sequences of SSU, LSU, TEF, RPB1 and RPB2 nuclear loci. Two new species are proposed including C. diapheromeriphila, a parasite of Phasmida, and C. acridophila, a parasite of the superfamily Acridomorpha (Orthoptera), which is broadly distributed across the Amazon. For C. locustiphila a lectotypification and an epitypification are made. Cordyceps locustiphila is host specific with Colpolopha (Acridomorpha: Romaleidae), and its distribution coincides with that of its host. The phylogenetic placement of these three species was resolved with strong support in the Beauveria clade of Cordyceps s. str. (Cordycipitaceae). This relationship and the morphological similarity of their yellow stromata with known teleomorphs of the clade, suggest that the holomorphs of these species may include Beauveria or Beauveria-like anamorphs. The varying host specificity of the beauverioid Cordyceps species suggest the potential importance of identifying the natural host taxon before future consideration of strains for use in biological control of pest locusts.

  11. The Spot Problem in Avocado (Persea americana Mill. Plantations of Northern Tolima, Colombia

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    Julián Reina Noreña

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The spot (common name is currently the main phytosanitary problem in avocado plantations of northern Tolima. In Colombia, information about its causal agent and the external factors that foster its development is scarse, which lead us to carry on a preliminary research. In three avocado farms of Fresno municipality, the severity of the spot in Lorena cultivar fruits was evaluated by using five types of barriers and a control, from the inflorescence phase to the developed fruit. The symptoms of the “avocado spot” in Lorena’ cultivar were characterized. Samples from different plant organs were sent to four diagnostic laboratories. Besides, in ten farms of Fresno municipality, the severity of the spot was measured on Lorena, Hass and Choquette cultivars by carrying out bi-weekly samplings. Simultaneously, in eleven farms in Fresno, the culture labors, pesticides, production costs and incomes were recorded. The treatment that was significantly different from the control was the fungicide application. The phytopathological diagnosis identified two pathogens, Glomerella sp. (Anamorphic: Colletotrichum sp. and Cercospora sp. related to the spot symptoms. The Lorena cultivar was the most affected by “the spot”, it caused an increase of 3.65 % of the production costs to growers and the crop incomes decreased 21.65 % due to fruits with “spot” symptoms. An environmental impact was perceived as a result of the grower lack of awareness about the problem.

  12. Nomenclatural realignment of Neotyphodium species with genus Epicholë.

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    Leuchtmann, Adrian; Bacon, Charles W; Schardl, Christopher L; White, James F; Tadych, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    Nomenclatural rule changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, adopted at the 18th International Botanical Congress in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011, provide for a single name to be used for each fungal species. The anamorphs of Epichloë species have been classified in genus Neotyphodium, the form genus that also includes most asexual Epichloë descendants. A nomenclatural realignment of this monophyletic group into one genus would enhance a broader understanding of the relationships and common features of these grass endophytes. Based on the principle of priority of publication we propose to classify all members of this clade in the genus Epichloë. We have reexamined classification of several described Epichloë and Neotyphodium species and varieties and propose new combinations and states. In this treatment we have accepted 43 unique taxa in Epichloë, including distinct species, subspecies, and varieties. We exclude from Epichloë the two taxa Neotyphodium starrii, as nomen dubium, and Neotyphodium chilense, as an unrelated taxon.

  13. The impacts of the discontinuation of dual nomenclature of pleomorphic fungi: the trivial facts, problems, and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Uwe

    2012-06-01

    The symposium "One fungus = Which name" held in Amsterdam 12-13 April 2012, addressed the drastic changes in the naming of pleomorphic fungi adopted by the 18(th) International Botanical Congress in Melbourne in 2011. Possible solutions and ways to face resulting problems were suggested. The fundamental change is that under the new rules fungi in future will be treated nomenclaturally like plants and all other groups of organisms ruled by the ICN, i.e. with one correct name for each species. Numerous discussions and statements during the Symposium reflected widespread anxieties that these rules could negatively influence taxonomic work on pleomorphic fungi. However, they are groundless, being based on misunderstandings and confusion of nomenclature and taxonomy. With pleomorphic fungi, taxonomists will in future have to answer the question whether different morphs can represent one fungus (taxon), but this remains a taxonomic decision and has nothing to do with nomenclature. Furthermore, the ICN does not and cannot rule on how this decision is made. Thus it cannot provide rules based solely on methods involving morphology in vivo or in vitro, molecular analyses, physiological and biochemical data, inoculation experiments in pathogenic groups or any other methods or combinations of them. It is up to the taxonomist to select appropriate methods and to decide which data are sufficient to introduce new taxa. Some future problems and strategies around the application of anamorph- and teleomoph-typified taxon names (genera and species), are discussed here, using the recently monographed powdery mildews (Erysiphales) as an example.

  14. First record of Colletogloeopsis zuluense comb. nov., causing a stem canker of Eucalyptus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinas, Maria-Noel; Burgess, Treena; Dell, Bernie; Xu, Daping; Crous, Pedro W; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2006-02-01

    Coniothyrium zuluense causes a serious canker disease of Eucalyptus in various parts of the world. Very little is known regarding the taxonomy of this asexual fungus, which was provided with a name based solely on morphological characteristics. In this study we consider the phylogenetic position of C. zuluense using DNA-based techniques. Distance analysis using 18S and ITS regions revealed extensive sequence divergence relative to the type species of Coniothyrium, C. palmarum and species of Paraconiothyrium. Coniothyrium zuluense was shown to be an anamorph species of Mycosphaerella, a genus that includes a wide range of Eucalyptus leaf and stem pathogens. Within Mycosphaerella it clustered with taxa having pigmented, verruculose, aseptate conidia that proliferate percurrently and sympodially from pigmented conidiogenous cells arranged in conidiomata that vary from being pycnidial to acervular. The genus Colletogloeopsis is emended to include species with pycnidial conidiomata, and the new combination Colletogloeopsis zuluense is proposed. This is also the first report of the pathogen from China where it is associated with stem cankers on Eucalyptus urophylla.

  15. Ectomycorrhizal fungi of the Seychelles: diversity patterns and host shifts from the native Vateriopsis seychellarum (Dipterocarpaceae) and Intsia bijuga (Caesalpiniaceae) to the introduced Eucalyptus robusta (Myrtaceae), but not Pinus caribea (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedersoo, Leho; Suvi, Triin; Beaver, Katy; Kõljalg, Urmas

    2007-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi form highly diverse communities in temperate forests, but little is known about their community ecology in tropical ecosystems. Using anatomotyping and rDNA sequencing, ECM fungi were identified on root tips of the introduced Eucalyptus robusta and Pinus caribea as well as the endemic Vateriopsis seychellarum and indigenous Intsia bijuga in the Seychelles. Sequencing revealed 30 species of ECM fungi on root tips of V. seychellarum and I. bijuga, with three species overlapping. Eucalyptus robusta shared five of these taxa, whereas P. caribea hosted three unique species of ECM fungi that were likely cointroduced with containerized seedlings. The thelephoroid (including the anamorphic genus Riessiella), euagaric, boletoid and hymenochaetoid clades of basidiomycetes dominated the ECM fungal community of native trees. Two species of Annulatascaceae (Sordariales, Ascomycota) were identified and described as ECM symbionts of V. seychellarum. The low diversity of native ECM fungi is attributed to deforestation and long-term isolation of the Seychelles. Native ECM fungi associate with exotic eucalypts, whereas cointroduced ECM fungi persist in pine plantations for decades.

  16. Naturally-Occurring Entomopathogenic Fungi on Three Bark Beetle Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Bulgaria

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    Slavimira A. Draganova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae belong to one of the most damaging groups of forest insects and the activity of their natural enemies –pathogens, parasitoids,parasites or predators suppressing their population density,is of great importance. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic fungi on bark beetles in Bulgaria has been investigated sporadically. The aim of this preliminary study was to find, identify and study morphological characteristics of fungal entomopathogens naturally-occurring in populations of three curculionid species – Ips sexdentatus Boern, Ips typographus (L. and Dryocoetes autographus (Ratz.. Dead pest adults were found under the bark of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies trees collectedfrom forests in the Maleshevska and Vitosha Mountains. Fungal pathogens were isolated into pure cultures on SDAY (Sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract and were identified based on morphological characteristics both on the host and in a culture.Morphological characteristics of the isolates were studied by phenotypic methods. The fungal isolates obtained from dead adults of Ips sexdentatus, Ips typographus and D. autographus were found to belong to the species Beauveria bassiana (Bals. – Criv. Vuillemin,Beauveria brongniartii (Saccardo Petch and Isaria farinosa (Holmsk. Fries (anamorph Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes: Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae. Morphological traits of the isolates are described.

  17. Celulitis por Microascus trigonosporus(anamorfo Scopulariopsis trigonospora

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    DELIA CANLE CORTIÑAS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Microascus trigonosporus ( anamorfo Scopulariopsis trigonospora es un hongo filamentoso ubicuo que se encuentra en el suelo , plumas de aves, material vegetal e insectos. Aunque Scopulariopsis spp se consideran comúnmente hongos contaminantes , pueden causar ocasionalmente infecciones en humanos, en especial onicomicosis . Excepcionalmente se han descrito infecciones de piel, abscesos cerebrales, endocarditis ,sinusitis e infecciones diseminadas por Scopulariopsis spp , casi siempre en pacientes inmunodeprimidos . En los últimos años se han publicado un mayor número de casos de infecciones oportunistas por Scopulariopsis spp y otros hialohifomicetos multiresistentes. Todavía no está establecido cuál es el mejor régimen de tratamiento para las infecciones por Scopulariopsis spp. Presentamos un caso excepcional de celulitis por Microascus trigonosporus en un paciente con tratamiento prolongado con corticoides. Abstract: Microascus trigonosporus ( Anamorph Scopulariopsis trigonospora is a cosmopolitan filamentous fungus that inhabits soil, feathers ,plant material and insects. While Scopulariopsis is commonly considered as a contaminat fungus it may cause occasionally infections in humans ,especially onychomycosis .Skin lesions, brain abscess , endocarditis, sinusitis and disseminated infections due to Scopulariopsis species have been rarely reported , usually in immunocompromised patients . Over the last few years opportunistic infections by Scopulariopsis species and others multi-resistant hyalohyphomycetes have been increasingly reported . No clear treatment regimen for Scopulariopsis species infections has been established yet. We present a exceptional case of cellulitis due to Microascus trigonosporus in a patient with prolonged steroid therapy.

  18. Colony-PCR Is a Rapid Method for DNA Amplification of Hyphomycetes

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    Georg Walch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pure cultures identified with both classical morphological methods and through barcoding sequences are a basic requirement for reliable reference sequences in public databases. Improved techniques for an accelerated DNA barcode reference library construction will result in considerably improved sequence databases covering a wider taxonomic range. Fast, cheap, and reliable methods for obtaining DNA sequences from fungal isolates are, therefore, a valuable tool for the scientific community. Direct colony PCR was already successfully established for yeasts, but has not been evaluated for a wide range of anamorphic soil fungi up to now, and a direct amplification protocol for hyphomycetes without tissue pre-treatment has not been published so far. Here, we present a colony PCR technique directly from fungal hyphae without previous DNA extraction or other prior manipulation. Seven hundred eighty-eight fungal strains from 48 genera were tested with a success rate of 86%. PCR success varied considerably: DNA of fungi belonging to the genera Cladosporium, Geomyces, Fusarium, and Mortierella could be amplified with high success. DNA of soil-borne yeasts was always successfully amplified. Absidia, Mucor, Trichoderma, and Penicillium isolates had noticeably lower PCR success.

  19. Screening of thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi aiming β-xylosidase and arabinanase production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Vivian Machado; de Lucas, Rosymar Coutinho; Jorge, João Atílio; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell wall is mainly composed by cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The heterogeneous structure and composition of the hemicellulose are key impediments to its depolymerization and subsequent use in fermentation processes. Thus, this study aimed to perform a screening of thermophilic and thermotolerant filamentous fungi collected from different regions of the São Paulo state, and analyze the production of β-xylosidase and arabinanase at different temperatures. These enzymes are important to cell wall degradation and synthesis of end products as xylose and arabinose, respectively, which are significant sugars to fermentation and ethanol production. A total of 12 fungal species were analyzed and 9 of them grew at 45 °C, suggesting a thermophilic or thermotolerant character. Additionally Aspergillus thermomutatus anamorph of Neosartorya and A. parasiticus grew at 50 °C. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus thermomutatus were the filamentous fungi with the most expressive production of β-xylosidase and arabinanase, respectively. In general for most of the tested microorganisms, β-xylosidase and arabinanase activities from mycelial extract (intracellular form) were higher in cultures grown at high temperatures (35–40 °C), while the correspondent extracellular activities were favorably secreted from cultures at 30 °C. This study contributes to catalogue isolated fungi of the state of São Paulo, and these findings could be promising sources for thermophilic and thermotolerant microorganisms, which are industrially important due to their enzymes. PMID:25763055

  20. Diaporthe/Phomopsis Species on Soybean in Serbia

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    Miloš Vidić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex of soybean diseases is caused by species from the genus Diaporthe /Phomopsis.Diaporthe phaseolorum (anamorph Phomopsis phaseoli and Phomopsis longicolla(teleomorph unknown are described as soybean pathogens. The first species includesthree varieties: D. phaseolorum var. sojae, anamorph Phomopsis sojae, the causal agent ofpod and stem blight, and D. phaseolorum var. caulivora and D. phaseolorum var. meridionalis,agents of northern and southern stem canker. The species P. longicolla is the most commonand most damaging agent of soybean seed decay.The diseases caused by parasites from this genus were first observed and described onsoybean in the USA. Presently they are widespread in most soybean-growing regions aroundthe world. Soybean in Serbia is attacked by all pathogens mentioned above, except forD. phaseolorum var. meridionalis, the causal agent of the southern stem canker. D. phaseolorumvar. caulivora (northern stem canker has the greatest economic importance becauseit causes wilt and drying of plants during pod development and grain filling. Most intensiveoutbreaks of the disease occurred in the 1980s in southern and southeastern Banat, southernBačka and Srem. Prematurely wilted plants yielded 50% to 62% (depending on varietyless than healthy plants. Such heavy losses raised the question of the profitability ofsoybean growing. P. sojae and P. longicolla are less important in Serbia at the moment. Intensiveinfections of soybean seed break out occasionally. It was found that P. longicolla isthe primary agent of seed decay and latent infections of seed in our country, although theother members of this genus may cause identical symptoms.Sexual cycle of development (teleomorph stage of the fungi of the genus Diaporthe/Phomopsis form perithecia with asci and ascospores, while in the asexual cycle (anamorphstage various types of conidia (α and β are formed in pycnidia. The species P. longicollahas no teleomorph stage.Infected harvest

  1. Extremely Halotolerant and Halophilic Fungi Inhabit Brine in Solar Salterns Around the Globe

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    Polona Zalar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time halotolerant and halophilic fungi have been known exclusively as contaminants of food preserved with high concentrations of either salt or sugar. They were first reported in 2000 to be active inhabitants of hypersaline environments, when they were found in man-made solar salterns in Slovenia. Since then, they have been described in different salterns and salt lakes on three continents. The mycobiota that inhabit these natural hypersaline environments are composed of phylogenetically unrelated halotolerant, extremely halotolerant, and halophilic fungi, which are represented not only by species previously known only as food contaminants, but also by new and rare species. The dominant representatives are different species of black yeast-like and related melanized fungi of the genus Cladosporium, different species within the anamorphic Aspergillus and Penicillium, and the teleomorphic Emericella and Eurotium, certain species of non-melanized yeasts, and Wallemia spp. Until the discovery and description of indigenous saltern mycobiota, the physiological and molecular mechanisms related to salt tolerance in eukaryotic microorganisms were studied using salt-sensitive model organisms. The most studied eukaryotic microorganism was Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which cannot adapt to hypersaline conditions. Species like Debaryomyces hansenii, Aureobasidum pullulans, Hortaea werneckii and Wallemia ichthyophaga, which have now been isolated globally from natural hypersaline environments, represent more suitable model organisms for the study of halotolerance in eukaryotes. Such studies in these species, and particularly with the extremely halotolerant H. werneckii and obligately halophilic W. ichthyophaga have continued to unravel the different strategies that these microorganisms can use to cope with the problems of ion toxicity and low water activity. The focus of this review is to present the main species of fungi inhabiting solar salterns

  2. Dissatisfaction with own body makes patients with eating disorders more sensitive to pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamotova, Anna; Bulant, Josef; Bocek, Vaclav; Papezova, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Body image represents a multidimensional concept including body image evaluation and perception of body appearance. Disturbances of body image perception are considered to be one of the central aspects of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. There is growing evidence that body image distortion can be associated with changes in pain perception. The aim of our study was to examine the associations between body image perception, body dissatisfaction, and nociception in women with eating disorders and age-matched healthy control women. We measured body dissatisfaction and pain sensitivity in 61 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition diagnoses of eating disorders (31 anorexia nervosa and 30 bulimia nervosa) and in 30 healthy women. Thermal pain threshold latencies were evaluated using an analgesia meter and body image perception and body dissatisfaction were assessed using Anamorphic Micro software (digital pictures of their own body distorted into larger-body and thinner-body images). Patients with eating disorders overestimated their body size in comparison with healthy controls, but the two groups did not differ in body dissatisfaction. In anorexia and bulimia patient groups, body dissatisfaction (calculated in pixels as desired size/true image size) correlated with pain threshold latencies ( r =0.55, p =0.001), while between body image perception (determined as estimation size/true image size) and pain threshold, no correlation was found. Thus, we demonstrated that in patients with eating disorders, pain perception is significantly associated with emotional contrary to sensory (visual) processing of one's own body image. The more the patients desired to be thin, the more pain-sensitive they were. Our findings based on some shared mechanisms of body dissatisfaction and pain perception support the significance of negative emotions specific for eating disorders and contribute to better understanding of the psychosomatic

  3. Gremmeniella abietina (lagerb morelet: Distribution in Yugoslavia, significance and control

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    Karadžić Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungus G. abietina is one of the most dangerous pathogenic fungi inhabiting conifer plantations, and especially endangered species are the pines. Among the pines, the most susceptible species is Austrian pine, and endangered plantations are aged between 8 and 25 years. This fungus was detected in Serbia and Montenegro only on the mountains (Kopaonik, Vlasina, Goè, Durmitor. The fungus was identified on Austrian pine, Scots pine and spruce. In its development G. abietina forms both stages (anamorph and teleomorph. Its imperfect form i.e. pycnidial stage, is far more significant for the infection process, and mainly all infection is carried by conidia (=pycnospores. Infection of trees is possible throughout the year, but the critical period of infection is May-June. Conidia are transmitted by raindrops, and the infection is spread through the buds and bark of young shoots. Incubation period lasts for 9 months, i.e. if infection occurs in June of the current year, the first visible symptoms of infection occur in March of the following year. The symptoms of infection are visible at the base of buds (cross section, on the needles (initial orange discolouration at the base of the needles, and then the whole needle turns brown and drops and on the bark of young shoots. Soon after infection symptoms, the fruiting bodies (i.e. pycnidia appear on the necrotic tissues of the host. Apothecia form on the bark two years after tree dying. In the severely infested plantations, all dead trees should be felled and removed, and the remaining trees should be treated with copper fungicides. As this is a quarantine disease, care must be taken to prevent the spread of the disease to the new uninfected regions. This measure is imposed by the legal regulations on quarantine diseases.

  4. Heterologous overexpression of Glomerella cingulata FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris

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    Sygmund Christoph

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background FAD dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH currently raises enormous interest in the field of glucose biosensors. Due to its superior properties such as high turnover rate, substrate specificity and oxygen independence, GDH makes its way into glucose biosensing. The recently discovered GDH from the ascomycete Glomerella cingulata is a novel candidate for such an electrochemical application, but also of interest to study the plant-pathogen interaction of a family of wide-spread, crop destroying fungi. Heterologous expression is a necessity to facilitate the production of GDH for biotechnological applications and to study its physiological role in the outbreak of anthracnose caused by Glomerella (anamorph Colletotrichum spp. Results Heterologous expression of active G. cingulata GDH has been achieved in both Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, however, the expressed volumetric activity was about 4800-fold higher in P. pastoris. Expression in E. coli resulted mainly in the formation of inclusion bodies and only after co-expression with molecular chaperones enzymatic activity was detected. The fed-batch cultivation of a P. pastoris transformant resulted in an expression of 48,000 U L-1 of GDH activity (57 mg L-1. Recombinant GDH was purified by a two-step purification procedure with a yield of 71%. Comparative characterization of molecular and catalytic properties shows identical features for the GDH expressed in P. pastoris and the wild-type enzyme from its natural fungal source. Conclusions The heterologous expression of active GDH was greatly favoured in the eukaryotic host. The efficient expression in P. pastoris facilitates the production of genetically engineered GDH variants for electrochemical-, physiological- and structural studies.

  5. Heterologous overexpression of Glomerella cingulata FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygmund, Christoph; Staudigl, Petra; Klausberger, Miriam; Pinotsis, Nikos; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina; Gorton, Lo; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ludwig, Roland

    2011-12-12

    FAD dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) currently raises enormous interest in the field of glucose biosensors. Due to its superior properties such as high turnover rate, substrate specificity and oxygen independence, GDH makes its way into glucose biosensing. The recently discovered GDH from the ascomycete Glomerella cingulata is a novel candidate for such an electrochemical application, but also of interest to study the plant-pathogen interaction of a family of wide-spread, crop destroying fungi. Heterologous expression is a necessity to facilitate the production of GDH for biotechnological applications and to study its physiological role in the outbreak of anthracnose caused by Glomerella (anamorph Colletotrichum) spp. Heterologous expression of active G. cingulata GDH has been achieved in both Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, however, the expressed volumetric activity was about 4800-fold higher in P. pastoris. Expression in E. coli resulted mainly in the formation of inclusion bodies and only after co-expression with molecular chaperones enzymatic activity was detected. The fed-batch cultivation of a P. pastoris transformant resulted in an expression of 48,000 U L⁻¹ of GDH activity (57 mg L⁻¹). Recombinant GDH was purified by a two-step purification procedure with a yield of 71%. Comparative characterization of molecular and catalytic properties shows identical features for the GDH expressed in P. pastoris and the wild-type enzyme from its natural fungal source. The heterologous expression of active GDH was greatly favoured in the eukaryotic host. The efficient expression in P. pastoris facilitates the production of genetically engineered GDH variants for electrochemical-, physiological- and structural studies.

  6. Diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration in the town and rural area

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    Idalia Kasprzyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Airborne fungal spores were monitored in 2001-2002 in Rzeszów (town and its neighborhood. The aim of investigations was to ascertain if there were differences in diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration between town and rural area. The sampling was carried out using volumetric method. Traps were located at the same heights - app. 12 m. Airborne spores were sampled continuously. Microscopical slides were prepared for each day. Analysis was carried out on one longitudinal band of 48 mm long divided into 24 segments corresponding following hours of day. The results were expressed as mean number of fungal spores per cubic meter per 24 hours. For this survey, five geni of allergenic fungi were selected: Alternaria, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma. The concentrations of their airborne spores were high or very high. It was calculated theoretical day, where the hourly count was the percentage mean of number of spores at that time every chosen day without rainfall from 2001 and 2001 years. The diurnal periodicity of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum and Ganoderma showed one peak, while Botrytis two. Anamorphic spores peaked in the afternoon, while their minima occurred in the morning. The highest concentrations of Ganoderma basidiospores were at down or at night, but minima during the day. There were no clear differences in the peak values between two studied sites. The results indicate that maximum concentrations of all spores generally occurred a few hour earlier in the rural area than in the town. Probably, in the rural area airborne spores came from many local sources and their diurnal periodicity reflected rhythm of spore liberation. Towns are characterized by specific microclimate with higher temperature and wind blowing to the centre. In Rzeszów fungal spores could be transported outside and carried out by wind from distant sources. This study showed, among others, that habitat conditions are an important factors

  7. Glycolytic Functions Are Conserved in the Genome of the Wine Yeast Hanseniaspora uvarum, and Pyruvate Kinase Limits Its Capacity for Alcoholic Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenberg, Anne-Kathrin; Bink, Frauke J; Wolff, Lena; Walter, Stefan; von Wallbrunn, Christian; Grossmann, Manfred; Heinisch, Jürgen J; Schmitz, Hans-Peter

    2017-11-15

    Hanseniaspora uvarum (anamorph Kloeckera apiculata ) is a predominant yeast on wine grapes and other fruits and has a strong influence on wine quality, even when Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter cultures are employed. In this work, we sequenced and annotated approximately 93% of the H. uvarum genome. Southern and synteny analyses were employed to construct a map of the seven chromosomes present in a type strain. Comparative determinations of specific enzyme activities within the fermentative pathway in H. uvarum and S. cerevisiae indicated that the reduced capacity of the former yeast for ethanol production is caused primarily by an ∼10-fold-lower activity of the key glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase. The heterologous expression of the encoding gene, H. uvarum PYK1 ( HuPYK1 ), and two genes encoding the phosphofructokinase subunits, HuPFK1 and HuPFK2 , in the respective deletion mutants of S. cerevisiae confirmed their functional homology. IMPORTANCE Hanseniaspora uvarum is a predominant yeast species on grapes and other fruits. It contributes significantly to the production of desired as well as unfavorable aroma compounds and thus determines the quality of the final product, especially wine. Despite this obvious importance, knowledge on its genetics is scarce. As a basis for targeted metabolic modifications, here we provide the results of a genomic sequencing approach, including the annotation of 3,010 protein-encoding genes, e.g., those encoding the entire sugar fermentation pathway, key components of stress response signaling pathways, and enzymes catalyzing the production of aroma compounds. Comparative analyses suggest that the low fermentative capacity of H. uvarum compared to that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be attributed to low pyruvate kinase activity. The data reported here are expected to aid in establishing H. uvarum as a non- Saccharomyces yeast in starter cultures for wine and cider fermentations. Copyright © 2017 American Society for

  8. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Adriana Ferreira; Rodriguez, Dayana M; Ribeaux, Daylin R; Luna, Marcos A C; Lima E Silva, Thayse A; Andrade, Rosileide F Silva; Gusmão, Norma B; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

    2016-09-23

    Almost all oleaginous microorganisms are available for biodiesel production, and for the mechanism of oil accumulation, which is what makes a microbial approach economically competitive. This study investigated the potential that the yeast Candida lipolytica UCP0988, in an anamorphous state, has to produce simultaneously a bioemulsifier and to accumulate lipids using inexpensive and alternative substrates. Cultivation was carried out using waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor in accordance with 2² experimental designs with 1% inoculums (10⁷ cells/mL). The bioemulsifier was produced in the cell-free metabolic liquid in the late exponential phase (96 h), at Assay 4 (corn steep liquor 5% and waste soybean oil 8%), with 6.704 UEA, IE24 of 96.66%, and showed an anionic profile. The emulsion formed consisted of compact small and stable droplets (size 0.2-5 µm), stable at all temperatures, at pH 2 and 4, and 2% salinity, and showed an ability to remove 93.74% of diesel oil from sand. The displacement oil (ODA) showed 45.34 cm² of dispersion (central point of the factorial design). The biomass obtained from Assay 4 was able to accumulate lipids of 0.425 g/g biomass (corresponding to 42.5%), which consisted of Palmitic acid (28.4%), Stearic acid (7.7%), Oleic acid (42.8%), Linoleic acid (19.0%), and γ-Linolenic acid (2.1%). The results showed the ability of C. lipopytica to produce both bioemulsifier and biodiesel using the metabolic conversion of waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor, which are economic renewable sources.

  9. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998

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    Adriana Ferreira Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Almost all oleaginous microorganisms are available for biodiesel production, and for the mechanism of oil accumulation, which is what makes a microbial approach economically competitive. This study investigated the potential that the yeast Candida lipolytica UCP0988, in an anamorphous state, has to produce simultaneously a bioemulsifier and to accumulate lipids using inexpensive and alternative substrates. Cultivation was carried out using waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor in accordance with 22 experimental designs with 1% inoculums (107 cells/mL. The bioemulsifier was produced in the cell-free metabolic liquid in the late exponential phase (96 h, at Assay 4 (corn steep liquor 5% and waste soybean oil 8%, with 6.704 UEA, IE24 of 96.66%, and showed an anionic profile. The emulsion formed consisted of compact small and stable droplets (size 0.2–5 µm, stable at all temperatures, at pH 2 and 4, and 2% salinity, and showed an ability to remove 93.74% of diesel oil from sand. The displacement oil (ODA showed 45.34 cm2 of dispersion (central point of the factorial design. The biomass obtained from Assay 4 was able to accumulate lipids of 0.425 g/g biomass (corresponding to 42.5%, which consisted of Palmitic acid (28.4%, Stearic acid (7.7%, Oleic acid (42.8%, Linoleic acid (19.0%, and γ-Linolenic acid (2.1%. The results showed the ability of C. lipopytica to produce both bioemulsifier and biodiesel using the metabolic conversion of waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor, which are economic renewable sources.

  10. First comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus Erysiphe (Erysiphales, Erysiphaceae) I. The Microsphaera lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Susumu; Ito Arakawa, Hanako; Shiroya, Yoshiaki; Kiss, Levente; Heluta, Vasyl

    2015-01-01

    The genus Erysiphe (including powdery mildew fungi only known as anamorph, Pseudoidium) is the largest genus in the Erysiphaceae and contains more than 50% of all species in this family. Little is known about the phylogenetic structure of this genus. We conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Microsphaera-lineage, a monophyletic group including species of sects. Microsphaera and Erysiphe, using 401 sequences of nuc ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and the 28S rDNA regions. This analysis gave many small clades delimited by the host plant genus or family. We identified two deep branches, albeit with moderate bootstrap supports, that divided the 401 sequences into three large groups. In addition, we identified four large clades consisting of homogeneous sequences of powdery mildews from a wide range of host plants beyond family level, namely, the E. aquilegiae clade, the E. alphitoides clade, the E. quercicola clade, and the E. trifoliorum s. lat. clade. Isolates from herbaceous plants were mostly situated in the E. aquilegiae clade and in Group III that was located at the most derived position of the Microsphaera-lineage. On the other hand, the basal part of the Microsphaera-lineage was occupied by isolates from woody plants except for E. glycines that was used as an outgroup taxon. This supports our previous hypothesis that tree-parasitic powdery mildews are phylogenetically primitive in the Erysiphaceae in general, and host-shift from trees to herbs occurred many times independently during the evolution of powdery mildews. Molecular clock analyses suggested that the divergence of the Microsphaera-lineage began ca. 20 million years ago in the Miocene Epoch of the Neogene Period. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  11. Efficient simulation of EUV pellicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanschitzky, P.; Erdmann, A.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents a new simulation model for the efficient simulation of EUV pellicles. Different pellicle stacks, pellicle deformations and particles on the pellicle can be considered. The model is based on properly designed pupil filters representing all pellicle and particle properties to be investigated. The filters are combined with an adapted image simulation. Due to the double transition of the EUV light through the pellicle, two different models for the pupil filter computation have been developed: A model for the forward light propagation from the source to the mask and a model for the backward light propagation from the mask to the entrance pupil of the system. Furthermore, for the accurate representation of particles on the pellicle, a model has been developed, which is able to combine the different size dimensions of particles, of the entrance pupil and of the illumination source. Finally, some specific assumptions on the light propagation make the pellicle model independent from the illumination source and speed up the simulations significantly without introducing an important error. Typically, the consideration of a pellicle increases the overall image simulation time only by a few seconds on a standard personal computer. Furthermore, a simulation study on the printing impact of pellicles on lithographic performance data of a high NA anamorphic EUV system is presented. Typical illumination conditions, a typical mask stack and different mask line features are considered in the study. The general impact of a pellicle as well as the impact of pellicle transmission variations, of pellicle deformations and of particles on the pellicle on typical lithographic performance criteria is investigated.

  12. Evaluation of mating type distribution and genetic diversity of three Magnaporthe oryzae avirulence genes, PWL-2, AVR-Pii and Avr-Piz-t, in Thailand rice blast isolates

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    Thanyaluk Sirisathaworn

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice blast disease, caused by the filamentous ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia oryzae, has been ranked among the most important diseases of rice. The molecular mechanisms against this fungus follow the idea of “gene-for-gene interaction”, in which a plant resistance (R gene product recognizes a fungal avirulence (Avr effector and triggers the defense response. However, the Avr genes have been shown to be rapidly evolving resulting in high levels of genetic diversity. This study investigated genetic diversity that is influenced by sexual recombination and mutation for the adaptation of rice blast fungus to overcome the defense response. Mating type distribution and the nucleotide sequence variation of three avirulence genes were evaluated—PWL-2, Avr-Pii and Avr-Piz-t. In total, 77 rice blast isolates collected from infected rice plants in northern, northeastern and central Thailand in 2005, 2010 and 2012, were used in the analysis with mating type and avirulence gene-specific primers. The results revealed that all the tested blast isolates belonged to the mating type MAT1-2, suggesting a lack of sexual recombination within the population. The successful rates of PWL-2, Avr-Pii and Avr-Piz-t gene-specific primer amplification were 100%, 60% and 54%, respectively. Base substitution mutation was observed in coding regions of the Avr-Pii and Avr-Piz-t genes. Although these results showed a low level of genetic diversity in Thai rice blast isolates, non-synonymous mutations did occur which revealed common mechanisms of selective pressure that are prone to adaptation of Avr genes. The information on nucleotide sequence variation and the genetic diversity of Avr genes obtained from this study could be useful for planning novel strategies in the development of rice breeding programs in Thailand.

  13. Polypores and genus concepts in Phanerochaetaceae (Polyporales, Basidiomycota

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    Otto Miettinen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We explored whether DNA-phylogeny-based and morphology-based genus concepts can be reconciled in the basidiomycete family Phanerochaetaceae. Our results show that macromorphology of fruiting bodies and hymenophore construction do not reflect monophyletic groups. However, by integrating micromorphology and re-defining genera, harmonization of DNA phylogeny and morphological genus concepts is possible in most cases. In the case of one genus (Phlebiopsis, our genetic markers could not resolve genus limits satisfactorily and a clear morphological definition could not be identified. We combine extended species sampling, microscopic studies of fruiting bodies and phylogenetic analyses of ITS, nLSU and rpb1 to revise genus concepts. Three new polypore genera are ascribed to the Phanerochaetaceae: Oxychaete gen. nov. (type Oxyporus cervinogilvus, Phanerina gen. nov. (type Ceriporia mellea, and Riopa (including Ceriporia metamorphosa and Riopa pudens sp. nov.. Phlebiopsis is extended to include Dentocorticium pilatii, further species of Hjortstamia and the monotypic polypore genus Castanoporus. The polypore Ceriporia inflata is combined into Phanerochaete. The identity of the type species of the genus Riopa, R. davidii, has been misinterpreted in the current literature. The species has been included in Ceriporia as a species of its own or placed in synonymy with Ceriporia camaresiana. The effort to properly define R. davidii forced us to study Ceriporia more widely. In the process we identified five closely related Ceriporia species that belong to the true Ceriporia clade (Irpicaceae. We describe those species here, and introduce the Ceriporia pierii group. We also select a lectotype and an epitype for Riopa metamorphosa and neotypes for Sporotrichum aurantiacum and S. aurantium, the type species of the anamorphic genus Sporotrichum, and recommend that teleomorphic Riopa is conserved against it.

  14. Seed propagation and re-introduction of the U.S. federally endangered Hawaiian endemic, Platanthera holochila (Hbd. Krzl. (Orchidaceae

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    Lawrence W. Zettler

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Platanthera holochila (Hbd. Krzl. [syn = Peristylus holochila (Hbd N. Hallé] is the rarest of three orchids endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago. As of 2011, 33 individual plants of this U.S. Federally endangered species remained on three islands with only one specimen known to occur on Kauai. This paper presents a summary of experiments aimed at cultivating this species from seed leading to the reintroduction of seedlings. We describe: 1 the mycorrhizal fungi acquired from P. holochila protocorms on Molokai, 2 the role of light vs. dark pretreatment on symbiotic seed germination using a mycorrhizal fungus from Florida, and 3 asymbiotic germination on three media (Murashige and Skoog, Knudson C, P723. Protocorms recovered in situ using seed packets yielded seven strains of a mycorrhizal fungus assignable to the anamorphic genus Epulorhiza Moore, but none of these strains prompted seed germination in vitro. Using the mycorrhizal fungus from Florida, no significant differences were detected between light pre-treatment vs. dark incubation on seed germination or development, but statistical differences were evident among two agar types tested. Seeds sown on acidified (pH 5.0 asymbiotic medium P723 (PhytoTechnology Labs developed to the leaf-bearing stage 351 days after sowing and incubation in darkness at 16–19 °C. Seedlings illuminated 451 days after sowing were eventually established on soil in a greenhouse (ex vitro. A total of 85 seedlings were promptly transported to Hawaii in March 2011. A minimum of 3.1 years is required for the propagation of P. holochila from seed using acidified asymbiotic medium P723.

  15. Electro-optical system for the high speed reconstruction of computed tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tresp, V.

    1989-01-01

    An electro-optical system for the high-speed reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) images has been built and studied. The system is capable of reconstructing high-contrast and high-resolution images at video rate (30 images per second), which is more than two orders of magnitude faster than the reconstruction rate achieved by special purpose digital computers used in commercial CT systems. The filtered back-projection algorithm which was implemented in the reconstruction system requires the filtering of all projections with a prescribed filter function. A space-integrating acousto-optical convolver, a surface acoustic wave filter and a digital finite-impulse response filter were used for this purpose and their performances were compared. The second part of the reconstruction, the back projection of the filtered projections, is computationally very expensive. An optical back projector has been built which maps the filtered projections onto the two-dimensional image space using an anamorphic lens system and a prism image rotator. The reconstructed image is viewed by a video camera, routed through a real-time image-enhancement system, and displayed on a TV monitor. The system reconstructs parallel-beam projection data, and in a modified version, is also capable of reconstructing fan-beam projection data. This extension is important since the latter are the kind of projection data actually acquired in high-speed X-ray CT scanners. The reconstruction system was tested by reconstructing precomputed projection data of phantom images. These were stored in a special purpose projection memory and transmitted to the reconstruction system as an electronic signal. In this way, a projection measurement system that acquires projections sequentially was simulated

  16. Field lens multiplexing in holographic 3D displays by using Bragg diffraction based volume gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fütterer, G.

    2016-11-01

    Applications, which can profit from holographic 3D displays, are the visualization of 3D data, computer-integrated manufacturing, 3D teleconferencing and mobile infotainment. However, one problem of holographic 3D displays, which are e.g. based on space bandwidth limited reconstruction of wave segments, is to realize a small form factor. Another problem is to provide a reasonable large volume for the user placement, which means to provide an acceptable freedom of movement. Both problems should be solved without decreasing the image quality of virtual and real object points, which are generated within the 3D display volume. A diffractive optical design using thick hologram gratings, which can be referred to as Bragg diffraction based volume gratings, can provide a small form factor and high definition natural viewing experience of 3D objects. A large collimated wave can be provided by an anamorphic backlight unit. The complex valued spatial light modulator add local curvatures to the wave field he is illuminated with. The modulated wave field is focused onto to the user plane by using a volume grating based field lens. Active type liquid crystal gratings provide 1D fine tracking of approximately +/- 8° deg. Diffractive multiplex has to be implemented for each color and for a set of focus functions providing coarse tracking. Boundary conditions of the diffractive multiplexing are explained. This is done in regards to the display layout and by using the coupled wave theory (CWT). Aspects of diffractive cross talk and its suppression will be discussed including longitudinal apodized volume gratings.

  17. Increased metabolite production by deletion of an HDA1-type histone deacetylase in the phytopathogenic fungi, Magnaporthe oryzae (Pyricularia oryzae) and Fusarium asiaticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, K; Izawa, M; Nakajima, Y; Jin, Q; Hirose, T; Nakamura, T; Koshino, H; Kanamaru, K; Ohsato, S; Kamakura, T; Kobayashi, T; Yoshida, M; Kimura, M

    2017-11-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play an important role in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. We found that dark pigmentation of Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia oryzae) ΔMohda1, a mutant strain in which an orthologue of the yeast HDA1 was disrupted by double cross-over homologous recombination, was significantly stimulated in liquid culture. Analysis of metabolites in a ΔMohda1 mutant culture revealed that the accumulation of shunt products of the 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene melanin and ergosterol pathways were significantly enhanced compared to the wild-type strain. Northern blot analysis of the ΔMohda1 mutant revealed transcriptional activation of three melanin genes that are dispersed throughout the genome of M. oryzae. The effect of deletion of the yeast HDA1 orthologue was also observed in Fusarium asiaticum from the Fusarium graminearum species complex; the HDF2 deletion mutant produced increased levels of nivalenol-type trichothecenes. These results suggest that histone modification via HDA1-type HDAC regulates the production of natural products in filamentous fungi. Natural products of fungi have significant impacts on human welfare, in both detrimental and beneficial ways. Although HDA1-type histone deacetylase is not essential for vegetative growth, deletion of the gene affects the expression of clustered secondary metabolite genes in some fungi. Here, we report that such phenomena are also observed in physically unlinked genes required for melanin biosynthesis in the rice blast fungus. In addition, production of Fusarium trichothecenes, previously reported to be unaffected by HDA1 deletion, was significantly upregulated in another Fusarium species. Thus, the HDA1-inactivation strategy may be regarded as a general approach for overproduction and/or discovery of fungal metabolites. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Biology and Epidemiology of Venturia Species Affecting Fruit Crops: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa González-Domínguez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The fungal genus Venturia Sacc. (anamorph Fusicladium Bonord. includes plant pathogens that cause substantial economic damage to fruit crops worldwide. Although Venturia inaequalis is considered a model species in plant pathology, other Venturia spp. also cause scab on other fruit trees. Relative to the substantial research that has been conducted on V. inaequalis and apple scab, little research has been conducted on Venturia spp. affecting other fruit trees. In this review, the main characteristics of plant-pathogenic species of Venturia are discussed with special attention to V. inaequalis affecting apple, V. pyrina affecting European pear, V. nashicola affecting Asian pear, V. carpophila affecting peach and almond, Fusicladium oleagineum affecting olive, F. effusum affecting pecan, and F. eriobotryae affecting loquat. This review has two main objectives: (i to identify the main gaps in our knowledge regarding the biology and epidemiology of Venturia spp. affecting fruit trees; and (ii to identify similarities and differences among these Venturia spp. in order to improve disease management. A thorough review has been conducted of studies regarding the phylogenetic relationships, host ranges, biologies, and epidemiologies of Venturia spp. A multiple correspondence analysis (CA has also been performed on the main epidemiological components of these Venturia spp. CA separated the Venturia spp. into two main groups, according to their epidemiological behavior: the first group included V. inaequalis, V. pyrina, V. nashicola, and V. carpophila, the second F. oleagineum and F. eriobotryae, with F. effusum having an intermediate position. This review shows that Venturia spp. affecting fruit trees are highly host-specific, and that important gaps in understanding the life cycle exist for some species, including V. pyrina; gaps include pseudothecia formation, ascospore and conidia germination, and mycelial growth. Considering the epidemiological

  19. The information highways of a biotechnological workhorse – signal transduction in Hypocrea jecorina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmoll Monika

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei is one of the most prolific producers of biomass-degrading enzymes and frequently termed an industrial workhorse. To compete for nutrients in its habitat despite its shortcoming in certain degradative enzymes, efficient perception and interpretation of environmental signals is indispensable. A better understanding of these signals as well as their transmission machinery can provide sources for improvement of biotechnological processes. Results The genome of H. jecorina was analysed for the presence and composition of common signal transduction pathways including heterotrimeric G-protein cascades, cAMP signaling, mitogen activated protein kinases, two component phosphorelay systems, proteins involved in circadian rhythmicity and light response, calcium signaling and the superfamily of Ras small GTPases. The results of this survey are discussed in the context of current knowledge in order to assess putative functions as well as potential impact of alterations of the respective pathways. Conclusion Important findings include an additional, bacterial type phospholipase C protein and an additional 6-4 photolyase. Moreover the presence of 4 RGS-(Regulator of G-protein Signaling proteins and 3 GprK-type G-protein coupled receptors comprising an RGS-domain suggest a more complex posttranslational regulation of G-protein signaling than in other ascomycetes. Also the finding, that H. jecorina, unlike yeast possesses class I phosducins which are involved in phototransduction in mammals warrants further investigation. An alteration in the regulation of circadian rhythmicity may be deduced from the extension of both the class I and II of casein kinases, homologues of which are implicated in phosphorylation of FRQ in Neurospora crassa. On the other hand, a shortage in the number of the pathogenicity related PTH11-type G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs as well as a lack of

  20. Morphology and molecular taxonomy of Evlachovaea-like fungi, and the status of this unusual conidial genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humber, Richard A; Rocha, Luiz F N; Inglis, Peter W; Kipnis, André; Luz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The entomopathogenic anamorphic genus Evlachovaea was described to differ from other fungi in forming its conidia obliquely to the axis of the conidiogenous cell and with successive conidia having alternate orientations with a zipper- or chevron-like arrangement resulting in flat, ribbon-like chains. Morphological and molecular studies of six Evlachovaea-like isolates baited from Central Brazilian soils using Triatoma infestans (a vector of Chagas disease) and of other entomopathogens with Evlachovaea-like conidiogenesis led to a re-evaluation of the status of this little known fungal genus. The Brazilian isolates formed two distinct groups based on gene sequences for both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and translation elongation factor (EF-1α) genes, morphology, and growth patterns; both groups also differed from the type species, Evlachovaea kintrischica. More detailed studies of these fungi indicated that the alternatingly oblique orientations of forming conidia are neither a stable nor invariant character (even on single phialides). Furthermore, the molecular cladistic analysis unambiguously placed the Evlachovaea isolates firmly within the genus Isaria (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). The ITS sequences of E. kintrischica were very similar or even identical to those of Isaria amoenerosea and Isaria cateniobliqua, thereby suggesting that E. kintrischica is a synonym of one of these species, and that the genus Evlachovaea must be treated as a later synonym of Isaria, which must now be recognized to include several highly divergent modes of conidiogenesis. These taxonomic findings are discussed in the context of dramatic changes recently imposed on the nomenclatural standards used to determine the correct names of all pleomorphic fungi. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The Potential ofStreptomycesas Biocontrol Agents against the Rice Blast Fungus,Magnaporthe oryzae(Pyricularia oryzae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ser, Hooi-Leng; Khan, Tahir M; Chuah, Lay-Hong; Pusparajah, Priyia; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a staple food source for more than three billion people worldwide. However, rice is vulnerable to diseases, the most destructive among them being rice blast, which is caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia oryzae ). This fungus attacks rice plants at all stages of development, causing annual losses of approximately 10-30% in various rice producing regions. Synthetic fungicides are often able to effectively control plant diseases, but some fungicides result in serious environmental and health problems. Therefore, there is growing interest in discovering and developing new, improved fungicides based on natural products as well as introducing alternative measures such as biocontrol agents to manage plant diseases. Streptomyce s bacteria appear to be promising biocontrol agents against a wide range of phytopathogenic fungi, which is not surprising given their ability to produce various bioactive compounds. This review provides insight into the biocontrol potential of Streptomyces against the rice blast fungus, M. oryzae . The ability of various S treptomyces spp. to act as biocontrol agents of rice blast disease has been studied by researchers under both laboratory and greenhouse/growth chamber conditions. Laboratory studies have shown that Streptomyces exhibit inhibitory activity against M. oryzae . In greenhouse studies, infected rice seedlings treated with Streptomyces resulted in up to 88.3% disease reduction of rice blast. Studies clearly show that Streptomyces spp. have the potential to be used as highly effective biocontrol agents against rice blast disease; however, the efficacy of any biocontrol agent may be affected by several factors including environmental conditions and methods of application. In order to fully exploit their potential, further studies on the isolation, formulation and application methods of Streptomyces along with field experiments are required to establish them as effective biocontrol agents.

  2. Mating type protein Mat1-2 from asexual Aspergillus fumigatus drives sexual reproduction in fertile Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrzak, Wioletta; Miller, Karen Y; Miller, Bruce L

    2008-06-01

    The lack of an experimentally amenable sexual genetic system in Aspergillus fumigatus is a major limitation in the study of the organism's pathogenesis. A recent comparative genome analysis revealed evidence for potential sexuality in A. fumigatus. Homologs of mating type genes as well as other genes of the "sexual machinery" have been identified in anamorphic A. fumigatus. The mat1-2 gene encodes a homolog of MatA, an HMG box mating transcriptional factor (Mat(HMG)) that regulates sexual development in fertile Aspergillus nidulans. In this study, the functionalities of A. fumigatus mat1-2 and the Mat1-2 protein were determined by interspecies gene exchange between sterile A. fumigatus and fertile A. nidulans. Ectopically integrated A. fumigatus mat1-2 (driven by its own promoter) was not functional in a sterile A. nidulans Delta matA strain, and no sexual development was observed. In contrast, the A. fumigatus mat1-2 open reading frame driven by the A. nidulans matA promoter and integrated by homologous gene replacement at the matA locus was functional and conferred full fertility. This is the first report showing that cross species mating type gene exchange between closely related Ascomycetes did not function in sexual development. This is also the first report demonstrating that a Mat(HMG) protein from an asexual species is fully functional, with viable ascospore differentiation, in a fertile homothallic species. The expression of mat1-2 was assessed in A. fumigatus and A. nidulans. Our data suggest that mat1-2 may not be properly regulated to allow sexuality in A. fumigatus. This study provides new insights about A. fumigatus asexuality and also suggests the possibility for the development of an experimentally amenable sexual cycle.

  3. Multigene phylogeny and taxonomic revision of yeasts and related fungi in the Ustilaginomycotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q-M; Begerow, D; Groenewald, M; Liu, X-Z; Theelen, B; Bai, F-Y; Boekhout, T

    2015-06-01

    The subphylum Ustilaginomycotina (Basidiomycota, Fungi) comprises mainly plant pathogenic fungi (smuts). Some of the lineages possess cultivable unicellular stages that are usually classified as yeast or yeast-like species in a largely artificial taxonomic system which is independent from and largely incompatible with that of the smut fungi. Here we performed phylogenetic analyses based on seven genes including three nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and four protein coding genes to address the molecular phylogeny of the ustilaginomycetous yeast species and their filamentous counterparts. Taxonomic revisions were proposed to reflect this phylogeny and to implement the 'One Fungus = One Name' principle. The results confirmed that the yeast-containing classes Malasseziomycetes, Moniliellomycetes and Ustilaginomycetes are monophyletic, whereas Exobasidiomycetes in the current sense remains paraphyletic. Four new genera, namely Dirkmeia gen. nov., Kalmanozyma gen. nov., Golubevia gen. nov. and Robbauera gen. nov. are proposed to accommodate Pseudozyma and Tilletiopsis species that are distinct from the other smut taxa and belong to clades that are separate from those containing type species of the hitherto described genera. Accordingly, new orders Golubeviales ord. nov. with Golubeviaceae fam. nov. and Robbauerales ord. nov. with Robbaueraceae fam. nov. are proposed to accommodate the sisterhood of Golubevia gen. nov. and Robbauera gen. nov. with other orders of Exobasidiomycetes. The majority of the remaining anamorphic yeast species are transferred to corresponding teleomorphic genera based on strongly supported phylogenetic affinities, resulting in the proposal of 28 new combinations. The taxonomic status of a few Pseudozyma species remains to be determined because of their uncertain phylogenetic positions. We propose to use the term pro tempore or pro tem. in abbreviation to indicate the single-species lineages that are temporarily maintained.

  4. TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, the fungus associated with snake fungal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohuski, Elizabeth; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Griffin, Kathryn M; Blehert, David S

    2015-04-15

    Fungal skin infections associated with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, a member of the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV) complex, have been linked to an increasing number of cases of snake fungal disease (SFD) in captive snakes around the world and in wild snake populations in eastern North America. The emergence of SFD in both captive and wild situations has led to an increased need for tools to better diagnose and study the disease. We developed two TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to rapidly detect O. ophiodiicola in clinical samples. One assay targets the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the fungal genome while the other targets the more variable intergenic spacer region (IGS). The PCR assays were qualified using skin samples collected from 50 snakes for which O. ophiodiicola had been previously detected by culture, 20 snakes with gross skin lesions suggestive of SFD but which were culture-negative for O. ophiodiicola, and 16 snakes with no clinical signs of infection. Both assays performed equivalently and proved to be more sensitive than traditional culture methods, detecting O. ophiodiicola in 98% of the culture-positive samples and in 40% of the culture-negative snakes that had clinical signs of SFD. In addition, the assays did not cross-react with a panel of 28 fungal species that are closely related to O. ophiodiicola or that commonly occur on the skin of snakes. The assays did, however, indicate that some asymptomatic snakes (~6%) may harbor low levels of the fungus, and that PCR should be paired with histology when a definitive diagnosis is required. These assays represent the first published methods to detect O. ophiodiicola by real-time PCR. The ITS assay has great utility for assisting with SFD diagnoses whereas the IGS assay offers a valuable tool for research-based applications.

  5. The CRE1 carbon catabolite repressor of the fungus Trichoderma reesei: a master regulator of carbon assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiboth Bernhard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification and characterization of the transcriptional regulatory networks governing the physiology and adaptation of microbial cells is a key step in understanding their behaviour. One such wide-domain regulatory circuit, essential to all cells, is carbon catabolite repression (CCR: it allows the cell to prefer some carbon sources, whose assimilation is of high nutritional value, over less profitable ones. In lower multicellular fungi, the C2H2 zinc finger CreA/CRE1 protein has been shown to act as the transcriptional repressor in this process. However, the complete list of its gene targets is not known. Results Here, we deciphered the CRE1 regulatory range in the model cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading fungus Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina by profiling transcription in a wild-type and a delta-cre1 mutant strain on glucose at constant growth rates known to repress and de-repress CCR-affected genes. Analysis of genome-wide microarrays reveals 2.8% of transcripts whose expression was regulated in at least one of the four experimental conditions: 47.3% of which were repressed by CRE1, whereas 29.0% were actually induced by CRE1, and 17.2% only affected by the growth rate but CRE1 independent. Among CRE1 repressed transcripts, genes encoding unknown proteins and transport proteins were overrepresented. In addition, we found CRE1-repression of nitrogenous substances uptake, components of chromatin remodeling and the transcriptional mediator complex, as well as developmental processes. Conclusions Our study provides the first global insight into the molecular physiological response of a multicellular fungus to carbon catabolite regulation and identifies several not yet known targets in a growth-controlled environment.

  6. Isolations from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, confirm that the laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, originated in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Thomas C; Yun, Hye Young; Lu, Sheng-Shan; Goto, Hideaki; Aghayeva, Dilzara N; Fraedrich, Stephen W

    2011-01-01

    The laurel wilt pathogen Raffaelea lauricola was hypothesized to have been introduced to the southeastern USA in the mycangium of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, which is native to Asia. To test this hypothesis adult X. glabratus were trapped in Taiwan and on Kyushu Island, Japan, in 2009, and dead beetles were sent to USA for isolation of fungal symbionts. Individual X. glabratus were macerated in glass tissue grinders, and the slurry was serially diluted and plated onto malt agar medium amended with cycloheximide, a medium semiselective for Ophiostoma species and their anamorphs, including members of Raffaelea. R. lauricola was isolated from 56 of 85 beetles in Taiwan and 10 of 16 beetles in Japan at up to an estimated 10 000 CFUs per beetle. The next most commonly isolated species was R. ellipticospora, which also has been recovered from X. glabratus trapped in the USA, as were two other fungi isolated from beetles in Taiwan, R. fusca and R. subfusca. Three unidentified Raffaelea spp. and three unidentified Ophiostoma spp. were isolated rarely from X. glabratus collected in Taiwan. Isolations from beetles similarly trapped in Georgia, USA, yielded R. lauricola and R. ellipticospora in numbers similar to those from beetles trapped in Taiwan and Japan. The results support the hypothesis that R. lauricola was introduced into the USA in mycangia of X. glabratus shipped to USA in solid wood packing material from Asia. However differences in the mycangial mycoflora of X. glabratus in Taiwan, Japan and USA suggest that the X. glabratus population established in USA originated in another part of Asia.

  7. A PCA-based hyperspectral approach to detect infections by mycophilic fungi on dried porcini mushrooms (boletus edulis and allied species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnasco, Lucia; Zotti, Mirca; Sitta, Nicola; Oliveri, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    Mycophilic fungi of anamorphic genus Sepedonium (telomorphs in Hypomyces, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) infect and parasitize sporomata of boletes. The obligated hosts such as Boletus edulis and allied species (known as "porcini mushrooms") are among the most valued and prized edible wild mushrooms in the world. Sepedonium infections have a great morphological variability: at the initial state, contaminated mushrooms present a white coating covering tubes and pores; at the final state, Sepedonium forms a deep and thick hyphal layer that eventually leads to the total necrosis of the host. Up to date, Sepedonium infections in porcini mushrooms have been evaluated only through macroscopic and microscopic visual analysis. In this study, in order to implement the infection evaluation as a routine methodology for industrial purposes, the potential application of Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for detection of Sepedonium presence on sliced and dried B. edulis and allied species was investigated. Hyperspectral images were obtained using a pushbroom line-scanning HSI instrument, operating in the wavelength range between 400 and 1000 nm with 5 nm resolution. PCA was applied on normal and contaminated samples. To reduce the spectral variability caused by factors unrelated to Sepedonium infection, such as scattering effects and differences in sample height, different spectral pre-treatments were applied. A supervised rule was then developed to assign spectra recorded on new test samples to each of the two classes, based on the PC scores. This allowed to visualize directly - within false-color images of test samples - which points of the samples were contaminated. The results achieved may lead to the development of a non-destructive monitoring system for a rapid on-line screening of contaminated mushrooms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Contrasting Codon Usage Patterns and Purifying Selection at the Mating Locus in Putatively Asexual Alternaria Fungal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jane E.; Kawabe, Masato; Abdo, Zaid; Arie, Tsutomu; Peever, Tobin L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in heterothallic ascomycete fungi is controlled by a single mating-type locus called MAT1 with two alternate alleles or idiomorphs, MAT1-1 and MAT1-2. These alleles lack sequence similarity and encode different transcriptional regulators. A large number of phytopathogenic fungi including Alternaria spp. are considered asexual, yet still carry expressed MAT1 genes. The molecular evolution of Alternaria MAT1 was explored using nucleotide diversity, nonsynonymous vs. synonymous substitution (dn/ds) ratios and codon usage statistics. Likelihood ratio tests of site-branch models failed to detect positive selection on MAT1-1-1 or MAT1-2-1. Codon-site models demonstrated that both MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 are under purifying selection and significant differences in codon usage were observed between MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1. Mean GC content at the third position (GC3) and effective codon usage (ENC) were significantly different between MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 with values of 0.57 and 48 for MAT1-1-1 and 0.62 and 46 for MAT1-2-1, respectively. In contrast, codon usage of Pleospora spp. (anamorph Stemphylium), a closely related Dothideomycete genus, was not significantly different between MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1. The purifying selection and biased codon usage detected at the MAT1 locus in Alternaria spp. suggest a recent sexual past, cryptic sexual present and/or that MAT1 plays important cellular role(s) in addition to mating. PMID:21625561

  9. Fungos filamentosos isolados do solo em municípios na região Xingó, Brasil Filamentous fungi isolated from soil in districts of the Xingó region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora de Queiroz Cavalcanti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O solo é considerado um dos principais hábitats para a população de microrganismos, dentre os quais estão os fungos. A região de Xingó é caracterizada por apresentar ecossistema típico de Caatinga. Com objetivo de isolar e identificar fungos filamentosos na região Xingó, utilizou-se amostras de solo coletadas nos municípios de Canindé de São Francisco (SE, Olho D'água do Casado (AL e Piranhas (AL, durante o período chuvoso (maio e julho/2000 e de estiagem (março/2001, tanto na superfície do solo quanto a 20 cm de profundidade. Foram identificados 96 táxons pertencentes a oito espécies de Ascomycota, oito espécies de Zygomycota e 80 anamorfos, sendo uma espécie de Coelomycetes e 79 espécies de Hyphomycetes. Penicillium e Aspergillus foram os gêneros mais diversos com 31 e 17 espécies, respectivamente.The soil is one of the most important habitats for microorganisms, among them the fungi. Xingó is a region characterized by typical caatinga ecosystems. The aim of this research was to isolate and identify filamentous fungi from soils of the Xingó region using samples collected at the soil surface and at 20 cm depth, in the districts of Canindé de São Francisco (Sergipe, Olho D'água do Casado (Alagoas, and Piranhas (Alagoas, during the rainy (May and July/2000 and dry seasons (March/2001. We identified 96 taxa belonging to eight species of Ascomycota, eight species of Zygomycota and 80 anamorphs, with one species of Coelomycete and 79 species of Hyphomycetes. Penicillium and Aspergillus were the most diverse genera with 31 and 17 species, respectively.

  10. Yeast diversity in new, still fermenting wine "federweisser"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate and identify yeasts in different new wine "federweisser" samples. We collected the samples at the end of the August 2015 and in the middle of the September 2015. Used 15 new wine samples in this study (5 white and 10 red were from the local Slovak winemakers. Irsai Oliver (3, Moravian Muscat (2, Agria/Turan (1, Dornfelder (3, Blue Frankish (3, Pinot Noir (1 and Saint Laurent (2. Three cultivation media were used for detection of yeasts in "federweisser" samples. Malt extract agar base (MEA, Wort agar (WA and Wild yeast medium (WYM were used for the cultivation of yeasts. Cultivation was performed by spread plate method. Ethanol/formic acid extraction procedure was used for preparation of samples. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometer (Microflex LT/SH (Bruker Daltonics, Germany was used for the identification of yeasts. We identified seven different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (23; 70%, two strains of Kloeckera apiculata [teleomorph Hanseniaspora uvarum] (7; 21%, and one strain of Pichia kluyveri (1; 3%, Pichia occidentalis [anamorph Candida sorbosa] (1; 3% and Metschnikowia pulcherrima (1; 3% in 15 new wine "federweisser" samples. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was dominant species in each new wine sample, and formed creamy convex colonies with circular edge. Metschnikowia pulcherrima formed convex to pulvinate, circular white-pink colored colonies, Kloeckera apiculata formed flat, circular smooth colonies with turquoise center with gray edge, Pichia occidentalis formed irregular pulvinate light-cream colored colonies, and Pichia kluyveri formed turquoise, convex, undulate and smooth colonies on Malt extract agar base with bromocresol green.   Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  11. A newly developed real-time PCR assay for detection and quantification of Fusarium oxysporum and its use in compatible and incompatible interactions with grafted melon genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegi, Anita; Catalano, Valentina; Luongo, Laura; Vitale, Salvatore; Scotton, Michele; Ficcadenti, Nadia; Belisario, Alessandra

    2013-08-01

    A reliable and species-specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed for detection of the complex soilborne anamorphic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The new primer pair, designed on the translation elongation factor 1-α gene with an amplicon of 142 bp, was highly specific to F. oxysporum without cross reactions with other Fusarium spp. The protocol was applied to grafted melon plants for the detection and quantification of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a devastating pathogen of this cucurbit. Grafting technologies are widely used in melon to confer resistance against new virulent races of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, while maintaining the properties of valuable commercial varieties. However, the effects on the vascular pathogen colonization have not been fully investigated. Analyses were performed on 'Charentais-T' (susceptible) and 'Nad-1' (resistant) melon cultivars, both used either as rootstock and scion, and inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 and race 1,2. Pathogen development was compared using qPCR and isolations from stem tissues. Early asymptomatic melon infections were detected with a quantification limit of 1 pg of fungal DNA. The qPCR protocol clearly showed that fungal development was highly affected by host-pathogen interaction (compatible or incompatible) and time (days postinoculation). The principal significant effect (P ≤ 0.01) on fungal development was due to the melon genotype used as rootstock, and this effect had a significant interaction with time and F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis race. In particular, the amount of race 1,2 DNA was significantly higher compared with that estimated for race 1 in the incompatible interaction at 18 days postinoculation. The two fungal races were always present in both the rootstock and scion of grafted plants in either the compatible or incompatible interaction.

  12. Fungal monitoring of the indoor air of the Museo de La Plata Herbarium, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallo, Andrea C; Elíades, Lorena A; Nitiu, Daniela S; Saparrat, Mario C N

    Biological agents, such as fungal spores in the air in places where scientific collections are stored, can attack and deteriorate them. The aim of this study was to gather information on the indoor air quality of the Herbarium of Vascular Plants of the Museo de Ciencias Naturales de La Plata, Argentina, in relation to fungal propagules and inert particles. This study was made using a volumetric system and two complementary sampling methods: (1) a non-viable method for direct evaluation, and (2) a viable method by culture for viable fungal propagules. The non-viable method led to ten spore morphotypes being found from related fungal sources. A total of 4401.88spores/m 3 and 32135.18 inert suspended particles/m 3 were recorded. The viable method led to the finding of nine fungal taxa as viable spores that mostly belonged to anamorphic forms of Ascomycota, although the pigmented yeast Rhodotorula F.C. Harrison (Basidiomycota) was also found. A total count of 40,500fungal CFU/m 3 air was estimated for all the sites sampled. Both the non-viable and viable sampling methods were necessary to monitor the bio-aerosol load in the La Plata Herbarium. The indoor air of this institution seems to be reasonably adequate for the conservation of vascular plants due to the low indoor/outdoor index, low concentrations of air spores, and/or lack of indicators of moisture problems. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Occurrence of fungi and fungus-like organisms in the Horodnianka River in the vicinity of Białystok, Poland.

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    Kiziewicz, Bozena; Zdrojkowska, Ewa; Gajo, Bernadetta; Godlewska, Anna; Muszyńska, Elzbieta; Mazalska, Bozenna

    2011-01-01

    Studies of fungi and fungus- like organisms in the northeastern Poland have mainly concentrated on running waters in the vicinity of Białystok, including the Horodnianka River. The main objective was to investigate biodiversity of fungi and fungus-like organisms which take part in decomposition of organic matter commonly found in inland waters. To obtain a complete picture of species composition of fungi and fungus-like organisms in running waters we decided to explore representative sites of the Horodnianka River such as Olmonty, Hryniewicze and Horodniany with close localization of landfill. Fungal species were isolated using baiting technique. Baits of onion skin (Alium cepa), hemp-seeds (Cannabis sativa), impregnated cellophane and snake skin (Natrix natrix) were applied to isolate fungi from water of the Horodnianka River. The fungal community consists of 26 species, 10 species of fungi belonging to class Chytridiomycetes (3), anamorphic fungi (6), and Zygomycetes (1). 16 species belong to fungus-like organisms from class Oomycetes. Most of the recognized species have already been found in other running waters. From all the examined habitats the fungi belonging to 26 species of 18 genera Achlya, Alternaria, Aphanomyces, Aspergillus, Catenophlyctis, Dictyuchus, Fusarium, Karlingia, Lagenidium, Leptomitus, Olpidiopsis, Penicillium, Phlyctochytrium, Pythium, Saprolegnia, Scoliognia, Thraustotheca and Zoophagus were obtained. Certain fungal species like Aphanomyces laevis, Fusarium aqueductum, F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum, Leptomitus lacteus, Saprolegnia feax and S. parasitica were found at all the study sites. Among fungi potentially pathogenic and allergogenic for humans the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Lagenidium and Penicillium have already been described. However, the species Lagenidium giganteum and Achlya androgyna are new in the fungal biota of Poland. The greatest number of fungal species occurred in Olmonty (24), the smallest in Horodniany

  14. Microbiological quality of chicken thighs meat after four essential oils combination, EDTA and vaccum packing

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    Miroslava Kačániová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate and identify yeasts in different new wine "federweisser" samples. We collected the samples at the end of the August 2015 and in the middle of the September 2015. Used 15 new wine samples in this study (5 white and 10 red were from the local Slovak winemakers. Irsai Oliver (3, Moravian Muscat (2, Agria/Turan (1, Dornfelder (3, Blue Frankish (3, Pinot Noir (1 and Saint Laurent (2. Three cultivation media were used for detection of yeasts in "federweisser" samples. Malt extract agar base (MEA, Wort agar (WA and Wild yeast medium (WYM were used for the cultivation of yeasts. Cultivation was performed by spread plate method. Ethanol/formic acid extraction procedure was used for preparation of samples. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometer (Microflex LT/SH (Bruker Daltonics, Germany was used for the identification of yeasts. We identified seven different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (23; 70%, two strains of Kloeckera apiculata [teleomorph Hanseniaspora uvarum] (7; 21%, and one strain of Pichia kluyveri (1; 3%, Pichia occidentalis [anamorph Candida sorbosa] (1; 3% and Metschnikowia pulcherrima (1; 3% in 15 new wine "federweisser" samples. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was dominant species in each new wine sample, and formed creamy convex colonies with circular edge. Metschnikowia pulcherrima formed convex to pulvinate, circular white-pink colored colonies, Kloeckera apiculata formed flat, circular smooth colonies with turquoise center with gray edge, Pichia occidentalis formed irregular pulvinate light-cream colored colonies, and Pichia kluyveri formed turquoise, convex, undulate and smooth colonies on Malt extract agar base with bromocresol green.

  15. Increasing incidence of megabacteriosis in canaries (Serinus canarius domesticus).

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    Marlier, D; Leroy, C; Sturbois, M; Delleur, V; Poulipoulis, A; Vindevogel, H

    2006-11-01

    A total of 312 post-mortem examinations of 178 canaries (Serinus canarius domesticus), 40 parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus, Nymphicus hollandicus) and 94 parrots (Amazona aestiva, Psitaccus erithacus) were conducted at the Birds and Rabbits Service of the University of Liège, Belgium. After a detailed gross examination, tissue samples were collected for virological and/or bacteriological and/or parasitological examination to complete the diagnosis. In all cases, a microscopic examination of the proventricular mucus layer was undertaken for the detection of the anamorphic ascomycetous yeast Macrorhabdus ornithogaster, which causes the non-zoonotic but important disease in cage birds known as megabacteriosis. At the time of death, megabacteriosis was diagnosed respectively in 28% of canaries and 22.5% of budgerigars (P value for Fisher's exact test=0.5576), but was not diagnosed in parrots (P value for Fisher's exact test <0.0001). The incidence of megabacteriosis significantly increases along the years (P value for chi2 test <0.0001, Cramer's coefficient=0.3405). The most common gross lesions seen at necropsy of the 59 megabacteriosis cases was proventricular dilatation (86.1%). All the birds diagnosed as typical megabacteriosis cases were free of Salmonella spp. infections and of any parasitic infections. Four megabacteriosis cases (three canaries, one parakeet) were not included in statistical analysis as salmonellosis, pseudotuberculosis, coccidiosis and chlamydophilosis were diagnosed concomitantly in these birds. With the exception of megabacteriosis, the most frequent causes of death were protozoan (coccidiosis, lankesterellosis) infections (18.4%) and salmonellosis (17.1%) in canaries, and psittacosis (31.5%) and viral hepatitis (26.3%) in parakeets. In parrots, the most common causes of death were psittacosis (28.6%) and aspergillosis (28.5%).

  16. Rhizoctonia solani AG-3PT is the major pathogen associated with potato stem canker and black scurf in Colombia

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    Rosa Lilia Ferrucho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem canker and black scurf diseases of potatoes are caused by the basidiomycetous fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorphic species complex Rhizoctonia solani. These diseases have worldwide distribution wherever potato is grown but their etiology varies depending on the predominance of distinct R. solani anastomosis groups (AG s in a particular area. Within the species complex, several AG s have been associated with stem canker or black scurf diseases, including AG -1, AG -2-1, AG -2-2, AG -3, AG -4, AG -5 and AG -9. This article reports on the most comprehensive population-based study, providing evidence on the distribution of R. solani AG s in Colombian potato fields. A total of 433 isolates were sampled from the main potato cropping areas in Colombia from 2005 to 2009. Isolates were assigned to AG s by conventional PCR assays using specific primers for AG -3, sequencing of the ITS -rDNA and hyphal interactions. Most of the isolates evaluated were assigned to AG -3PT (88.45%, and a few to AG -2-1 (2.54%. The remaining isolates were binucleate Rhizoctonia (AG -A, E, and I. Pathogenicity tests on the stems and roots of different plant species, including the potato, showed that AG -3PT affects the stems of solanaceous plants. In other plant species, damage was severe in the roots, but not the stems. AG -2-1 caused stem canker of Solanum tuberosum cv. Capiro and in R. raphanistrumi and B.campestris subsp. Rapa plantlets and root rot in other plants. The results of our study indicated that R. solani AG -3PT was the principal pathogen associated with potato stem canker and black scurf diseases of potatoes in Colombia

  17. Detection of potentially valuable polymorphisms in four group I intron insertion sites at the 3'-end of the LSU rDNA genes in biocontrol isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae

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    Monte Enrique

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The entomopathogenic anamorphic fungus Metarhizum anisopliae is currently used as a biocontrol agent (BCA of insects. In the present work, we analyzed the sequence data obtained from group I introns in the large subunit (LSU of rDNA genes with a view to determining the genetic diversity present in an autochthonous collection of twenty-six M. anisopliae isolates selected as BCAs. Results DNA fragments corresponding to the 3'-end of the nuclear LSU rDNA genes of 26 M. anisopliae isolates were amplified by PCR. The amplicon sizes ranged from 0.8 to 3.4-kb. Four intron insertion sites, according to Escherichia coli J01695 numbering, were detected- Ec1921, Ec2066, Ec2449 and Ec2563- after sequencing and analysis of the PCR products. The presence/absence of introns allowed the 26 isolates to be distributed into seven genotypes. Nine of the isolates tested showed no introns, 4 had only one, 3 two, and 10 displayed three introns. The most frequent insertion sites were Ec1921 and Ec2449. Of the 26 isolates, 11 showed insertions at Ec2563 and a 1754-bp sequence was observed in ten of them. The most-parsimonious (MP tree obtained from parsimony analysis of the introns revealed a main set containing four-groups that corresponded to the four insertion sites. Conclusion Four insertion sites of group I introns in the LSU rDNA genes allowed the establishment of seven genotypes among the twenty-six biocontrol isolates of M. anisopliae. Intron insertions at the Ec2563 site were observed for first time in this species.

  18. Genetic analyses place most Spanish isolates of Beauveria bassiana in a molecular group with word-wide distribution

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    Quesada-Moraga Enrique

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The entomopathogenic anamorphic fungus Beauveria bassiana is currently used as a biocontrol agent (BCA of insects. Fifty-seven Beauveria bassiana isolates -53 from Spain- were characterized, integrating group I intron insertion patterns at the 3'-end of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal gene (LSU rDNA and elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-α phylogenetic information, in order to assess the genetic structure and diversity of this Spanish collection of B. bassiana. Results Group I intron genotype analysis was based on the four highly conserved insertion sites of the LSU (Ec2653, Ec2449, Ec2066, Ec1921. Of the 16 possible combinations/genotypes, only four were detected, two of which were predominant, containing 44 and 9 members out of 57 isolates, respectively. Interestingly, the members of the latter two genotypes showed unique differences in their growth temperatures. In follow, EF1-α phylogeny served to classify most of the strains in the B. bassiana s.s. (sensu stricto group and separate them into 5 molecular subgroups, all of which contained a group I intron belonging to the IC1 subtype at the Ec1921 position. A number of parameters such as thermal growth or origin (host, geographic location and climatic conditions were also examined but in general no association could be found. Conclusion Most Spanish B. bassiana isolates (77.2% are grouped into a major phylogenetic subgroup with word-wide distribution. However, high phylogenetic diversity was also detected among Spanish isolates from close geographic zones with low climatic variation. In general, no correlation was observed between the molecular distribution and geographic origin or climatic characteristics where the Spanish B. bassiana isolates were sampled.

  19. Powdery Mildew on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.

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    Mariana Nakova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms resembling powdery mildew appeared on spinach crops during April andMay in 2007. Infected plants have suppressed growth, smaller and degenerated youngleaves. The affected leaves become yellowish and wilt in a short time. High temperaturesand draught conditions cause drying out of the affected plants. The symptoms are similarto physiological degeneration but are found on single plants or on small groups of plants.When plants are carefully examined, fine, exogenic mycelium is found on the leave blades.The mycelium can be clearly seen close to the main veins where it becomes denser andforms mycelium patches. On the leaf and flower stalks and plant stems the mycelium iswhite and fine at the beginning, and later becomes grayish.Under microscope analysis ectophytic mycelia of exogenic origin and short chainsof spores are observed. On short conidiophores, chains with two types of conidia areformed: macro conidia that are one-celled, colorless, thin-walled, elliptical to cylindrical,sized 24.5-28.4 x 17.5 μm; and micro conidia – ovoid to elliptical, sized 10.4-14.1 x 7.7 μm.Teleomorphs are found in groups or as a single structure mainly close to the leaf veins. Theyare roundish and have appendages with uncinate-circinate to helicoids apex, sized - 87.5-150 μm. Cleistothecia have 4-5 to 8 asci (68.0 x 38.0 μm, with 4 to 8 elliptical ascospores,sized 15.5-22.0 х 11.0-17.5 μm. The causal agent of powdery mildew on spinach found inBulgaria has been identified as Uncinula spp. (Sawadaea spp., Euoidium type anamorph,subspecies spinaciae.

  20. Blue light acts as a double-edged sword in regulating sexual development of Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei.

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    Chia-Ling Chen

    Full Text Available The industrially important cellulolytic filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is the anamorph of the pantropical ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina. H. jecorina CBS999.97 strain undergoes a heterothallic reproductive cycle, and the mating yields fertilized perithecia imbedded in stromata. Asci in the perithecia contain 16 linearly arranged ascospores. Here, we investigated H. jecorina sexual development under different light regimes, and found that visible light was dispensable for sexual development (stroma formation and ascospore discharge. By contrast, constant illumination inhibited stroma formation, and an interruption of the darkness facilitated timely stroma formation in a 12 h/12 h light-dark photoperiod. The results of genetic analyses further revealed that H. jecorina blue-light photoreceptors (BLR1, BLR2 and the photoadaptation protein ENV1 were not essential for sexual development in general. BLR1, BLR2 and ENV1 are orthologues of the conserved Neurospora crassa WC-1, WC-2 and VVD, respectively. Moreover, BLR1 and BLR2 mediate both positive and negative light-dependent regulation on sexual development, whereas ENV1 is required for dampening the light-dependent inhibitory effect in response to changes in illumination. Comparative genome-wide microarray analysis demonstrated an overview of light-dependent gene expression versus sexual potency in CBS999.97 (MAT1-2 haploid cells. Constant illumination promotes abundant asexual conidiation and high levels of hpp1 transcripts. hpp1 encodes a h (hybrid-type propheromone that exhibits features of both yeast a and a pheromone precursors. Deletion of hpp1 could rescue stroma formation but not ascospore generation under constant illumination. We inferred that the HPP1-dependent pheromone signaling system might directly prevent stroma formation or simply disallow the haploid cells to acquire sexual potency due to abundant asexual conidiation upon constant illumination.

  1. Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal agent of Asian soybean rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goellner, Katharina; Loehrer, Marco; Langenbach, Caspar; Conrath, Uwe; Koch, Eckhard; Schaffrath, Ulrich

    2010-03-01

    The plant pathogenic basidiomycete fungi Phakopsora pachyrhizi and Phakopsora meibomiae cause rust disease in soybean plants. Phakopsora pachyrhizi originated in Asia-Australia, whereas the less aggressive P. meibomiae originated in Latin America. In the New World, P. pachyrhizi was first reported in the 1990s to have spread to Hawaii and, since 2001, it has been found in South America. In 2004, the pathogen entered continental USA. This review provides detailed information on the taxonomy and molecular biology of the pathogen, and summarizes strategies to combat the threat of this devastating disease. Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. & P. Syd; uredial anamorph: Malupa sojae (syn. Uredo sojae); Domain Eukaryota; Kingdom Fungi; Phylum Basidiomycota; Order Uredinales; Class Urediniomycetes; Family Phakopsoraceae; Genus Phakopsora (http://www.indexfungorum.org). The nomenclature of rust spores and spore-producing structures used within this review follows Agrios GN (2005) Plant Pathology, 5th edn. London: Elsevier/Academic Press. In the field, P. pachyrhizi infects leaf tissue from a broad range (at least 31 species in 17 genera) of leguminous plants. Infection of an additional 60 species in other genera has been achieved under laboratory conditions. At the beginning of the disease, small, tan-coloured lesions, restricted by leaf veins, can be observed on infected soybean leaves. Lesions enlarge and, 5-8 days after initial infection, rust pustules (uredia, syn. uredinia) become visible. Uredia develop more frequently in lesions on the lower surface of the leaf than on the upper surface. The uredia open with a round ostiole through which uredospores are released.

  2. HONGOS NATIVOS CON POTENCIAL DEGRADADOR DE TINTES INDUSTRIALES EN EL VALLE DE ABURRÁ, COLOMBIA NATIVE FUNGI WITH INDUSTRIAL DYE DEGRADING POTENTIAL IN THE ABURRÁ VALLEY, COLOMBIA

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    Xiomara Chanagá Vera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Los colorantes industriales poseen estructuras químicas estables que dificultan su tratamiento mediante procesos fisicoquímicos convencionales. En los últimos años, como una alternativa biotecnológica para la degradación de compuestos recalcitrantes, se han utilizado hongos ligninolíticos de diferentes grupos taxonómicos, que producen enzimas oxidantes de dichas moléculas. El aislamiento e identificación de especies fúngicas nativas con potencial decolorante, resulta promisorio para biorremediar efluentes provenientes de industrias textiles. En esta investigación se identificaron, con base en análisis de secuencias de las regiones ITS1 e ITS2 y 28S del ADNr, y por sus características morfológicas, cuatro hongos nativos aislados de material lignocelulósico colectado en el Valle de Aburrá (Antioquia, Colombia. Los aislamientos fueron identificados como el ascomycete Leptosphaerulina sp., y los hongos anamórficos Trichoderma viride (dos cepas y Aspergillus niger.Abstract. Synthetic dyes have stable chemical structures that hinder their treatment by conventional physicochemical processes. In recent years, as a biotechnological alternative for degradation of these recalcitrant compounds, wood degrading fungi of different taxonomic groups have been used. These fungi produced enzymes with oxidative potential for those molecules. The isolation and identification of ligninolytic fungi with potential for discoloration is promising for bioremediation of effluents from textile industries. In this research, we identified four native fungi isolated from lignocellulosic material in the Aburra Valley (Antioquia, Colombia. Identification was made based on sequence analysis of ITS1-ITS2 regions and 28S rDNA as well as morphological characteristics. The fungi were identified as the ascomycete Leptosphaerulina sp., and the anamorphic species Trichoderma viride (two strains and Aspergillus niger.

  3. Coregulated expression of loline alkaloid-biosynthesis genes in Neotyphodium uncinatum cultures.

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    Zhang, Dong-Xiu; Stromberg, Arnold J; Spiering, Martin J; Schardl, Christopher L

    2009-08-01

    Epichloë endophytes (holomorphic Epichloë spp. and anamorphic Neotyphodium spp.) are systemic, often heritable symbionts of cool-season grasses (subfamily Pooideae). Many epichloae provide protection to their hosts by producing anti-insect compounds. Among these are the loline alkaloids (LA), which are toxic and deterrent to a broad range of herbivorous insects but not to mammalian herbivores. LOL, a gene cluster containing nine genes, is associated with LA biosynthesis. We investigated coordinate regulation between LOL-gene expression and LA production in minimal medium (MM) cultures of Neotyphodium uncinatum. Expression of all LOL genes significantly fit temporal quadratic patterns during LA production. LOL-gene expression started before LA were detectable, and increased while LA accumulated. The highest gene expression level was reached at close to the time of most rapid LA accumulation, and gene expression declined to a very low level as amounts of LA plateaued. Temporal expression profiles of the nine LOL genes were tightly correlated with each other, but not as tightly correlated with proC and metE (genes for biosynthesis of precursor amino acids). Furthermore, the start days and peak days of expression significantly correlated with the order of the LOL-cluster genes in the genome. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated three pairs of genes-lolA and lolC, lolO and lolD, and lolT and lolE-expression of which was especially tightly correlated. Of these, lolA and lolC tended to be expressed early, and lolT and lolE tended to be expressed late, in keeping with the putative roles of the respective gene products in the LA-biosynthesis pathway. Several common transcriptional binding sites were discovered in the LOL upstream regions. However, low expression of P(lolC2)uidA and P(lolA2)uidA in N. uncinatum transformants suggested induced expression of LOL genes might be subject to position effect at the LOL locus.

  4. NORTHERN LEAF BLIGHT HELMINTHOSPORIUM TURCICUM ON MAIZE IN LATVIA.

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    Treikale, O; Javoisha, B; Pugacheva, E; Vigule, Z; Feodorova-Fedotova, L

    2014-01-01

    In Latvia, climatic factors are influential in spreading of the Northern leaf blight of maize caused by Setosphaeria turcica (SETOTU, anamorph Exserohilum turcicum, Helminthosporium turcicum). The field experiments with the aim to investigate the effect of strobilurines to control of SETOTU in maize and the possibility to have a greening effect on yield and the silage quality parameters there were conducted in Latvian Plant Protection Research Centre in 2010. The effect of fungicides under natural and artificial infection with SETOTU on yield of maize was evaluated in 2012 and 2013. Trials designed with four replicates using randomized blocks, a plot size of 30 m2. Plots were inoculated at beginning of anthesis stage of maize by conidium of local population of H. turcicum propagated on PDA. Application of fungicides has been done in two times. Weather conditions were favourable for infestation of Northern leaf blight in maize. Disease severity was recorded according to the EPPO Guideline PP 1/272(1) on 10 plants from two central rows by 5 layers of leaves. Yield was recorded from two central separately harvested rows of each plot. The silage quality parameters in 2010 were analysed by Blgg BV Company, Netherlands. After the artificial inoculation an increase of the disease pressure in maize was observed. A good effect of the fungicides to control SETOTU was observed in all trials. No significant differences in efficacy were found between the treatments of Propulse (fluopyram 125 g L(-1), prothioconazole 125 g L(-1)), Opera (epoxiconazole 75, pyraclostrobin 199, 5 g L(-1) and Opera N (epoxiconazole 75, pyraclostrobin 102 g L(-1)). The effect of application time at the BBCH 55-59 was higher compared with application time at the BBCH 30-37. Two applications of Propulse compared with the single showed higher effect on SETOTU. The prolonged effect of Propulse on SETOTU was similar to Opera and Opera N. Greening effect was significant for all treatments compared with the

  5. The impact of a single-nucleotide mutation of bgl2 on cellulase induction in a Trichoderma reesei mutant.

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    Shida, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Kaori; Nitta, Mikiko; Nakamura, Ayana; Takahashi, Machiko; Kidokoro, Shun-Ichi; Mori, Kazuki; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kuhara, Satoru; Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Yaoi, Katsuro; Sakamoto, Yasumitsu; Tanaka, Nobutada; Morikawa, Yasushi; Ogasawara, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina) produces increased cellulase expression when grown on cellulose or its derivatives as a sole carbon source. It has been believed that β-glucosidases of T. reesei not only metabolize cellobiose but also contribute in the production of inducers of cellulase gene expression by their transglycosylation activity. The cellulase hyper-producing mutant PC-3-7 developed in Japan has enhanced cellulase production ability when cellobiose is used as the inducer. The comparative genomics analysis of PC-3-7 and its parent revealed a single-nucleotide mutation within the bgl2 gene encoding intracellular β-glucosidase II (BGLII/Cel1a), giving rise to an amino acid substitution in PC-3-7, which could potentially account for the enhanced cellulase expression when these strains are cultivated on cellulose and cellobiose. To analyze the effects of the BGLII mutation in cellulase induction, we constructed both a bgl2 revertant and a disruptant. Enzymatic analysis of the transformant lysates showed that the strain expressing mutant BGLII exhibited weakened cellobiose hydrolytic activity, but produced some transglycosylation products, suggesting that the SNP in bgl2 strongly diminished cellobiase activity, but did not result in complete loss of function of BGLII. The analysis of the recombinant BGLII revealed that transglycosylation products might be oligosaccharides, composed probably of glucose linked β-1,4, β-1,3, or a mixture of both. PC-3-7 revertants of bgl2 exhibited reduced expression and inducibility of cellulase during growth on cellulose and cellobiose substrates. Furthermore, the effect of this bgl2 mutation was reproduced in the common strain QM9414 in which the transformants showed cellulase production comparable to that of PC-3-7. We conclude that BGLII plays an important role in cellulase induction in T. reesei and that the bgl2 mutation in PC-3-7 brought about enhanced cellulase expression on

  6. The diversity of ant-associated black yeasts: insights into a newly discovered world of symbiotic interactions.

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    Voglmayr, Hermann; Mayer, Veronika; Maschwitz, Ulrich; Moog, Joachim; Djieto-Lordon, Champlain; Blatrix, Rumsaïs

    2011-10-01

    Based on pure culture studies and DNA phylogenetic analyses, black yeasts (Chaetothyriales, Ascomycota) are shown to be widely distributed and important components of numerous plant-ant-fungus networks, independently acquired by several ant lineages in the Old and New World. Data from ITS and LSU nu rDNA demonstrate that a high biodiversity of fungal species is involved. There are two common ant-fungus symbioses involving black yeasts: (1) on the carton walls of ant nests and galleries, and (2) the fungal mats growing within non-pathogenic naturally hollow structures (so-called domatia) provided by myrmecophytic plants as nesting space for ants (ant-plant symbiosis). Most carton- and domatia-inhabiting fungi stem from different phylogenetic lineages within Chaetothyriales, and almost all of the fungi isolated are still undescribed. Despite being closely related, carton and domatia fungi are shown to differ markedly in their morphology and ecology, indicating that they play different roles in these associations. The carton fungi appear to improve the stability of the carton, and several species are commonly observed to co-occur on the same carton. Carton fungi commonly have dark-walled monilioid hyphae, colouring the carton blackish and apparently preventing other fungi from invading the carton. Despite the simultaneous presence of usually several species of fungi, forming complex associations on the carton, little overlap is observed between carton fungi from different ant species, even those that co-occur in nature, indicating at least some host specificity of fungi. Most fungi present on carton belong to Chaetothyriales, but in a few samples, Capnodiales are also an important component. Carton fungi are difficult to assign to anamorph genera, as most lack conidiation. The domatia fungi are more specific. In domatia, usually only one or two fungal species co-occur, producing a dense layer on living host plant tissue in domatia. They have hyaline or light brown

  7. Biodiversity and new records of microfungi in the Ruhrarea (north Rhine Westfalia), Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, Nosrathollah; Brassmann, Markus; Jensen, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    During our investigations of the microflora in NRW (Duisburg, Düsseldorf and Essen incl. the greenhouse of the Botanical Garden) in 2007 and 2008, we were able to collect and identify about 55 species on trees, bushes and ornamental plants as parasites and saprophytes. Some of these species are new for Germany or have been only rarely found until now. Most of the species belong the Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina for example Arthrocladiella mougeotii (Lév.) Vassilkov. on Lycium barbarum L., Caudospora taleola (Fr.) Starb on Quercus robur L., Colletotrichum coffeanum F. Noak on Coffea arabica L. (new for Germany) Colletotrichum trichellum (Fr.) Duke on Hedera helix L., Erysiphe buhrii U. Braun on Lychnis cf. coronaria (L.) Desr. (Anamorph. Oidium dianthi Jacz.), Erysiphe spec. on Acer opalus Mill (new host), Erysiphe flexuosa (Peck) U. Braun & S. Takam. on Aesculus spec. (new for Europe)), Erysiphe heraclei DC. on Tinguarra montana (Webb ex Christ ) A.Hansen & G.Kunkel, Erysiphe necator Schwein. = Uncinula necator (Schwein.) Burrill on Cissus cf. rhombifolia Vahl. (new for NRW), Erysphe trifolii Grev. on Trigonella caerulea (L.) Ser., Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC.) V.P.Gelyuta (Oidium spec.) on Argyranthemum pinnatifidum (L.f.) R.T. Lowe (new host), Lobatopedis foliicola P.M. Kirk on Quercus robur L. (new for NRW), Lophodermium juniperinum (Fr.) de Not. on Juniperus communis L., Mamiania coryli De Not. on Corylus avellana L., Marssonina juglandis (Lib.) Magnus on Juglans regia L., Oidium hortensia Jørst on Philadelphus coronarius L., Oidium spec. on Dahlia variabilis (Willd.) Desf. (new for Germany), Oidium longipes Noordeloos & Loerak on Petunia hybrida Vilm., Oidium pedilanthi M. Yen on Pedilanthus titymaloides (L.) Poit, Oidium pedaliacearum H.D. Shin sp. nov. (= Oidium sesami H.D. Shin) on Ibicella lutea (Lindl.) van Eselt. (= Martynia lutea Lindl.), Passalora pastinacae (Sacc.) U. Braun = Pseudocercosporella pastinacae (P. Karst.) U

  8. Contribución a la identificación de esporas del Reino Fungi en la atmósfera de La Plata, Argentina

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    Daniela S. Nitiu

    2010-12-01

    belonging to the Phylum Zygomycota, Basidiomycota and Ascomycota and their anamorphs, assigned to generic level. Characters that define such associations are: Absidia Group, hyaline amerospores; Cortinarius Group, pigmented amerospores; Didymella Group, hyalines or slightly colored didymospores; Didymosphaeria Group, pigmented didymospores and didymoconidia; Leptosphaeria Group, hyaline to pigmented phragmospores and Helminthosporium Group, hyaline to pigmented distoseptated phragmoconidia. The aim of this work is to give a tool to facilitate the task of data processing by providing new qualitative elements to prior classifications and contributing to the complex problem of identification of fungal spores presents in atmosphere.

  9. Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the black leaf streak pathogen of banana: progress towards understanding pathogen biology and detection, disease development, and the challenges of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Alice C L

    2011-05-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is grown throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits are a key staple food in many developing countries and a source of income for subsistence farmers. Bananas are also a major, multibillion-dollar export commodity for consumption primarily in developed countries, where few banana cultivars are grown. The fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis causes black leaf streak disease (BLSD; aka black Sigatoka leaf spot) on the majority of edible banana cultivars grown worldwide. The fact that most of these cultivars are sterile and unsuitable for the breeding of resistant lines necessitates the extensive use of fungicides as the primary means of disease control. BLSD is a significant threat to the food security of resource-poor populations who cannot afford fungicides, and increases the environmental and health hazards where large-acreage monocultures of banana (Cavendish subgroup, AAA genome) are grown for export. Mycosphaerella fijiensis M. Morelet is a sexual, heterothallic fungus having Pseudocercospora fijiensis (M. Morelet) Deighton as the anamorph stage. It is a haploid, hemibiotrophic ascomycete within the class Dothideomycetes, order Capnodiales and family Mycosphaerellaceae. Its taxonomic placement is based on DNA phylogeny, morphological analyses and cultural characteristics. Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a leaf pathogen that causes reddish-brown streaks running parallel to the leaf veins, which aggregate to form larger, dark-brown to black compound streaks. These streaks eventually form fusiform or elliptical lesions that coalesce, form a water-soaked border with a yellow halo and, eventually, merge to cause extensive leaf necrosis. The disease does not kill the plants immediately, but weakens them by decreasing the photosynthetic capacity of leaves, causing a reduction in the quantity and quality of fruit, and inducing the premature ripening of fruit harvested from infected plants. Although Musa spp. are the

  10. The diversity of aquatic Hyphomycetes in South America A diversidade dos Hyphomycetes aquáticos nas águas continentais da América do Sul

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    Iracema Helena Schoenlein-Crusius

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic Hyphomycetes, also named Ingoldian or freshwater fungi, constitute a group of anamorphic fungi that are typically aquatic, producing tetraradiate, sigmoid or spherical conidia on submerged plant debris (leaf litter, petioles, bark, etc.. Mainly occurring in lotic systems, these fungi are considered to be one of the most active groups of organisms in the decomposition of leaf litter, and play a crucial role in the trophic chain. In South America, aquatic Hyphomycetes are mentioned for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela, totalizing the report of about 90 species. Almost all studies are taxonomical, some with proper drawings and complete descriptions, but no keys have been provided yet, nor there is a specific culture collection for preserved strains. The published papers are still sporadic and dispersed, emphasizing a great need to improve the knowledge of the diversity of South American aquatic Hyphomycetes. The present review contents the check list of reported species until now, and has the aim to encourage the research concerned with aquatic Hyphomycetes in non explored regions of the continent.Os Hyphomycetes aquáticos, também denominados fungos "Ingoldeanos", constituem grupo de fungos anamórficos tipicamente aquáticos, que produzem conídios tetrarradiados, sigmóides ou esféricos sobre substratos vegetais submersos (folhedo, pecíolos, cortiça, etc.. Ocorrendo principalmente em sistemas lóticos, estes fungos são considerados como um dos grupos de organismos mais ativos na decomposição de folhedo, assumindo papel crucial na cadeia trófica. Na América do Sul os Hyphomycetes aquáticos são mencionados para a Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Equador, Peru e Venezuela, totalizando a citação de aproximadamente 90 espécies. Quase todos os estudos são taxonômicos, com ilustrações adequadas e descrições completas, porém ainda não foram elaboradas chaves sistemáticas ou coleções de culturas de linhagens

  11. Isolation of filamentous fungi from public telephones of the Metropolitan region of the city of Recife, PE, Brazil Isolamento de fungos filamentosos em telefones públicos da região Metropolitana da cidade do Recife, PE, Brasil

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    Flavia Paiva Coutinho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungi can inhabit our organism without causing any harm, but they show themselves when the immunological system is compromised. In this study, a survey of the occurrence of filamentous fungi was carried out in public telephones of the Metropolitan Region of the City of Recife, PE, Brazil. This showed the public phones as a possible mean of transmission of fungal diseases among humans. Samples from the environment, audios, speakers and keyboards were taken at the airport, mall, subway and bus station in the months of October/2003 (dry season and June/2004 (rainy season, totaling 120 samples. The procedure of identification of species was carried out through conventional taxonomy. Thirty-four genera were isolated, totaling 73 species, the majority belonging to the anamorphic fungi (91.78%, followed by the Ascomycota (6.85% and the Zygomycota (1.37%. There was no significant difference in the proportion of species between the dry and rainy seasons, with 46 and 53 species identified, respectively. Due to the lack of maintenance, or inadequate cleaning of public telephones, the fungi present in these appliances may cause mycosis in the users as these telephones are used by people from different social classes and variable habits, both healthy and immunocompromised.Os fungos podem circular pelo nosso organismo sem causar qualquer mal, mas manifestam-se quando o sistema imunológico está comprometido. Neste estudo foi realizada uma análise da ocorrência de fungos filamentosos em telefones públicos da Região Metropolitana da Cidade do Recife, PE, Brasil. Apresentando-os como possível meio de transmissão de doenças de natureza fúngica entre os indivíduos. Amostras dos ambientes, áudios, bocais e teclas foram obtidas no aeroporto, shopping, metrô e rodoviária nos meses de outubro/2003 (período seco e junho/2004 (período chuvoso, totalizando 120 amostras. O procedimento de identificação das espécies ocorreu através da taxonomia

  12. Caracterización taxonómica y análisis de la variabilidad del agente causal del cancro del tallo de la soja en Buenos Aires (2005/2007

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    GRIJALBA, P.E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl complejo Diaporthe/Phomopsis es un importante grupo de hongos patógenos de la soja. Dentro del mismo, Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora es uno de los agentes causales del cancro del tallo. Veintitrés aislamientos de este hongo, provenientes de diferentes zonas geográficas de la provincia de Buenos Aires, fueron caracterizados morfológica y genéticamente. Los criterios morfológicos fueron tipo y color de micelio; formación del teleomorfo y/o del anamorfo. La identificación molecular fue llevada a cabo utilizando una técnica de restricción de fragmentos de amplificación (PCR-RFLP de la región ITS de ADN ribosomal. Adicionalmente, los productos de amplificación fueron secuenciados y comparados con la información de bancos de datos. Los aislamientos presentaron características morfológicas y patogénicas propias de la variedad, y los patrones de restricción con la enzima Alu I fueron concordantes con la identificación morfológica y con la información de secuencias disponibles. Las reconstrucciones filogenéticas apoyan la idea de que D. meridionalis y D. caulivora son entidades biológicamente aisladas. Los resultados obtenidos confirmaron la utilidad del uso del método de PCR-RFLP para la identificación precisa y rápida de D. caulivora. Por sus características, este método puede ser implementado para análisis de rutina en laboratorios de pequeña y mediana escala.AbstractDiaporthe/Phomopsis is an important group of soybean pathogens. Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora is one of the causal agents of stem canker. Twenty three isolates from different regions from the Province of Buenos Aires were morphologically and genetically characterized and assigned to different taxa within the Diaporthe/Phomopsis complex; diagnostic morphological traits were: mycelium type and color, teleomorph/anamorph occurrence. Molecular characterization was carried out using RFLP analyses of PCR-amplified DNA (PCRRFLP for the

  13. Fungos conidiais associados ao folhedo de Clusia melchiorii Gleason e C. nemorosa G. Mey. (Clusiaceae em fragmento de Mata Atlântica, BA, Brasil Conidial fungi associated to leaf litter of Clusia melchiorii Gleason and C. nemorosa G. Mey (Clusiaceae in a fragment of Atlantic rainforest, Bahia State, Brazil

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    Flávia Rodrigues Barbosa

    2009-03-01

    óia", State of Bahia, from October/2005 to June/2006. The leaves were washed with tap water and maintained in moist chamber during 30 days. The fungal structures were collected for morphological studies. Seventy nine taxa of Ascomycota, in the anamorphic state were registered: 78 hyphomycete and one Coelomycete. Most of the species occurred on Clusia melchiorii (87% and 55% on C. nemorosa. The majority of the fungi presented sporadical frequency and accidental constancy. The most frequent species were: Beltrania rhombica Penz., Chaetopsina fulva Rambelli, Dactylaria ficusicola Paulus, Gadek & Hyde, Verticillium theobromae (Turconi Mason & Hughes e Volutella sp. 1 (on C. melchiorii and Atroseptaphiale flagelliformis Matsush., Pseudobeltrania sp., Zygosporium gibbum (Sacc., Rousseau & Bommer Hughes, Verticillium theobromae (Turconi Mason & Hughes and Volutella sp. 1 (on C. nemorosa. The similarity of fungi between the two species of Clusia reached 60% and 11 taxa were constant in both hosts: Atrosetaphiale flagelliformis, Beltraniella portoricensis (Stevens Piroz. & Patil, Chalara alabamensisJones & Ingram., Cryptophiale kakombensis Piroz., Parasympodiella laxa (Subram. & Vittal, Speiropsis scopiformis Kuthub. & Nawawi, Thozetella cristata Piroz. & Hodges, Umbellidion radulans Sutton & Hodges, Verticillium theobromae, Volutella sp. 2 and Zygosporium gibbum. The data show that the litter produced by C. melchiorii and C. nemorosa, at the Serra da Jibóia, is rich in conidial fungi. These fungi, as decomposers, are important for the dinamic of the studied ecosystem.

  14. Grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator): a fascinating system for the study of the biology, ecology and epidemiology of an obligate biotroph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadoury, David M; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Wilcox, Wayne F; Dry, Ian B; Seem, Robert C; Milgroom, Michael G

    2012-01-01

    Few plant pathogens have had a more profound effect on the evolution of disease management than Erysiphe necator, which causes grapevine powdery mildew. When the pathogen first spread from North America to England in 1845, and onwards to France in 1847, 'germ theory' was neither understood among the general populace nor even generally accepted within the scientific community. Louis Pasteur had only recently reported the microbial nature of fermentation, and it would be another 30 years before Robert Koch would publish his proofs of the microbial nature of certain animal diseases. However, within 6 years after the arrival of the pathogen, nearly 6 million grape growers in France were routinely applying sulphur to suppress powdery mildew on nearly 2.5 million hectares of vineyards (Campbell, 2006). The pathogen has remained a focus for disease management efforts ever since. Because of the worldwide importance of the crop and its susceptibility to the disease, and because conventional management with modern, organic fungicides has been compromised on several occasions since 1980 by the evolution of fungicide resistance, there has also been a renewed effort worldwide to explore the pathogen's biology and ecology, its genetics and molecular interactions with host plants, and to refine current and suggest new management strategies. These latter aspects are the subject of our review. The most widely accepted classification follows. Family Erysiphaceae, Erysiphe necator Schw. [syn. Uncinula necator (Schw.) Burr., E. tuckeri Berk., U. americana Howe and U. spiralis Berk. & Curt; anamorph Oidium tuckeri Berk.]. Erysiphe necator var. ampelopsidis was found on Parthenocissus spp. in North America according to Braun (1987), although later studies revealed isolates whose host range spanned genera, making the application of this taxon somewhat imprecise (Gadoury and Pearson, 1991). The classification of the genera before 1980 was based on features of the mature ascocarp: (i

  15. Phylogenetic lineages in Pseudocercospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Braun, U; Hunter, G C; Wingfield, M J; Verkley, G J M; Shin, H-D; Nakashima, C; Groenewald, J Z

    2013-06-30

    Pseudocercospora is a large cosmopolitan genus of plant pathogenic fungi that are commonly associated with leaf and fruit spots as well as blights on a wide range of plant hosts. They occur in arid as well as wet environments and in a wide range of climates including cool temperate, sub-tropical and tropical regions. Pseudocercospora is now treated as a genus in its own right, although formerly recognised as either an anamorphic state of Mycosphaerella or having mycosphaerella-like teleomorphs. The aim of this study was to sequence the partial 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA gene of a selected set of isolates to resolve phylogenetic generic limits within the Pseudocercospora complex. From these data, 14 clades are recognised, six of which cluster in Mycosphaerellaceae. Pseudocercospora s. str. represents a distinct clade, sister to Passalora eucalypti, and a clade representing the genera Scolecostigmina, Trochophora and Pallidocercospora gen. nov., taxa formerly accommodated in the Mycosphaerella heimii complex and characterised by smooth, pale brown conidia, as well as the formation of red crystals in agar media. Other clades in Mycosphaerellaceae include Sonderhenia, Microcyclosporella, and Paracercospora. Pseudocercosporella resides in a large clade along with Phloeospora, Miuraea, Cercospora and Septoria. Additional clades represent Dissoconiaceae, Teratosphaeriaceae, Cladosporiaceae, and the genera Xenostigmina, Strelitziana, Cyphellophora and Thedgonia. The genus Phaeomycocentrospora is introduced to accommodate Mycocentrospora cantuariensis, primarily distinguished from Pseudocercospora based on its hyaline hyphae, broad conidiogenous loci and hila. Host specificity was considered for 146 species of Pseudocercospora occurring on 115 host genera from 33 countries. Partial nucleotide sequence data for three gene loci, ITS, EF-1α, and ACT suggest that the majority of these species are host specific. Species identified on the basis of host, symptomatology and general

  16. High molecular diversity of the fungus Guignardia citricarpa and Guignardia mangiferae and new primers for the diagnosis of the citrus black spot

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    Danyelle Stringari

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available RAPD markers were used to investigate the distribution of genetic variability among a group of Guignardia citricarpa, G. mangiferae, and Phyllosticta spinarum isolates obtained from several hosts in Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Costa Rica, Thailand, Japan, United States and South Africa. Pathogenic isolates G. citricarpa Kiely (anamorph form P. citricarpa McAlp Van Der Aa are the etiological agent of the Citrus Black Spot (CBS, a disease that affects several citric plants and causes substantial injuries to the appearance of their fruits, thus preventing their export. Several previous studies have demonstrated the existence of an endophytic species with high morphological similarity to the causal agent of CBS that could remain latent in the same hosts. Consequently, the identification of the plants and fruits free from the causal agent of the disease is severely hampered. The RAPD analysis showed a clear discrimination among the pathogenic isolates of G. citricarpa and endophytic isolates (G. mangiferae and P. spinarum. In addition, a Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCO based on a matrix of genetic similarity estimated by the RAPD markers showed four clusters, irrespective of their host or geographical origin. An Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA indicated that 62.8% of the genetic variation was found between the populations (G. citricarpa, G. mangiferae, P. spinarum and Phyllosticta sp.. Substantial variation was found in the populations (37.2%. Exclusive RAPD markers of isolates of G. citricarpa were cloned, sequenced and used to obtain SCARS (Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions, which allowed the development of new specific primers for the identification of G. citricarpa PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis using a pair of primers specific to pathogenic isolates corroborating the groupings obtained by the RAPD markers, underscoring its efficiency in the identification of the causal agent of CBS.Marcadores de RAPD foram utilizados para

  17. Insect pathogens as biological control agents: Back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, L A; Grzywacz, D; Shapiro-Ilan, D I; Frutos, R; Brownbridge, M; Goettel, M S

    2015-11-01

    combine the advantages of chemical pesticides and MCAs: they are fast acting, easy to produce at a relatively low cost, easy to formulate, have a long shelf life and allow delivery using conventional application equipment and systemics (i.e. in transgenic plants). Unlike broad spectrum chemical pesticides, B. thuringiensis toxins are selective and negative environmental impact is very limited. Of the several commercially produced MCAs, B. thuringiensis (Bt) has more than 50% of market share. Extensive research, particularly on the molecular mode of action of Bt toxins, has been conducted over the past two decades. The Bt genes used in insect-resistant transgenic crops belong to the Cry and vegetative insecticidal protein families of toxins. Bt has been highly efficacious in pest management of corn and cotton, drastically reducing the amount of broad spectrum chemical insecticides used while being safe for consumers and non-target organisms. Despite successes, the adoption of Bt crops has not been without controversy. Although there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding their detrimental effects, this controversy has created the widespread perception in some quarters that Bt crops are dangerous for the environment. In addition to discovery of more efficacious isolates and toxins, an increase in the use of Bt products and transgenes will rely on innovations in formulation, better delivery systems and ultimately, wider public acceptance of transgenic plants expressing insect-specific Bt toxins. Fungi are ubiquitous natural entomopathogens that often cause epizootics in host insects and possess many desirable traits that favor their development as MCAs. Presently, commercialized microbial pesticides based on entomopathogenic fungi largely occupy niche markets. A variety of molecular tools and technologies have recently allowed reclassification of numerous species based on phylogeny, as well as matching anamorphs (asexual forms) and teleomorphs (sexual forms) of several

  18. A baseline analysis of the distribution, host-range, and severity of the rust Puccinia Psidii in the Hawaiian islands, 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    westward. Although possibly present earlier, P. psidii was found in California in November 2005 in a nursery in San Diego County on Myrtus communis and documented by a report in a nursery newsletter (Mellano 2006). Puccinia psidii was first found in Hawai`i on a young plant of `ōhi`a (Metrosideros polymorpha) in April 2005, in a nursery on the island of O`ahu (Killgore and Heu 2005; Uchida et al. 2006). The fungus subsequently spread to most islands of the Hawaiian chain, infecting `ōhi`a and other myrtaceous hosts (Hauff 2006, Anderson et al. 2007). P. psidii was first found in Japan in May 2007 on cultivated `ōhi`a (Kawanishi et al. 2009). Most recently, a rust identified as Uredo rangelii was discovered in April 2010 in New South Wales, Australia (Carnegie et al. 2010). This rust is closely related to Puccinia psidii and is part of the guava rust complex described by Simpson et al. (2006). Although treated as a separate species by Simpson et al. (2006), many authors now consider U. rangelii a synonym for U. psidii, which is the anamorph (asexual stage) of P. psidii, and therefore, the same species (Glen et al. 2007, Carnegie et al. 2010). Because of the large diversity of native Myrtaceae present in Australia, the number of Myrtaceae hosts attacked by species of the guava rust complex will likely grow now that U. rangelii has arrived and is spreading in the country. As of this writing (June 2011), 94 species of Myrtaceae have been identified as hosts of U. rangelii in the states of New South Wales and Queensland. Damage is severe on nearly one-third of the species affected, and 16 of these species are threatened or endangered native species (Secretary of Australia, May 2011). The presence of Puccinia psidii in Hawai`i is particularly alarming for at least two reasons: (1) M. polymorpha is the dominant overstory tree of the native forest, and (2) P. psidii is now established in the Pacific region, where numerous Myrtaceae species are native. Native ecosystems in Hawai