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Sample records for anamorph trichoderma reesei

  1. Evolution and ecophysiology of the industrial producer Hypocrea jecorina (Anamorph Trichoderma reesei and a new sympatric agamospecies related to it.

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    Irina S Druzhinina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trichoderma reesei, a mitosporic green mould, was recognized during the WW II based on a single isolate from the Solomon Islands and since then used in industry for production of cellulases. It is believed to be an anamorph (asexual stage of the common pantropical ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined molecular evolutionary analysis and multiple methods of phenotype profiling in order to reveal the genetic relationship of T. reesei to H. jecorina. The resulting data show that the isolates which were previously identified as H. jecorina by means of morphophysiology and ITS1 and 2 (rRNA gene cluster barcode in fact comprise several species: i H. jecorina/T. reesei sensu stricto which contains most of the teleomorphs (sexual stages found on dead wood and the wild-type strain of T. reesei QM 6a; ii T. parareesei nom. prov., which contains all strains isolated as anamorphs from soil; iii and two other hypothetical new species for which only one or two isolates are available. In silico tests for recombination and in vitro mating experiments revealed a history of sexual reproduction for H. jecorina and confirmed clonality for T. parareesei nom. prov. Isolates of both species were consistently found worldwide in pantropical climatic zone. Ecophysiological comparison of H. jecorina and T. parareesei nom. prov. revealed striking differences in carbon source utilization, conidiation intensity, photosensitivity and mycoparasitism, thus suggesting adaptation to different ecological niches with the high opportunistic potential for T. parareesei nom. prov. CONCLUSIONS: Our data prove that T. reesei belongs to a holomorph H. jecorina and displays a history of worldwide gene flow. We also show that its nearest genetic neighbour--T. parareesei nom. prov., is a cryptic phylogenetic agamospecies which inhabits the same biogeographic zone. These two species thus provide a so far rare example of sympatric speciation

  2. Light-dependent roles of the G-protein α subunit GNA1 of Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei

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    Kubicek Christian P

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The filamentous ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei is primarily known for its efficient enzymatic machinery that it utilizes to decompose cellulosic substrates. Nevertheless, the nature and transmission of the signals initiating and modulating this machinery are largely unknown. Heterotrimeric G-protein signaling represents one of the best studied signal transduction pathways in fungi. Results Analysis of the regulatory targets of the G-protein α subunit GNA1 in H. jecorina revealed a carbon source and light-dependent role in signal transduction. Deletion of gna1 led to significantly decreased biomass formation in darkness in submersed culture but had only minor effects on morphology and hyphal apical extension rates on solid medium. Cellulase gene transcription was abolished in Δgna1 on cellulose in light and enhanced in darkness. However, analysis of strains expressing a constitutively activated GNA1 revealed that GNA1 does not transmit the essential inducing signal. Instead, it relates a modulating signal with light-dependent significance, since induction still required the presence of an inducer. We show that regulation of transcription and activity of GNA1 involves a carbon source-dependent feedback cycle. Additionally we found a function of GNA1 in hydrophobin regulation as well as effects on conidiation and tolerance of osmotic and oxidative stress. Conclusion We conclude that GNA1 transmits a signal the physiological relevance of which is dependent on both the carbon source as well as the light status. The widespread consequences of mutations in GNA1 indicate a broad function of this Gα subunit in appropriation of intracellular resources to environmental (especially nutritional conditions.

  3. 77 FR 35331 - Trichoderma reesei; Proposed Significant New Use Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Trichoderma reesei; Proposed Significant New Use Rule AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Control Act (TSCA) for the genetically modified microorganism identified generically as Trichoderma reesei...: Trichoderma reesei (MCAN J-10-2) (generic). Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: Not available...

  4. Immobilization of Trichoderma reesei by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ruimin; Ma Zueteh; Kaetus, Isao; Kumakura, Minoro

    1993-01-01

    Immobilization of Trichoderma reesei was carried out by radiation polymerization. It was found that the activity of fixed cells increased with increasing surface area of the carrier and was affected by the concentration of monomer tetraethylenglycol dimethacrylate and the shape of the substrate composition and structure of cotton textile fabrics. (author)

  5. Space mutagenic effect of Trichoderma reesei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xingshan; Zhou Fengzheng; Huang Xiaoguang; Kuang Zheshi; Pan Mushui; Li Guoli; Guo Yong

    2005-01-01

    The slant mycelia cultured with or without mutagenic agent diethyl sulfate (DS) and spores of Trichoderma reesei were loaded in the 18th returning satellite. Systematical screening showed that the life cycle and morphology of some strains had changed after space flight. After selection and domestication, 3 mutant strains with high cellulose enzyme activity were isolated. The cellulose enzyme productivities of the mutants were significantly increased more than 50%, and the mutant were generically stable. (authors)

  6. Production of cellulase from immobilized Trichoderma reesei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Noboru; Tamada, Masao; Kumakura, Minoru

    1989-05-01

    This report completed the results that obtained on the study of the enzyme activity in the culture of immobilized Trichoderma reesei cells in flask scale (100ml) and bench scale (30l). In the flask scale culture, the batch and repeated batch culture were carried out, and in the bench scale culture, the batch, repeated batch and continuous culture were done by using a culture equipment that is an unit process of the bench scale test plant for saccharification of cellulosic wastes. The enzyme activity of the immobilized cells was higher than that of the intact cells in the flask scale culture and it was confirmed that the enzyme activity was not decreased on the repeated batch culture of six times even. In the bench scale culture, it was found that a optimum culture condition of the immobilized cells was not different from that of the free cells and the immobilized cells gave the enzyme solution with a high enzyme activity in the culture condition of 450rpm stirring speed and air supply of 0.1v/v/m above. The technique of the repeated batch and continuous culture for long times in bench scale without contamination was established. The enzyme activity of the immobilized cells in continuous culture became to be 85 % to that in batch culture and it was found that the enzyme solution with high enzyme activity was continuously obtained in the continuous culture for long times. (author)

  7. Effect of physical treatment on Trichoderma reesei cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of physical treatment such as freezing and gamma-ray irradiation on Trichoderma reesei cells was studied. The decrease phenomena of cellulase production, which was observed in the culture of the cells using wheat bran extract, was improved by physical treatment. (author)

  8. Immobilization of Trichoderma reesei cells by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1983-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei cells were immobilized by radiation polymerization 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate monomer at low temperature. Cellulase production resulting from the growth of the cells in the porous polymer matrix of immobilized cell composites was confirmed by measuring the cellulase activity and pH during the culture. (orig.)

  9. A rapid, one step molecular identification of Trichoderma citrinoviride and Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroj, Dina B; Dengeti, Shrinivas N; Aher, Supriya; Gupta, Anil K

    2015-06-01

    Trichoderma species are widely used as production hosts for industrial enzymes. Identification of Trichoderma species requires a complex molecular biology based identification involving amplification and sequencing of multiple genes. Industrial laboratories are required to run identification tests repeatedly in cell banking procedures and also to prove absence of production host in the product. Such demands can be fulfilled by a brief method which enables confirmation of strain identity. This communication describes one step identification method for two common Trichoderma species; T. citrinoviride and T. reesei, based on identification of polymorphic region in the nucleotide sequence of translation elongation factor 1 alpha. A unique forward primer and common reverse primer resulted in 153 and 139 bp amplicon for T. citrinoviride and T. reesei, respectively. Simplification was further introduced by using mycelium as template for PCR amplification. Method described in this communication allows rapid, one step identification of two Trichoderma species.

  10. Genetic engineering of Trichoderma reesei cellulases and their production.

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    Druzhinina, Irina S; Kubicek, Christian P

    2017-11-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass, which mainly consists of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, is the most abundant renewable source for production of biofuel and biorefinery products. The industrial use of plant biomass involves mechanical milling or chipping, followed by chemical or physicochemical pretreatment steps to make the material more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis. Thereby the cost of enzyme production still presents the major bottleneck, mostly because some of the produced enzymes have low catalytic activity under industrial conditions and/or because the rate of hydrolysis of some enzymes in the secreted enzyme mixture is limiting. Almost all of the lignocellulolytic enzyme cocktails needed for the hydrolysis step are produced by fermentation of the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (Hypocreales). For this reason, the structure and mechanism of the enzymes involved, the regulation of their expression and the pathways of their formation and secretion have been investigated in T. reesei in considerable details. Several of the findings thereby obtained have been used to improve the formation of the T. reesei cellulases and their properties. In this article, we will review the achievements that have already been made and also show promising fields for further progress. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Quantitative site-specific phosphoproteomics of Trichoderma reesei signaling pathways upon induction of hydrolytic enzyme production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, E.V.; Imanishi, S.Y.; Haapaniemi, P.; Yadav, A.; Saloheimo, M.; Corthals, G.L.; Pakula, T.M.

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is used for industrial production of secreted enzymes including carbohydrate active enzymes, such as cellulases and hemicellulases. The production of many of these enzymes by T. reesei is influenced by the carbon source it grows on, where the regulation

  12. A novel platform for heterologous gene expression in Trichoderma reesei (Teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning; Skovlund, Dominique Aubert; Johannesen, Pia Francke

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The industrially applied filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei has received substantial interest due to its highly efficient synthesis apparatus of cellulytic enzymes. However, the production of heterologous enzymes in T. reesei still remains low mainly due to lack of tools...

  13. Biotransformation of Geniposide into Genipin by Immobilized Trichoderma reesei and Conformational Study of Genipin

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    Yishun Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma reesei QM9414, Trichoderma viride 3.316, Aspergillus niger M85, and Aspergillus niger M92 were screened for hydrolyzing geniposide into genipin. T. reesei was selected according to the β-glucosidase activity of the fermentation broths using geniposide as a substrate. T. reesei was immobilized by embedding method using sodium alginate as the carrier. Geniposide was hydrolyzed by immobilized T. reesei at 28°C (200 rpm for 34 h, and the yield of genipin was 89%. The product was purified and identified by UV, IR, EIMS, and 1H-NMR. Since there were two sets of signals in 1H-NMR spectra, a series of experiments were performed and verified that the existence of two conformations was the main reason. Generally, biotransformation of geniposide into genipin by immobilized T. reesei provides a promising solution to the genipin production.

  14. Linking Hydrolysis Performance to Trichoderma reesei Cellulolytic Enzyme Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Petersen, Nanna; I. Jørgensen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei expresses a large number of enzymes involved in lignocellulose hydrolysis and the mechanism of how these enzymes work together is too complex to study by traditional methods, e.g. by spiking with single enzymes and monitoring hydrolysis performance. In this study a multivariate...... approach, partial least squares regression, was used to see if it could help explain the correlation between enzyme profile and hydrolysis performance. Diverse enzyme mixtures were produced by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 by exploiting various fermentation conditions and used for hydrolysis of washed...

  15. Xylanase XYN IV from Trichoderma reesei showing exo- and endo-xylanase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel xylanase from Trichoderma reesei Rut C30, named XYN IV, was purified from the cellulolytic system of the fungus. The enzyme was discovered on its ability to attack aldotetraohexenuronic acid (HexA-2Xyl-4Xyl-4Xyl, HexA3Xyl3), releasing the reducing-end xylose residue. XYN IV exhibited catalyt...

  16. Evaluation of minimal Trichoderma reesei cellulase mixtures on differently pretreated barley straw substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Langston, Jim

    2007-01-01

    The commercial cellulase product Celluclast 1.5, derived from Trichoderma reesei (Novozymes A/S, Bagsv ae rd, Denmark), is widely employed for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. This enzyme preparation contains a broad spectrum of cellulolytic enzyme activities, most notably...

  17. Evaluation of Minimal Trichoderma reesei Cellulase Mixtures on Differently Pretreated Barley Straw Substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Langston, J

    2007-01-01

    The commercial cellulase product Celluclast 1.5, derived from Trichoderma reesei (Novozymes A/S, Bagsv ae rd, Denmark), is widely employed for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. This enzyme preparation contains a broad spectrum of cellulolytic enzyme activities, most notably...

  18. Safety evaluation of β-glucanase derived from Trichoderma reesei: Summary of toxicological data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, T.M.M.; Schoenmakers, A.C.M.; Verhagen, H.

    1995-01-01

    Barlican, a β-glucanase enzyme obtained from Trichoderma reesei, was produced by a fermentation process and subjected to a series of toxicological tests to document its safety for use as a feed additive. The enzyme product was examined for general oral toxicity, inhalation toxicity, irritation to

  19. Secretome data from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated in submerged and sequential fermentation methods

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    Camila Florencio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation procedure and the fungal strain applied for enzyme production may influence levels and profile of the proteins produced. The proteomic analysis data presented here provide critical information to compare proteins secreted by Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger when cultivated through submerged and sequential fermentation processes, using steam-explosion sugarcane bagasse as inducer for enzyme production. The proteins were organized according to the families described in CAZy database as cellulases, hemicellulases, proteases/peptidases, cell-wall-protein, lipases, others (catalase, esterase, etc., glycoside hydrolases families, predicted and hypothetical proteins. Further detailed analysis of this data is provided in “Secretome analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated by submerged and sequential fermentation process: enzyme production for sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis” C. Florencio, F.M. Cunha, A.C Badino, C.S. Farinas, E. Ximenes, M.R. Ladisch (2016 [1]. Keywords: Tricoderma reesei, Aspergillus Niger, Enzyme Production, Secretome

  20. Identification of microRNA-Like RNAs in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei by solexa sequencing.

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    Kang Kang

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs capable of negatively regulating gene expression. Recently, microRNA-like small RNAs (milRNAs were discovered in several filamentous fungi but not yet in Trichoderma reesei, an industrial filamentous fungus that can secrete abundant hydrolases. To explore the presence of milRNA in T. reesei and evaluate their expression under induction of cellulose, two T. reesei sRNA libraries of cellulose induction (IN and non-induction (CON were generated and sequenced using Solexa sequencing technology. A total of 726 and 631 sRNAs were obtained from the IN and CON samples, respectively. Global expression analysis showed an extensively differential expression of sRNAs in T. reesei under the two conditions. Thirteen predicted milRNAs were identified in T. reesei based on the short hairpin structure analysis. The milRNA profiles obtained in deep sequencing were further validated by RT-qPCR assay. Computational analysis predicted a number of potential targets relating to many processes including regulation of enzyme expression. The presence and differential expression of T. reesei milRNAs imply that milRNA might play a role in T. reesei growth and cellulase induction. This work lays foundation for further functional study of fungal milRNAs and their industrial application.

  1. Roles of Protein Kinase A and Adenylate Cyclase in Light-Modulated Cellulase Regulation in Trichoderma reesei

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    Schuster, André; Tisch, Doris; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2012-01-01

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP) pathway represents a central signaling cascade with crucial functions in all organisms. Previous studies of Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina) suggested a function of cAMP signaling in regulation of cellulase gene expression. We were therefore interested in how the crucial components of this pathway, adenylate cyclase (ACY1) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), would affect cellulase gene expression. We found that both ACY1 and PKA catalytic subunit 1 (PKAC1) are involved in regulation of vegetative growth but are not essential for sexual development. Interestingly, our results showed considerably increased transcript abundance of cellulase genes in darkness compared to light (light responsiveness) upon growth on lactose. This effect is strongly enhanced in mutant strains lacking PKAC1 or ACY1. Comparison to the wild type showed that ACY1 has a consistently positive effect on cellulase gene expression in light and darkness, while PKAC1 influences transcript levels of cellulase genes positively in light but negatively in darkness. A function of PKAC1 in light-modulated cellulase gene regulation is also reflected by altered complex formation within the cel6a/cbh2 promoter in light and darkness and in the absence of pkac1. Analysis of transcript levels of cellulase regulator genes indicates that the regulatory output of the cAMP pathway may be established via adjustment of XYR1 abundance. Consequently, both adenylate cyclase and protein kinase A are involved in light-modulated cellulase gene expression in T. reesei and have a dampening effect on the light responsiveness of this process. PMID:22286997

  2. Enzymatic activity of the cellulolytic complex produced by Trichoderma reesei. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose; Actividad enzimatica del complejo celulolitico producido por Trichoderma reesei. Hidrolisis enzimatica de la celulosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonsel, M; Negro, M J; Saez, R; Martin, C

    1986-07-01

    The enzymatic activity characterization of the cellulolytic complex obtained from Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 and the influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions on the hydrolysis yield are studied. Pure cellulose and native or alkali pretreated biomass Onopordum nervosum have been used as substrates. The values of pH, temperature, substrate concentration and enzyme-substrate ratio for the optimum activity of that complex, evaluated as glucose and reducing sugars production, have been selected. Previous studies on enzymatic hydrolysis of 0. nervosum have shown a remarkable effect of the alkaline pretreatments on the final hydrolysis yield. (Author) 10 refs.

  3. Enzyme production in immobilized Trichoderma reesei cells with hydrophobic polymers prepared by radiation polymerization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzhao Xin; Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao

    1993-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei cells were immobilized on paper covered with hydrophobic monomer, trimethylpropane triacrylate by radiation polymerization. The effect of immobilization condition on enzyme productivity was studied by measuring filter paper and cellobiose activity. The cells were adhered and grew on the surface of the carrier with the polymer giving high enzyme productivity in the immobilized cells in comparison with the free cells. Optimum concentration and volume of the coating monomer for the preparation of the immobilized cells were obtained. (author)

  4. Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on cellulase secretion of Trichoderma reesei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamada, M.; Kasai, N.; Kaetsu, I.

    1987-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei was irradiated with gamma rays to investigate the effects of different dosages on cellulase production. Doses above 0.7 kGy induced cell lysis. Cell growth began to be obstructed at 2.0 kGy. As a result, the cells irradiated at 2.0 kGy secreted 1.8 times as much cellulase as the untreated cells

  5. Origin of initial burst in activity for Trichoderma reesei endo-glucanases hydrolyzing insoluble cellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, Leigh; Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Baumann, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    by the three main EGs from Trichoderma reesei (Tr): TrCel7B (formerly EG I), TrCel5A (EG II), and TrCel12A (EG III). These endo-glucanases show a distinctive initial burst with a maximal rate that is about 5-fold higher than the rate after 5 min of hydrolysis. The burst is particularly conspicuous for TrCel7B...

  6. The intracellular galactoglycome in Trichoderma reesei during growth on lactose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaffa, L.; Coulier, L.; Fekete, E.; Overkamp, K.M.; Druzhinina, I.S.; Mikus, M.; Seiboth, B.; Novák, L.; Punt, P.J.; Kubicek, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    Lactose (1,4-0-β-d-galactopyranosyl-d-glucose) is used as a soluble carbon source for the production of cellulases and hemicellulases for - among other purposes - use in biofuel and biorefinery industries. The mechanism how lactose induces cellulase formation in T. reesei is enigmatic, however.

  7. Constitutive cellulase production from glucose using the recombinant Trichoderma reesei strain overexpressing an artificial transcription activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyue; Li, Yonghao; Zhao, Xinqing; Bai, Fengwu

    2017-01-01

    The high cost of cellulase production presents biggest challenge in biomass deconstruction. Cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei using low cost carbon source is of great interest. In this study, an artificial transcription activator containing the Cre1 binding domain linked to the Xyr1 effector and binding domains was designed and constitutively overexpressed in T. reesei RUT C30. The recombinant strain T. reesei zxy-2 displayed constitutive cellulase production using glucose as a sole carbon source, and the production titer was 12.75-fold of that observed with T. reesei RUT C30 in shake flask culture. Moreover, FPase and xylanase titers of 2.63 and 108.72IU/mL, respectively, were achieved using glucose as sole carbon source within 48h in a 7-L fermenter by batch fermentation using T. reesei zxy-2. The crude enzyme obtained was used to hydrolyze alkali pretreated corn stover, and a high glucose yield of 99.18% was achieved. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Enzymatic hydrolyzing performance of Acremonium cellulolyticus and Trichoderma reesei against three lignocellulosic materials

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    Murakami Katsuji

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioethanol isolated from lignocellulosic biomass represents one of the most promising renewable and carbon neutral alternative liquid fuel sources. Enzymatic saccharification using cellulase has proven to be a useful method in the production of bioethanol. The filamentous fungi Acremonium cellulolyticus and Trichoderma reesei are known to be potential cellulase producers. In this study, we aimed to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of the cellulase enzymes derived from these fungi. Results We compared A. cellulolyticus and T. reesei cellulase activity against the three lignocellulosic materials: eucalyptus, Douglas fir and rice straw. Saccharification analysis using the supernatant from each culture demonstrated that the enzyme mixture derived from A. cellulolyticus exhibited 2-fold and 16-fold increases in Filter Paper enzyme and β-glucosidase specific activities, respectively, compared with that derived from T. reesei. In addition, culture supernatant from A. cellulolyticus produced glucose more rapidly from the lignocellulosic materials. Meanwhile, culture supernatant derived from T. reesei exhibited a 2-fold higher xylan-hydrolyzing activity and produced more xylose from eucalyptus (72% yield and rice straw (43% yield. Although the commercial enzymes Acremonium cellulase (derived from A. cellulolyticus, Meiji Seika Co. demonstrated a slightly lower cellulase specific activity than Accellerase 1000 (derived from T. reesei, Genencor, the glucose yield (over 65% from lignocellulosic materials by Acremonium cellulase was higher than that of Accellerase 1000 (less than 60%. In addition, the mannan-hydrolyzing activity of Acremonium cellulase was 16-fold higher than that of Accellerase 1000, and the conversion of mannan to mannobiose and mannose by Acremonium cellulase was more efficient. Conclusion We investigated the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials by cellulase derived from two types of filamentous fungi. We

  9. Peran Trichoderma reesei E. G Simmons pada Pengendalian Damping-Off Semai Cendana (Santalum Album Linn.

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    S. M. Widyastuti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The sandalwood seedling has been planted in the nursery of Balitbang Kehutanan NTT to experience the destruction is about 20%, seedling is attacked by  damping-off. Biological control has been developed as alternate method against soil born diseases to eliminate  damage  on the environment. One of  the biological  agents  having high  antagonistic potential against soil born pathogen is Trichoderma spp. The direction of experiment  to search the cause of lodoh on the sandalwood  seedling and the application influences T. reesei on the control lodoh in the sandalwood seedling. Methods  of  the experiment was (1 isolation the sandalwood seedling of  painful and soil example  from NTT, (2 Postulat Koch test on the sandalwood seedling, (3 antagonistic test of T.  reesei  in vitro and (4 effectiveness  test of T. reesei against developing patogen in vivo. The result indicated that lodoh on the sandalwood seedling caused by Fusarium sp. T. reesei in vitro inhibited Fusarium sp. at average of 100% accordingly. The application of T. reesei as biological control agent against Fusarium sp. showed high  effectivity. The attact percentage of lodoh on sandalwood seedlings showed that the lowest one was growth on compost formulated with T. reesei (5%, whereas seedlings growth on compost without T. reesei,  unsteril  sands and soil samples  from NTT were 30%, 35% and 65%.

  10. A ?-glucosidase hyper-production Trichoderma reesei mutant reveals a potential role of cel3D in cellulase production

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chengcheng; Lin, Fengming; Li, Yizhen; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hongyin; Qin, Lei; Zhou, Zhihua; Li, Bingzhi; Wu, Fugen; Chen, Zhan

    2016-01-01

    Background The conversion of cellulose by cellulase to fermentable sugars for biomass-based products such as cellulosic biofuels, biobased fine chemicals and medicines is an environment-friendly and sustainable process, making wastes profitable and bringing economic benefits. Trichoderma reesei is the well-known major workhorse for cellulase production in industry, but the low ?-glucosidase activity in T. reesei cellulase leads to inefficiency in biomass degradation and limits its industrial ...

  11. The putative protein methyltransferase LAE1 controls cellulase gene expression in Trichoderma reesei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiboth, Bernhard; Karimi, Razieh Aghcheh; Phatale, Pallavi A; Linke, Rita; Hartl, Lukas; Sauer, Dominik G; Smith, Kristina M; Baker, Scott E; Freitag, Michael; Kubicek, Christian P

    2012-01-01

    Summary Trichoderma reesei is an industrial producer of enzymes that degrade lignocellulosic polysaccharides to soluble monomers, which can be fermented to biofuels. Here we show that the expression of genes for lignocellulose degradation are controlled by the orthologous T. reesei protein methyltransferase LAE1. In a lae1 deletion mutant we observed a complete loss of expression of all seven cellulases, auxiliary factors for cellulose degradation, β-glucosidases and xylanases were no longer expressed. Conversely, enhanced expression of lae1 resulted in significantly increased cellulase gene transcription. Lae1-modulated cellulase gene expression was dependent on the function of the general cellulase regulator XYR1, but also xyr1 expression was LAE1-dependent. LAE1 was also essential for conidiation of T. reesei. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (‘ChIP-seq’) showed that lae1 expression was not obviously correlated with H3K4 di- or trimethylation (indicative of active transcription) or H3K9 trimethylation (typical for heterochromatin regions) in CAZyme coding regions, suggesting that LAE1 does not affect CAZyme gene expression by directly modulating H3K4 or H3K9 methylation. Our data demonstrate that the putative protein methyltransferase LAE1 is essential for cellulase gene expression in T. reesei through mechanisms that remain to be identified. PMID:22554051

  12. Examining the Potential of Plasma-Assisted Pretreated Wheat Straw for Enzyme Production by Trichoderma reesei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja

    2012-01-01

    Plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw was investigated for cellulase and xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei fermentation. Fermentations were conducted with media containing washed and unwashed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw as carbon source which was sterilized by autoclavation....... To account for any effects of autoclavation, a comparison was made with unsterilized media containing antibiotics. It was found that unsterilized washed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw (which contained antibiotics) was best suited for the production of xylanases (110 IU ml(-1)) and cellulases (0...... other nonrefined feedstocks suggests that plasma pretreated wheat straw is a promising and suitable substrate for cellulase and hemicellulase production....

  13. Production and characterization of cellulolytic enzymes from Trichoderma reesei grown on various carbon sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warzywoda, Michel; Labre, Elisabeth; Pourquie, Jacques [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1992-01-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosics is considered, using a process in which biomass is first pretreated by steam explosion, yielding freely water-extractible pentoses and a cellulose-rich residue which can be further hydrolyzed by cellulases into glucose to be fermented into ethanol. Results that are reported show that both the pentose extracts and the glucose-rich hydrolyzates can be used as carbon sources for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei. When compared with lactose as the main carbon source, pentose extracts support lower but satisfactory protein productions which are characterized by an increase in hemicellulolytic activities, which significantly improves the saccharifying potential of these enzyme preparations. (author).

  14. Enzymatic activity of the cellulolytic complex produced by Trichoderma reesei. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonsel J, M.; Negro A, M. J.; Saez A, R.; Martin M, C.

    1986-01-01

    The enzymatic activity characterization of the cellulolytic complex obtained from Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 and the influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions on the hydrolysis yield are studied. Pure cellulose and native or alkali pretreated biomass Onopordum nervosum have been used as substrates. The values of pH, temperature, substrate concentration and enzyme-substrate ratio for the optimum activity of that complex, evaluated as glucose and reducing sugars production, have been selected. Previous studies on enzymatic hydrolysis of 0. nervosum have shown a remarkable effect of the alkaline pretreatments on the final hydrolysis yield. (Author) 10 refs

  15. Interrelationships of VEL1 and ENV1 in light response and development in Trichoderma reesei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Bazafkan

    Full Text Available Sexual development is regulated by a complex regulatory mechanism in fungi. For Trichoderma reesei, the light response pathway was shown to impact sexual development, particularly through the photoreceptor ENVOY. Moreover, T. reesei communicates chemically with a potential mating partner in its vicinity, a response which is mediated by the velvet family protein VEL1 and its impact on secondary metabolism. We therefore studied the regulatory interactions of ENV1 and VEL1 with a focus on sexual development. Although individual mutants in both genes are female sterile under standard crossing conditions (light-dark cycles, an altered light regime enabled sexual development, which we found to be due to conditional female sterility of Δenv1, but not Δvel1. Phenotypes of growth and asexual sporulation as well as regulation of the peptide pheromone precursors of double mutants suggested that ENV1 and VEL1 balance positive and negative regulators of these functions. Additionally, VEL1 contributed to the strong deregulation of the pheromone system observed in env1 mutants. Female sterility of Δvel1 was rescued by deletion of env1 in darkness in MAT1-1, indicating a block of sexual development by ENV1 in darkness that is balanced by VEL1 in the wild-type. We conclude that ENV1 and VEL1 exert complementing functions in development of T. reesei. Our results further showed that the different developmental phenotypes of vel1/veA mutants in T. reesei and Aspergillus nidulans are not due to the presence or function of ENV1 in the VELVET regulatory pathway in T. reesei.

  16. Influence of rice straw polyphenols on cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Qin; Xue, Yiyun; Hu, Jiajun; Gao, Min-Tian

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we found that during cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei large amounts of polyphenols were released from rice straw when the latter was used as the carbon source. We identified and quantified the phenolic compounds in rice straw and investigated the effects of the phenolic compounds on cellulase production by T. reesei. The phenolic compounds of rice straw mainly consisted of phenolic acids and tannins. Coumaric acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) were the predominant phenolic acids, which inhibited cellulase production by T. reesei. When the concentrations of CA and FA in the broth increased to 0.06 g/L, cellulase activity decreased by 23% compared with that in the control culture. Even though the rice straw had a lower tannin than phenolic acid content, the tannins had a greater inhibitory effect than the phenolic acids on cellulase production by T. reesei. Tannin concentrations greater than 0.3 g/L completely inhibited cellulase production. Thus, phenolic compounds, especially tannins are the major inhibitors of cellulase production by T. reesei. Therefore, we studied the effects of pretreatments on the release of phenolic compounds. Ball milling played an important role in the release of FA and CA, and hot water extraction was highly efficient in removing tannins. By combining ball milling with extraction by water, the 2-fold higher cellulase activity than in the control culture was obtained. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding the Role of the Master Regulator XYR1 in Trichoderma reesei by Global Transcriptional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Castro, Lilian; de Paula, Renato G.; Antoniêto, Amanda C. C.; Persinoti, Gabriela F.; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Roberto N.

    2016-01-01

    We defined the role of the transcriptional factor—XYR1—in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei during cellulosic material degradation. In this regard, we performed a global transcriptome analysis using RNA-Seq of the Δxyr1 mutant strain of T. reesei compared with the parental strain QM9414 grown in the presence of cellulose, sophorose, and glucose as sole carbon sources. We found that 5885 genes were expressed differentially under the three tested carbon sources. Of these, 322 genes were upregulated in the presence of cellulose, while 367 and 188 were upregulated in sophorose and glucose, respectively. With respect to genes under the direct regulation of XYR1, 30 and 33 are exclusive to cellulose and sophorose, respectively. The most modulated genes in the Δxyr1 belong to Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes), transcription factors, and transporters families. Moreover, we highlight the downregulation of transporters belonging to the MFS and ABC transporter families. Of these, MFS members were mostly downregulated in the presence of cellulose. In sophorose and glucose, the expression of these transporters was mainly upregulated. Our results revealed that MFS and ABC transporters could be new players in cellulose degradation and their role was shown to be carbon source-dependent. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of XYR1 to control cellulase gene expression in T. reesei in the presence of cellulosic material, thereby potentially enhancing its application in several biotechnology fields. PMID:26909077

  18. Cellulase-poor xylanases produced by Trichoderma reesei RUT C-30 on hemicellulose substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamerith, G.; Groicher, R. (Lenzing AG (Austria). Dept. of Research and Development); Zeilinger, S.; Herzog, P.; Kubicek, C.P. (Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Abt. fuer Mikrobielle Biochemie)

    1992-12-01

    Hemicellulose components from industrial viscose fibre production are characterized by a lower cellulose content than commerical xylan and the pressence of a carboxylic acid fraction originating from the alkaline degradation of carbohydrates during the process. This substrate, after neutralization, can be used by Trichoderma reesei RUT C-30 for the production of cellulase-poor xylanases, useful for the pulp and paper industry. The yields of xylanase ranged up to almost 400 units/ml, with a ratio of carboxymethylcellulase/xylanase of less than 0.015. This crude xylanase enzyme mixture was shown to be superior to that obtained on beech-wood xylan when used for bleaching and, particularly, upgrading of hard-wood chemical pulp by selective removal of the xylan components. Biochemical studies indicate that the low cellulase production by T. reesei grown on these waste hemicelluloses is the result of a combination of at least three factors: (a) The comparatively low content of cellulose in these hemicellulosic wastes, (b) the inhibitory action of the carboxylic acid fraction present in the hemicellulosic wastes on growth and sporulation of T. reesei, and (c) the use of a mycelial inoculum that is unable to initiate the atack on the cellulose components within the carbon source. (orig.).

  19. Generation of a glucose de-repressed mutant of Trichoderma reesei using disparity mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakuma, Hidekazu; Koyama, Yoshiyuki; Miyachi, Ayako; Nasukawa, Masashi; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Yano, Shuntaro; Ogihara, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    We obtained a novel glucose de-repressed mutant of Trichoderma reesei using disparity mutagenesis. A plasmid containing DNA polymerase δ lacking proofreading activity, and AMAI, an autonomously replicating sequence was introduced into T. reesei ATCC66589. The rate of mutation evaluated with 5-fluoroorotic acid resistance was approximately 30-fold higher than that obtained by UV irradiation. The transformants harboring incompetent DNA polymerase δ were then selected on 2-deoxyglucose agar plates with hygromycin B. The pNP-lactoside hydrolyzing activities of mutants were 2 to 5-fold higher than the parent in liquid medium containing glucose. Notably, the amino acid sequence of cre1, a key gene involved in glucose repression, was identical in the mutant and parent strains, and further, the cre1 expression levels was not abolished in the mutant. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the strains of T. reesei generated by disparity mutagenesis are glucose de-repressed variants that contain mutations in yet-unidentified factors other than cre1.

  20. Production of Recombinant Trichoderma reesei Cellobiohydrolase II in a New Expression System Based on Wickerhamomyces anomalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rincón, Dennis J.; Duque, Ivonne; Osorio, Erika; Rodríguez-López, Alexander; Espejo-Mojica, Angela; Parra-Giraldo, Claudia M.

    2017-01-01

    Cellulase is a family of at least three groups of enzymes that participate in the sequential hydrolysis of cellulose. Recombinant expression of cellulases might allow reducing their production times and increasing the low proteins concentrations obtained with filamentous fungi. In this study, we describe the production of Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase II (CBHII) in a native strain of Wickerhamomyces anomalus. Recombinant CBHII was expressed in W. anomalus 54-A reaching enzyme activity values of up to 14.5 U L−1. The enzyme extract showed optimum pH and temperature of 5.0–6.0 and 40°C, respectively. Enzyme kinetic parameters (KM of 2.73 mM and Vmax of 23.1 µM min−1) were between the ranges of values reported for other CBHII enzymes. Finally, the results showed that an enzymatic extract of W. anomalus 54-A carrying the recombinant T. reesei CBHII allows production of reducing sugars similar to that of a crude extract from cellulolytic fungi. These results show the first report on the use of W. anomalus as a host to produce recombinant proteins. In addition, recombinant T. reesei CBHII enzyme could potentially be used in the degradation of lignocellulosic residues to produce bioethanol, based on its pH and temperature activity profile. PMID:28951785

  1. Production of Recombinant Trichoderma reesei Cellobiohydrolase II in a New Expression System Based on Wickerhamomyces anomalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Díaz-Rincón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulase is a family of at least three groups of enzymes that participate in the sequential hydrolysis of cellulose. Recombinant expression of cellulases might allow reducing their production times and increasing the low proteins concentrations obtained with filamentous fungi. In this study, we describe the production of Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase II (CBHII in a native strain of Wickerhamomyces anomalus. Recombinant CBHII was expressed in W. anomalus 54-A reaching enzyme activity values of up to 14.5 U L−1. The enzyme extract showed optimum pH and temperature of 5.0–6.0 and 40°C, respectively. Enzyme kinetic parameters (KM of 2.73 mM and Vmax of 23.1 µM min−1 were between the ranges of values reported for other CBHII enzymes. Finally, the results showed that an enzymatic extract of W. anomalus 54-A carrying the recombinant T. reesei CBHII allows production of reducing sugars similar to that of a crude extract from cellulolytic fungi. These results show the first report on the use of W. anomalus as a host to produce recombinant proteins. In addition, recombinant T. reesei CBHII enzyme could potentially be used in the degradation of lignocellulosic residues to produce bioethanol, based on its pH and temperature activity profile.

  2. Purification and Characterization of β-1,3-Glucanase from the Antagonistic Fungus Trichoderma reesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI WAHYUNI BUDIARTI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma enzymes that inhibit fungal cell walls have been suggested to play an important role in mycoparasitic action against fungal root rot pathogen Ganoderma philippii. This experiment was aimed to purify and characterize the β-1,3-glucanase of T. reesei. Extracellular β-1,3-glucanase was produced by growing mycoparasite T. reesei isolate T13 in colloidal chitin and sucrose as carbon sources. The enzyme was then purified to its homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, followed by gel filtration chromatography and chromatofocusing. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE 12% was used to confirm the purity of enzyme at each stage of preparation and to characterize purified protein. The results showed that T. reesei produced at least three extracellular β-1,3-glucanases. Estimation of molecular weight based on SDS-PAGE 12% have three isoform of β-1,3-glucanase were 90 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-I, 75 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-II, and 64 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-III. Their optimum pH and temperature were 5 and 50 oC, respectively.

  3. Regulation of the cellulolytic system in Trichoderma reesei by sophorose: induction of cellulase and repression of beta-glucosidase.

    OpenAIRE

    Sternberg, D; Mandels, G R

    1980-01-01

    Sophorose has two regulatory roles in the production of cellulase enzymes in Trichoderma reesei: beta-glucosidase repression and cellulase induction. Sophorose also is hydrolyzed by the mycelial-associated beta-glucosidase. Repression of beta-glucosidase reduces sophorose hydrolysis and thus may increase cellulase induction.

  4. Regulation of transcription of cellulases- and hemicellulases-encoding genes in Aspergillus niger and Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stricker, A.R.; Mach, R.L.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2008-01-01

    The filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger and Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) have been the subject of many studies investigating the mechanism of transcriptional regulation of hemicellulase- and cellulase-encoding genes. The transcriptional regulator XlnR that was initially identified in A.

  5. Enhancing saccharification of wheat straw by mixing enzymes from genetically-modified Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Yanping; Duarte, Alexandra Vivas; van Den Brink, Joost; Wiebenga, Ad; Zou, Gen; Wang, Chengshu; de Vries, Ronald P.; Zhou, Zhihua; Benoit, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To increase the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis for plant biomass conversion into renewable biofuel and chemicals. Results: By overexpressing the point mutation A824 V transcriptional activator Xyr1 in Trichoderma reesei, carboxymethyl cellulase, cellobiosidase and β-d-glucosidase

  6. Enhancing saccharification of wheat straw by mixing enzymes from genetically-modified Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Yanping; Duarte, Alexandra Vivas; van den Brink, Joost; Wiebenga, Ad; Zou, Gen; Wang, Chengshu; de Vries, Ronald P; Zhou, Zhihua; Benoit, Isabelle

    OBJECTIVES: To increase the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis for plant biomass conversion into renewable biofuel and chemicals. RESULTS: By overexpressing the point mutation A824 V transcriptional activator Xyr1 in Trichoderma reesei, carboxymethyl cellulase, cellobiosidase and β-D-glucosidase

  7. Influence of the carbon source on production of cellulases, hemicellulases and pectinases by Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Lisbeth; Christensen, T.M.I.E.; Hansen, K.P.

    2003-01-01

    The growth and enzyme production by Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 using different lignocellulosic materials as carbon source were investigated. Cellulose, sugar beet pulp and alkaline extracted sugar beet pulp (resulting in partial removal of hemicellulose, lignin and pectin) or mixtures thereof were...

  8. ARA1 regulates not only l-arabinose but also d-galactose catabolism in Trichoderma reesei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benocci, Tiziano; Aguilar-Pontes, Maria Victoria; Kun, Roland Sándor; Seiboth, Bernhard; de Vries, Ronald P; Daly, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei is used to produce saccharifying enzyme cocktails for biofuels. There is limited understanding of the transcription factors (TFs) that regulate genes involved in release and catabolism of l-arabinose and d-galactose, as the main TF XYR1 is only partially involved. Here, the T.

  9. Oxidative cleavage and hydrolytic boosting of cellulose in soybean spent flakes by Trichoderma reesei Cel61A lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierce, Brian; Wittrup Agger, Jane; Wichmann, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The auxiliary activity family 9 (AA9) copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) from Trichoderma reesei (EG4; TrCel61A) was investigated for its ability to oxidize the complex polysaccharides from soybean. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was assessed against a variety of ...

  10. Comparison between the cellulase systems of Trichoderma harzianum E58 and Trichoderma reesei C30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saddler, J.N.; Hogan, C.M.; Louis-Seize, G.

    1985-06-01

    Nearly all of the filter paper, endoglucanase and ..beta..-glucosidase activities of T. harzianum E58 were located extracellularly, with low amounts of these activities detected in the cell extracts and relatively little associated with the cell wall. Most of the filter paper and endoglucanase activities of T. reesei C30 were detected extracellularly. The half lives of the different cellulase activities were assayed at various temperatures over a period of time. When the pH of the filtrate was adjusted to 4.8, the cellulase activities were considerably enhanced, with the average half-life at 50/sup 0/C extended to 25 hrs. When various lignocellulosic substrates were hydrolyzed by T. harzianum E58 cellulases approximately 90% of the reducing sugars were present as glucose while 50 - 60% of the reducing sugars were detected as glucose when T. reesei C30 cellulases were used.

  11. Disruption of Trichoderma reesei cre2, encoding an ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase, results in increased cellulase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) is an important source of cellulases for use in the textile and alternative fuel industries. To fully understand the regulation of cellulase production in T. reesei, the role of a gene known to be involved in carbon regulation in Aspergillus nidulans, but unstudied in T. reesei, was investigated. Results The T. reesei orthologue of the A. nidulans creB gene, designated cre2, was identified and shown to be functional through heterologous complementation of a creB mutation in A. nidulans. A T. reesei strain was constructed using gene disruption techniques that contained a disrupted cre2 gene. This strain, JKTR2-6, exhibited phenotypes similar to the A. nidulans creB mutant strain both in carbon catabolite repressing, and in carbon catabolite derepressing conditions. Importantly, the disruption also led to elevated cellulase levels. Conclusions These results demonstrate that cre2 is involved in cellulase expression. Since the disruption of cre2 increases the amount of cellulase activity, without severe morphological affects, targeting creB orthologues for disruption in other industrially useful filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum or Aspergillus niger may also lead to elevated hydrolytic enzyme activity in these species. PMID:22070776

  12. Disruption of Trichoderma reesei cre2, encoding an ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase, results in increased cellulase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denton Jai A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina is an important source of cellulases for use in the textile and alternative fuel industries. To fully understand the regulation of cellulase production in T. reesei, the role of a gene known to be involved in carbon regulation in Aspergillus nidulans, but unstudied in T. reesei, was investigated. Results The T. reesei orthologue of the A. nidulans creB gene, designated cre2, was identified and shown to be functional through heterologous complementation of a creB mutation in A. nidulans. A T. reesei strain was constructed using gene disruption techniques that contained a disrupted cre2 gene. This strain, JKTR2-6, exhibited phenotypes similar to the A. nidulans creB mutant strain both in carbon catabolite repressing, and in carbon catabolite derepressing conditions. Importantly, the disruption also led to elevated cellulase levels. Conclusions These results demonstrate that cre2 is involved in cellulase expression. Since the disruption of cre2 increases the amount of cellulase activity, without severe morphological affects, targeting creB orthologues for disruption in other industrially useful filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum or Aspergillus niger may also lead to elevated hydrolytic enzyme activity in these species.

  13. Truncation of a mannanase from Trichoderma harzianum improves its enzymatic properties and expression efficiency in Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Zeng, Desheng; Liu, Gang; Wang, Shaowen; Yu, Shaowen

    2014-01-01

    To obtain high expression efficiency of a mannanase gene, ThMan5A, cloned from Trichoderma harzianum MGQ2, both the full-length gene and a truncated gene (ThMan5AΔCBM) that contains only the catalytic domain, were expressed in Trichoderma reesei QM9414 using the strong constitutive promoter of the gene encoding pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc), and purified to homogeneity, respectively. We found that truncation of the gene improved its expression efficiency as well as the enzymatic properties of the encoded protein. The recombinant strain expressing ThMan5AΔCBM produced 2,460 ± 45.1 U/ml of mannanase activity in the culture supernatant; 2.3-fold higher than when expressing the full-length ThMan5A gene. In addition, the truncated mannanase had superior thermostability compared with the full-length enzyme and retained 100 % of its activity after incubation at 60 °C for 48 h. Our results clearly show that the truncated ThMan5A enzyme exhibited improved characteristics both in expression efficiency and in its thermal stability. These characteristics suggest that ThMan5AΔCBM has potential applications in the food, feed, paper, and pulp industries.

  14. Kinetics of cellobiose hydrolysis using cellobiase composites from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grous, W.; Converse, A.; Grethlein, H.; Lynd, L.

    1985-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose involves the formation of cellobiose as an intermediate. It has been found necessary to add cellobiase from Aspergillus niger (NOVO) to the cellobiase component of Trichoderma reesei mutant Rut C-30 (Natick) cellulase enzymes in order to obtain after 48 h complete conversion of the cellobiose formed in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. This study of the cellobiase activity of these two enzyme sources was undertaken as a first step in the formation of a kinetic model for cellulose hydrolysis that can be used in process design. In order to cover the full range of cellobiose concentrations, it was necessary to develop separate kinetic parameters for high- and low-concentration ranges of cellobiose for the enzymes from each organism. Competitive glucose inhibition was observed with the enzymes from both organisms. Substrate inhibition was observed only with the A. niger enzymes.

  15. Nutrient control for stationary phase cellulase production in Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callow, Nicholas V; Ray, Christopher S; Kelbly, Matthew A; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the use of nutrient limitations with Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 to obtain a prolonged stationary phase cellulase production. This period of non-growth may allow for dependable cellulase production, extended fermentation periods, and the possibility to use pellet morphology for easy product separation. Phosphorus limitation was successful in halting growth and had a corresponding specific cellulase production of 5±2 FPU/g-h. Combined with the addition of Triton X-100 for fungal pellet formation and low shear conditions, a stationary phase cellulase production period in excess of 300 h was achieved, with a constant enzyme production rate of 7±1 FPU/g-h. While nitrogen limitation was also effective as a growth limiter, it, however, also prevented cellulase production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Is an organic nitrogen source needed for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Hobley, Timothy John

    2013-01-01

    The effect of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources on Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 cellulase production was investigated in submerged cultivations. Stirred tank bioreactors and shake flasks, with and without pH control, respectively, were employed. The experimental design involved the addition...... of individual organic nitrogen sources (soy peptone, glutamate, glycine and alanine) within a basal medium containing Avicel (i.e. micro crystalline cellulose) and ammonium sulphate. It was found that in the shake flask experiments, the highest cellulase activities (~0.1 ± 0.02 FPU ml−1) were obtained...... with media containing soy peptone (3–6 g l−1) and glutamate (3.6 g l−1). However, these improvements in the cellulase titers in the presence of the organic nitrogen sources appeared to be related to smaller changes in the pH of the medium. This was confirmed using stirred tank bioreactors with pH control...

  17. Immobilization of trichoderma REESEI (QM 9414) cells with paper covered with ionic copolymer by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhaoxin

    1992-01-01

    Cationic-hydrophobic copolymer and anionic-hydrophobic copolymer was covered onto surface of paper by radiation polymerization. The paper covered with ionic copolymer was used as carrier of immobilizing Trichoderma reesei cells. Results showed that the cells were immobilized firmly on the carriers and not dislocated from the carriers by shaking. All of FPA of the cells immobilized with the carriers covered with cationic copolymer were higher than that of un-immobilized free cells. The carriers covered with anionic copolymer showed good effect on immobilization of the cells. The weight of immobilized cells increase as increasing the component of DEAEMA in poly (DEAEMA-ATMPT) or decreasing the component of AA in poly (AA-ATMPT). It also increase with the increase of water absorption in poly (DEAEMA-ATMPT) or decrease of water absorption in poly (AA-ATMPT). It shows the static interaction play an important role in the immobilization of cells with ionic copolymer materials

  18. Dose-dependency of radiation on enzyme production in Trichoderma reesei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, Minoru

    1993-01-01

    Effect of irradiation dose on the production of cellulase and amylase related enzymes in Trichoderma reesei was studied in which post-irradiation time response pattern was measured. The damage of the cells irradiated with certain irradiation doses (1.40±0.20x10 5 , 2.20±0.10x10 5 , 3.00±0.50x10 5 and 3.50±0.20x10 5 rad) was rapidly recovered. The increased enzyme production in the culture of the irradiated cells resulted from the recovery of radiation damage after irradiation. The function of cell growth was not affected by irradiation below dose of 5x10 5 rad, though the function of enzyme synthesis was drastically affected. (orig.)

  19. Enhanced cellulase production from Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 by engineering with an artificial zinc finger protein library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Xinqing

    2016-10-01

    Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 is a well-known cellulase producer, and improvement of its cellulase production is of great interest. An artificial zinc finger protein (AZFP) library is constructed for expression in T. reesei Rut-C30, and a mutant strain T. reesei U3 is selected based on its enhanced cellulase production. The U3 mutant shows a 55% rise in filter paper activity and 8.1-fold increased β-glucosidase activity, when compared to the native strain T. reesei Rut-C30. It is demonstrated that enhanced β-glucosidase activity was due to elevated transcription level of β-glucosidase gene in the U3 mutant. Moreover, significant elevation in transcription levels of several putative Azfp-U3 target genes is detected in the U3 mutant, including genes encoding hypothetical transcription factors and a putative glycoside hydrolase. Furthermore, U3 cellulase shows 115% higher glucose yield from pretreated corn stover, when compared to the cellulase of T. reesei Rut-C30. These results demonstrate that AZFP can be used to improve cellulase production in T. reesei Rut-C30. Our current work offers the establishment of an alternative strategy to develop fungal cell factories for improved production of high value industrial products. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Regulation of cellulase expression, sporulation, and morphogenesis by velvet family proteins in Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuimei; Dong, Yanmei; Wang, Fangzhong; Jiang, Baojie; Wang, Mingyu; Fang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Homologs of the velvet protein family are encoded by the ve1, vel2, and vel3 genes in Trichoderma reesei. To test their regulatory functions, the velvet protein-coding genes were disrupted, generating Δve1, Δvel2, and Δvel3 strains. The phenotypic features of these strains were examined to identify their functions in morphogenesis, sporulation, and cellulase expression. The three velvet-deficient strains produced more hyphal branches, indicating that velvet family proteins participate in the morphogenesis in T. reesei. Deletion of ve1 and vel3 did not affect biomass accumulation, while deletion of vel2 led to a significantly hampered growth when cellulose was used as the sole carbon source in the medium. The deletion of either ve1 or vel2 led to the sharp decrease of sporulation as well as a global downregulation of cellulase-coding genes. In contrast, although the expression of cellulase-coding genes of the ∆vel3 strain was downregulated in the dark, their expression in light condition was unaffected. Sporulation was hampered in the ∆vel3 strain. These results suggest that Ve1 and Vel2 play major roles, whereas Vel3 plays a minor role in sporulation, morphogenesis, and cellulase expression.

  1. An ethanolamine kinase Eki1 affects radial growth and cell wall integrity in Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ronglin; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Dongyuan

    2015-09-01

    Ethanolamine kinase (ATP:ethanolamine O-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.82) catalyzes the committed step of phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis via the CDP-ethanolamine pathway. The functions of eki genes that encode ethanolamine kinase have been intensively studied in mammalian cells, fruit flies and yeast. However, the role of the eki gene has not yet been characterized in filamentous fungi. In this study, Treki1, an ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EKI1, was identified and functionally characterized using a target gene deletion strategy in Trichoderma reesei. A Treki deletion mutant was less sensitive to cell wall stressors calcofluor white and Congo red and released fewer protoplasts during cell wall digestion than the parent strain QM9414. Further transcription analysis showed that the expression levels of five genes that encode chitin synthases were drastically increased in the ΔTreki1 mutant. The chitin content was also increased in the null mutant of Treki1 comparing to the parent strain. In addition, the ΔTreki1 mutant exhibited defects in radial growth, conidiation and the accumulation of ethanolamine. The results indicate that Treki1 plays a key role in growth and development and in the maintenance of cell wall integrity in T. reesei. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Enzymatic hydrolysis of alkali-pretreated rice straw by Trichoderma reesei ZM4-F3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, QiuZhuo [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Cai, WeiMin [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Minhang District, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2008-12-15

    To minimize the cost of cellulase production, both pretreatment of the rice straw and on-site enzyme production were realized. Rice straw was first pretreated by 2% NaOH, which could increase cellulose by 54.83%, and decreased hemicellulose by 61.07% and lignin by 36.24%, respectively. Detected by SEM, significant morphological changes were observed in the tissue. Through orthogonal experiments, temperature 35 C, initial pH value 4.5 and the rotation speed of shaking bed 180 rpm were determined to be the optimal conditions for hydrolysis of rice straw by Trichoderma reesei ZM4-F3. After hydrolysis for 96 h, the production of FPA and reducing sugars could achieve 2.231 g l{sup -1} and 12.92 U ml{sup -1}, respectively. Moreover, T. reesei ZM4-F3 can decompose 68.21% of pretreated rice straw after 120 h of hydrolysis. By GC analysis, it showed that glucose is the main component of the enzymatic hydrolysates, which made GC seem to be more effective than the DNS method for analysis of the enzymatic hydrolysates as it can detect the concentration of each kind of monosaccharide more accurately. (author)

  3. Comparative Studies of Oleaginous Fungal Strains (Mucor circinelloides and Trichoderma reesei) for Effective Wastewater Treatment and Bio-Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanja, Anshuman; Minde, Gauri; Magdum, Sandip; Kalyanraman, V.

    2014-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment typically requires the use of bacteria for degradation of carbonaceous and nitrogenous compounds present in wastewater. The high lipid containing biomass can be used to extract oil and the contents can be termed as bio-oil (or biodiesel or myco-diesel after transesterification). The separate experiments were conducted on actual wastewater samples with 5% v/v inoculum of Mucor circinelloides MTCC1297 and Trichoderma reesei NCIM992 strains. The observed reduction...

  4. An Ime2-like mitogen-activated protein kinase is involved in cellulase expression in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Chen, Xiu-Zhen; Su, Xiao-Yun; Qin, Li-Na; Huang, Zhen-Bang; Tao, Yong; Dong, Zhi-Yang

    2015-10-01

    Eukaryotic mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play crucial roles in transducing environmental and developmental signals inside the cell and regulating gene expression, however, the roles of MAPKs remain largely unknown in Trichoderma reesei. T. reesei ime2 (TrIme2) encodes an Ime2-like MAPK in T. reesei. The deletion of the TrIme2 gene led to 90% increase in cellulase activity against filter paper during earlier period time of cellulase induction as well as the extracellular protein production. Compared to the parent strain, the transcriptional levels of the three major cellulase genes cbh1,cbh2, egl1 were increased by about 9 times, 4 times, 2 times, respectively, at 8 h after cellulase induction in the ΔTrIme2 mutant. In addition, the disruption of TrIme2 caused over 50% reduction of the transcript levels of cellulase transcriptional regulators cre1 and xyr1. TrIme2 functions in regulation of the expression of cellulase gene in T.reesei, and is a good candidate for genetically engineering of T. reesei for higher cellulase production.

  5. A high performance Trichoderma reesei strain that reveals the importance of xylanase III in cellulosic biomass conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Hikaru; Kawai, Tetsushi; Ida, Noriko; Shida, Yosuke; Shioya, Kouki; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Okada, Hirofumi; Tani, Shuji; Sumitani, Jun-Ichi; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Morikawa, Yasushi; Ogasawara, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the Trichoderma reesei X3AB1strain enzyme preparations to convert cellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars is enhanced by the replacement of xyn3 by Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase 1 gene (aabg1), as shown in our previous study. However, subsequent experiments using T. reesei extracts supplemented with the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 xylanase III (XYN III) and GH Family 11 XYN II showed increased conversion of alkaline treated cellulosic biomass, which is rich in xylan, underscoring the importance of XYN III. To attain optimal saccharifying potential in T. reesei, we constructed two new strains, C1AB1 and E1AB1, in which aabg1 was expressed heterologously by means of the cbh1 or egl1 promoters, respectively, so that the endogenous XYN III synthesis remained intact. Due to the presence of wild-type xyn3 in T. reesei E1AB1, enzymes prepared from this strain were 20-30% more effective in the saccharification of alkaline-pretreated rice straw than enzyme extracts from X3AB1, and also outperformed recent commercial cellulase preparations. Our results demonstrate the importance of XYN III in the conversion of alkaline-pretreated cellulosic biomass by T. reesei. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Systems Analysis of Lactose Metabolism in Trichoderma reesei Identifies a Lactose Permease That Is Essential for Cellulase Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Christa; Bååth, Jenny A.; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei colonizes predecayed wood in nature and metabolizes cellulose and hemicellulose from the plant biomass. The respective enzymes are industrially produced for application in the biofuel and biorefinery industry. However, these enzymes are also induced in the presence of lactose (1,4-0-ß-d-galactopyranosyl-d-glucose), a waste product from cheese manufacture or whey processing industries. In fact, lactose is the only soluble carbon source that induces these enzymes in T. reesei on an industrial level but the reason for this unique phenomenon is not understood. To answer this question, we used systems analysis of the T. reesei transcriptome during utilization of lactose. We found that the respective CAZome encoded all glycosyl hydrolases necessary for cellulose degradation and particularly for the attack of monocotyledon xyloglucan, from which ß-galactosides could be released that may act as the inducers of T. reesei’s cellulases and hemicellulases. In addition, lactose also induces a high number of putative transporters of the major facilitator superfamily. Deletion of fourteen of them identified one gene that is essential for lactose utilization and lactose uptake, and for cellulase induction by lactose (but not sophorose) in pregrown mycelia of T. reesei. These data shed new light on the mechanism by which T. reesei metabolizes lactose and offers strategies for its improvement. They also illuminate the key role of ß-D-galactosides in habitat specificity of this fungus. PMID:23690947

  7. Development of a low-cost cellulase production process using Trichoderma reesei for Brazilian biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellilä, Simo; Fonseca, Lucas; Uchima, Cristiane; Cota, Junio; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Saloheimo, Markku; Sacon, Vera; Siika-Aho, Matti

    2017-01-01

    During the past few years, the first industrial-scale cellulosic ethanol plants have been inaugurated. Although the performance of the commercial cellulase enzymes used in this process has greatly improved over the past decade, cellulases still represent a very significant operational cost. Depending on the region, transport of cellulases from a central production facility to a biorefinery may significantly add to enzyme cost. The aim of the present study was to develop a simple, cost-efficient cellulase production process that could be employed locally at a Brazilian sugarcane biorefinery. Our work focused on two main topics: growth medium formulation and strain improvement. We evaluated several Brazilian low-cost industrial residues for their potential in cellulase production. Among the solid residues evaluated, soybean hulls were found to display clearly the most desirable characteristics. We engineered a Trichoderma reesei strain to secrete cellulase in the presence of repressing sugars, enabling the use of sugarcane molasses as an additional carbon source. In addition, we added a heterologous β-glucosidase to improve the performance of the produced enzymes in hydrolysis. Finally, the addition of an invertase gene from Aspegillus niger into our strain allowed it to consume sucrose from sugarcane molasses directly. Preliminary cost analysis showed that the overall process can provide for very low-cost enzyme with good hydrolysis performance on industrially pre-treated sugarcane straw. In this study, we showed that with relatively few genetic modifications and the right growth medium it is possible to produce considerable amounts of well-performing cellulase at very low cost in Brazil using T. reesei . With further enhancements and optimization, such a system could provide a viable alternative to delivered commercial cellulases.

  8. The role of pheromone receptors for communication and mating in Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Christian; Tisch, Doris; Kubicek, Christian P.; Schmoll, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Discovery of sexual development in the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) as well as detection of a novel class of peptide pheromone precursors in this fungus indicates promising insights into its physiology and lifestyle. Here we investigated the role of the two pheromone receptors HPR1 and HPR2 in the H. jecorina pheromone-system. We found that these pheromone receptors show an unexpectedly high genetic variability among H. jecorina strains. HPR1 and HPR2 confer female fertility in their cognate mating types (MAT1-1 or MAT1-2, respectively) and mediate induction of fruiting body development. One compatible pheromone precursor–pheromone receptor pair (hpr1–hpp1 or hpr2–ppg1) in mating partners was sufficient for sexual development. Additionally, pheromone receptors were essential for ascospore development, hence indicating their involvement in post-fertilisation events. Neither pheromone precursor genes nor pheromone receptor genes of H. jecorina were transcribed in a strictly mating type dependent manner, but showed enhanced expression levels in the cognate mating type. In the presence of a mating partner under conditions favoring sexual development, transcript levels of pheromone precursors were significantly increased, while those of pheromone receptor genes do not show this trend. In the female sterile T. reesei strain QM6a, transcriptional responses of pheromone precursor and pheromone receptor genes to a mating partner were clearly altered compared to the female fertile wild-type strain CBS999.97. Consequently, a delayed and inappropriate response to the mating partner may be one aspect causing female sterility in QM6a. PMID:22884620

  9. Comparative Secretome Analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger during Growth on Sugarcane Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borin, Gustavo Pagotto; Sanchez, Camila Cristina; de Souza, Amanda Pereira; de Santana, Eliane Silva; de Souza, Aline Tieppo; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Squina, Fabio Marcio; Buckeridge, Marcos; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Background Our dependence on fossil fuel sources and concern about the environment has generated a worldwide interest in establishing new sources of fuel and energy. Thus, the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous because it is an inexhaustible energy source and has minimal environmental impact. Currently, Brazil is the world's second largest producer of ethanol, which is produced from sugarcane juice fermentation. However, several studies suggest that Brazil could double its production per hectare by using sugarcane bagasse and straw, known as second-generation (2G) bioethanol. Nevertheless, the use of this biomass presents a challenge because the plant cell wall structure, which is composed of complex sugars (cellulose and hemicelluloses), must be broken down into fermentable sugar, such as glucose and xylose. To achieve this goal, several types of hydrolytic enzymes are necessary, and these enzymes represent the majority of the cost associated with 2G bioethanol processing. Reducing the cost of the saccharification process can be achieved via a comprehensive understanding of the hydrolytic mechanisms and enzyme secretion of polysaccharide-hydrolyzing microorganisms. In many natural habitats, several microorganisms degrade lignocellulosic biomass through a set of enzymes that act synergistically. In this study, two fungal species, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei, were grown on sugarcane biomass with two levels of cell wall complexity, culm in natura and pretreated bagasse. The production of enzymes related to biomass degradation was monitored using secretome analyses after 6, 12 and 24 hours. Concurrently, we analyzed the sugars in the supernatant. Results Analyzing the concentration of monosaccharides in the supernatant, we observed that both species are able to disassemble the polysaccharides of sugarcane cell walls since 6 hours post-inoculation. The sugars from the polysaccharides such as arabinoxylan and β-glucan (that compose the most external

  10. Ras GTPases Modulate Morphogenesis, Sporulation and Cellulase Gene Expression in the Cellulolytic Fungus Trichoderma reesei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiwei; Zhang, Yanmei; Zhong, Yaohua; Qu, Yinbo; Wang, Tianhong

    2012-01-01

    Background The model cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) is capable of responding to environmental cues to compete for nutrients in its natural saprophytic habitat despite its genome encodes fewer degradative enzymes. Efficient signalling pathways in perception and interpretation of environmental signals are indispensable in this process. Ras GTPases represent a kind of critical signal proteins involved in signal transduction and regulation of gene expression. In T. reesei the genome contains two Ras subfamily small GTPases TrRas1 and TrRas2 homologous to Ras1 and Ras2 from S. cerevisiae, but their functions remain unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we have investigated the roles of GTPases TrRas1 and TrRas2 during fungal morphogenesis and cellulase gene expression. We show that both TrRas1 and TrRas2 play important roles in some cellular processes such as polarized apical growth, hyphal branch formation, sporulation and cAMP level adjustment, while TrRas1 is more dominant in these processes. Strikingly, we find that TrRas2 is involved in modulation of cellulase gene expression. Deletion of TrRas2 results in considerably decreased transcription of cellulolytic genes upon growth on cellulose. Although the strain carrying a constitutively activated TrRas2G16V allele exhibits increased cellulase gene transcription, the cbh1 and cbh2 expression in this mutant still strictly depends on cellulose, indicating TrRas2 does not directly mediate the transmission of the cellulose signal. In addition, our data suggest that the effect of TrRas2 on cellulase gene is exerted through regulation of transcript abundance of cellulase transcription factors such as Xyr1, but the influence is independent of cAMP signalling pathway. Conclusions/Significance Together, these findings elucidate the functions for Ras signalling of T. reesei in cellular morphogenesis, especially in cellulase gene expression, which contribute to deciphering the

  11. Comparative Secretome Analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger during Growth on Sugarcane Biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Pagotto Borin

    Full Text Available Our dependence on fossil fuel sources and concern about the environment has generated a worldwide interest in establishing new sources of fuel and energy. Thus, the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous because it is an inexhaustible energy source and has minimal environmental impact. Currently, Brazil is the world's second largest producer of ethanol, which is produced from sugarcane juice fermentation. However, several studies suggest that Brazil could double its production per hectare by using sugarcane bagasse and straw, known as second-generation (2G bioethanol. Nevertheless, the use of this biomass presents a challenge because the plant cell wall structure, which is composed of complex sugars (cellulose and hemicelluloses, must be broken down into fermentable sugar, such as glucose and xylose. To achieve this goal, several types of hydrolytic enzymes are necessary, and these enzymes represent the majority of the cost associated with 2G bioethanol processing. Reducing the cost of the saccharification process can be achieved via a comprehensive understanding of the hydrolytic mechanisms and enzyme secretion of polysaccharide-hydrolyzing microorganisms. In many natural habitats, several microorganisms degrade lignocellulosic biomass through a set of enzymes that act synergistically. In this study, two fungal species, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei, were grown on sugarcane biomass with two levels of cell wall complexity, culm in natura and pretreated bagasse. The production of enzymes related to biomass degradation was monitored using secretome analyses after 6, 12 and 24 hours. Concurrently, we analyzed the sugars in the supernatant.Analyzing the concentration of monosaccharides in the supernatant, we observed that both species are able to disassemble the polysaccharides of sugarcane cell walls since 6 hours post-inoculation. The sugars from the polysaccharides such as arabinoxylan and β-glucan (that compose the most external

  12. Trichoderma reesei FS10-C enhances phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil by Sedum plumbizincicola and associated soil microbial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ying; Luo, Yang; Ma, Wenting; Zhu, Lingjia; Ren, Wenjie; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter; Li, Zhengao

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of Trichoderma reesei FS10-C on the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil by the hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola and on soil fertility. The Cd tolerance of T. reesei FS10-C was characterized and then a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the growth and Cd uptake of S. plumbizincicola with the addition of inoculation agents in the presence and absence of T. reesei FS10-C. The results indicated that FS10-C possessed high Cd resistance (up to 300 mg L-1). All inoculation agents investigated enhanced plant shoot biomass by 6–53% of fresh weight and 16–61% of dry weight and Cd uptake by the shoots by 10–53% compared with the control. All inoculation agents also played critical roles in increasing soil microbial biomass and microbial activities (such as biomass C, dehydrogenase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis activity). Two inoculation agents accompanied by FS10-C were also superior to the inoculation agents, indicating that T. reesei FS10-C was effective in enhancing both Cd phytoremediation by S. plumbizincicola and soil fertility. Furthermore, solid fermentation powder of FS10-C showed the greatest capacity to enhance plant growth, Cd uptake, nutrient release, microbial biomass and activities, as indicated by its superior ability to promote colonization by Trichoderma. The solid fermentation powder of FS10-C might serve as a suitable inoculation agent for T. reesei FS10-C to enhance both the phytoremediation efficiency of Cd-contaminated soil and soil fertility. PMID:26113858

  13. Trichoderma Reesei single cell protein production from rice straw pulp in solid state fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, M.; Said, S. D.

    2018-04-01

    The dependency on fish meal as a major protein source for animal feed can lead toit priceinstability in line with the increasing in meat production and consumption in Indonesia. In order todeal with this problem, an effort to produce an alternative protein sources production is needed. This scenario is possible due to the abundantavailability of agricultural residues such as rice straw whichcould be utilized as substrate for production of single cell proteins as an alternative proteinsource. This work investigated the potential utilization of rice straw pulp and urea mixture as substrate for the production of local Trichoderma reesei single cell protein in solid state fermentation system. Some parameters have been analyzed to evaluate the effect of ratio of rice straw pulp to urea on mixed single cell protein biomass (mixed SCP biomass) composition, such as total crude protein (analyzed by kjedhal method) and lignin content (TAPPI method).The results showed that crude protein content in mixed SCP biomassincreases with the increasing in fermentation time, otherwise it decreases with the increasing insubstrate carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio. Residual lignin content in mixed SCP biomass decreases from 7% to 0.63% during fermentationproceeded of 21 days. The highest crude protein content in mixed SCP biomasswas obtained at substrate C/N ratio 20:1 of 25%.

  14. Optimization of Glucose Production of Cocopeat Using Whole Cell Trichoderma reesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaki Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The high content of cellulose in cocopeat makes this material convertible into glucose. The converting process of cellulose into glucose can be done by hydrolysis. In this research, the coocopeat hydrolyzed enzymatically using cellulose ezyme from Trichoderma reesei. The purpose of this study was to obtain optimum conditions of glucose yield and to know the effect of concentration of NaOH, molasses mass, and the effect of hydrolisis time on glucose yield produced. The variabel used was hydrolisis time (0; 124; and 240 hour, NaOH concenteration (1%; 2%; and 3%, and molasses mass (40; 50; and 60 gr/l. The result showed the higest glucose level obtained at 2% NaOH concenteration, molasses mass 60 gram, and hydrolysis time 240 hours, while the predicted resulted of the optimum conditions of glucose level produced using the software Design Expert 6.08 is 776.771 mg/l at NaOH concenteration 1,35%, molasses mass 59.96 mg/l and hydrolisis time 215.62 hours.

  15. A CRE1- regulated cluster is responsible for light dependent production of dihydrotrichotetronin in Trichoderma reesei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Alonso Monroy

    Full Text Available Changing light conditions, caused by the rotation of earth resulting in day and night or growth on the surface or within a substrate, result in considerably altered physiological processes in fungi. For the biotechnological workhorse Trichoderma reesei, regulation of glycoside hydrolase gene expression, especially cellulase expression was shown to be a target of light dependent gene regulation. Analysis of regulatory targets of the carbon catabolite repressor CRE1 under cellulase inducing conditions revealed a secondary metabolite cluster to be differentially regulated in light and darkness and by photoreceptors. We found that this cluster is involved in production of trichodimerol and that the two polyketide synthases of the cluster are essential for biosynthesis of dihydrotrichotetronine (syn. bislongiquinolide or bisorbibutenolide. Additionally, an indirect influence on production of the peptaibol antibiotic paracelsin was observed. The two polyketide synthetase genes as well as the monooxygenase gene of the cluster were found to be connected at the level of transcription in a positive feedback cycle in darkness, but negative feedback in light, indicating a cellular sensing and response mechanism for the products of these enzymes. The transcription factor TR_102497/YPR2 residing within the cluster regulates the cluster genes in a light dependent manner. Additionally, an interrelationship of this cluster with regulation of cellulase gene expression was detected. Hence the regulatory connection between primary and secondary metabolism appears more widespread than previously assumed, indicating a sophisticated distribution of resources either to degradation of substrate (feed or to antagonism of competitors (fight, which is influenced by light.

  16. Cellobiohydrolase 1 from Trichoderma reesei degrades cellulose in single cellobiose steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sonia K.; Sreelatha, Sarangapani; Feng, Yinnian; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.; Lang, Matthew J.

    2015-12-01

    Cellobiohydrolase 1 from Trichoderma reesei (TrCel7A) processively hydrolyses cellulose into cellobiose. Although enzymatic techniques have been established as promising tools in biofuel production, a clear understanding of the motor's mechanistic action has yet to be revealed. Here, we develop an optical tweezers-based single-molecule (SM) motility assay for precision tracking of TrCel7A. Direct observation of motility during degradation reveals processive runs and distinct steps on the scale of 1 nm. Our studies suggest TrCel7A is not mechanically limited, can work against 20 pN loads and speeds up when assisted. Temperature-dependent kinetic studies establish the energy requirements for the fundamental stepping cycle, which likely includes energy from glycosidic bonds and other sources. Through SM measurements of isolated TrCel7A domains, we determine that the catalytic domain alone is sufficient for processive motion, providing insight into TrCel7A's molecular motility mechanism.

  17. Application of Statistical Design for the Production of Cellulase by Trichoderma reesei Using Mango Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the culture medium for cellulase production using Trichoderma reesei was carried out. The optimization of cellulase production using mango peel as substrate was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nine nutrients for their influence on cellulase production is achieved using Plackett-Burman design. Avicel, soybean cake flour, KH2PO4, and CoCl2·6H2O were selected based on their positive influence on cellulase production. The composition of the selected components was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The optimum conditions are as follows: Avicel: 25.30 g/L, Soybean cake flour: 23.53 g/L, KH2PO4: 4.90 g/L, and CoCl2·6H2O: 0.95 g/L. These conditions are validated experimentally which revealed an enhanced Cellulase activity of 7.8 IU/mL.

  18. Genetic and metabolic biodiversity of Trichoderma from Colombia and adjacent neotropic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos-Carvajal, Lilliana; Orduz, Sergio; Bissett, John

    2009-09-01

    The genus Trichoderma has been studied for production of enzymes and other metabolites, as well as for exploitation as effective biological control agents. The biodiversity of Trichoderma has seen relatively limited study over much of the neotropical region. In the current study we assess the biodiversity of 183 isolates from Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil and Colombia, using morphological, metabolic and genetic approaches. A comparatively high diversity of species was found, comprising 29 taxa: Trichoderma asperellum (60 isolates), Trichoderma atroviride (3), Trichoderma brevicompactum (5), Trichoderma crassum (3), Trichoderma erinaceum (3), Trichoderma gamsii (2), Trichoderma hamatum (2), Trichoderma harzianum (49), Trichoderma koningiopsis (6), Trichoderma longibrachiatum (3), Trichoderma ovalisporum (1), Trichoderma pubescens (2), Trichoderma rossicum (4), Trichoderma spirale (1), Trichoderma tomentosum (3), Trichoderma virens (8), Trichoderma viridescens (7) and Hypocrea jecorina (3) (anamorph: Trichoderma reesei), along with 11 currently undescribed species. T. asperellum was the prevalent species and was represented by two distinct genotypes with different metabolic profiles and habitat preferences. The second predominant species, T. harzianum, was represented by three distinct genotypes. The addition of 11 currently undescribed species is evidence of the considerable unresolved biodiversity of Trichoderma in neotropical regions. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the ribosomal repeat could not differentiate some species, and taken alone gave several misidentifications in part due to the presence of nonorthologous copies of the ITS in some isolates.

  19. The VELVET A Orthologue VEL1 of Trichoderma reesei Regulates Fungal Development and Is Essential for Cellulase Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, Lea; Fekete, Erzsébet; Paholcsek, Melinda; Sándor, Erzsébet; Aquino, Benigno; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Karaffa, Levente; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei is the industrial producer of cellulases and hemicellulases for biorefinery processes. Their expression is obligatorily dependent on the function of the protein methyltransferase LAE1. The Aspergillus nidulans orthologue of LAE1 - LaeA - is part of the VELVET protein complex consisting of LaeA, VeA and VelB that regulates secondary metabolism and sexual as well as asexual reproduction. Here we have therefore investigated the function of VEL1, the T. reesei orthologue of A. nidulans VeA. Deletion of the T. reesei vel1 locus causes a complete and light-independent loss of conidiation, and impairs formation of perithecia. Deletion of vel1 also alters hyphal morphology towards hyperbranching and formation of thicker filaments, and with consequently reduced growth rates. Growth on lactose as a sole carbon source, however, is even more strongly reduced and growth on cellulose as a sole carbon source eliminated. Consistent with these findings, deletion of vel1 completely impaired the expression of cellulases, xylanases and the cellulase regulator XYR1 on lactose as a cellulase inducing carbon source, but also in resting mycelia with sophorose as inducer. Our data show that in T. reesei VEL1 controls sexual and asexual development, and this effect is independent of light. VEL1 is also essential for cellulase gene expression, which is consistent with the assumption that their regulation by LAE1 occurs by the VELVET complex. PMID:25386652

  20. Direct ethanol production from lignocellulosic sugars and sugarcane bagasse by a recombinant Trichoderma reesei strain HJ48.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Chen, Dong; Wei, Yutuo; Wang, Qingyan; Li, Zhenchong; Chen, Ying; Huang, Ribo

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei can be considered as a candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) microorganism. However, its ethanol yield needs to be improved significantly. Here the ethanol production of T. reesei CICC 40360 was improved by genome shuffling while simultaneously enhancing the ethanol resistance. The initial mutant population was generated by nitrosoguanidine treatment of the spores, and an improved population producing more than fivefold ethanol than wild type was obtained by genome shuffling. The results show that the shuffled strain HJ48 can efficiently convert lignocellulosic sugars to ethanol under aerobic conditions. Furthermore, it was able to produce ethanol directly from sugarcane bagasse, demonstrating that the shuffled strain HJ48 is a suitable microorganism for consolidated bioprocessing.

  1. Enhancing saccharification of wheat straw by mixing enzymes from genetically-modified Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanping; Duarte, Alexandra Vivas; van den Brink, Joost; Wiebenga, Ad; Zou, Gen; Wang, Chengshu; de Vries, Ronald P; Zhou, Zhihua; Benoit, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    To increase the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis for plant biomass conversion into renewable biofuel and chemicals. By overexpressing the point mutation A824 V transcriptional activator Xyr1 in Trichoderma reesei, carboxymethyl cellulase, cellobiosidase and β-D-glucosidase activities of the best mutant were increased from 1.8 IU/ml, 0.1 IU/ml and 0.05 IU/ml to 4.8 IU/ml, 0.4 IU/ml and 0.3 IU/ml, respectively. The sugar yield of wheat straw saccharification by combining enzymes from this mutant and the Aspergillus niger genetically modified strain ΔcreA/xlnR c/araR c was improved up to 7.5 mg/ml, a 229 % increase compared to the combination of wild type strains. Mixing enzymes from T. reesei and A. niger combined with the genetic modification of transcription factors is a promising strategy to increase saccharification efficiency.

  2. Thermal stability of Trichoderma reesei c30 cellulase and aspergillus niger; -glucosidase after ph and chemical modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J.; Whaley, K.S.; Zachry, G.S.; Wohlpart, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Treatment of Trichoderma reesei C30 cellulase at pH 10.0 for 1 h at room temperature increased its pH and thermal stability. Chemical modification of the free epsilon-amino groups of cellulase at pH 10.0 resulted in no further increase in stability. Such chemical modification, however, decreased the thermal stability of the cellulose-cellulase complex. On the contrary, the chemical modification of Aspergillus niger glucosidase with glutaraldehyde at pH 8.0 increased the thermal stability of this enzyme.

  3. Thermal stability of Trichoderma reesei C30 cellulase and Aspergillus niger. beta. -glucosidase after pH and chemical modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J.; Whaley, K.S.; Zachry, G.S.; Wohlpart, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Treatment of Trichoderma reesei C30 cellulase at pH 10.0 for 1 h at room temperature increased its pH and thermal stability. Chemical modification of the free epsilon-amino groups of cellulase at pH 10.0 resulted in no further increase in stability. Such chemical modification, however, decreased the thermal stability of the cellulose-cellulase complex. On the contrary, the chemical modification of Aspergillus niger ..beta..-glucosidase with glutaraldehyde at pH 8.0 increased the thermal stability of this enzyme.

  4. Expression of a thermotolerant laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus in Trichoderma reesei and its application in the degradation of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Zeng, Shengquan; Xia, Ying; Xia, Liming

    2018-04-01

    The laccase gene from Pycnoporus sanguineus was cloned and inserted between the strong Pcbh1 promoter and the Tcbh1 terminator from Trichoderma reesei to form the recombinant plasmid pCH-lac. Using Agrobacterium-mediated technique, the pCH-lac was integrated into the chromosomes of T. reesei. Twenty positive transformants were obtained by employing hygromycin B as a selective agent. PCR was used to confirm that the laccase gene was integrated into the chromosomal DNA of T. reesei. Laccase production by recombinant transformants was performed in shaking flasks, and the activity of laccase reached 8.8 IU/mL after 96-h fermentation under a batch process, and 17.7 IU/mL after 144-h fermentation using a fed-batch process. SDS-PAGE analysis of the fermentation broth showed that the molecular mass of the protein was about 68 kDa, almost the same as that of the laccase produced by P. sanguineus, which indicated that laccase was successfully expressed in T. reesei and secreted out of the cells. The laccase produced by the recombinant T. reesei showed good thermal stability, and could degrade the toxic phenolic material bisphenol A efficiently, after 1-h reaction with 0.06 IU/mL laccase and 0.5 mmol/L ABTS as the mediator at 60 °C and pH 4.5, the degradation rate reached 95%, which demonstrated that it had great potential value in treating the household garbage and wastewater containing the bisphenol A. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rce1, a novel transcriptional repressor, regulates cellulase gene expression by antagonizing the transactivator Xyr1 in Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanli; Zheng, Fanglin; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Guolei; Chen, Guanjun; Zhang, Weixin; Liu, Weifeng

    2017-07-01

    Cellulase gene expression in the model cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei is supposed to be controlled by an intricate regulatory network involving multiple transcription factors. Here, we identified a novel transcriptional repressor of cellulase gene expression, Rce1. Disruption of the rce1 gene not only facilitated the induced expression of cellulase genes but also led to a significant delay in terminating the induction process. However, Rce1 did not participate in Cre1-mediated catabolite repression. Electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA) and DNase I footprinting assays in combination with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) demonstrated that Rce1 could bind directly to a cbh1 (cellobiohydrolase 1-encoding) gene promoter region containing a cluster of Xyr1 binding sites. Furthermore, competitive binding assays revealed that Rce1 antagonized Xyr1 from binding to the cbh1 promoter. These results indicate that intricate interactions exist between a variety of transcription factors to ensure tight and energy-efficient regulation of cellulase gene expression in T. reesei. This study also provides important clues regarding increased cellulase production in T. reesei. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. PEA PEEL WASTE: A LIGNOCELLULOSIC WASTE AND ITS UTILITY IN CELLULASE PRODUCTION BY Trichoderma reesei UNDER SOLID STATE CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Verma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of waste bioresources are available on our planet for conversion into bioproducts. In the biological systems, microorganisms are used to utilize waste as an energy source for the synthesis of valuable products such as biomass proteins and enzymes. The large quantities of byproducts generated during the processing of plant food involve an economic and environmental problem due to their high volumes and elimination costs. After isolation of the main constituent, there are abundant remains which represent an inexpensive material that has been undervalued until now. Pea peel waste is one of the undervalued, unused sources of energy that can serve as a potential source for cellulase production. Batch experiments have been performed, using pea peel waste as a carbon source for cellulase production under solid state cultivation by Trichoderma reesei. It was observed that 30 oC temperature and pH 5.0 are the most favorable conditions for cellulase production by T. reesei. FPase activity significantly increases by incorporation of whey as well as wheat starch hydrolysate in the basal salt media used in the production study. The present study describes the utility of pea peel waste, whey as well as wheat starch hydrolysate in cellulase production by T. reesei. The utilization of economically cheap, pea peel waste for cellulase production could be a novel, cost effective, and valuable approach in cellulase production as well as in solid waste management.

  7. Heterologous expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Trichoderma reesei xylanase II and four variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Qun; Kovalevsky, Andrey; Zhang, Qiu; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott; Upton, Rosalynd; Weiss, Kevin L.; Mustyakimov, Marat; Graham, David; Coates, Leighton; Langan, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The wild-type protein and four active-site mutants of xylanase II from Trichoderma reesei that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in xylan have successfully been crystallized. The crystallization of several structures including ligand-free and protein ligand complexes containing the substrate (xylohexaose) or product (xylotriose) are detailed. Xylanase II from Trichoderma reesei catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in xylan. Crystallographic studies of this commercially important enzyme have been initiated to investigate its reaction mechanism, substrate binding and dependence on basic pH conditions. The wild-type protein was heterologously expressed in an Escherichia coli host using the defined medium and four active-site amino acids were replaced to abolish its activity (E177Q and E86Q) or to change its pH optimum (N44D and N44H). Cation-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography were used to obtain >90% protein purity. The ligand-free proteins and variant complexes containing substrate (xylohexaose) or product (xylotriose) were crystallized in several different space groups and diffracted to high resolutions (from 1.07 to 1.55 Å)

  8. The role of subsite +2 of the Trichoderma reesei beta-mannanase TrMan5A in hydrolysis and transglycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosengren, Anna; Hägglund, Per; Anderson, Lars Steen

    2012-01-01

    The N-terminal catalytic module of beta-mannanase TrMan5A from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is classified into family 5 of glycoside hydrolases. It is further classified in clan A with a (beta/alpha)(8) barrel configuration and has two catalytic glutamates (E169 and E276). It has at ...

  9. Heterologous expression of two Aspergillus niger feruloyl esterases in Trichoderma reesei for the production of ferulic acid from wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Liangkun; Zhao, Haoyuan; Ding, Dafan; Xu, Meijuan; Ding, Shaojun

    2018-05-01

    Feruloyl esterase (FAE)-encoding genes AnfaeA and AnfaeB were isolated from Aspergillus niger 0913. For overexpression of the two genes in Trichoderma reesei, constitutive and inductive expression plasmids were constructed based on parental plasmid pAg1-H3. The constructed plasmids contained AnfaeA or AnfaeB gene under the control of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase A gene (gpdA) promoter (from A. nidulans) or cellobiohydrolases I (cbh I) gene promoter (from T. reesei), and cbh I terminator from T. reesei. The target plasmids were transferred into T. reesei D-86271 (Rut-C30) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT), respectively. A high level of feruloyl esterase was produced by the recombinant fungal strains under solid-state fermentation, and the cbh I promoter was more efficient than the gpdA promoter in the expression of AnfaeA. The optimum temperatures and pH values were 50 °C and 5.0 for AnFAEA, and 35 °C and 6.0 for AnFAEB. The maximum production levels were 20.69 U/gsd for AnFAEA and 15.08 U/gsd for AnFAEB. The recombinant fungal enzyme systems could release 62.9% (for AnFAEA) and 52.2% (for AnFAEB) of total ferulic acids from de-starched wheat bran, which was higher than the 46.3% releasing efficiency of A. niger 0913. The supplement of xylanase from T. longibrachiatum in the enzymatic hydrolysis led to a small increment of the ferulic acids release.

  10. Two Major Facilitator Superfamily Sugar Transporters from Trichoderma reesei and Their Roles in Induction of Cellulase Biosynthesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weixin; Kou, Yanbo; Xu, Jintao; Cao, Yanli; Zhao, Guolei; Shao, Jing; Wang, Hai; Wang, Zhixing; Bao, Xiaoming; Chen, Guanjun; Liu, Weifeng

    2013-01-01

    Proper perception of the extracellular insoluble cellulose is key to initiating the rapid synthesis of cellulases by cellulolytic Trichoderma reesei. Uptake of soluble oligosaccharides derived from cellulose hydrolysis represents a potential point of control in the induced cascade. In this study, we identified a major facilitator superfamily sugar transporter Stp1 capable of transporting cellobiose by reconstructing a cellobiose assimilation system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The absence of Stp1 in T. reesei resulted in differential cellulolytic response to Avicel versus cellobiose. Transcriptional profiling revealed a different expression profile in the Δstp1 strain from that of wild-type strain in response to Avicel and demonstrated that Stp1 somehow repressed induction of the bulk of major cellulase and hemicellulose genes. Two other putative major facilitator superfamily sugar transporters were, however, up-regulated in the profiling. Deletion of one of them identified Crt1 that was required for growth and enzymatic activity on cellulose or lactose, but was not required for growth or hemicellulase activity on xylan. The essential role of Crt1 in cellulase induction did not seem to rely on its transporting activity because the overall uptake of cellobiose or sophorose by T. reesei was not compromised in the absence of Crt1. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that orthologs of Crt1 exist in the genomes of many filamentous ascomycete fungi capable of degrading cellulose. These data thus shed new light on the mechanism by which T. reesei senses and transmits the cellulose signal and offers potential strategies for strain improvement. PMID:24085297

  11. Studies on quantitative physiology of Trichoderma reesei with two-stage continuous culture for cellulase production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, D; Andreotti, R; Mandels, M; Gallo, B; Reese, E T

    1979-11-01

    By employing a two-stage continuous-culture system, some of the more important physiological parameters involved in cellulase biosynthesis have been evaluated with an ultimate objective of designing an optimally controlled cellulase process. The two-stage continuous-culture system was run for a period of 1350 hr with Trichoderma reesei strain MCG-77. The temperature and pH were controlled at 32/sup 0/C and pH 4.5 for the first stage (growth) and 28/sup 0/C and pH 3.5 for the second stage (enzyme production). Lactose was the only carbon source for both stages. The ratio of specific uptake rate of carbon to that of nitrogen, Q(C)/Q(N), that supported good cell growth ranged from 11 to 15, and the ratio for maximum specific enzyme productivity ranged from 5 to 13. The maintenance coefficients determined for oxygen, M/sub 0/, and for carbon source, M/sub c/, are 0.85 mmol O/sub 2//g biomass/hr and 0.14 mmol hexose/g biomass/hr, respectively. The yield constants determined are: Y/sub X/O/ = 32.3 g biomass/mol O/sub 2/, Y/sub X/C/ = 1.1 g biomass/g C or Y/sub X/C/ = 0.44 g biomass/g hexose, Y/sub X/N/ = 12.5 g biomass/g nitrogen for the cell growth stage, and Y/sub X/N/ = 16.6 g biomass/g nitrogen for the enzyme production stage. Enzyme was produced only in the second stage. Volumetric and specific enzyme productivities obtained were 90 IU/liter/hrand 8 IU/g biomass/hr, respectively. The maximum specific enzyme productivity observed was 14.8 IU/g biomass/hr. The optimal dilution rate in the second stage that corresponded to the maximum enzyme productivity was 0.026 approx. 0.028 hr/sup -1/, and the specific growth rate in the second stage that supported maximum specific enzyme productivity was equal to or slightly less than zero.

  12. Formation and release of cellulolytic enzymes during growth of Trichoderma reesei on cellobiose and glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaheri, M.P.; Vaheri, M.E.O.; Kaupinen, V.S.

    1979-01-01

    Production and release of cellulolytic enzymes by T. reesei QM 9414 were studied under induced and non-induced conditions and glycerol, respectively, as the only C source. There was a base level of cell debris-bound hydrolytic activity against filter paper and p-nitrophenyl glycoside even in T. reesei grown non-induced on glycerol. T. reesei grown on cellobiose was induced to produce large amounts of extracellular filter paper- and CMC-hydrolyzing enzymes, which were actively released even in the early stages of cultivation. Beta-Glucosidase was mainly detected in the cell debris and was not released unless the cells were autolyzing.

  13. Overexpression of D-Xylose Reductase (xyl1 Gene and Antisense Inhibition of D-Xylulokinase (xyiH Gene Increase Xylitol Production in Trichoderma reesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Hong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available T. reesei is an efficient cellulase producer and biomass degrader. To improve xylitol production in Trichoderma reesei strains by genetic engineering, two approaches were used in this study. First, the presumptive D-xylulokinase gene in T. reesei (xyiH, which has high homology to known fungi D-xylulokinase genes, was silenced by transformation of T. reesei QM9414 strain with an antisense construct to create strain S6-2-2. The expression of the xyiH gene in the transformed strain S6-2-2 decreased at the mRNA level, and D-xylulokinase activity decreased after 48 h of incubation. This led to an increase in xylitol production from undetectable levels in wild-type T. reesei QM9414 to 8.6 mM in S6-2-2. The T. reesei Δxdh is a xylose dehydrogenase knockout strain with increased xylitol production compared to the wild-type T. reesei QM9414 (22.8 mM versus undetectable. The copy number of the xylose reductase gene (xyl1 in T. reesei Δxdh strain was increased by genetic engineering to create a new strain Δ9-5-1. The Δ9-5-1 strain showed a higher xyl1 expression and a higher yield of xylose reductase, and xylitol production was increased from 22.8 mM to 24.8 mM. Two novel strains S6-2-2 and Δ9-5-1 are capable of producing higher yields of xylitol. T. reesei has great potential in the industrial production of xylitol.

  14. Overexpression of D-Xylose Reductase (xyl1) Gene and Antisense Inhibition of D-Xylulokinase (xyiH) Gene Increase Xylitol Production in Trichoderma reesei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yuanyuan; Dashtban, Mehdi; Kepka, Greg; Chen, Sanfeng; Qin, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    T. reesei is an efficient cellulase producer and biomass degrader. To improve xylitol production in Trichoderma reesei strains by genetic engineering, two approaches were used in this study. First, the presumptive D-xylulokinase gene in T. reesei (xyiH), which has high homology to known fungi D-xylulokinase genes, was silenced by transformation of T. reesei QM9414 strain with an antisense construct to create strain S6-2-2. The expression of the xyiH gene in the transformed strain S6-2-2 decreased at the mRNA level, and D-xylulokinase activity decreased after 48 h of incubation. This led to an increase in xylitol production from undetectable levels in wild-type T. reesei QM9414 to 8.6 mM in S6-2-2. The T. reesei Δxdh is a xylose dehydrogenase knockout strain with increased xylitol production compared to the wild-type T. reesei QM9414 (22.8 mM versus undetectable). The copy number of the xylose reductase gene (xyl1) in T. reesei Δxdh strain was increased by genetic engineering to create a new strain Δ9-5-1. The Δ9-5-1 strain showed a higher xyl1 expression and a higher yield of xylose reductase, and xylitol production was increased from 22.8 mM to 24.8 mM. Two novel strains S6-2-2 and Δ9-5-1 are capable of producing higher yields of xylitol. T. reesei has great potential in the industrial production of xylitol. PMID:25013760

  15. The phosducin-like protein PhLP1 impacts regulation of glycoside hydrolases and light response in Trichoderma reesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisch Doris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the biotechnological workhorse Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina transcription of cellulase genes as well as efficiency of the secreted cellulase mixture are modulated by light. Components of the heterotrimeric G-protein pathway interact with light-dependent signals, rendering this pathway a key regulator of cellulase gene expression. Results As regulators of heterotrimeric G-protein signaling, class I phosducin-like proteins, are assumed to act as co-chaperones for G-protein beta-gamma folding and exert their function in response to light in higher eukaryotes. Our results revealed light responsive transcription of the T. reesei class I phosducin-like protein gene phlp1 and indicate a light dependent function of PhLP1 also in fungi. We showed the functions of PhLP1, GNB1 and GNG1 in the same pathway, with one major output being the regulation of transcription of glycoside hydrolase genes including cellulase genes in T. reesei. We found no direct correlation between the growth rate and global regulation of glycoside hydrolases, which suggests that regulation of growth does not occur only at the level of substrate degradation efficiency. Additionally, PhLP1, GNB1 and GNG1 are all important for proper regulation of light responsiveness during long term exposure. In their absence, the amount of light regulated genes increased from 2.7% in wild type to 14% in Δphlp1. Besides from the regulation of degradative enzymes, PhLP1 was also found to impact on the transcription of genes involved in sexual development, which was in accordance with decreased efficiency of fruiting body formation in Δphlp1. The lack of GNB1 drastically diminished ascospore discharge in T. reesei. Conclusions The heterotrimeric G-protein pathway is crucial for the interconnection of nutrient signaling and light response of T. reesei, with the class I phosducin-like protein PhLP1, GNB1 and GNG1 acting as important nodes, which influence light

  16. Oxidative cleavage and hydrolytic boosting of cellulose in soybean spent flakes by Trichoderma reesei Cel61A lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Brian C; Agger, Jane Wittrup; Wichmann, Jesper; Meyer, Anne S

    2017-03-01

    The auxiliary activity family 9 (AA9) copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) from Trichoderma reesei (EG4; TrCel61A) was investigated for its ability to oxidize the complex polysaccharides from soybean. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was assessed against a variety of substrates, including both soy spent flake, a by-product of the soy food industry, and soy spent flake pretreated with sodium hydroxide. Products from enzymatic treatments were analyzed using mass spectrometry and high performance anion exchange chromatography. We demonstrate that TrCel61A is capable of oxidizing cellulose from both pretreated soy spent flake and phosphoric acid swollen cellulose, oxidizing at both the C1 and C4 positions. In addition, we show that the oxidative activity of TrCel61A displays a synergistic effect capable of boosting endoglucanase activity, and thereby substrate depolymerization of soy cellulose, by 27%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Multivariable parameter optimization for the endoglucanase production by Trichoderma reesei Rut C30 from Ocimum gratissimum seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithu Das

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction effects of the physico-chemical parameters on the endoglucanase (CMCase production by Trichoderma reesei Rut C30 on a cellulosic agro-residue by the solid-state fermentation (SSF and to determine their optimum values by the EVOP factorial design technique. The best combination of physical parameters for the maximum production of the endoglucanase (CMCase was 28ºC temperature, 79% relative humidity and 4.8 pH of the medium. The best combination of the chemical parameters was (mg/L nicotinic acid 15, naphthalene acetic acid 7, ferric chloride 5 and Tween-80 6. With the application of this technique, the yield of the CMCase increased by ~ 2.3 fold.

  18. Trpac1, a pH response transcription regulator, is involved in cellulase gene expression in Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ronglin; Ma, Lijuan; Li, Chen; Jia, Wendi; Li, Demao; Zhang, Dongyuan; Chen, Shulin

    2014-12-01

    Fungi grow over a relatively wide pH range and adapt to extracellular pH through a genetic regulatory system mediated by a key component PacC, which is a pH transcription regulator. The cellulase production of the filamentous fungi Trichoderma reesei is sensitive to ambient pH. To investigate the connection between cellulase expression regulation and ambient pH, an ortholog of Aspergillus nidulans pacC, Trpac1, was identified and functionally characterized using a target gene deletion strategy. Deleting Trpac1 dramatically increased the cellulase production and the transcription levels of the major cellulase genes at neutral pH, which suggested Trpac1 is involved in the regulation of cellulase production. It was further observed that the expression levels of transcription factors xyr1 and ace2 also increased in the ΔTrpac1 mutant at neutral pH. In addition, the ΔTrpac1 mutant exhibited conidiation defects under neutral and alkaline pH. These results implied that Trpac1 in involved in growth and development process and cellulase gene expression in T. reesei. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficient Coproduction of Mannanase and Cellulase by the Transformation of a Codon-Optimized Endomannanase Gene from Aspergillus niger into Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xianhua; Xue, Xianli; Li, Mengzhu; Gao, Fei; Hao, Zhenzhen; Huang, Huoqing; Luo, Huiying; Qin, Lina; Yao, Bin; Su, Xiaoyun

    2017-12-20

    Cellulase and mannanase are both important enzyme additives in animal feeds. Expressing the two enzymes simultaneously within one microbial host could potentially lead to cost reductions in the feeding of animals. For this purpose, we codon-optimized the Aspergillus niger Man5A gene to the codon-usage bias of Trichoderma reesei. By comparing the free energies and the local structures of the nucleotide sequences, one optimized sequence was finally selected and transformed into the T. reesei pyridine-auxotrophic strain TU-6. The codon-optimized gene was expressed to a higher level than the original one. Further expressing the codon-optimized gene in a mutated T. reesei strain through fed-batch cultivation resulted in coproduction of cellulase and mannanase up to 1376 U·mL -1 and 1204 U·mL -1 , respectively.

  20. Improvement of Cellulase Production and its Characteristics by Inducing Mutation on Trichoderma reesei 2414 under Solid State Fermentation on Rice By-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Darabzadeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available  Background and Objective: Solid State Fermentation is an economic technology to produce value-added products. Also, the use of agricultural by-products, as a waste management strategy, has recently been considered. On the other hand, the new mutants are interesting for the production of enzymes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mutation on the improvement of cellulase quality. Therefore, rice by-products were used under solid state fermentation for production of cellulase. Moreover, the characteristics of the new cellulose produced from the new mutated strain was studied.Material and Methods: Cellulase was produced under solid state fermentation process. Spore suspensions of Trichoderma reesei were subjected to Co60 γ irradiation and mutated. The activities of cellulases (from parent and mutants were compared. The effects of temperature and pH on cellulase activity and the stability of cellulase in optimum condition were investigated.Results and Conclusion: Cellulase was successfully produced under solid state fermentation on the mixture of rice by-products as substrate. The results showed that mutation had a significant effect on cellulase activity and Characteristics. Trichoderma reesei B (a mutated strain had about 30% filter Paperase and 23% Carboxymethyl Cellulase higher than its parent. Cellulase activity of Trichoderma reesei B was 47% higher than its parent at the optimum temperature (50°C. In other temperatures, the activity of cellulase extracted from Trichoderma reesei B was significantly higher than that of the others; for example, at 60°C, the enzyme activity was 120% higher than its parent. It is notable that an 84% increase in the enzyme activity was observed at the optimum pH (4.5 after mutation and cellulase activity increased from 0.72 U g-1 dry solid to 1.31 U g-1 dry solid.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  1. Correlation of structure, function and protein dynamics in GH7 cellobiohydrolases from Trichoderma atroviride, T. reesei and T. harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Anna S; Eneyskaya, Elena V; Jana, Suvamay; Badino, Silke F; Kari, Jeppe; Amore, Antonella; Karlsson, Magnus; Hansson, Henrik; Sandgren, Mats; Himmel, Michael E; Westh, Peter; Payne, Christina M; Kulminskaya, Anna A; Ståhlberg, Jerry

    2018-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus Trichoderma reesei is the predominant source of enzymes for industrial conversion of lignocellulose. Its glycoside hydrolase family 7 cellobiohydrolase (GH7 CBH) Tre Cel7A constitutes nearly half of the enzyme cocktail by weight and is the major workhorse in the cellulose hydrolysis process. The orthologs from Trichoderma atroviride ( Tat Cel7A) and Trichoderma harzianum ( Tha Cel7A) show high sequence identity with Tre Cel7A, ~ 80%, and represent naturally evolved combinations of cellulose-binding tunnel-enclosing loop motifs, which have been suggested to influence intrinsic cellobiohydrolase properties, such as endo-initiation, processivity, and off-rate. The Tat Cel7A, Tha Cel7A, and Tre Cel7A enzymes were characterized for comparison of function. The catalytic domain of Tat Cel7A was crystallized, and two structures were determined: without ligand and with thio-cellotriose in the active site. Initial hydrolysis of bacterial cellulose was faster with Tat Cel7A than either Tha Cel7A or Tre Cel7A. In synergistic saccharification of pretreated corn stover, both Tat Cel7A and Tha Cel7A were more efficient than Tre Cel7A, although Tat Cel7A was more sensitive to thermal inactivation. Structural analyses and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to elucidate important structure/function correlations. Moreover, reverse conservation analysis (RCA) of sequence diversity revealed divergent regions of interest located outside the cellulose-binding tunnel of Trichoderma spp. GH7 CBHs. We hypothesize that the combination of loop motifs is the main determinant for the observed differences in Cel7A activity on cellulosic substrates. Fine-tuning of the loop flexibility appears to be an important evolutionary target in Trichoderma spp., a conclusion supported by the RCA data. Our results indicate that, for industrial use, it would be beneficial to combine loop motifs from Tat Cel7A with the thermostability features of Tre Cel7A. Furthermore

  2. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals different strategies for degradation of steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse by Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borin, Gustavo Pagotto; Sanchez, Camila Cristina; de Santana, Eliane Silva; Zanini, Guilherme Keppe; Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; de Oliveira Pontes, Angélica; de Souza, Aline Tieppo; Dal'Mas, Roberta Maria Menegaldo Tavares Soares; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro

    2017-06-30

    Second generation (2G) ethanol is produced by breaking down lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. In Brazil, sugarcane bagasse has been proposed as the lignocellulosic residue for this biofuel production. The enzymatic cocktails for the degradation of biomass-derived polysaccharides are mostly produced by fungi, such as Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei. However, it is not yet fully understood how these microorganisms degrade plant biomass. In order to identify transcriptomic changes during steam-exploded bagasse (SEB) breakdown, we conducted a RNA-seq comparative transcriptome profiling of both fungi growing on SEB as carbon source. Particular attention was focused on CAZymes, sugar transporters, transcription factors (TFs) and other proteins related to lignocellulose degradation. Although genes coding for the main enzymes involved in biomass deconstruction were expressed by both fungal strains since the beginning of the growth in SEB, significant differences were found in their expression profiles. The expression of these enzymes is mainly regulated at the transcription level, and A. niger and T. reesei also showed differences in TFs content and in their expression. Several sugar transporters that were induced in both fungal strains could be new players on biomass degradation besides their role in sugar uptake. Interestingly, our findings revealed that in both strains several genes that code for proteins of unknown function and pro-oxidant, antioxidant, and detoxification enzymes were induced during growth in SEB as carbon source, but their specific roles on lignocellulose degradation remain to be elucidated. This is the first report of a time-course experiment monitoring the degradation of pretreated bagasse by two important fungi using the RNA-seq technology. It was possible to identify a set of genes that might be applied in several biotechnology fields. The data suggest that these two microorganisms employ different strategies for biomass

  3. Optimization of a synthetic mixture composed of major Trichoderma reesei enzymes for the hydrolysis of steam-exploded wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billard Hélène

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates to soluble sugars for biofuel production necessitates the interplay and synergistic interaction of multiple enzymes. An optimized enzyme mixture is crucial for reduced cost of the enzymatic hydrolysis step in a bioethanol production process and its composition will depend on the substrate and type of pretreatment used. In the present study, an experimental design was used to determine the optimal composition of a Trichoderma reesei enzyme mixture, comprising the main cellulase and hemicellulase activities, for the hydrolysis of steam-exploded wheat straw. Methods Six enzymes, CBH1 (Cel7a, CBH2 (Cel6a, EG1 (Cel7b, EG2 (Cel5a, as well as the xyloglucanase Cel74a and the xylanase XYN1 (Xyl11a were purified from a T. reesei culture under lactose/xylose-induced conditions. Sugar release was followed in milliliter-scale hydrolysis assays for 48 hours and the influence of the mixture on initial conversion rates and final yields is assessed. Results The developed model could show that both responses were strongly correlated. Model predictions suggest that optimal hydrolysis yields can be obtained over a wide range of CBH1 to CBH2 ratios, but necessitates a high proportion of EG1 (13% to 25% which cannot be replaced by EG2. Whereas 5% to 10% of the latter enzyme and a xylanase content above 6% are required for highest yields, these enzymes are predicted to be less important in the initial stage of hydrolysis. Conclusions The developed model could reliably predict hydrolysis yields of enzyme mixtures in the studied domain and highlighted the importance of the respective enzyme components in both the initial and the final hydrolysis phase of steam-exploded wheat straw.

  4. KINETIKA FERMENTASI SELULOSA MURNI OLEH Trichoderma reesi QM 9414 MENJADI GLUKOSA DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA JERAMI PADI BEBAS LIGNIN [Kinetics of Pure Cellulose Fermentation by Trichoderma Reesei QM 9414 to Glucose and Its Application of on Lignin Free Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Iyan Sofyan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were: 1 to determine aeration rate and substrate concentration of pure cellulose to produce maximum glucose by Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 at 30 oC, and agitation 150 rpm; 2 to study the kinetics of pure cellulose fermentation by Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 to glucose and its implication upon fermentation of the lignin free rice straw. The experiment was arranged in factorial randomized complete design in three times replication. Treatments consisted of three levels of aeration (1,00 vvm; 1,5 vvm; 2,0 vvm and three levels of substrate concentration (0,75 ; 1,00 ; 1,25 % w/v. The results showed that at the exponential phase the average specific growth of Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 was 0,05374 hour-1, the maximum glucose product concentration of pure cellulose was 0.1644 gL-1,and the oxygen transfer was 0,0328 mg L-1 hour-1. According to t-test, the kinetics of pure cellulose fermentation model just the same as the lignin free rice straw fermentation.The enzymes produced by Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 in pure cellulose fermentation media followed the Michaelis-Menten model. The enzyme kinetic parameters were the maximum growth rate was 37x10-3 hour-1 and Michaelis-Menten constant was ½ maximum μ =17,5x10-3 hour-1. The volumetric oxygen transfer (KLa using rice straw was 0,0337 mg.hour-1. The value of KLa could be used for conversion from bioreactor at laboratory scale to commercial scale design.

  5. Trichoderma reesei xylanase 5 is defective in the reference strain QM6a but functional alleles are present in other wild-type strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoni, Jonas; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Seiboth, Bernhard

    2017-05-01

    Trichoderma reesei is a paradigm for the regulation and industrial production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. Among these, five xylanases, including the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11 XYN1 and XYN2, the GH10 XYN3, and the GH30 XYN4 and XYN6, were described. By genome mining and transcriptome analysis, a further putative xylanase, encoded by xyn5, was identified. Analysis of xyn5 from the genome-sequenced reference strain T. reesei QM6a shows that it encodes a non-functional, truncated form of XYN5. However, non-truncated orthologues are present in other genome sequenced Trichoderma spp., and sequencing of xyn5 in other T. reesei wild-type isolates shows that they harbor a putative functional xyn5 allele. In silico analysis and 3D modeling revealed that the encoded XYN5 has significant structural similarities to xylanases of the GH11 family, including a GH-typical substrate binding groove and a carboxylate pair in the active site. The xyn5 of wild-type strain TUCIM1282 was recombinantly expressed in a T. reesei strain with a (hemi)cellulase-free background and the corresponding protein purified to apparent homogeneity. The pH and temperature optima and the kinetic parameters of the purified XYN5 were pH 4, 50 °C, and V max  = 2646 nkat/mg with a K m of 9.68 mg/ml. This functional xyn5 allele was used to replace the mutated version which led to an overall increase of the xylanolytic activity. These findings are of particular importance as GH11 xylanases are of high biotechnological relevance, and T. reesei is one of the main industrial producers of such lignocellulose-degrading enzymes.

  6. Effect of pH on production of xylanase by Trichoderma reesei on xylan- and cellulose-based media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, M.J. (VTT, Biotechnical Lab., Espoo (Finland)); Buchert, J. (VTT, Biotechnical Lab., Espoo (Finland)); Viikari, L. (VTT, Biotechnical Lab., Espoo (Finland))

    1993-11-01

    Trichoderma reesei VTT-D-86271 (Rut C-30) was cultivated on media based on cellulose and xylan as the main carbon source in fermentors with different pH minimum controls. Production of xylanase was favoured by a rather high pH minimum control between 6.0 and 7.0 on both cellulose- and xylan-based media. Although xylanase was produced efficiently on cellulose as well as on xylan as the carbon source, significant production of cellulase was observed only on the cellulose-based medium and best production was at lower pH (4.0 minimum). Production of xylanase at pH 7.0 was shown to be dependent on the nature of the xylan in the cultivation medium but was independent of other organic components. Best production of xylanase was observed on insoluble, unsubstituted beech xylan at pH 7.0. Similar results were obtained in laboratory and pilot (200-1) fermentors. Downstream processing of the xylanase-rich, low-cellulase culture filtrate presented no technical problems despite apparent autolysis of the fungus at the high pH. Enzyme produced in the 200-1 pilot fermentor was shown to be suitable for use in enzyme-aided bleaching of kraft pulp. Due to the high xylanase/cellulase ratio of enzyme activities in the culture filtrate, pretreatment for removal of cellulase activity prior to pulp bleaching was unnecessary. (orig.)

  7. Kinetic studies on batch cultivation of Trichoderma reesei and application to enhance cellulase production by fed-batch fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lijuan; Li, Chen; Yang, Zhenhua; Jia, Wendi; Zhang, Dongyuan; Chen, Shulin

    2013-07-20

    Reducing the production cost of cellulase as the key enzyme for cellulose hydrolysis to fermentable sugars remains a major challenge for biofuel production. Because of the complexity of cellulase production, kinetic modeling and mass balance calculation can be used as effective tools for process design and optimization. In this study, kinetic models for cell growth, substrate consumption and cellulase production in batch fermentation were developed, and then applied in fed-batch fermentation to enhance cellulase production. Inhibition effect of substrate was considered and a modified Luedeking-Piret model was developed for cellulase production and substrate consumption according to the growth characteristics of Trichoderma reesei. The model predictions fit well with the experimental data. Simulation results showed that higher initial substrate concentration led to decrease of cellulase production rate. Mass balance and kinetic simulation results were applied to determine the feeding strategy. Cellulase production and its corresponding productivity increased by 82.13% after employing the proper feeding strategy in fed-batch fermentation. This method combining mathematics and chemometrics by kinetic modeling and mass balance can not only improve cellulase fermentation process, but also help to better understand the cellulase fermentation process. The model development can also provide insight to other similar fermentation processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sugar-binding sites on the surface of the carbohydrate-binding module of CBH I from Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavagnacco, Letizia; Mason, Philip E; Schnupf, Udo; Pitici, Felicia; Zhong, Linghao; Himmel, Michael E; Crowley, Michael; Cesàro, Attilio; Brady, John W

    2011-05-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out for a system consisting of the carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) of the cellulase CBH I from Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) in a concentrated solution of β-D-glucopyranose, to determine whether there is any tendency for the sugar molecules to bind to the CBM. In spite of the general tendency of glucose to behave as an osmolyte, a marked tendency for the sugar molecules to bind to the protein was observed. However, the glucose molecules tended to bind only to specific sites on the protein. As expected, the hydrophobic face of the sugar molecules, comprising the axial H1, H3, and H5 aliphatic protons, tended to adhere to the flat faces of the three tyrosine side chains on the planar binding surface of the CBM. However, a significant tendency to bind to a groove-like feature on the upper surface of the CBM was also observed. These results would not be inconsistent with a model of the mechanism for this globular domain in which the cellodextrin chain being removed from the surface of crystalline cellulose passes over the upper surface of the CBM, presumably then available for hydrolysis in the active site tunnel of this processive cellulase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dehydrogenase GRD1 Represents a Novel Component of the Cellulase Regulon in Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) ▿ † §

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, André; Kubicek, Christian P.; Schmoll, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) is nowadays the most important industrial producer of cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes, which are used for pretreatment of cellulosic biomass for biofuel production. In this study, we introduce a novel component, GRD1 (glucose-ribitol dehydrogenase 1), which shows enzymatic activity on cellobiose and positively influences cellulase gene transcription, expression, and extracellular endo-1,4-β-d-glucanase activity. grd1 is differentially transcribed upon growth on cellulose and the induction of cellulase gene expression by sophorose. The transcription of grd1 is coregulated with that of cel7a (cbh1) under inducing conditions. GRD1 is further involved in carbon source utilization on several carbon sources, such as those involved in lactose and d-galactose catabolism, in several cases in a light-dependent manner. We conclude that GRD1 represents a novel enhancer of cellulase gene expression, which by coregulation with the major cellulase may act via optimization of inducing mechanisms. PMID:21602376

  10. A new stoichiometric miniaturization strategy for screening of industrial microbial strains: application to cellulase hyper-producing Trichoderma reesei strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jourdier Etienne

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During bioprocess development, secondary screening is a key step at the boundary between laboratory and industrial conditions. To ensure an effective high-throughput screening, miniaturized laboratory conditions must mimic industrial conditions, especially for oxygen transfer, feeding capacity and pH stabilization. Results A feeding strategy has been applied to develop a simple screening procedure, in which a stoichiometric study is combined with a standard miniaturization procedure. Actually, the knowledge of all nutriments and base or acid requirements leads to a great simplification of pH stabilization issue of miniaturized fed-batch cultures. Applied to cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei, this strategy resulted in a stoichiometric mixed feed of carbon and nitrogen sources. While keeping the pH between shake flask and stirred bioreactor comparable, the developed shake flask protocol reproduced the strain behaviour under stirred bioreactor conditions. Compared to a an already existing miniaturized shake flasks protocol, the cellulase concentration was increased 5-fold, reaching about 10 g L-1. Applied to the secondary screening of several clones, the newly developed protocol succeeded in selecting a clone with a high industrial potential. Conclusions The understanding of a bioprocess stoichiometry contributed to define a simpler and more effective miniaturization. The suggested strategy can potentially be applied to other fed-batch processes, for the screening of either strain collections or experimental conditions.

  11. Optimization of the Medium for the Production of Cellulase by the Mutant Trichoderma reesei WX-112 Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Cai Hao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The mutant strain Trichoderma reesei WX-112 with high cellulase activity was isolated by a newly invented plate. The mutant’s ability to produce cellulase increased 1.95 times after the treatment with UV and N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG. Also, the medium composition was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. A fractional factorial design (26–2 was applied to elucidate the medium components that significantly affect cellulase production. The concentration of Avicel and soybean cake flour in the medium were significant factors. The steepest ascent method was used to locate the optimal domain and a central composite design was used to estimate the quadratic response surface from which the factor levels for maximum production of cellulase were determined. The composition of fermentation medium optimized with response surface methodology was (in g/L: wheat bran 30, Avicel 36.4, soybean cake flour 24.7, KH2PO4 4 and corn steep flour 5. Compared to the original medium, the cellulase activity increased from 7.2 to 10.6 IU/mL.

  12. Synergistic action of recombinant accessory hemicellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes to Trichoderma reesei cellulase on rice straw degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laothanachareon, Thanaporn; Bunterngsook, Benjarat; Suwannarangsee, Surisa; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Champreda, Verawat

    2015-12-01

    Synergism between core cellulases and accessory hydrolytic/non-hydrolytic enzymes is the basis of efficient hydrolysis of lignocelluloses. In this study, the synergistic action of three recombinant accessory enzymes, namely GH62 α-l-arabinofuranosidase (ARA), CE8 pectin esterase (PET), and GH10 endo-1,4-beta-xylanase (XYL) from Aspergillus aculeatus expressed in Pichia pastoris to a commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulase (Accellerase® 1500; ACR) on hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated rice straw was studied using a mixture design approach. Applying the full cubic model, the optimal ratio of quaternary enzyme mixture was predicted to be ACR:ARA:PET:XYL of 0.171:0.079:0.100:0.150, which showed a glucose releasing efficiency of 0.173 gglc/FPU, higher than the binary ACR:XYL mixture (0.122 gglc/FPU) and ACR alone (0.081 gglc/FPU) leading to a 47.3% increase in glucose yield compared with that from ACR at the same cellulase dosage. The result demonstrates the varying degree of synergism of accessory enzymes to cellulases useful for developing tailor-made enzyme systems for bio-industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Utilization of recombinant Trichoderma reesei expressing Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase I (JN11) for a more economical production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treebupachatsakul, Treesukon; Shioya, Koki; Nakazawa, Hikaru; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Morikawa, Yasushi; Shida, Yosuke; Ogasawara, Wataru; Okada, Hirofumi

    2015-12-01

    The capacity of Trichoderma reesei cellulase to degrade lignocellulosic biomass has been enhanced by the construction of a recombinant T. reesei strain expressing Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase I. We have confirmed highly efficient ethanol production from converge-milled Japanese cedar by recombinant T. reesei expressing A. aculeatus β-glucosidase I (JN11). We investigated the ethanol productivity of JN11 and compared it with the cocktail enzyme T. reesei PC-3-7 with reinforced cellobiase activity by the commercial Novozyme 188. Results showed that the ethanol production efficiency under enzymatic hydrolysis of JN11 was comparable to the cocktail enzyme both on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) or separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) processes. Moreover, the cocktail enzyme required more protein loading for attaining similar levels of ethanol conversion as JN11. We propose that JN11 is an intrinsically economical enzyme that can eliminate the supplementation of BGL for PC-3-7, thereby reducing the cost of industrial ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of multiple short highly energetic X-ray pulses on the synthesis of endoglucanase by a mutant strain of Trichoderma reesei-M7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemishev, Orlin; Markova, Maya; Savov, Valentin; Zapryanov, Stanislav; Blagoev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Bioconversion of cellulose-containing substrate to glucose represents an important area of modern biotechnology. Enzymes for the degradation of the polysaccharide part of biomass have been produced, mostly by fungi belonging to genus Trichoderma. Studies were carried out with the mutant strain Trichoderma reesei-M7, a cellulase producer. Spores of the enzyme producer were irradiated with different doses of characteristic X-ray radiation from metallic tungsten (mainly the W Ka1 and Ka2 lines) with a high dose rate. The latter is a specific property of the dense plasma focus (DPF) device, which has pulsed operation and thus gives short and highly energetic pulses of multiple types of rays and particles. In this case, we focused our study on the influence of hard X-rays. The doses of X-rays absorbed by the spores varied in the range of approximately 5-11,000 mSv measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The influence of the applied doses in combination with exceptionally high dose rates (in the order of tens of millisieverts per microsecond) on the activity of the produced endoglucanase, amount of biomass and extra-cellular protein, was studied in batch cultivation conditions. In the dose range of 200-1200 mSv, some enhancement of endoglucanase activity was obtained: around 18%-32%, despite the drop of the biomass amount, compared with the untreated material. Keywords: endoglucanase; X-ray pulses; thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD); dense plasma focus (DPF); Trichoderma reesei

  15. Exploring the Synergy between Cellobiose Dehydrogenase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Cellulase from Trichoderma reesei

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Min; Lu, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Recent demands for the production of lignocellulose biofuels boosted research on cellulase. Hydrolysis efficiency and production cost of cellulase are two bottlenecks in biomass to biofuels process. The Trichoderma cellulase mixture is one of the most commonly used enzymes for cellulosic hydrolysis. During hydrolytic process cellobiose accumulation causes feedback inhibition against most cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases. In this study, we demonstrated the synergism effects between cellob...

  16. A mitogen-activated protein kinase Tmk3 participates in high osmolarity resistance, cell wall integrity maintenance and cellulase production regulation in Trichoderma reesei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyu Wang

    Full Text Available The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways are important signal transduction pathways conserved in essentially all eukaryotes, but haven't been subjected to functional studies in the most important cellulase-producing filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Previous reports suggested the presence of three MAPKs in T. reesei: Tmk1, Tmk2, and Tmk3. By exploring the phenotypic features of T. reesei Δtmk3, we first showed elevated NaCl sensitivity and repressed transcription of genes involved in glycerol/trehalose biosynthesis under higher osmolarity, suggesting Tmk3 participates in high osmolarity resistance via derepression of genes involved in osmotic stabilizer biosynthesis. We also showed significant downregulation of genes encoding chitin synthases and a β-1,3-glucan synthase, decreased chitin content, 'budded' hyphal appearance typical to cell wall defective strains, and increased sensitivity to calcofluor white/Congo red in the tmk3 deficient strain, suggesting Tmk3 is involved in cell wall integrity maintenance in T. reesei. We further observed the decrease of cellulase transcription and production in T. reesei Δtmk3 during submerged cultivation, as well as the presence of MAPK phosphorylation sites on known transcription factors involved in cellulase regulation, suggesting Tmk3 is also involved in the regulation of cellulase production. Finally, the expression of cell wall integrity related genes, the expression of cellulase coding genes, cellulase production and biomass accumulation were compared between T. reesei Δtmk3 grown in solid state media and submerged media, showing a strong restoration effect in solid state media from defects resulted from tmk3 deletion. These results showed novel physiological processes that fungal Hog1-type MAPKs are involved in, and present the first experimental investigation of MAPK signaling pathways in T. reesei. Our observations on the restoration effect during solid state cultivation suggest

  17. A Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Tmk3 Participates in High Osmolarity Resistance, Cell Wall Integrity Maintenance and Cellulase Production Regulation in Trichoderma reesei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingyu; Zhao, Qiushuang; Yang, Jinghua; Jiang, Baojie; Wang, Fangzhong; Liu, Kuimei; Fang, Xu

    2013-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are important signal transduction pathways conserved in essentially all eukaryotes, but haven't been subjected to functional studies in the most important cellulase-producing filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Previous reports suggested the presence of three MAPKs in T. reesei: Tmk1, Tmk2, and Tmk3. By exploring the phenotypic features of T. reesei Δtmk3, we first showed elevated NaCl sensitivity and repressed transcription of genes involved in glycerol/trehalose biosynthesis under higher osmolarity, suggesting Tmk3 participates in high osmolarity resistance via derepression of genes involved in osmotic stabilizer biosynthesis. We also showed significant downregulation of genes encoding chitin synthases and a β-1,3-glucan synthase, decreased chitin content, ‘budded’ hyphal appearance typical to cell wall defective strains, and increased sensitivity to calcofluor white/Congo red in the tmk3 deficient strain, suggesting Tmk3 is involved in cell wall integrity maintenance in T. reesei. We further observed the decrease of cellulase transcription and production in T. reesei Δtmk3 during submerged cultivation, as well as the presence of MAPK phosphorylation sites on known transcription factors involved in cellulase regulation, suggesting Tmk3 is also involved in the regulation of cellulase production. Finally, the expression of cell wall integrity related genes, the expression of cellulase coding genes, cellulase production and biomass accumulation were compared between T. reesei Δtmk3 grown in solid state media and submerged media, showing a strong restoration effect in solid state media from defects resulted from tmk3 deletion. These results showed novel physiological processes that fungal Hog1-type MAPKs are involved in, and present the first experimental investigation of MAPK signaling pathways in T. reesei. Our observations on the restoration effect during solid state cultivation suggest that T. reesei

  18. Unraveling the Secondary Metabolism of the Biotechnological Important Filamentous Fungus Trichoderma reesei ( Teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning

    that would enable pursuance of the primary objective. The developed molecular tools were assembled into an expression system for high-throughput construction of defined integrated T. reesei mutants and combined inactivation of the non-homologous end joining pathway that facilitates ectopic integration...... of exposed DNA fragments, and a color maker so that the mutants, in which the substrate had been integrated correct, could be identified by their phenotype. A new bidirectional selective marker system was developed based on the pyr2 gene, involved in the pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway, and was included...... essential for biosynthesis of the sorbicillinoids. Hence, genes involved in biosynthesis of this group of polyketides were identified for the first time. Comparative genomics was subsequently used to identify a highly similar polyketide synthase gene cluster in another well-known sorbicillinoid producer...

  19. Crystal structures of wild-type Trichoderma reesei Cel7A catalytic domain in open and closed states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodenheimer, Annette M. [Molecular and Structural Biochemistry Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC USA; Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN USA; Meilleur, Flora [Molecular and Structural Biochemistry Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC USA; Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN USA

    2016-11-07

    Trichoderma reesei Cel7A efficiently hydrolyses cellulose. We report here the crystallographic structures of the wild-type TrCel7A catalytic domain (CD) in an open state and, for the first time, in a closed state. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate that the loops along the CD tunnel move in concerted motions. Together, the crystallographic and MD data suggest that the CD cycles between the tense and relaxed forms that are characteristic of work producing enzymes. Analysis of the interactions formed by R251 provides a structural rationale for the concurrent decrease in product inhibition and catalytic efficiency measured for product-binding site mutants.

  20. Enzymatic activity of the cellulolytic complex produced by trichoderma reesei. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonsel Jaen, M.; Negro, M.J.; Saez, R.; Martin Moreno, C.

    1986-01-01

    The enzymatic activity characterization of the cellulolytic complex obtained from Trichoderma reese QM 9414 and the influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions on the hydrolysis yield are studied. Pure cellulose and native or alkali pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum have been used as substrates. The values of pH, temperature, substrate concentration and enzyme-substrate ratio for the optimum activity of that complex, evaluated as glucose and reducing sugars productions, have been selected. Previous studies on enzymatic hydrolysis of O. nervosum have shown a remarkable effect of the alkaline pretreatments on the final hydrolysis yield. (author). 10 figs.; 10 refs

  1. Insight into the process of product expulsion in cellobiohydrolase Cel6A from Trichoderma reesei by computational modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Houhou; Han, Fei; Guan, Shanshan; Qian, Mengdan; Wan, Yongfeng; Shan, Yaming; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Song

    2018-03-24

    Glycoside hydrolase cellulase family 6 from Trichoderma reesei (TrCel6A) is an important cellobiohydrolase to hydrolyze cellooligosaccharide into cellobiose. The knowledge of enzymatic mechanisms is critical for improving the conversion efficiency of cellulose into ethanol or other chemicals. However, the process of product expulsion, a key component of enzymatic depolymerization, from TrCel6A has not yet been described in detail. Here, conventional molecular dynamics and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) were applied to study product expulsion from TrCel6A. Tyr103 may be a crucial residue in product expulsion given that it exhibits two different posthydrolytic conformations. In one conformation, Tyr103 rotates to open the -3 subsite. However, Tyr103 does not rotate in the other conformation. Three different routes for product expulsion were proposed on the basis of the two different conformations. The total energy barriers of the three routes were calculated through SMD simulations. The total energy barrier of product expulsion through Route 1, in which Tyr103 does not rotate, was 22.2 kcal·mol -1 . The total energy barriers of product expulsion through Routes 2 and 3, in which Tyr103 rotates to open the -3 subsite, were 10.3 and 14.4 kcal·mol -1 , respectively. Therefore, Routes 2 and 3 have lower energy barriers than Route 1, and Route 2 is the thermodynamically optimal route for product expulsion. Consequently, the rotation of Tyr103 may be crucial for product release from TrCel6A. Results of this work have potential applications in cellulase engineering.

  2. A β-glucosidase hyper-production Trichoderma reesei mutant reveals a potential role of cel3D in cellulase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengcheng; Lin, Fengming; Li, Yizhen; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hongyin; Qin, Lei; Zhou, Zhihua; Li, Bingzhi; Wu, Fugen; Chen, Zhan

    2016-09-01

    The conversion of cellulose by cellulase to fermentable sugars for biomass-based products such as cellulosic biofuels, biobased fine chemicals and medicines is an environment-friendly and sustainable process, making wastes profitable and bringing economic benefits. Trichoderma reesei is the well-known major workhorse for cellulase production in industry, but the low β-glucosidase activity in T. reesei cellulase leads to inefficiency in biomass degradation and limits its industrial application. Thus, there are ongoing interests in research to develop methods to overcome this insufficiency. Moreover, although β-glucosidases have been demonstrated to influence cellulase production and participate in the regulation of cellulase production, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The T. reesei recombinant strain TRB1 was constructed from T. reesei RUT-C30 by the T-DNA-based mutagenesis. Compared to RUT-C30, TRB1 displays a significant enhancement of extracellular β-glucosidase (BGL1) activity with 17-fold increase, a moderate increase of both the endoglucanase (EG) activity and the exoglucanase (CBH) activity, a minor improvement of the total filter paper activity, and a faster cellulase induction. This superiority of TRB1 over RUT-C30 is independent on carbon sources and improves the saccharification ability of TRB1 cellulase on pretreated corn stover. Furthermore, TRB1 shows better resistance to carbon catabolite repression than RUT-C30. Secretome characterization of TRB1 shows that the amount of CBH, EG and BGL in the supernatant of T. reesei TRB1 was indeed increased along with the enhanced activities of these three enzymes. Surprisingly, qRT-PCR and gene cloning showed that in TRB1 β-glucosidase cel3D was mutated through the random insertion by AMT and was not expressed. The T. reesei recombinant strain TRB1 constructed in this study is more desirable for industrial application than the parental strain RUT-C30, showing extracellular β-glucosidase hyper

  3. Overexpression of an exotic thermotolerant β-glucosidase in trichoderma reesei and its significant increase in cellulolytic activity and saccharification of barley straw

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    Dashtban Mehdi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichoderma reesei is a widely used industrial strain for cellulase production, but its low yield of β-glucosidase has prevented its industrial value. In the hydrolysis process of cellulolytic residues by T. reesei, a disaccharide known as cellobiose is produced and accumulates, which inhibits further cellulases production. This problem can be solved by adding β-glucosidase, which hydrolyzes cellobiose to glucose for fermentation. It is, therefore, of high vvalue to construct T. reesei strains which can produce sufficient β-glucosidase and other hydrolytic enzymes, especially when those enzymes are capable of tolerating extreme conditions such as high temperature and acidic or alkali pH. Results We successfully engineered a thermostable β-glucosidase gene from the fungus Periconia sp. into the genome of T. reesei QM9414 strain. The engineered T. reesei strain showed about 10.5-fold (23.9 IU/mg higher β-glucosidase activity compared to the parent strain (2.2 IU/mg after 24 h of incubation. The transformants also showed very high total cellulase activity (about 39.0 FPU/mg at 24 h of incubation whereas the parent strain almost did not show any total cellulase activity at 24 h of incubation. The recombinant β-glucosidase showed to be thermotolerant and remains fully active after two-hour incubation at temperatures as high as 60°C. Additionally, it showed to be active at a wide pH range and maintains about 88% of its maximal activity after four-hour incubation at 25°C in a pH range from 3.0 to 9.0. Enzymatic hydrolysis assay using untreated, NaOH, or Organosolv pretreated barley straw as well as microcrystalline cellulose showed that the transformed T. reesei strains released more reducing sugars compared to the parental strain. Conclusions The recombinant T. reesei overexpressing Periconia sp. β-glucosidase in this study showed higher β-glucosidase and total cellulase activities within a shorter incubation

  4. Expression of three Trichoderma reesei cellulase genes in Saccharomyces pastorianus for the development of a two-step process of hydrolysis and fermentation of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, J; Kricka, W; James, T C; Bond, U

    2014-07-01

    To compare the production of recombinant cellulase enzymes in two Saccharomyces species so as to ascertain the most suitable heterologous host for the degradation of cellulose-based biomass and its conversion into bioethanol. cDNA copies of genes representing the three major classes of cellulases (Endoglucanases, Cellobiohydrolases and β-glucosidases) from Trichoderma reesei were expressed in Saccharomyces pastorianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recombinant enzymes were secreted by the yeast hosts into the medium and were shown to act in synergy to hydrolyse cellulose. The conditions required to achieve maximum release of glucose from cellulose by the recombinant enzymes were defined and the activity of the recombinant enzymes was compared to a commercial cocktail of T. reesei cellulases. We demonstrate that significantly higher levels of cellulase activity were achieved by expression of the genes in S. pastorianus compared to S. cerevisiae. Hydrolysis of cellulose by the combined activity of the recombinant enzymes was significantly better at 50°C than at 30°C, the temperature used for mesophilic yeast fermentations, reflecting the known temperature profiles of the native enzymes. The results demonstrate that host choice is important for the heterologous production of cellulases. On the basis of the low activity of the T. reesei recombinant enzymes at fermentation temperatures, we propose a two-step process for the hydrolysis of cellulose and its fermentation into alcohol using cellulases produced in situ. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Characterization and Strain Improvement of a Hypercellulytic Variant, Trichoderma reesei SN1, by Genetic Engineering for Optimized Cellulase Production in Biomass Conversion Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yuanchao; Zhong, Lixia; Hou, Yunhua; Qu, Yinbo; Zhong, Yaohua

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is a widely used strain for cellulolytic enzyme production. A hypercellulolytic T. reesei variant SN1 was identified in this study and found to be different from the well-known cellulase producers QM9414 and RUT-C30. The cellulose-degrading enzymes of T. reesei SN1 show higher endoglucanase (EG) activity but lower β-glucosidase (BGL) activity than those of the others. A uracil auxotroph strain, SP4, was constructed by pyr4 deletion in SN1 to improve transformation efficiency. The BGL1-encoding gene bgl1 under the control of a modified cbh1 promoter was overexpressed in SP4. A transformant, SPB2, with four additional copies of bgl1 exhibited a 17.1-fold increase in BGL activity and a 30.0% increase in filter paper activity. Saccharification of corncob residues with crude enzyme showed that the glucose yield of SPB2 is 65.0% higher than that of SP4. These results reveal the feasibility of strain improvement through the development of an efficient genetic transformation platform to construct a balanced cellulase system for biomass conversion.

  6. Characterization and strain improvement of a hypercellulytic variant, Trichoderma reesei SN1, by genetic engineering for optimized cellulase production in biomass conversion improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yuanchao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is a widely used strain for cellulolytic enzyme production. A hypercellulolytic T. reesei variant SN1 was identified in this study and found to be different from the well-known cellulase producers QM9414 and RUT-C30. The cellulose-degrading enzymes of T. reesei SN1 show higher endoglucanase (EG activity but lower β-glucosidase (BGL activity than those of QM9414 and RUT-C30. A uracil auxotroph strain, SP4, was constructed by pyr4 deletion in SN1 to improve transformation efficiency. The BGL1-encoding gene bgl1 under the control of a modified cbh1 promoter was overexpressed in SP4. A transformant, SPB2, with four additional copies of bgl1 exhibited a 17.1-fold increase in BGL activity and a 30% increase in filter paper activity. Saccharification of corncob residues with crude enzyme showed that the glucose yield of SPB2 is 65% higher than that of SP4. These results reveal the feasibility of strain improvement through the development of an efficient genetic transformation platform to construct a balanced cellulase system for biomass conversion.

  7. Study of a High-Yield Cellulase System Created by Heavy-Ion Irradiation-Induced Mutagenesis of Aspergillus niger and Mixed Fermentation with Trichoderma reesei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Hong; Li, Wen-Jian; Liu, Jing; Hu, Wei; Xiao, Guo-Qing; Dong, Miao-Yin; Wang, Yu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the efficiency of 12C6+ irradiation of Aspergillus niger (A. niger) or mutagenesis via mixed Trichoderma viride (T. viride) culturing as well as a liquid cultivation method for cellulase production via mixed Trichoderma reesei (T. reesei) and A. niger culture fermentation. The first mutagenesis approach was employed to optimize yield from a cellulase-producing strain via heavy-ion mutagenesis and high-throughput screening, and the second was to effectively achieve enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulase from a mixed culture of mutant T. viride and A. niger. We found that 12C6+-ion irradiation induced changes in cellulase biosynthesis in A. niger but had no effect on the time course of the synthesis. It is notable that the exoglucanases (CBH) activities of A. niger strains H11-1 and H differed (6.71 U/mL vs. 6.01 U/mL) and were significantly higher than that of A. niger mutant H3-1. Compared with strain H, the filter paper assay (FPA), endoglucanase (EG) and β-glucosidase (BGL) activities of mutant strain H11-1 were increased by 250.26%, 30.26% and 34.91%, respectively. A mixed culture system was successfully optimized, and the best ratio of T. reesei to A. niger was 5:1 for 96 h with simultaneous inoculation. The BGL activity of the mixed culture increased after 72 h. At 96 h, the FPA and BGL activities of the mixed culture were 689.00 and 797.15 U/mL, respectively, significantly higher than those of monocultures, which were 408.70 and 646.98 U/mL for T. reesei and 447.29 and 658.89 U/mL for A. niger, respectively. The EG activity of the mixed culture was 2342.81 U/mL, a value that was significantly higher than that of monocultures at 2206.57 U/mL for T. reesei and 1727.62 U/mL for A. niger. In summary, cellulose production and hydrolysis yields were significantly enhanced by the proposed combination scheme. PMID:26656155

  8. Study of a High-Yield Cellulase System Created by Heavy-Ion Irradiation-Induced Mutagenesis of Aspergillus niger and Mixed Fermentation with Trichoderma reesei.

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    Shu-Yang Wang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the efficiency of 12C6+ irradiation of Aspergillus niger (A. niger or mutagenesis via mixed Trichoderma viride (T. viride culturing as well as a liquid cultivation method for cellulase production via mixed Trichoderma reesei (T. reesei and A. niger culture fermentation. The first mutagenesis approach was employed to optimize yield from a cellulase-producing strain via heavy-ion mutagenesis and high-throughput screening, and the second was to effectively achieve enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulase from a mixed culture of mutant T. viride and A. niger. We found that 12C6+-ion irradiation induced changes in cellulase biosynthesis in A. niger but had no effect on the time course of the synthesis. It is notable that the exoglucanases (CBH activities of A. niger strains H11-1 and H differed (6.71 U/mL vs. 6.01 U/mL and were significantly higher than that of A. niger mutant H3-1. Compared with strain H, the filter paper assay (FPA, endoglucanase (EG and β-glucosidase (BGL activities of mutant strain H11-1 were increased by 250.26%, 30.26% and 34.91%, respectively. A mixed culture system was successfully optimized, and the best ratio of T. reesei to A. niger was 5:1 for 96 h with simultaneous inoculation. The BGL activity of the mixed culture increased after 72 h. At 96 h, the FPA and BGL activities of the mixed culture were 689.00 and 797.15 U/mL, respectively, significantly higher than those of monocultures, which were 408.70 and 646.98 U/mL for T. reesei and 447.29 and 658.89 U/mL for A. niger, respectively. The EG activity of the mixed culture was 2342.81 U/mL, a value that was significantly higher than that of monocultures at 2206.57 U/mL for T. reesei and 1727.62 U/mL for A. niger. In summary, cellulose production and hydrolysis yields were significantly enhanced by the proposed combination scheme.

  9. Secretome analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated by submerged and sequential fermentation processes: Enzyme production for sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio, Camila; Cunha, Fernanda M; Badino, Alberto C; Farinas, Cristiane S; Ximenes, Eduardo; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Cellulases and hemicellulases from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger have been shown to be powerful enzymes for biomass conversion to sugars, but the production costs are still relatively high for commercial application. The choice of an effective microbial cultivation process employed for enzyme production is important, since it may affect titers and the profile of protein secretion. We used proteomic analysis to characterize the secretome of T. reesei and A. niger cultivated in submerged and sequential fermentation processes. The information gained was key to understand differences in hydrolysis of steam exploded sugarcane bagasse for enzyme cocktails obtained from two different cultivation processes. The sequential process for cultivating A. niger gave xylanase and β-glucosidase activities 3- and 8-fold higher, respectively, than corresponding activities from the submerged process. A greater protein diversity of critical cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes were also observed through secretome analyses. These results helped to explain the 3-fold higher yield for hydrolysis of non-washed pretreated bagasse when combined T. reesei and A. niger enzyme extracts from sequential fermentation were used in place of enzymes obtained from submerged fermentation. An enzyme loading of 0.7 FPU cellulase activity/g glucan was surprisingly effective when compared to the 5-15 times more enzyme loadings commonly reported for other cellulose hydrolysis studies. Analyses showed that more than 80% consisted of proteins other than cellulases whose role is important to the hydrolysis of a lignocellulose substrate. Our work combined proteomic analyses and enzymology studies to show that sequential and submerged cultivation methods differently influence both titers and secretion profile of key enzymes required for the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse. The higher diversity of feruloyl esterases, xylanases and other auxiliary hemicellulolytic enzymes observed in the enzyme

  10. Expression of Trichoderma reesei β-mannanase in tobacco chloroplasts and its utilization in lignocellulosic woody biomass hydrolysis.

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    Pankaj Agrawal

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic ethanol offers a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuels. One among the major limitations in the lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis is unavailability of efficient and environmentally biomass degrading technologies. Plant-based production of these enzymes on large scale offers a cost-effective solution. Cellulases, hemicellulases including mannanases and other accessory enzymes are required for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. β-mannanase catalyzes endo-hydrolysis of the mannan backbone, a major constituent of woody biomass. In this study, the man1 gene encoding β-mannanase was isolated from Trichoderma reesei and expressed via the chloroplast genome. PCR and Southern hybridization analysis confirmed site-specific transgene integration into the tobacco chloroplast genomes and homoplasmy. Transplastomic plants were fertile and set viable seeds. Germination of seeds in the selection medium showed inheritance of transgenes into the progeny without any Mendelian segregation. Expression of endo-β-mannanase for the first time in plants facilitated its characterization for use in enhanced lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis. Gel diffusion assay for endo-β-mannanase showed the zone of clearance confirming functionality of chloroplast-derived mannanase. Endo-β-mannanase expression levels reached up to 25 units per gram of leaf (fresh weight. Chloroplast-derived mannanase had higher temperature stability (40 °C to 70 °C and wider pH optima (pH 3.0 to 7.0 than E.coli enzyme extracts. Plant crude extracts showed 6-7 fold higher enzyme activity than E.coli extracts due to the formation of disulfide bonds in chloroplasts, thereby facilitating their direct utilization in enzyme cocktails without any purification. Chloroplast-derived mannanase when added to the enzyme cocktail containing a combination of different plant-derived enzymes yielded 20% more glucose equivalents from pinewood than the

  11. Activity-based protein profiling of secreted cellulolytic enzyme activity dynamics in Trichoderma reesei QM6a, NG14, and RUT-C30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Lindsey N.; Culley, David E.; Hofstad, Beth A.; Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Zink, Erika M.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Smith, Richard D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Magnuson, Jon M.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2013-12-01

    Development of alternative, non-petroleum based sources of bioenergy that can be applied in the short-term find great promise in the use of highly abundant and renewable lignocellulosic plant biomass.1 This material obtained from different feedstocks, such as forest litter or agricultural residues, can yield liquid fuels and other chemical products through biorefinery processes.2 Biofuels are obtained from lignocellulosic materials by chemical pretreatment of the biomass, followed by enzymatic decomposition of cellulosic and hemicellulosic compounds into soluble sugars that are converted to desired chemical products via microbial metabolism and fermentation.3, 4 To release soluble sugars from polymeric cellulose multiple enzymes are required, including endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase.5, 6 However, the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose into soluble sugars remains a significant limiting factor to the efficient and economically viable utilization of lignocellulosic biomass for transport fuels.7, 8 The primary industrial source of cellulose and hemicellulases is the mesophilic soft-rot fungus Trichoderma reesei,9 having widespread applications in food, feed, textile, pulp, and paper industries.10 The genome encodes 200 glycoside hydrolases, including 10 cellulolytic and 16 hemicellulolytic enzymes.11 The hypercellulolytic catabolite derepressed strain RUT-C30 was obtained through a three-step UV and chemical mutagenesis of the original T. reesei strain QM6a,12, 13 in which strains M7 and NG14 were intermediate, having higher cellulolytic activity than the parent strain but less activity and higher catabolite repression than RUT-C30.14 Numerous methods have been employed to optimize the secreted enzyme cocktail of T. reesei including cultivation conditions, operational parameters, and mutagenesis.3 However, creating an optimal and economical enzyme mixture for production-scale biofuels synthesis may take thousands of experiments to identify.

  12. Overexpressing key component genes of the secretion pathway for enhanced secretion of an Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase in Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yilan; Sun, Xianhua; Xue, Xianli; Luo, Huiying; Yao, Bin; Xie, Xiangming; Su, Xiaoyun

    2017-11-01

    Vast interest exists in developing T. reesei for production of heterologous proteins. Although rich genomic and transcriptomic information has been uncovered for the T. reesei secretion pathway, little is known about whether engineering its key components could enhance expression of a heterologous gene. In this study, snc1, a v-SNARE gene, was first selected for overexpression in T. reesei. In engineered T. reesei with additional copies of snc1, the Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase (AnGOD) was produced to a significantly higher level (2.2-fold of the parental strain). hac1 and bip1, two more component genes in the secretion pathway, were further tested for overexpression and found to be also beneficial for AnGOD secretion. The overexpression of one component gene more or less affected the expression of the other two genes, suggesting a complex regulating mechanism. Our study demonstrates the potential of engineering the secretion pathway for enhancing heterologous gene production in T. reesei. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of disruption of phosphoglucose isomerase gene on carbon utilisation and cellulase production in Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Cellulase and hemicellulase genes in the fungus Trichoderma reesei are repressed by glucose and induced by lactose. Regulation of the cellulase genes is mediated by the repressor CRE1 and the activator XYR1. T. reesei strain Rut-C30 is a hypercellulolytic mutant, obtained from the natural strain QM6a, that has a truncated version of the catabolite repressor gene, cre1. It has been previously shown that bacterial mutants lacking phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) produce more nucleotide precursors and amino acids. PGI catalyzes the second step of glycolysis, the formation of fructose-6-P from glucose-6-P. Results We deleted the gene pgi1, encoding PGI, in the T. reesei strain Rut-C30 and we introduced the cre1 gene in a Δpgi1 mutant. Both Δpgi1 and cre1+Δpgi1 mutants showed a pellet-like and growth as well as morphological alterations compared with Rut-C30. None of the mutants grew in media with fructose, galactose, xylose, glycerol or lactose but they grew in media with glucose, with fructose and glucose, with galactose and fructose or with lactose and fructose. No growth was observed in media with xylose and glucose. On glucose, Δpgi1 and cre1+Δpgi1 mutants showed higher cellulase activity than Rut-C30 and QM6a, respectively. But in media with lactose, none of the mutants improved the production of the reference strains. The increase in the activity did not correlate with the expression of mRNA of the xylanase regulator gene, xyr1. Δpgi1 mutants were also affected in the extracellular β-galactosidase activity. Levels of mRNA of the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase did not increase in Δpgi1 during growth on glucose. Conclusions The ability to grow in media with glucose as the sole carbon source indicated that Trichoderma Δpgi1 mutants were able to use the pentose phosphate pathway. But, they did not increase the expression of gpdh. Morphological characteristics were the result of the pgi1 deletion. Deletion of pgi1 in Rut-C30 increased cellulase

  14. Identifying Beneficial Qualities of Trichoderma parareesei for Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, M. Belén; Quijada, Narciso M.; Pérez, Esclaudys; Domínguez, Sara; Hermosa, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma parareesei and Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) produce cellulases and xylanases of industrial interest. Here, the anamorphic strain T6 (formerly T. reesei) has been identified as T. parareesei, showing biocontrol potential against fungal and oomycete phytopathogens and enhanced hyphal growth in the presence of tomato exudates or plant cell wall polymers in in vitro assays. A Trichoderma microarray was used to examine the transcriptomic changes in T6 at 20 h of interaction with tomato plants. Out of a total 34,138 Trichoderma probe sets deposited on the microarray, 250 showed a significant change of at least 2-fold in expression in the presence of tomato plants, with most of them being downregulated. T. parareesei T6 exerted beneficial effects on tomato plants in terms of seedling lateral root development, and in adult plants it improved defense against Botrytis cinerea and growth promotion under salt stress. Time course expression patterns (0 to 6 days) observed for defense-related genes suggest that T6 was able to prime defense responses in the tomato plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. Such responses undulated, with a maximum upregulation of the jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-related LOX1 and EIN2 genes and the salt tolerance SOS1 gene at 24 h and that of the salicylic acid (SA)-related PR-1 gene at 48 h after T6 inoculation. Our study demonstrates that the T. parareesei T6-tomato interaction is beneficial to both partners. PMID:24413597

  15. Revisiting overexpression of a heterologous β-glucosidase in Trichoderma reesei: fusion expression of the Neosartorya fischeri Bgl3A to cbh1 enhances the overall as well as individual cellulase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xianli; Wu, Yilan; Qin, Xing; Ma, Rui; Luo, Huiying; Su, Xiaoyun; Yao, Bin

    2016-07-11

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei has the capacity to secret large amounts of cellulase and is widely used in a variety of industries. However, the T. reesei cellulase is weak in β-glucosidase activity, which results in accumulation of cellobiose inhibiting the endo- and exo-cellulases. By expressing an exogenous β-glucosidase gene, the recombinant T. reesei cellulase is expected to degrade cellulose into glucose more efficiently. The thermophilic β-glucosidase NfBgl3A from Neosartorya fischeri is chosen for overexpression in T. reesei due to its robust activity. In vitro, the Pichia pastoris-expressed NfBgl3A aided the T. reesei cellulase in releasing much more glucose with significantly lower amounts of cellobiose from crystalline cellulose. The NfBgl3A gene was hence fused to the cbh1 structural gene and assembled between the strong cbh1 promoter and cbh1 terminator to obtain pRS-NfBgl3A by using the DNA assembler method. pRS-NfBgl3A was transformed into the T. reesei uridine auxotroph strain TU-6. Six positive transformants showed β-glucosidase activities of 2.3-69.7 U/mL (up to 175-fold higher than that of wild-type). The largely different β-glucosidase activities in the transformants may be ascribed to the gene copy numbers of NfBgl3A or its integration loci. The T. reesei-expressed NfBgl3A showed highly similar biochemical properties to that expressed in P. pastoris. As expected, overexpression of NfBgl3A enhanced the overall cellulase activity of T. reesei. The CBHI activity in all transformants increased, possibly due to the extra copies of cbh1 gene introduced, while the endoglucanase activity in three transformants also largely increased, which was not observed in any other studies overexpressing a β-glucosidase. NfBgl3A had significant transglycosylation activity, generating sophorose, a potent cellulase inducer, and other oligosaccharides from glucose and cellobiose. We report herein the successful overexpression of a thermophilic N

  16. Comparative analysis of the Trichoderma reesei transcriptome during growth on the cellulase inducing substrates wheat straw and lactose

    OpenAIRE

    Bischof, Robert; Fourtis, Lukas; Limbeck, Andreas; Gamauf, Christian; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P

    2013-01-01

    Background Renewable lignocellulosic biomass is an advantageous resource for the production of second generation biofuels and other biorefinery products. In Middle Europe, wheat straw is one of the most abundant low-cost sources of lignocellulosic biomass. For its efficient use, an efficient mix of cellulases and hemicellulases is required. In this paper, we investigated how cellulase production by T. reesei on wheat straw compares to that on lactose, the only soluble and also cheap inducing ...

  17. Intracellular β-Glucosidases CEL1a and CEL1b Are Essential for Cellulase Induction on Lactose in Trichoderma reesei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jintao; Zhao, Guolei; Kou, Yanbo; Zhang, Weixin; Zhou, Qingxin; Chen, Guanjun

    2014-01-01

    Lactose (1,4-O-β-d-galacto-pyranosyl-d-glucose) induces cellulolytic enzymes in Trichoderma reesei and is in fact one of the most important soluble carbon sources used to produce cellulases on an industrial level. The mechanism underlying the induction is, however, not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the cellular functions of the intracellular β-glucosidases CEL1a and CEL1b in the induction of cellulase genes by lactose in T. reesei. We demonstrated that while CEL1a and CEL1b were functionally equivalent in mediating the induction, the simultaneous absence of these intracellular β-glucosidases abolished cbh1 gene expression on lactose. d-Galactose restored the efficient cellulase gene induction in the Δcel1a strain independently of its reductive metabolism, but not in the Δcel1a Δcel1b strain. A further comparison of the transcriptional responses of the Δcel1a Δcel1b strain complemented with wild-type CEL1a or a catalytically inactive CEL1a version and the Δcel1a strain constitutively expressing CEL1a or the Kluyveromyces lactis β-galactosidase LAC4 showed that both the CEL1a protein and its glycoside hydrolytic activity were indispensable for cellulase induction by lactose. We also present evidence that intracellular β-glucosidase-mediated lactose induction is further conveyed to XYR1 to ensure the efficiently induced expression of cellulase genes. PMID:24879125

  18. The ACEII recombinant Trichoderma reesei QM9414 strains with enhanced xylanase production and its applications in production of xylitol from tree barks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lili; Kameshwar, Ayyappa Kumar Sista; Chen, Xi; Guo, Zhiyun; Mao, Canquan; Chen, Sanfeng; Qin, Wensheng

    2016-12-28

    ACEII transcription factor plays a significant role in regulating the expression of cellulase and hemicellulase encoding genes. Apart from ACEII, transcription factors such as XYR1, CRE1, HAP2/3/5 complex and ACEI function in a coordinated pattern for regulating the gene expression of cellulases and hemicellulases. Studies have demonstrated that ACEII gene deletion results in decreased total cellulase and xylanase activities with reduced transcript levels of lignocellulolytic enzymes. In this study, we have successfully transformed the ACEII transcription factor encoding gene in Trichoderma reesei to significantly improve its degrading abilities. Transformation experiments on parental strain T. reesei QM9414 has resulted in five genetically engineered strains T/Ace2-2, T/Ace2-5, T/Ace2-8, T/Ace5-4 and T/Ace10-1. Among which, T/Ace2-2 has exhibited significant increase in enzyme activity by twofolds, when compared to parental strain. The T/Ace2-2 was cultured on growth substrates containing 2% bark supplemented with (a) sugar free + MA medium (b) glucose + MA medium and (c) xylose + MA medium. The bark degradation efficiency of genetically modified T/Ace2-2 strain was assessed by analyzing the xylitol production yield using HPAEC. By 6th day, about 10.52 g/l of xylitol was produced through enzymatic conversion of bark (2% bark + MA + xylose) by the T/Ace2-2 strain and by 7th day the conversion rate was found to be 0.21 g/g. Obtained results confirmed that bark growth medium supplemented with D-xylose has profoundly increased the conversion rate of bark by T/Ace2-2 strain when compared to sugar free and glucose supplemented growth media. Results obtained from scanning electron microscopy has endorsed our current results. Bark samples inoculated with T/Ace2-2 strain has showed large number of degraded cells with clearly visible cavities and fractures, by exposing the microfibrillar interwoven complex. We propose a cost effective and ecofriendly method for

  19. COMPARED ANALYSIS OF CATALASE AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN CELLULOLYTIC FUNGUS TRICHODERMA REESEI GROWN ON MEDIUM WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF GRINDED WHEAT AND BARLEY STRAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Cristica

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the evolution of catalase and peroxidase activity in Trichoderma reesei grown on medium containing grinded wheat and barley straws. Carbon source of cultivation medium - glucose was replaced by various concentrations of grinded wheat and barley straws, finally resulting three experimental variants as follows: V1 = 20 g/l, V2 = 30 g/l, V3 = 40 g/l. ĂŽn addition to these variants a control sample was added in which composition remainded unchanged. The catalase activity was determined by spectrophotometric Sinha method (Artenie et al., 2008 while peroxidase activity was assesed using the o-dianisidine method (Cojocaru, 2009. Enzymatic determinations were carried out at 7 and 14 days from inoculation, in both fungus mycelium and culture liquid. The enzymatic assay showed significant differences between determinations intervals and work variants. Enzyme activity is influenced by the age of fungus and by the different nature of the substrate used.

  20. Increases thermal stability and cellulose-binding capacity of Cryptococcus sp. S-2 lipase by fusion of cellulose binding domain derived from Trichoderma reesei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongekkaew, Jantaporn; Ikeda, Hiroko; Iefuji, Haruyuki

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The CSLP and fusion enzyme were successfully expressed in the Pichia pastoris. ► The fusion enzyme was stable at 80 °C for 120-min. ► The fusion enzyme was responsible for cellulose-binding capacity. ► The fusion enzyme has an attractive applicant for enzyme immobilization. -- Abstract: To improve the thermal stability and cellulose-binding capacity of Cryptococcus sp. S-2 lipase (CSLP), the cellulose-binding domain originates from Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I was engineered into C-terminal region of the CSLP (CSLP-CBD). The CSLP and CSLP-CBD were successfully expressed in the Pichia pastoris using the strong methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter and the secretion signal sequence from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (α factor). The recombinant CSLP and CSLP-CBD were secreted into culture medium and estimated by SDS–PAGE to be 22 and 27 kDa, respectively. The fusion enzyme was stable at 80 °C and retained more than 80% of its activity after 120-min incubation at this temperature. Our results also found that the fusion of fungal exoglucanase cellulose-binding domain to CSLP is responsible for cellulose-binding capacity. This attribute should make it an attractive applicant for enzyme immobilization.

  1. Overexpression of an endo-1,4-β-glucanase V gene (EGV) from Trichoderma reesei leads to the accumulation of cellulase activity in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Liu, F; Hu, Y F; Xia, M; Cheng, B J; Zhu, S W; Ma, Q

    2015-12-21

    The ectopic expression of cellulase in biomass can reduce the cost of biofuel conversion. This trait modification technique is highly beneficial for biofuel production. In this study, we isolated an endo-1,4-beta-glucanase gene (EGV) from Trichoderma reesei and inserted this gene downstream of a fragment encoding the signal peptide Apo-SP in a modified pCAMBIA1301 vector to obtain an Apo-SP and AsRed fusion protein. Transient expression of this fusion protein in onion epidermal cells showed that the Apo-SP signal was localized to the plastids. EGV transgenic rice plants that did not carry screening marker genes were obtained through overexpression of the pDTB double T-DNA vector. Western blotting showed that EGV was expressed in the dry straw of T0 generation transgenic rice plants and in fresh leaves of the T1 generation. More importantly, our results also showed that the peptide product of EGV in the transgenic plants folded correctly and was capable of digesting the cellulase substrate CMC. Additionally, cellulase activity remained stable in the straw that had been dried at room temperature for three months. This study presents an important technical approach for the development of transgenic rice straw that has stable cellulase activity and can be used for biofuel conversion.

  2. Increases thermal stability and cellulose-binding capacity of Cryptococcus sp. S-2 lipase by fusion of cellulose binding domain derived from Trichoderma reesei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thongekkaew, Jantaporn, E-mail: jantaporn_25@yahoo.com [Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Ubon-Ratchathani University, Warinchumrab, Ubon-Ratchathani 34190 (Thailand); Ikeda, Hiroko; Iefuji, Haruyuki [Application Research Division, National Research Institute of Brewing, 3-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CSLP and fusion enzyme were successfully expressed in the Pichia pastoris. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion enzyme was stable at 80 Degree-Sign C for 120-min. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion enzyme was responsible for cellulose-binding capacity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion enzyme has an attractive applicant for enzyme immobilization. -- Abstract: To improve the thermal stability and cellulose-binding capacity of Cryptococcus sp. S-2 lipase (CSLP), the cellulose-binding domain originates from Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I was engineered into C-terminal region of the CSLP (CSLP-CBD). The CSLP and CSLP-CBD were successfully expressed in the Pichia pastoris using the strong methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter and the secretion signal sequence from Saccharomyces cerevisiae ({alpha} factor). The recombinant CSLP and CSLP-CBD were secreted into culture medium and estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 22 and 27 kDa, respectively. The fusion enzyme was stable at 80 Degree-Sign C and retained more than 80% of its activity after 120-min incubation at this temperature. Our results also found that the fusion of fungal exoglucanase cellulose-binding domain to CSLP is responsible for cellulose-binding capacity. This attribute should make it an attractive applicant for enzyme immobilization.

  3. Impact of alg3 gene deletion on growth, development, pigment production, protein secretion, and functions of recombinant Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolases in Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu; Aryal, Uma K.; Shukla, Anil; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Adney, William S.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.; Ju, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiao; Baker, Scott E.

    2013-12-01

    ALG3 is a Family 58 glycosyltransferase enzyme involved in early N-linked glycan synthesis. Here, we investigated the effect of the alg3 gene disruption on growth, development, metabolism, and protein secretion in Aspergillus niger. The alg3 gene deletion resulted in a significant reduction of growth on complete (CM) and potato dextrose agar (PDA) media and a substantial reduction of spore production on CM. It also delayed spore germination in the liquid cultures of both CM and PDA media, but led to a significant accumulation of red pigment on both CM and liquid modified minimal medium (MM) supplemented with yeast extract. The relative abundance of 55 proteins of the total 190 proteins identified in the secretome was significantly different as a result of alg3 gene deletion. Comparison of a Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase (Cel7A) heterologously expressed in A. niger parental and Δalg3 strains showed that the recombinant Cel7A expressed in the mutant background was smaller in size than that from the parental strains. This study suggests that ALG3 is critical for growth and development, pigment production, and protein secretion in A. niger. Functional analysis of recombinant Cel7A with aberrant glycosylation demonstrates the feasibility of this alternative approach to evaluate the role of N-linked glycosylation in glycoprotein secretion and function.

  4. Overproduction of cellulase by Trichoderma reesei RUT C30 through batch-feeding of synthesized low-cost sugar mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghao; Liu, Chenguang; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Xinqing

    2016-09-01

    Cellulase is a prerequisite for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass, but its high cost presents the biggest challenge. In this article, low-cost mixture was produced from glucose through the transglycosylation reaction catalyzed by β-glucosidase for cellulase overproduction by Trichodema reesei RUT C30. As a result, cellulase titer of 90.3FPU/mL, which was more than 10 folds of that achieved with lactose as inducer, was achieved at 144h. Meanwhile, cellulase productivity was drastically increased to 627.1FPU/L/h, at least 3-5 folds higher than previously reported by the fungal species. The crude enzyme was further tested by hydrolyzing NaOH-pretreated corn stover with 15% solid loading, and 96.6g/L glucose was released with 92.6% sugar yield at 96h and 44.8g/L ethanol was obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of alg3 gene deletion on growth, development, pigment production, protein secretion, and functions of recombinant Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolases in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ziyu; Aryal, Uma K; Shukla, Anil; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D; Magnuson, Jon K; Adney, William S; Beckham, Gregg T; Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E; Decker, Stephen R; Ju, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiao; Baker, Scott E

    2013-12-01

    Dolichyl-P-Man:Man(5)GlcNAc(2)-PP-dolichyl α-1,3-mannosyltransferase (also known as "asparagine-linked glycosylation 3", or ALG3) is involved in early N-linked glycan synthesis and thus is essential for formation of N-linked protein glycosylation. In this study, we examined the effects of alg3 gene deletion (alg3Δ) on growth, development, pigment production, protein secretion and recombinant Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase (rCel7A) expressed in Aspergillus niger. The alg3Δ delayed spore germination in liquid cultures of complete medium (CM), potato dextrose (PD), minimal medium (MM) and CM with addition of cAMP (CM+cAMP), and resulted in significant reduction of hyphal growth on CM, potato dextrose agar (PDA), and CM+cAMP and spore production on CM. The alg3Δ also led to a significant accumulation of red pigment on both liquid and solid CM cultures. The relative abundances of 54 of the total 215 proteins identified in the secretome were significantly altered as a result of alg3Δ, 63% of which were secreted at higher levels in alg3Δ strain than the parent. The rCel7A expressed in the alg3Δ mutant was smaller in size than that expressed in both wild-type and parental strains, but still larger than T. reesei Cel7A. The circular dichroism (CD)-melt scans indicated that change in glycosylation of rCel7A does not appear to impact the secondary structure or folding. Enzyme assays of Cel7A and rCel7A on nanocrystalline cellulose and bleached kraft pulp demonstrated that the rCel7As have improved activities on hydrolyzing the nanocrystalline cellulose. Overall, the results suggest that alg3 is critical for growth, sporulation, pigment production, and protein secretion in A. niger, and demonstrate the feasibility of this alternative approach to evaluate the roles of N-linked glycosylation in glycoprotein secretion and function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Trichoderma genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Pamela [Los Altos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Van Solingen, Pieter [Naaldwijk, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA

    2012-06-19

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

  7. Correlation of structure, function and protein dynamics in GH7 cellobiohydrolases from Trichoderma atroviride, T. reesei and T. harzianum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borisova, Anna S.; Eneyskaya, Elena V.; Jana, Suvamay

    2018-01-01

    analyses and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to elucidate important structure/function correlations. Moreover, reverse conservation analysis (RCA) of sequence diversity revealed divergent regions of interest located outside the cellulose-binding tunnel of Trichoderma spp. GH7 CBHs. We...... that, for industrial use, it would be beneficial to combine loop motifs from TatCel7A with the thermostability features of TreCel7A. Furthermore, one region implicated in thermal unfolding is suggested as a primary target for protein engineering...

  8. Omics Analyses of Trichoderma reesei CBS999.97 and QM6a Indicate the Relevance of Female Fertility to Carbohydrate-Active Enzyme and Transporter Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisch, Doris; Pomraning, Kyle R; Collett, James R; Freitag, Michael; Baker, Scott E; Chen, Chia-Ling; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Chuang, Yu Chien; Schuster, Andre; Dattenböck, Christoph; Stappler, Eva; Sulyok, Michael; Böhmdorfer, Stefan; Oberlerchner, Josua; Wang, Ting-Fang; Schmoll, Monika

    2017-11-15

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is found predominantly in the tropics but also in more temperate regions, such as Europe, and is widely known as a producer of large amounts of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. We sequenced the genome of the sexually competent isolate CBS999.97, which is phenotypically different from the female sterile strain QM6a but can cross sexually with QM6a. Transcriptome data for growth on cellulose showed that entire carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) families are consistently differentially regulated between these strains. We evaluated backcrossed strains of both mating types, which acquired female fertility from CBS999.97 but maintained a mostly QM6a genetic background, and we could thereby distinguish between the effects of strain background and female fertility or mating type. We found clear regulatory differences associated with female fertility and female sterility, including regulation of CAZyme and transporter genes. Analysis of carbon source utilization, transcriptomes, and secondary metabolites in these strains revealed that only a few changes in gene regulation are consistently correlated with different mating types. Different strain backgrounds (QM6a versus CBS999.97) resulted in the most significant alterations in the transcriptomes and in carbon source utilization, with decreased growth of CBS999.97 on several amino acids (for example proline or alanine), which further correlated with the downregulation of genes involved in the respective pathways. In combination, our findings support a role of fertility-associated processes in physiology and gene regulation and are of high relevance for the use of sexual crossing in combining the characteristics of two compatible strains or quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. IMPORTANCE Trichoderma reesei is a filamentous fungus with a high potential for secretion of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. We sequenced the genome of the fully fertile field isolate CBS999.97 and

  9. Single-molecule Imaging Analysis of Elementary Reaction Steps of Trichoderma reesei Cellobiohydrolase I (Cel7A) Hydrolyzing Crystalline Cellulose Iα and IIII*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibafuji, Yusuke; Nakamura, Akihiko; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Sugimoto, Naohisa; Fukuda, Shingo; Watanabe, Hiroki; Samejima, Masahiro; Ando, Toshio; Noji, Hiroyuki; Koivula, Anu; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Iino, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I (TrCel7A) is a molecular motor that directly hydrolyzes crystalline celluloses into water-soluble cellobioses. It has recently drawn attention as a tool that could be used to convert cellulosic materials into biofuel. However, detailed mechanisms of action, including elementary reaction steps such as binding, processive hydrolysis, and dissociation, have not been thoroughly explored because of the inherent challenges associated with monitoring reactions occurring at the solid/liquid interface. The crystalline cellulose Iα and IIII were previously reported as substrates with different crystalline forms and different susceptibilities to hydrolysis by TrCel7A. In this study, we observed that different susceptibilities of cellulose Iα and IIII are highly dependent on enzyme concentration, and at nanomolar enzyme concentration, TrCel7A shows similar rates of hydrolysis against cellulose Iα and IIII. Using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy and high speed atomic force microscopy, we also determined kinetic constants of the elementary reaction steps for TrCel7A against cellulose Iα and IIII. These measurements were performed at picomolar enzyme concentration in which density of TrCel7A on crystalline cellulose was very low. Under this condition, TrCel7A displayed similar binding and dissociation rate constants for cellulose Iα and IIII and similar fractions of productive binding on cellulose Iα and IIII. Furthermore, once productively bound, TrCel7A processively hydrolyzes and moves along cellulose Iα and IIII with similar translational rates. With structural models of cellulose Iα and IIII, we propose that different susceptibilities at high TrCel7A concentration arise from surface properties of substrate, including ratio of hydrophobic surface and number of available lanes. PMID:24692563

  10. Single-molecule Imaging Analysis of Binding, Processive Movement, and Dissociation of Cellobiohydrolase Trichoderma reesei Cel6A and Its Domains on Crystalline Cellulose*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akihiko; Tasaki, Tomoyuki; Ishiwata, Daiki; Yamamoto, Mayuko; Okuni, Yasuko; Visootsat, Akasit; Maximilien, Morice; Noji, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Taku; Samejima, Masahiro; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Iino, Ryota

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei Cel6A (TrCel6A) is a cellobiohydrolase that hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose into cellobiose. Here we directly observed the reaction cycle (binding, surface movement, and dissociation) of single-molecule intact TrCel6A, isolated catalytic domain (CD), cellulose-binding module (CBM), and CBM and linker (CBM-linker) on crystalline cellulose Iα. The CBM-linker showed a binding rate constant almost half that of intact TrCel6A, whereas those of the CD and CBM were only one-tenth of intact TrCel6A. These results indicate that the glycosylated linker region largely contributes to initial binding on crystalline cellulose. After binding, all samples showed slow and fast dissociations, likely caused by the two different bound states due to the heterogeneity of cellulose surface. The CBM showed much higher specificity to the high affinity site than to the low affinity site, whereas the CD did not, suggesting that the CBM leads the CD to the hydrophobic surface of crystalline cellulose. On the cellulose surface, intact molecules showed slow processive movements (8.8 ± 5.5 nm/s) and fast diffusional movements (30–40 nm/s), whereas the CBM-Linker, CD, and a catalytically inactive full-length mutant showed only fast diffusional movements. These results suggest that both direct binding and surface diffusion contribute to searching of the hydrolysable point of cellulose chains. The duration time constant for the processive movement was 7.7 s, and processivity was estimated as 68 ± 42. Our results reveal the role of each domain in the elementary steps of the reaction cycle and provide the first direct evidence of the processive movement of TrCel6A on crystalline cellulose. PMID:27609516

  11. The Widescreen Anamorphic Lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Steven; Fossati, Giovanna; van den Oever, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the transformative impact of anamorphic widescreen technology on film aesthetics, in two parts: first, I discuss how the affordances of early anamorphic widescreen technology (primarily CinemaScope) played a key role in standardizing widescreen formats in the Hollywood film

  12. Genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis of Trichoderma reesei QM9978 strain reveals a distal chromosome translocation to be responsible for loss of vib1 expression and loss of cellulase induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Christa; Ramoni, Jonas; Aouam, Thiziri; Frischmann, Alexa; Seiboth, Bernhard; Baker, Scott E; Le Crom, Stéphane; Lemoine, Sophie; Margeot, Antoine; Bidard, Frédérique

    2017-01-01

    The hydrolysis of biomass to simple sugars used for the production of biofuels in biorefineries requires the action of cellulolytic enzyme mixtures. During the last 50 years, the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei , the main source of industrial cellulase and hemicellulase cocktails, has been subjected to several rounds of classical mutagenesis with the aim to obtain higher production levels. During these random genetic events, strains unable to produce cellulases were generated. Here, whole genome sequencing and transcriptomic analyses of the cellulase-negative strain QM9978 were used for the identification of mutations underlying this cellulase-negative phenotype. Sequence comparison of the cellulase-negative strain QM9978 to the reference strain QM6a identified a total of 43 mutations, of which 33 were located either close to or in coding regions. From those, we identified 23 single-nucleotide variants, nine InDels, and one translocation. The translocation occurred between chromosomes V and VII, is located upstream of the putative transcription factor vib1 , and abolishes its expression in QM9978 as detected during the transcriptomic analyses. Ectopic expression of vib1 under the control of its native promoter as well as overexpression of vib1 under the control of a strong constitutive promoter restored cellulase expression in QM9978, thus confirming that the translocation event is the reason for the cellulase-negative phenotype. Gene deletion of vib1 in the moderate producer strain QM9414 and in the high producer strain Rut-C30 reduced cellulase expression in both cases. Overexpression of vib1 in QM9414 and Rut-C30 had no effect on cellulase production, most likely because vib1 is already expressed at an optimal level under normal conditions. We were able to establish a link between a chromosomal translocation in QM9978 and the cellulase-negative phenotype of the strain. We identified the transcription factor vib1 as a key regulator of cellulases in T. reesei whose

  13. Concurrent production of cellulase and xylanase from Trichoderma reesei NCIM 1186: enhancement of production by desirability-based multi-objective method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampala, Preethi; Tadikamalla, Satish; Preethi, M; Ramanujam, Swathy; Uppuluri, Kiran Babu

    2017-05-01

    Application of multiple response optimizations using desirability function in the production of microbial metabolites improves economy and efficiency. Concurrent production of cellulase and xylanase in Trichoderma reesei NCIM 1186 using an agricultural weed, Prosopis juliflora pods, was studied. The main aim of the study was to optimize significant medium nutrient parameters for maximization of cellulase and xylanase by multi-objective optimization strategy using biomass. Process parameters such as the nutrient concentrations (pods, sucrose, and yeast extract) and pH were investigated to improve cellulase and xylanase activities by one factor at a time approach, single response optimization and multi-objective optimization. At the corresponding optimized process parameters in single response optimization, the maximum cellulase activity observed was 3055.65 U/L where xylanase highest activity was 422.16 U/L. Similarly, the maximum xylanase activity, 444.94 U/L, was observed with the highest cellulase activity of 2804.40 U/L. The multi-objective optimization finds a tradeoff between the two objectives and optimal activity values in between the single-objective optima were achieved, 3033.74 and 439.13 U/L for cellulase and xylanase, respectively.

  14. The anamorphic universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2015-10-01

    We introduce ``anamorphic'' cosmology, an approach for explaining the smoothness and flatness of the universe on large scales and the generation of a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations. The defining feature is a smoothing phase that acts like a contracting universe based on some Weyl frame-invariant criteria and an expanding universe based on other frame-invariant criteria. An advantage of the contracting aspects is that it is possible to avoid the multiverse and measure problems that arise in inflationary models. Unlike ekpyrotic models, anamorphic models can be constructed using only a single field and can generate a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of tensor perturbations. Anamorphic models also differ from pre-big bang and matter bounce models that do not explain the smoothness. We present some examples of cosmological models that incorporate an anamorphic smoothing phase.

  15. The anamorphic universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce ''anamorphic'' cosmology, an approach for explaining the smoothness and flatness of the universe on large scales and the generation of a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations. The defining feature is a smoothing phase that acts like a contracting universe based on some Weyl frame-invariant criteria and an expanding universe based on other frame-invariant criteria. An advantage of the contracting aspects is that it is possible to avoid the multiverse and measure problems that arise in inflationary models. Unlike ekpyrotic models, anamorphic models can be constructed using only a single field and can generate a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of tensor perturbations. Anamorphic models also differ from pre-big bang and matter bounce models that do not explain the smoothness. We present some examples of cosmological models that incorporate an anamorphic smoothing phase

  16. The anamorphic universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J., E-mail: aijjas@princeton.edu, E-mail: steinh@princeton.edu [Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We introduce ''anamorphic'' cosmology, an approach for explaining the smoothness and flatness of the universe on large scales and the generation of a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations. The defining feature is a smoothing phase that acts like a contracting universe based on some Weyl frame-invariant criteria and an expanding universe based on other frame-invariant criteria. An advantage of the contracting aspects is that it is possible to avoid the multiverse and measure problems that arise in inflationary models. Unlike ekpyrotic models, anamorphic models can be constructed using only a single field and can generate a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of tensor perturbations. Anamorphic models also differ from pre-big bang and matter bounce models that do not explain the smoothness. We present some examples of cosmological models that incorporate an anamorphic smoothing phase.

  17. On-site cellulase production and efficient saccharification of corn stover employing cbh2 overexpressing Trichoderma reesei with novel induction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghao; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Xiong, Liang; Mehmood, Muhammad Aamer; Zhao, Xinqing; Bai, Fengwu

    2017-08-01

    Although on-site cellulase production offers cost-effective saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass, low enzyme titer is still a barrier for achieving robustness. In the present study, a strain of T. reesei was developed for enhanced production of cellulase via overexpression of Cellobiohydrolase II. Furthermore, optimum enzyme production was achieved using a novel inducer mixture containing synthesized glucose-sophorose (MGD) and alkali pre-treated corn stover (APCS). Within 60h, a remarkably higher cellulase productivity and activity were achieved in the fed-batch fermentation using the optimized ratio of MGD and APCS in the inducer mixture, compared to those reported using cellulosic biomass as the sole inducer. After the enzyme production, APCS was added directly into the fermentation broth at 20% solid loading, which produced 122.5g/L glucose and 40.21g/L xylose, leading to the highest yield reported so far. The improved enzyme titers during on-site cellulase production would benefit cost-competitive saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The efficacy of a new 6-phytase obtained from Buttiauxella spp. expressed in Trichoderma reesei on digestibility of amino acids, energy, and nutrients in pigs fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers' dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Ragland, D; Plumstead, P; Adeola, O

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen cannulated pigs were used to evaluate the effect of a new 6-phytase derived from Buttiauxella spp. and expressed in Trichoderma reesei on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, N, Ca, P, Na, Mg, K, Cl, and energy. Pigs were fed 4 diets for 2 periods in a crossover design. Within each period, there were 4 blocks of 4 pigs per block with each diet represented within each block. The average initial BW in periods 1 and 2 were 22 and 30 kg, respectively. Each period lasted 9 d with fecal collection on d 5 and 6 and a 12-h ileal digesta collection on d 7, 8, and 9. Pigs received a daily feed allowance of approximately 4.5% of their BW. The experimental diets were based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers dried grain with solubles. Phytase was added at 0; 500; 1,000; or 2,000 phytase units/kg of diet to a basal diet that contained 205, 15, 5.4, and 10 g of CP, Lys, total P (1.6 g of nonphytate P), and Ca/kg diet, respectively. The addition of phytase improved (P phytase supplementation linearly and quadratically increased (P Phytase supplementation of the basal diet improved (P Phytase supplementation increased (P phytase supplementation of the basal diet increased (P phytase supplementation to the basal diet showed a tendency (P phytase supplementation. Increasing the level of phytase supplementation resulted in linear increases (P phytase expressed in Trichoderma reesei enhanced ileal digestibility of N and several AA in growing pigs in a dose-dependent manner.

  19. Factors affecting endoglucanase production by Trichoderma reesei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors involved in the screening process were peptone concentration, urea ... ammonium sulfate concentration, calcium nitrate concentration, yeast extract ... pH, incubation time, initial moisture content, inoculum size and substrate amount.

  20. Factors affecting endoglucanase production by Trichoderma reesei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... from the ANOVA analysis have a significant value of Pmodel>F= 0.0008 and R2 .... there are various environmental and nutritional factors ... reported to affect cellulase production from wheat straw ... many factors affecting simultaneously the fermentation ..... and control its stability (Kalra and Sandhu, 1986).

  1. Biology and biotechnology of Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, André; Schmoll, Monika

    2010-07-01

    Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are soilborne, green-spored ascomycetes that can be found all over the world. They have been studied with respect to various characteristics and applications and are known as successful colonizers of their habitats, efficiently fighting their competitors. Once established, they launch their potent degradative machinery for decomposition of the often heterogeneous substrate at hand. Therefore, distribution and phylogeny, defense mechanisms, beneficial as well as deleterious interaction with hosts, enzyme production and secretion, sexual development, and response to environmental conditions such as nutrients and light have been studied in great detail with many species of this genus, thus rendering Trichoderma one of the best studied fungi with the genome of three species currently available. Efficient biocontrol strains of the genus are being developed as promising biological fungicides, and their weaponry for this function also includes secondary metabolites with potential applications as novel antibiotics. The cellulases produced by Trichoderma reesei, the biotechnological workhorse of the genus, are important industrial products, especially with respect to production of second generation biofuels from cellulosic waste. Genetic engineering not only led to significant improvements in industrial processes but also to intriguing insights into the biology of these fungi and is now complemented by the availability of a sexual cycle in T. reesei/Hypocrea jecorina, which significantly facilitates both industrial and basic research. This review aims to give a broad overview on the qualities and versatility of the best studied Trichoderma species and to highlight intriguing findings as well as promising applications.

  2. Comparative genome sequence analysis underscores mycoparasitism as the ancestral life style of Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Christian P; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Martinez, Diego A; Druzhinina, Irina S; Thon, Michael; Zeilinger, Susanne; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Horwitz, Benjamin A; Mukherjee, Prasun K; Mukherjee, Mala; Kredics, László; Alcaraz, Luis D; Aerts, Andrea; Antal, Zsuzsanna; Atanasova, Lea; Cervantes-Badillo, Mayte G; Challacombe, Jean; Chertkov, Olga; McCluskey, Kevin; Coulpier, Fanny; Deshpande, Nandan; von Döhren, Hans; Ebbole, Daniel J; Esquivel-Naranjo, Edgardo U; Fekete, Erzsébet; Flipphi, Michel; Glaser, Fabian; Gómez-Rodríguez, Elida Y; Gruber, Sabine; Han, Cliff; Henrissat, Bernard; Hermosa, Rosa; Hernández-Oñate, Miguel; Karaffa, Levente; Kosti, Idit; Le Crom, Stéphane; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Lübeck, Mette; Lübeck, Peter S; Margeot, Antoine; Metz, Benjamin; Misra, Monica; Nevalainen, Helena; Omann, Markus; Packer, Nicolle; Perrone, Giancarlo; Uresti-Rivera, Edith E; Salamov, Asaf; Schmoll, Monika; Seiboth, Bernhard; Shapiro, Harris; Sukno, Serenella; Tamayo-Ramos, Juan Antonio; Tisch, Doris; Wiest, Aric; Wilkinson, Heather H; Zhang, Michael; Coutinho, Pedro M; Kenerley, Charles M; Monte, Enrique; Baker, Scott E; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2011-01-01

    Mycoparasitism, a lifestyle where one fungus is parasitic on another fungus, has special relevance when the prey is a plant pathogen, providing a strategy for biological control of pests for plant protection. Probably, the most studied biocontrol agents are species of the genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma. Here we report an analysis of the genome sequences of the two biocontrol species Trichoderma atroviride (teleomorph Hypocrea atroviridis) and Trichoderma virens (formerly Gliocladium virens, teleomorph Hypocrea virens), and a comparison with Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina). These three Trichoderma species display a remarkable conservation of gene order (78 to 96%), and a lack of active mobile elements probably due to repeat-induced point mutation. Several gene families are expanded in the two mycoparasitic species relative to T. reesei or other ascomycetes, and are overrepresented in non-syntenic genome regions. A phylogenetic analysis shows that T. reesei and T. virens are derived relative to T. atroviride. The mycoparasitism-specific genes thus arose in a common Trichoderma ancestor but were subsequently lost in T. reesei. The data offer a better understanding of mycoparasitism, and thus enforce the development of improved biocontrol strains for efficient and environmentally friendly protection of plants. © 2011 Kubicek et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  3. Biotransformation of Trichoderma spp. and their tolerance to aromatic amines, a major class of pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocaign, Angélique; Bui, Linh-Chi; Silar, Philippe; Chan Ho Tong, Laetitia; Busi, Florent; Lamouri, Aazdine; Mougin, Christian; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Dairou, Julien

    2013-08-01

    Trichoderma spp. are cosmopolitan soil fungi that are highly resistant to many toxic compounds. Here, we show that Trichoderma virens and T. reesei are tolerant to aromatic amines (AA), a major class of pollutants including the highly toxic pesticide residue 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA). In a previous study, we provided proof-of-concept remediation experiments in which another soil fungus, Podospora anserina, detoxifies 3,4-DCA through its arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT), a xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme that enables acetyl coenzyme A-dependent detoxification of AA. To assess whether the N-acetylation pathway enables AA tolerance in Trichoderma spp., we cloned and characterized NATs from T. virens and T. reesei. We characterized recombinant enzymes by determining their catalytic efficiencies toward several toxic AA. Through a complementary approach, we also demonstrate that both Trichoderma species efficiently metabolize 3,4-DCA. Finally, we provide evidence that NAT-independent transformation is solely (in T. virens) or mainly (in T. reesei) responsible for the observed removal of 3,4-DCA. We conclude that T. virens and, to a lesser extent, T. reesei likely utilize another, unidentified, metabolic pathway for the detoxification of AA aside from acetylation. This is the first molecular and functional characterization of AA biotransformation in Trichoderma spp. Given the potential of Trichoderma for cleanup of contaminated soils, these results reveal new possibilities in the fungal remediation of AA-contaminated soil.

  4. Comparative genome sequence analysis underscores mycoparasitism as the ancestral life style of Trichoderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Mycoparasitism, a lifestyle where one fungus is parasitic on another fungus, has special relevance when the prey is a plant pathogen, providing a strategy for biological control of pests for plant protection. Probably, the most studied biocontrol agents are species of the genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma. Results Here we report an analysis of the genome sequences of the two biocontrol species Trichoderma atroviride (teleomorph Hypocrea atroviridis) and Trichoderma virens (formerly Gliocladium virens, teleomorph Hypocrea virens), and a comparison with Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina). These three Trichoderma species display a remarkable conservation of gene order (78 to 96%), and a lack of active mobile elements probably due to repeat-induced point mutation. Several gene families are expanded in the two mycoparasitic species relative to T. reesei or other ascomycetes, and are overrepresented in non-syntenic genome regions. A phylogenetic analysis shows that T. reesei and T. virens are derived relative to T. atroviride. The mycoparasitism-specific genes thus arose in a common Trichoderma ancestor but were subsequently lost in T. reesei. Conclusions The data offer a better understanding of mycoparasitism, and thus enforce the development of improved biocontrol strains for efficient and environmentally friendly protection of plants. PMID:21501500

  5. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of anamorphic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid Lorca, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Anamorphic fungi (those reproducing asexually) are a big part of kingdom Fungi. Most of them occur as saprobes in nature, but numerous species are pathogenic to plants and animals including man. With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of the diversity and distribution of anamorphic fungi, we performed a phenotypic and molecular characterization of environmental and clinical isolates of these fungi. Based on a polyphasic taxonomy approach which included morphology, physiology and DNA seq...

  6. Cyclic completion of the anamorphic universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijjas, Anna

    2018-04-01

    Cyclic models of the universe have the advantage of avoiding initial conditions problems related to postulating any sort of beginning in time. To date, the best known viable examples of cyclic models have been ekpyrotic. In this paper, we show that the recently proposed anamorphic scenario can also be made cyclic. The key to the cyclic completion is a classically stable, non-singular bounce. Remarkably, even though the bounce construction was originally developed to connect a period of contraction with a period of expansion both described by Einstein gravity, we show here that it can naturally be modified to connect an ordinary contracting phase described by Einstein gravity with a phase of anamorphic smoothing. The paper will present the basic principles and steps in constructing cyclic anamorphic models.

  7. Structural insights into the β-xylosidase from Trichoderma reesei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Adriana L.; Fischer, Hannes; Polikarpov, Igor; Craievich, Aldo Felix

    2005-01-01

    Xylan is a major structural polysaccharide in plant cells, and is the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, accounting for approximately one-third of all renewable organic carbon on earth. Xylan together with cellulose (1,4-β-glucan) and lignin (a complex polyphenolic compound) make up the major polymeric constituents of plant cell walls, recently, there was a significant industrial interest in Xylan and its hydrolytic enzymatic complex, as a supplement in animal feed, for the manufacture of bread, food and drinks, textiles, bleaching of cellulose pulp, ethanol and xylitol production. (author)

  8. Structural insights into the {beta}-xylosidase from Trichoderma reesei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Adriana L.; Fischer, Hannes; Polikarpov, Igor [Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Eneiskaya, Elena V.; Kulminskaya, Anna A.; Shabalin, Konstantin A.; Neustroev, Kirill N.; Golubev, Alexander M. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Moskow (Russian Federation); Craievich, Aldo Felix [Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2005-07-01

    Xylan is a major structural polysaccharide in plant cells, and is the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, accounting for approximately one-third of all renewable organic carbon on earth. Xylan together with cellulose (1,4-{beta}-glucan) and lignin (a complex polyphenolic compound) make up the major polymeric constituents of plant cell walls, recently, there was a significant industrial interest in Xylan and its hydrolytic enzymatic complex, as a supplement in animal feed, for the manufacture of bread, food and drinks, textiles, bleaching of cellulose pulp, ethanol and xylitol production. (author)

  9. [The isolation and characterization of beta-glucosidase gene and beta-glucosidase of Trichoderma viride]: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    Our project was to isolate and characterize the enzyme β-glucosidase and to clone and characterize the β-glucosidase gene; our goal is to clone and characterize each of the cellulase genes from Trichoderma. The induction of the Trichoderma reesei cellulase complex by cellulose and by the soluble inducer, sophorose, has been demonstrated. Although the induction of the cellulase complex has previously been well documented, the induction of β-glucosidase had been questioned. 49 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Comparative analysis of the repertoire of G protein-coupled receptors of three species of the fungal genus Trichoderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic organisms employ cell surface receptors such as the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as sensors to connect to the environment. GPCRs react to a variety of extracellular cues and are considered to play central roles in the signal transduction in fungi. Several species of the filamentous ascomycete Trichoderma are potent mycoparasites, i.e. can attack and parasitize other fungi, which turns them into successful bio-fungicides for the protection of plants against fungal phytopathogens. The identification and characterization of GPCRs will provide insights into how Trichoderma communicates with its environment and senses the presence of host fungi. Results We mined the recently published genomes of the two mycoparasitic biocontrol agents Trichoderma atroviride and Trichoderma virens and compared the identified GPCR-like proteins to those of the saprophyte Trichoderma reesei. Phylogenetic analyses resulted in 14 classes and revealed differences not only among the three Trichoderma species but also between Trichoderma and other fungi. The class comprising proteins of the PAQR family was significantly expanded both in Trichoderma compared to other fungi as well as in the two mycoparasites compared to T. reesei. Expression analysis of the PAQR-encoding genes of the three Trichoderma species revealed that all except one were actually transcribed. Furthermore, the class of receptors with a DUF300 domain was expanded in T. atroviride, and T. virens showed an expansion of PTH11-like receptors compared to T. atroviride and T. reesei. Conclusions Comparative genome analyses of three Trichoderma species revealed a great diversity of putative GPCRs with genus- and species- specific differences. The expansion of certain classes in the mycoparasites T. atroviride and T. virens is likely to reflect the capability of these fungi to establish various ecological niches and interactions with other organisms such as fungi and plants. These

  11. Comparative analysis of the repertoire of G protein-coupled receptors of three species of the fungal genus Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Sabine; Omann, Markus; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2013-05-16

    Eukaryotic organisms employ cell surface receptors such as the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as sensors to connect to the environment. GPCRs react to a variety of extracellular cues and are considered to play central roles in the signal transduction in fungi. Several species of the filamentous ascomycete Trichoderma are potent mycoparasites, i.e. can attack and parasitize other fungi, which turns them into successful bio-fungicides for the protection of plants against fungal phytopathogens. The identification and characterization of GPCRs will provide insights into how Trichoderma communicates with its environment and senses the presence of host fungi. We mined the recently published genomes of the two mycoparasitic biocontrol agents Trichoderma atroviride and Trichoderma virens and compared the identified GPCR-like proteins to those of the saprophyte Trichoderma reesei. Phylogenetic analyses resulted in 14 classes and revealed differences not only among the three Trichoderma species but also between Trichoderma and other fungi. The class comprising proteins of the PAQR family was significantly expanded both in Trichoderma compared to other fungi as well as in the two mycoparasites compared to T. reesei. Expression analysis of the PAQR-encoding genes of the three Trichoderma species revealed that all except one were actually transcribed. Furthermore, the class of receptors with a DUF300 domain was expanded in T. atroviride, and T. virens showed an expansion of PTH11-like receptors compared to T. atroviride and T. reesei. Comparative genome analyses of three Trichoderma species revealed a great diversity of putative GPCRs with genus- and species- specific differences. The expansion of certain classes in the mycoparasites T. atroviride and T. virens is likely to reflect the capability of these fungi to establish various ecological niches and interactions with other organisms such as fungi and plants. These GPCRs consequently represent

  12. Biosynthesis of the enzymes of the cellulase system by T. Reesei QM 9414 in the presence of sophorose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritzali, M.

    1982-12-01

    As conventional, nonrenewable energy sources are rapidly depleted and it was necessary to search for alternative sources of energy. It was increasingly apparent that biomass and waste are alternatives well worth exploring. The sources of biomass and wastes that considered for conversion to useful products are quite diverse, but the most abundant constituent of almost every type is cellulose. Cellulose is cleanly converted to soluble fermentable sugars enzymatically, and cellulose enzymes were isolated from a number of microbial sources. It is generally agreed that the most effective system of enzymes for the conversion of cellulose to glucose is produced by species of the imperfect fungus Trichoderma. The mutant organism Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 is among the best producers of high levels of enzymes; these are extracellular and have carbonhydrate covalently bound to the peptide. Trichoderma produces three types of enzymes which, in a sequential and cooperative manner, convert cellulose to soluble oligosaccharides and glucose.

  13. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Trichoderma species: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, German; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2015-12-01

    Fungi belonging to Trichoderma genus are ascomycetes found in soils worldwide. Trichoderma has been studied in relation to diverse biotechnological applications and are known as successful colonizers of their common habitats. Members of this genus have been well described as effective biocontrol organisms through the production of secondary metabolites with potential applications as new antibiotics. Even though members of Trichoderma are commonly used for the commercial production of lytic enzymes, as a biological control agent, and also in the food industry, their use in xenobiotic biodegradation is limited. Trichoderma stands out as a genus with a great range of substrate utilization, a high production of antimicrobial compounds, and its ability for environmental opportunism. In this review, we focused on the recent advances in the research of Trichoderma species as potent and efficient aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms, as well as aimed to provide insight into its potential role in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with heavy hydrocarbons. Several Trichoderma species are associated with the ability to metabolize a variety of both high and low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. PAH-degrading species include Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma virens, and Trichoderma asperellum using alternate enzyme systems commonly seen in other organisms, such as multicooper laccases, peroxidases, and ring-cleavage dioxygenases. Within these species, T. asperellum stands out as a versatile organism with remarkable degrading abilities, high tolerance, and a remarkable potential to be used as a remediation agent in polluted soils.

  14. Biodegradation of wheat straw by different isolates of Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Astaraei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficient use of agricultural wastes due to their recycling and possible production of cost effective materials, have economic and ecological advantages. A biological method used for degrading agricultural wastes is a new method for improving the digestibility of these materials and favoring the ease of degradation by other microorganisms. This research was carried out to study the possible biodegradation of wheat straw by different species and isolates of Trichoderma fungi. Two weeks after inoculation of wheat straw by different isolates, oven drying in 75◦C, the samples were weighted and (Acid Detergent Fiber ADF and NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber reductions of each sample under influence of fungal growth were compared with their controls. The results showed that biodegradation of wheat straw were closely related to fungi species and also its isolates. The Reductions in NDF and ADF of wheat straw by T. reesei and T. longibrachiatum were more pronounced compared to others, although T. reesei was superior in ADF of wheat straw reduction. It is concluded that for improving in digestibility and also shortening the timing of composting process, it is recommended to treat the wheat straw with Trichoderma fungi and especially with T. reesei and T. longibrachiatum that performed well and had excellent efficiencies.

  15. A monograph of Allantonectria, Nectria, and Pleonectria (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and their pycnidial, sporodochial, and synnematous anamorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, Y; Rossman, A Y; Samuels, G J; Lechat, C; Chaverri, P

    2012-03-15

    Although Nectria is the type genus of Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Sordariomycetes, Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota), the systematics of the teleomorphic and anamorphic state of Nectriasensu Rossman has not been studied in detail. The objectives of this study are to 1) provide a phylogenetic overview to determine if species of Nectria with Gyrostroma, Tubercularia, and Zythiostroma anamorphs form a monophyletic group; 2) define Nectria, segregate genera, and their species using morphologically informative characters of teleomorphic and anamorphic states; and 3) provide descriptions and illustrations of these genera and species. To accomplish these objectives, results of phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data from six loci (act, ITS, LSU, rpb1, tef1 and tub), were integrated with morphological characterisations of anamorphs and teleomorphs. Results from the phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that species previously regarded as the genus Nectria having Gyrostroma,Tubercularia, and Zythiostroma anamorphs belong in two major paraphyletic clades. The first major clade regarded as the genus Pleonectria contains 26 species with ascoconidia produced by ascospores in asci, perithecial walls having bright yellow scurf, and immersed or superficial pycnidial anamorphs (Zythiostroma = Gyrostroma). A lineage basal to the Pleonectria clade includes Nectria miltina having very small, aseptate ascospores, and trichoderma-like conidiophores and occurring on monocotyledonous plants. These characteristics are unusual in Pleonectria, thus we recognise the monotypic genus Allantonectria with Allantonectria miltina. The second major clade comprises the genus Nectriasensu stricto including the type species, N. cinnabarina, and 28 additional species. Within the genus Nectria, four subclades exist. One subclade includes species with sporodochial anamorphs and another with synnematous anamorphs. The other two paraphyletic subclades include species that produce abundant stromata in which the large

  16. Anamorphs of the Bolbitiaceae (Basidiomycota, Agaricales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Grit; Weiss, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We describe and illustrate thallic conidiogenesis in 14 species of the Bolbitiaceae sensu Singer studied in culture. Conidiogenesis of 12 species is shown for the first time. Bolbitius vitellinus and the investigated species of Conocybe (C. albipes, C. appendiculata, C. magnicapitata, C. semiglobata, C. subovalis, C. subpubescens, C. sulcatipes and C. teneroides) possessed a similar mode of conidiogenesis. Species of both genera formed mostly coiled conidiogenous hyphae arising sympodially from differentiated conidiophores. The anamorphs of the Agrocybe species were not uniform and predominantly differed from those of Conocybe and Bolbitius. The conidia of Agrocybe dura, A. firma and A. praecox developed by the simple fragmentation of normally branched hyphae. Sympodially proliferating conidiophores occurred in Agrocybe arvalis and A. aegerita. Secretory cells of different size and shape were found in Agrocybe and in Conocybe. Our results corroborate a close phylogenetic relationship between Bolbitius and Conocybe as well as the polyphyly of the Bolbitiaceae as currently treated, which is consistent with recent molecular phylogenetic studies. Consequently we emend the family concept based on anamorphic characters.

  17. Comparative analysis of microsatellites in five different antagonistic Trichoderma species for diversity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Shalini; Kashyap, Prem Lal; Kumar, Sudheer; Srivastava, Alok Kumar; Ramteke, Pramod W

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellites provide an ideal molecular markers system to screen, characterize and evaluate genetic diversity of several fungal species. Currently, there is very limited information on the genetic diversity of antagonistic Trichoderma species as determined using a range of molecular markers. In this study, expressed and whole genome sequences available in public database were used to investigate the occurrence, relative abundance and relative density of SSRs in five different antagonistic Trichoderma species: Trichoderma atroviride, T. harzianum, T. reesei, T. virens and T. asperellum. Fifteen SSRs loci were used to evaluate genetic diversity of twenty isolates of Trichoderma spp. from different geographical regions of India. Results indicated that relative abundance and relative density of SSRs were higher in T. asperellum followed by T. reesei and T. atroviride. Tri-nucleotide repeats (80.2%) were invariably the most abundant in all species. The abundance and relative density of SSRs were not influenced by the genome sizes and GC content. Out of eighteen primer sets, only 15 primer pairs showed successful amplification in all the test species. A total of 24 alleles were detected and five loci were highly informative with polymorphism information content values greater than 0.40, these markers provide useful information on genetic diversity and population genetic structure, which, in turn, can exploit for establishing conservation strategy for antagonistic Trichoderma isolates.

  18. Optical proximity correction for anamorphic extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Chris; Lam, Michael; Raghunathan, Ananthan; Jiang, Fan; Fenger, Germain; Adam, Kostas

    2017-10-01

    The change from isomorphic to anamorphic optics in high numerical aperture (NA) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) scanners necessitates changes to the mask data preparation flow. The required changes for each step in the mask tape out process are discussed, with a focus on optical proximity correction (OPC). When necessary, solutions to new problems are demonstrated, and verified by rigorous simulation. Additions to the OPC model include accounting for anamorphic effects in the optics, mask electromagnetics, and mask manufacturing. The correction algorithm is updated to include awareness of anamorphic mask geometry for mask rule checking (MRC). OPC verification through process window conditions is enhanced to test different wafer scale mask error ranges in the horizontal and vertical directions. This work will show that existing models and methods can be updated to support anamorphic optics without major changes. Also, the larger mask size in the Y direction can result in better model accuracy, easier OPC convergence, and designs which are more tolerant to mask errors.

  19. isolated from Trichoderma harzianum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-21

    May 21, 2014 ... Chitinase gene from Trichoderma harzianum was cloned and hetrologously over expressed in ... used by Trichoderma to inhibit the growth of other fungi. ..... actinomycete isolates from niche habitats in Manipur for antibiotic.

  20. Comparative genomics provide insights into evolution of trichoderma nutrition style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin-Bin; Qin, Qi-Long; Shi, Mei; Chen, Lei-Lei; Shu, Yan-Li; Luo, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Rong, Jin-Cheng; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Dan; Sun, Cai-Yun; Liu, Gui-Ming; Dong, Xiao-Wei; Pang, Xiu-Hua; Huang, Feng; Liu, Weifeng; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2014-02-01

    Saprotrophy on plant biomass is a recently developed nutrition strategy for Trichoderma. However, the physiology and evolution of this new nutrition strategy is still elusive. We report the deep sequencing and analysis of the genome of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, an efficient cellulase producer. The 31.7-Mb genome, smallest among the sequenced Trichoderma species, encodes fewer nutrition-related genes than saprotrophic T. reesei (Tr), including glycoside hydrolases and nonribosomal peptide synthetase-polyketide synthase. Homology and phylogenetic analyses suggest that a large number of nutrition-related genes, including GH18 chitinases, β-1,3/1,6-glucanases, cellulolytic enzymes, and hemicellulolytic enzymes, were lost in the common ancestor of T. longibrachiatum (Tl) and Tr. dN/dS (ω) calculation indicates that all the nutrition-related genes analyzed are under purifying selection. Cellulolytic enzymes, the key enzymes for saprotrophy on plant biomass, are under stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr than in mycoparasitic species, suggesting that development of the nutrition strategy of saprotrophy on plant biomass has increased the selection pressure. In addition, aspartic proteases, serine proteases, and metalloproteases are subject to stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr, suggesting that these enzymes may also play important roles in the nutrition. This study provides insights into the physiology and evolution of the nutrition strategy of Trichoderma.

  1. Design of a rear anamorphic attachment for digital cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, A.; Valles, A.

    2008-09-01

    Digital taking systems for HDTV and now for the film industry present a particularly challenging design problem for rear adapters in general. The thick 3-channel prism block in the camera provides an important challenge in the design. In this paper the design of a 1.33x rear anamorphic attachment is presented. The new design departs significantly from the traditional Bravais condition due to the thick dichroic prism block. Design strategies for non-rotationally symmetric systems and fields of view are discussed. Anamorphic images intrinsically have a lower contrast and less resolution than their rotationally symmetric counterparts, therefore proper image evaluation must be considered. The interpretation of the traditional image quality methods applied to anamorphic images is also discussed in relation to the design process. The final design has a total track less than 50 mm, maintaining the telecentricity of the digital prime lens and taking full advantage of the f/1.4 prism block.

  2. Hypocrea rufa/Trichoderma viride: a reassessment, and description of five closely related species with and without warted conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaklitsch, Walter M; Samuels, Gary J; Dodd, Sarah L; Lu, Bing-Sheng; Druzhinina, Irina S

    2006-01-01

    The type species of the genus Hypocrea (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi), H. rufa, is re-defined and epitypified using a combination of phenotype (morphology of teleomorphs and anamorphs, and characteristics in culture) and phylogenetic analyses of the translation-elongation factor 1alpha gene. Its anamorph, T. viride, the type species of Trichoderma, is re-described and epitypified. Eidamia viridescens is combined as Trichoderma viridescens and is recognised as one of the most morphologically and phylogenetically similar relatives of T. viride. Its teleomorph is newly described as Hypocrea viridescens. Contrary to frequent citations of H. rufa and T. viride in the literature, this species is relatively rare. Although both T. viride and T. viridescens have a wide geographic distribution, their greatest genetic diversity appears to be in Europe and North America. Hypocrea vinosa is characterised and its anamorph, T. vinosum sp. nov., is described. Conidia of T. vinosum are subglobose and warted. The new species T. gamsii is proposed. It shares eidamia-like morphology of conidiophores with T. viridescens, but it has smooth, ellipsoidal conidia that have the longest L/W ratio that we have seen in Trichoderma. Trichoderma scalesiae, an endophyte of trunks of Scalesia pedunculata in the Galapagos Islands, is described as new. It only produces conidia on a low-nutrient agar to which filter paper has been added. Additional phylogenetically distinct clades are recognised and provisionally delimited from the species here described. Trichoderma neokoningii, a T. koningii-like species, is described from a collection made in Peru on a fruit of Theobroma cacao infected with Moniliophthora roreri.

  3. Dynamics of cosmological perturbations and reheating in the anamorphic universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graef, L.L.; Ferreira, Elisa G.M.; Brandenberger, Robert [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Hipólito-Ricaldi, W.S., E-mail: leilagraef@on.br, E-mail: wiliam.ricaldi@ufes.br, E-mail: elisa.ferreira@mail.mcgill.ca, E-mail: rhb@physics.mcgill.ca [Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Rodovia BR 101 Norte, km. 60, São Mateus, ES (Brazil)

    2017-04-01

    We discuss scalar-tensor realizations of the Anamorphic cosmological scenario recently proposed by Ijjas and Steinhardt [1]. Through an analysis of the dynamics of cosmological perturbations we obtain constraints on the parameters of the model. We also study gravitational Parker particle production in the contracting Anamorphic phase and we compute the fraction between the energy density of created particles at the end of the phase and the background energy density. We find that, as in the case of inflation, a new mechanism is required to reheat the universe.

  4. Induction of mutation in Trichoderma viride for conversion of natural cellulose into glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahoun, M.K.; Khalil, A.I.; Helmi, S.; Khairy, A.H. [Univ. of Alexandria Research Centre, Alexandria (Egypt)

    1991-12-31

    The production of cellulolytic enzymes from fungi has been extensively studied. Several mutants of Trichoderma reesei were selected. Most of the studies were carried out on T. reesei, T. viride, T. harzianum, Penicillium funiculosum, Altemaria alternata. Aspergillus phoenicis, A. ustus, A. tamarii, A. japonicus, and A. niger. T. koningii is one of the most active producers of the so-called C, factor, which is indispensable for the rapid and extensive attack on crystal-line cellulose. However, Trichodenna is known to excrete only small amounts of {beta}-glucosidase. Therefore, Trichoderma is supplemented with {beta}-glucosidase from Aspergillus to increase the saccharification rate of cellulose to glucose as the main sugar. Induction of mutations in Trichodenna spp. rather than T. viride as a tool for the enhancement of {beta}-glucosidase activity was reported. Unfortunately, T. reesei is a poor producer of {beta}-glucosidase. On the other hand, T. harzianum M{sub 5}, a mutant that was induced by gamma radiation, produced high yields, not only of Avicelase and carboxy methyl cellulose, but also of {beta}-glucosidase, than its respective wild type.

  5. Trichoderma as an endophyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichoderma species have been studied for many years for their usefulness in plant disease management. For much of this time, studies focused on the attributes of Trichoderma as a soil saprophyte possessing abilities such as mycoparasitism and antibiosis that directly impact pathogens. The ability...

  6. The significance of cellulolytic enzymes produced by Trichoderma in opportunistic lifestyle of this fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakowska, Judyta; Błaszczyk, Lidia; Chełkowski, Jerzy

    2014-07-01

    The degradation of native cellulose to glucose monomers is a complex process, which requires the synergistic action of the extracellular enzymes produced by cellulolytic microorganisms. Among fungi, the enzymatic systems that can degrade native cellulose have been extensively studied for species belonging to the genera of Trichoderma. The majority of the cellulolytic enzymes described so far have been examples of Trichoderma reesei, extremely specialized in the efficient degradation of plant cell wall cellulose. Other Trichoderma species, such as T. harzianum, T. koningii, T. longibrachiatum, and T. viride, known for their capacity to produce cellulolytic enzymes, have been isolated from various ecological niches, where they have proved successful in various heterotrophic interactions. As saprotrophs, these species are considered to make a contribution to the degradation of lignocellulosic plant material. Their cellulolytic potential is also used in interactions with plants, especially in plant root colonization. However, the role of cellulolytic enzymes in species forming endophytic associations with plants or in those existing in the substratum for mushroom cultivation remains unknown. The present review discusses the current state of knowledge about cellulolytic enzymes production by Trichoderma species and the encoding genes, as well as the involvement of these proteins in the lifestyle of Trichoderma. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. 77 FR 4903 - Trichoderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ...-0245- 0008;oldLink=false. 18. U.S. EPA. 2010a. Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012 Biopesticides... EPA consideration of voluntary consensus standards pursuant to section 12(d) of the National...

  8. Snuffelen aan Trichoderma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Problemen met groene schimmel in champignon-compost blijven zich voor doen, ondanks alle genomen maatregelen. In een onderzoek van Plant Research International wordt nu getracht, via geurprofielen Trichoderma aggressivum al tijdens het doorgroeien aan te tonen.

  9. Mathematical model for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of cellulose by Trichoderma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peitersen, N; Ross, Jr, E W

    1979-06-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model for the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of cellulose by Trichoderma reesei. The principal features of the model are the assumption of two forms of cellulose (crystalline and amorphous), two sugars (cellobiose and glucose), and two enzymes (cellulase and ..beta..-glucosidase). An inducer-repressor-messenger RNA mechanism is used to predict enzyme formation, and pH effects are included. The model consists of 12 ordinary differential equations for 12 state variables and contains 38 parameters. The parameters were estimated from four sets of experimental data by optimization. The results appear satisfactory, and the computer programs permit simulation of a variety of system changes.

  10. Identification, characterization and phylogenetic analysis of antifungal Trichoderma from tomato rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Shalini; Kashyap, Prem Lal; Kumar, Sudheer; Srivastava, Alok Kumar; Ramteke, Pramod W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Trichoderma isolates with efficient antagonistic activity represents a potentially effective and alternative disease management strategy to replace health hazardous chemical control. In this context, twenty isolates were obtained from tomato rhizosphere and evaluated by their antagonistic activity against four fungal pathogens ( Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici , Alternaria alternata , Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctonia solani ). The production of extracellular cell wall degrading enzymes of tested isolates was also measured. All the isolates significantly reduced the mycelial growth of tested pathogens but the amount of growth reduction varied significantly as well. There was a positive correlation between the antagonistic capacity of Trichoderma isolates towards fungal pathogens and their lytic enzyme production. The Trichoderma isolates were initially sorted according to morphology and based on the translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequence similarity, the isolates were designated as Trichoderma harzianum , T. koningii , T. asperellum , T. virens and T. viride . PCA analysis explained 31.53, 61.95, 62.22 and 60.25% genetic variation among Trichoderma isolates based on RAPD, REP-, ERIC- and BOX element analysis, respectively. ERG - 1 gene, encoding a squalene epoxidase has been used for the first time for diversity analysis of antagonistic Trichoderma from tomato rhizosphere. Phylogenetic analysis of ERG -1 gene sequences revealed close relatedness of ERG -1sequences with earlier reported sequences of Hypocrea lixii , T. arundinaceum and T. reesei. However, ERG -1 gene also showed heterogeneity among some antagonistic isolates and indicated the possibility of occurrence of squalene epoxidase driven triterpene biosynthesis as an alternative biocontrol mechanism in Trichoderma species.

  11. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic potential of high β-glucosidase-producing Trichoderma from decaying biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Benedict C

    2014-10-01

    Availability, cost, and efficiency of microbial enzymes for lignocellulose bioconversion are central to sustainable biomass ethanol technology. Fungi enriched from decaying biomass and surface soil mixture displayed an array of strong cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Strains SG2 and SG4 produced a promising array of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes including β-glucosidase, usually low in cultures of Trichoderma species. Nucleotide sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of rRNA gene revealed that strains SG2 and SG4 are closely related to Trichoderma inhamatum, Trichoderma piluliferum, and Trichoderma aureoviride. Trichoderma sp. SG2 crude culture supernatant correspondingly displayed as much as 9.84 ± 1.12, 48.02 ± 2.53, and 30.10 ± 1.11 units mL(-1) of cellulase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase in 30 min assay. Ten times dilution of culture supernatant of strain SG2 revealed that total activities were about 5.34, 8.45, and 2.05 orders of magnitude higher than observed in crude culture filtrate for cellulase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase, respectively, indicating that more enzymes are present to contact with substrates in biomass saccharification. In parallel experiments, Trichoderma species SG2 and SG4 produced more β-glucosidase than the industrial strain Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30. Results indicate that strains SG2 and SG4 have potential for low cost in-house production of primary lignocellulose-hydrolyzing enzymes for production of biomass saccharides and biofuel in the field.

  12. Fatal cutaneous mycosis in tentacled snakes caused by the chrysosporium anamorph of nannizziposis vriesii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Crawshaw, Graham J.; Sigler, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    The fungus Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii was identified as the caurse of fatal, multifocal, heterophilic dermatitis in for freshwater aquatic captive-bred tentacled snakes......The fungus Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii was identified as the caurse of fatal, multifocal, heterophilic dermatitis in for freshwater aquatic captive-bred tentacled snakes...

  13. Structural and Phylogenetic Analysis of Laccases from Trichoderma: A Bioinformatic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cázares-García, Saila Viridiana; Vázquez-Garcidueñas, Ma. Soledad; Vázquez-Marrufo, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The genus Trichoderma includes species of great biotechnological value, both for their mycoparasitic activities and for their ability to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Although activity of extracellular laccase has previously been reported in Trichoderma spp., the possible number of isoenzymes is still unknown, as are the structural and functional characteristics of both the genes and the putative proteins. In this study, the system of laccases sensu stricto in the Trichoderma species, the genomes of which are publicly available, were analyzed using bioinformatic tools. The intron/exon structure of the genes and the identification of specific motifs in the sequence of amino acids of the proteins generated in silico allow for clear differentiation between extracellular and intracellular enzymes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the common ancestor of the genus possessed a functional gene for each one of these enzymes, which is a characteristic preserved in T. atroviride and T. virens. This analysis also reveals that T. harzianum and T. reesei only retained the intracellular activity, whereas T. asperellum added an extracellular isoenzyme acquired through horizontal gene transfer during the mycoparasitic process. The evolutionary analysis shows that in general, extracellular laccases are subjected to purifying selection, and intracellular laccases show neutral evolution. The data provided by the present study will enable the generation of experimental approximations to better understand the physiological role of laccases in the genus Trichoderma and to increase their biotechnological potential. PMID:23383142

  14. Trichoderma stromaticum and its overseas relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichoderma stromaticum, T. rossicum and newly discovered species form a new lineage in Trichoderma. Phylogenetic and phenotypic diversity in Trichoderma stromaticum are examined in light of reported differences in ecological parameters and AFLP patterns. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis using 4 gen...

  15. Trichoderma G protein-coupled receptors: functional characterisation of a cAMP receptor-like protein from Trichoderma atroviride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Kurt; Omann, Markus; Pucher, Marion E; Delic, Marizela; Lehner, Sylvia M; Domnanich, Patrick; Kratochwill, Klaus; Druzhinina, Irina; Denk, Dagmar; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2008-12-01

    Galpha subunits act to regulate vegetative growth, conidiation, and the mycoparasitic response in Trichoderma atroviride. To extend our knowledge on G protein signalling, we analysed G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). As the genome sequence of T. atroviride is not publicly available yet, we carried out an in silico exploration of the genome database of the close relative T. reesei. Twenty genes encoding putative GPCRs distributed over eight classes and additional 35 proteins similar to the Magnaporthe grisea PTH11 receptor were identified. Subsequently, four T. atroviride GPCR-encoding genes were isolated and affiliated to the cAMP receptor-like family by phylogenetic and topological analyses. All four genes showed lowest expression on glycerol and highest mRNA levels upon carbon starvation. Transcription of gpr3 and gpr4 responded to exogenously added cAMP and the shift from liquid to solid media. gpr3 mRNA levels also responded to the presence of fungal hyphae or cellulose membranes. Further characterisation of mutants bearing a gpr1-silencing construct revealed that Gpr1 is essential for vegetative growth, conidiation and conidial germination. Four genes encoding the first GPCRs described in Trichoderma were isolated and their expression characterized. At least one of these GPCRs is important for several cellular processes, supporting the fundamental role of G protein signalling in this fungus.

  16. Potential antagonism of some Trichoderma strains isolated from Moroccan soil against three phytopathogenic fungi of great economic importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa MOKHTARI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 17 Trichoderma strains were isolated from different soils (crop fields and Argan forests in Morocco. Purified monospore cultures were identified using molecular methods and tested for their potential antagonism against three phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxyxporum, verticillium dahlia and rhizoctonia solani. After DNA extraction, translation elongation factor (tef1 was amplified in extracts of 17 strains, sequenced and compared with their ex-types. As a result, three species were identified among the strains, which clustered in two different subclades of Trichoderma: the species T. afroharzianum, and T. guizhouense belong to the Harzianum clade, while T. longibrachiatum belongs to the Longibrachiatum clade. Investigation of potential antagonistic effects of these strains against the soil-borne phytopathogens F. oxysporum, R. solani and V. dahliae was conducted in a dual culture plate assay, using 17 promising Trichoderma strains that have been selected based on a polymerase chain reaction (PCR screening approach. In vitro, Trichoderma isolates showed effective antagonistic performance by decreasing soil borne pathogens mycelium radial growth. Trichoderma afroharzianum showed the highest Percentage of Radial Inhibition Growth (PRIG %. The highest PRIG% = 98% was for 8A2.3 isolate against R. solani and the lowest PRIG%= 67% for T9i10 against F. oxysporum. On the other hand, T9i12, which is T. reesei species, led to a high radial inhibition of pathogens’ mycelium.

  17. IONIC LIQUID SALT-INDUCED INACTIVATION AND UNFOLDING OF CELLULASE FROM TRICHODERMA REESEI. (R828257)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. Radiation pre-treating straw hydrolyzed by cellulase resulted from immobilized Trichoderma reesei growing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhaoxin; Minoru Kumakura

    1992-01-01

    Wheat and rice straw was irradiated by electron beam with different dose at the presence of 4% NaOH or without 4% NaOH. The powder fraction above 200 meshes in pretreated rice straw increased with increasing doses and it was more at presence of 4% NaOH than that without 4% NaOH. The pretreated straw was hydrolyzed with 1% cellulase at 40 degree C for 48 h. The glucose yield (%) was given a rise with the increase of irradiation dose and it was 70% and 80% over that of un-pretreated rice and wheat straw, respectively. At the presence of 4% NaOH, the glucose yield increased as the irradiation dose increased from 0 to 5 x 10 5 Gy, reaching a maximum, 35% for wheat straw and 36.6% for rice straw, which increased by about 2.5 times in comparison with un-pretreated straw, then decrease with increasing the irradiation dose to 10 x 10 5 Gy. The glucose yield reached 19% and 22% for rice and wheat straw in 6 days of hydrolysis, respectively

  19. Construction of a cellulase hyper-expression system in Trichoderma reesei by promoter and enzyme engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, G.; Shi, S.; Jiang, Y.; van den Brink, J.; de Vries, R.P.; Chen, L.; Zhang, J.; Ma, L.; Wang, C.; Zhou, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background A bacterial strain previously isolated from pyrite mine drainage and named BAS-10 was tentatively identified as Klebsiella oxytoca. Unlikely other enterobacteria, BAS-10 is able to grow on Fe(III)-citrate as sole carbon and energy source, yielding acetic acid and CO2 coupled with Fe(III)

  20. Trichoderma reesei CE16 acetyl esterase and its role in enzymatic degradation of acetylated hemicellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biely, Peter; Cziszarava, Maria; Agger, Jane W.

    2014-01-01

    Results The combined action of GH10 xylanase and acetylxylan esterases (AcXEs) leads to formation of neutral and acidic xylooligosaccharides with a few resistant acetyl groups mainly at their non-reducing ends. We show here that these acetyl groups serve as targets for TrCE16 AcE. The most promin...

  1. Molecular phylogeny of Phoma and allied anamorph genera: towards a reclassification of the Phoma complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruyter, de J.; Aveskamp, M.M.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The present generic concept of Phoma is broadly defined, with nine sections being recognised based on morphological characters. Teleomorph states of Phoma have been described in the genera Didymella, Leptosphaeria, Pleospora and Mycosphaerella, indicating that Phoma anamorphs represent a

  2. The Genomes of Three Uneven Siblings: Footprints of the Lifestyles of Three Trichoderma Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoll, Monika; Dattenböck, Christoph; Carreras-Villaseñor, Nohemí; Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Tisch, Doris; Alemán, Mario Ivan; Baker, Scott E; Brown, Christopher; Cervantes-Badillo, Mayte Guadalupe; Cetz-Chel, José; Cristobal-Mondragon, Gema Rosa; Delaye, Luis; Esquivel-Naranjo, Edgardo Ulises; Frischmann, Alexa; Gallardo-Negrete, Jose de Jesus; García-Esquivel, Monica; Gomez-Rodriguez, Elida Yazmin; Greenwood, David R; Hernández-Oñate, Miguel; Kruszewska, Joanna S; Lawry, Robert; Mora-Montes, Hector M; Muñoz-Centeno, Tania; Nieto-Jacobo, Maria Fernanda; Nogueira Lopez, Guillermo; Olmedo-Monfil, Vianey; Osorio-Concepcion, Macario; Piłsyk, Sebastian; Pomraning, Kyle R; Rodriguez-Iglesias, Aroa; Rosales-Saavedra, Maria Teresa; Sánchez-Arreguín, J Alejandro; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Stewart, Alison; Uresti-Rivera, Edith Elena; Wang, Chih-Li; Wang, Ting-Fang; Zeilinger, Susanne; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo

    2016-03-01

    The genus Trichoderma contains fungi with high relevance for humans, with applications in enzyme production for plant cell wall degradation and use in biocontrol. Here, we provide a broad, comprehensive overview of the genomic content of these species for "hot topic" research aspects, including CAZymes, transport, transcription factors, and development, along with a detailed analysis and annotation of less-studied topics, such as signal transduction, genome integrity, chromatin, photobiology, or lipid, sulfur, and nitrogen metabolism in T. reesei, T. atroviride, and T. virens, and we open up new perspectives to those topics discussed previously. In total, we covered more than 2,000 of the predicted 9,000 to 11,000 genes of each Trichoderma species discussed, which is >20% of the respective gene content. Additionally, we considered available transcriptome data for the annotated genes. Highlights of our analyses include overall carbohydrate cleavage preferences due to the different genomic contents and regulation of the respective genes. We found light regulation of many sulfur metabolic genes. Additionally, a new Golgi 1,2-mannosidase likely involved in N-linked glycosylation was detected, as were indications for the ability of Trichoderma spp. to generate hybrid galactose-containing N-linked glycans. The genomic inventory of effector proteins revealed numerous compounds unique to Trichoderma, and these warrant further investigation. We found interesting expansions in the Trichoderma genus in several signaling pathways, such as G-protein-coupled receptors, RAS GTPases, and casein kinases. A particularly interesting feature absolutely unique to T. atroviride is the duplication of the alternative sulfur amino acid synthesis pathway. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Genome Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of the Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma harzianum sensu stricto TR274

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindorff, Andrei S.; Noronha, Elilane F.; Ulhoa, Cirano J.; Kuo, Alan; Salamov, Asaf A.; Haridas, Sajeet; Riley, Robert W.; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2015-03-17

    Biological control is a complex process which requires many mechanisms and a high diversity of biochemical pathways. The species of Trichoderma harzianum are well known for their biocontrol activity against many plant pathogens. To gain new insights into the biocontrol mechanism used by T. harzianum, we sequenced the isolate TR274 genome using Illumina. The assembly was performed using AllPaths-LG with a maximum coverage of 100x. The assembly resulted in 2282 contigs with a N50 of 37033bp. The genome size generated was 40.8 Mb and the GC content was 47.7%, similar to other Trichoderma genomes. Using the JGI Annotation Pipeline we predicted 13,932 genes with a high transcriptome support. CEGMA tests suggested 100% genome completeness and 97.9% of RNA-SEQ reads were mapped to the genome. The phylogenetic comparison using orthologous proteins with all Trichoderma genomes sequenced at JGI, corroborates the Trichoderma (T. asperellum and T. atroviride), Longibrachiatum (T. reesei and T. longibrachiatum) and Pachibasium (T. harzianum and T. virens) section division described previously. The comparison between two Trichoderma harzianum species suggests a high genome similarity but some strain-specific expansions. Analyses of the secondary metabolites, CAZymes, transporters, proteases, transcription factors were performed. The Pachybasium section expanded virtually all categories analyzed compared with the other sections, specially Longibrachiatum section, that shows a clear contraction. These results suggests that these proteins families have an important role in their respective phenotypes. Future analysis will improve the understanding of this complex genus and give some insights about its lifestyle and the interactions with the environment.

  4. Morphological and physiological features of Arthroderma benhamiae anamorphs isolated in northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasch, Jochen; Wodarg, Svea

    2015-02-01

    The anamorph of Arthroderma benhamiae is an upcoming zoophilic dermatophyte that only in recent years has gained importance as a cause of tinea in humans. Its identification by conventional methods can cause problems. In this study we have subjected seven genetically confirmed strains of A. benhamiae anamorphs from northern Germany recently identified in our laboratory to a comprehensive assessment. Their macroscopic and microscopic morphology was checked on various agars and enzyme release stimulated by substrates with keratin, hair perforation and other physiological characteristics were tested. All strains were related to the previously described yellow phenotype of the A. benhamiae anamorph and showed a high resemblance among themselves. Coherent features were their uniform thallus morphology on Sabouraud glucose agar with yellow pigmentation, the formation of circuit-like hyphal structures and hyphal connections that had not been described previously, a lack of conidia, thiamine dependence, the spectrum of released enzymes and a good growth on human stratum corneum. With exception of the latter two these criteria are suggested for the identification of this anamorph phenotype that should be evaluated by future observations. Different phenotypes of the A. benhamiae anamorph may prevail in other geographic regions. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Copper tolerance of Trichoderma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Petrović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Trichoderma strains can persist in ecosystems with high concentrations of heavy metals. The aim of this research was to examine the variability of Trichoderma strains isolated from different ecosystems, based on their morphological properties and restriction analysis of ITS fragments. The fungal growth was tested on potato dextrose agar, amended with Cu(II concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 10 mmol/l, in order to identify copper-resistant strains. The results indicate that some isolated strains of Trichoderma sp. show tolerance to higher copper concentrations. Further research to examine the ability of copper bioaccumulation by tolerant Trichoderma strains is needed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31080 i br. III 43010

  6. Challenges of anamorphic high-NA lithography and mask making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Stephen D.; Liu, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    .1117/12.2086074). To ensure no assist feature printing, the assist feature sizes need to be scaled with λ/NA. The extremely small SRAF width (below 25 nm on the reticle) is difficult to fabricate across the full reticle. In this paper, we introduce an innovative `attenuated SRAF' to improve SRAF manufacturability and still maintain the process window benefit. A new mask fabrication process is proposed to use existing mask-making capability to manufacture the attenuated SRAFs. The high-NA EUV system utilizes anamorphic reduction; 4× in the horizontal (slit) direction and 8× in the vertical (scanning) direction (J. van Schoot, K. van Ingen Schenau, G. Bottiglieri, K. Troost, J. Zimmerman, et al., `Proc. SPIE. 9776, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII', vol. 97761I (2016) doi: 10.1117/12.2220150; B. Kneer, S. Migura, W. Kaiser, J. T. Neumann, J. van Schoot, in `Proc. SPIE9422, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VI', vol. 94221G (2015) doi: 10.1117/12.2175488). For an anamorphic system, the magnification has an angular dependency, and thus, familiar mask specifications such as mask error factor (MEF) need to be redefined. Similarly, mask-manufacturing rule check (MRC) needs to consider feature orientation.

  7. Automated and model-based assembly of an anamorphic telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holters, Martin; Dirks, Sebastian; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Loosen, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Since the first usage of optical glasses there has been an increasing demand for optical systems which are highly customized for a wide field of applications. To meet the challenge of the production of so many unique systems, the development of new techniques and approaches has risen in importance. However, the assembly of precision optical systems with lot sizes of one up to a few tens of systems is still dominated by manual labor. In contrast, highly adaptive and model-based approaches may offer a solution for manufacturing with a high degree of automation and high throughput while maintaining high precision. In this work a model-based automated assembly approach based on ray-tracing is presented. This process runs autonomously, and accounts for a wide range of functionality. It firstly identifies the sequence for an optimized assembly and secondly, generates and matches intermediate figures of merit to predict the overall optical functionality of the optical system. This process also takes into account the generation of a digital twin of the optical system, by mapping key-performance-indicators like the first and the second momentum of intensity into the optical model. This approach is verified by the automatic assembly of an anamorphic telescope within an assembly cell. By continuous measuring and mapping the key-performance-indicators into the optical model, the quality of the digital twin is determined. Moreover, by measuring the optical quality and geometrical parameters of the telescope, the precision of this approach is determined. Finally, the productivity of the process is evaluated by monitoring the speed of the different steps of the process.

  8. Trichoderma inoculation augments grain amino acids and mineral nutrients by modulating arsenic speciation and accumulation in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Pratibha; Singh, Poonam C; Mishra, Aradhana; Tripathi, Rudra D; Nautiyal, Chandra S

    2015-07-01

    Trichoderma reesei is an industrially important fungi which also imparts stress tolerance and plant growth promotion in various crops. Arsenic (As) contamination of field soils is one of the challenging problems in agriculture, posing potential threats for both human health and the environment. Plants in association with microbes are a liable method to improve metal tolerance and enhance crop productivity. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), is an important grain legume providing cheap source of protein in semi-arid regions including As affected areas. In this study we report the role of T. reesei NBRI 0716 (NBRI 0716) in supporting chickpea growth and improving soil quality in As simulated conditions. NBRI 0716 modulated the As speciation and its availability to improve grain yield and quality (amino acids and mineral content) in chickpea (C. arietinum L.) plants grown in As spiked soil (100 mg As kg(-1) soil). Arsenic accumulation and speciation results indicate that arsenate [As(V)] was the dominant species in chickpea seeds and rhizosphere soil. The Trichoderma reduced total grain inorganic As (Asi) by 66% and enhanced dimethylarsonic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsinic acid (MMA) content of seed and rhizosphere soil. The results indicate a probable role of NBRI 0716 in As methylation as the possible mechanism for maneuvering As stress in chickpea. Analysis of functional diversity using carbon source utilization (Biolog) showed significant difference in diversity and evenness indices among the soil microbial rhizosphere communities. Microbial diversity loss caused by As were prevented in the presence of Trichoderma NBRI 0716. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Understanding the cellulolytic system of Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 and enhancing saccharification of pretreated sugarcane bagasse by supplementation with pectinase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Cota, Júnio; Hoffmam, Zaira Bruna; Paixão, Douglas Antonio Alvaredo; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; Cairo, João Paulo Lourenço Franco; Lima, Deise Juliana; Squina, Fábio Marcio; Ruller, Roberto; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2013-03-01

    Supplementation of cellulase cocktails with accessory enzymes can contribute to a higher hydrolytic capacity in releasing fermentable sugars from plant biomass. This study investigated which enzymes were complementary to the enzyme set of Trichoderma harzianum in the degradation of sugarcane bagasse. Specific activities of T. harzianum extract on different substrates were compared with the extracts of Penicillium echinulatum and Trichoderma reesei, and two commercial cellulase preparations. Complementary analysis of the secretome of T. harzianum was also used to identify which enzymes were produced during growth on pretreated sugarcane bagasse. These analyses enabled the selection of the enzymes pectinase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase (AF) to be further investigated as supplements to the T. harzianum extract. The effect of enzyme supplementation on the efficiency of sugarcane bagasse saccharification was evaluated using response surface methodology. The supplementation of T. harzianum enzymatic extract with pectinase and AF increased the efficiency of hydrolysis by up to 116%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of nonribosomal peptides production by a psychrotrophic fungus: Trichoderma velutinum ACR-P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Richa; Singh, Varun P; Singh, Deepika; Yusuf, Farnaz; Kumar, Anil; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Chaubey, Asha

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma is an anamorphic filamentous fungal genus with immense potential for production of small valuable secondary metabolites with indispensable biological activities. Microbial dynamics of a psychrotrophic strain Trichoderma velutinum ACR-P1, isolated from unexplored niches of the Shiwalik region, bestowed with rich biodiversity of microflora, was investigated for production of nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) by metabolite profiling by intact-cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) employing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer. Being the first report on NRPs production by T. velutinum, studies on optimization of growth conditions by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for production of NRPs by ACR-P1 was carried out strategically. Multifold enhancement in the yield of NRPs belonging to subfamily SF4 with medium chain of amino acid residues having m/z 1437.9, 1453.9, and 1452.0 at pH 5.9 at 20 °C and of subfamily SF1 with long-chain amino acid residues having m/z 1770.2, 1784.2, 1800.1, 1802.1, and 1815.1 was achieved at pH 7.0 at 25 °C. Complexities of natural mixtures were thus considerably reduced under respective optimized culture conditions accelerating the production of novel microbial natural products by saving time and resources.

  11. The Visual Journal as an Image Sphere: Interpreting Artworks with an Anamorphic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinner, Anita

    2011-01-01

    During a 1-year study, the visual journal of a preservice teacher was explored as an image sphere, or "bildraum", in relation to teacher culture. Artworks created in the visual journal offered an anamorphic perspective on the materiality of teacher culture, tracing the lived experiences of a student of art in the process of becoming an art teacher…

  12. The relation between xyr1 overexpression in Trichoderma harzianum and sugarcane bagasse saccharification performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Delabona, Priscila; Rodrigues, Gisele Nunes; Zubieta, Mariane Paludetti; Ramoni, Jonas; Codima, Carla Aloia; Lima, Deise Juliana; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; da Cruz Pradella, José Geraldo; Seiboth, Bernhard

    2017-03-20

    This work investigates the influence of the positive regulator XYR1 of Trichoderma harzianum on the production of cellulolytic enzymes, using sugarcane bagasse as carbon source. Constitutive expression of xyr1 was achieved under the control of the strong Trichoderma reesei pki1 promoter. Five clones with xyr1 overexpression achieved higher xyr1 expression and greater enzymatic productivity when cultivated under submerged fermentation, hence validating the genetic construction for T. harzianum. Clone 5 presented a relative expression of xyr1 26-fold higher than the parent strain and exhibited 66, 37, and 36% higher values for filter paper activity, xylanase activity, and β-glucosidase activity, respectively, during cultivation in a stirred-tank bioreactor. The overexpression of xyr1 in T. harzianum resulted in an enzymatic complex with significantly improved performance in sugarcane bagasse saccharification, with an enhancement of 25% in the first 24h. Our results also show that constitutive overexpression of xyr1 leads to the induction of several important players in biomass degradation at early (24h) and also late (48h) timepoints of inoculation. However, we also observed that the carbon catabolite repressor CRE1 was upregulated in xyr1 overexpression mutants. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of improving cellulase production by modifying regulator expression and suggest an attractive approach for increasing total cellulase productivity in T. harzianum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the Planistromellaceae including its coelomycetous anamorphs: contributions towards a monograph of the genus Kellermania

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.M. Minnis; A.H. Kennedy; D.B. Grenier; M.E. Palm; A.Y. Rossman

    2012-01-01

    The core species of the family Planistromellaceae are included in the teleomorphic genera Planistroma and Planistromella and the connected anamorphic, coelomycetous genera Alpakesa, Kellermania, and Piptarthron. These genera have been defined primarily on the basis of...

  14. Trichoderma for climate resilient agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Rai, Pallavi; Srivastava, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sudheer

    2017-08-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges of the twenty-first century for sustainable agricultural production. Several reports highlighted the need for better agricultural practices and use of eco-friendly methods for sustainable crop production under such situations. In this context, Trichoderma species could be a model fungus to sustain crop productivity. Currently, these are widely used as inoculants for biocontrol, biofertilization, and phytostimulation. They are reported to improve photosynthetic efficiency, enhance nutrient uptake and increase nitrogen use efficiency in crops. Moreover, they can be used to produce bio-energy, facilitate plants for adaptation and mitigate adverse effect of climate change. The technological advancement in high throughput DNA sequencing and biotechnology provided deep insight into the complex and diverse biotic interactions established in nature by Trichoderma spp. and efforts are being made to translate this knowledge to enhance crop growth, resistance to disease and tolerance to abiotic stresses under field conditions. The discovery of several traits and genes that are involved in the beneficial effects of Trichoderma spp. has resulted in better understanding of the performance of bioinoculants in the field, and will lead to more efficient use of these strains and possibly to their improvement by genetic modification. The present mini-review is an effort to elucidate the molecular basis of plant growth promotion and defence activation by Trichoderma spp. to garner broad perspectives regarding their functioning and applicability for climate resilient agriculture.

  15. BIOACTIVE METABOLITES FROM TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ABSTRACT. The tea plant, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze is an important crop in the agriculturally based economy of Kenya. Many diseases affect the tea plant but the most prevalent is armillaria root rot caused by the fungus Armillaria mellea. Compounds from the fermentation of. Trichoderma species in different media ...

  16. Disentangling the Trichoderma viridescens complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaklitsch, W.M.; Samuels, G.J.; Ismaiel, A.; Voglmayr, H.

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma viridescens is recognised as a species complex. Multigene analyses based on the translation elongation factor 1-alpha encoding gene (tef1), a part of the rpb2 gene, encoding the second largest RNA polymerase subunit and the larger subunit of ATP citrate lyase (acl1) reveals 13

  17. Trichoderma sp. dalam Pengendalian Penyakit Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Tomat

    OpenAIRE

    Novita, Trias

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peran Trichoderma sp dalam pengendalianpenyakit layu fusarium pada tanaman tomat. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Rumah Kaca FakultasPertanian Universitas Jambi, perlakuannya terdiri dari : t0 = tanpa Trichoderma sp; t1 = 25 gTrichoderma sp/8 kg media; t2 = 50 g Trichoderma sp/8 kg media; t3 = 75 g Trichoderma sp/8 kgmedia; dan t4 = 100 g Trichoderma sp /8 kg media. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Trichodermasp berperan dalam mengendalikan penyakit layu...

  18. Inhibition coefficient and molecular diversity of multi stress tolerant Trichoderma as potential biocontrol agent against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirpara, Darshna G; Gajera, H P; Hirapara, Jaydeep G; Golakiya, B A

    2017-11-01

    Trichoderma is one of the most exploited biocontrol agent for the management of plant diseases. Twenty strains of Trichoderma (six of T. harzianum, four of T. viride, three of T. virens, three of T. koningii, each one of T. hamatum, T. reesei, T. parceramosum and Trichoderma spp.) subjected to in vitro antagonism up to 12days after inoculation against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. causing stem rot in groundnut. A new concept was developed to determine inhibition coefficient representing pathogen biology and biocontrol related biophysical variables. Results explained differential inhibition coefficient of test pathogen by Trichoderma antagonists. The inhibition coefficient of test pathogen was examined highest (91.13%) by T. virens NBAII Tvs12 followed by T. virens MTCC 794 (89.33%) and T. koningii MTCC 796 (62.39%). Microscopic study confirmed biocontrol mechanism as mycoparasitism for Tvs12 and antibiosis for T. koningii MTCC 796. The sclerotial biogenesis of test pathogen was elevated during weak antagonism and diminished in interactions with strong antagonists. The inhibition coefficient of S. rolfsii was significantly negatively correlated with sclerotia formation and lipid peroxidation during the antagonism. Trichoderma strains were screened for fungicides (carbendazim and tebuconazole, thiram and mancozeb) and abiotic stress (drought and salt) tolerance. Results indicated that T. koningii MTCC 796 efficiently grew better than the other strains with maximum radial growth under adverse conditions. The genetic variability among the Trichoderma was determined using 34 gene specific markers which amplified 146 alleles. The SSR similarities explained substantial diversity (15 to 87%) across Trichoderma strains and pathogen S. rolfsii. Principal coordinates analysis (PCA) were comparable to the cluster analysis and first three most informative PC components explained 64.45% of the total variation. In PCA, potent antagonists appear to be distinct from other strains. Five

  19. The Genomes of Three Uneven Siblings: Footprints of the Lifestyles of Three Trichoderma Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmoll, Monika; Dattenböck, Christoph; Carreras-Villaseñor, Nohemí; Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Tisch, Doris; Alemán, Mario Ivan; Baker, Scott E.; Brown, Christopher; Cervantes-Badillo, Mayte Guadalupe; Cetz-Chel, José; Cristobal-Mondragon, Gema Rosa; Delaye, Luis; Esquivel-Naranjo, Edgardo Ulises; Frischmann, Alexa; Gallardo-Negrete, Jose de Jesus; García-Esquivel, Monica; Gomez-Rodriguez, Elida Yazmin; Greenwood, David R.; Hernández-Oñate, Miguel; Kruszewska, Joanna S.; Lawry, Robert; Mora-Montes, Hector M.; Muñoz-Centeno, Tania; Nieto-Jacobo, Maria Fernanda; Nogueira Lopez, Guillermo; Olmedo-Monfil, Vianey; Osorio-Concepcion, Macario; Piłsyk, Sebastian; Pomraning, Kyle R.; Rodriguez-Iglesias, Aroa; Rosales-Saavedra, Maria Teresa; Sánchez-Arreguín, J. Alejandro; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Stewart, Alison; Uresti-Rivera, Edith Elena; Wang, Chih-Li; Wang, Ting-Fang; Zeilinger, Susanne; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo

    2016-02-10

    SUMMARY

    The genusTrichodermacontains fungi with high relevance for humans, with applications in enzyme production for plant cell wall degradation and use in biocontrol. Here, we provide a broad, comprehensive overview of the genomic content of these species for “hot topic” research aspects, including CAZymes, transport, transcription factors, and development, along with a detailed analysis and annotation of less-studied topics, such as signal transduction, genome integrity, chromatin, photobiology, or lipid, sulfur, and nitrogen metabolism inT. reesei,T. atroviride, andT. virens, and we open up new perspectives to those topics discussed previously. In total, we covered more than 2,000 of the predicted 9,000 to 11,000 genes of eachTrichodermaspecies discussed, which is >20% of the respective gene content. Additionally, we considered available transcriptome data for the annotated genes. Highlights of our analyses include overall carbohydrate cleavage preferences due to the different genomic contents and regulation of the respective genes. We found light regulation of many sulfur metabolic genes. Additionally, a new Golgi 1,2-mannosidase likely involved inN-linked glycosylation was detected, as were indications for the ability ofTrichodermaspp. to generate hybrid galactose-containingN-linked glycans. The genomic inventory of effector proteins revealed numerous compounds unique toTrichoderma, and these warrant further

  20. Anamorphic quasiperiodic universes in modified and Einstein gravity with loop quantum gravity corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Marcelo M.; Aschheim, Raymond; Bubuianu, Laurenţiu; Irwin, Klee; Vacaru, Sergiu I.; Woolridge, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this work is to elaborate on new geometric methods of constructing exact and parametric quasiperiodic solutions for anamorphic cosmology models in modified gravity theories, MGTs, and general relativity, GR. There exist previously studied generic off-diagonal and diagonalizable cosmological metrics encoding gravitational and matter fields with quasicrystal like structures, QC, and holonomy corrections from loop quantum gravity, LQG. We apply the anholonomic frame deformation method, AFDM, in order to decouple the (modified) gravitational and matter field equations in general form. This allows us to find integral varieties of cosmological solutions determined by generating functions, effective sources, integration functions and constants. The coefficients of metrics and connections for such cosmological configurations depend, in general, on all spacetime coordinates and can be chosen to generate observable (quasi)-periodic/aperiodic/fractal/stochastic/(super) cluster/filament/polymer like (continuous, stochastic, fractal and/or discrete structures) in MGTs and/or GR. In this work, we study new classes of solutions for anamorphic cosmology with LQG holonomy corrections. Such solutions are characterized by nonlinear symmetries of generating functions for generic off-diagonal cosmological metrics and generalized connections, with possible nonholonomic constraints to Levi-Civita configurations and diagonalizable metrics depending only on a time like coordinate. We argue that anamorphic quasiperiodic cosmological models integrate the concept of quantum discrete spacetime, with certain gravitational QC-like vacuum and nonvacuum structures. And, that of a contracting universe that homogenizes, isotropizes and flattens without introducing initial conditions or multiverse problems.

  1. Effect of Trichoderma isolates on tomato seedling growth response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichoderma species are commonly used as biological control agents against phytopathogenic fungi and some isolates are able to improve plant growth. In this study, the effects of three Trichoderma isolates including Trichoderma harzianum isolate T969, T. harzianum isolate T447 and Trichoderma sp. isolate T in tomato ...

  2. Species diversity of Trichoderma in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen species of Trichoderma were identified from among 118 strains originating from different regions and ecological niches in Poland. This low number indicates low species diversity of Trichoderma in this Central European region. Using the ITS1-ITS2 regions, 64 strains were positively identified...

  3. Microplate-Based Evaluation of the Sugar Yield from Giant Reed, Giant Miscanthus and Switchgrass after Mild Chemical Pre-Treatments and Hydrolysis with Tailored Trichoderma Enzymatic Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianchetta, Stefano; Bregoli, Luca; Galletti, Stefania

    2017-11-01

    Giant reed, miscanthus, and switchgrass are considered prominent lignocellulosic feedstocks to obtain fermentable sugars for biofuel production. The bioconversion into sugars requires a delignifying pre-treatment step followed by hydrolysis with cellulase and other accessory enzymes like xylanase, especially in the case of alkali pre-treatments, which retain the hemicellulose fraction. Blends richer in accessory enzymes than commercial mix can be obtained growing fungi on feedstock-based substrates, thus ten selected Trichoderma isolates, including the hypercellulolytic strain Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30, were grown on giant reed, miscanthus, or switchgrass-based substrates. The produced enzymes were used to saccharify the corresponding feedstocks, compared to a commercial enzymatic mix (6 FPU/g). Feedstocks were acid (H 2 SO 4 0.2-2%, w/v) or alkali (NaOH 0.02-0.2%, w/v) pre-treated. A microplate-based approach was chosen for most of the experimental steps due to the large number of samples. The highest bioconversion was generally obtained with Trichoderma harzianum Or4/99 enzymes (78, 89, and 94% final sugar yields at 48 h for giant reed, miscanthus, and switchgrass, respectively), with significant increases compared to the commercial mix, especially with alkaline pre-treatments. The differences in bioconversion yields were only partially caused by xylanases (maximum R 2  = 0.5), indicating a role for other accessory enzymes.

  4. Extracellular proteases of Trichoderma species. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kredics, L; Antal, Zsuzsanna; Szekeres, A; Hatvani, L; Manczinger, L; Vágvölgyi, Cs; Nagy, Erzsébet

    2005-01-01

    Cellulolytic, xylanolytic, chitinolytic and beta-1,3-glucanolytic enzyme systems of species belonging to the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma have been investigated in details and are well characterised. The ability of Trichoderma strains to produce extracellular proteases has also been known for a long time, however, the proteolytic enzyme system is relatively unknown in this genus. Fortunately, in the recent years more and more attention is focused on the research in this field. The role of Trichoderma proteases in the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi and nematodes has been demonstrated, and it is also suspected that they may be important for the competitive saprophytic ability of green mould isolates and may represent potential virulence factors of Trichoderma strains as emerging fungal pathogens of clinical importance. The aim of this review is to summarize the information available about the extracellular proteases of Trichoderma. Numerous studies are available about the extracellular proteolytic enzyme profiles of Trichoderma strains and about the effect of abiotic environmental factors on protease activities. A number of protease enzymes have been purified to homogeneity and some protease encoding genes have been cloned and characterized. These results will be reviewed and the role of Trichoderma proteases in biological control as well as their advantages and disadvantages in biotechnology will be discussed.

  5. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  6. Trichoderma: the genomics of opportunistic success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druzhinina, Irina S.; Seiboth, Verena Seidl; Estrella, Alfredo Herrera; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Kenerley, Charles M.; Monte, Enrique; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Zeilinger, Susanne; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2011-01-01

    Trichoderma is a genus of common filamentous fungi that display a remarkable range of lifestyles and interactions with other fungi, animals and plants. Because of their ability to antagonize plant-pathogenic fungi and to stimulate plant growth and defence responses, some Trichoderma strains are used for biological control of plant diseases. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in molecular ecology and genomics which indicate that the interactions of Trichoderma spp. with animals and plants may have evolved as a result of saprotrophy on fungal biomass (mycotrophy) and various forms of parasitism on other fungi (mycoparasitism), combined with broad environmental opportunism.

  7. Disentangling the Trichoderma viridescens complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaklitsch, W M; Samuels, G J; Ismaiel, A; Voglmayr, H

    2013-12-01

    Trichoderma viridescens is recognised as a species complex. Multigene analyses based on the translation elongation factor 1-alpha encoding gene (tef1), a part of the rpb2 gene, encoding the second largest RNA polymerase subunit and the larger subunit of ATP citrate lyase (acl1) reveals 13 phylogenetic species with little or no phenotypic differentiation. This is the first use of acl1 in Trichoderma phylogenetics. The typification of T. viridescens s.str. is clarified and Hypocrea viridescens is replaced by the new name T. paraviridescens. Besides these two species, eleven are phylogenetically recognised and T. olivascens, T. viridarium, T. virilente, T. trixiae, T. viridialbum, T. appalachiense, T. neosinense, T. composticola, T. nothescens and T. sempervirentis are formally described and illustrated. Several species produce yellow diffusing pigment on cornmeal dextrose agar, particularly after storage at 15 °C, while T. olivascens is characterised by the formation of an olivaceous pigment. The results are compared with earlier publications on this group of species.

  8. Gene expression analysis of the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum in the presence of tomato plants, chitin, or glucose using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samolski, Ilanit; de Luis, Alberto; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Monte, Enrique; Suárez, M Belén

    2009-10-13

    It has recently been shown that the Trichoderma fungal species used for biocontrol of plant diseases are capable of interacting with plant roots directly, behaving as symbiotic microorganisms. With a view to providing further information at transcriptomic level about the early response of Trichoderma to a host plant, we developed a high-density oligonucleotide (HDO) microarray encompassing 14,081 Expressed Sequence Tag (EST)-based transcripts from eight Trichoderma spp. and 9,121 genome-derived transcripts of T. reesei, and we have used this microarray to examine the gene expression of T. harzianum either alone or in the presence of tomato plants, chitin, or glucose. Global microarray analysis revealed 1,617 probe sets showing differential expression in T. harzianum mycelia under at least one of the culture conditions tested as compared with one another. Hierarchical clustering and heat map representation showed that the expression patterns obtained in glucose medium clustered separately from the expression patterns observed in the presence of tomato plants and chitin. Annotations using the Blast2GO suite identified 85 of the 257 transcripts whose probe sets afforded up-regulated expression in response to tomato plants. Some of these transcripts were predicted to encode proteins related to Trichoderma-host (fungus or plant) associations, such as Sm1/Elp1 protein, proteases P6281 and PRA1, enchochitinase CHIT42, or QID74 protein, although previously uncharacterized genes were also identified, including those responsible for the possible biosynthesis of nitric oxide, xenobiotic detoxification, mycelium development, or those related to the formation of infection structures in plant tissues. The effectiveness of the Trichoderma HDO microarray to detect different gene responses under different growth conditions in the fungus T. harzianum strongly indicates that this tool should be useful for further assays that include different stages of plant colonization, as well as

  9. Multiple gene genealogies and phenotypic characters differentiate several novel species of Mycosphaerella and related anamorphs on banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Fullerton, R.A.; Abeln, E.C.A.; Carlier, J.; Zapater, M.-F.; Buddenhagen, I.W.; Viljoen, A.; Crous, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    Three species of Mycosphaerella, namely M. eumusae, M. fijiensis, and M. musicola are involved in the Sigatoka disease complex of bananas. Besides these three primary pathogens, several additional species of Mycosphaerella or their anamorphs have been described from Musa. However, very little is

  10. HFB7 - A novel orphan hydrophobin of the Harzianum and Virens clades of Trichoderma, is involved in response to biotic and abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przylucka, Agnes; Akcapinar, Gunseli Bayram; Chenthamara, Komal; Cai, Feng; Grujic, Marica; Karpenko, Juriy; Livoi, Miriam; Shen, Qirong; Kubicek, Christian P; Druzhinina, Irina S

    2017-05-01

    Hydrophobins are small secreted cysteine-rich proteins exclusively found in fungi. They are able to self-assemble in single molecular layers at hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces and can therefore be directly involved in establishment of fungi in their habitat. The genomes of filamentous mycotrophic fungi Trichoderma encode a rich diversity of hydrophobins, which are divided in several groups based on their structure and evolution. Here we describe a new member of class II hydrophobins, HFB7, that has a taxonomically restricted occurrence in Harzianum and Virens clades of Trichoderma. Evolutionary analysis reveals that HFB7 proteins form a separate clade distinct from other Trichoderma class II hydrophobins and that genes encoding them evolve under positive selection pressure. Homology modelling of HFB7 structure in comparison to T. reesei HFB2 reveals that the two large hydrophobic patches on the surface of the protein are remarkably conserved between the two hydrophobins despite significant difference in their primary structures. Expression of hfb7 gene in T. virens increases at interactions with other fungi and a plant and in response to a diversity of abiotic stress conditions, and is also upregulated during formation of aerial mycelium in a standing liquid culture. This upregulation significantly exceeds that of expression of hfb7 under a strong constitutive promoter, and T. virens strains overexpressing hfb7 thus display only changes in traits characterized by low hfb7 expression, i.e. faster growth in submerged liquid culture. The hfb7 gene is not expressed in conidia. Our data allow to conclude that this protein is involved in defence of Trichoderma against a diversity of stress factors related to the oxidative stress. Moreover, HFB7 likely helps in the establishment of the fungus in wetlands or other conditions related to high humidity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular Identification, Enzyme Assay, and Metabolic Profiling of Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Soo-Jung; Park, Young-Hwan; Bae, Hyeun-Jong; Jeon, Junhyun; Bae, Hanhong

    2017-06-28

    The goal of this study was to identify and characterize selected Trichoderma isolates by metabolic profiling and enzyme assay for evaluation of their potential as biocontrol agents against plant pathogens. Trichoderma isolates were obtained from the Rural Development Administration Genebank Information Center (Wanju, Republic of Korea). Eleven Trichoderma isolates were re-identified using ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. ITS sequence results showed new identification of Trichoderma isolates. In addition, metabolic profiling of the ethyl acetate extracts of the liquid cultures of five Trichoderma isolates that showed the best anti- Phytophthora activities was conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Metabolic profiling revealed that Trichoderma isolates shared common metabolites with well-known antifungal activities. Enzyme assays indicated strong cell walldegrading enzyme activities of Trichoderma isolates. Overall, our results indicated that the selected Trichoderma isolates have great potential for use as biocontrol agents against plant pathogens.

  12. Identification of effector-like proteins in Trichoderma spp. and role of a hydrophobin in the plant-fungus interaction and mycoparasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Guzmán, Paulina; Alemán-Duarte, Mario Iván; Delaye, Luis; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Olmedo-Monfil, Vianey

    2017-02-15

    Trichoderma spp. can establish beneficial interactions with plants by promoting plant growth and defense systems, as well as, antagonizing fungal phytopathogens in mycoparasitic interactions. Such interactions depend on signal exchange between both participants and can be mediated by effector proteins that alter the host cell structure and function, allowing the establishment of the relationship. The main purpose of this work was to identify, using computational methods, candidates of effector proteins from T. virens, T. atroviride and T. reesei, validate the expression of some of the genes during a beneficial interaction and mycoparasitism and to define the biological function for one of them. We defined a catalogue of putative effector proteins from T. virens, T. atroviride and T. reesei. We further validated the expression of 16 genes encoding putative effector proteins from T. virens and T. atroviride during the interaction with the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and with two anastomosis groups of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. We found genes which transcript levels are modified in response to the presence of both plant fungi, as well as genes that respond only to either a plant or a fungal host. Further, we show that overexpression of the gene tvhydii1, a Class II hydrophobin family member, enhances the antagonistic activity of T. virens against R. solani AG2. Further, deletion of tvhydii1 results in reduced colonization of plant roots, while its overexpression increases it. Our results show that Trichoderma is able to respond in different ways to the presence of a plant or a fungal host, and it can even distinguish between different strains of fungi of a given species. The putative effector proteins identified here may play roles in preventing perception of the fungus by its hosts, favoring host colonization or protecting it from the host's defense response. Finally, the novel effector protein TVHYDII1 plays a role in plant root colonization by T

  13. Dermatitis and cellulitis in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplon, D E; Terrell, S P; Sigler, L; Jacobson, E R

    2013-07-01

    An epizootic of ulcerative to nodular ventral dermatitis was observed in a large breeding colony of 8-month to 5-year-old leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) of both sexes. Two representative mature male geckos were euthanized for diagnostic necropsy. The Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV) was isolated from the skin lesions, and identification was confirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene. Histopathology revealed multifocal to coalescing dermal and subcutaneous heterophilic granulomas that contained septate fungal hyphae. There was also multifocal epidermal hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis, and similar hyphae were present within the stratum corneum, occasionally with terminal chains of arthroconidia consistent with the CANV. In one case, there was focal extension of granulomatous inflammation into the underlying masseter muscle. This is the first report of dermatitis and cellulitis due to the CANV in leopard geckos.

  14. Phosphite fertilisers as inhibitors of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (anamorph Chalara fraxinea growth in tests in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkaczyk Miłosz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed to test the potential for reducing the growth of the mycelium of the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (anamorph Chalara fraxinea by using phosphite preparations at various concentrations in vitro. The study shows that adding pure phosphite to potato dextrose agar media inhibits the development of the fungus, but if the preparation is applied in the form of ammonium phosphite (Actifos, the growth of fungus will be accelerated. Probably the addition of nitrogen contained in the product Actifos has positive effect on the mycelial growth, but pure phosphite restricts its development. These studies are preliminary and only show the potential use of phosphite to reduce the development of H. fraxineus; however, to completely confirm its operation, further research is needed in this area.

  15. Uji Antagonisme Jamur Trichoderma koningii dan Trichoderma harzianum Terhadap Penyakit Bidang Sadap Tanaman Karet Mouldy rot (Ceratocystis fimbriata) di Laboratorium

    OpenAIRE

    Marbun, Harif Nepen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research wasto test antagonism ability of Trichoderma koningii andTrichoderma harzianumto control Ceratocystis fimbriatain laboratory. The research was conducted at Laboratory of Research Agency of Rubber, Sungei Putih from April to December 2015. It was done by using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) non factorial with three treatments and eight replications. The results showed Trichoderma koningii andTrichoderma harzianumpotential as biological agents to control Cerato...

  16. Suppressive Effect of Trichoderma spp. on toxigenic Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Lidia; Basińska-Barczak, Aneta; Ćwiek-Kupczyńska, Hanna; Gromadzka, Karolina; Popiel, Delfina; Stępień, Łukasz

    2017-03-30

    The aim of the present study was to examine the abilities of twenty-four isolates belonging to ten different Trichoderma species (i.e., Trichoderma atroviride, Trichoderma citrinoviride, Trichoderma cremeum, Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma koningiopsis, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Trichoderma longipile, Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma viridescens) to inhibit the mycelial growth and mycotoxin production by five Fusarium strains (i.e., Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium cerealis, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium temperatum). Dual-culture bioassay on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium clearly documented that all of the Trichoderma strains used in the study were capable of influencing the mycelial growth of at least four of all five Fusarium species on the fourth day after co-inoculation, when there was the first apparent physical contact between antagonist and pathogen. The qualitative evaluation of the interaction between the colonies after 14 days of co-culturing on PDA medium showed that ten Trichoderma strains completely overgrew and sporulated on the colony at least one of the tested Fusarium species. Whereas, the microscopic assay provided evidence that only T. atroviride AN240 and T. viride AN255 formed dense coils around the hyphae of the pathogen from where penetration took place. Of all screened Trichoderma strains, T. atroviride AN240 was also found to be the most efficient (69-100% toxin reduction) suppressors of mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone, beauvericin, moniliformin) production by all five Fusarium species on solid substrates. This research suggests that T. atroviride AN240 can be a promising candidate for the biological control of toxigenic Fusarium species.

  17. Use of a new Trichoderma harzianum strain isolated from the Amazon rainforest with pretreated sugar cane bagasse for on-site cellulase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; da Silva, Mateus Ribeiro; Azzoni, Sindelia Freitas; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2012-03-01

    The on-site production of cellulases is an important strategy for the development of sustainable second-generation ethanol production processes. This study concerns the use of a specific cellulolytic enzyme complex for hydrolysis of pretreated sugar cane bagasse. Glycosyl hydrolases (FPase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase) were produced using a new strain of Trichoderma harzianum, isolated from the Amazon rainforest and cultivated under different conditions. The influence of the carbon source was first investigated using shake-flask cultures. Selected carbon sources were then further studied under different pH conditions using a stirred tank bioreactor. Enzymatic activities up to 121 FPU/g, 8000 IU/g, and 1730 IU/g of delignified steam-exploded bagasse+sucrose were achieved for cellulase, xylanase and β-glucosidase, respectively. This enzymatic complex was used to hydrolyze pretreated sugar cane bagasse. A comparative evaluation, using an enzymatic extract from Trichoderma reesei RUTC30, indicated similar performance of the T. harzianum enzyme complex, being a potential candidate for on-site production of enzymes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Edge placement error control and Mask3D effects in High-NA anamorphic EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Setten, Eelco; Bottiglieri, Gerardo; de Winter, Laurens; McNamara, John; Rusu, Paul; Lubkoll, Jan; Rispens, Gijsbert; van Schoot, Jan; Neumann, Jens Timo; Roesch, Matthias; Kneer, Bernhard

    2017-10-01

    To enable cost-effective shrink at the 3nm node and beyond, and to extend Moore's law into the next decade, ASML is developing a new high-NA EUV platform. The high-NA system is targeted to feature a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.55 to extend the single exposure resolution limit to 8nm half pitch. The system is being designed to achieve an on-product-overlay (OPO) performance well below 2nm, a high image contrast to drive down local CD errors and to obtain global CDU at sub-1nm level to be able to meet customer edge placement error (EPE) requirements for the devices of the future. EUV scanners employ reflective Bragg multi-layer mirrors in the mask and in the Projection Optics Box (POB) that is used to project the mask pattern into the photoresist on the silicon wafer. These MoSi multi-layer mirrors are tuned for maximum reflectivity, and thus productivity, at 13.5nm wavelength. The angular range of incident light for which a high reflectivity at the reticle can be obtained is limited to +/- 11o, exceeding the maximum angle occurring in current 0.33NA scanners at 4x demagnification. At 0.55NA the maximum angle at reticle level would extend up to 17o in the critical (scanning) direction and compromise the imaging performance of horizontal features severely. To circumvent this issue a novel anamorphic optics design has been introduced, which has a 4x demagnification in the X- (slit) direction and 8x demagnification in the Y- (scanning) direction as well as a central obscuration in the exit pupil. In this work we will show that the EUV high-NA anamorphic concept can successfully solve the angular reflectivity issues and provide good imaging performance in both directions. Several unique imaging challenges in comparison to the 0.33NA isomorphic baseline are being studied, such as the impact of the central obscuration in the POB and Mask-3D effects at increased NA that seem most pronounced for vertical features. These include M3D induced contrast loss and non

  19. Optimization of mutanase production by Trichoderma harzianum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The highest enzyme activity (0.747 U/mL) was reached in shaken flask cultures ... increase in the production of mutanase compared with the culture before optimization. ... Keywords: Mutanase, Trichoderma harzianum, response surface methodology (RSM), bioreactors, ...

  20. Trichoderma asperellum reconsidered: two cryptic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of a world-wide collection of strains of Trichoderma asperellum using multilocus genealogies of four genomic regions (tef1, rbp2, act, ITS1, 2, 5.8s), sequence polymorphism-derived (SPD) markers, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of ...

  1. Antagonist potential of Trichoderma indigenous isolates for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... the severity of insects and pathogens attacks especially .... After 30-days of incubation at 26°C, the isolation of Trichoderma ... Percentage inhibition (I) of colony growth of P. palmivora was ..... In fact, our success in isolating.

  2. Biological control of Meloidogyne incognita by Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological control against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita was proven to occur in tomato, Solanum lycopersicom, soil-drenched with different isolates of Trichoderma harzianum and a commercial suspension of Serratia marcescens (Nemaless). The potential of such biocontrol agents to trigger plant defense ...

  3. Implications of Planck2015 for inflationary, ekpyrotic and anamorphic bouncing cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2016-02-01

    The results from Planck2015, when combined with earlier observations from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, Atacama Cosmology Telescope, South Pole Telescope and other experiments, were the first observations to disfavor the ‘classic’ inflationary paradigm. To satisfy the observational constraints, inflationary theorists have been forced to consider plateau-like inflaton potentials that introduce more parameters and more fine-tuning, problematic initial conditions, multiverse-unpredictability issues, and a new ‘unlikeliness problem’. Some propose turning instead to a ‘postmodern’ inflationary paradigm in which the cosmological properties in our observable Universe are only locally valid and set randomly, with completely different properties (and perhaps even different physical laws) existing in most regions outside our horizon. By contrast, the new results are consistent with the simplest versions of ekpyrotic cyclic models in which the Universe is smoothed and flattened during a period of slow contraction followed by a bounce, and another promising bouncing theory, anamorphic cosmology, has been proposed that can produce distinctive predictions.

  4. Implications of Planck2015 for inflationary, ekpyrotic and anamorphic bouncing cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    The results from Planck2015, when combined with earlier observations from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, Atacama Cosmology Telescope, South Pole Telescope and other experiments, were the first observations to disfavor the ‘classic’ inflationary paradigm. To satisfy the observational constraints, inflationary theorists have been forced to consider plateau-like inflaton potentials that introduce more parameters and more fine-tuning, problematic initial conditions, multiverse-unpredictability issues, and a new ‘unlikeliness problem’. Some propose turning instead to a ‘postmodern’ inflationary paradigm in which the cosmological properties in our observable Universe are only locally valid and set randomly, with completely different properties (and perhaps even different physical laws) existing in most regions outside our horizon. By contrast, the new results are consistent with the simplest versions of ekpyrotic cyclic models in which the Universe is smoothed and flattened during a period of slow contraction followed by a bounce, and another promising bouncing theory, anamorphic cosmology, has been proposed that can produce distinctive predictions. (paper)

  5. Ghost reflections of Gaussian beams in anamorphic optical systems with an application to Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Maksoud, Rania H

    2016-02-20

    In this paper, a methodology is developed to model and analyze the effect of undesired (ghost) reflections of Gaussian beams that are produced by anamorphic optical systems. The superposition of these beams with the nominal beam modulates the nominal power distribution at the recording plane. This modulation may cause contrast reduction, veiling parts of the nominal image, and/or the formation of spurious interference fringes. The developed methodology is based on synthesizing the beam optical paths into nominal and ghost optical beam paths. Similar to the nominal beam, we present the concept that each ghost beam is characterized by a beam size, wavefront radius of curvature, and Gouy phase in the paraxial regime. The nominal and ghost beams are sequentially traced through the system and formulas for estimating the electric field magnitude and phase of each ghost beam at the recording plane are presented. The effective electric field is the addition of the individual nominal and ghost electric fields. Formulas for estimating Gouy phase, the shape of the interference fringes, and the central interference order are introduced. As an application, the theory of the formation of the interference fringes by Michelson interferometer is presented. This theory takes into consideration the ghost reflections that are formed by the beam splitter. To illustrate the theory and to show its wide applicability, simulation examples that include a Mangin mirror, a Michelson interferometer, and a black box optical system are provided.

  6. Transpiration rates of rice plants treated with Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Anizan, I.; Che Radziah C. M., Z.; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2014-09-01

    Trichoderma spp. are considered as successful plant growth promoting fungi and have positive role in habitat engineering. In this study, the potential for Trichoderma spp. to regulate transpiration process in rice plant was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. The study revealed that Trichoderma spp. have potential to enhance growth of rice plant through transpirational processes. The results of the study add to the advancement of the understanding as to the role of Trichoderma spp. in improving rice physiological process.

  7. Cytostatic effect of L-lysine-α-oxidase from Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and Trichoderma viride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaduev, S.Kh.; Zhukova, O.S.; Dobrynin, Ya.V.; Soda, K.; Berezov, T.T.

    1987-01-01

    Comparative data is given on the effect of the new antitumor enzyme LO, obtained from a Soviet strain of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and from Trichoderma viride from Japan, on DNA and RNA synthesis in human ovarian carcinoma cells in culture and also the results of the action of LO from Tr. harzianum Rifai on protein synthesis. Specific precursors were added to the samples 1 hour before the end of incubation time: 3 H-thymidine, the precursor for DNA synthesis, 3 H-uridine for RNA synthesis, and 3 H-leucine for protein synthesis

  8. Cytostatic effect of L-lysine-. cap alpha. -oxidase from Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and Trichoderma viride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaduev, S.Kh.; Zhukova, O.S.; Dobrynin, Ya.V.; Soda, K.; Berezov, T.T.

    1987-09-01

    Comparative data is given on the effect of the new antitumor enzyme LO, obtained from a Soviet strain of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and from Trichoderma viride from Japan, on DNA and RNA synthesis in human ovarian carcinoma cells in culture and also the results of the action of LO from Tr. harzianum Rifai on protein synthesis. Specific precursors were added to the samples 1 hour before the end of incubation time: /sup 3/H-thymidine, the precursor for DNA synthesis, /sup 3/H-uridine for RNA synthesis, and /sup 3/H-leucine for protein synthesis.

  9. Biocontrol evaluation of wheat take-all disease by Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat take-all disease, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var tritici (Ggt), has been observed in different areas of Iran in recent years. Current biocontrol studies have confirmed the effectiveness of the. Trichoderma species against many fungal phytopathogens. In this study, biocontrol effects of Trichoderma isolates ...

  10. Effect of metabolites produced by Trichoderma species against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolites released from Trichoderma viride, T. polysporum, T. hamatum and T. aureoviride were tested in culture medium against Ceratocystis paradoxa, which causes black seed rot in oil palm sprouted seeds. The Trichoderma metabolites had similar fungistatic effects on the growth of C. paradoxa except those from T.

  11. Effect of Trichoderma spp. inoculation on the chemical composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in this study was complete randomized design (CRD) through factorial experiment with 2 factors (factor A = effects of sterilization, factor B = effects of Trichoderma spp.) in three replicates for each treatment. Effects of the Trichoderma isolates on the substrate neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and pH as ...

  12. Trichoderma (Hypocrea) species with green ascospores from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Z.X.; Zhuang, W.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Stromata of Trichoderma species having green ascospores were collected in various regions of China. Based on morphology of the sexual and asexual morph, culture characteristics, and sequence analyses of rpb2 and tef1 genes, 17 species with green ascospores were identified. Among them, Trichoderma

  13. Multiple gene genealogies and phenotypic characters differentiate several novel species of Mycosphaerella and related anamorphs on banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzanlou, M; Groenewald, J Z; Fullerton, R A; Abeln, E C A; Carlier, J; Zapater, M-F; Buddenhagen, I W; Viljoen, A; Crous, P W

    2008-06-01

    Three species of Mycosphaerella, namely M. eumusae, M. fijiensis, and M. musicola are involved in the Sigatoka disease complex of bananas. Besides these three primary pathogens, several additional species of Mycosphaerella or their anamorphs have been described from Musa. However, very little is known about these taxa, and for the majority of these species no culture or DNA is available for study. In the present study, we collected a global set of Mycosphaerella strains from banana, and compared them by means of morphology and a multi-gene nucleotide sequence data set. The phylogeny inferred from the ITS region and the combined data set containing partial gene sequences of the actin gene, the small subunit mitochondrial ribosomal DNA and the histone H3 gene revealed a rich diversity of Mycosphaerella species on Musa. Integration of morphological and molecular data sets confirmed more than 20 species of Mycosphaerella (incl. anamorphs) to occur on banana. This study reconfirmed the previously described presence of Cercospora apii, M. citri and M. thailandica, and also identified Mycosphaerella communis, M. lateralis and Passalora loranthi on this host. Moreover, eight new species identified from Musa are described, namely Dissoconium musae, Mycosphaerella mozambica, Pseudocercospora assamensis, P. indonesiana, P. longispora, Stenella musae, S. musicola, and S. queenslandica.

  14. Sexual reproduction as the cause of heat resistance in the food spoilage fungus Byssochlamys spectabilis (anamorph Paecilomyces variotii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Jos; Varga, János; Rico-Munoz, Emilia; Johnson, Shawn; Samson, Robert A

    2008-03-01

    Paecilomyces variotii is a common cosmopolitan species that is able to spoil various food- and feedstuffs and is frequently encountered in heat-treated products. However, isolates from heat-treated products rarely form ascospores. In this study we examined by using molecular techniques and mating tests whether this species can undergo a sexual cycle and form ascospores. The population structure of this species was examined by analyzing the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene, as well as partial beta-tubulin, actin, and calmodulin gene sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that P. variotii is a highly variable species. Partition homogeneity tests revealed that P. variotii has a recombining population structure. In addition to sequence analyses, mating experiments indicated that P. variotii is able to form ascomata and ascospores in culture in a heterothallic manner. The distribution of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 genes showed a 1:1 ratio in the progeny of the mating experiments. From the sequence analyses and mating data we conclude that P. variotii is the anamorph of Talaromyces spectabilis and that it has a biallelic heterothallic mating system. Since Paecilomyces sensu stricto anamorphs group within Byssochlamys, a new combination Byssochlamys spectabilis is proposed.

  15. Purifying Selection and Birth-and-Death Evolution in the Class II Hydrophobin Gene Families of the Ascomycete Trichoderma/Hypocrea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    kubicek, Christian P.; Baker, Scott E.; Gamauf, Christian; Kenerley, Chuck; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2008-01-10

    Hydrophobins are proteins containing eight conserved cysteine residues that occur uniquely in mycelial fungi, where their main function is to confer hydrophobicity to fungal surfaces in contact with air and during attachment of hyphae to hydrophobic surfaces of hosts, symbiotic partners or of themselves resulting in morphogenetic signals. Based on their hydropathy patterns and their solubility characteristics, they are classified in class I and class II hydrophobins, the latter being found only in ascomycetes. Here we have investigated the mechanisms driving the evolution of the class II hydrophobins in nine species of the mycoparasitic ascomycetous genus Trichoderma/Hypocrea, using three fully sequenced genomes (H. jecorina=T. reesei, H. atroviridis=T. atroviride; H. virens=T. virens) and a total of 14.000 ESTs of six others (T. asperellum, H. lixii=T. harzianum, T. aggressivum var. europeae, T. longibrachiatum, T. cf. viride). The former three contained six, ten and nine members, which is the highest number found in any other ascomycete so far. They all showed the conserved four beta-strands/one helix structure, which is stabilized by four disulfide bonds. In addition, a small number of these HFBs contained an extended N-terminus rich in either praline and aspartate, or glycine-asparagine. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a mosaic of terminal clades contain duplicated genes and shows only three reasonably supported clades. Calculation of the ratio of differences in synonymous vs. non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions provides evidence for strong purifying selection (KS/Ka >> 1). A genome database search for class II HFBs from other ascomycetes retrieved a much smaller number of hydrophobins (2-4) from each species, and most of them were from Pyrenomycetes. A combined phylogeny of these sequences with those of Trichoderma showed that the Trichoderma HFBs mostly formed their own clades, whereas those of other pyrenomycetes occured in shared clades. Our study shows

  16. Antibiosis functions during interactions of Trichoderma afroharzianum and Trichoderma gamsii with plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia and Pythium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinjian; Harvey, Paul R; Stummer, Belinda E; Warren, Rosemary A; Zhang, Guangzhi; Guo, Kai; Li, Jishun; Yang, Hetong

    2015-09-01

    Trichoderma afroharzianum is one of the best characterized Trichoderma species, and strains have been utilized as plant disease suppressive inoculants. In contrast, Trichoderma gamsii has only recently been described, and there is limited knowledge of its disease suppressive efficacies. Comparative studies of changes in gene expression during interactions of these species with their target plant pathogens will provide fundamental information on pathogen antibiosis functions. In the present study, we used complementary DNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis to investigate changes in transcript profiling of T. afroharzianum strain LTR-2 and T. gamsii strain Tk7a during in vitro interactions with plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium irregulare. Considerable differences were resolved in the overall expression profiles of strains LTR-2 and Tk7a when challenged with either plant pathogen. In strain LTR-2, previously reported mycoparasitism-related genes such as chitinase, polyketide synthase, and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase were found to be differentially expressed. This was not so for strain Tk7a, with the only previously reported antibiosis-associated genes being small secreted cysteine-rich proteins. Although only one differentially expressed gene was common to both strains LTR-2 and Tk7a, numerous genes reportedly associated with pathogen antibiosis processes were differentially expressed in both strains, including degradative enzymes and membrane transport proteins. A number of novel potential antibiosis-related transcripts were found from strains LTR-2 and Tk7a and remain to be identified. The expression kinetics of 20 Trichoderma (10 from strain LTR-2, 10 from strain Tk7a) transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) at pre- and post-mycelia contact stages of Trichoderma-prey interactions, thereby confirming differential gene expression. Collectively, this research

  17. Quantification and characterisation of Trichoderma spp. from different ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariah, M; Choo, C W; Zakaria, H; Norihan, M S

    2005-01-01

    Basal stem rot of oil palm caused by Ganoderma boninense is of major economic importance. Observations of the low incidence of disease due to Ganoderma species in natural stands, suggest that the disease is kept under control by some biological means. Trichoderma spp. are saprophytic fungi with high antagonistic activities against soil-borne pathogens. However, their abundance and distribution are soil and crop specific. Trichoderma species have been found to be concentrated in the A1 (0-30 cm) and Be soil horizons (30-60 cm), although the abundance of Trichoderma was not significantly different between the oil palm and non-oil palm ecosystems. Characterisation of Trichoderma isolates based on cultural, morphological and DNA polymorphism showed that T. harzianum, T. virens, T. koningii and T. longibrachiatum made up 72, 14, 10 and 4% of the total Trichoderma isolates isolated. As Trichoderma species are present in the oil palm ecosystem, but at lower numbers and in locations different from those desired, soil augmentation with antagonistic Trichoderma spp. can be developed as a strategy towards integrated management of basal stem rot of oil palm.

  18. Influence of Environmental Parameters on Trichoderma Strains with Biocontrol Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Antal

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Several mycoparasitic strains belonging to the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma are promising candidates for the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi. When planning the application of antagonistic Trichoderma strains for the purposes of biological control, it is very important to consider the environmental parameters affecting the biocontrol agents in the soil. A series of abiotic and biotic environmental parameters has an influence on the biocontrol efficacy of Trichoderma. Some important parameters to be considered are the effects of temperature, water potential and pH, and the presence of pesticides, metal ions and antagonistic bacteria in the soil. Most of the Trichoderma strains are mesophilic. Low temperatures in winter may cause a problem during biological control by influencing the activity of the biocontrol agents. Another problem emerging during the application of Trichoderma strains as biocontrol agents is that they cannot tolerate dry conditions, however, we may need biocontrol agents against plant pathogenic fungi which are able to grow and cause disease even in dry soils. The pH characteristics of the soil also belong to the most important environmental parameters affecting the activities of mycoparasitic Trichoderma strains. Within the frames of a complex integrated plant protection strategy, we may have to combine Trichoderma strains with chemical pesticides or metal compounds, therefore it is important to collect information about the effects of pesticides and metal ions on the biocontrol strains. Antagonistic soil bacteria may also have negative effects on the biocontrol abilities of Trichoderma strains, therefore it may be advantageous if a biocontrol strain possesses bacterium- degrading abilities as well. This review will discuss the literature about the influence of temperature, water potential, pH, pesticides, metal ions and antagonistic bacteria on mycoparasitic Trichoderma strains including the results of our

  19. The Hypocrea jecorina (syn. Trichoderma reesei) lxr1 gene encodes a D-mannitol dehydrogenase and is not involved in L-arabinose catabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, Benjamin; de Vries, Ronald P; Polak, Stefan; Seidl, Verena; Seiboth, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    The Hypocrea jecorina LXR1 was described as the first fungal L-xylulose reductase responsible for NADPH dependent reduction of L-xylulose to xylitol in L-arabinose catabolism. Phylogenetic analysis now reveals that LXR1 forms a clade with fungal D-mannitol 2-dehydrogenases. Lxr1 and the orthologous

  20. Cellulose hydrolysis by Trichoderma reesei cellulases: studies on adsorption, sugar production and synergism of cellobiohydrolase I,II and endoglucanase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medve, J.

    1997-02-01

    Three major cellulases have been purified by ion-exchange chromatography in an FPLC system. Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) was hydrolyzed by the single enzymes and by equimolar mixtures of CBH I-CBH II and CBH I-EG II. Enzyme adsorption was followed indirectly by selectively quantifying the enzymes in the supernatant by ion-exchange chromatography in an FPLC system. The (synergistic) production of small, soluble sugars (glucose, cellobiose and cellotriose) by the enzymes was followed by HPLC. 76 refs

  1. Decolorization of humic acids and alkaline lignin derivative by an anamorphic Bjerkandera adusta E59 strain isolated from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornillowicz-Kowalska, T.; Ginalska, G.; Belcarz, A.; Iglik, H. [University of Life Sciences, Lublin (Poland). Dept. of Microbiology

    2008-07-01

    An anamorphic Bjerkandera adusta R59 strain, isolated from soil, was found to decolorize post-industrial lignin alkaline fraction, humic acids isolated from two kinds of soil and from brown coal. The drop of methoxyphenolic compound levels in liquid B. adusta cultures containing lignin or humic acids was correlated with decolorization of studied biopolymers, which suggests their partial biodegradation. It was shown that this process was Coupled with the induction of secondary metabolism (idiophase), and highest peroxidase activity in culture medium and appearance of aerial mycelium. Decolorization of lignin and humic acids from lessive soil and brown coal depended on glucose presence (cometabolism). Decolorization of humic acid from chernozem was related partially to adsorption by fungal mycelium.

  2. Deep fungal dermatitis caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii in captive coastal bearded dragons (Pogona barbata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R S P; Sangster, C R; Sigler, L; Hambleton, S; Paré, J A

    2011-12-01

    Deep fungal dermatitis caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV) was diagnosed in a group of coastal bearded dragons (Pogona barbata). The outbreak extended over a 6-month period, with four of six lizards from the same zoological outdoor enclosure succumbing to infection. A fifth case of dermatomycosis was identified in a pet lizard originally sourced from the wild. Diagnosis of infection with the CANV was based on similar clinical signs and histopathology in all animals and confirmed by culture and sequencing of the fungus from one animal. This is the first report of the CANV causing disease in a terrestrial reptile species in Australia and the first in the coastal bearded dragon. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  3. Biological potantial of some Iranian Trichoderma isolates in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... ... Iranian Trichoderma isolates in the control of soil borne plant pathogenic ... Although in many cases, these pesticides appear to be the most ... pathogens and nematodes by microorganisms has been considered a more ...

  4. Evaluation of Trichoderma harzanium treated cassava waste on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... Microbial Biotechnology and Dairy Science Laboratory, Department of Animal ... Trichoderma treated cassava waste was beneficial to lactating West African dwarf goats. .... Animals that did not show any signs of heat were.

  5. Biocontrol evaluation of wheat take-all disease by Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Trichoderma species against many fungal phytopathogens. ... Microscopic studies revealed hyphal coiling (hyperparasitism) of isolates T65, T96 and T90 around Ggt ... rhizosphere competence, mycoparasitism, antibiotic and.

  6. Biocontrol genes from Trichoderma species: A review | Sharma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pest, drought, decreased soil fertility due to use of hazardous chemical pesticides, ... Among them, fungal genus Trichoderma plays a major role in controlling the ... like cell wall degradation, biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, hyphal growth, ...

  7. The Antagonism Mechanism Of Trichoderma spp. Towards Fusarium solani Mold

    OpenAIRE

    Utami Sri Hastuti; Indriana Rahmawati

    2016-01-01

    The antagonism ability of seven Trichoderma isolates towards F.solani have been observed and tested by dual culture technique. The antagonism mechanism observed by microscopic observation with light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The research result showed seven species of Trichoderma molds have different antagonism ability towards F.solani each other. The antagonism mechanism observed by light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy were mycoparasitism, antibiosis, an...

  8. The Antagonism Mechanism Of Trichoderma spp. Towards Fusarium solani Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utami Sri Hastuti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The antagonism ability of seven Trichoderma isolates towards F.solani have been observed and tested by dual culture technique. The antagonism mechanism observed by microscopic observation with light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The research result showed seven species of Trichoderma molds have different antagonism ability towards F.solani each other. The antagonism mechanism observed by light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy were mycoparasitism, antibiosis, and competition.

  9. Trichoderma spp. decrease Fusarium root rot in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of six Trichoderma-based commercial products (TCP in controlling Fusarium root rot (FRR in common bean was assessed under field conditions. Three TCP, used for seed treatment or applied in the furrow, increased seedling emergence as much as the fungicide fludioxonil. FRR incidence was not affected, but all TCP and fludioxonil reduced the disease severity, compared to control. Application of Trichoderma-based products was as effective as that of fludioxonil in FRR management.

  10. Trichoharzianol, a new antifungal from Trichoderma harzianum F031.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeerapong, Chotika; Phupong, Worrapong; Bangrak, Phuwadol; Intana, Warin; Tuchinda, Patoomratana

    2015-04-15

    A new decalin derivative, trichoharzianol (1), together with three known compounds, eujavanicol A (2), 5-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl-7-methoxychromone (3), and 4,6-dihydroxy-5-methylphthalide (4), were isolated from Trichoderma harzianum F031. For the first time, compounds 2-4 were reported from the Trichoderma species. Their structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods. Trichoharzianol (1) showed the highest antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 128 μg/mL.

  11. In vitro antagonism of Thielaviopsis paradoxa by Trichoderma longibrachiatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Vladimir; Rebolledo, Oscar; Picaso, Rosa M; Cárdenas, Elizabeth; Córdova, Jesús; González, Orfil; Samuels, Gary J

    2007-01-01

    Seventy-nine Trichoderma strains were isolated from soil taken from 28 commercial plantations of Agave tequilana cv. 'Azul' in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. Nine of these isolates produced nonvolatile metabolites that completely inhibited the growth of Thielaviopsis paradoxa on potato dextrose agar plates. These isolates were identified as Trichoderma longibrachiatum on the basis of their morphology and DNA sequence analysis of two genes (ITS rDNA and translation elongation factor EF-1alpha). Mycoparasitism of Th. paradoxa by T. longibrachiatum strains in dual cultures was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The Trichoderma hyphae grew alongside the Th. paradoxa hyphae, but penetration of Thielaviopsis hyphae by Trichoderma was no apparent. Aleurioconidia of Th. paradoxa were parasitized by Trichoderma. Both hyphae and aleurioconidia of Th. paradoxa lost turgor pressure, wrinkled, collapsed and finally disintegrated. In liquid cultures, all nine Trichoderma isolates produced proteases, beta-1,3-glucanases and chitinases that would be responsible for the degradation of Thielaviopsis hyphae. These results demonstrate that the modes of action of T. longibrachiatum involved against Th. paradoxa in vitro experiments are mycoparasitism and the production of nonvolatile toxic metabolites.

  12. Xylanase production by Trichoderma harzianum E58

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senior, D.J.; Mayers, P.R.; Saddler, J.N. (Fortintek Canada Corp., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biotechnology and Chemistry)

    1989-12-01

    Growth of Trichoderma harzianum E58 on hemicellulose-rich media, both in batch and fermentor cultures, resulted in independent profiles of the production of xylanase and endoglucanase enzymes. Dramatic differences in the ratio of xylanase to endoglucanase activities were observed among cultures grown on cellulose-rich Solka Floc and xylan. These results indicated that the induction of xylanases and cellulases was likely to be under separate regulatory control. The specific activity and amount of xylanases produced were found to be dependent on the concentration of xylan in the growth media. Growth on oat spelts xylan or the hemicellulose-rich, watersoluble fraction from steam-treated aspenwood (SEA-WS) greatly enhanced the production of xylanases and xylosidase in the culture filtrates. Constitutive levels of xylanase and endoglucanase enzymes were detected during growth of the fungus on glucose. (orig.).

  13. 75 FR 9527 - Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0750; FRL-8800-9] Trichoderma... of a tolerance for residues of the Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012 on all food/feed commodities... residues of Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012. DATES: This regulation is effective March 3, 2010...

  14. 75 FR 8504 - Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0749; FRL-8799-4] Trichoderma... of a tolerance for residues of the Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080 on all food/feed commodities... residues of Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080. DATES: This regulation is effective February 25, 2010...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1250 - Cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Trichoderma longibrachiatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Trichoderma longibrachiatum. 184.1250 Section 184.1250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT....1250 Cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Trichoderma longibrachiatum. (a) Cellulase enzyme preparation is derived from a nonpathogenic, nontoxicogenic strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum (formerly T...

  16. Effect of infesting soil with Trichoderma harzianum and amendment with coffee pulp on survival of Armillaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otieno, W.; Jeger, M.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Six isolates of Trichoderma were screened for antagonism to Armillaria in tea stem sections buried in the soil. The inability of Armillaria to invade Trichoderma-colonized stem sections and the reduction of its viability in the plant materials following invasion of these by Trichoderma were used as

  17. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mendes Milanesi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed i to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS in eight soybean genotypes; ii morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolates of Trichoderma spp. with better performance in the direct confrontation. The sampling of soil and roots was performed in an experimental area located in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil. In the laboratory, serial dilutions of soil samples, counting of the number of Colony Forming Units (UFCs/g-1 of rhizospheric soil were performed as well as isolation for identification of isolates of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and testing of direct confrontation. There were significant differences between the population of Trichoderma spp. in the rhizosphere of plants with and without symptoms of SDS. For the population of Fusarium spp., significant difference was observed only in the rhizosphere of plants without symptoms of SDS. In diseased roots the following species were identified: F. solani, F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and F. verticillioides. In the test of direct confrontation, eight isolates of Trichoderma spp. achieved the best performance in the antagonism to Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. from areas with symptoms of SDS had a higher control efficiency in vitro. These isolates showed high similarity to the species of T. koningii agregate.

  18. Three new species of Trichoderma with hyaline ascospores from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z X; Zhuang, W Y

    2015-01-01

    Collections of Trichoderma having hyaline ascospores from different areas of China were examined. Using combined analyses of morphological data, culture characters and phylogenetic information based on rDNA sequences of partial nuc translation elongation factor 1-α encoding gene (TEF1-α) and the gene encoding the second largest nuc RNA polymerase subunit (RPB2), three new species, Trichoderma applanatum, T. oligosporum and T. sinoluteum, were discovered and are described. Trichoderma applanatum produces continuous flat to pulvinate, white to cream stromata with dense orange or pale brown ostioles, and simple acremonium-like to verticillium-like conidiophores, belongs to the Hypocreanum clade and is closely related to T. decipiens. Trichoderma oligosporum forms reddish brown stromata with a downy surface, hyaline conidia and gliocladium-like conidiophores, and is closely related to but distinct from T. crystalligenum in the Psychrophila clade. Trichoderma sinoluteum, as a member of the Polysporum clade, is characterized by pale yellow stromata, white pustulate conidiomata, pachybasium-like conidiophores, and hyaline conidia. Differences between the new species and their close relatives are discussed. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  19. Characterization of Malaysian Trichoderma isolates using random amplified microsatellites (RAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiquee, Shafiquzzaman; Tan, Soon Guan; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Fatihah, Nur Hasan Nudin; Hasan, Md Mainul

    2012-01-01

    Trichoderma species are commercially applied as biocontrol agents against numerous plant pathogenic fungi due to their production of antifungal metabolites, competition for nutrients and space, and mycoparasitism. However, currently the identification of Trichoderma species from throughout the world based on micro-morphological descriptions is tedious and prone to error. The correct identification of Trichoderma species is important as several traits are species-specific. The Random Amplified Microsatellites (RAMS) analysis done using five primers in this study showed different degrees of the genetic similarity among 42 isolates of this genus. The genetic similarity values were found to be in the range of 12.50-85.11% based on a total of 76 bands scored in the Trichoderma isolates. Of these 76 bands, 96.05% were polymorphic, 3.95% were monomorphic and 16% were exclusive bands. Two bands (250 bp and 200 bp) produced by primer LR-5 and one band (250 bp) by primer P1A were present in all the Trichoderma isolates collected from healthy and infected oil palm plantation soils. Cluster analysis based on UPGMA of the RAMS marker data showed that T. harzianum, T. virens and T. longibrachiatum isolates were grouped into different clades and lineages. In this study we found that although T. aureoviride isolates were morphologically different when compared to T. harzianum isolates, the UPGMA cluster analysis showed that the majority isolates of T. aureoviride (seven from nine) were closely related to the isolates of T. harzianum.

  20. Unraveling Trichoderma species in the attine ant environment: description of three new taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Quimi Vidaurre; Meirelles, Lucas Andrade; Chaverri, Priscila; Rodrigues, Andre

    2016-05-01

    Fungus-growing "attine" ants forage diverse substrates to grow fungi for food. In addition to the mutualistic fungal partner, the colonies of these insects harbor a rich microbiome composed of bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. Previous work reported some Trichoderma species in the fungus gardens of leafcutter ants. However, no studies systematically addressed the putative association of Trichoderma with attine ants, especially in non-leafcutter ants. Here, a total of 62 strains of Trichoderma were analyzed using three molecular markers (ITS, tef1 and rpb2). In addition, 30 out of 62 strains were also morphologically examined. The strains studied correspond to the largest sampling carried out so far for Trichoderma in the attine ant environment. Our results revealed the richness of Trichoderma in this environment, since we found 20 Trichoderma species, including three new taxa described in the present work (Trichoderma attinorum, Trichoderma texanum and Trichoderma longifialidicum spp. nov.) as well as a new phylogenetic taxon (LESF 545). Moreover, we show that all 62 strains grouped within different clades across the Trichoderma phylogeny, which are identical or closely related to strains derived from several other environments. This evidence supports the transient nature of the genus Trichoderma in the attine ant colonies. The discovery of three new species suggests that the dynamic foraging behavior of these insects might be responsible for accumulation of transient fungi into their colonies, which might hold additional fungal taxa still unknown to science.

  1. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both field experiments and was selected for fungicide sensitivity tests and mass production. This isolate was identified as Trichoderma atroviride by sequencing fragments of the ITS region of the rDNA and tef-1α of the RNA polymerase. Trichoderma atroviride was as effective as the fungicide Azoxystrobin, which is recommended for controlling black Sigatoka. This biocontrol agent has potential to control the disease and may be scaled-up for field applications on rice-based solid fermentation

  2. Induction of conidiation by endogenous volatile compounds in Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemcovic, Marek; Jakubíková, Lucia; Víden, Ivan; Farkas, Vladimír

    2008-07-01

    Light and starvation are two principal environmental stimuli inducing conidiation in the soil micromycete Trichoderma spp. We observed that volatiles produced by conidiating colonies of Trichoderma spp. elicited conidiation in colonies that had not been induced previously by exposure to light. The inducing effect of volatiles was both intra- and interspecific. Chemical profiles of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the nonconidiated colonies grown in the dark and by the conidiating colonies were compared using solid-phase microextraction of headspace samples followed by tandem GC-MS. The conidiation was accompanied by increased production of eight-carbon compounds 1-octen-3-ol and its analogs 3-octanol and 3-octanone. When vapors of these compounds were applied individually to dark-grown colonies, they elicited their conidiation already at submicromolar concentrations. It is concluded that the eight-carbon VOCs act as signaling molecules regulating development and mediating intercolony communication in Trichoderma.

  3. Phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the Planistromellaceae including its coelomycetous anamorphs: contributions towards a monograph of the genus Kellermania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, A M; Kennedy, A H; Grenier, D B; Palm, M E; Rossman, A Y

    2012-12-01

    The core species of the family Planistromellaceae are included in the teleomorphic genera Planistroma and Planistromella and the connected anamorphic, coelomycetous genera Alpakesa, Kellermania, and Piptarthron. These genera have been defined primarily on the basis of ascospore septation or number of conidial appendages. Due to a lack of DNA sequence data, phylogenetic placement of these genera within the Dothideomycetes, evaluation of monophyly, and questions about generic boundaries could not be adequately addressed in the past. Isolates of nearly all of the known species in these genera were studied genetically and morphologically. DNA sequence data were generated for the nSSU, ITS, nLSU, and RPB1 markers and analysed phylogenetically. These results placed the Planistromellaceae, herein recognised as a distinct family, in an unresolved position relative to other genera within the order Botryosphaeriales. Species representing the core genera of the Planistromellaceae formed a clade and evaluation of its topology revealed that previous morphology-based definitions of genera resulted in an artificial classification system. Alpakesa, Kellermania, Piptarthron, Planistroma, and Planistromella are herein recognised as belonging to the single genus Kellermania. The following new combinations are proposed: Kellermania crassispora, K. dasylirionis, K. macrospora, K. plurilocularis, and K. unilocularis. Five new species are described, namely K. con- fusa, K. dasylirionicola, K. micranthae, K. ramaleyae, and K. rostratae. Descriptions of species in vitro and a key to species known from culture are provided.

  4. Voriconazole, a safe alternative for treating infections caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Waeyenberghe, L; Baert, K; Pasmans, F; van Rooij, P; Hellebuyck, T; Beernaert, L; de Backer, P; Haesebrouck, F; Martel, A

    2010-09-01

    Dermal and systemic infections caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV) are highly prevalent in reptiles and may result in severe disease and high mortality. Due to the high incidence of therapeutic failures, optimizing treatment is required. We first determined in this study the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and terbinafine against 32 CANV isolates. For voriconazole, amphotericin B and terbinafine a monomodal MIC distribution was seen, whereas a bimodal MIC distribution was present for itraconazole, indicating acquired resistance in one isolate. Fourteen naturally-infected bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps), from the same owner, were treated orally with either itraconazole (5 mg/kg q24h) or voriconazole (10 mg/kg q24h). The clinical condition, drug plasma concentrations and the presence of CANV in skin samples were followed. The animals were treated until complete clearance of the fungus. The plasma concentrations of voriconazole and itraconazole exceeded the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the CANV isolates. Elimination of CANV was achieved on average after 27 and 47 days of treatment with itraconazole and voriconazole, respectively. Whereas only 2 out of 7 survived after itraconazole treatment, only a single animal died in the voriconazole treated group. In conclusion, based on a limited number of animals, voriconazole applied at a regimen of 10 mg/kg bodyweight (BW) q24h seems to be a safe and effective antimycotic drug to eliminate CANV infections in bearded dragons.

  5. Trichoderma songyi sp. nov., a new species associated with the pine mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myung Soo; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Cho, Hae Jin; Fong, Jonathan J; Cheon, Woo-Jae; Lim, Young Woon

    2014-10-01

    A new species, Trichoderma songyi, was found to be associated with the pine mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake) in Korea. This species was isolated from three different substrates: Tricholoma matsutake basidiomata, as well as roots of Pinus densiflora and soil in the fairy ring. Based on its molecular and phenotypic characteristics, we demonstrate that Trichoderma songyi is unique and distinguishable from closely related species. We performed phylogenetic analyses based on two molecular markers, the genes for both translation elongation factor 1-alpha and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Trichoderma songyi is closely related to Trichoderma koningii aggregate and Trichoderma caerulescens. Morphologically, Trichoderma songyi can be distinguished from these closely related taxa by its growth rates, colony morphology on PDA in darkness, and coconut-like odour. Due to the economic importance of the pine mushroom, the relationship between Trichoderma songyi and Tricholoma matsutake should be studied further.

  6. Trichoderma species occurring on wood with decay symptoms in mountain forests in Central Europe: genetic and enzymatic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Lidia; Strakowska, Judyta; Chełkowski, Jerzy; Gąbka-Buszek, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the species diversity of Trichoderma obtained from samples of wood collected in the forests of the Gorce Mountains (location A), Karkonosze Mountains (location B) and Tatra Mountains (location C) in Central Europe and to examine the cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity of these species as an expression of their probable role in wood decay processes. The present study has led to the identification of the following species and species complex: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst., Trichoderma citrinoviride Bissett, Trichoderma cremeum P. Chaverri & Samuels, Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin., Trichoderma harzianum complex, Trichoderma koningii Oudem., Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans, Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai, Trichoderma longipile Bissett, Trichoderma sp. (Hypocrea parapilulifera B.S. Lu, Druzhin. & Samuels), Trichoderma viride Schumach. and Trichoderma viridescens complex. Among them, T. viride was observed as the most abundant species (53 % of all isolates) in all the investigated locations. The Shannon's biodiversity index (H), evenness (E), and the Simpson's biodiversity index (D) calculations for each location showed that the highest species diversity and evenness were recorded for location A-Gorce Mountains (H' = 1.71, E = 0.82, D = 0.79). The preliminary screening of 119 Trichoderma strains for cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity showed the real potential of all Trichoderma species originating from wood with decay symptoms to produce cellulases and xylanases-the key enzymes in plant cell wall degradation.

  7. Study on growth condition of Trichoderma mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian'ai; Xiao Min; Wang Weiming; Chen Weijing; Sun Yongtang

    2002-01-01

    Some Trichoderma mutants were cultured under different conditions 4 strains, T5, T0803, T1010, T1003 were selected with different mediums and every medium was mixed with fungicide of 40 ppm. The fungicides were procymidone + chlorothalonil, maneb and phosethyl-Al. The pH of medium were 5, 6, 7 and 8, respectively. The growing temperatures were 15, 20, 25 and 30 degree C, respectively. After the hypha growing for some days under natural high temperature, they were put in low temperature for producing spores. The growing times for these hypha were 3,4,5 and 6 days, respectively. All dates were analyzed on statistics with the orthogonal array and ranges (R) were different with different factor and levels (R = 40.4, 42.4, 48.0, 62.8, 107.0). The results showed that the strain was the most influent condition (R = 107.0) and the changed temperature time from high to low was the least influent condition (R = 40.4). Each factor variance was significant and A 3 b 4 C 2 D 1 E 3 was the optimum combined condition, under which T1010 grew more quickly and produced the most spores

  8. Comparative study of impact of Azotobacter and Trichoderma with other fertilizers on maize growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mahato

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofertilizers may be a better eco-friendly option to maintain soil fertility. The study was conducted to investigate the effect of Azotobacter and Trichoderma on the vegetative growth of maize (Zea mays L. plants. The experiment was carried out in medium sized pots, at IAAS, Lamjung (Feb 2017 - May 2017 in completely randomized design (CRD, consisting eight treatments and three replications. Treatments were namely T1 (control, T2 (Azotobacter, T3 (Trichoderma, T4 (Azotobacter + Trichoderma, T5 (NPK, T6 (Azotobacter + Trichoderma + FYM, T7 (Azotobacter + Trichoderma + FYM + NPK, T8 (FYM. Azotobacter showed a positive increase in plant height, stem girth, dry shoot weight, root length and width, and root weight while Trichoderma displayed either negative or minimal impact. Effect of FYM was lower than Azotobacter but considerably higher than Trichoderma. Trichoderma seriously inhibited the expression of Azotobacter when used together. Trichoderma even suppressed the outcome (except shoot weight of FYM when used together. Root length was the longest in Azotobacter inoculation. The highest number of leaves was in T7 followed by Azotobacter (T2 and NPK (T5. Unlike leaf width, Azotobacter showed a negligible increase in leaves length while Trichoderma wherever present showed the negative impact. Minimum chlorophyll content was found in Azotobacter or Trichoderma after 73 days. Azotobacter treatment showed early tasseling than Trichoderma. The association of Azotobacter and Trichoderma increased the biomass. Azotobacter has significant effects on growth parameters of maize and can supplement chemical fertilizer, while Trichoderma was found to inhibit most of the growth parameters.

  9. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense dengan Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus Sudirman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag, second factor was time of Trichoderma culture application (2 weeks before Foc inoculation, at same time with Foc inoculation and 2 weeks after Foc inoculation. Trichoderma sp. was cultured in mixed rice brand and chaff medium. The disease intensity was observed with scoring system of wilting leaves (0–4. The results showed that Trichoderma sp. was antagonistic against Foc in vitro and inhibited 86% of Foc colony development. Mechanism of antagonism between Trichoderma sp. and Foc was hyperparasitism. Trichoderma hyphae coiled around Foc hyphae. Lysis of Foc hyphae was occurred at the attached site of Trichoderma hyphae on Foc hyphae. Added banana seedling with Trichoderma sp. Culture reduced disease intensity of Fusarium wilt. Suggested dose of Trichoderma culture application in glass house was 25 g/polybag, given at the same time with Foc inoculation. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan Trichoderma sp. untuk pengendalian penyakit layu fusarium pisang di rumah kaca. Penelitian meliputi pengujian daya hambat Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc in vitro dan kemampuan menekan intensitas penyakit di rumah kaca. Penelitian in vitro meliputi uji antagonisme dan mekanismenya yang dilakukan secara dual culture. Uji pengaruh Trichoderma sp. terhadap penyakit layu Fusarium dilakukan di rumah kaca dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial. Faktor pertama adalah dosis biakan Trichoderma sp., dengan tiga aras (0, 25, 50 g/per bibit dalam polibag. Faktor kedua

  10. Mutagenesis of Trichoderma Viride by Ultraviolet and Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Risheng; Li Manman; Deng Shengsong; Hu Huajia; Wang Huai; Li Fenghe

    2012-01-01

    Considering the importance of a microbial strain capable of increased cellulase production, a mutant strain UP4 of Trichoderma viride was developed by ultraviolet (UV) and plasma mutation. The mutant produced a 21.0 IU/mL FPase which was 98.1% higher than that of the parent strain Trichoderma viride ZY-1. In addition, the effect of ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis was not merely simple superimposition of single ultraviolet mutation and single plasma mutation. Meanwhile, there appeared a capsule around some of the spores after the ultraviolet and plasma treatment, namely, the spore surface of the strain became fuzzy after ultraviolet or ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis.

  11. Mutagenesis of Trichoderma Viride by Ultraviolet and Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Risheng; Li, Manman; Deng, Shengsong; Hu, Huajia; Wang, Huai; Li, Fenghe

    2012-04-01

    Considering the importance of a microbial strain capable of increased cellulase production, a mutant strain UP4 of Trichoderma viride was developed by ultraviolet (UV) and plasma mutation. The mutant produced a 21.0 IU/mL FPase which was 98.1% higher than that of the parent strain Trichoderma viride ZY-1. In addition, the effect of ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis was not merely simple superimposition of single ultraviolet mutation and single plasma mutation. Meanwhile, there appeared a capsule around some of the spores after the ultraviolet and plasma treatment, namely, the spore surface of the strain became fuzzy after ultraviolet or ultraviolet and plasma mutagenesis.

  12. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Mendes Milanesi; Elena Blume; Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz; Lia Rejane Silveira Reiniger; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Emanuele Junges; Manoeli Lupatini

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed i) to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) in eight soybean genotypes; ii) morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii) evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv) characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolate...

  13. Fermentation of Foc TR4-infected bananas and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Li, B; Liu, S W; Biswas, M K; Liu, S; Wei, Y R; Zuo, C W; Deng, G M; Kuang, R B; Hu, C H; Yi, G J; Li, C Y

    2016-10-17

    Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive banana diseases, and greatly hampers the global production of bananas. Consequently, it has been very detrimental to the Chinese banana industry. An infected plant is one of the major causes of the spread of Fusarium wilt to nearby regions. It is essential to develop an efficient and environmentally sustainable disease control method to restrict the spread of Fusarium wilt. We isolated Trichoderma spp from the rhizosphere soil, roots, and pseudostems of banana plants that showed Fusarium wilt symptoms in the infected areas. Their cellulase activities were measured by endoglucanase activity, β-glucosidase activity, and filter paper activity assays. Safety analyses of the Trichoderma isolates were conducted by inoculating them into banana plantlets. The antagonistic effects of the Trichoderma spp on the Fusarium pathogen Foc tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) were tested by the dual culture technique. Four isolates that had high cellulase activity, no observable pathogenicity to banana plants, and high antagonistic capability were identified. The isolates were used to biodegrade diseased banana plants infected with GFP-tagged Foc TR4, and the compost was tested for biological control of the infectious agent; the results showed that the fermentation suppressed the incidence of wilt and killed the pathogen. This study indicates that Trichoderma isolates have the potential to eliminate the transmission of Foc TR4, and may be developed into an environmentally sustainable treatment for controlling Fusarium wilt in banana plants.

  14. Chemical modification of β -endoglucanase from Trichoderma viridin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    β-Endoglucanase from Trichoderma viride was modified by methanol to explore the catalytic functional groups of cellulase. Crude cellulase was produced, and the conditions of saturation and pH by salting out with ammonium sulfate were optimized. Under optimal conditions, crude cellulase was isolated and purified.

  15. Effects of single and combined inoculations of selected Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of single and combined inoculations of selected Trichoderma and Bacillus isolates on growth of dry bean and biological control of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off. ... Greenhouse trials showed that combined inoculations of T. atroviride strain 6 and B. subtilis B69 gave the highest growth promotion of bean in terms of ...

  16. Phylogenetic diversity analysis of Trichoderma species based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vi-4177/CSAU be assigned as the type strains of a species of genus Trichoderma based on phylogenetic tree analysis together with the 18S rRNA gene sequence search in Ribosomal Database Project, small subunit rRNA and large subunit ...

  17. Uranium biosorption by Trichoderma harzianum entrapped in polyester foam beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A.M.; Shemsi, A.M.; Akhtar, K.; Anwar, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Mechanism of uranium biosorption by resting cells of Trichoderma harzianum was studied at pH 4.5. Time-dependent uptake of uranium by Trichoderma harzianum was also determined. Various cations (Na, K, Ca and Fe, etc.) were found to affect the adsorption capability of these cells. Different theoretical thermodynamic models governing the adsorption behavior of uranium were also tested and it was found to follow the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The constants of Freundlich adsorption isotherm A and 1/n were found to be 1.5 x 10 -6 mole/g and 0.31 respectively. Dubinin Radushkevich equation was tested and the maximum adsorption capacity (X m ) of Trichoderma harzianum and sorption energy (E s ) for the ion exchange process computed. Data of uranium sorption were also examined using Weber Morris's equation. The upscaling of uranium biosorption by Trichoderma harzianum entrapped in commercial foam (polyesters) was carried out in glass columns. It was found to recover more than 85% of the total uranium present in bacterial leachate

  18. Metabolites of Trichoderma species isolated from damp building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, David R; Renaud, Justin B; Barasubiye, Tharcisse; Sumarah, Mark W; Miller, J David

    2017-07-01

    Buildings that have been flooded often have high concentrations of Trichoderma spores in the air while drying. Inhaled spores and spore and mycelial fragments contain large amounts of fungal glucan and natural products that contribute to the symptoms associated with indoor mould exposures. In this study, we considered both small molecules and peptaibol profiles of T. atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. citrinoviride, and T. harzianum strains obtained from damp buildings in eastern Canada. Twenty-residue peptaibols and sorbicillin-derived metabolites (1-6) including a new structure, (R)-vertinolide (1), were characterized from T. citrinoviride. Trichoderma koningiopsis produced several koninginins (7-10), trikoningin KA V, and the 11-residue lipopeptaibols trikoningin KB I and trikoningin KB II. Trichoderma atroviride biosynthesized a mixture of 19-residue trichorzianine-like peptaibols, whereas T. harzianum produced 18-residue trichokindin-like peptaibols and the 11-residue harzianin HB I that was subsequently identified from the studied T. citrinoviride strain. Two α-pyrones, 6-pentyl-pyran-2-one (11) and an oxidized analog (12), were produced by both T. atroviride and T. harzianum. Aside from exposure to low molecular weight natural products, inhalation of Trichoderma spores and mycelial fragments may result in exposure to membrane-disrupting peptaibols. This investigation contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the biologically active natural products produced by fungi commonly found in damp buildings.

  19. The Longibrachiatum Clade of Trichoderma: a revision with new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Longibrachiatum Clade of Trichoderma is revised. Eight new species are described (T. aethiopicum, T. capillare, T. flagellatum, T. gillesii, T. gracile, T. pinnatum, T. saturnisporopsis, T. solani). The twenty-one species known to belong to the Longibrachiatum Clade are included in a synoptic ke...

  20. Biodiversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae) in Southern Europe and Macaronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaklitsch, W.M.; Voglmayr, H.

    2015-01-01

    The first large-scale survey of sexual and asexual Trichoderma morphs collected from plant and fungal materials conducted in Southern Europe and Macaronesia including a few collections from French islands east of Africa yielded more than 650 specimens identified to the species level. Routine sequencing of tef1 revealed a genetic variation among these isolates that exceeds previous experience and ca. 90 species were recognized, of which 74 are named and 17 species newly described. Aphysiostroma stercorarium is combined in Trichoderma. For the first time a sexual morph is described for T. hamatum. The hitherto most complete phylogenetic tree is presented for the entire genus Trichoderma, based on rpb2 sequences. For the first time also a genus-wide phylogenetic tree based on acl1 sequences is shown. Detailed phylogenetic analyses using tef1 sequences are presented in four separate trees representing major clades of Trichoderma. Discussions involve species composition of clades and ecological and biogeographic considerations including distribution of species. PMID:26955191

  1. Biocontrol properties of indigenous Trichoderma isolates from North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBSD

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... Based on their antifungal activity in dual plate assay, 25 isolates were selected for further analysis. The interaction between the Trichoderma and fungal pathogens were ... effective biocontrol agents based on their ability to overgrow and ... bean seeds were planted in the plastic pot, which was filled with 3.

  2. Application of Trichoderma harziunum T22 as a biofertilizer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum strain (T22) on the growth and development of maize (Zea mays) plants. T. harzianum was applied to the grains in two different treatments. The first one was performed by inoculating the soil with the air dried growth of the tested fungus in three ...

  3. Trichoderma viride infection in a liver transplant recipient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, F.; Byl, B.; Bourgeois, N.; Coremans-Pelseneer, J.; Florquin, S.; Depré, G.; van de Stadt, J.; Adler, M.; Gelin, M.; Thys, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    A liver transplant recipient developed infection of a perihepatic haematoma due to Trichoderma viride. Before the infection was diagnosed, the patient received intense immuno-suppressive and prolonged antibacterial and anti-fungal therapies. Although the death of the patient was not directly related

  4. Identification of Trichoderma strains by image analysis of HPLC chromatograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Ulf; Poulsen, S.B.; Nirenberg, H.I.

    2001-01-01

    Forty-four Trichoderma strains from water-damaged building materials or indoor dust were classified with chromatographic image analysis on full chromatographic matrices obtained by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection of culture extracts. The classes were compared with morphol...

  5. Effet du compost et de Trichoderma harzianum sur la suppression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 oct. 2013 ... induit des pourcentages de réduction qui n'ont pas dépassé 81% et 75% ... Effect of compost and trichoderma harzianum on verticillium wilt of greenhouse tomato crop ... telluriques comme Pythium, Phytophthora, Fusarium.

  6. Antagonistic effect of Trichoderma harzianum VSL291 on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we evaluated the antagonism in vitro of Trichoderma harzianum strain VSL291 against 18 pathogens of cocoa fruits in dual culture. T. harzianum VSL291 inhibited the growth of the phytopathogenic fungi tested between 10.54 and 85.43%. The mycoparasitism of Moniliophthora roreri by T. harzianum VSL291 ...

  7. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Akar Merah pada Akasia dengan Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Widyastuti

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was aimed to measure the distribution and intensity of root rot disease of Acacia spp. in the urban forest at the campus of Gadjah Mada University, to isolate and identify the causal organism and to select Trichoderma sp. as biological agent for controlling the disease. The pathogenicity of the causal organism was tested using Crotalaria juncea L. and trunk of A. mangium Willd. (10 cm diameter, 8 cm length as indicator plant. The ability of Trichoderma sp. as antagonist was tested in vitro. It was concluded that the pathogen of the root rot disease was Ganoderma philippii. The pathogen attacked for species of Acacia spp. in the location namely A. auriculiformis, A. mangium, A. oraria, and A. crassicarpa. Of the total individual trees of those species in the campus, as much as 38.6%, 22.2%, and 66.7% were attacked by the root rot pathogen respectively. Of the 20 Trichoderma spp. isolate capable to inhibit the pathogen in vitro, three isolates were found as promising agents for biological control of the pathogen. The promising isolates were T. resei/T23, T. koningii/T1, and T. koningii/T16 with inhibition effectivity of 94.58%; 93.66%; and 91.76% respectively. Key words: biological control, red root-rot disease, Trichoderma, acacia

  8. Evaluation of xylanases from Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite being present in relatively low amounts, pentosans and hemicelluloses play an important role in dough rheology and bread properties. The aim of this work is to understand how the xylanases from Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp. influence dough rheology, such as elasticity, extensibility, strength and stability.

  9. Antagonistic properties of Trichoderma viride on post harvest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effective in vitro screening tests of Trichoderma viride for antagonism against post harvest pathogens of cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz) rot together with its competitive and mycoparasitic abilities informs its selection as the most promising candidate for the biocontrol of post harvest cassava root rot pathogens.

  10. Effect of Trichoderma isolates on tomato seedling growth response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-29

    Jun 29, 2011 ... Seed germination rate was not affected by Trichoderma application, but .... system architecture under sterile condition (Bjorkman et al. ... MATERIALS AND METHODS .... of application to tomato seed in seedling shoot and root elements content. .... with production of some organic acids in the rhizosphere.

  11. Comparison of humic acids production by Trichoderma viride and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FEA

    2014-02-24

    Feb 24, 2014 ... fermentation of oil palm empty fruit bunch. Fernanda Lopes Motta* and ... Trichoderma is a genus of asexually reproducing fungi with a high level of ... the most active fractions of organic matter and affect a variety of chemical ...

  12. Phylogeny of the Clinically Relevant Species of the Emerging Fungus Trichoderma and Their Antifungal Susceptibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Sutton, Deanna A.; Cano-Lira, José F.; Fothergill, Annette W.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Guarro, Josep

    2014-01-01

    A set of 73 isolates of the emerging fungus Trichoderma isolated from human and animal clinical specimens were characterized morphologically and molecularly using a multilocus sequence analysis that included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and fragments of the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (Tef1), endochitinase CHI18-5 (Chi18-5), and actin 1 (Act1) genes. The most frequent species was Trichoderma longibrachiatum (26%), followed by Trichoderma citrinoviride (18%), the Hypocrea lixii/Trichoderma harzianum species complex (15%), the newly described species Trichoderma bissettii (12%), and Trichoderma orientale (11%). The most common anatomical sites of isolation in human clinical specimens were the respiratory tract (40%), followed by deep tissue (30%) and superficial tissues (26%), while all the animal-associated isolates were obtained from superficial tissue samples. Susceptibilities of the isolates to eight antifungal drugs in vitro showed mostly high MICs, except for voriconazole and the echinocandins. PMID:24719448

  13. Effect of the edaphic factors and metal content in soil on the diversity of Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racić, Gordana; Körmöczi, Péter; Kredics, László; Raičević, Vera; Mutavdžić, Beba; Vrvić, Miroslav M; Panković, Dejana

    2017-02-01

    Influence of edaphic factors and metal content on diversity of Trichoderma species at 14 different soil sampling locations, on two depths, was examined. Forty-one Trichoderma isolates from 14 sampling sites were determined as nine species based on their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Our results indicate that weakly alkaline soils are rich sources of Trichoderma strains. Also, higher contents of available K and P are connected with higher Trichoderma diversity. Increased metal content in soil was not inhibiting factor for Trichoderma species occurrence. Relationship between these factors was confirmed by locally weighted sequential smoothing (LOESS) nonparametric smoothing analysis. Trichoderma strain (Szeged Microbiology Collection (SZMC) 22669) from soil with concentrations of Cr and Ni above remediation values should be tested for its potential for bioremediation of these metals in polluted soils.

  14. Comparative genome sequence analysis underscores mycoparasitism as the ancestral life style of Trichoderma

    OpenAIRE

    Kubicek, Christian P.; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Martinez, Diego A.; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Thon, Michael; Zeilinger, Susanne; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Mukherjee, Mala; Kredics, László; Alcaraz, Luis D.; Aerts, Andrea; Antal, Zsuzsanna

    2011-01-01

    Background Mycoparasitism, a lifestyle where one fungus is parasitic on another fungus, has special relevance when the prey is a plant pathogen, providing a strategy for biological control of pests for plant protection. Probably, the most studied biocontrol agents are species of the genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma. Results Here we report an analysis of the genome sequences of the two biocontrol species Trichoderma atroviride (teleomorph Hypocrea atroviridis) and Trichoderma virens (formerly Gliocl...

  15. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pisang (Fusarium Oxysporum F.sp. Cubense) dengan Trichoderma SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Sudirman, Albertus; Sumardiyono, Christanti; Widyastuti, Siti Muslimah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the inhibiting ability of Trichoderma sp. to control fusarium wilt of banana in greenhouse condition. The experiments consisted of the antagonism test between Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) in vitro using dual culture method and glass house experiment which was arranged in 3×3 Factorial Complete Randomized Design. First factor of the latter experiment was the dose of Trichoderma sp. culture (0, 25, and 50 g per polybag), second...

  16. Evaluation of biological control of fusarium wilt in gerbera with Trichoderma asperellum

    OpenAIRE

    Daiani Brandler; Luan Junior Divensi; Rodrigo José Tonin; Thalita Pedrozo Pilla; Ines Rezendes; Paola Mendes Milanesi

    2017-01-01

    The increase in flower cultivation in recent years has been reflecting the higher incidence of soil pathogens that can cause serious problems. This study aimed to evaluate the biological control of Fusarium wilt in gerbera with Trichoderma asperellum. The evaluated treatments were: T1) Control, only sterile substrate; T2) Substrate + Fusarium oxysporum; T3) Substrate + Fusarium oxysporum + Trichoderma asperellum; and T4) Substrate + Trichoderma asperellum. For this, the pathogen was isolated ...

  17. ASSESSMENT OF Trichoderma ISOLATES FOR VIRULENCE EFFICACY ON Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. Phaseoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Otadoh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma has been widely studied for their biocontrol ability, but their use as biocontrol agents in agriculture is limited due to the unpredictable efficiency which is affected by biotic and abiotic factors in soil. Isolates of Trichoderma from Embu soils were evaluated for their ability to control Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli., in vitro and promote seedling growth in the greenhouse. Bioassays were run using dual cultures and diffusible compound production analysis. The Trichoderma isolates significantly (p

  18. Trichoderma-plant-pathogen interactions: advances in genetics of biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Mala; Mukherjee, Prasun K; Horwitz, Benjamin A; Zachow, Christin; Berg, Gabriele; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    Trichoderma spp. are widely used in agriculture as biofungicides. Induction of plant defense and mycoparasitism (killing of one fungus by another) are considered to be the most important mechanisms of Trichoderma-mediated biological control. Understanding these mechanisms at the molecular level would help in developing strains with superior biocontrol properties. In this article, we review our current understanding of the genetics of interactions of Trichoderma with plants and plant pathogens.

  19. In vitro control of Alternaria citri using antifungal potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro control of Alternaria citri using antifungal potentials of Trichoderma species. Asma Murtaza, Shazia Shafique, Tehmina Anjum, Sobiya Shafique. Abstract. The antifungal potential of five species of Trichoderma viz., Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma aureoviride, Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma koningii and ...

  20. Development of a molecular approach to describe the composition of Trichoderma communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meincke, Remo; Weinert, Nicole; Radl, Viviane; Schloter, Michael; Smalla, Kornelia; Berg, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    Trichoderma and its teleomorphic stage Hypocrea play a key role for ecosystem functioning in terrestrial habitats. However, little is known about the ecology of the fungus. In this study we developed a novel Trichoderma-specific primer pair for diversity analysis. Based on a broad range master alignment, specific Trichoderma primers (ITSTrF/ITSTrR) were designed that comprise an approximate 650bp fragment of the internal transcribed spacer region from all taxonomic clades of the genus Trichoderma. This amplicon is suitable for identification with TrichoKey and TrichoBLAST. Moreover, this primer system was successfully applied to study the Trichoderma communities in the rhizosphere of different potato genotypes grown at two field sites in Germany. Cloning and sequencing confirmed the specificity of the primer and revealed a site-dependent Trichoderma composition. Based on the new primer system a semi-nested approach was used to generate amplicons suitable for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and applied to analyse Trichoderma communities in the rhizosphere of potatoes. High field heterogeneity of Trichoderma communities was revealed by both DGGE. Furthermore, qPCR showed significantly different Trichoderma copy numbers between the sites. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Anamorphic and Local Characterization of a Holographic Data Storage System with a Liquid-Crystal on Silicon Microdisplay as Data Pager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fco. Javier Martínez-Guardiola

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a method to characterize a complete optical Holographic Data Storage System (HDSS, where we identify the elements that limit the capacity to register and restore the information introduced by means of a Liquid Cristal on Silicon (LCoS microdisplay as the data pager. In the literature, it has been shown that LCoS exhibits an anamorphic and frequency dependent effect when periodic optical elements are addressed to LCoS microdisplays in diffractive optics applications. We tested whether this effect is still relevant in the application to HDSS, where non-periodic binary elements are applied, as it is the case in binary data pages codified by Binary Intensity Modulation (BIM. To test the limits in storage data density and in spatial bandwidth of the HDSS, we used anamorphic patterns with different resolutions. We analyzed the performance of the microdisplay in situ using figures of merit adapted to HDSS. A local characterization across the aperture of the system was also demonstrated with our proposed methodology, which results in an estimation of the illumination uniformity and the contrast generated by the LCoS. We show the extent of the increase in the Bit Error Rate (BER when introducing a photopolymer as the recording material, thus all the important elements in a HDSS are considered in the characterization methodology demonstrated in this paper.

  2. Biodegradation of sulfosulphuron in agricultural soil by Trichoderma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, U; Choudhury, P P

    2014-11-01

    Sulfosulphuron-degrading fungus was isolated by enrichment technique from the sulfosulphuron-contaminated soil of wheat rhizosphere. To assess the biodegradation potential of isolated Trichoderma sp., minimal potato dextrose agar broth with different levels of sulfosulphuron (up to 2 g l(-1) ) was evaluated in the growth and biotransformation experiments. ESI LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of degradation products 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine (I) and 2-ethylsulfonyl imidazo{1,2-a} pyridine-3-sulfonamide-2-ethylsulfonyl imidazo{1,2-a} pyridine-3-sulfonamide (II) indicating the cleavage of the urea bridge and the presence of the by-product N-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)urea (III) indicating the degradation of sulfonylamide linkage. Two other metabolites, N-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)-N'-hydroxyurea (IV) and N, N'-bis(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)urea (V), were also identified. From the previous reports, it was found that the degradation of sulfonyl urea herbicides took place through the chemical degradation of the sulfonylurea bridge followed by microbial degradation. During this investigation, Trichoderma sp. grew well with and degraded sulfosulphuron via both the decarboxylation on the sulphonyl urea bridge and the hydrolytic cleavage of the sulfonylamide linkage as demonstrated by the formation of metabolites. Trichoderma is nonphytopathogenic in nature, and some species of it restrict the growth of soil-dwelling phytopathogens. Therefore, it is a promising candidate for the decontamination of soil from sulfosulphuron residues. The degradation of sulfosulphuron by any individual fungus is being reported for the first time. Trichoderma sp. isolated from wheat-rhizospheric soil could survive in minimal broth rich in sulfosulphuron. Previous reports have described the complete degradation of any sulfonyl urea herbicides by micro-organisms only after the pH-dependent chemical hydrolysis of the sulfonyl urea bridge of the herbicide. This study

  3. A new species of Trichoderma hypoxylon harbours abundant secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingzu; Pei, Yunfei; Li, Erwei; Li, Wei; Hyde, Kevin D; Yin, Wen-Bing; Liu, Xingzhong

    2016-11-21

    Some species of Trichoderma are fungicolous on fungi and have been extensively studied and commercialized as biocontrol agents. Multigene analyses coupled with morphology, resulted in the discovery of T. hypoxylon sp. nov., which was isolated from surface of the stroma of Hypoxylon anthochroum. The new taxon produces Trichoderma- to Verticillium-like conidiophores and hyaline conidia. Phylogenetic analyses based on combined ITS, TEF1-α and RPB2 sequence data indicated that T. hypoxylon is a well-distinguished species with strong bootstrap support in the polysporum group. Chemical assessment of this species reveals a richness of secondary metabolites with trichothecenes and epipolythiodiketopiperazines as the major compounds. The fungicolous life style of T. hypoxylon and the production of abundant metabolites are indicative of the important ecological roles of this species in nature.

  4. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

    OpenAIRE

    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero; Rogério Eiji Hanada; Luadir Gasparotto; Rosalee Albuquerque Coelho Neto; Jorge Teodoro de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both f...

  5. Biological effect of 60Co γ irradiation on Trichoderma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian'ai; Wang Weiming

    2003-01-01

    The mutagenic effect of 60 Co γ-ray on Trichoderma spp (T 32 ) was studied. The germination capacity of spores apparently declined after irradiation. The mutagenic effect curve model is S=e -λD , and the mutagenic curve is Y=-0.940e 1.29x , r=0.9533(r 0.01 =0.765). 130 variant strain which grew rapidly and produced more spores were chosen

  6. 40 CFR 180.1201 - Trichoderma harzianum strain T-39; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma harzianum strain T-39... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1201 Trichoderma harzianum strain T-39; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Trichoderma harzianum strain T-39 is exempt from the requirement of a...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1294 - Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1294 Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012 is exempted from the...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1293 - Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1293 Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080 is exempted from the requirement of...

  9. Ecological plasticity of Trichoderma fungi in leached chernozem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svistova, I. D.; Senchakova, T. Yu.

    2010-03-01

    The autecological properties of Trichoderma fungi ecotypes isolated from the leached chernozem of the forest-steppe zone of the European part of Russia have been studied. We were the first who carried out the complex study of the synecological relations of micromycetes of such kinds in a system including the soil, microbial community, and plants, i.e., their relations with soil saprotrophic fungi, bacteria, actinomycetes, plants, and pathogenic fungi. It was shown that the ecological plasticity of the Trichoderma genus in the soil of this zone is determined by its growth rate, the optimum pH and temperature, the biosynthesis of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, the biological action of mycotoxins, and the ability for parasitism. The efficiency of the introduction of Trichoderma species typical and atypical for the leached chernozem into this soil and their influence on the structure of the microbial community were evaluated. The T. pseudokoningii ecotype, which produces cellulolytic enzymes, is very promising for industrial biotechnology, and the T. harzianum ecotype can be used in soil biotechnology for the biocontrol of chernozem. The addition of a commercial trichodermin preparation into the chernozem damages the structure of its microbial community.

  10. Molecular characteristics of fungus trichoderma viride irradiated gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadang Sudrajat; Nana Mulyana; Tri Retno DL; Rika Heriyani; Almaida

    2016-01-01

    Information about the genetic changes due to irradiation on the fungus Trichoderma viride is indispensable in order to improve the ability of these isolates for the delignification of lignocellulose. This study aims to determine the molecular characteristics of isolates fungus Trichoderma viride after irradiation with gamma rays through an approach expression of protein profiles and molecular markers random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Irradiation doses used in this study are 6 levels i.e 0; 75; 125; 250; 375; 500 and 750 Gy with a dose rate of 0.21 kGy / hour. Protein and DNA extraction isolate is done using the method of extracting phosphate buffer pH 7 and CTAB- phenol-chloroform extraction. Protein in the supernatant was analyzed by electrophoresis (SDS-gel polyacrylamide) to produce a protein fingerprint profile. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to estimate the genetic variations between 7 isolates of irradiated Trichoderma viride which were RAPD reactions using 3 random primers. The results showed that protein profiles generated by irradiation isolates and the control (no irradiation) gave a different pattern, especially at doses of irradiation 250-750 Gy based dendrogram analysis. DNA-RAPD profile showed a high genetic variation between the isolates were irradiated at a dose of 250; 375; 500 and 750 Gy and isolates the control (0 Gy); 75; 125 Gy with 5 cluster formation. Dendrogram analysis showed the coefficient of similarity between 0.62 to 0.68. (author)

  11. Kemampuan Ganoderma dan Trichoderma Mendekomposisi Serasah Acacia mangium (The Ability of Ganoderma and Trichoderma to Decompose Acacia mangium Litter)

    OpenAIRE

    SAMINGAN, Samingan

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition ability of fungi has an important role in forest floor ecosystem. The abilities of Ganoderma sp and Trichoderma sp to decompose Acacia mangium leaf litters at laboratory scale were observed. Litters from L and F layers in the field ca. 100 g were used as substrates in plastic bags. Each fungus was inoculating onto substrates and incubates at room temperature, then observed each month during six months. Weight losses (WL) of litter, lignin and cellulose contents during dec...

  12. [Antagonism of Trichoderma spp. to fungi caused root rot of Sophora tonkinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Liu-yan; Jiang, Ni; Tang, Mei-qiong; Miao, Jian-hua; Li, Lin-xuan

    2011-04-01

    To study the antagonism of Trichoderma spp. to fungi S9(Fusarium solani)which caused root rot of Sophora tonkinensis and discuss the further develop prospects of microbial biological control in soil-borne diseases on Chinese herbal medicines. Antagonism of H2 (Trichoderma harsianum), M6 (Trichoderma viride) and K1 (Trichoderma koningii) to Fusarium solani were researched by growth rate and confront culture. And their mechanisms were discussed. H2 and M6 had obvious competitive advantage, the growth rate of which were 1.43-2.72 times and 1.43-1.95 times as S9 respectively. The space competitive advantage of K1 was relatively weak; the growth rate was slower than S9. The antagonism of three species of Trichoderma spp. to S9 was in varying degrees. The antagonism to S9 of M6 and H2 was better,the inhibition rate were 100% and 82.35% respectively, even cultivated S9 for three days in advance. And their inhibition indexes were both reached class I. The inhibition index and inhibition rate of K1 was respectively 46.36% and class IV. The Trichoderma spp. could cause S9 mycelium to appear some phenomenon just like fracture, constriction reduced, digestion, etc. which were observed under the microscope. Trichoderma harsianum and Trichoderma viride showed the further develop prospects in the fight against soil-borne disease on Chinese herbal medicines.

  13. Methods for the Evaluation of the Bioactivity and Biocontrol Potential of Species of Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, Johanna; Hicks, Emily; Kandula, Janaki; Kandula, Diwakar; Alizadeh, Hossein; Braithwaite, Mark; Yardley, Jessica; Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Stewart, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Members of the genus Trichoderma comprise the majority of commercial fungal biocontrol agents of plant diseases. As such, there is a wealth of information available on the analysis of their biocontrol potential and the mechanisms behind their superior abilities. This chapter aims to summarize the most common methods utilized within a Trichoderma biocontrol program for assessing the biological properties of individual strains.

  14. Potensi Trichoderma Spp. Sebagai Agens Pengendali Fusarium Spp. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Stroberi

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiastuti, Mutia Erti; Fajri, Melisa N; Yunimar, Yunimar

    2015-01-01

    Layu yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium spp. merupakan salah satu penyakit penting tanaman stroberi (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.) di daerah subtropika, yang dapat menggagalkan panen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mempelajari potensi Trichoderma spp. dalam mengendalikan Fusarium spp. Isolat Trichoderma spp. diisolasi dari rizosfer tanaman stroberi dan Fusarium spp. diisolasi dari tanaman stroberi yang mengalami layu fusarium. Isolat cendawan dimurnikan, dikarakterisasi, dan dibandingkan dengan isolat c...

  15. New insights into the organization and regulation of trichothecene biosynthetic genes in Trichoderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collectively, species of the genus Trichoderma can produce numerous structurally diverse secondary metabolites (SM). This ability is conferred by the presence of SM biosynthetic gene clusters in their genomes. Species of Trichoderma in the Brevicompactum clade are able to produce trichothecenes, a f...

  16. Aplikasi Trichoderma Harzianum Terhadap Hasil Tiga Varietas Kentang Di Dataran Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Hermawan, Rifqi; Maghfoer, Mochammad Dawam; Wardiyati, Tatik

    2013-01-01

    Faktor kelestarian lingkungan menyebabkan ekstensifikasi lahan pertanian kentang di dataran tinggi tidak dapat dilakukan, sehingga dataran medium menjadi alternatif eksplorasi lahan budidaya kentang. Untuk meningkatkan produktivitas kentang di dataran medium disamping pemilihan bibit yang tepat adalah dengan menggunakan Trichoderma harzianum. Trichoderma harzianum selain berperan antagonis terhadap pathogen, juga berperan dalam meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman melalui produksi auksin dan pros...

  17. Combined inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum for enhancing plant growth of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandheep, A R; Asok, A K; Jisha, M S

    2013-06-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the plant growth promoting efficiency of combined inoculation of rhizobacteria on Vanilla plants. Based on the in vitro performance of indigenous Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas spp., four effective antagonists were selected and screened under greenhouse experiment for their growth enhancement potential. The maximum percentage of growth enhancement were observed in the combination of Trichoderma harzianum with Pseudomonas fluorescens treatment followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas putida and Trichoderma virens, respectively in decreasing order. Combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens registered the maximum length of vine (82.88 cm), highest number of leaves (26.67/plant), recorded the highest fresh weight of shoots (61.54 g plant(-1)), fresh weight of roots (4.46 g plant(-1)) and dry weight of shoot (4.56 g plant(-1)) where as the highest dry weight of roots (2.0806 g plant(-1)) were achieved with treatments of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Among the inoculated strains, combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens recorded the maximum nitrogen uptake (61.28 mg plant(-1)) followed by the combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum (std) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (std) (55.03 mg plant(-1)) and the highest phosphorus uptake (38.80 mg plant(-1)) was recorded in dual inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

  18. Trichoderma amazonicum, a new endophytic species on Hevea brasiliensis and H. guianensis from the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Hypocreales, Hypocreaceae), T. amazonicum, endophytic on the living sapwood and leaves of Hevea spp. trees is described. Trichoderma amazonicum is distinguished from closely related species in the Harzianum clade (e.g. ...

  19. Effectiveness of composts and Trichoderma strains for control of Fusarium wilt of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousra TAGHDI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL is a major limiting disease in tomato production in Morocco. Commercial and locally produced Moroccan composts and peat were found to reduce Fusarium wilt in tomato plants. We explored the presence of Trichoderma strains in these materials, and in six soils sampled in the North West of Morocco, where a low incidence of Fusarium wilt had been previously observed. The most abundant Trichoderma-like fungus was selected from each soil, compost or peat sample. Twelve Trichoderma strains were isolated and identified molecularly. Trichoderma asperellum CT9 and Trichoderma virens ST11 showed the greatest overall antagonistic activity against FOL, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Pythium ultimum. The three strains evaluated in in planta tests, CT9, ST11 and T. virens ST10, reduced tomato Fusarium wilt, and strain ST11  also promoted growth of tomato plants.

  20. Trichoderma spp.: a biocontrol agent for sustainable management of plant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naher, L.; Ismail, A.

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are mainly asexual fungi that are present in all types of agricultural soils and also in decaying wood. The antagonistic activity of Trichoderma species showed that it is parasitic on many soil-borne and foliage pathogens. The fungus is also a decomposer of cellulosic waste materials. Recent discoveries show that the fungi not only act as biocontrol agents, but also stimulate plant resistance, and plant growth and development resulting in an increase in crop production. The biocontrol activity involving mycoparasitism, antibiotics and competition for nutrients, also induces defence responses or systemic resistance responses in plants. These responses are an important part of Trichoderma in biocontrol program. Currently, Trichoderma spp., is being used to control plant diseases in sustainable diseases management systems. This paper reviews the published information on Trichoderma spp., and its biocontrol activity in sustainable disease management programs. (author)

  1. Penggunaan Jamur Antagonis Trichoderma SP. Dan Gliocladium SP. Untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pada Tanaman Bawang Merah (Allium Ascalonicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Ramadhina, Arie Ramadhina; Lisnawita, Lisnawita; Lubis, Lahmuddin

    2013-01-01

    The use of antagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. for controlling wilt(Fusarium oxysporum) in red onion plants. The aim of the research was to know the effectiviness ofantagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. in controlling wilt in red onion plants.The research used non-factorial RAK (random group design) with eight treatments: control, 10grams of F. oxysporum, 12 grams of Trichoderma sp., 18 grams of Trichoderma sp., 24 grams ofTrichoderma sp., and 12 grams ...

  2. Endemic plants harbour specific Trichoderma communities with an exceptional potential for biocontrol of phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachow, Christin; Berg, Christian; Müller, Henry; Monk, Jana; Berg, Gabriele

    2016-10-10

    Trichoderma strains exhibit enormous potential for applications in biotechnology, in particular as biocontrol agents against pathogens. However, little is known about the diversity of plant-associated Trichoderma communities at a global scale and their antagonistic spectrum. In order to gather information about structure and function, we compared Trichoderma biomes of endemic (Aeonium, Diospyros, Hebe, Rhododendron) and cosmopolitan plants (Zea mays) in a global study encompassing the area Northwest Africa to New Zealand via the European Alps and Madagascar. At the quantitative level we found no differences between cosmopolitan and endemic plants. Statistically significant differences were detected at the qualitative level: Trichoderma populations of endemic plants were highly specific and diverse with hot spots appearing in Madagascar and New Zealand. By contrast, maize plants from all sites shared the majority of Trichoderma species (65.5%). Interestingly, the high above ground biodiversity in ecosystems containing endemic plants was confirmed by a high below ground Trichoderma diversity. Despite the differences, we found a global Trichoderma core community shared by all analysed plants, which was dominated by T. koningii and T. koningiopsis. Amplicon-based network analyses revealed a high similarity between maize Trichoderma grown world-wide and distinct populations of endemic plants. Furthermore, Trichoderma strains from endemic plants showed a higher antagonistic activity against fungal pathogens compared to maize-associated strains. Our results showed that endemic plants are associated with a specific Trichoderma microbiome which possesses a high antagonistic activity indicating that it has potential to be used for biocontrol purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Trichoderma Biocontrol: Signal Transduction Pathways Involved in Host Sensing and Mycoparasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Zeilinger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are used as biocontrol agents against several plant pathogenic fungi like Rhizoctonia spp., Pythium spp., Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium spp. which cause both soil-borne and leaf- or flower-borne diseases of agricultural plants. Plant disease control by Trichoderma is based on complex interactions between Trichoderma, the plant pathogen and the plant. Until now, two main components of biocontrol have been identified: direct activity of Trichoderma against the plant pathogen by mycoparasitism and induced systemic resistance in plants. As the mycoparasitic interaction is host-specific and not merely a contact response, it is likely that signals from the host fungus are recognised by Trichoderma and provoke transcription of mycoparasitism-related genes.In the last few years examination of signalling pathways underlying Trichoderma biocontrol started and it was shown that heterotrimeric G-proteins and mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases affected biocontrol-relevant processes such as the production of hydrolytic enzymes and antifungal metabolites and the formation of infection structures. MAPK signalling was also found to be involved in induction of plant systemic resistance in Trichoderma virens and in the hyperosmotic stress response in Trichoderma harzianum. Analyses of the function of components of the cAMP pathway during Trichoderma biocontrol revealed that mycoparasitism-associated coiling and chitinase production as well as secondary metabolism are affected by the internal cAMP level; in addition, a cross talk between regulation of light responses and the cAMP signalling pathway was found in Trichoderma atroviride.

  4. Cloning and sequencing of a cellobiohydrolase gene from Trichoderma harzianum FP108

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Guilfoile; Ron Burns; Zu-Yi Gu; Matt Amundson; Fu-Hsian Chang

    1999-01-01

    A cbbl cellobiohydrolase gene was cloned and sequenced from the fungus Trichoderrna harzianum FP108. The cloning was performed by PCR amplification of T. harzianum genomic DNA, using PCR primers whose sequence was based on the cbbl gene from Tricboderma reesei. The 3' end of the gene was isolated by inverse...

  5. The potentiality of Trichoderma harzianum in alleviation the adverse effects of salinity in faba bean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Baki, G K; Mostafa, Doaa

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between sodium chloride and Trichoderma harzianum (T24) on growth parameters, ion contents, MDA content, proline, soluble proteins as well as SDS page protein profile were studied in Vicia faba Giza 429. A sharp reduction was found in fresh and dry mass of shoots and roots with increasing salinity. Trichoderma treatments promoted the growth criteria as compared with corresponding salinized plants. The water content and leaf area exhibited a marked decrease with increasing salinity. Trichoderma treatments induced a progressive increase in both parameters. Both proline and MDA contents were increased progressively as the salinity rose in the soil. Trichoderma treatments considerably retarded the accumulation of both parameters in shoots and roots. Both Na+ and K+ concentration increased in both organs by enhancing salinity levels. The treatment with Trichoderma harzianum enhanced the accumulation of both ions. Exposure of plants to different concentrations of salinity, or others treated with Trichoderma harzianum produced marked changes in their protein pattern. Three types of alterations were observed: the synthesis of certain proteins declined significantly, specific synthesis of certain other proteins were markedly observed and synthesis of a set specific protein was induced de novo in plant treated with Trichoderma harzianum.

  6. Antagonism of Trichoderma isolates against Leucoagaricus gongylophorus (Singer) Möller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Mariela Otoni; de Almeida Sarmento, Renato; Dos Santos, Gil Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Cléia Almeida; de Souza, Danival José

    2017-08-01

    Filamentous fungi from the genus Trichoderma are commonly found in soil. They are considered facultative mycoparasites, and are antagonists of other fungi such as the cultivar of leaf-cutting ants (Leucoagaricus gongylophorus). The aim of the present study was to bioprospect Trichoderma spp. from different soils collected from Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil, for antagonistic effects against the mutualistic fungus of leaf-cutting ants. To isolate filamentous fungi, samples were collected from six locations. Preliminarily, isolates were identified by morphological analysis as belonging to Trichoderma. Trichoderma spp. had their internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA) sequenced to confirm species-level taxonomy. L. gongylophorus was isolated from a laboratory ant colony. Antagonistic properties of seven isolates of Trichoderma against L. gongylophorus were measured using paired disks in Petri dishes with potato dextrose agar medium (PDA). All Trichoderma isolates inhibited the growth of L. gongylophorus in Petri dishes. Isolate 2 of Trichoderma spirale group exhibited slow mycelial growth in the Petri dish, and a high rate of inhibition against L. gongylophorus. This isolate is a promising fungus for field tests of biological control methods for leaf-cutting ants. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. An assessment of adaptive and antagonistic properties of Trichoderma sp. strains in vegetable waste composts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolna-Maruwka Agnieszka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment consisted in monitoring the count of moulds and three selected Trichoderma sp. isolates (T1 - Trichoderma atroviride, T2 - Trichoderma harzianum, T3 - Trichoderma harzianum in vegetable (onion and tomato waste composted with additives (straw, pig manure. Additionally, the aim of the study was to determine the type of interaction occurring between autochthonous fungi isolated from composts after the end of the thermophilic phase and Trichoderma sp. strains applied in the experiment. Number of microorganisms was determined by the plate method, next the identification was confirmed. The rating scale developed by Mańka was used to determine the type of interactions occurring between microorganisms. The greatest count of moulds in onion waste composts was noted in the object which had simultaneously been inoculated with two strains T1 - T. atroviride and T3 - T. harzianum. The greatest count of moulds was noted in the tomato waste composts inoculated with T2 - T. harzianum strain. Microscope identification revealed that Penicillum sp., Rhizopus sp., Alternaria sp. and Mucor sp. strains were predominant in onion waste composts. In tomato waste composts Penicillium was the predominant genus, followed by Rhizopus. The test of antagonism revealed the inhibitory effect of Trichoderma isolates on most autochthonous strains of moulds. Tomato waste composts proved to be better substrates for the growth and development of Trichoderma sp. isolates. The results of the study show that vegetable waste can be used in agriculture as carriers of antagonistic microorganisms.

  8. Trichoderma volatiles effecting Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramadan, Metwaly; Gigolashvili, Tamara; Grosskinsky, Dominik Kilian

    2015-01-01

    , camalexin, and increased expression of defense-related genes. We conclude that A. thaliana perceives the Trichoderma volatiles as stress compounds and subsequently initiates multilayered adaptations including activation of signaling cascades to withstand this environmental influence. The prominent headspace...... volatile of T. asperellum IsmT5 was identified to be 6-pentyl-α-pyrone (6PP), which was solely applied to A. thaliana to verify the growth and defense reactions. Most noticeable is that A. thaliana preexposed to 6PP showed significantly reduced symptoms when challenged with Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria...

  9. Trichoderma strains- Silybum marianum hairy root cultures interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hasanloo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Silymarin is a unique flavonoid complex with documented hepatoprotective properties. Silybum  marianum hairy root culture as a source for producing silymarin has been an important strategy for study the cell signaling pathway. In the present investigation Trichoderma strains- Silybum marianum hairy root cultures interactions have been studied. Methods: The effects of two Trichoderma Strains (KHB and G46-7 (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/ 50 mL culture in 6 different exposure times (0, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h have been investigated on flavonolignans production. The flavonolignans were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography method. Cell signaling pathway was evaluated by determination of H2O2 content, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activities. Results:The elicitation effects of two Trichoderma Strains (KHB and G46-7 were examined on flavonolignans accumulation and the activation of cell defense system in S. marianum hairy root cultures. The results indicated that the highest silymarin accumulation (0.45 and 0.33 mg/g DW was obtained in media elicited with 0.5 mg/50 mL cultures of T. harzianum Strains (KHB and G46-3, respectively after 120 h. Feeding time experiments indicated that a significant higher content of silymarin production was achieved after 120 and 72 h in media treated with 0.5 mg/50 mL cultures of KHB and G46-3, respectively. Our results showed that S. marianum treated by KHB strain, increased taxifolin, silychristin, isosilybin and silydianin productions significantly. The H2O2 content in the control hairy root cultures remained lower than the treated cultures. There was significant enhancement in both peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activities in treated hairy roots reaching a peak after 72 h. Conclusion: These findings suggested that some Trichoderma strains are positive elicitors for promoting silymarin accumulation in S. marianum hairy root cultures. The results also suggested the presence

  10. Trichoderma Biofertilizer Links to Altered Soil Chemistry, Altered Microbial Communities, and Improved Grassland Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengge Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In grasslands, forage and livestock production results in soil nutrient deficits as grasslands typically receive no nutrient inputs, leading to a loss of grassland biomass. The application of mature compost has been shown to effectively increase grassland nutrient availability. However, research on fertilization regime influence and potential microbial ecological regulation mechanisms are rarely conducted in grassland soil. We conducted a two-year experiment in meadow steppe grasslands, focusing on above- and belowground consequences of organic or Trichoderma biofertilizer applications and potential soil microbial ecological mechanisms underlying soil chemistry and microbial community responses. Grassland biomass significantly (p = 0.019 increased following amendment with 9,000 kg ha−1 of Trichoderma biofertilizer (composted cattle manure + inoculum compared with other assessed organic or biofertilizer rates, except for BOF3000 (fertilized with 3,000 kg ha−1 biofertilizer. This rate of Trichoderma biofertilizer treatment increased soil antifungal compounds that may suppress pathogenic fungi, potentially partially responsible for improved grassland biomass. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS revealed soil chemistry and fungal communities were all separated by different fertilization regime. Trichoderma biofertilizer (9,000 kg ha−1 increased relative abundances of Archaeorhizomyces and Trichoderma while decreasing Ophiosphaerella. Trichoderma can improve grassland biomass, while Ophiosphaerella has the opposite effect as it may secrete metabolites causing grass necrosis. Correlations between soil properties and microbial genera showed plant-available phosphorus may influence grassland biomass by increasing Archaeorhizomyces and Trichoderma while reducing Ophiosphaerella. According to our structural equation modeling (SEM, Trichoderma abundance was the primary contributor to aboveground grassland biomass. Our results suggest Trichoderma

  11. Trichoderma Biofertilizer Links to Altered Soil Chemistry, Altered Microbial Communities, and Improved Grassland Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengge; Huo, Yunqian; Cobb, Adam B; Luo, Gongwen; Zhou, Jiqiong; Yang, Gaowen; Wilson, Gail W T; Zhang, Yingjun

    2018-01-01

    In grasslands, forage and livestock production results in soil nutrient deficits as grasslands typically receive no nutrient inputs, leading to a loss of grassland biomass. The application of mature compost has been shown to effectively increase grassland nutrient availability. However, research on fertilization regime influence and potential microbial ecological regulation mechanisms are rarely conducted in grassland soil. We conducted a two-year experiment in meadow steppe grasslands, focusing on above- and belowground consequences of organic or Trichoderma biofertilizer applications and potential soil microbial ecological mechanisms underlying soil chemistry and microbial community responses. Grassland biomass significantly ( p = 0.019) increased following amendment with 9,000 kg ha -1 of Trichoderma biofertilizer (composted cattle manure + inoculum) compared with other assessed organic or biofertilizer rates, except for BOF3000 (fertilized with 3,000 kg ha -1 biofertilizer). This rate of Trichoderma biofertilizer treatment increased soil antifungal compounds that may suppress pathogenic fungi, potentially partially responsible for improved grassland biomass. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) revealed soil chemistry and fungal communities were all separated by different fertilization regime. Trichoderma biofertilizer (9,000 kg ha -1 ) increased relative abundances of Archaeorhizomyces and Trichoderma while decreasing Ophiosphaerella . Trichoderma can improve grassland biomass, while Ophiosphaerella has the opposite effect as it may secrete metabolites causing grass necrosis. Correlations between soil properties and microbial genera showed plant-available phosphorus may influence grassland biomass by increasing Archaeorhizomyces and Trichoderma while reducing Ophiosphaerella . According to our structural equation modeling (SEM), Trichoderma abundance was the primary contributor to aboveground grassland biomass. Our results suggest Trichoderma

  12. IDENTIFICAÇÃO E UTILIZAÇÃO DE Trichoderma spp. ARMAZENADOS E NATIVOS NO BIOCONTROLE DE Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERARDA BEATRIZ PINTO DA SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , handles significant losses in lettuce production. Being a soil borne fungus, its management is difficult, and an alternative is the use of biological control using species of the Trichoderma genus. Thus, the objectives of this study were to identify native species of Trichoderma spp. presents in the soil with (CP and without white mold (SP, evaluate the growth rate and in vitro antagonism of Trichoderma spp. against S. sclerotiorum and to verify the biocontrol potential of Trichoderma spp. microbi- olized lettuce seeds, growing in substrate infested with S. sclerotiorum . Trichoderma spp. isolates were obtained from areas with and without history of white mold or stored in water. Mycelial growth rate and sporu- lation of the Trichoderma spp. isolates and control of Trichoderma spp. versus S. sclerotiorum in the in vitro essays. For the in vivo essay, lettuce seeds were microbiolized with Trichoderma spp. and the substrate was infested with S. sclerotiorum . The native isolates of Trichoderma identified belong to T. koningiopsis and T. asperellum species. The CP isolates had higher mycelial growth rates when compared to the SP isolates and stored while the stored isolates showed better responses in confrontation. The application of Trichoderma spp. promoted higher seedlings quality compared to control, as well as good seedlings development in the presence of the pathogen.

  13. Parasitism of Rhizoctonia solani by strains of Trichoderma spp. Parasitismo de Rhizoctonia solani por linhagens de Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Soares de Melo

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani causes serious diseases in a wide range of plant species. The fungus Trichoderma has been shown to be particularly effective in the control of the pathogen. Thus, this research was carried out to screen fourteen Trichoderma strains against R. solani in vitro. All strains tested inhibited the growth of R. solani. Three T. koningii strains produced toxic metabolites with strong activity against R. solani, inhibiting the mycelial growth by 79%. T. harzianum, Th-9 reduced the viability of sclerotia of R. solani by 81.8% and T. koningii, TK-5 reduced by 53%. Electron microscopic observations revealed that all T. harzianum strains interacted with R. solani. Th-9 grew toward and coiled around the host cells, penetrating and destroying the hyphae. Penetration of host cells was apparently accomplished by mechanical activity.Rhizoctonia solani é um dos mais destrutivos patógenos de plantas cultivadas. Métodos alternativos de controle têm sido empregados com sucesso, particularmente, utilizando-se o fungo Trichoderma. Este trabalho visou, portanto, selecionar linhagens efetivas desse micoparasita contra o patógeno. Onze linhagens de T. harzianum e três de T. koningii foram testadas in vitro com relação ao parasitismo de hifas e de escleródios e produção de metabólitos tóxicos. Todas as linhagens de Trichoderma spp. inibiram o crescimento miceliano de R. solani e as três linhagens de T. koningii produziram potentes antibióticos, que inibiram mais de 79% o crescimento do patógeno. Uma linhagem de T. harzianum, Th-9, reduziu a viabilidade dos escleródios em 81,8% e uma de T. koningii em 53%. Microscopia eletrônica de varredura revelou que todas as linhagens de T. harzianum parasitaram R. solani enquanto nenhuma linhagem de T. koningii interagiu com R. solani, possivelmente, devido à forte inibição causada pelos metabólitos que impediu o contato entre os dois fungos. T. harzianum, Th-9, cresceu ao redor, penetrou e

  14. Genetic analysis reveals diversity and genetic relationship among Trichoderma isolates from potting media, cultivated soil and uncultivated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Al-Oweisi, Fatma A; Edwards, Simon G; Al-Nadabi, Hamed; Al-Fahdi, Ahmed M

    2015-07-28

    Trichoderma is one of the most common fungi in soil. However, little information is available concerning the diversity of Trichoderma in soil with no previous history of cultivation. This study was conducted to investigate the most common species and the level of genetic relatedness of Trichoderma species from uncultivated soil in relation to cultivated soil and potting media. A total of 24, 15 and 13 Trichoderma isolates were recovered from 84 potting media samples, 45 cultivated soil samples and 65 uncultivated soil samples, respectively. Analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and the translation elongation factor gene (EF1) indicated the presence of 9 Trichoderma species: T. harzianum (16 isolates), T. asperellum (13), T. citrinoviride (9), T. orientalis (3), T. ghanense (3), T. hamatum (3), T. longibrachiatum (2), T. atroviride (2), and T. viride (1). All species were found to occur in potting media samples, while five Trichoderma species were recovered from the cultivated soils and four from the uncultivated soils. AFLP analysis of the 52 Trichoderma isolates produced 52 genotypes and 993 polymorphic loci. Low to moderate levels of genetic diversity were found within populations of Trichoderma species (H = 0.0780 to 0.2208). Analysis of Molecular Variance indicated the presence of very low levels of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.0002 to 0.0139) among populations of the same Trichoderma species obtained from the potting media, cultivated soil and uncultivated soil. The study provides evidence for occurrence of Trichoderma isolates in soil with no previous history of cultivation. The lack of genetic differentiation among Trichoderma populations from potting media, cultivated soil and uncultivated soil suggests that some factors could have been responsible for moving Trichoderma propagules among the three substrates. The study reports for the first time the presence of 4 Trichoderma species in Oman: T

  15. Energetic efficiency of complex substrate utilization by Trichoderma viride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, M; Apine, A; Zeltina, M; Shvinka, J [AN Latvijskoj SSR, Riga (USSR). August Kirchstein Inst. of Microbiology

    1989-01-01

    The efficiency of carbon substrate utilization is evaluated as the thermodynamic efficiency (eta{sub x}) of microbial growth. Three methods based on mass-energy balance are used for the efficiency studies of complex substrates (straw, plant juices, lye) utilization by microfungi Trichoderma viride. 1. According to substrate and biomass balance eta{sub x}=0.55, 0.37 and 0.36 for Trichoderma viride growth on alkali pretreated wheat straw during 23, 34 and 50 hours. Cellulose biodegradation increases with cultivation time. However, the efficiency of cellulose utilization for cell mass growth decreases at the same time. 2. In accordance with oxygen-balance calculations eta{sub x}=0.75 and 0.71 for the same processes. The discrepancy in results from the above two methods probably can be explained by the following: A. Substrate and biomass balance gives underestimated results. B. Oxygen balance method includes the part of energy for extracellular product formation and therefore eta{sub x} can be overestimated. C. The efficiency of complex soluble substrate utilization (lye, green juice, deproteinized brown plant juice) tested by means of pulse method gives the values of eta{sub x}=0.72-0.88. Similar high estimates of eta{sub x} in C-limited batch culture are observed for soluble carbohydrates (glucose, galactose, lactose, xylose) but not for acetate. The pulse method is advantageous for testing the 'true' efficiency of carbon substrate utilization in a definite physiological environment. (orig.).

  16. Trichoderma harzianum might impact phosphorus transport by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaeger, Nathalie; de la Providencia, Ivan E; de Boulois, Hervé Dupré; Declerck, Stéphane

    2011-09-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a biocontrol agent active against plant pathogens via mechanisms such as mycoparasitism. Recently, it was demonstrated that Trichoderma harzianum was able to parasitize the mycelium of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, thus affecting its viability. Here, we question whether this mycoparasitism may reduce the capacity of Glomus sp. to transport phosphorus ((33)P) to its host plant in an in vitro culture system. (33)P was measured in the plant and in the fungal mycelium in the presence/absence of T. harzianum. The viability and metabolic activity of the extraradical mycelium was measured via succinate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase staining. Our study demonstrated an increased uptake of (33)P by the AM fungus in the presence of T. harzianum, possibly related to a stress reaction caused by mycoparasitism. In addition, the disruption of AM extraradical hyphae in the presence of T. harzianum affected the (33)P translocation within the AM fungal mycelium and consequently the transfer of (33)P to the host plant. The effects of T. harzianum on Glomus sp. may thus impact the growth and function of AM fungi and also indirectly plant performance by influencing the source-sink relationship between the two partners of the symbiosis. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Trichoderma harzianum enhances tomato indirect defense against aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Mariangela; Cascone, Pasquale; Chiusano, Maria Luisa; Colantuono, Chiara; Lorito, Matteo; Pennacchio, Francesco; Rao, Rosa; Woo, Sheridan Lois; Guerrieri, Emilio; Digilio, Maria Cristina

    2017-12-01

    Many fungal root symbionts of the genus Trichoderma are well-known for their beneficial effects on agronomic performance and protection against plant pathogens; moreover, they may enhance protection from insect pests, by triggering plant resistance mechanisms. Defense barriers against insects are induced by the activation of metabolic pathways involved in the production of defense-related plant compounds, either directly active against herbivore insects, or exerting an indirect effect, by increasing the attraction of herbivore natural enemies. In a model system composed of the tomato plant, the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae and the parasitoid Aphidius ervi, plant metabolic changes induced by Trichoderma harzianum and their effects on higher trophic levels have been assessed. T. harzianum T22 treatments induce a primed state that upon aphid attacks leads to an increased attraction of aphid parasitoids, mediated by the enhanced production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are known to induce Aphidius ervi flight. Transcriptome sequencing of T22-treated plants infested by aphids showed a remarkable upregulation of genes involved in terpenoids biosynthesis and salicylic acid pathway, which are consistent with the observed flight response of A. ervi and the VOC bouquet profile underlying this behavioral response. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. POTENCIAL FARMACOINDUSTRIAL DE Trichoderma harzianum PARA FINS FARMACOTERAPÊUTICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Albarello Gellen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Linhagens de Trichoderma estão bem difundidas nos processos de controle de fitopatógenos, além disto, para promoção do desenvolvimento e crescimento das culturas onde são inoculados, estes benefícios dão-se pela gama de processos desempenhados por este organismo, os processos são classificados em parasitismo, antibiose e competição, além de secretarem produtos enzimáticos com ações degradantes, compostos voláteis e antimicrobianos. Por meio de testes de produção enzimática, confronto em placa, metabólitos voláteis e sensibilização do agente, os isolados de Trichoderma harzianum mostraram-se como um potente produtor de substâncias antimicrobianas e antifúngicas perante Sthaphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. faecalis e Rhodotorula sp., Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis e Candida lusitaniae. Palavras-chave: antimicrobianos, antifúngicas, metabólitos, sensibilização. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n4p91-96

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the glucuronoyl esterase catalytic domain from Hypocrea jecorina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, S. J.; Li, X.-L.; Cotta, M. A.; Biely, P.; Duke, N. E. C.; Schiffer, M.; Pokkuluri, P. R.

    2008-01-01

    The catalytic domain of the glucuronoyl esterase from H. jecorina was overexpresssed, purified and crystallized in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 . X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The catalytic domain of the glucuronoyl esterase from Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) was overexpresssed, purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapor-diffusion method using 1.4 M sodium/potassium phosphate pH 6.9. The crystals belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. This is the first enzyme with glucoronoyl esterase activity to be crystallized; its structure will be valuable in lignocellulose-degradation research

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the glucuronoyl esterase catalytic domain from Hypocrea jecorina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, S. J. [Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Li, X.-L.; Cotta, M. A. [Fermentation Biotechnology Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA-ARS, Peoria, Illinois 61604 (United States); Biely, P. [Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 845 38 Bratislava (Slovakia); Duke, N. E. C.; Schiffer, M.; Pokkuluri, P. R., E-mail: rajp@anl.gov [Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2008-04-01

    The catalytic domain of the glucuronoyl esterase from H. jecorina was overexpresssed, purified and crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The catalytic domain of the glucuronoyl esterase from Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) was overexpresssed, purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapor-diffusion method using 1.4 M sodium/potassium phosphate pH 6.9. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. This is the first enzyme with glucoronoyl esterase activity to be crystallized; its structure will be valuable in lignocellulose-degradation research.

  1. TRICHODERMA SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH ACROMYRMEX ANT NESTS FROM ARGENTINA AND FIRST REPORT OF TRICHODERMA LENTIFORME FOR THE COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia G. Armando

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo la identificación morfológica y molecular de cinco especies de Trichoderma asociadas con los nidos de hormigas cortadoras de hojas del género Acromyrmex presentes en Argentina. Las especies identificadas fueron: T. lentiforme, T. inhamatum, T. virens, T. koningiopsis y T. aff. neotropicale resultando éste el primer registro de T. lentiforme y T. inhamatum asociados a hormigas cortadoras de hojas Acromyrmex, en particular Acromyrmex lobicornis y Acromyrmex lundii para el primero y de A. lobicornis para el segundo. Además T. lentiforme representa el primer registro para la Argentina. En este trabajo se amplían medidas del conidióforo y conidios y se aportan datos adicionales sobre la distribución de las especies de Trichoderma en el país. Se ilustran con fotografías los conidióforos, células conidiógenas, conidios y el fenotipo de la colonia para cada especie.

  2. Efficacité de l'agent antagoniste Trichoderma harzianum sur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacité de l'agent antagoniste Trichoderma harzianum sur Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersiciagent pathogène de la tomate. LS Gnancadja, DHE Tonon, EMO Faton, KO Douro Kpindou, E Dannon, A Akoegninou ...

  3. Trichoderma theobromicola and T. paucisporum: two new species isolated from cacao in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Gary J; Suarez, Carmen; Solis, Karina; Holmes, Keith A; Thomas, Sarah E; Ismaiel, Adnan; Evans, Harry C

    2006-04-01

    Trichoderma theobromicola and T. paucisporum spp. nov. are described. Trichoderma theobromicola was isolated as an endophyte from the trunk of a healthy cacao tree (Theobroma cacao, Malvaceae) in Amazonian Peru; it sporulates profusely on common mycological media. Trichoderma paucisporum is represented by two cultures that were obtained in Ecuador from cacao pods partially infected with frosty pod rot, Moniliophthora roreri; it sporulates sporadically and most cultures remain sterile on common media and autoclaved rice. It sporulates more reliably on synthetic low-nutrient agar (SNA) but produces few conidia. Trichoderma theobromicola was reintroduced into cacao seedlings through shoot inoculation and was recovered from stems but not from leaves, indicating that it is an endophytic species. Both produced a volatile/diffusable antibiotic that inhibited development of M. roreri in vitro and on-pod trials. Neither species demonstrated significant direct in vitro mycoparasitic activity against M. roreri.

  4. Mycoparasitism studies of Trichoderma species against three phytopathogenic fungi: evaluation of antagonism and hydrolytic enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualhato, Thiago Fernandes; Lopes, Fabyano Alvares Cardoso; Steindorff, Andrei Stecca; Brandão, Renata Silva; Jesuino, Rosália Santos Amorim; Ulhoa, Cirano José

    2013-09-01

    Trichoderma spp. are used for biocontrol of several plant pathogens. However, their efficient interaction with the host needs to be accompanied by production of secondary metabolites and cell wall-degrading enzymes. Three parameters were evaluated after interaction between four Trichoderma species and plant-pathogenic fungi: Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Trichoderma harzianum and T. asperellum were the most effective antagonists against the pathogens. Most of the Trichoderma species produced toxic volatile metabolites, having significant effects on growth and development of the plant pathogens. When these species were grown in liquid cultures with cell walls from these plant pathogens, they produced and secreted β-1,3-glucanase, NAGAse, chitinase, acid phosphatase, acid proteases and alginate lyase.

  5. Ligninolytic enzymes in the coal solubilizing deuteromycetes Trichoderma atroviride and Fusarium oxysporum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moenkemann, H.; Scheel, T.; Hoelker, U.; Ludwig, S.; Hoefer, M. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Botanisches Inst.

    1997-12-31

    Evidence is presented for the lignite induced expression of lignin peroxidases, manganese-dependent peroxidases, laccases and glyoxal oxidases in the coal solubilizing fungi Trichoderma atroviride and Fusarium oxysporum under different growth conditions. (orig.)

  6. The cellulases of Trichoderma viride : mode of action and application in biomass conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldman, G.

    1986-01-01

    Beet pulp and potato fibre were liquefied and saccharified with a combination of cellulase from Trichodermaviride and pectinase from Aspergillusniger . Cell wall polysaccharides were hydrolysed extensively. The application

  7. Biocontrol efficacy of different isolates of Trichoderma against soil borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Saeed Ahmad; Ali, Naeem; Hameed, Abdul; Khan, Sabaz Ali; Ahmad, Rafiq; Bilal, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad; Tabassum, Ayesha

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the biocontrol abilities of water-soluble and volatile metabolites of three different isolates of Trichoderma (T. asperellum, T. harzianum and Trichoderma spp.) against soil borne plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. The results showed for the first time that mycelial growth inhibition of the pathogen was 74.4-67.8% with water-soluble metabolites as compared to 15.3-10.6% with volatile metabolites in vitro. In vivo antagonistic activity of Trichoderma isolates against R. solani was evaluated on bean plants under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. We observed that T. asperellum was more effective and consistent, lowering disease incidence up to 19.3% in laboratory and 30.5% in green house conditions. These results showed that three isolates of Trichoderma could be used as effective biocontrol agents against R. solani.

  8. Comparative molecular evolution of Trichoderma chitinases in response to mycoparasitic interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihrmark, Katarina; Asmail, Nashwan; Ubhayasekera, Wimal

    2010-01-01

    Certain species of the fungal genus Trichoderma are potent mycoparasites and are used for biological control of fungal diseases on agricultural crops. In Trichoderma, whole-genome sequencing reveal between 20 and 36 different genes encoding chitinases, hydrolytic enzymes that are involved...... in the mycoparasitic attack. Sequences of Trichoderma chitinase genes chi18-5, chi18-13, chi18-15 and chi18-17, which all exhibit specific expression during mycoparasitism-related conditions, were determined from up to 13 different taxa and studied with regard to their evolutionary patterns. Two of them, chi18......-usage and contains five codons that evolve under positive selection and three groups of co-evolving sites. Regions of high amino acid variability are preferentially localized to substrate- or product side of the catalytic clefts. Differences in amino acid diversity/conservation patterns between different Trichoderma...

  9. Trichoderma longibrachiatum acetyl xylan esterase 1 enhances hemicellulolytic preparations to degrade corn silage polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumüller, K.G.; Streekstra, H.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Supplementation of a Trichoderma longibrachiatum preparation to an industrial Aspergillus niger/Talaromyces emersonii enzyme mixture demonstrated synergy for the saccharification of corn silage water-unextractable solids (WUS). Sub-fractions of the crude T. longibrachiatum preparation obtained after

  10. Trichoderma fassatiae, a new species from the section Pachybasium isolated from soil in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena; Kubátová, A.; Valinová, Š.; Hubka, Vít; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2015), s. 227-231 ISSN 1805-1421 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13039 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Ascomycota * Hypocreales * Trichoderma Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  11. Pengaruh Penggunaan Fungisida Sintetis Dan Trichoderma SP. Secara Tunggal Atau Gabungan Terhadap Penyakit Hawar Pelepah Daun Padi Effect of Synthetic Fungicidal Application Alone or Mixed with Trichoderma SP. on Sheat Blight of Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Susilo, Pambudi; Soesanto, Loekas; Wachjadi, Muljo

    2005-01-01

    This research aimed at knowing the application effect of synthetic fungicide tebuconazole 25% alone or mixed with Trichoderma sp. on sheath blight disease and rice yield. The research was carried out at the Plant Disease Laboratory and the experimental field, the Faculty of Agriculture, the University of Jenderal Soedirman. Split Plot Design was used with Trichoderma sp. as main factor consisted of without and with antagonistic Trichoderma sp. applied on rice at 15, 30, and 45 and 55 days aft...

  12. Trichoderma spp. NA EMERGÊNCIA E CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE CAMBARÁ (Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. Cabrera1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Franco Martins Machado

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, o objetivo foi avaliar o efeito de isolados de Trichoderma spp. na emergência de plântulas e no crescimento de mudas de cambará (Gochnatia polymorpha. Utilizou-se, em casa de vegetação, substrato esterilizado e não esterilizado, sendo avaliados os efeitos de quatro isolados de trichoderma: TSM1 e TSM2 de Trichoderma viride, 2B2 e 2B22 de Trichoderma harzianum mais um mix preparado com a mistura desses quatro isolados, além de dois produtos comerciais à base de trichoderma. A análise dos dados permitiu concluir que os isolados de trichoderma testados não interferem na emergência das plântulas, mas os isolados 2B2 e 2B22 de T. harzianum apresentam potenciais como promotores de crescimento de mudas de cambará.

  13. Efficiency of treatments for controlling Trichoderma spp during spawning in cultivation of lignicolous mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colavolpe, María Belén; Mejía, Santiago Jaramillo; Albertó, Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma spp is the cause of the green mold disease in mushroom cultivation production. Many disinfection treatments are commonly applied to lignocellulose substrates to prevent contamination. Mushroom growers are usually worried about the contaminations that may occur after these treatments during handling or spawning. The aim of this paper is to estimate the growth of the green mold Trichoderma sp on lignocellulose substrates after different disinfection treatments to know which of them is more effective to avoid contamination during spawning phase. Three different treatments were assayed: sterilization (121 °C), immersion in hot water (60 and 80 °C), and immersion in alkalinized water. Wheat straw, wheat seeds and Eucalyptus or Populus sawdust were used separately as substrates. After the disinfection treatments, bagged substrates were sprayed with 3 mL of suspension of conidia of Trichoderma sp (10(5) conidia/mL) and then separately spawned with Pleurotus ostreatus or Gymnopilus pampeanus. The growth of Trichoderma sp was evaluated based on a qualitative scale. Trichoderma sp could not grow on non-sterilized substrates. Immersions in hot water treatments and immersion in alkalinized water were also unfavorable treatments for its growth. Co- cultivation with mushrooms favored Trichoderma sp growth. Mushroom cultivation disinfection treatments of lignocellulose substrates influence on the growth of Trichoderma sp when contaminations occur during spawning phase. The immersion in hot water at 60 °C for 30 min or in alkalinized water for 36 h, are treatments which better reduced the contaminations with Trichoderma sp during spawning phase for the cultivation of lignicolous species.

  14. Potency of Six Isolates of Biocontrol Agents Endophytic Trichoderma Against Fusarium Wilt on Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Taribuka, J; Wibowo, A; Widyastuti, S M; Sumardiyono, C

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense is one of very damaging banana plant diseases which can cause plant death. Disease control using intensive chemical fungicides will have negative impacts on the environment and humans. Endophytic Trichoderma is one of the biological control agents which can reduce the amount of inoculum of pathogens, so it can reduce disease intensity. The objectives of this study was to assess the ability of endophytic Trichoderma in inducing plant resistanc...

  15. Arsenic tolerant Trichoderma sp. reduces arsenic induced stress in chickpea (Cicer arietinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Pratibha; Singh, Poonam C; Mishra, Aradhana; Srivastava, Suchi; Chauhan, Reshu; Awasthi, Surabhi; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Tripathi, Preeti; Kalra, Alok; Tripathi, Rudra D; Nautiyal, Chandra S

    2017-04-01

    Toxic metalloids including arsenic (As) can neither be eliminated nor destroyed from environment; however, they can be converted from toxic to less/non-toxic forms. The form of As species and their concentration determines its toxicity in plants. Therefore, the microbe mediated biotransformation of As is crucial for its plant uptake and toxicity. In the present study the role of As tolerant Trichoderma in modulating As toxicity in chickpea plants was explored. Chickpea plants grown in arsenate spiked soil under green house conditions were inoculated with two plant growth promoting Trichoderma strains, M-35 (As tolerant) and PPLF-28 (As sensitive). Total As concentration in chickpea tissue was comparable in both the Trichoderma treatments, however, differences in levels of organic and inorganic As (iAs) species were observed. The shift in iAs to organic As species ratio in tolerant Trichoderma treatment correlated with enhanced plant growth and nutrient content. Arsenic stress amelioration in tolerant Trichoderma treatment was also evident through rhizospheric microbial community and anatomical studies of the stem morphology. Down regulation of abiotic stress responsive genes (MIPS, PGIP, CGG) in tolerant Trichoderma + As treatment as compared to As alone and sensitive Trichoderma + As treatment also revealed that tolerant strain enhanced the plant's potential to cope with As stress as compared to sensitive one. Considering the bioremediation and plant growth promotion potential, the tolerant Trichoderma may appear promising for its utilization in As affected fields for enhancing agricultural productivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mekanisme Parasitisme Trichoderma Harzianum Terhadap Fusarium Oxysporum Pada Semai Acacia Mangium

    OpenAIRE

    Tasik, Susanti; Widyastuti, Siti Muslimah; Harjono

    2015-01-01

    Mechanism of parasitism of Trichoderma harzianum on Fusarium oxysporum on Acacia mangium seedlings. Fusarium oxysporum is one of the most important soil-borne fungi the causal agent of damping-off disease. Detailed information it needed to know how the pathogen can be inhibited by Trichoderma harzianum. The objective of this research was to investigate the inhibition mechanism of T. harzianum on F. oxysporum in vitro and in planta. Green Flourescent Protein (GFP) T. harzianum was used as bioc...

  17. IDENTIFICAÇÃO E UTILIZAÇÃO DE Trichoderma spp. ARMAZENADOS E NATIVOS NO BIOCONTROLE DE Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    OpenAIRE

    GERARDA BEATRIZ PINTO DA SILVA; LEISE INÊS HECKLER; RICARDO FELICIANO DOS SANTOS; MIRIA ROSA DURIGO; ELENA BLUME

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , handles significant losses in lettuce production. Being a soil borne fungus, its management is difficult, and an alternative is the use of biological control using species of the Trichoderma genus. Thus, the objectives of this study were to identify native species of Trichoderma spp. presents in the soil with (CP) and without white mold (SP), evaluate the growth rate and in vitro antagonism of Trichoderma spp. against S. sclerotiorum and to ver...

  18. Biocontrol Effectiveness of Indigenous Trichoderma Species against Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici on Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Hajji Lobna; Chattaoui Mayssa; Regaieg Hajer; M'Hamdi-Boughalleb Naima; Rhouma Ali; Horrigue-Raouani Najet

    2016-01-01

    In this study, three local isolates of Trichoderma (Tr1: T. viride, Tr2: T. harzianum and Tr3: T. asperellum) were isolated and evaluated for their biocontrol effectiveness under in vitro conditions and in greenhouse. In vitro bioassay revealed a biopotential control against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici and Meloidogyne javanica (RKN) separately. All species of Trichoderma exhibited biocontrol performance and (Tr1) Trichoderma viride was the most efficient. In fact, growth rat...

  19. Respuesta fisiológica de miembros del género Trichoderma a hidrocarburos poliaromáticos.

    OpenAIRE

    Argumedo Delira, Rosalba

    2011-01-01

    Las especies del género Trichoderma representan un grupo de hongos filamentosos que pertenecen al Reino Mycetae (Fungi), División Eumycota, Subdivisión Ascomycotina, Clase Euascomycetes, Orden Hypocreales, Familia Hypocraceae y Género Trichoderma e Hypocrea. Estos hongos se caracterizan por predominar en los ecosistemas terrestres y acuáticos. Los miembros del género Trichoderma tienen el potencial de sintetizar y liberar diversas enzimas que se han aprovechado en procesos industriales. Adem...

  20. Determination of lytic enzyme activities of indigenous Trichoderma isolates from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Saeed Ahmad; Tabassum, Ayesha; Hameed, Abdul; Hassan, Fayyaz Ul; Afzal, Aftab; Khan, Sabaz Ali; Ahmed, Rafiq; Shahzad, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated lytic enzyme activities in three indigenous Trichoderma strains namely, Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma sp. Native Trichoderma strains and a virulent strain of Rhizoctonia solani isolated from infected bean plants were also included in the study. Enzyme activities were determined by measuring sugar reduction by dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method using suitable substrates. The antagonists were cultured in minimal salt medium with the following modifications: medium A (1 g of glucose), medium B (0.5 g of glucose + 0.5 g of deactivated R. solani mycelia), medium C (1.0 g of deactivated respective antagonist mycelium) and medium D (1 g of deactivated R. solani mycelia). T asperellum showed presence of higher amounts of chitinases, β-1, 3-glucanases and xylanases in extracellular protein extracts from medium D as compared to medium A. While, the higher activities of glucosidases and endoglucanses were shown in medium D extracts by T. harzianum. β-glucosidase activities were lower compared with other enzymes; however, activities of the extracts of medium D were significantly different. T. asperellum exhibited maximum inhibition (97.7%). On the other hand, Trichoderma sp. did not show any effect on mycelia growth of R. solani on crude extract.

  1. Isolation and expression of two polyketide synthase genes from Trichoderma harzianum 88 during mycoparasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lin; Tan, Chong; Song, Jinzhu; Yang, Qian; Yu, Lijie; Li, Xinling

    2016-01-01

    Metabolites of mycoparasitic fungal species such as Trichoderma harzianum 88 have important biological roles. In this study, two new ketoacyl synthase (KS) fragments were isolated from cultured Trichoderma harzianum 88 mycelia using degenerate primers and analysed using a phylogenetic tree. The gene fragments were determined to be present as single copies in Trichoderma harzianum 88 through southern blot analysis using digoxigenin-labelled KS gene fragments as probes. The complete sequence analysis in formation of pksT-1 (5669bp) and pksT-2 (7901bp) suggests that pksT-1 exhibited features of a non-reducing type I fungal PKS, whereas pksT-2 exhibited features of a highly reducing type I fungal PKS. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction indicated that the isolated genes are differentially regulated in Trichoderma harzianum 88 during challenge with three fungal plant pathogens, which suggests that they participate in the response of Trichoderma harzianum 88 to fungal plant pathogens. Furthermore, disruption of the pksT-2 encoding ketosynthase-acyltransferase domains through Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation indicated that pksT-2 is a key factor for conidial pigmentation in Trichoderma harzianum 88. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Tolerance to chitosan by Trichoderma species is associated with low membrane fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-González, Ernesto A; Lopez-Moya, Federico; Aranda-Martinez, Almudena; Cruz-Valerio, Mayra; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente; Ramírez-Lepe, Mario

    2016-07-01

    The effect of chitosan on growth of Trichoderma spp., a cosmopolitan genus widely exploited for their biocontrol properties was evaluated. Based on genotypic (ITS of 18S rDNA) characters, four isolates of Trichoderma were identified as T. pseudokoningii FLM16, T. citrinoviride FLM17, T. harzianum EZG47, and T. koningiopsis VSL185. Chitosan reduces radial growth of Trichoderma isolates in concentration-wise manner. T. koningiopsis VSL185 was the most chitosan tolerant isolate in all culture media amended with chitosan (0.5-2.0 mg ml(-1) ). Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) were determined showing that T. koningiopsis VSL185 displays higher chitosan tolerance with MIC value >2000 μg ml(-1) while for other Trichoderma isolates MIC values were around 10 μg ml(-1) . Finally, free fatty acid composition reveals that T. koningiopsis VSL185, chitosan tolerant isolate, displays lower linolenic acid (C18:3) content than chitosan sensitive Trichoderma isolates. Our findings suggest that low membrane fluidity is associated with chitosan tolerance in Trichoderma spp. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Biological control of rice brown spot with native isolates of three Trichoderma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Khalili

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Brown spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae is an important rice disease in Southern coast of Caspian Sea, the major rice growing region in Iran. A total of 45 Trichoderma isolates were obtained from rice paddy fields in Golestan and Mazandaran provinces which belonged to Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens and T. atroviride species. Initially, they were screened against B. oryzae by antagonism tests including dual culture, volatile and nonvolatile metabolites and hyperparasitism. Results showed that Trichoderma isolates can significantly inhibit mycelium growth of pathogen in vitro by producing volatile and nonvolatile metabolites Light microscopic observations showed no evidence of mycoparasitic behaviour of the tested isolates of Trichoderma spp. such as coiling around the B. oryzae. According to in vitro experiments, Trichoderma isolates were selected in order to evaluate their efficacy in controlling brown spot in glasshouse using seed treatment and foliar spray methods. Concerning the glasshouse tests, two strains of T. harzianum significantly controlled the disease and one strain of T. atroviride increased the seedling growth. It is the first time that the biological control of rice brown spot and increase of seedling growth with Trichoderma species have been studied in Iran.

  4. Determination of lytic enzyme activities of indigenous Trichoderma isolates from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Saeed Ahmad; Tabassum, Ayesha; Hameed, Abdul; Hassan, Fayyaz ul; Afzal, Aftab; Khan, Sabaz Ali; Ahmed, Rafiq; Shahzad, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated lytic enzyme activities in three indigenous Trichoderma strains namely, Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma sp. Native Trichoderma strains and a virulent strain of Rhizoctonia solani isolated from infected bean plants were also included in the study. Enzyme activities were determined by measuring sugar reduction by dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method using suitable substrates. The antagonists were cultured in minimal salt medium with the following modifications: medium A (1 g of glucose), medium B (0.5 g of glucose + 0.5 g of deactivated R. solani mycelia), medium C (1.0 g of deactivated respective antagonist mycelium) and medium D (1 g of deactivated R. solani mycelia). T asperellum showed presence of higher amounts of chitinases, β-1, 3-glucanases and xylanases in extracellular protein extracts from medium D as compared to medium A. While, the higher activities of glucosidases and endoglucanses were shown in medium D extracts by T. harzianum. β-glucosidase activities were lower compared with other enzymes; however, activities of the extracts of medium D were significantly different. T. asperellum exhibited maximum inhibition (97.7%). On the other hand, Trichoderma sp. did not show any effect on mycelia growth of R. solani on crude extract. PMID:26691463

  5. KADAR GLUKOSA DARI HIDROLISIS SELULOSA PADA ECENG GONDOK MENGGUNAKAN Trichoderma viride DENGAN VARIASI TEMPERATUR DAN WAKTU FERMENTASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purbowatiningrum R Sarjono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah kita ketahui bahwa eceng gondok merupakan salah satu sumber selulosa yang melimpah di alam dan dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber karbon bagi jamur Trichoderma viride. Eceng gondok memiliki bobot kering selulosa 21,5%, hemiselulosa 33,9% dan lignin 7,01%. Trichoderma viride adalah jamur saprofit yang berpotensi memproduksi selulase yang mampu mendegradasi ikatan β-1,4-glikosida pada rantai selulosa untuk menghasilkan glukosa. Glukosa dapat dimanfaatkan dalam produksi sirup gula, asam organik dan bioetanol. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan Trichoderma viride yang mampu tumbuh pada media pertumbuhan hasil modifikasi eceng gondok serta memperoleh temperatur optimum aktivitas Trichoderma viride dalam menghidrolisis eceng gondok dan waktu fermentasi terbaik dalam menghasilkan glukosa. Proses pertama adalah persiapan sampel enceng gondok meliputi delignifikasi, kurva pertumbuhan Trichoderma viride dibuat dalam media modifikasi eceng gondok untuk mengetahui waktu optimum pertumbuhan Trichoderma viride. Penentuan temperatur optimum dan waktu fermentasi terbaik dari aktivitas Trichoderma viride didasarkan pada glukosa yang dihasilkan dari hidrolisis selulosa pada eceng gondok menggunakan metode Nelson Somogyi. Berdasarkan penelitian diperoleh hasil bahwa Trichoderma viride mampu tumbuh pada media modifikasi eceng gondok. Temperatur optimum aktivitas Trichoderma viride dalam menghidrolisis selulosa pada eceng gondok adalah 35oC dan waktu fermentasi terbaik dihasilkannya glukosa pada jam ke-96 yaitu sebesar 1,3864 mg/L.

  6. Estudio del antagonismo de algunas especies de Trichoderma sobre Fusarium Oxysporum y Rhizoctonia Solani Antagonism studies of Trichoderma sp.p.. with Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Ricardo; Arcos Omar; Arbelaez Germán

    1989-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudió el antagonismo de algunos aislamientos del hongo Trichoderma obtenidos de suelos colornbianos en el control de Fusarium oxysporum y Rhizoctonia solani. En los ensayos "in vitre" se observó un marcado antagonismo entre las colonias de los aislamientos de Trichoderma sobre R. sotsni, con una reducción apreciable
    del tamaño de la colonia y un antaqonismo menor sobre F. oxysporum. En los ensayos de parasitismo a nivel microscópico, se observó una gran interac...

  7. Competition in artifical plant growth media by Trichoderma spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarocco, Sabrina; Lübeck, Mette; Vannacci, Giovanni

    of the reason why more biocontrol agents are reaching the market place. A comparative evaluation of life strategies of both the pathogen and its antagonists is required to predict the fate of a biopesticide in agricultural systems.The objectives of this work have been: 1) to screen a collection of Trichoderma......The key to achieve successful, reproducible biological control is the gradual appreciation that knowledge of the ecological interactions taking place in soil and root environments is required to predict the condition under which biological control can be achieved and, indeed, it may be part...... inoculation procedures were employed. Four potential biocontrol agents, all identified as T. harzianum according to the ITS sequences, were selected according to their ability of reducing radish damping off, and were employed in a Competitive Saprophytic Ability (CSA) test, in order to investigate the role...

  8. In vitro sensitivity of antagonistic Trichoderma atroviride to herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Helena Santoro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma atroviride was tested in vitro for its sensitivity to different herbicides. The dosages tested were recommended dosage (RD, half dosage (½RD, and double dosage (2RD. Germination, colony-forming units (CFU, radial growth, and spore production were evaluated. Carfentrazone-ethyl and sulfentrazone inhibited the germination at RD and 2RD. A reduction in the CFU was observed for glufosinate-ammonium, atrazine, carfentrazone-ethyl, diuron + paraquat dichloride, imazapyr, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone at each of the tested dosages. Radial growth was influenced by ametryn, atrazine, carfentrazone-ethyl, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone herbicides, with an 80% reduction of the colonial area. Spore production was affected by carfentrazone-ethyl, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone with colonial area reductions of over 70%. It was concluded that 2,4 D, clomazone, and imazapyr herbicides showed the least toxicity to T. atroviride and should be used in the crops where the fungus has been applied for phytopathogen control.

  9. Shifting from priming of salicylic acid- to jasmonic acid-regulated defences by Trichoderma protects tomato against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Fernandez, Ivan; Lok, Gerrit B; Pozo, María J; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; Van Wees, Saskia C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185445373

    Beneficial root endophytes such as Trichoderma spp. can reduce infections by parasitic nematodes through triggering host defences. Little is currently known about the complex hormone signalling underlying the induction of resistance. In this study, we investigated whether Trichoderma modulates the

  10. Antioxidant properties of soybean seedlings inoculated with Trichoderma asperellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Ana S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to assess the effect of inoculation of soybean (Glycine max L. seeds with Trichoderma asperellum, followed by mites (Tetranychus urticae exposure on lipid peroxidation (LP process and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. T. urticae is an occasional pest of soybean that causes biotic stress. Biotic stress leads to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS which may cause damage to vital biomolecules. Enzymatic antioxidant defense systems protect plants against oxidative stress. T. asperellum is commonly used as biocontrol agent against plant pathogens. It has been suggested that previous inoculation of seeds with T. asperellum may cause induced resistance against biotic stress. The aim of this study was to determine LP intensity and antioxidant enzymes activity in inoculated and non-inoculated soybean seedlings with and without exposure to mites. Noticeably higher LP intensity was detected in non-inoculated group treated with mites compared to control group. Inoculated soybean seedlings treated with mites had lower LP intensity compared to noninoculated group. Also, it has been noticed that inoculation with Trichoderma asperellum itself, produced mild stress in plants. In addition, positive correlation between enzymes activity and LP was noticed. The level of oxidative stress in plants was followed by the change of LP intensity. According to results obtained, it was concluded that the greatest oxidative stress occurred in non-inoculated group treated with mites and that inoculation successfully reduced oxidative stress. The results indicate that inoculation of soybean seeds with T. asperellum improves resistance of soybean seedlings against mites attack. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-31022

  11. Cell wall degrading enzymes in Trichoderma asperellum grown on wheat bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Lasse; Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2015-01-01

    . asperellum was grown on wheat bran, the greatest range of enzymes activity was detected and a total of 175 glycoside hydrolases from 48 glycoside hydrolase families were identified in the transcriptome. The glycoside hydrolases were identified on a functional level using the bioinformatical tool Peptide...... the theory that the glycoside hydrolases have evolved from a common ancestor, followed by a specialization in which saprotrophic fungi such as T. reesei and T. longibrachiatum lost a significant number of genes including several glycoside hydrolases....

  12. Effect of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma virens fungal extracts on the hatchability of Ancylostoma eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstätter, Bianca Delgado Menezes; Oliveira da Silva Fonseca, Anelise; de Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; de Souza Silveira, Julia; Persici, Beatriz Maroneze; Pötter, Luciana; Silveira, Andressa; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Brayer Pereira, Daniela Isabel

    Ancylostoma species have demanded attention due to their zoonotic potential. The use of anthelmintics is the usual method to prevent environmental contamination by Ancylostoma eggs and larvae. Nematophagous fungi have been widely used in their biological control due to the fungus ability to capture and digest free nematode forms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of four different fungal extracts of Paecilomyces lilacinus (n=2), Trichoderma harzianum (n=1) and Trichoderma virens (n=1) isolates on the hatchability of Ancylostoma eggs. Fungal extracts consisted of fungal broth culture supernatant without filtration (crude extract) and filtered broth (filtered extract), macerated mycelium (crude macerate), and macerated mycelium submitted to filtration (filtered macerate). The Ancylostoma eggs were obtained from the feces of naturally infected dogs. In vitro assays were performed in five replicates and consisted of four treatments and one control group. The activity of the fungal extracts of each evaluated fungus differed (p<0.05) from those of the control group, showing significant ovicidal activity. The hatching of the eggs suffered reduction percentages of 68.43% and 47.05% with P. lilacinus, and 56.43% with T. harzianum, when crude macerate extract was used. The reduction with the macerate extract of T. virens was slightly lower (52.25%) than that for the filtered macerate (53.64%). The results showed that all extracts were effective in reducing the hatchability of Ancylostoma eggs. The ovicidal effect observed is likely to have been caused by the action of hydrolytic enzymes secreted by the fungi. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. 40 CFR 180.1102 - Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2 (ATCC #20847) strain T-22; exemption from requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2 (ATCC... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1102 Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2... of a tolerance is established for residues of the biofungicide Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2 (ATCC...

  14. Potency of six isolates of biocontrol agents endophytic Trichoderma against fusarium wilt on banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taribuka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense is one of very damaging banana plant diseases which can cause plant death. Disease control using intensive chemical fungicides will have negative impacts on the environment and humans. Endophytic Trichoderma is one of the biological control agents which can reduce the amount of inoculum of pathogens, so it can reduce disease intensity. The objectives of this study was to assess the ability of endophytic Trichoderma in inducing plant resistance against fusarium wilt. Endophytic Trichoderma was obtained from healthy roots of banana from three regencies in Yogyakarta, namely Trichoderma harzianum.swn-1, T. harzianum.swn-2, T. harzianum.psr-1, T. asperrellum, T. gamsii, and T. koningiopsis. Research on induced resintance was conducted in the greenhouse with polybag using Completely Randomized Design with 14 treatments and 3 replications. The results showed that the ability of Trichoderma gamsii antagonism against F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense was 60.61%. T. asperellum and T. harzianum.swn-2 could suppress this disease resulted in disease intensity of 8.33% which categorize as resistant. Trichoderma harzianum.psr-1 was significantly different in stimulating plant vegetative growth. Induced resistance by using endophytic Trichoderma spp. against  F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense showed increase in total phenolic compounds on the third and fourth weeks as well as peroxidase activity on the third, fourth and fifth weeks.  Observation of lignification on  the fifth week  showed that lignification occurred in root xylem

  15. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Wang, Jin-Liang; Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  16. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon–Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  17. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    Full Text Available We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn, 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates, T. asperellum (425, T. hamatum (397, T. virens (340, T. koningiopsis (248, T. brevicompactum (73, T. atroviride (73, T. fertile (26, T. longibrachiatum (22, T. pleuroticola (16, T. erinaceum (16, T. oblongisporum (2, T. polysporum (2, T. spirale (2, T. capillare (2, T. velutinum (2, and T. saturnisporum (1. T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14 and the highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46. We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province, not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  18. DNA barcoding survey of Trichoderma diversity in soil and litter of the Colombian lowland Amazonian rainforest reveals Trichoderma strigosellum sp. nov. and other species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Quintero, C.A.; Atanasova, L.; Franco-Molano, A.E.; Gams, W.; Komon-Zelazowska, M.; Theelen, B.; Muller, W.H.; Boekhout, T.; Druzhinina, I.

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) colonizing leaf litter as well as the rhizosphere of Garcinia macrophylla (Clusiaceae) was investigated in primary and secondary rain forests in Colombian Amazonia. DNA barcoding of 107 strains based on the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2

  19. Estudio del antagonismo de algunas especies de Trichoderma sobre Fusarium Oxysporum y Rhizoctonia Solani Antagonism studies of Trichoderma sp.p.. with Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Ricardo

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudió el antagonismo de algunos aislamientos del hongo Trichoderma obtenidos de suelos colornbianos en el control de Fusarium oxysporum y Rhizoctonia solani. En los ensayos "in vitre" se observó un marcado antagonismo entre las colonias de los aislamientos de Trichoderma sobre R. sotsni, con una reducción apreciable
    del tamaño de la colonia y un antaqonismo menor sobre F. oxysporum. En los ensayos de parasitismo a nivel microscópico, se observó una gran interacción entre alqunos
    de los aislamientos de T. harzianum y T. hamatum y el patógéno R. solani rnanifestado por el enrollamiento, penetración, fragmentación y lisis de las hifas del patoqeno.
    Los aislamientos de Trichoderma causaron un retraso en la aparición de los síntomas, una reducción en la severidad de la
    enfermedad. y un menor número de plantas enfermas ocasionadas por F. oxysporum f. sp, cucumerinum en pepino cohombro, y su efecto fue superior en todos los casos a la
    aplicación del fungicida benomil. Los aislamientos del antagonista aumentaron la qerminación de las semillas, la emergencia y el tamaño de las plántulas y redujeron la severidad de la enfermedad ocasionada por R. solani en fríjol.Several experiments were conducted to study the antagonism of 17 isolates of Trichoderma from Colombian soils with Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. In "in vitro" tests, a high antagonism between colonies was found being greater the antagonism of Trichoderma with R. solani. At the microscopic level it was observed a great interaction between T. harzianum and T. hamatum with R. solani in such a way that the hyphae of the pathogen showed coiling, penetration, fragmentation and lysis. The Trichoderma isolates caused reduction in the disease severity, in the incubation period and a lower number of diseased cucumber plants when they were inoeulated with F. oxysporum f. sp, cucumerinum and these effects were better than Benomyl

  20. Phytohormone profiles induced by Trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A.; van Wees, Saskia C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185445373

    2014-01-01

    The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the

  1. The influence of formulation on Trichoderma biological activity and frosty pod rot disease management in Theobroma cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosty pod rot (FPR), caused by Moniliophthora roreri is responsible for significant losses in Theobroma cacao. Due to the limited options for FPR management, biological control methods using Trichoderma are being studied. Combinations of three formulations and two Trichoderma isolates were studied ...

  2. Identification and characterization of Trichoderma species aggressive to Pleurotus in Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woo S L; Di Benedetto P; Senatore M; Abadi K; Gigante S; Soriente I; Ferraioli S; Scala F; Lorito M

    2004-01-01

    @@ In the late 1980's the development of a severe epidemic of green mold caused by Trichoderma spp.was noted in the commercial production of Agaricus bisporus (champignon) in the United Kingdom,North America, Spain and Holland, which caused extensive economic losses. The parasitic fungi isolated from the edible mushroom belonged to four biotypes, Thl, Th2, Th3 and Th4 of T.harzianum. However, among these biotypes, only Th2 (since classified as T. aggressivum f.europaeum) and Th4 (T. aggressivum f. aggressivum) were identified as the fungi causing problems in Agaricus production. In general, mushroom compost hosts both aggressive and innocuous isolates of Trichoderma, which are not morphologically distinguishable. About four years ago, a problem with green mold became apparent in the production of Pleurotus ostreatus in Northern Italy,which eventually developed to a crisis situation in the South two years later and threatened to seriously compromise the Pleurotus market. This study was initiated to: isolate and identify the aggressive fungi, then morphologically, physiologically and genetically characterize the isolates, determine the source and phases of infection, and study methods of control. Samples were obtained from different phases of compost preparation at the locality of a major producer and supplier of compost to the mushroom industry in Southern Italy, and microbial counts were conducted. Although the presence of Trichoderma was detected in the initial stages of composting, this value was reduced to zero from the phase of pasteurization to seeding with Pleurotus. Trichoderma infestations were noted in the packaged Pleurotus bales at various times during the incubation phase (7-15 days after seeding) and after shipping to the mushroom greenhouses, where the pathogen infestations greatly reduced the quality and quantity of the mushroom yield, as well as the number of potential harvest cycles.Preliminary results from the morphological and genetic

  3. Potential of Trichoderma species on Helminthosporium causing leaf spot on cane palm, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegathambigai, V; Karunaratne, M D S D; Svinningen, A; Mikunthan, G

    2008-01-01

    The cane palm, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens is one among the plant material of the export industries in Sri Lanka. The export quality of C. lutescens was declined due to the repeated occurrence of a leaf spot caused by Helminthosporium. Widespread occurrence of the leaf spot affected the cane palm production and succumb it to a huge setback in the floriculture industry in Sri Lanka. Being an export industry eco-friendly means of disease control was the prime focus for a better management of such vulnerable disease. Trichoderma is a potential bio agent, which has definite role in suppressing the inoculum of Helminthosporium sp. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of Trichoderma species to control naturally established leaf spot in cane palm under field conditions. Three isolates of T. viride and two isolates of T. harzianum were evaluated. All the Trichoderma species performed significantly in reducing the disease incidence. T. viride + T. harzianum combination (1 x 10(10) cfu/ml) was the best compared to chemical in decreasing the mean disease severity index and improving the frequency of healthy plants. The colour of the leaves regained due to the application of Trichoderma sp. The results revealed that leaf spot incidence was lowered significantly in cane palms treated with Trichoderma species followed by treatment with combination of Trichoderma sp. and fungicides. The fungicide mixture (hexaconozole 50 g/l + Isoprothiolane 400 g/l) failed to lower the disease incidence and had no effect in suppressing the inocula of Helminthosporium, although recommended. Mixing of Trichoderma species with fungicide did not exhibit any additive effect. The combination of different species of Trichoderma would target species of Helminthosporium that exist as a complex group under field conditions. The results also proved that the existence of heterogeneity in Helminthosporium that could be tackled and effectively controlled by a combination of different species of the bio

  4. Diversity and effect of Trichoderma spp. associated with green mold disease on Lentinula edodes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gangzheng; Cao, Xiantao; Ma, Xiaolong; Guo, Mengpei; Liu, Changhao; Yan, Lianlian; Bian, Yinbing

    2016-08-01

    Lentinula edodes, one of the most important edible mushrooms in China, is affected heavily by the infection of green mold that overgrows mushroom mycelia. We collected the diseased samples from main L. edodes cultivation regions in China to characterize the pathogen and to study the effect of Trichoderma spp. on L. edodes species. We identified six Trichoderma species, that is, T. harzianum, T. atroviride, T. viride, T. pleuroticola, T. longibrachiatum, and T. oblongisporum based on the internal transcribed spacer or tef1-α sequences and morphology characteristics. In confrontation cultures on Petri plates or in tubes, and in L. edodes cultures in a medium containing Trichoderma metabolites, L. edodes mycelia were not only distorted and swollen, but also inhibited by Trichoderma isolates. It is not possible that adjusting pH value or temperature is used for controlling L. edodes green disease, because the growth of most of Trichoderma isolates and L. edodes shared similar pH and temperature conditions. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Trichoderma harzianum T-78 supplementation of compost stimulates the antioxidant defence system in melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Vicente, Agustina; Pascual, José A; Tittarelli, Fabio; Hernández, José A; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2015-08-30

    Compost is emerging as an alternative plant growing medium in efforts to achieve more sustainable agriculture. The addition of specific microorganisms such as Trichoderma harzianum to plant growth substrates increases yields and reduces plant diseases, but the mechanisms of such biostimulants and the biocontrol effects are not yet fully understood. In this work we investigated how the addition of citrus and vineyard composts, either alone or in combination with T. harzianum T-78, affects the antioxidant defence system in melon plants under nursery conditions. Compost application and/or Trichoderma inoculation modulated the antioxidant defence system in melon plants. The combination of citrus compost and Trichoderma showed a biostimulant effect that correlated with an increase in ascorbate recycling enzymes (monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase) and peroxidase. Moreover, the inoculation of both composts with Trichoderma increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, especially those involved in ascorbate recycling. Based on the long-established relationship between ascorbic acid and plant defence responses as well as plant growth and development, it can be suggested that ascorbate recycling activities play a major role in the protection provided by Trichoderma and its biostimulant effect and that these outcomes are linked to increases in antioxidant enzymes. We can conclude that the combination of citrus compost and T. harzianum T-78 constitutes a viable, environmentally friendly strategy for improving melon plant production. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Two new hyaline-ascospored species of Trichoderma and their phylogenetic positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, W T; Zhuang, W Y

    2016-01-01

    Collections of hypocrealean fungi found on decaying wood in subtropical regions of China were examined. Two new species, Trichoderma confluens and T. hubeiense, were discovered and are described. Trichoderma confluens is characterized by its widely effuse to rarely pulvinate, yellow stromata with densely disposed yellowish brown ostioles, simple acremonium- to verticillium-like conidiophores, hyaline conidia and multiform chlamydospores. Trichoderma hubeiense has pulvinate, grayish yellow stromata with brownish ostioles, trichoderma- to verticillium-like conidiophores and hyaline conidia. The phylogenetic positions of the two fungi were investigated based on sequence analyses of RNA polymerase II subunit b and translation elongation factor 1-α genes. The results indicate that T. confluens belongs to the Hypocreanum clade and is associated with but clearly separated from T. applanatum and T. decipiens. Trichoderma hubeiense belongs to the Polysporum clade and related to T. bavaricum but obviously differs from other members of the clade in sequence data. Morphological distinctions between the new species and their close relatives are noted and discussed. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  7. Salicylic acid prevents Trichoderma harzianum from entering the vascular system of roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Ramírez, Ana; Poveda, Jorge; Martín, Ignacio; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Nicolás, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Trichoderma is a soil-borne fungal genus that includes species with a significant impact on agriculture and industrial processes. Some Trichoderma strains exert beneficial effects in plants through root colonization, although little is known about how this interaction takes place. To better understand this process, the root colonization of wild-type Arabidopsis and the salicylic acid (SA)-impaired mutant sid2 by a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-marked Trichoderma harzianum strain was followed under confocal microscopy. Trichoderma harzianum GFP22 was able to penetrate the vascular tissue of the sid2 mutant because of the absence of callose deposition in the cell wall of root cells. In addition, a higher colonization of sid2 roots by GFP22 compared with that in Arabidopsis wild-type roots was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results, together with differences in the expression levels of plant defence genes in the roots of both interactions, support a key role for SA in Trichoderma early root colonization stages. We observed that, without the support of SA, plants were unable to prevent the arrival of the fungus in the vascular system and its spread into aerial parts, leading to later collapse. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  8. Requalification of a Brazilian Trichoderma Collection and Screening of Its Capability to Decolourise Real Textile Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Lisboa, Dianny; Santos, Cledir; Barbosa, Renan N; Magalhães, Oliane; Paiva, Laura M; Moreira, Keila A; Lima, Nelson; Souza-Motta, Cristina M

    2017-04-01

    Water contamination with large amounts of industrial textile coloured effluents is an environmental concern. For the treatment of textile effluents, white-rot fungi have received extensive attention due to their powerful capability to produce oxidative (e.g., ligninolytic) enzymes. In addition, other groups of fungi, such as species of Aspergillus and Trichoderma , have also been used for textile effluents treatment. The main aim of the present study was to requalify a Brazilian Trichoderma culture collection of 51 Trichoderma strains, isolated from different sources in Brazil and preserved in the oldest Latin-American Fungal Service Culture Collection, The Micoteca URM WDCM 804 (Recife, Brazil). Fungal isolates were re-identified through a polyphasic approach including macro- and micro-morphology and molecular biology, and screened for their capability to decolourise real effluents collected directly from storage tanks of a textile manufacture. Trichoderma atroviride URM 4950 presented the best performance on the dye decolourisation in real textile effluent and can be considered in a scale-up process at industrial level. Overall, the potential of Trichoderma strains in decolourising real textile dye present in textile effluent and the production of the oxidative enzymes Lac, LiP and MnP was demonstrated. Fungal strains are available in the collection e-catalogue to be further explored from the biotechnological point of view.

  9. Regulation of morphogenesis and biocontrol properties in Trichoderma virens by a VELVET protein, Vel1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Prasun K; Kenerley, Charles M

    2010-04-01

    Mycoparasitic strains of Trichoderma are applied as commercial biofungicides for control of soilborne plant pathogens. Although the majority of commercial biofungicides are Trichoderma based, chemical pesticides, which are ecological and environmental hazards, still dominate the market. This is because biofungicides are not as effective or consistent as chemical fungicides. Efforts to improve these products have been limited by a lack of understanding of the genetic regulation of biocontrol activities. In this study, using gene knockout and complementation, we identified the VELVET protein Vel1 as a key regulator of biocontrol, as well as morphogenetic traits, in Trichoderma virens, a commercial biocontrol agent. Mutants with mutations in vel1 were defective in secondary metabolism (antibiosis), mycoparasitism, and biocontrol efficacy. In nutrient-rich media they also lacked two types of spores important for survival and development of formulation products: conidia (on agar) and chlamydospores (in liquid shake cultures). These findings provide an opportunity for genetic enhancement of biocontrol and industrial strains of Trichoderma, since Vel1 is very highly conserved across three Trichoderma species.

  10. Sorghum bagasse as substrate for cellulase production by submerged and solid-state cultures of Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Vintilă

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sweet sorghum bagasse was used as cellulosic substrate in submerged and solid-state cultures of Trichoderma for cellulase production. Submerged liquid cultures (SLC were obtained by inoculation of Mandels media containing 1% cellulose with spores suspension of Trichoderma. Solid-state cultures (SSC were carried out in Erlenmayer flasks, where the substrate was distributed 1 cm layers. Comparing the yields of cellulases produced by Trichoderma strains in the systems applied in this study, using as substrate sorghum bagasse, we found the solid-state cultures as the system to produce the highest cellulase yields. The local strain of T. viride CMIT3.5. express high productivity in SSC system in laboratory conditions. The cellulolytic enzymes have maximum activity at 50oC, pH 4,8. The results recommend solid-state cultures of Trichoderma on sorghum bagasse as systems for producing cellulolytic products with higher activity than submerged cultures of Trichoderma on the same substrate.

  11. Biocontrol with Trichoderma species for the management of postharvest crown rot of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sangeetha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Colletotrichum musae cause the postharvest crown rot disease complex of banana. In vitro experiments evaluated the effect of twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. from the soil of organic banana orchards (‘native isolates’ and eight isolates of Trichoderma spp. from culture collections (‘introduced isolates’ on the two pathogens. The native and introduced Trichoderma spp. had varied antagonistic effects against the two pathogens. Eight Trichoderma spp. isolates effective in the in vitro assays were evaluated singly on fruits both at room temperature and in cold storage. Single antagonists did not satisfactorily control crown rot on the fruits as compared with the fungicide carbendazim. However, two isolates of T. viride, one of T. harzianum and one of T. koningii performed well when applied singly, and these were selected for evaluation in isolate mixtures. There was very little antagonism between these isolates. Of 11 two-way, three-way and four-way mixtures of these isolates, the four-way and a three-way mixtures reduced crown rot incidence, both at room temperature and in cold storage, giving better control than carbendazim. The study identified consortia of compatible Trichoderma antagonists with superior biocontrol potential for the management of the postharvest crown rot complex of banana.

  12. Requalification of a Brazilian Trichoderma Collection and Screening of Its Capability to Decolourise Real Textile Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Lisboa, Dianny; Santos, Cledir; Barbosa, Renan N.; Magalhães, Oliane; Paiva, Laura M.; Moreira, Keila A.; Lima, Nelson; Souza-Motta, Cristina M.

    2017-01-01

    Water contamination with large amounts of industrial textile coloured effluents is an environmental concern. For the treatment of textile effluents, white-rot fungi have received extensive attention due to their powerful capability to produce oxidative (e.g., ligninolytic) enzymes. In addition, other groups of fungi, such as species of Aspergillus and Trichoderma, have also been used for textile effluents treatment. The main aim of the present study was to requalify a Brazilian Trichoderma culture collection of 51 Trichoderma strains, isolated from different sources in Brazil and preserved in the oldest Latin-American Fungal Service Culture Collection, The Micoteca URM WDCM 804 (Recife, Brazil). Fungal isolates were re-identified through a polyphasic approach including macro- and micro-morphology and molecular biology, and screened for their capability to decolourise real effluents collected directly from storage tanks of a textile manufacture. Trichoderma atroviride URM 4950 presented the best performance on the dye decolourisation in real textile effluent and can be considered in a scale-up process at industrial level. Overall, the potential of Trichoderma strains in decolourising real textile dye present in textile effluent and the production of the oxidative enzymes Lac, LiP and MnP was demonstrated. Fungal strains are available in the collection e-catalogue to be further explored from the biotechnological point of view. PMID:28368305

  13. PENGUJIAN TRICHODERMA SP. SEBAGAI PENGENDALI HAWAR DAUN BIBIT KAKAO YANG DISEBABKAN OLEH PHYTHOPTHORA PALMIVORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarman .

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysist for Trichoderma sp. as the controller of the cocoa seedlings leaf blight which caused by Phythopthora palmivora. This study aims to determine: survival and ability to live of Trichoderma sp. isolates TCN-Klp supported by predisposing wounding or without wounding the leaves as well as the ability to suppress P. palmivora inoculated on the leaves of cocoa seedlings with and without wounding the leaves before inoculation. The research conducted at the Microbiology Laboratory and Greenhouse of Agriculture Faculty, Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo on March-July 2015. There were two kinds of experiments: inoculation without wounding the leaves (1st experiment and inoculation with wounding leaves (2nd experiment. Both of them were done by inoculation treatment: pathogens, Trichoderma, pathogens and Trichoderma simultaneously, then pathogens and incubated for 2x24 hours then inoculated. Both kinds of experiments were arranged in a complete randomize design (CRD with 3 times of replication for 1st experiment and 4 times of replication for 2nd experiment. The data of result was analyzed by ANOVA followed by 5% test level of Duncan test. The results showed that the isolates TCN-Klp of Trichoderma sp: (i had own survival and ability to live well in the leaf surface without injury, and (ii was able to suppress pathogens by inoculation simultaneously, which was preceded and precede the pathogens with a gap of 24 hours on with and without wounding leaves at 10 days after inoculation.

  14. Molecular characterization of reptile pathogens currently known as members of the chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii complex and relationship with some human-associated isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Lynne; Hambleton, Sarah; Paré, Jean A

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV), Chrysosporium guarroi, Chrysosporium ophiodiicola, and Chrysosporium species have been reported as the causes of dermal or deep lesions in reptiles. These infections are contagious and often fatal and affect both captive and wild animals. Forty-nine CANV isolates from reptiles and six isolates from human sources were compared with N. vriesii based on their cultural characteristics and DNA sequence data. Analyses of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal gene revealed that the reptile pathogens and human isolates belong in well-supported clades corresponding to three lineages that are distinct from all other taxa within the family Onygenaceae of the order Onygenales. One lineage represents the genus Nannizziopsis and comprises N. vriesii, N. guarroi, and six additional species encompassing isolates from chameleons and geckos, crocodiles, agamid and iguanid lizards, and humans. Two other lineages comprise the genus Ophidiomyces, with the species Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola occurring only in snakes, and Paranannizziopsis gen. nov., with three new species infecting squamates and tuataras. The newly described species are Nannizziopsis dermatitidis, Nannizziopsis crocodili, Nannizziopsis barbata, Nannizziopsis infrequens, Nannizziopsis hominis, Nannizziopsis obscura, Paranannizziopsis australasiensis, Paranannizziopsis californiensis, and Paranannizziopsis crustacea. Chrysosporium longisporum has been reclassified as Paranannizziopsis longispora. N. guarroi causes yellow fungus disease, a common infection in bearded dragons and green iguanas, and O. ophiodiicola is an emerging pathogen of captive and wild snakes. Human-associated species were not recovered from reptiles, and reptile-associated species were recovered only from reptiles, thereby mitigating concerns related to zoonosis.

  15. Phytohormone profiles induced by trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2014-07-01

    The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the phytohormonal network of their host plant, thus leading to an improvement of plant growth and stress tolerance. In this study, we tested whether alterations in the phytohormone signature induced by different Trichoderma isolates correspond with their ability for biocontrol and growth promotion. Four Trichoderma isolates were collected from agricultural soils and were identified as the species Trichoderma harzianum (two isolates), Trichoderma ghanense, and Trichoderma hamatum. Their antagonistic activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis was tested in vitro, and their plant growth-promoting and biocontrol activity against Fusarium wilt on melon plants was examined in vivo, and compared to that of the commercial strain T. harzianum T-22. Several growth- and defense-related phytohormones were analyzed in the shoots of plants that were root-colonized by the different Trichoderma isolates. An increase in auxin and a decrease in cytokinins and abscisic acid content were induced by the isolates that promoted the plant growth. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the plant phenotypic and hormonal variables. PCA pointed to a strong association of auxin induction with plant growth stimulation by Trichoderma. Furthermore, the disease-protectant ability of the Trichoderma strains against F. oxysporum infection seems to be more related to their induced alterations in the content of the hormones abscisic acid, ethylene, and the cytokinin trans-zeatin riboside than to the in vitro antagonism activity against F. oxysporum.

  16. Cellulase biosynthesis by trichoderma viride on soluble substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S B; Kitagawa, Y; Suga, K; Ichikawa, K

    1978-01-01

    Batch and continuous cultures of Trichoderma viride QM 6a were carried out using either glucose or cellobiose as the sole carbon source. From the data obtained in the continuous culture with glucose as substrate, growth parameters of this fungus ..mu../sub m/, K/sub s/, m and Y were identified. In the case of glucose as substrate, there were extremely low levels of cellobiase and no detectable cellulase activity in both batch and continuous cultures. The inducible cellobiase was an intracellular enzyme, produced in association with cell growth in batch culture on cellobiose as substrate. A kinetic model for cellobiose degradation and cell growth is proposed. A significant increase in the extracellular cellulase productivity was obtained in the range of low dilution rates from 0.025 h/sup -1/ to 0.2 h/sup -1/ in the continuous culture on cellobiose. From the results of these experiments, it was concluded that in continuous culture on cellobiose as substrate the cellulase activity was determined by the balance between induction and catabolite repression.

  17. Fungal Biomass Protein Production from Trichoderma harzianum Using Rice Polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sibtain; Mustafa, Ghulam; Arshad, Muhammad; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Industrially important enzymes and microbial biomass proteins have been produced from fungi for more than 50 years. High levels of crude protein as much as 45% are present in fungal biomass with balanced essential amino acids. The aim of this study was to access the potential of Trichoderma harzianum to produce fungal biomass protein from rice polishings. Maximum biomass yield was obtained at 5% (w/v) rice polishings after 72 h of incubation at 28°C at pH 4. Carbon and nitrogen ratio of 20 : 1 gave significantly higher production of fungal biomass protein. The FBP in the 75 L fermenter contained 49.50% crude protein, 32.00% true protein, 19.45% crude fiber, 9.62% ash, 11.5% cellulose content, and 0.325% RNA content. The profile of amino acids of final FBP exhibited that all essential amino acids were present in great quantities. The FBP produced by this fungus has been shown to be of good nutritional value for supplementation to poultry. The results presented in this study have practical implications in that the fungus T. harzianum could be used successfully to produce fungal biomass protein using rice polishings.

  18. Genetic characterization of somatic recombination in Trichoderma pseudokoningii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcellos Fernando Gomes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Crossing experiments via hyphal anastomosis between two strains contrasting for auxotrophic markers of Trichoderma pseudokoningii were conducted to characterize the somatic recombination process in this specie. Four crossings were made and a total of 1052 colonies obtained from conidial suspensions of the heterokaryotic colonies were analyzed. Sixty-eight recombinant colonies, from four growing generations, were analyzed for the auxotrophic markers. Of the 68 colonies analyzed, 58 were stable after four generations and the remainders were unstable, reverting to one of the parentals. Most of the recombinant colonies were unstable through subculture and after four growing generations they showed the leu ino met markers (auxotrophic for leucin, inositol and metionin respectively. The unstable recombinant colonies showed irregular growing borders, sparse sporulation and frequent sector formation. The results suggest the occurrence of recombination mechanisms in the heterokaryon (somatic recombination, different from those described for the parasexual cycle or parameiosis. Therefore, we proposed the ocurrence of nuclei degradation from one parental (non prevalent parental in the heterokaryon and that the resulting chromosomal fragments may be incorporated into whole nuclei of the another parental (prevalent parental. However the parameiosis as originally described cannot be excluded.

  19. Biosolubilization of raw and gamma irradiated lignite by trichoderma asperellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugoro, I.; Astuti, D.I.; Aditiawati, P.; Sasongko, D.

    2012-01-01

    Biosolubilization is a promising technology for converting solid coal to liquid oil by addition of microorganism. Aim of this research is to compare between gamma irradiated lignite (10 kGy) with raw lignite in biosolubilization by selected fungi Trichoderma asperellum. Treatments were A (MSS + gamma irradiated lignite 5% + T. asperellum) and B (MSS + raw lignite 5% + T. asperellum) with sub-merged culture. There were two parameters observed i.e. biosolubilization product based on absorbance value at λ 250nm and λ 450nm and metal analysis by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The highest biosolubilization will be analyzed by FTIR and GCMS. The results showed that biosolubilization of raw lignite (B) was higher than sterilized lignite (A) based on absorbance value at λ 250nm and λ 450nm . The metal of lignite was decreased after incubation. FTIR analysis showed that both of treatment had similar spectra on biosolubilization products. GCMS analysis showed that both of treatment had different number of hydrocarbon, i.e. C 6 - C 35 (A) and C 10 - C 35 (B) and dominated by aromatic acids, aliphatic and phenylethers. Both of treatment product had the potency as oil substituted but its recommended to deoxygenate for higher quality. (author)

  20. Biosolubilization gamma irradiate ion result coal by mould trichoderma sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingkan Aditiawati; Dea Indriani Astuti; Irawan Sugoro; Dwiwahju Sasongko

    2011-01-01

    Biosolubilization of coal is process of converting solid coal to liquid fuel/chemicals by mean of microorganism. The aim of this research was to study the effect of gamma rays irradiation with varian doses of irradiation into solubilization of subbituminous coal by Trichoderma sp. The dosage used was 5, 10, and 20 kGy and unirradiated coal as control. The method was submerged culture in MSS+ medium and incubated at room temperature and agitated at 150 rpm for 21 th days. The parameters observed were colonization, pH and biosolubilization product based on absorbance value at λ 250nm and λ 450nm and GC/MS analysis for the best treatment. The results showed that coal biosolubilization could be increased by gamma irradiation. The mould could growth well in medium containing irradiated coal and the medium of pH was decreased after incubation. The biosolubilization was increased but the irradiation dosage of coal didn't affect significantly. The best dose was 20 kGy with product biosolubilization similar to gasoline and solar. Based on the result, the pre-treatment of gamma irradiation on coal has potency to increased biosolubilization. (author)

  1. Effect of Trichoderma on horticultural seedlings' growth promotion depending on inoculum and substrate type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Guirao, J I; Rodríguez-Romera, P; Lupión-Rodríguez, B; Camacho-Ferre, F; Tello-Marquina, J C

    2016-10-01

    The biostimulant effect of Trichoderma spp. on horticultural crops are highly variable. Thus, practical use of Trichoderma sp. requires feasible formulated products and suitable substrates. This study evaluates the survival and the growth-promotion effect of a Trichoderma saturnisporum rice formulation compared with a nonformulated conidia suspension (seven treatments in total), on tomato, pepper and cucumber seedlings grown in two substrates: (i) rich in organic matter (OM) and (ii) mineral substrate without OM. The results showed beneficial effects on seedling growth in the OM-rich substrate when T. saturnisporum rice formulation (mainly at maximum concentration) was applied, but the effects were opposite when the mineral substrate without OM was used. The effects were closely linked to the level of inoculum in the substrate, which was greater upon application of the formulated inoculum as opposed to the nonformulated one. The use of rice to prepare the inoculum of T. saturnisporum seems to be promising for seedling growth in the nursery when it is applied in a substrate that is rich in organic matter, but it must be considered that under certain conditions of food shortage, Trichoderma sp. could show pathogenicity to seedlings. This study provides evidence of the complexity inherent in the use of micro-organisms in agriculture, while also confirming that the activity of the biofertilizers based on Trichoderma depends on the type of inoculum and its concentration, as well as the properties of the medium in which the fungi develop. Further studies assessing the effectiveness or possible pathogenicity of Trichoderma in different soils under greenhouse conditions must be addressed. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Contribución al estudio del sistema de lipasas de Trichoderma harzianum

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Maria de Lurdes Antunes

    2015-01-01

    [ES]Entre los hongos del género Trichoderma se han descrito algunas especies importantes como agentes de biocontrol, tales como las parejas anamorfo/teleomorfo T. harzianum/Hypocrea lixii, T. viride/H. rufa, T. atroviride/H. atroviridis y T. virens/H. virens. Trichoderma tiene una amplia distribución geográfica, está presente en casi todos los suelos y en hábitats diversos (creciendo en madera, corteza, sobre y dentro otros hongos y sustratos innumerables). Por su adaptación a distintos en...

  3. Estudio del antagonismo de algunas especies de trichoderma sobre fusarium oxysporum y rhizoctonia solani

    OpenAIRE

    Elias, Ricardo; Arcos, Omar; Arbelaez, Germán

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudió el antagonismo de algunos aislamientos del hongo Trichoderma obtenidos de suelos colornbianos en el control de Fusarium oxysporum y Rhizoctonia solani. En los ensayos "in vitre" se observó un marcado antagonismo entre las colonias de los aislamientos de Trichoderma sobre R. sotsni, con una reducción apreciabledel tamaño de la colonia y un antaqonismo menor sobre F. oxysporum. En los ensayos de parasitismo a nivel microscópico, se observó una gran interacción entre a...

  4. Role of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Trichoderma spp. in the control of root rot disease of soybean

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    Syed Ehteshamul-Haque

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed treatment of soybean with Bndyrhizobium japonicum, Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, T. hamatum, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii significantly controlled the infection of 30-day-old seedlingsby Maerophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium spp. In 60-day-old plants Trichoderma spp.. and B. japonicum inhibited the grouth of R. solani and Fusarium spp., whereas the use of B. japonicum (TAL-102 with T. harzianum. T. viride, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii controlled the infection by M. phaseolina. Greater grain yield was recorded when B. japonium (TAI-102 was used with T. hamatum.

  5. Enhanced root and shoot growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Trichoderma harzianum from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, Cigdem

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that Trichoderma species can be used as biocontrol and plant growth promote agent. In this study, Trichoderma harzianum isolates were evaluated for their growth promotion effects on wheat in greenhouse experiments. Two isolates of T. harzianum were used. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. Seeds were inoculated with conidial suspensions of each isolate. Wheat plants grown in steriled soil in pots. T. harzianum T8 and T15 isolates increased wheat length, root dry weight and shoot dry weight according to untreated control. Turkish isolates T8 and T15 did not produce damage in seeds nor in plants.

  6. Description of Taphrina antarctica f.a. sp. nov., a new anamorphic ascomycetous yeast species associated with Antarctic endolithic microbial communities and transfer of four Lalaria species in the genus Taphrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbmann, Laura; Turchetti, Benedetta; Yurkov, Andrey; Cecchini, Clarissa; Zucconi, Laura; Isola, Daniela; Buzzini, Pietro; Onofri, Silvano

    2014-07-01

    In the framework of a large-scale rock sampling in Continental Antarctica, a number of yeasts have been isolated. Two strains that are unable to grow above 20 °C and that have low ITS sequence similarities with available data in the public domain were found. The D1/D2 LSU molecular phylogeny placed them in an isolated position in the genus Taphrina, supporting their affiliation to a not yet described species. Because the new species is able to grow in its anamorphic state only, the species Taphrina antarctica f.a. (forma asexualis) sp. nov. has been proposed to accommodate both strains (type strain DBVPG 5268(T), DSM 27485(T) and CBS 13532(T)). Lalaria and Taphrina species are dimorphic ascomycetes, where the anamorphic yeast represents the saprotrophic state and the teleomorph is the parasitic counterpart on plants. This is the first record for this genus in Antarctica; since plants are absent on the continent, we hypothesize that the fungus may have focused on the saprotrophic part of its life cycle to overcome the absence of its natural host and adapt environmental constrains. Following the new International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants (Melbourne Code 2011) the reorganization of Taphrina-Lalaria species in the teleomorphic genus Taphrina is proposed. We emend the diagnosis of the genus Taphrina to accommodate asexual saprobic states of these fungi. Taphrina antarctica was registered in MycoBank under MB 808028.

  7. The Effect of Trichoderma harzianum and Cadmium on Tolerance Index and Yield of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

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    F. Taghavi Ghasemkheyli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum, as a bioabsorbant to ameliorate the harmful effects of cadmium (Cd on growth and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. variety ‘Sahra’, a factorial pot experiment based on completely randomized design with three replicates was conducted. Trichoderma harzianum withtwo levels (with and without inoculation and cadmium nitrate with four levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg.L-1 were the treatments. Results of ANOVA revealed that there was a significant interaction between Trichoderma and cadmium nitrate in terms of biological yield, straw yield, harvest index, spike number per plant and seed number per spike. Mean comparisons showed that Trichoderma inoculation at all Cd levels significantly improved both biological and straw yields. Trichoderma at 50 and 100 mg.L-1 of Cd also increased the spike number per plant (up to 120 and 66%, respectively significantly. Increasing Cd levels decreased seed yield (19%, 1000 seed weight (18%, partitioning coefficient (57% and tolerance index (23% significantly. Inoculation of Trichoderma into growth medium had a significant effect on seed yield and tolerance index (up to 17 and 22%, respectively. In conclusion, Trichoderma harzianum inoculation at lower concentrations of Cd (50 and 100 mg.L-1 could be effective to improve growth parameters of barley plant.

  8. Trichoderma-Plant Root Colonization: Escaping Early Plant Defense Responses and Activation of the Antioxidant Machinery for Saline Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Yariv; Landau, Udi; Cuadros-Inostroza, Álvaro; Takayuki, Tohge; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Chet, Ilan; Viterbo, Ada; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts which can colonize the apoplast of plant roots. Microarrays analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana roots inoculated with Trichoderma asperelloides T203, coupled with qPCR analysis of 137 stress responsive genes and transcription factors, revealed wide gene transcript reprogramming, proceeded by a transient repression of the plant immune responses supposedly to allow root colonization. Enhancement in the expression of WRKY18 and WRKY40, which stimulate JA-signaling via suppression of JAZ repressors and negatively regulate the expression of the defense genes FMO1, PAD3 and CYP71A13, was detected in Arabidopsis roots upon Trichoderma colonization. Reduced root colonization was observed in the wrky18/wrky40 double mutant line, while partial phenotypic complementation was achieved by over-expressing WRKY40 in the wrky18 wrky40 background. On the other hand increased colonization rate was found in roots of the FMO1 knockout mutant. Trichoderma spp. stimulate plant growth and resistance to a wide range of adverse environmental conditions. Arabidopsis and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants treated with Trichoderma prior to salt stress imposition show significantly improved seed germination. In addition, Trichoderma treatment affects the expression of several genes related to osmo-protection and general oxidative stress in roots of both plants. The MDAR gene coding for monodehydroascorbate reductase is significantly up-regulated and, accordingly, the pool of reduced ascorbic acid was found to be increased in Trichoderma treated plants. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase silenced Trichoderma mutants were less effective in providing tolerance to salt stress, suggesting that Trichoderma, similarly to ACC deaminase producing bacteria, can ameliorate plant growth under conditions of abiotic stress, by lowering ameliorating increases in ethylene levels as well as promoting an elevated antioxidative capacity

  9. Evaluation of Trichoderma Isolates for Biological Control of Rhizoctonia Root Rot of Bean in Zanjan

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    M. Khodae

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rhizoctonia solani is one of the major pathogens causing root rot in the main bean-growing regions in Zanjan province. Under favorable conditions, yield losses in commercial bean fields due to Rhizoctonia root rot have exceeded 50 percent reduction in pod and seed numbers per plants. In 2012 most isolates of the pathogen from severely infected bean fields in Zanjan were assessed to AG-4. R. solani AG-4 can attack other commercial crops such as potato, alfalfa, barley, tomato, cabbage, etc. which are grown in rotation with bean in the area. Thus, the disease is unlikely to be controlled by crop rotation. Moreover, there is no registered resistant bean cultivar against the disease in Iran. Although soil treatment with fungicides is the only effective control method in the region, according to environmental and side effects of fungicides, alternative approaches such as biocontrol method using Trichoderma species is considered. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted using five isolates of Trichoderma (T12-0, T12-N, T19, T6, T95 received from the Department of Plant Pathology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (Dr. H. Rouhani and six isolates of Trichoderma (T36,T125, T131, T93, T89, T25 collected in 2011 from rhizosphere of bean plants in the commercial bean fields of Zanjan province (Table 1. Trichoderma isolates were evaluated for their potential to antagonize in vitro the plant pathogenic fungus R. solani using three different tests. In the first test, each isolate of Trichoderma was grown in a dual culture with R. solani AG-4 strain Rh7 on PDA and incubated at 25˚C. Radii of colony of R. solani were measured after 72 h. In the second test the ability of Trichoderma isolates to produce volatile inhibitors was measured. This experiment was conducted in two conditions involving the same time culturing of Trichoderma and Rhizoctonia and isolating 72 h early growing Trichoderma. For both tests the percentage of inhibition was

  10. Fungos anamórficos (Hyphomycetes da Chapada Diamantina: novos registros para o Estado da Bahia e Brasil Anamorphic fungi (Hyphomycetes from the Chapada Diamantina: new records from Bahia State and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Cardoso Rodrigues da Cruz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available (Fungos anamórficos (Hyphomycetes da Chapada Diamantina: novos registros para o Estado da Bahia e Brasil. Os fungos anamórficos, caracterizados pela produção de estruturas de reprodução assexuadas, são habitantes comuns do folhedo onde desempenham papel importante na decomposição. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um inventário dos fungos anamórficos associados ao folhedo de plantas da Chapada Diamantina, BA. Foram realizadas 13 expedições, de dezembro/2002 a outubro/2003, para coleta de folhedo. Para verificação da presença de fungos anamórficos o material foi submetido à técnica de lavagem sucessiva com água destilada esterilizada e posteriormente incubado em câmaras-úmidas. Lâminas permanentes com as estruturas reprodutivas dos espécimes foram confeccionadas com resina PVL e depositadas no herbário HUEFS. Das 57 espécies de fungos anamórficos identificados, nove constituem novas ocorrências para o Estado da Bahia e cinco para o Brasil: Fusariella atrovirens (Berk. Sacc., Kiliophora ubiensis (Caneva & Rambelli Kuthub. & Nawawi, Paraceratocladium silvestre Castañeda, Pleurotheciopsis setiformis Castañeda e Triscelophorus deficiens (Matsush. Matsush. Incluem-se comentários e distribuição geográfica dos novos registros para o Estado da Bahia; descrições e ilustrações são apresentadas para as novas ocorrências para o Brasil.(Anamorphic fungi (Hyphomycetes from the Chapada Diamantina: new records from Bahia State and Brazil. The anamorphic fungi are characterized by production of asexual reproductive structures and are common inhabitants of the leaf litter, where they play an important role in decomposition. The aim of this work was to survey the anamorphic fungi associated with leaf litter from Chapada Diamantina, B ahia state. Thirteen expeditions took place from December/2002 to October/2003 to collect leaf litter. The serial washing technique with sterile distilled water followed by incubation in

  11. Comparison of the effect of L-lysine-. cap alpha. -oxidase from Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and Trichoderma viride on nucleic acid synthesis in human tumor cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaduev, S.K.; Zhukova, O.S.; Dobrynin, Ya.V.; Soda, K.; Berezov, T.T.

    1986-10-01

    This paper gives comparative data on the effect of the new antitumor enzyme LO from a Soviet strain Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and from Trichoderma viride from Japan, on DNA and RNA synthesis in human ovarian carcinoma cells (CaOv strain) in culture, and also the results of the action of LO from T. harzianum Rifai on protein synthesis. Specific precursors were added before the end of the incubation time to the samples; /sup 3/H-thymidine as precursor for DNA synthesis, /sup 3/H-uridine as RNA precursor, and /sup 3/H-leucine as protein precursor. The final values of inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis in the presence of enzyme from both sources are shown to depend in a virtually linear manner on enzyme concentration.

  12. [Screening strains for Trichoderma spp. for strong antagonism against ginseng root pathogens and study on their biological characters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, A-Na; Ding, Wan-Long; Zhu, Dian-Long

    2006-10-01

    To screen the Trichodenna spp. for strong antagonist against ginseng root pathogens. The biological characters of ten Trichoderma strains were compared by culturing on different media. And their antagonistic activity against Phytophthora cactorum, Cylindrocarpon destructans and Rhizoctonia solani were measured on PDA. Tv04-2 and Th3080 showed a good growth on soil solution medium and PDA, and also showed high inhibitory efficacy to the three pathogens. The two Trichoderma strains showed different growth rate under light conditions and pH. Trichoderma strains were sensitive to most fungicides used in ginseng root disease controlling, however Tv04-2 was not sensitive to the fungicide Junchong Jueba.

  13. Trichoderma harzianum: Inhibition of mycotoxin producing fungi and toxin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, H; Woitsch, L; Hetzer, B; Geisen, R; Zange, B; Schmidt-Heydt, M

    2018-04-19

    A quarter of the world-wide crop is spoiled by filamentous fungi and their mycotoxins and weather extremes associated with the climate change lead to further deterioration of the situation. The ingestion of mycotoxins causes several health issues leading in the worst case to cancer in humans and animals. Common intervention strategies against mycotoxin producing fungi, such as the application of fungicides, may result in undesirable residues and in some cases to a stress induction of mycotoxin biosynthesis. Moreover, development of fungicide resistances has greatly impacted pre- and postharvest fungal diseases. Hence there is the need to develop alternative strategies to reduce fungal infestation and thus mycotoxin contamination in the food chain. Such a strategy for natural competition of important plant-pathogenic and mycotoxin producing fungi could be Trichoderma harzianum, a mycoparasitic fungus. Especially in direct comparison to certain tested fungicides, the inhibition of different tested fungal species by T. harzianum was comparable, more sustainable and in some cases more effective, too. Besides substantially reduced growth rates, a transcriptional based inhibition of mycotoxin biosynthesis in the competed Aspergillus species could be shown. Furthermore it could be clearly observed by high-resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that T. harzianum actively attaches to the competitor species followed by subsequent enzymatic lysis of those mycelial filaments. The analyzed isolate of T. harzianum MRI349 is not known to produce mycotoxins. In this study it could be successfully proven that T. harzianum as a biological competitor is an effective complement to the use of fungicides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of fungicides on the growth of Trichoderma asperellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schutter, B; Aerts, R; Rombouts, L

    2002-01-01

    Numbers of strains of Trichoderma asperellum are known as biological control agents of certain root pathogens of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The restricted use of fungicides is sometimes useful in combination with these biological control agents. Therefore some experiments were conducted to evaluate the growth of T. asperellum in the presence of fungicides as Previcur (active substance propamocarb) and Sumico (with the active substance carbendazim and diethofencarb). The influence of these fungicides was first examined in laboratory conditions. The fungus was brought on a potato dextrose agar where the fungicides Previcur, Sumico and carbendazim were added in a concentration of 0.1x, 1x and 10x the recommended dose. The growth of T. asperellum was totally inhibited by the three Sumico and carbendazim concentrations. T. asperellum knew a small but significant decrease of growth when the 10x dose of Previcur was added. Afterwards the influence of these fungicides on the fungus was tested in field conditions in the greenhouse. The fungus was applied to the roots of the tomato plant, which was grown on a rockwool medium. Previcur and Sumico were submitted to the plants using the normal procedure. The results of the tests showed that in field conditions there was no effect of the fungicide treatment on the presence of the fungus, although the laboratory tests showed the opposite for Sumico. To explain this contradiction two other experiments were conducted to follow the migration of the Sumico after treatment. A residue analysis showed that the highest concentration of Sumico was detected in the rockwool medium, and some residues were found in the drain water and the stems. Even with a 100x recommended dose of Sumico the fungus was still present the day after the treatment.

  15. Secretome analysis of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum grown on cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Vale, Luis H F; Gómez-Mendoza, Diana P; Kim, Min-Sik; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ricart, Carlos A O; Ximenes F Filho, Edivaldo; Sousa, Marcelo V

    2012-08-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is a mycoparasitic filamentous fungus that produces and secretes a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes used in cell wall degradation. Due to its potential in biomass conversion, T. harzianum draws great attention from biofuel and biocontrol industries and research. Here, we report an extensive secretome analysis of T. harzianum. The fungus was grown on cellulose medium, and its secretome was analyzed by a combination of enzymology, 2DE, MALDI-MS and -MS/MS (Autoflex II), and LC-MS/MS (LTQ-Orbitrap XL). A total of 56 proteins were identified using high-resolution MS. Interestingly, although cellulases were found, the major hydrolytic enzymes secreted in the cellulose medium were chitinases and endochitinases, which may reflect the biocontrol feature of T. harzianum. The glycoside hydrolase family, including chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14), endo-N-acetylglucosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.96), hexosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52), galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23), xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8), exo-1,3-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.58), endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4), xylosidases (EC 3.2.1.37), α-L-arabinofuranosidase (EC 3.2.1.55), N-acetylhexosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52), and other enzymes represented 51.36% of the total secretome. Few representatives were classified in the protease family (8.90%). Others (17.60%) are mostly intracellular proteins. A considerable part of the secretome was composed of hypothetical proteins (22.14%), probably because of the absence of an annotated T. harzianum genome. The T. harzianum secretome composition highlights the importance of this fungus as a rich source of hydrolytic enzymes for bioconversion and biocontrol applications. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Airborne signals from Trichoderma fungi stimulate iron uptake responses in roots resulting in priming of jasmonic acid-dependent defences in shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana and Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Van Wees, Saskia C M; Pieterse, Corné M J

    2017-11-01

    Root colonization by Trichoderma fungi can trigger induced systemic resistance (ISR). In Arabidopsis, Trichoderma-ISR relies on the transcription factor MYB72, which plays a dual role in the onset of ISR and the activation of Fe uptake responses. Volatile compounds (VCs) from rhizobacteria are important elicitors of MYB72 in Arabidopsis roots. Here, we investigated the mode of action of VCs from Trichoderma fungi in the onset of ISR and Fe uptake responses. VCs from Trichoderma asperellum and Trichoderma harzianum were applied in an in vitro split-plate system with Arabidopsis or tomato seedlings. Locally, Trichoderma-VCs triggered MYB72 expression and molecular, physiological and morphological Fe uptake mechanisms in Arabidopsis roots. In leaves, Trichoderma-VCs primed jasmonic acid-dependent defences, leading to an enhanced resistance against Botrytis cinerea. By using Arabidopsis micrografts of VCs-exposed rootstocks and non-exposed scions, we demonstrated that perception of Trichoderma-VCs by the roots leads to a systemic signal that primes shoots for enhanced defences. Trichoderma-VCs also elicited Fe deficiency responses and shoot immunity in tomato, suggesting that this phenomenon is expressed in different plant species. Our results indicate that Trichoderma-VCs trigger locally a readjustment of Fe homeostasis in roots, which links to systemic elicitation of ISR by priming of jasmonic acid-dependent defences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Trichoderma volatiles effecting Arabidopsis: from inhibition to protection against phytopathogenic fungi

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    Metwaly eRamadan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma species are present in many ecosystems and some strains have the ability to reduce the severity of plant diseases by activating various defence pathways via specific biologically active signaling molecules. Hence we investigated the effects of low molecular weight volatile compounds of Trichoderma asperellum IsmT5 on Arabidopsis thaliana. During co-cultivation of T. asperellum IsmT5 without physical contact to A. thaliana we observed smaller but vital and robust plants. The exposed plants exhibit increased trichome numbers, accumulation of defence-related compounds such as H2O2, anthocyanin, camalexin, and increased expression of defence related genes. We conclude that A. thaliana perceives the Trichoderma volatiles as stress compounds and subsequently initiates multilayered adaptations including activation of signaling cascades to withstand this environmental influence.The prominent headspace volatile of T. asperellum IsmT5 was identified to be 6-pentyl-α-pyrone, which was solely applied to A. thaliana to verify the growth and defence reactions. Most noticeable is that A. thaliana preexposed to 6PP showed significantly reduced symptoms when challenged with Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola, indicating that defence-activated plants subsequently became more resistant to pathogen attack. Together, these results support that products that are based on Trichoderma volatiles have the potential being a useful biocontrol agent in agriculture.

  18. Potential of Trichoderma spp. strains for the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Pesántez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungi species can degrade xenobiotic compounds contaminating the soil, including hydrocarbons. The objective of this work was to determine the potential of three strains of Trichoderma, isolated from soil contaminated with petroleum, for bioremediation. Trichoderma harzianum CCECH-Te1, Trichoderma viride CCECH-Te2 and Trichoderma psedokoningii CCECH-Te3 were included in one assay with each independent strain. The inoculum was adjusted to a concentration of 1x1010 conidia ml-1 which was applied to soil contaminated by an oil spill. After 96 days of inoculation, soil samples were taken at 10 and 15 cm depth. The content of total hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals such as cadmium, nickel and lead were determined. With the data, it was calculated the percentage of removal of the analyzed compounds by each strain. At 10 cm and 15 cm depth, it was observed the removal of the compounds in percentages that reached between 47 and 69.1% in the hydrocarbons and up to 53.72% in the heavy metals. It which denoted the potential of the three strains for bioremediation in contaminated soils.   Keywords: heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, xenobiotic compounds

  19. A paralog of the proteinaceous elicitor sm1 affects colonization of maize roots by Trichoderma virens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biocontrol agent, Trichoderma virens, has the ability to protect plants from pathogens by eliciting plant defense responses, involvement in mycoparasitism, or secreting antagonistic secondary metabolites. SM1, an elicitor of induced systemic resistance (ISR), was found to have three paralogs wi...

  20. Multiple criteria-based screening of Trichoderma isolates for biological control of Botrytis cinerea on tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventy-two isolates of Trichoderma were obtained from Hubei Province of China and identified to species based on the ITS-rDNA sequences. The isolates were initially tested for invasive growth on the colonies of Botrytis cinerea in the dual cultures with B. cinerea on potato dextrose agar at 20°C. T...

  1. Interaction of Trichoderma asperellum with Phytophthora ramorum inoculum soil populations and enzyme secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya Sharma; Wolfgang Schweigkofler; Karen Suslow; Timothy L. Widmer

    2017-01-01

    There is a continuing desire to investigate the potential of biological control to manage the spread of Phytophthora ramorum. A specific isolate of Trichoderma asperellum has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing P. ramorum soil populations to non-detectable levels. This study was conducted...

  2. Biodiversity of Trichoderma Community in the Tidal Flats and Wetland of Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, Kandasamy; Yu, Chuanjin; Dou, Kai; Wang, Meng; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the biodiversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae) and their relation to sediment physical and chemical properties, we collected a total of 491 sediment samples from coastal wetlands (tidal flat and wetland) in Southeast China. Further, we applied two types of molecular approaches such as culture dependent and independent methods for identification of Trichoderma spp. A total of 254 isolates were obtained and identified to 13 species such as T. aureoviride, T. asperellum, T. harzianum, T. atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. longibrachiatum, T. koningii. T. tawa, T. viridescens, T. virens, T. hamatum, T. viride, and T. velutinum by the culture-dependent (CD) method of these, T. tawa was newly described in China. Subsequently, the culture indepented method of 454 pyrosequencing analysis revealed a total of six species such as T. citrinoviride, T. virens, T. polysporum, T. harzianum/Hypocrea lixii and two unknown species. Notably, T. citrinoviride and T. polysporum were not found by the CD method. Therefore, this work revealed that the combination of these two methods could show the higher biodiversity of Trichoderma spp., than either of this method alone. Among the sampling sites, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, exhibited rich biodiversity and low in Fengxian. Correlation and Redundancy discriminant analysis (RDA) revealed that sediment properties of temperature, redox potential (Eh) and pH significantly influenced the biodiversity of Trichoderma spp.

  3. Trichoderma species mediated differential tolerance against biotic stress of phytopathogens in Cicer arietinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Amrita; Raghuwanshi, Richa; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2015-02-01

    Trichoderma spp. have been reported to aid in imparting biotic as well as abiotic tolerance to plants. However, there are only few reports unfolding the differential ability of separate species of Trichoderma genera generally exploited for their biocontrol potential in this framework. A study was undertaken to evaluate the biocontrol potential of different Trichoderma species namely T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. koningiopsis, T. longibrachiatum, and T. aureoviride as identified in the group of indigenous isolates from the agricultural soils of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Their biocontrol potential against three major soilborne phytopathogens, i.e., Sclerotium rolfsii, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Colletotrichum capsici was confirmed by dual culture plate technique. Efficient mycoparasitic ability was further assessed in all the isolates in relation to chitinase, β-1,3 glucanase, pectinase, lipase, amylase, and cellulase production while equally consistent results were obtained for their probable phosphate solubilization and indole acetic acid (IAA) production abilities. The selected isolates were further subjected to test their ability to promote plant growth, to reduce disease incidence and to tolerate biotic stress in terms of lignification pattern against S. rolfsii in chickpea plants. Among the identified Trichoderma species, excellent results were observed for T. harzianum and T. koningiopsis indicating better biocontrol potential of these species in the group and thus exhibiting perspective for their commercial exploitation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Ability of secondary metabolites from trichoderma virens to mediate communication during mutualistic or pathogenic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioinformatic study was conducted to identify the putative genes in the biocontrol agent Trichoderma virens that encode for non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). Gene expression analysis of 22 putative NRPSs and 4 NRPS/PKS (polyketide synthase) hybrid enzymes was conducted in the presence and...

  5. Relevance of trichothecenes in fungal physiology: Disruption of tri5 in Trichoderma arundinaceum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins produced mainly by Fusarium species. Harzianum A (HA), a non-phytotoxic trichothecene produced by Trichoderma arundinaceum, has recently been found to have antagonistic activity against fungal plant pathogens and to induce plant genes involved in defense...

  6. The toolbox of Trichoderma spp. in the biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Christine M F; De Cremer, Kaat; Cammue, Bruno P A; De Coninck, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen causing disease in many plant species, leading to economically important crop losses. So far, fungicides have been widely used to control this pathogen. However, in addition to their detrimental effects on the environment and potential risks for human health, increasing fungicide resistance has been observed in the B. cinerea population. Biological control, that is the application of microbial organisms to reduce disease, has gained importance as an alternative or complementary approach to fungicides. In this respect, the genus Trichoderma constitutes a promising pool of organisms with potential for B. cinerea control. In the first part of this article, we review the specific mechanisms involved in the direct interaction between the two fungi, including mycoparasitism, the production of antimicrobial compounds and enzymes (collectively called antagonism), and competition for nutrients and space. In addition, biocontrol has also been observed when Trichoderma is physically separated from the pathogen, thus implying an indirect systemic plant defence response. Therefore, in the second part, we describe the consecutive steps leading to induced systemic resistance (ISR), starting with the initial Trichoderma-plant interaction and followed by the activation of downstream signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, the defence response resulting in ISR (ISR-prime phase). Finally, we discuss the ISR-boost phase, representing the effect of ISR priming by Trichoderma spp. on plant responses after additional challenge with B. cinerea. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  7. Comparative production of cellulases by mutants of Trichoderma parceramosume PTCC5140

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Nouri

    2017-06-01

    Discussion and conclusion: Evaluation of cellulase production in mutant strains of Trichoderma parceramosume PTCC 5140 showed that use of chemical mutagenesis with 2 to 11 fold increasing in enzyme activity is a potent method to improve cellulase complex activity. In the current study, obtained mutant strains could be introduced as a potent cellulase producer for further studies in bioconversion processes.

  8. Biodiversity of Trichoderma Community in the Tidal Flats and Wetland of Southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, Kandasamy; Yu, Chuanjin; Dou, Kai; Wang, Meng; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the biodiversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae) and their relation to sediment physical and chemical properties, we collected a total of 491 sediment samples from coastal wetlands (tidal flat and wetland) in Southeast China. Further, we applied two types of molecular approaches such as culture dependent and independent methods for identification of Trichoderma spp. A total of 254 isolates were obtained and identified to 13 species such as T. aureoviride, T. asperellum, T. harzianum, T. atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. longibrachiatum, T. koningii. T. tawa, T. viridescens, T. virens, T. hamatum, T. viride, and T. velutinum by the culture-dependent (CD) method of these, T. tawa was newly described in China. Subsequently, the culture indepented method of 454 pyrosequencing analysis revealed a total of six species such as T. citrinoviride, T. virens, T. polysporum, T. harzianum/Hypocrea lixii and two unknown species. Notably, T. citrinoviride and T. polysporum were not found by the CD method. Therefore, this work revealed that the combination of these two methods could show the higher biodiversity of Trichoderma spp., than either of this method alone. Among the sampling sites, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, exhibited rich biodiversity and low in Fengxian. Correlation and Redundancy discriminant analysis (RDA) revealed that sediment properties of temperature, redox potential (Eh) and pH significantly influenced the biodiversity of Trichoderma spp. PMID:28002436

  9. Biodiversity of Trichoderma Community in the Tidal Flats and Wetland of Southeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandasamy Saravanakumar

    Full Text Available To investigate the biodiversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae and their relation to sediment physical and chemical properties, we collected a total of 491 sediment samples from coastal wetlands (tidal flat and wetland in Southeast China. Further, we applied two types of molecular approaches such as culture dependent and independent methods for identification of Trichoderma spp. A total of 254 isolates were obtained and identified to 13 species such as T. aureoviride, T. asperellum, T. harzianum, T. atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. longibrachiatum, T. koningii. T. tawa, T. viridescens, T. virens, T. hamatum, T. viride, and T. velutinum by the culture-dependent (CD method of these, T. tawa was newly described in China. Subsequently, the culture indepented method of 454 pyrosequencing analysis revealed a total of six species such as T. citrinoviride, T. virens, T. polysporum, T. harzianum/Hypocrea lixii and two unknown species. Notably, T. citrinoviride and T. polysporum were not found by the CD method. Therefore, this work revealed that the combination of these two methods could show the higher biodiversity of Trichoderma spp., than either of this method alone. Among the sampling sites, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, exhibited rich biodiversity and low in Fengxian. Correlation and Redundancy discriminant analysis (RDA revealed that sediment properties of temperature, redox potential (Eh and pH significantly influenced the biodiversity of Trichoderma spp.

  10. Efficacy of soil solarization, Trichoderma harzianum, and coffee pulp amendment against Armillaria sp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otieno, W.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Jeger, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Soil solarization was evaluated singly or in combination with Trichoderma harzianum infestation or coffee pulp amendment for its effect on wood-borne inoculum of an Armillaria sp. pathogenic on tea. Solarization increased maximum soil temperatures at 10 cm depth by 9-12degreesC and reduced viability

  11. Integrated genomic and transcriptomic analysis reveals mycoparasitism as the ancestoral life style of Trichoderma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubicek, Christian P.; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Seidl, Verena; Crom, St& #233; phane Le; Martinez, Diego A.; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Zeilinger, Susanne; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Mukherjee, Mala; Kredics, L& #225; szlo; Alcaraz, Luis David; Aerts, Andrea; Antal, Zsuzsanna; Atanasova, Lea; Cervantes-Badillo, Mayte Guadalupe; Challacombe, Jean; Chertkov, Olga; McCluskey, Kevin; Coulpier, Fanny; Deshpande, Nandan; D& #246; hren, Hans von; Ebbole, Daniel J.; Esquivel-Naranjo, Edgardo Ulises; Fekete, Erzs& #233; bet; Flipphi, Michel; Glaser, Fabian; Gomez-Rodriguez, Elida Yazmin; Gruber, Sabine; Han, Cliff; Henrissat, Bernard; Hermosa, Rosa; Hern& #225; ndez-O?ate, Miguel; Karaffa, Levente; Kosti, Idit; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; L& #252; beck, Mette; L& #252; beck, Peter Stephensen; Margeot, Antoine; Metz, Benjamin; Misra, Monica; Nevalainen, Helena; Omann, Markus; Packer, Nicolle; Perrone, Giancarlo; Uresti-Rivera, Edith Elena; Salamov, Asaf; Schmoll, Monika; Seiboth, Bernhard; Shapiro, Harris; Sukno, Serenella; Tamayo-Ramos, Juan Antonio; Thon, Michael; Tisch, Doris; Wiest, Aric; Wilkinson, Heather H.; Zhang, Michael; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Kenerley, Charles M.; Monte, Enrique; Baker, Scott E.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-04-29

    Mycoparasitism, a lifestyle where one fungus is parasitic on another fungus has special relevance when the prey is a plant pathogen, providing a strategy for biological control of pests for plant protection. Probably, the most studied biocontrol agents are species of the genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma.

  12. Study on the Biocontrol Activities of Trichoderma species in Greengram with Infected Fungal Pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May Waine Wityi Htun; Myat Thu; Saw Sandar Maw

    2011-12-01

    Seven species of Trichoderma were isolated from rhizospheric soil sources and studied by cultural morphology and microscopic examinations. In dual plate assay, antifungal effects of seven Trichoderma strains were screened against three plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium sp.) on PDA medium and T-5 isolate showed a wide percentage of inhibitory effects on target pathogens with PIRG value. All Trichoderma strains exhibited a clear zone formation on minimal synthetic medium supplemented with 1% colloidal chitin. T-2 and T-5 were the best chitinase producer strains. In vitro screening for protease activity, the highest protease producing activity of Trichoderma isolate (T-2) were observed in pH indicator medium after 7 days incubation. In pot trial experiment, only T-5 strain exhibited more fungal suppression efficiency on green gram plant than commercial fungicide, Trisan and the other strains. So, it can be said that the effective strain was T-5 strain only which have been more antifungal producing power on three fungal pathogens than Trisan and the resting strains.

  13. Optimization of Chromium Biosorption by Fungal Adsorbent, Trichoderma sp. BSCR02 and its Desorption Studies

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    John Rose Mercy Benila Smily

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution in water because of the discharge of industrial effluent imposes serious environmental concern. Chromium is one of such pollutants which is considered as toxic, non-biodegradable and persistent in nature. In the present study, the fungal strains isolated from the water samples of Manjakkudi lake were screened for their resistance towards the heavy metal, chromium. The Trichoderma sp. BSCR02 showing resistance towards increased chromium concentration (4 mg/mL was selected for the biosorption studies. The chromium biosorption ability of the untreated and alkali-treated mycelium of Trichoderma sp. BSCR02 was compared and found the alkali treatment as better biosorbent. The process parameters governing chromium biosorption by the dead biomass of Trichoderma sp. were optimized and maximum chromium removal was observed at pH 5 with 200 mg/L initial metal concentration at 35°C when supplemented 1.6 mg/mL of biosorbent for the contact time of 120 min. The biosorbent was found to be active for five cycles of biosorption. The results revealed the applicability of the Trichoderma sp. BSCR2 for the effective removal of chromium from the contaminated water bodies.

  14. On-Site Enzyme Production by Trichoderma asperellum for the Degradation of Duckweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Lasse; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Grell, Morten Nedergaard

    2015-01-01

    The on-site production of cell wall degrading enzymes is an important strategy for the development of sustainable bio-refinery processes. This study concerns the optimization of production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes produced by Trichoderma asperellum. A comparative secretome analysis...

  15. Microencapsuling aerial conidia of Trichoderma harzianum through spray drying at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichoderma conidia are mostly produced by solid fermentation systems. Inoculum is produced by liquid culturing, and then transferred to solid substrate for aerial conidial production. Aerial conidia of T. harzianum are hydrophilic in nature, and it is difficult to separate them from the solid subst...

  16. The antagonistic activity of Trichoderma virens strain TvSUT10 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this current study, the beneficial filamentous fungi, Trichoderma virens, isolated from cassava field were investigated for antagonistic mode of action against Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the causal agent of cassava stem rot in Thailand. In vitro screening using the dual culture technique was undertaken to assess the ...

  17. Promoção do crescimento do feijoeiro e controle da antracnose por Trichoderma spp

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    Erica Aparecida de Souza Pedro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade de Trichoderma spp. em promover o crescimento de plantas de feijão e reduzir a severidade da antracnose do feijoeiro (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, bem como identificar os isolados mais eficientes. Sessenta isolados de Trichoderma spp. foram avaliados quanto à capacidade de promoção do crescimento nas plantas. Os sete isolados que mais se destacaram foram adicionados ao substrato de cultivo e avaliados quanto à redução na severidade da antracnose em plantas de feijão tratadas com conídios de C. lindemuthianum. Os mais eficientes no controle da doença foram identificados por sequenciamento de DNA. O isolado IB 28/07 foi avaliado nas concentrações 0,5, 1, 1,5 e 2% (peso:volume, que reduziram a severidade da doença em 41,51, 55,15, 81,82 e 96,06%, respectivamente. Os isolados mais eficientes de Trichoderma spp. podem proporcionar aumentos superiores a 30% na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas e reduzir a severidade da doença entre 63 e 98%. Esses isolados foram identificados como pertencentes às espécies Trichoderma harzianum, T. strigosum e T. theobromicola.

  18. A mini-bag technique for evaluation of fungicide effects on Trichoderma spp in mushroom compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abosriwil, Salem O; Clancy, Kevin J

    2004-04-01

    An in vivo technique was developed to observe colonisation of mushroom compost by Trichoderma spp. Isolates of T. harzianum (Th2), T. harzianum (Th1), T. koningii (Tk) and T. viride (Tv) were artificially introduced into compost using a mini-bag system. Wheat grains, colonised by Trichoderma spp, were placed centrally on a layer of compost at the bottom of 1-litre polythene bags which were then filled with 350 g of spawned or un-spawned compost, and partially sealed. After 14 and 21 days incubation at 27 degrees C, the bags were assessed for recovery of Trichoderma from middle and top zones using a needle stab re-isolation technique and a visual colonisation scoring system. Visible green mould contamination, similar to that observed in practice, developed within 21 days. The visual colonisation scoring was reliably related to the re-isolation success. In this evaluation, Trichoderma spp showed considerable differences in their relative abilities to colonise spawned and un-spawned compost, with Th2 isolates being consistently superior to the other isolates of Th1, Tk and Tv in colonising spawned compost. This technique was employed to evaluate the effects of fungicides on the colonisation of mushroom compost by three Trichoderma spp: Th2, Th1 and Tk, using 1-litre and 5-litre mini-bag systems. Aqueous suspensions of benomyl, carbendazim, thiabendazole, prochloraz and prochloraz+carbendazim incorporated into the compost at 50 mg litre(-1), or applied to spawn at 50 mg kg(-1), reduced the colonisation by Trichoderma spp. Prochloraz and prochloraz+carbendazim were superior to benomyl, carbendazim or thiabendazole in reducing compost colonisation by Th2, Th1 and Tk, with Th2 being the most persistent type, capable of colonising treated compost in the presence of all five fungicides. The prochloraz+carbendazim mixture, not normally used in mushroom production, was equal to or better than prochloraz alone. The incidence of green mould colonisation by Th2 was as extensive

  19. Variabilidade entre isolados de Trichoderma harzianum: I - Aspectos citológicos Variability among Trichoderma harzianum isolates: I - Cytological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Peres

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho estudar a variabilidade de isolados selvagens de Trichoderma harzianum baseado nas características culturais e citológicas. Observaram-se o tamanho dos fialosporos, número de núcleos por fialosporos e crescimento e esporulação em meio de malte-ágar. Pelos resultados aqui encontrados foi possível reconhecer que há variação entre os isolados selvagens da espécie T. harzianum. Com relação ao número de núcleos, verificou-se uma variação de 1 a 3 núcleos por fialosporos. Também observou-se padrões diferenciais de crescimento e morfologia da colônia. Mais de 50% dos isolados atingiram o máximo de crescimento em 48 horas.This study is based largely on morphological and cultural characters of Tríchoderma harzianum isolates. It were observed the size of phialospores, mycelial growth and sporulation on malt extract agar and nuclei number per phialospores, stained with Giemsa. A x 100 oil immersion len was used in examining and in measuring phialospores. Based on the size of phialospores, it was possible recognize that there is variaton among the wild isolates for the specie T. harzianum. Also, with relation to mycelial growth and sporulation can itself distinguish from one another different pattern. Up to 50% of isolates had maximum growth in 48 hours. The nuclei number of 1 to 3 per phialospore was observed.

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana polyamine content is modified by the interaction with different Trichoderma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Badillo, Fatima Berenice; Sánchez-Rangel, Diana; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; López-Gómez, Miguel; Nieto-Jacobo, Fernanda; Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2015-10-01

    Plants are associated with a wide range of microorganisms throughout their life cycle, and some interactions result on plant benefits. Trichoderma species are plant beneficial fungi that enhance plant growth and development, contribute to plant nutrition and induce defense responses. Nevertheless, the molecules involved in these beneficial effects still need to be identify. Polyamines are ubiquitous molecules implicated in plant growth and development, and in the establishment of plant microbe interactions. In this study, we assessed the polyamine profile in Arabidopsis plants during the interaction with Trichoderma virens and Trichoderma atroviride, using a system that allows direct plant-fungal contact or avoids their physical interaction (split system). The plantlets that grew in the split system exhibited higher biomass than the ones in direct contact with Trichoderma species. After 3 days of interaction, a significant decrease in Arabidopsis polyamine levels was observed in both systems (direct contact and split). After 5 days of interaction polyamine levels were increased. The highest levels were observed with T. atroviride (split system), and with T. virens (direct contact). The expression levels of Arabidopsis ADC1 and ADC2 genes during the interaction with the fungi were also assessed. We observed a time dependent regulation of ADC1 and ADC2 genes, which correlates with polyamine levels. Our data show an evident change in polyamine profile during Arabidopsis - Trichoderma interaction, accompanied by evident alterations in plant root architecture. Polyamines could be involved in the changes undergone by plant during the interaction with this beneficial fungus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. SELEKSI DAN UJI ANTAGONISME TRICHODERMA SPP. ISOLAT TAHAN FUNGISIDA NABATI TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN PHYTOPHTHORA CAPSICI

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    Joko Prasetyo, Efri & Radix Suharjo .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Screening and testing of isolate of Trichoderma spp. resistant to botanical fungicides on the growth of P. capsici. The research was conducted at the Plant Disease laboratory, Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Lampung University from March – November 2007. The aim of the research was to find isolate of Trichoderma spp. resistant to botanical fungicide  which still have its capability to inhibit the growth of P. capsici. Completely randomized design with three replicates was used in the research. Data collected in this research were isolates of Trichoderma spp. resistant to botanical fungicides and inhibition percentage of isolates of Trichoderma spp. resistant to botanical fungicide on the growth of P. capsici. The data were analysed with anova and continued with LSD test at 5% of significant level. As much as 9 isolates of Trichoderma spp. resistant to botanical fungicide were found. Three isolates of T. viride could survive in the 100% of tumeric powder (C, east indian galangale powder (A, and clove leaf powder (B. Two isolates of T. harzianum could survive in the 100% of tumeric powder (A and clove leaf powder (A. One isolate survived in the 90% of east indian galangale powder (D. Two isolates of T. koningii also could survive in the 100% of tumeric powder (A  and clove leaf powder (A. One isolate survived in the 90% of east indian galangale powder (C. All of the isolates  inhibited  P. capsici. All of the isolates found statistically had the same capability to inhibit the growth of P. capsici.

  2. Identification of Trichoderma Species Using Partial Sequencing of nrRNA and tef1α Genes with Report of Trichoderma capillare in Iran Mycoflore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi Mehrabi-Koushki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trichoderma is monophyletic (16, with teleomorphs in the genus Hypocrea. Some cryptic Trichoderma species are hidden within morphological species complexes and can only be elucidated by in-depth molecular studies. The genealogical concordance phylogenetic species recognition (GCPSR using several non-linked genes are needed to give accurate identification of Trichoderma spp. (6. Although the ITS region has been successfully used for species delimitation of Trichoderma and Hypocrea (5, but, it is not sufficient for accurate identification of some species. Translation elongation factor 1α gene (tef1α is a reliable barcode for Fusarium (9, Trichoderma and Hypocrea (5. Here, ITS and tef1α genes were selected as candidate DNA barcodes to identify Trichoderma isolates. Material and methods: 40 Trichoderma isolates used in this study were from a fungal collection archived in the plant pathology laboratory in the Department of Plant Protection at the Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. Spore suspension (105/ml prepared from single spore cultures of each Trichoderma isolates was added into flasks containing PDB medium. The flasks were shaken at 180 rpm for 10-15 days at 28ºC and the biomass was harvested by passing through sterilized filter papers. The mycelia were freeze-dried (Freeze-Dryer, Alpha 1-2LD Plus, Christ and powdered in the mortar containing liquid nitrogen by pestle. The genomic DNA was isolated according to modified method established by Raeder and Broda (21. The universal primers (ITS1–F; 5'-TCCGTAGGTGAACCTGCGG-3' and ITS4-R; 5'-TCCTCCGCTTATTGATATGC-3' were employed for amplifying around 700bp from 18s, ITS1, 5.8s, ITS2 and 28s rDNA regions (27. The specific primers (tef1α71-f; 5'-CAAAATGGGTAAGGAGGASAAGAC-3' and tef1997-R; 5'-CAGTACCGGCRGCRATRATSAG-3' were employed for amplifying around 950bp from tef1α gene (24. PCR products were purified through ethanol-precipitation method and then sequenced using forward and

  3. Changes in hyphal morphology and activity of phenoloxidases during interactions between selected ectomycorrhizal fungi and two species of Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Joanna

    2011-06-01

    Patterns of phenoloxidase activity can be used to characterize fungi of different life styles, and changes in phenoloxidase synthesis were suspected to play a role in the interaction between ectomycorrhizal and two species of Trichoderma. Confrontation between the ectomycorrhizal fungi Amanita muscaria and Laccaria laccata with species of Trichoderma resulted in induction of laccase synthesis, and the laccase enzyme was bound to mycelia of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Tyrosinase release was noted only during interaction of L. laccata strains with Trichoderma harzianum and T. virens. Ectomycorrhizal fungi, especially strains of Suillus bovinus and S. luteus, inhibited growth of Trichoderma species and caused morphological changes in its colonies in the zone of interaction. In contrast, hyphal changes occurred less often in the ectomycorrhizal fungi tested. Species of Suillus are suggested to present a different mechanism in their interaction with other fungi than A. muscaria and L. laccata.

  4. Three New Soil-inhabiting Species of Trichoderma in the Stromaticum Clade with Test of Their Antagonism to Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Zhuang, Wen-Ying

    2017-09-01

    Trichoderma is a dominant component of the soil mycoflora. During the field investigations of northern, central, and southwestern China, three new species in the Stromaticum clade were encountered from soil, and named as T. hebeiense, T. sichuanense, and T. verticillatum. Their phylogenetic positions were determined by analyses of the combined two genes: partial sequences of translation elongation factor 1-alpha and the second largest RNA polymerase subunit-encoding genes. Distinctions between the new species and their close relatives were discussed. Trichoderma hebeiense appeared as a separate terminal branch. The species is distinctive by its oblong conidia and aggregated pustules in culture. Trichoderma sichuanense features in concentric colony and produces numerous clean exudates on aerial mycelium in culture. Trichoderma verticillatum is characterized by its verticillium-like synanamorph and production of abundant chlamydospores. In vitro antagonism towards the new species was tested by dual culture technique.

  5. Antagonistic Activity of Trichoderma ISolates against Sclerotium rolfsii : Screening of Efficient Isolates from Morocco Soils for Biological Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khattabi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seventy Trichoderma spp. isolates collected from different regions of Morocco were tested for their capacity to inhibit in vitro mycelial growth of Sclerotium rolfsii, and for their effect on the viability of S. rolfsii sclerotia in the soil. The Trichoderma spp. isolates inhibited mycelial growth of S. rolfsii to various degrees, with 52% of isolates expressing an average inhibition, varying between 45 and 55%. The effect on the viability of sclerotia in the soil also varied between isolates of Trichoderma, with the majority (84% having a slight effect. A group of twenty isolates identified as Trichoderma harzianum when tested in sterilized soil, significantly reduced sclerotial viability though not in natural soil. Four of these isolates (Nz, Kb2, Kb3 and Kf1 showed good antagonistic activity against S. rolfsii and were also highly competitive in natural soil. These isolates would therefore be candidates for development in biological control program.

  6. Fungal and plant gene expression during the colonization of cacao seedlings by endophytic isolates of four Trichoderma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, B A; Bae, H; Strem, M D; Roberts, D P; Thomas, S E; Crozier, J; Samuels, G J; Choi, Ik-Young; Holmes, K A

    2006-11-01

    Endophytic isolates of Trichoderma species are being considered as biocontrol agents for diseases of Theobroma cacao (cacao). Gene expression was studied during the interaction between cacao seedlings and four endophytic Trichoderma isolates, T. ovalisporum-DIS 70a, T. hamatum-DIS 219b, T. harzianum-DIS 219f, and Trichoderma sp.-DIS 172ai. Isolates DIS 70a, DIS 219b, and DIS 219f were mycoparasitic on the pathogen Moniliophthora roreri, and DIS 172ai produced metabolites that inhibited growth of M. roreri in culture. ESTs (116) responsive to endophytic colonization of cacao were identified using differential display and their expression analyzed using macroarrays. Nineteen cacao ESTs and 17 Trichoderma ESTs were chosen for real-time quantitative PCR analysis. Seven cacao ESTs were induced during colonization by the Trichoderma isolates. These included putative genes for ornithine decarboxylase (P1), GST-like proteins (P4), zinc finger protein (P13), wound-induced protein (P26), EF-calcium-binding protein (P29), carbohydrate oxidase (P59), and an unknown protein (U4). Two plant ESTs, extensin-like protein (P12) and major intrinsic protein (P31), were repressed due to colonization. The plant gene expression profile was dependent on the Trichoderma isolate colonizing the cacao seedling. The fungal ESTs induced in colonized cacao seedlings also varied with the Trichoderma isolate used. The most highly induced fungal ESTs were putative glucosyl hydrolase family 2 (F3), glucosyl hydrolase family 7 (F7), serine protease (F11), and alcohol oxidase (F19). The pattern of altered gene expression suggests a complex system of genetic cross talk occurs between the cacao tree and Trichoderma isolates during the establishment of the endophytic association.

  7. Involvement of Trichoderma harzianum Epl-1 Protein in the Regulation of Botrytis Virulence- and Tomato Defense-Related Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Eriston V.; Ulhoa, Cirano J.; Cardoza, Rosa E.; Silva, Roberto N.; Guti?rrez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Several Trichoderma spp. are well known for their ability to: (i) act as important biocontrol agents against phytopathogenic fungi; (ii) function as biofertilizers; (iii) increase the tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses; and (iv) induce plant defense responses via the production and secretion of elicitor molecules. In this study, we analyzed the gene-regulation effects of Trichoderma harzianum Epl-1 protein during the interactions of mutant Δepl-1 or wild-type T. harzianum stra...

  8. The Use of Trichoderma spp. for Controlling the Growth and Aflatoxin Production of Aspergillus parasiticus in Agricultural Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanaboripat, Dusanee; Piadiang, Nattaya; Qian, Yang

    2006-09-01

    Various strains of Trichoderma spp. were screened from soils and irradiated by gamma ray. After the irradiation all strains were tested for an ability to inhibit the growth of aflatoxin producing fungi (A. parasiticus IMI 105266 and A. flavus IMI 24268). The results indicate that Trichoderma virde S84-1 480526 I08(1) was the most effective strain in controlling the growth of these two fungi on PDA.

  9. REKLAMASI LAHAN BEKAS TAMBANG DENGAN PENANAMAN LCC DAN AGEN HAYATI TRICHODERMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hidayat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With this reclamation  is expected that the land will be well and restore its function, so that the productivity of the soil can increase, resulting in added value for the environment and create thins are better.  The purpose of this research is to utilize  Centrosoma pubescens (Cp (LCC and Trichoderma as media to improve physical and chemical properties of soil by way of reclamation in former coal mine area. This research has been done on reclaimed damaged and poor nutrient land in 2015, with LCC planting and the Tricoderma biological agents to improve soil physical and chemical properties. Planting of  LCC and giving of trichoderma biological agent with duration of 6 months observation (deadly LCC plant after composting is done analysis of physical and chemical properties of soil after treatment to see the change then compared with data of laboratory result before being treated in the field the result obtained is analyzed with using the complete randomized and Least Significance Different test. Based on the results of the study, LCC and Trichoderma have a very significant effect on the variables of Ca, Mg, Na, K, Al, C Organic, H +, P2O5, K2O, Total N, C/N ratio, CEC and significantly unaffected pH soil, physical properties of soil such as Bulk Density, Porosity, Water content, texture, consistency and soil stabilization.  Giving LCC and Trichoderma improves soil chemical properties such as; Ca, Mg, Na, K2O, C / N Ratio. Giving LCC improves chemical properties such as total N and C / N ratio while Trichoderma improves soil chemical properties of Al, C Organic, H +, C / N Ratio and CEC. Reklamasi dilakukan untuk menjaga lahan agar tidak labil dan lebih produktif. Dengan reklamasi ini diharapkan tanah menjadi baik dan mengembalikan fungsinya sehingga produktifitas tanah dapat meningkat,  menghasilkan nilai tambah bagi lingkungan dan menciptakan keadaan yang jauh lebih baik. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah memanfaatkan tanaman LCC dan

  10. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ribera

    Full Text Available The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720 was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium. T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%. Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens

  11. EFISIENSI PENGGUNAAN Trichoderma sp UNTUK MENGENDALIKAN PENYAKIT LAYU FUSARIUM (Fusarium oxysporium DAN PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT TANAMAN PISANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukhari Bukhari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available             Penelitian ini dilakukan di Pante Cermin  Kecamatan Padang Tiji Kabupaten Pidie.  pada bulan Maret  sampai dengan bulan Agustus 2015, dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui efisiensi penggunaan Trichoderma sp terhadap pertumbuhan beberapa jenis bibit Pisang (Musa Paracica L.  Penelitian ini mengunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK pola faktorial dengan faktor yang diteliti  adalah Jenis pisang  dan dosis trichoderma.  Kedua faktor terdiri dari 4 taraf yaitu: Pisang Barangan (J1,pisang Ambon (J2, pisang Raja (G3 dan pisang Geupok (J4.  Sedangkan dosis  Tricoderma sp  yaitu :TO = 0 g/ bibit T1 = 15 g/ bibit  T2 = 30 g/ bibit  dan T3 = 45 g/ bibit.  Sehingga terdapat 16 kombinasi perlakuan dan diulang 3 kali,  yang menghasilkan 48 satuan percobaan.            Untuk mengetahui pengaruh masing-masing perlakuan serta interaksinya terhadap pertumbuhan bibit pisang, dilakukan analisis ragam (Uji F dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Beda Nyata Jujur (BNJ pada taraf 5%.            Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa secara fisul pertumbuhan bibit pisang yang baik diantara 4 jenis yang diteliti ditunjukkkan oleh pisang Barangan namun secara statistika tidak berbeda dengan pisang 3 jenis pisang lainnya.  Namun pemberian trichoderma sampai umur 4 bulan belum memeperlihatkan pertumbuhan dan intensitas serangan yang berbeda nyata, sehingga harus diperpanjang masa penelitian menjadi 6 Bulan.   Setelah 6 bulan  penelitian ternyata telah ada perbedaan pertumbuhan dan    intensitas serangan,  dimana intensitas serangan yang paling besar diperlihatkan oleh T0 (tanpa pemberian trichoderma . Sedang intensitas serangan terkecil diperlihatkan oleh T3 (Dosis trichoderma sp 45 gr/bibit pisang. Jenis pisang tidak berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan dan Intensitas serangan layu fusarium. serta  interaksi   kedua faktor tersebut berpengaruh tidak nyata terhadap pertumbuhan bibit pisang dan intensitas serangan penyakit layu

  12. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Javier; Fink, Siegfried; Bas, Maria Del Carmen; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2017-01-01

    The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide) in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720) was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium). T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%). Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens previously exposed to T

  13. The Epl1 and Sm1 proteins from Trichoderma atroviride and Trichoderma virens differentially modulate systemic disease resistance against different life style pathogens in Solanum lycopersicum

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    Miguel Angel eSalas-Marina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungi belonging to the genus Trichoderma, commonly found in soil or colonizing plant roots, exert beneficial effects on plants, including the promotion of growth and the induction of resistance to disease. T. virens and T. atroviride secrete the proteins Sm1 and Epl1, respectively, which elicit local and systemic disease resistance in plants. In this work, we show that these fungi promote growth in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum plants. T. virens was more effective than T. atroviride in promoting biomass gain, and both fungi were capable of inducing systemic protection in tomato against Alternaria solani, Botrytis cinerea, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000. Deletion (KO of epl1 in T. atroviride resulted in diminished systemic protection against A. solani and B. cinerea, whereas the T. virens sm1 KO strain was less effective in protecting tomato against Pst DC3000 and B. cinerea. Importantly, over-expression (OE of epl1 and sm1 led to an increase in disease resistance against all tested pathogens. Although the Trichoderma WT strains induced both systemic acquired resistance (SAR- and induced systemic resistance (ISR-related genes in tomato, inoculation of plants with OE and KO strains revealed that Epl1 and Sm1 play a minor role in the induction of these genes. However, we found that Epl1 and Sm1 induce the expression of a peroxidase and an α-dioxygenase encoding genes, respectively, which could be important for tomato protection by Trichoderma spp. Altogether, these observations indicate that colonization by beneficial and/or infection by pathogenic microorganisms dictates many of the outcomes in plants, which are more complex than previously thought.

  14. Secretômica de Trichoderma atroviride e Trichoderma harzianum frente a Guignardia e citricarpa, agente etiológico da Pinta Preta dos Citros

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Fernanda Blauth de

    2016-01-01

    Os agentes de controle biológico têm recebido grande reconhecimento, e o seu uso tem contribuído como um complemento ou substituição de agroquímicos. No entanto, existem poucos estudos sobre o controle biológico da Pinta Preta dos Citros, causada pelo fungo Guignardia citricarpa, o que impede o seu mercado in natura, além de prejudicar a sua exportação pelo uso intensivo de insumos químicos para controlar este patógeno. Os fungos do gênero Trichoderma são agentes de controle utilizados em tod...

  15. EVALUACIÓN DE Trichoderma asperellum COMO BIORREGULADOR DE Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea EVALUATION OF Trichoderma asperellum AS BIOREGULATOR OF Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana María Hoyos Carvajal; Sonia Jaramillo Villegas; Sergio Orduz Peralta

    2008-01-01

    La roña de la papa causada por Spongospora subterranea, una de las principales enfermedades de la papa, es un protozoo para el cual existen limitadas estrategias de control debido a que cuenta con diversos tipos de inóculo, estructuras de resistencia y hospederos alternos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar Trichoderma asperellum T-84 y T-109 sobre S. subterranea bajo condiciones de invernadero en dos experimentos, probando en plantas hasta la novena y doceava semana, variables de peso f...

  16. EVALUACIÓN DE Trichoderma asperellum COMO BIORREGULADOR DE Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea EVALUATION OF Trichoderma asperellum AS BIOREGULATOR OF Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana María Hoyos Carvajal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La roña de la papa causada por Spongospora subterranea, una de las principales enfermedades de la papa, es un protozoo para el cual existen limitadas estrategias de control debido a que cuenta con diversos tipos de inóculo, estructuras de resistencia y hospederos alternos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar Trichoderma asperellum T-84 y T-109 sobre S. subterranea bajo condiciones de invernadero en dos experimentos, probando en plantas hasta la novena y doceava semana, variables de peso fresco, seco y número de nódulos producidos por el patógeno. Consistentemente, las plantas tratadas con T. asperellum aumentaron el peso fresco (Experimento 1 y peso seco (Experimento 2 y redujeron el número de nódulos de S. subterranea en raíces de papa, actuando mejor en aplicaciones solos que en mezcla. Este es un estudio preliminar que sugiere que T. asperellum puede llegar a ser a futuro un potencial agente de regulación biológica para la roña de la papa, pero que requiere estudios de la interacción papa/S. subterranea/Trichoderma para su implementación.Powdery scab caused by Spongospora subterranea, is one of the main diseases on potato crops, is a protozoo for which exist limited control strategies because it counts with diverse types of inoculum, resistance structures and alternative hosts. The objective of this work was to test Trichoderma asperellum T-84 and T-109 against S. subterranea under controlled conditions in two experiments, evaluating in plants until nine and twelve week, variables of fresh and dry weight and number of galls produced by the pathogen. Consistently the plants with T. asperellum increased fresh weight (Experiment 1 and dry weight (Experiment 2 and reduced the number of nodules of S. subterranea in potato root, better in single applications than in mixture. This is a preliminary study that suggests T. asperellum could be a potential agent of biological regulation in the future for powdery scab, but it will be

  17. Exposing of Trichoderma spp. to gamma radiation for stimulating its pesticide biodegradation activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afify, A.E.M.R.; Ibrahim, G.M.; Abo El Seoud, M.A.; Helal, I.M.M.; Kassem, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    This work has been conducted to study the possibility of making use of fungi for degrading insecticide-carbofuran. Trichoderma spp. were showed highly potentiality to metabolize carbofuran (200 mg/ kg) to 3-ketocarbofuran in soil as a sole carbon and energy source within 14 days. Carbofuran and its main metabolite were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Studies on biodegradation in the soil showed that 81.5 % and 86 % of carbofuran degraded within 14 days of incubation by T. harzianum and T. viride strains, respectively. The lowest dose of gamma irradiation 0.25 KGy enhanced the mycelial dry weight by 22.8 % and 16.2 % for T. harzianum and T. viride strains, respectively. This indicated that the isolates of Trichoderma spp. were potentially useful for carbofuran bioremediation.

  18. Trichoderma koningii assisted biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and evaluation of their antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, R. M.; Gupta, Rohit Kumar; Shrivastav, Archana; Singh, M. P.; Shrivastav, B. R.; Singh, Priti

    2013-09-01

    The present study demonstrates the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Trichoderma koningii and evaluation of their antibacterial activity. Trichoderma koningii secretes proteins and enzymes that act as reducing and capping agent. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). UV-Vis spectra showed absorbance peak at 413 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. DLS was used to find out the size distribution profile. The size and morphology of the AgNPs was determined by TEM, which shows the formation of spherical nanoparticles in the size range of 8-24 nm. X-ray diffraction showed intense peaks corresponding to the crystalline silver. The antibacterial activity of biosynthesized AgNPs was evaluated by growth curve and inhibition zone and it was found that the AgNPs show potential effective antibacterial activity.

  19. How a mycoparasite employs g-protein signaling: using the example of trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omann, Markus; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Mycoparasitic Trichoderma spp. act as potent biocontrol agents against a number of plant pathogenic fungi, whereupon the mycoparasitic attack includes host recognition followed by infection structure formation and secretion of lytic enzymes and antifungal metabolites leading to the host's death. Host-derived signals are suggested to be recognized by receptors located on the mycoparasite's cell surface eliciting an internal signal transduction cascade which results in the transcription of mycoparasitism-relevant genes. Heterotrimeric G proteins of fungi transmit signals originating from G-protein-coupled receptors mainly to the cAMP and the MAP kinase pathways resulting in regulation of downstream effectors. Components of the G-protein signaling machinery such as Gα subunits and G-protein-coupled receptors were recently shown to play crucial roles in Trichoderma mycoparasitism as they govern processes such as the production of extracellular cell wall lytic enzymes, the secretion of antifungal metabolites, and the formation of infection structures.

  20. Trichoderma koningii assisted biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and evaluation of their antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R M; Shrivastav, Archana; Gupta, Rohit Kumar; Singh, M P; Shrivastav, B R; Singh, Priti

    2013-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Trichoderma koningii and evaluation of their antibacterial activity. Trichoderma koningii secretes proteins and enzymes that act as reducing and capping agent. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). UV–Vis spectra showed absorbance peak at 413 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. DLS was used to find out the size distribution profile. The size and morphology of the AgNPs was determined by TEM, which shows the formation of spherical nanoparticles in the size range of 8–24 nm. X-ray diffraction showed intense peaks corresponding to the crystalline silver. The antibacterial activity of biosynthesized AgNPs was evaluated by growth curve and inhibition zone and it was found that the AgNPs show potential effective antibacterial activity. (paper)

  1. EFIKASI TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM DENGAN BERBAGAI BAHAN ORGANIK DALAM PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BUSUK PANGKAL BATANG PADA LADA

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    Cipta Ginting

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the influence of the kinds of organic matter on the efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai to control foot rot of black pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici Leonian.  Trichoderma spp. were isolated from suppressive and non-suppressive soils taken from black pepper fields with high disease incidence.  Screening of Trichoderma spp. isolates was conducted through antagonistic test with dual culture technique.  Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design with six replications.  Treatments were rice husk, rice straw, wood dust, Arachis pintoi, mixture of the four organic matters, the mixture without T. harzianum, and without organic matter.  The test was conducted in greenhouse with media consisted of soil, organic matter, and sand (2 : 2 : 1, v/v.  After being otoclaved, the medium was infested with T. harzianum and P. capsici each with five mycelium plugs of 1-cm diameter.  Black pepper seedlings were planted 5 days after fungal infestation.  After planting the seedlings, five leaf cuts were partly inserted into the soil on each pot.  The variables observed were disease incidence on the leaf cuts inserted into the soil and disease severity on the stems and roots.  The results show that all 16 Trichoderma isolates inhibited P. capsici colonies and some isolates showed stronger inhibition than the others.  T. harzianum reduced disease severity, but there was no effect of the kinds of organic matter on the ability of T. harzianum to control foot rot.

  2. Hydrolysis of cellulose-containing materials by cellulase of the Trichoderma lignorum OM 534 fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, S L; Lobanok, A G

    1977-01-01

    Of the cellulose containing materials, hydrocellulose was most easily degraded while lignocellulose was hardest to break down with cellulase from T. lignorum grown on lactose or cellulose. Grinding and heat treatment (at 200/sup 0/) of lignocellulose enhanced its enzymic degradability. Hydrolysis was highest by cellulase from lactose-cultured Trichoderma. The hydrolysis products contained glucose, galactose, xylose, and mannose. Filtrates from T. lignorum grown on a lignocellulose were enzymically active after purification.

  3. Effects of temperature, light and incubation period on production, germination and bioactivity of Trichoderma atroviride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryaei, A; Jones, E E; Ghazalibiglar, H; Glare, T R; Falloon, R E

    2016-04-01

    The goal was to determine the effect of temperature, light and incubation period on production, germination and bioactivity of Trichoderma atroviride LU132 against Rhizoctonia solani. The incubation temperatures of 20, 25 or 30°C were assessed on the production of T. atroviride conidia under constant light over a 25 and 50 days periods. The resulting conidia were also studied for germination and bioactivity. Conidium production was maximum at 25°C after 20 days. The second peak of conidium production occurred at 45-50 days. Incubation at 25°C after 15 days showed optimum production of T. atroviride LU132. Conidia produced at 30°C gave the greatest germination and bioactivity in comparison with incubation at 20 or 25°C. This study indicates that the temperature at which conidia of T. atroviride are produced affects germination and bioactivity. Formulations based on production of the high conidia yield may not result in optimal bioactivity and there is a trade-off between quantity and quality of T. atroviride LU132 conidia. Conidium production was shown to be a continuous process, and increased under a dark/light regime. This is the first report of bimodal conidium production in a Trichoderma biological control agent (BCA), which is likely to be on 20 days cycle, and is dependent on colony age rather than abiotic factors. Conidia produced after 15 days are likely to be the most suitable for use in commercial production of this strain as a BCA. Most studies on Trichoderma-based BCA have only shown the effect of culture conditions on the high conidia yield regardless of conidium quality. This study is the first report on conidium quality affected by principal culture conditions for Trichoderma biological control formulations. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Mechanism of triphenylmethane Cresol Red degradation by Trichoderma harzianum M06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Nurafifah Mohd; Hadibarata, Tony; Zubir, Meor Mohd Fikri Ahmad; Lazim, Zainab Mat; Adnan, Liyana Amalina; Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali

    2015-11-01

    Cresol Red belongs to the triphenylmethane (TPM) class of dyes which are potentially carcinogenic or mutagenic. However, very few studies on biodegradation of Cresol Red were investigated as compared to other type dyes such as azo and anthraquinone dye. The aim of this work is to evaluate triphenylmethane dye Cresol Red degradation by fungal strain isolated from the decayed wood in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Detailed taxonomic studies identified the organisms as Trichoderma species and designated as strain Trichoderma harzianum M06. In this study, Cresol Red was decolorized up to 88% within 30 days under agitation condition by Trichoderma harzianum M06. Data analysis revealed that a pH value of 3 yielded a highest degradation rate among pH concentrations (73%), salinity concentrations of 100 g/L (73%), and a volume of 0.1 mL of Tween 80 (79%). Induction in the enzyme activities of manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2- and 2,3-dioxygenase indicates their involvement in Cresol Red removal. Various analytical studies such as Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC), UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmed the biotransformation of Cresol Red by the fungus. Two metabolites were identified in the treated medium: 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (t R 7.3 min and m/z 355) and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (t R 8.6 min and m/z 267). Based on these products, a probable pathway has been proposed for the degradation of Cresol Red by Trichoderma harzianum M06.

  5. Benomyl-resistant mutant strain of Trichoderma sp. with increased mycoparasitic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejníková, P; Ondrusová, Z; Krystofová, S; Hudecová, D

    2010-01-01

    Application of UV radiation to the strain Trichoderma sp. T-bt (isolated from lignite) resulted in the T-brm mutant which was resistant to the systemic fungicide benomyl. The tub2 gene sequence in the T-brm mutant differed from the parent as well as the collection strain (replacing tyrosine with histidine in the TUB2 protein). Under in vitro conditions this mutant exhibited a higher mycoparasitic activity toward phytopathogenic fungi.

  6. Trichoderma species from the cacao agroecosystem with biocontrol potential of Moniliophthora roreri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Reyes-Figueroa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La moniliasis del cacao ( Moniliophthora roreri es la principal limitante parasítica de la producción de cacao ( Theobroma cacao en México. Una alternativa sostenible para el control de la enfermedad es el uso del hongo Trichoderma . El objetivo del presente estudio fue seleccionar aislamientos nativos de Trichoderma con las mejores características antagónicas y fisiológicas in vitro, para el control de M. roreri . Para ello, se caracterizaron 50 aislamientos de Trichoderma , obtenidos del agroecosistema cacao. El crecimiento micelial y la producción de conidios a 25, 30 y 35 °C se consideraron variables fisiológicas. El micoparasitismo, antibiosis y antagonismo potencial fueron las variables antagónicas. Se encontraron diferencias significativas ( P = 0.0001 en todas las variables evaluadas . El intervalo de temperatura óptima para el crecimiento micelial y producción de conidios fue de 25 a 30 °C. El micoparasitismo varió de 0 a 100 % y solo los aislamientos de seis especies mostraron esta característica. La antibiosis osciló entre 6.8 y 55.5 %, y el antagonismo potencial varió de 3.4 a 69 %. Trichoderma virens (TTC017 y T. harzianum (TTC090, TTC039, TTC073 mostraron el mejor biocontrol potencial in vitro , por lo que son cepas prometedoras para futuras investigaciones sobre control biológico de la moniliasis del cacao.

  7. Molecular Identification Of Trichoderma Strains Collected To Develop Plant Growth-Promoting And Biocontrol Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskiera Michał

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma strains that are beneficial to both the growth and health of plants can be used as plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF or biological control agents (BCA in agricultural and horticultural practices. In order to select PGPF or BCA strains, their biological properties and taxonomy must be carefully studied. In this study, 104 strains of Trichoderma collected at geographically different locations in Poland for selection as PGPF or BCA were identified by DNA barcoding, based on the sequences of internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and 2 of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and on the sequences of translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1, chitinase 18-5 (chi18-5, and RNA polymerase II subunit (rpb2 gene fragments. Most of the strains were classified as: T. atroviride (38%, T. harzianum (21%, T. lentiforme (9%, T. virens (9%, and T. simmonsii (6%. Single strains belonging to T. atrobrunneum, T. citrinoviride, T. crassum, T. gamsii, T. hamatum, T. spirale, T. tomentosum, and T. viridescens were identified. Three strains that are potentially pathogenic to cultivated mushrooms belonging to T. pleuroticola and T. aggressivum f. europaeum were also identified. Four strains: TRS4, TRS29, TRS33, and TRS73 were classified to Trichoderma spp. and molecular identification was inconclusive at the species level. Phylogeny analysis showed that three of these strains TRS4, TRS29, and TRS33 belong to Trichoderma species that is not yet taxonomically established and strain TRS73 belongs to the T. harzianum complex, however, the species could not be identified with certainty.

  8. Cellulase Activity in Solid State Fermentation of Palm Kernel Cake with Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massaud, M. B. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effect of different types of fungal inocula to the cellulase activity measured on palm kernel cake (PKC was studied. Methodology and Results: Isolate Pro-A1 which was identified as Trichoderma sp. was selected as a potential producer of cellulase via solid state fermentation technique (SSF. Two types of PKCs were used; raw PKC (containing residual oil and defatted PKC. The PKCs were inoculated with different concentrations of conidia and varying amounts (g of solid mycelia plugs (SMP for SSF. The effect of ultrafiltered crude fungal filtrate (CFF as inocula was also being tested. The highest cellulase activity of 2.454 FPU/mL was detected with 60% (wt/wt SMP applied to the raw PKC. Conversely, 2.059 FPU/mL of cellulase activity was measured when 80% (wt/wt of SMP was applied to the defatted PKC which is 62.3% higher than the untreated defatted PKC; and more than 100% increase in enzymatic activity compared to raw PKC. The cellulase activity in the SSF inoculated with 8 x 106 conidia /mL and 12 x 106 conidia /mL were 1.704 FPU/mL for raw PKC and 1.856 FPU/mL for defatted PKC, an enhancement of about 46% from uninoculated batch. Inoculation with CFF bears corresponding maximum improvement of the cellulase activity on both PKCs of 13.58% (raw and 2.86% (defatted. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The current study proves that Trichoderma sp. in the form of SMP can enhance the cellulase activity on PKCs effectively with more than 100% increment. Fungal conidia are also a better choice in enhancing cellulase activity of Trichoderma sp. permitted that the PKC used is devoid of oil. From this study, Trichoderma sp. holds the potential of converting lignocellulosic materials into products of commercial and industrial values such as glucose and other biofuels.

  9. Trichoderma harzianum transformant has high extracellular alkaline proteinase expression during specific mycoparasitic interactions

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    Goldman Maria Helena S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycoparasite Trichoderma harzianum produces an alkaline proteinase that may be specifically involved in mycoparasitism. We have constructed transformant strains of this fungus that overexpress this alkaline proteinase. Some of the transformants were assessed for alkaline proteinase activity, and those with higher activity than the wild type were selected for further studies. One of these transformant strains produced an elevated and constitutive pbr1 mRNA level during mycoparasitic interactions with Rhizoctonia solani.

  10. Production in food of 1,3-pentadiene and styrene by Trichoderma species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pinches, SE

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available against other fungi (Dennis and Webster, 1971) although the antimicrobial properties of 1,3-pentadiene and styrene are not established. In foods, the presence of either or both of the compounds imparts repellent smells and highly disagreeable off... tainting compounds are indeed produced in the presence of sorbic acid and cinnamic acid, but not if the corresponding precursors are absent. Trichoderma moulds are known to produce a wide range of volatile organic compounds, (VOCs) (McAfee and Taylor...

  11. Trichoderma ROLE IN AGROFORESTRY-CACAOTAL SYSTEMS AS AN ANTAGONAL AGENT

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    Úrsula del Carmen López-Ferrer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and cocoa agroforestry systems are important for food production and biodiversity conservation. Among this diversity there is a group of fungi of the genus Trichoderma that present antagonistic effects against phytopathogens and this action can be used as a form of biological control of plant pathogens. In the agroforestry-cacao system the diseases with the highest frequency and with the greatest impact on cocoa production (Theobroma cacao are black rot (Phytophthora spp., Broom broom (Moniliophthora perniciosa and moniliasis (Moniliophthora roreri. The objective of this work was to perform an analysis of the main theoretical and practical aspects about the genus Trichoderma and its role in agriculture as an antagonistic agent. One of the microscopic features in the delimitation of the genus, especially by the presence of structures called phalid. The antagonistic mechanisms used by Trichoderma spp. Are described as competition, antibiosis and mycoparasitism. Mycoparasitism is having a relevance on the implications of extracellular enzymes such as chitinases, cellulases, β-1-3-glucanases and proteases that lyse or digest the walls of fungi, Moniliophthora roreri disease. This fungus can inhibit the growth of other fungi and bacteria by producing several volatile and non-volatile secondary metabolites. On the other hand, it participates in the production of regulators of growth and stimulation of the division, differentiation and cellular growth in the plant by the elicitor agent. Trichoderma species that are commercialized for biological control, growth promoter and biofertilizer are T. viride, T. polysporum and T. harzianum. The T. virens and T. harzianum species are most used for the antagonistic control of M. roreri, Phytophthora spp., and M. perniciosa in agroforestry-cacao systems (Theobroma cacao L. with optimal results to the inhibitory effect for these diseases.

  12. Environmental Growth Conditions of Trichoderma spp. Affects Indole Acetic Acid Derivatives, Volatile Organic Compounds, and Plant Growth Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Jacobo, Maria F.; Steyaert, Johanna M.; Salazar-Badillo, Fatima B.; Nguyen, Dianne Vi; Rostás, Michael; Braithwaite, Mark; De Souza, Jorge T.; Jimenez-Bremont, Juan F.; Ohkura, Mana; Stewart, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Trichoderma species are soil-borne filamentous fungi widely utilized for their many plant health benefits, such as conferring improved growth, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance to their hosts. Many Trichoderma species are able to produce the auxin phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and its production has been suggested to promote root growth. Here we show that the production of IAA is strain dependent and diverse external stimuli are associated with its production. In in vitro assays, Arabidopsis primary root length was negatively affected by the interaction with some Trichoderma strains. In soil experiments, a continuum effect on plant growth was shown and this was also strain dependent. In plate assays, some strains of Trichoderma spp. inhibited the expression of the auxin reporter gene DR5 in Arabidopsis primary roots but not secondary roots. When Trichoderma spp. and A. thaliana were physically separated, enhancement of both shoot and root biomass, increased root production and chlorophyll content were observed, which strongly suggested that volatile production by the fungus influenced the parameters analyzed. Trichoderma strains T. virens Gv29.8, T. atroviride IMI206040, T. sp. “atroviride B” LU132, and T. asperellum LU1370 were demonstrated to promote plant growth through volatile production. However, contrasting differences were observed with LU1370 which had a negative effect on plant growth in soil but a positive effect in plate assays. Altogether our results suggest that the mechanisms and molecules involved in plant growth promotion by Trichoderma spp. are multivariable and are affected by the environmental conditions. PMID:28232840

  13. Characterization of a protease produced by a Trichoderma harzianum isolate which controls cocoa plant witches' broom disease

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    Felix Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several Trichoderma strains have been reported to be effective in controlling plant diseases, and the action of fungal hydrolytic enzymes has been considered as the main mechanism involved in the antagonistic process. However, although Trichoderma strains were found to impair development of Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of cocoa plant witches' broom disease, no fungal strain is available for effective control of this disease. We have then undertaken a program of construction of hydrolytic enzyme-overproducing Trichoderma strains aiming improvement of the fungal antagonistic capacity. The protease of an indian Trichoderma isolate showing antagonistic activity against C. perniciosa was purified to homogeneity and characterized for its kinetic properties and action on the phytopathogen cell wall. Results A protease produced by the Trichoderma harzianum isolate 1051 was purified to homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate followed by hydrophobic chromatography. The molecular mass of this protease as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was about 18.8 kDa. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence shares no homology with any other protease. The purified enzyme substantially affected the cell wall of the phytopathogen C. perniciosa. Western-blotting analysis showed that the enzyme was present in the culture supernatant 24 h after the Trichoderma started to grow in casein-containing liquid medium. Conclusions The capacity of the Trichoderma harzianum protease to hydrolyze the cell wall of C. perniciosa indicates that this enzyme may be actually involved in the antagonistic process between the two fungi. This fact strongly suggest that hydrolytic enzyme over-producing transgenic fungi may show superior biocontrol capacity.

  14. Identification and Characterization of Trichoderma Species Damaging Shiitake Mushroom Bed-Logs Infested by Camptomyia Pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Young; Kwon, Hyuk Woo; Yun, Yeo Hong; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-05-28

    The shiitake mushroom industry has suffered from Camptomyia (gall midges) pest, which feeds on the mycelium of shiitake mushroom during its cultivation. It has been postulated that fungal damage of shiitake bed-logs is associated with infestation by the insect pest, but this is not well understood. To understand the fungal damage associated with Camptomyia pest, various Trichoderma species were isolated, identified, and characterized. In addition to two previously known Trichoderma species, T. citrinoviride and T. deliquescens, two other Trichoderma species, T. harzianum and T. atroviride, were newly identified from the pestinfested bed-log samples obtained at three mushroom farms in Cheonan, Korea. Among these four species, T. harzianum was the most evident. The results of a chromogenic media-based assay for extracellular enzymes showed that these four species have the ability to produce amylase, carboxyl-methyl cellulase, avicelase, pectinase, and β-glucosidase, thus indicating that they can degrade wood components. A dual culture assay on PDA indicated that T. harzianum, T. atroviride, and T. citrinoviride were antagonistic against the mycelial growth of a shiitake strain (Lentinula edodes). Inoculation tests on shiitake bed-logs revealed that all four species were able to damage the wood of bed-logs. Our results provide evidence that the four green mold species are the causal agents involved in fungal damage of shiitake bed-logs infested by Camptomyia pest.

  15. Efecto bioestimulante de Trichoderma harzianum Rifai en posturas de Leucaena, Cedro y Samán

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    Leonides Castellanos González

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo evaluó el efecto bioestimulante de Trichoderma harzianum Rifai en la producción de postura de Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit., Cedrela odorata L. y Albizia saman (Jacq. Merr. Se desarrollaron tres experimentos en condiciones de vivero, uno para cada especie. Se empleó un diseño completamente aleatorio con cuatro parcelas por tratamiento. En cada experimento los tratamientos fueron: Trichoderma harzianum a razón de 20 g.L-1, 40 g.L-1 y un testigo. Se evaluó el porcentaje de germinación y las variables morfométricas diámetro y altura del tallo, así como biomasa seca en raíz y parte aérea de la planta. Los tratamientos con Trichoderma no incrementaron el porcentaje de germinación en cedro, samán y leucaena. T. harzianum incrementó la altura, el número de hojas y la biomasa seca del área foliar en las plántulas de cedro, mientras que en leucaena y samán solo provocó incrementos del diámetro basal de las plántulas.

  16. Trichoderma evansii and T. lieckfeldtiae: two new T. hamatum-like species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Gary J; Ismaiel, Adnan

    2009-01-01

    The new species, Trichoderma evansii and T. lieckfeldtiae, resemble the closely related T. hamatum and T. pubescens in forming discrete, setose conidial pustules within which arise smooth, green conidia from pachybasium-like conidiophores. The phylogenetic position of these species was determined with combined partial sequences of ITS, translationelongation factor 1-alpha, RNA polymerase II subunit and actin genes. All are members of the Viride clade. Trichoderma evansii forms a sister group relationship with a clade that includes T. hamatum and T. pubescens. It differs from the latter two species in having subglobose conidia; it was isolated as an endophyte from sapwood of Lophira alata (Ochnaceae) and Cola verticillata (Malvaceae) in Cameroon and Theobroma gileri (Malvaceae) in Peru. Trichoderma lieckfeldtiae occupies an unresolved position in the Viride clade despite being virtually morphologically indistinguishable from T. hamatum; it was isolated from fruit of cacao infected with Moniliophthora roreri in Colombia, pseudostroma of Moniliophthora roreri on pods of Theobroma cacao in Peru and from soil in a cacao farm in Cameroon (central Africa).

  17. Phosphogypsum biotransformation by aerobic bacterial flora and isolated Trichoderma asperellum from Tunisian storage piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalali, Jihen [Research Unit “Coastal and Urban Environments” National Engineering School of Sfax, BP 1173, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Tunisian Chemical Group, M’Dhilla-Gafsa factory, B.P. 215, 2100 Gafsa (Tunisia); Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja [Research Unit “Coastal and Urban Environments” National Engineering School of Sfax, BP 1173, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Loungou, Mouna [Tunisian Chemical Group, M’Dhilla-Gafsa factory, B.P. 215, 2100 Gafsa (Tunisia); Ammar, Emna, E-mail: ammarenis@yahoo.fr [Research Unit “Coastal and Urban Environments” National Engineering School of Sfax, BP 1173, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • The enrichment culture on PG enabled the development of microorganisms. • The isolated Trichoderma asperellum grew on PG concentration at 200 g L{sup −1}. • At 200 g L{sup −1} PG concentration, the experimented strain reduced COD by 52.32%. • Metals concentrations reduction reached a maximum of 73% for the zinc. • Trichoderma asperellum is an efficient microorganism for PG bioremediation. - Abstract: Aerobic microorganisms able to grow on phosphogypsum (PG), characterized by heavy metals accumulation and high acidity were investigated by enrichment cultures. The PG was used at different concentrations, varying from 20 to 200 g/L in the enrichment culture medium supplemented with compost and Tamarix roots. This treatment reduced COD and heavy metals PG concentration. An efficient isolated fungus, identified by molecular approach as Trichoderma asperellum, was able to grow on PG as the sole carbon and energy sources at the different experimented concentrations, and to increase the culture media pH of the different PG concentrations used to 8.13. This fact would be the result of alkaline compound released during the fungus PG solubilization. Besides, the heavy metals and COD removal exceeded 52% after 7 days culture. At 200 g/L PG concentration, the experimented strain was able to reduce COD by 52.32% and metals concentrations by 73% for zinc, 63.75% for iron and 50% for cadmium. This exhibited the T. asperellum efficiency for heavy metals accumulation and for phosphogypsum bioremediation.

  18. Pemanfaatan Urea sebagai Sumber Nitrogen pada Biosolubisasi Batubara oleh Trichoderma sp.

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    Novi Mulyawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lignite coal was found abundant in Indonesia, but usage for this type of coal was still relatively low. Economic value of coal increases when it is solubilized. Biosolubilization of coal by utilize of microbes produces compounds equivalent to petroleum. In this research, effect of urea on lignite biosolubilization by Trichoderma sp. was examined. Method of this research consisted of spore inoculum preparation, biosolubilization lignite coal with a variety of treatment that consists of treatment A (MSS + sucrose  1% + coal 5% + urea, and treatment B (MSS + sucrose  1% + coal 5%. Results showed that the addition of urea supported lignit coal biosolubilization by Trichoderma sp. based on increase in medium pH, concentration of phenolic and conjugated aromatic compounds, and activity of extracellular enzyme. In addition, result of product characterization using GCMS revealed compounds equivalent to 13,60%, 26,20% and 90,8% respectively for gasoline, kerosene and diesel components. Those confirmed that urea can be used as an alternative nitrogen source to support Trichoderma sp. in lignit biosolubilization producing petroleum compounds.

  19. INDEKS MITOSIS UJUNG AKAR KECAMBAH CABE BESAR (Capsicum annuum L. SETELAH PERLAKUAN SUSPENSI Trichoderma sp.

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    PetroneLa Deno Raja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui indeks mitosis ujung akar kecambah cabe besar (Capsicum annuum L. setelah perlakuan suspensi Trichoderma sp. Penelitian ini dilakukan di laboratorium Struktur Perkembangan Tumbuhan Jurusan Biologi FMIPA, Universitas Udayana dari Oktober 2013-November 2013. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode squash, biji cabe untuk kontrol direndam dalam air ± 6 jam, untuk perlakuan biji setelah direndam air, direndam lagi dalam suspensi Trichoderma sp. 10-7 selama ± 6 jam, selanjutnya dikecambahkan. Ujung akar kecambah 2 mm dipotong, difiksasi dalam larutan farmer ± 2-24 jam, dihidrolisis dalam larutan 3N HCL ± 2-5 menit dan kemudian pewarnaan dengan aceto orcein ± 5 menit. Pengamatan dilakukan dengan mikroskop binokuler, data pembelahan tiap fase mitosis dihitung (%, dicatat dan difoto, dan dianalisis dengan menggunakan uji paired T tes.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Trichoderma sp. berpengaruh terhadap indeks mitosis sel ujung akar Capsicum annuum L.,  pada fase metafase berbeda nyata antara kontrol dan perlakuan, sedangkan pada fase profase, anafase dan telofase berbeda tidak nyata.  Pada perlakuan persentase fase profase, metafase, anafase dan telofase (77,14%; 12,96 %; 5,88 % dan 5,23 % lebih tinggi dari kontrol (66,40 %; 5,44 %; 4,96 % dan 4,66 %.

  20. Evaluation of biological control of fusarium wilt in gerbera with Trichoderma asperellum

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    Daiani Brandler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in flower cultivation in recent years has been reflecting the higher incidence of soil pathogens that can cause serious problems. This study aimed to evaluate the biological control of Fusarium wilt in gerbera with Trichoderma asperellum. The evaluated treatments were: T1 Control, only sterile substrate; T2 Substrate + Fusarium oxysporum; T3 Substrate + Fusarium oxysporum + Trichoderma asperellum; and T4 Substrate + Trichoderma asperellum. For this, the pathogen was isolated from gerbera with disease symptoms and, subsequently, it was identified according to morphological characters. Furthermore, the degree of antagonism of T. asperellum against F. oxysporum was evaluated through the culture pairing test. For greenhouse evaluations, commercial autoclaved substrate was used and infested with corn grains infected by the pathogen. Morphological identification confirmed the pathogen species as Fusarium oxysporum. In the culture pairing test, it was found that T. asperellum did not present a high degree of antagonism. The plants cultivated on substrate infested by the pathogen had no visible symptoms of wilt, but the substrate infestation with the pathogen provided lower values of fresh and dry mass of shoots and roots. The treatment with T. asperellum obtained higher values of fresh and dry mass of both shoots and roots, and also more vigorous inflorescences in relation to the plants treated with the pathogen