WorldWideScience

Sample records for anammox bacterium kuenenia

  1. Comparative genomics of two independently enriched ‘Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis’ anammox bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DaanRSpeth

    2012-08-01

    Here we present a comparative genomic analysis of two ‘Ca. K. stuttgartiensis’ anammox bacteria that were independently enriched, with the aim to understand more about the evolution, cell plan and metabolism of these important microbes and to further improve and complete the reference genome. The two anammox bacteria used are ‘Ca. K. stuttgartiensis’ RU1, which was originally sequenced for the reference genome in 2002, and for the present study resequenced after seven (2002-2009 years in continuous culture. Furthermore ‘Ca. K. stuttgartiensis’ CH1, enriched from a Chinese wastewater treatment plant was used as an independent source of genomic information. The two different ‘Ca. Kuenenia’ bacteria showed a very high sequence identity (> 99 % at nucleotide level over the entire genome, but 31 genomic regions (average size 11 kb were absent from strain CH1 and 220 kb of sequence was specifically found in the CH1 assembly. The high sequence homology between these two bacteria indicates that mobile genetic elements are the main source of variation between these geographically widely separated strains.

  2. Metagenome analysis of a complex community reveals the metabolic blueprint of anammox bacterium ‘Candidatus Jettenia asiatica’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZiyeHu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Anammox bacteria are key players in the global nitrogen cycle and responsible for up to 50% of global nitrogen loss. Because of their cost effective application in anaerobic nitrogen removal, the anammox bacteria are widely implemented in wastewater treatment. Currently, five genera of anammox bacteria have been identified, together forming a deep branching order in the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobium- Chlamydiae (PVC superphylum. Members of all genera have been detected in wastewater treatment plants, but metagenomic information is not yet available for all genera. Here we report the metagenomic analysis of an enrichment dominated by ‘Candidatus Jettenia asiatica’. The whole microbial community o\tf a granular sludge anammox reactor was sequenced using both illumina and 454 pyrosequencing. The sludge was previously shown to have a ~50% enrichment of the anammox bacterium ‘Candidatus Jettenia asiatica’ by 16S rRNA gene analysis. After de novo assembly 37,432 contigs with an average length of 571 nt were obtained. The contigs were then analyzed by BLASTx searches against the protein sequences of ‘Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis’ and a set of 25 genes essential in anammox metabolism were detected. Additionally all reads were mapped to the genome of an anammox strain KSU-1 and de novo assembly was performed again using the reads that could be mapped on KSU-1. Using this approach, a gene encoding copper-containing nitrite reductase NirK was identified in the genome, instead of cytochrome cd1-type nitrite reductase NirS that is responsible for the nitrite reduction of ‘Ca. Kuenenia stuttgartiensis’ and ‘Ca. Scalindua profunda’. Finally, the community composition was investigated through MetaCluster analysis, 16S rRNA gene analysis and read mapping, which showed the presence of other important community members such as aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, methane producing microorganisms and denitrifying methanotroph 'Ca

  3. Suspended sludge and biofilm shaped different anammox communities in two pilot-scale one-stage anammox reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bingyu; Zhang, Liang; Guo, Jianhua; Zhang, Shujun; Yang, Anming; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-07-01

    The abundance and diversity of anammox bacteria was investigated in two pilot-scale integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactors treating high ammonium wastewater. Reactor A was inoculated with nitrifying sludge, while Reactor B was inoculated with suspended anammox sludge with the dominant anammox bacteria of Candidatus 'Kuenenia'. After 180days' operation, the predominate anammox bacteria was Candidatus 'Brocadia' (65%) in the biofilm, while Candidatus 'Kuenenia' (86%) outcompeted with other anammox bacteria in suspended sludge in Reactor A. Candidatus 'Kuenenia' were dominated in suspended sludge through the entire experiment in Reactor B. In contrast, the predominated species shifted from Candidatus 'Kuenenia' (89%) into Candidatus 'Brocadia' (66%) in the biofilm of Reactor B. This study indicated that Candidatus 'Brocadia' preferred to grow in the biofilm, while Candidatus 'Kuenenia' would dominant over other anammox bacteria in the suspended sludge. Further studies are required to identify the internal factors affecting the distribution of anammox bacteria. PMID:27023382

  4. [Distribution and influence factors of Anammox bacteria in sewage treatment systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bingyu; Peng, Yongzhen; Zhang, Liang; Yang, Anming; Zhang, Shujun

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen removal techniques based on Anammox process are developing rapidly these years. The distribution and diversity of Anammox have become important research directions. A variety of Anammox have been detected till now, of which only Kuenenia and Brocadia are often detected in wastewater treatment systems. In addition, in a single niche there is only one type of Anammox bacteria. However, the distribution mechanism and transformation of Anammox bacteria in different niches are still ambiguous. Therefore, the distribution of Anammox in various conditions was summarized and analyzed in this article. And the key factors influencing the distribution of Anammox were concluded, including substrate concentration and the specific growth rate, sludge properties and microbial niche, the joint action and influence of multiple factors. The engineering significance research on the distribution and influencing factors of Anammox bacteria in the sewage system and proposed research prospects were expounded. PMID:26016371

  5. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacterial diversity, abundance, and activity in marsh sediments of the Yangtze Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lijun; Zheng, Yanling; Liu, Min; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Xiaoli; Yin, Guoyu; You, Li

    2013-07-01

    ammonium oxidation (anammox) as an important process of nitrogen cycle has been studied in estuarine environments. However, knowledge about the dynamics of anammox bacteria and their interactions with associated activity remains scarce in these environments. Here we report the anammox bacterial diversity, abundance, and activity in the Yangtze Estuary, using molecular and isotope-tracing techniques. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA indicated that high anammox bacterial diversity occurred in this estuary, including Scalindua, Brocadia, Kuenenia, and two novel clusters. The patterns of community composition and diversity of anammox bacteria differed across the estuary. Salinity was a key environmental factor defining the geographical distribution and diversity of the anammox bacterial community at the estuarine ecosystem. Temperature and organic carbon also had significant influences on anammox bacterial biodiversity. The abundance of anammox bacteria ranged from 2.63 × 106 and 1.56 × 107 gene copies g-1, and its spatiotemporal variations were related significantly to salinity, temperature, and nitrite content. The anammox activity was related to temperature, nitrite, and anammox bacterial abundance, with values of 0.94-6.61 nmol N g-1 h-1. The tight link between the anammox and denitrification processes implied that denitrifying bacteria may be a primary source of nitrite for the anammox bacteria in the estuarine marshes. On the basis of the 15N tracing experiments, the anammox process was estimated to contribute 6.6%-12.9% to the total nitrogen loss whereas the remainder was attributed to denitrification.

  6. Metatranscriptomic Analysis of Groundwater Reveals an Active Anammox Bacterial Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, T. N. M.; Karaoz, U.; Thomas, B. C.; Banfield, J. F.; Brodie, E.; Williams, K. H.; Beller, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater is a major natural resource, yet little is known about the contribution of microbial anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) activity to subsurface nitrogen cycling. During anammox, energy is generated as ammonium is oxidized under anaerobic conditions to dinitrogen gas, using nitrite as the final electron acceptor. This process is a global sink for fixed nitrogen. Only a narrow range of monophyletic bacteria within the Planctomycetes carries out anammox, and the full extent of their metabolism, and subsequent impact on nitrogen cycling and microbial community structure, is still unknown. Here, we employ a metatranscriptomic analysis on enriched mRNA to identify the abundance and activity of a population of anammox bacteria within an aquifer at Rifle, CO. Planktonic biomass was collected over a two-month period after injection of up to 1.5 mM nitrate. Illumina-generated sequences were mapped to a phylogenetically binned Rifle metagenome database. We identified transcripts for genes with high protein sequence identities (81-98%) to those of anammox strain KSU-1 and to two of the five anammox bacteria genera, Brocadia and Kuenenia, suggesting an active, if not diverse, anammox population. Many of the most abundant anammox transcripts mapped to a single scaffold, indicative of a single dominant anammox species. Transcripts of the genes necessary for the anammox pathway were present, including an ammonium transporter (amtB), nitrite/formate transporter, nitrite reductase (nirK), and hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzoB). The form of nitrite reductase encoded by anammox is species-dependent, and we only identified nirK, with no evidence of anammox nirS. In addition to the anammox pathway we saw evidence of the anammox bacterial dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium pathway (narH, putative nrfA, and nrfB), which provides an alternate means of generating substrates for anammox from nitrate, rather than relying on an external pool. Transcripts for hydroxylamine

  7. Combination of complex adsorption and anammox for nitric oxide removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Xu, Xiaochen; Liu, Sitong; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Chuanqi; Yang, Fenglin

    2016-07-15

    High-efficiency Fe(II)EDTA (approximately 80%) was selected to remove nitric oxide (NO) in a complex adsorption process; subsequently, this Fe(II)EDTA was combined with the anammox process to eliminate the NO in flue gas. The Fe(II)EDTA-NO solution negatively affected the conventional nitrite-dependent anammox bacteria when the solution concentration exceeded 0.5mM. Fe(II)EDTA-NO-cultivated anammox bacteria removed the ammonium coupled to complex NO reduction (≤3.5mM). The batch test results demonstrated that NH4(+) was eliminated through Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction via anammox. The removal of complex NO and NH4(+) exhibited high relativity relevance, and the Fe(II)EDTA-NO/NH4(+) molar ratio was approximately 0.97. The complex NO-dependent process generates lesser nitrate than that generated by conventional anammox. Moreover, Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensitiensis became the dominant anammox bacterial community when the biomass is cultivated using the inoculated bacteria, and the proportion of the former increased to 90% from the initial 38% for ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and library construction. PMID:27037471

  8. Mixing Intensity Effects of Attached Growth on Enriched Anammox Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsak Noophan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox is a promising new technology for the treatment of wastewater with high ammonium and low carbon concentrations. Earlier work suggests that optimal processing would be realized within a sequencing batch reactor (SBR. However, the relatively slow growth of anammox bacteria inhibits the rates of nitrogen removal and biomass yielding. Improved anammox performance has been demonstrated when the bacteria are in granular form or attached to a growth medium. Little has been reported concerning the effect of mixing rate on nitrogen (N removal with attached anammox bacteria. This work subjected anammox bacteria attached to polystyrene sponge in SBR to various intensities of impeller mixing and studied the effect on NH4+ and NO2- removal. Nitrogen processing was virtually the same with velocity gradient values between 13.5 and 222 s-1. More vigorous mixing at 407 and 666 s-1 values significantly inhibited N removal, likely due to detachment of bacteria from the growth medium. Following the poor N removal at the two higher mixing intensities, agitation was reduced to 24.8 s-1 velocity gradient value. Recovery of N removal rates required 2-3 weeks, the slow time attributed to slow reattachment to the growth medium. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis identified the prominent anammox species in the experimental study as Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans and Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis.

  9. Anammox enrichment from different conventional sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamchoi, Nutchanat; Nitisoravut, Suwanchai

    2007-02-01

    Three sets of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were used for Anammox enrichment from conventional sludges including upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, activated sludge, and anaerobic digestion sludge. After four months of operation, the Anammox activity occurred in all reactors allowing continuous removal of ammonium and nitrite. The morphology of the cultivated Anammox sludge was observed using scanning electron microscope. The photographs showed that the obtained culture was mostly spherical in shape, presumably Anammox culture. There were also filamentous-like bacteria co-existing in the system. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using 16S rRNA targeting oligonucleotide probes PLA46 and Amx820 showed that the dominant population developed in all SBRs was hybridized with both PLA46 and Amx820 gene probes. It means that the cultivated biomass in all SBRs was classified in the group of Planctomycetales bacteria with respect to the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans and Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. Numerous time sequences were tested in this experiment. The shortest workable reaction time was found in the range from 5 to 7 h. Good quiescence of sludge was obtained at 30 min of settle period followed by a discharge period of 15 min. A long-term performance showed a near perfect removal of nitrite based on the influent NO2(-)-N concentration of 50-70 mg l(-1). The maximum ammonia removal efficiency was 80% with the influent NH4(+)-N concentration of 40-60 mg l(-1). It is, therefore, concluded that Anammox cultivation from conventional sludges was highly possible under control environment within four months. PMID:17207839

  10. Long-term performance and microbial ecology of a two-stage PN-ANAMMOX process treating mature landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huosheng; Zhou, Shaoqi; Ma, Weihao; Huang, Pengfei; Huang, Guotao; Qin, Yujie; Xu, Bin; Ouyang, Hai

    2014-05-01

    Long-term performance of a two-stage partial nitritation (PN)-anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) process treating mature landfill leachate was investigated. Stable partial nitritation performance was achieved in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using endpoint pH control, providing an effluent with a ratio of NO2(-)-N/NH4(+)-N at 1.23 ± 0.23. High rate nitrogen removal over 4 kg N/m(3)/d was observed in the ANAMMOX reactor in the first three months. However, during long-term operation, the ANAMMOX reactor can only stably operate under nitrogen load of 1 kg N/m(3)/d, with 85 ± 1% of nitrogen removal. The ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the PN-SBR were mainly affiliated to Nitrosomonas sp. IWT514, Nitrosomonas eutropha and Nitrosomonas eutropha, the anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) in the ANAMMOX reactor were mainly affiliated to Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. PMID:24681301

  11. Ladderane Lipids in Anammox Bacteria: Occurence, Biosynthesis and Application as Environmental Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Rattray, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    Ladderane lipids are unusual membrane lipids of anammox bacteria, which contain either three or five cyclobutane rings, and are so far unique in nature. Anammox bacteria are recently identified members of the nitrogen cycle, with the ability to combine ammonium with nitrite to form dinitrogen gas, in waters or sediments containing little or no oxygen. In the natural environment they have been found in many different oxygen poor environments. For the first time, an anammox bacterium from the n...

  12. Hydroxylamine-dependent Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) by “ Candidatus Brocadia sinica”

    KAUST Repository

    Oshiki, Mamoru

    2016-04-26

    Although metabolic pathways and associated enzymes of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) of “Ca. Kuenenia stuttgartiensis” have been studied, those of other anammox bacteria are still poorly understood. NO2- reduction to NO is considered to be the first step in the anammox metabolism of “Ca. K. stuttgartiensis”, however, “Ca. Brocadia” lacks the genes that encode canonical NO-forming nitrite reductases (NirS or NirK) in its genome, which is different from “Ca. K. stuttgartiensis”. Here, we studied the anammox metabolism of “Ca. Brocadia sinica”. 15N-tracer experiments demonstrated that “Ca. B. sinica” cells could reduce NO2- to NH2OH, instead of NO, with as yet unidentified nitrite reductase(s). Furthermore, N2H4 synthesis, downstream reaction of NO2- reduction, was investigated using a purified “Ca. B. sinica” hydrazine synthase (Hzs) and intact cells. Both the “Ca. B. sinica” Hzs and cells utilized NH2OH and NH4+, but not NO and NH4+, for N2H4 synthesis and further oxidized N2H4 to N2 gas. Taken together, the metabolic pathway of “Ca. B. sinica” is NH2OH-dependent and different from the one of “Ca. K. stuttgartiensis”, indicating metabolic diversity of anammox bacteria. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. [Community Characteristics of ANAMMOX Bacteria in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland (SSFCW) for Processing of Aquaculture Waster Water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xian-lei; Liu, Xing-guo; Wu, Zong-fan; Shi, Xu; Lu, Shi-min

    2016-02-15

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) is one of the important functions in waste water treatment by subsurface flow constructed wetland (SSFCW), however, there are few studies on ANAMMOX in SSFCW environment at present. The community characteristics of ANAMMOX in the SSFCW of processing aquaculture waste water were explored in this study. In order to analyze the structure, diversity and abundance of ANAMMOX bacteria, several 16S rRNA clone libraries were constructed and real-time PCR targeting specific 16S rRNA genes together with diversity analysis was adopted. The obtained results showed that the SSFCW identified a total of three unknown clusters and two known clusters including Candidatus brocadia and Candidatus kuenenia. The dominant cluster was Candidatus brocadia. The highest diversity levels of ANAMMOX bacteria occurred in autumn (H', 1.21), while the lowest in spring (H', 0.64). The abundance of ANAMMOX bacteria in SSFCW environment ranged from 8.0 x 10(4) to 9.4 x 10(6) copies x g(-1) of fresh weight and the copy number of total bacterial 16S rRNA genes ranged from 7.3 x 10(9) to 9.1 x 10(10) copies x g(-1) of fresh weight during culture cycle. There were significant differences in the ANAMMOX bacteria abundances of different stratum and seasons in SSFCW environment, but the differences in total bacterial abundances were not obvious. In addition, the differences in ANAMMOX bacteria abundances in different stratum and seasons in SSFCW environment were irregular in different culture cycle. According to the distribution characteristics of ANAMMOX bacteria in the wetland, the denitrification effect of SSFCW could be improved by changing the supplying manners of aquaculture wastewater and adjusting the structure of wetland. The research results will provide reference for further optimizing the SSFCW and improving the efficiency of purification. PMID:27363152

  14. Enrichment of anammox bacteria from three sludge sources for the startup of monosodium glutamate industrial wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-dong, Shen; An-hui, Hu; Ren-cun, Jin; Dong-qing, Cheng; Ping, Zheng; Xiang-yang, Xu; Bao-lan, Hu

    2012-01-15

    Three activated sludges from a landfill leachate treatment plant (S1), a municipal sewage treatment plant (S2) and a monosodium glutamate (MSG) wastewater treatment plant (S3) were used as inocula to enrich anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria for the startup of MSG industrial wastewater treatment system. After 360 days of cultivation using MSG wastewater, obvious anammox activity was observed in all three cultures. The maximum specific anammox activities of cultures S1, S2 and S3 were 0.11 kg N kg(-1) VSS day(-1), 0.09 kg N kg(-1) VSS day(-1) and 0.16 kg N kg(-1) VSS day(-1), respectively. Brownish-red anammox granules having diameters in the range of 0.2-1.0mm were visible in cultures S1 and S2, and large red granules having diameters in the range of 0.5-2.5mm were formed in culture S3 after 420 days of cultivation. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that Kuenenia organisms were the dominant anammox species in all three cultures. The copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes of anammox bacteria in cultures S1, S2 and S3 were 6.8 × 10(7) copies mL(-1), 9.4 × 10(7) copies mL(-1) and 7.5 × 10(8) copies mL(-1), respectively. The results of this study demonstrated that anammox cultivation from conventional activated sludges was highly possible using MSG wastewater. Thus the anammox process has possibility of applying to the nitrogen removal from MSG wastewater. PMID:22104770

  15. A laboratory investigation of interactions between denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) and anammox processes in anoxic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shihu; Zeng, Raymond J.; Haroon, Mohamed F.; Keller, Jurg; Lant, Paul A.; Tyson, Gene W.; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates interactions between recently identified denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) processes in controlled anoxic laboratory reactors. Two reactors were seeded with the same inocula containing DAMO organisms Candidatus Methanoperedens nitroreducens and Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera, and anammox organism Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. Both were fed with ammonium and methane, but one was also fed with nitrate and the other with nitrite, providing anoxic environments with different electron acceptors. After steady state reached in several months, the DAMO process became solely/primarily responsible for nitrate reduction while the anammox process became solely responsible for nitrite reduction in both reactors. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that the nitrate-driven DAMO organism M. nitroreducens dominated both the nitrate-fed (~70%) and the nitrite-fed (~26%) reactors, while the nitrite-driven DAMO organism M. oxyfera disappeared in both communities. The elimination of M. oxyfera from both reactors was likely the results of this organism being outcompeted by anammox bacteria for nitrite. K. stuttgartiensis was detected at relatively low levels (1-3%) in both reactors.

  16. Molecular and Stable Isotope Investigation of Nitrite Respiring Bacterial Communities Capable of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (ANAMMOX) and Denitrifying Anaerobic Methane Oxidation (DAMO) in Nitrogen Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, B.; Hirsch, M.; Taylor, J.; Smith, R. L.; Repert, D.; Tobias, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) and denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) are two recently discovered N2 production pathways in the microbial nitrogen cycle. ANAMMOX has been relatively well investigated in various aquatic ecosystems, while DAMO has been examined only in freshwater wetlands. However, neither ANAMMOX nor DAMO have been studied in groundwater ecosystems as microbial N removal processes where they could compliment or compete with denitrification to remediate N contaminated aquifers. Thus, we conducted molecular and stable isotope analyses to detect and measure ANAMMOX and DAMO in a nitrogen contaminated aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The study site has a plume of nitrogen contaminated groundwater as a result of continuous discharge of treated wastewater over 60 years. Groundwater was collected from multiport sampling devices installed at two sites, near the waste-water disposal location (A) and more than 3 km down gradient (B) along the contamination plume. Biomass was collected from water samples for DNA extraction and 15N tracer incubation experiments. PCR with specific 16S rRNA gene primers detected the presence of ANAMMOX and DAMO bacteria at both sites. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the ANAMMOX community at site A was most associated with Kuenenia spp. while site B had a community more closely related to Brocadia spp. The DAMO communities at the two sites were quite different based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. The communities at site B are closely associated with Candidatus “Methylomirabilis oxyfera”, which is the first enriched DAMO culture. Most of the 16S rRNA sequences detected in site A were related to those found in other DAMO enrichment cultures established from a eutrophic ditch sediment. In order to determine active members of ANAMMOX communities, the transcriptional expression of hydrazine oxidase (hzo) and hydrazine hydrolase (hh) genes was examined at both sites. In addition, 15N tracer

  17. Start-up of the anammox process from the conventional activated sludge in a hybrid bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiumei Duan; Jiti Zhou; Sen Qiao; Xin Yin; Tian Tian; Fangdi Xu

    2012-01-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process was successfully started up from conventional activated sludge using a hybrid bioreactor within 2 months.The average removal efficiencies of ammonia and nitrite were both over 80%,and the maximum total nitrogen removal rate of 1.85 kg1 N/(m3·day) was obtained on day 362 with the initial sludge concentration of 0.7 g mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS)/L.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of the granular sludge in the hybrid reactor clearly showed a high degree of compactness and cell sphericity,and the cell size was quite uniform.Transmission electron microscope photos showed that cells were round or oval,the cellular diameter was 0.6-1.0 μm,and the percentage of the anammoxosome compartment was 51%-85% of the whole cell volume.Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) indicated that anammox bacteria became the dominant population in the community (accounting for more than 51% of total bacteria on day 250).Seven planctomycete 16S rRNA gene sequences were present in the 16S rRNA gene clone library generated from the biomass and affiliated to Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis and Candidatus Brocadia sp.,a new anammox species.In addition,the average effluent suspended solid (MLSS) concentrations of outlets Ⅰ (above the non-woven carrier) and Ⅱ (below the non-woven carrier) were 0.0009 and 0.0035 g/L,respectively.This showed that the non-woven carrier could catch the biomass effectively,which increased biomass and improved the nitrogen removal rate in the reactor.

  18. Inactivation of ANAMMOX communities under concurrent operation of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) and denitrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamchoi, N.; Nitisoravut, S.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    A concurrent operation of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) and denitrification was investigated in a well known UASB reactor seeding with both ANAMMOX and anaerobic granular sludges. ANAMMOX activity was confirmed by hydroxylamine test and the hybridization of biomass using the gene probes of......–nitrate concentrations in all reactors confirmed the undergone concurrent denitrification which thrives when sufficient organic matter is available. COD concentration over 300 mg l−1 was found to inactivate or eradicate ANAMMOX communities....

  19. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by Nitrosomonas spp. and anammox bacteria in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lek Noophan, Pongsak; Sripiboon, Siriporn; Damrongsri, Mongkol; Munakata-Marr, Junko

    2009-02-01

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was inoculated with mixed nitrifying bacteria from an anoxic tank at the conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant in Nongkhaem, Bangkok, Thailand. This enriched nitrifying culture was maintained under anaerobic conditions using ammonium (NH(4)(+)) as an electron donor and nitrite (NO(2)(-)) as an electron acceptor. Autotrophic ammonium oxidizing bacteria survived under these conditions. The enrichment period for anammox culture was over 100 days. Both ammonium and nitrite conversion rates were proportional to the biomass of ammonium oxidizing bacteria; rates were 0.08 g N/gV SS/d and 0.05 g N/g VSS/d for ammonium and nitrite, respectively, in a culture maintained for 3 months at 42 mg N/L ammonium. The nitrogen transformation rate at a ratio of NH(4)(+)-N to NO(2)(-)-N of 1:1.38 was faster, and effluent nitrogen levels were lower, than at ratios of 1:0.671, 1:2.18, and 1:3.05. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to identify specific autotrophic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas spp., Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans, and Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis). The ammonium oxidizing culture maintained at 42 mg N/L ammonium was enriched for Nitrosomonas spp. (30%) over Candidati B. anammoxidans and K. stuttgartiensis (2.1%) while the culture maintained at 210 mg N/L ammonium was dominated by Candidati B. anammoxidans and K. stuttgartiensis (85.6%). The specific nitrogen removal rate of anammox bacteria (0.6 g N/g anammox VSS/d) was significantly higher than that of ammonium oxidizing bacteria (0.4 g N/g Nitrosomonas VSS/d). Anammox bacteria removed up to 979 mg N/L/d of total nitrogen (ammonium:nitrite concentrations, 397:582 mg N/L). These results suggest significant promise of this approach for application to wastewater with high nitrogen but low carbon content, such as that found in Bangkok. PMID:18423965

  20. [Application and obstacles of ANAMMOX process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin Rencun; Zhang, Zhengzhe; Ji, Yuxin; Chen, Hui; Guo, Qiong; Zhou, Yuhuang; Wu, Conghui; Jin, Rencun

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX), as its essential advantages of high efficiency and low cost, is a promising novel biological nitrogen elimination process with attractive application prospects. Over the past two decades, many processes based on the ANAMMOX reaction have been continuously studied and applied to practical engineering, with the perspective of reaching 100 full-scale installations in operation worldwide by 2014. Our review summarizes various forms of ANAMMOX processes, including partial nitritation-ANAMMOX, completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite, oxygen limited autotrophic nitrification and denitrification, denitrifying ammonium oxidation, aerobic deammonification, simultaneous partial nitrification, ANAMMOX and denitrification, single-stage nitrogen removal using ANAMMOX and partial nitritation. We also compare the operating conditions for one-stage and two-stage processes and summarize the obstacles and countermeasures in engineering application of ANAMMOX systems, such as moving bed biofilm reactor, sequencing batch reactor and granular sludge reactor. Finally, we discuss the future research and application direction, which should focus on the optimization of operating conditions and applicability of the process to the actual wastewater, especially on automated control and the impact of special wastewater composition on process performance. PMID:26016370

  1. Identification of a denitrifying bacterium and verification of its anaerobic ammonium oxidation ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Baolan; ZHENG; Ping; LI; Jinye; XU; Xiangyang; JIN; Rencun

    2006-01-01

    A strain D3 of denitrifying bacterium was isolated from an anammox reactor, and identified as Pseudomonas mendocina based on the morphological and physiological assay, Vitek test,Biolog test, (G+C) mol% content, and 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis. As a typical denitrifying bactration of 88.5 mg N/L. The optimal pH and growth temperature were 7.84 and 34.9℃, respectively.Strain D3 was able to oxidize ammonia under anaerobic condition. The maximum nitrate and ammoof ammonia to nitrate was 1:1.91. Electron microscopic observation revealed peculiar cell inclusions in strain D3. Because of its relation to anammox activity, strain D3 was presumed to be anammoxosome.The present investigation proved that denitrifying bacteria have the anammox ability, and the results have engorged the range of anammox populations.

  2. Differentiation in the microbial ecology and activity of suspended and attached bacteria in a nitritation-anammox process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hongkeun; Sundar, Suneethi; Ma, Yiwei; Chandran, Kartik

    2015-02-01

    A directed differentiation between the biofilm and suspension was observed in the molecular microbial ecology and gene expression of different bacteria in a biofilm nitritation-anammox process operated at varying hydraulic residence times (HRT) and nitrogen loading rates (NLR). The highest degree of enrichment observed in the biofilm was of anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AMX) followed by that of Nitrospira spp. related nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). For AMX, a major shift from Candidatus "Brocadia fulgida" to Candidatus "Kuenenia stuttgartiensis" in both suspension and biofilm was observed with progressively shorter HRT, using discriminatory biomarkers targeting the hydrazine synthase (hzsA) gene. In parallel, expression of the hydrazine oxidoreductase gene (hzo), a functional biomarker for AMX energy metabolism, became progressively prominent in the biofilm. A marginal but statistically significant enrichment in the biofilm was observed for Nitrosomonas europaea related ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). In direct contrast to AMX, the gene expression of ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA), a functional biomarker for AOB energy metabolism, progressively increased in suspension. Using gene expression and biomass concentration measures in conjunction, it was determined that signatures of AOB metabolism were primarily present in the biofilm throughout the study. On the other hand, AMX metabolism gradually shifted from being uniformly distributed in both the biofilm and suspension to primarily the biofilm at shorter HRTs and higher NLRs. These results therefore highlight the complexity and key differences in the microbial ecology, gene expression and activity between the biofilm and suspension of a nitritation-anammox process and the biokinetic and metabolic drivers for such niche segregation. PMID:25115980

  3. Microcalorimetric and manometric tests to assess anammox activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, D; Buttiglieri, G; Ficara, E; Caffaz, S; Lubello, C; Malpei, F

    2009-01-01

    The present study compares two experimental methods to evaluate Anammox activity based on the assessment of (1) the N(2) production rate by a manometric device, as previously proposed, and (2) the heat production rate by a microcalorimeter. Two samples of Anammox suspended biomass were taken from a pilot-plant, and their specific Anammox activity measured by both techniques. Both methods were successfully applied. As for calorimetric tests, they were performed for the first time on Anammox enriched sludge samples. Comparisons between the specific Anammox activities estimated by manometry and calorimetry and between expected (from the reaction enthalpy) and measured heat productions were performed. Promising results were obtained. PMID:19923777

  4. Discovery of anammox bacteria in terrestrial ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Humbert, Sylvia; Aragno, Michel; Zopfi, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Avant cette étude, le processus anammox (oxydation anaérobie de l’ammonium) était uniquement étudié dans les usines de traitement des eaux usées et dans les milieux aquatiques, sédiments inclus. Cependant, rien n'était connu encore sur la distribution, la diversité, l'abondance et l'activité des bactéries anammox dans les écosystèmes terrestres. Dans cette étude, nous apportons l’évidence, par approche moléculaire, de la présence de bactéries anammox dans les sols de zones humides, les sédime...

  5. Two-step partial nitritation/Anammox process in granulation reactors: Start-up operation and microbial characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosta, J; Vila, J; Sancho, I; Basset, N; Grifoll, M; Mata-Álvarez, J

    2015-12-01

    A two-stage Partial Nitritation (PN)/Anammox process was carried out at lab-scale conditions to treat reject water from a municipal WWTP. PN was achieved in a granular SBR obtaining an effluent with a NH4(+)-N/NO2(-)-N molar ratio around 1.0. The microbial characterization of this reactor revealed a predominance of Betaproteobacteria, with a member of Nitrosomonas as the main autotrophic ammonium oxidizing bacterium (AOB). Nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were under the detection limit of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, indicating their effective inhibition. The effluent of the PN reactor was fed to an Anammox SBR where stable operation was achieved with a NH4(+)-N:NO2(-)-N:NO3(-)-N stoichiometry of 1:1.25:0.14. The deviation to the theoretical stoichiometry could be attributed to the presence of heterotrophic biomass in the Anammox reactor (mainly members of Chlorobi and Chloroflexi). Planctomycetes accounted for 7% of the global community, being members of Brocadia (1.4% of the total abundance) the main anaerobic ammonium oxidizer detected. PMID:26386756

  6. The effect of sulfide inhibition on the ANAMMOX process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ren-Cun; Yang, Guang-Feng; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Ma, Chun; Yu, Jin-Jin; Xing, Bao-Shan

    2013-03-01

    The feasibility of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) process to treat wastewaters containing sulfide was studied in this work. Serum bottles were used as experimental containers in batch tests to analyze the short-term response of the ANAMMOX process under sulfide stress. The IC(50) of sulfide-S for ANAMMOX biomass was substrates-dependent and was calculated to be 264 mg L(-1) at an initial total nitrogen level of 200 mg L(-1) (molar ratio of ammonium and nitrite was 1:1). The long-term effects and the performance recovery under sulfide stress were continuously monitored and evaluated in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. The performance of the ANAMMOX system was halved at an sulfide-S level of 32 mg L(-1) within 13 days; however, the nitrogen removal rate (NRR) decreased by only 17.2% within 18 days at an sulfide-S concentration of 40 mg L(-1) after long-time acclimatization of sludge in the presence of sulfide. The ANAMMOX performance recovered under sulfide-S level of 8 mg L(-1) with a steady NRR increasing speed, linear relationship between the NRR and operation time. The synchronic reduce in the specific ANAMMOX activity and the biomass extended the apparent doubling time of the nitrogen removal capacity and decreased biomass growth rate. PMID:23273856

  7. The inhibition effects of salt on Anammox process:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Pan-qing

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation was a novel biological nitrogen elimination process and attached more and more attention owing to its effectivity and economic saving. But, many kinds of factor especially salinity could affect the activity of Anammox bacteria which had some disadvantages to the application of Anammox process. In this article, a short review about the effects of salinity on Anammox bacteria was summarized and some advices were proposed to the research and the application of Anammox process in the future.

  8. The relationship between anammox and denitrification in the sediment of an inland river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Sheng, E-mail: zhous@outlook.com [Eco-environmental Protection Research Institute, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 1000 Jinqi Road, Shanghai 201403 (China); Institute of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Borjigin, Sodbilig; Riya, Shohei; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki [Institute of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    This study measured the microbial processes of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and denitrification in sediment sampled from two sites in the estuary of an inland river (Koisegawa River, Ibaragi prefecture, Japan) using a nitrogen isotope pairing technique (IPT). The responses of anammox and denitrification activities to temperature and nitrate concentration were also evaluated. Further, to elucidate the correlation between anammox and denitrification processes, an inhibition experiment was conducted, using chlorate to inhibit the first step of denitrification. Denitrification activity was much higher than anammox activity, and it reached a maximum at the surface layer in February 2012. Denitrification activity decreased as sediment depth increased, and a similar phenomenon was observed for anammox activity in the sediment of site A, where aquatic plants were absent from the surroundings. The activities of both denitrification and anammox were temperature-dependent, but they responded differently to changes in incubation temperature. Compared to a linear increase in denitrification as temperature rose to 35 °C, the optimal temperature for anammox was 25 °C, after which the activity decreased sharply. At the same time, both anammox and denitrification activities increased with NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentration. The Michaelis–Menten kinetic constants (V{sub max} and K{sub m}) of denitrification were significantly higher than those of the anammox process. Furthermore, anammox activity decreased accordingly when the first step of denitrification was inhibited, which probably reduced the amount of the intermediate NO{sub 2}{sup −}. Our study provides the first direct exploration of the denitrification-dependent correlation of anammox activity in the sediment of inland river. - Highlights: • The activity of denitrification in river sediment was much higher than anammox. • Denitrification and anammox respond differently to changes in temperature.

  9. The effect of nitrite inhibition on the anammox process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, T; van der Star, W R L; Kleerebezem, R; Lubello, C; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2012-05-15

    The negative effect of nitrite on anammox activity has been reported widely during the past decade. Although the adverse effect is clear, conflicting reports exist on the level at which it occurs and its reversible/irreversible nature. An in depth study on nitrite inhibition therefore was performed in which the influence of environmental factors was evaluated. Anammox activity was measured in anammox granules by continuously monitored standardized manometric batch tests extending the interpretation by evaluation of lag times, maximum conversion rates during the tests and substrates/product conversion ratios. The granules where obtained from a one-stage anammox reactor, the dominant anammox organisms belonged to the Brocadia type. The observed 50% activity inhibition for nitrite (IC(50)) was 0.4 g N L(-1). The activity recovered fully after removal of the nitrite. Conversion in fresh medium after exposure to up to 6 g NO(2)(-)-N L(-1) for 24 h showed less then 60% loss of activity. Presence of ammonium during nitrite (2 g N L(-1)) exposure resulted in a stronger loss of activity after nitrite exposure (50% and 30% in presence and absence of ammonium respectively). Presence of oxygen during nitrite incubation led to a maximum activity reduction of 32%. The recovery after exposure indicates that the adverse effect of nitrite is reversible and thus inhibitory rather than toxic in nature. Similarities between exposure at three different pH-values indicate that nitrite rather than nitrous acid is the actual inhibiting compound. PMID:22424965

  10. Microbial Community Composition and Ultrastructure of Granules from a Full-Scale Anammox Reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela

    2014-12-11

    Granules in anammox reactors contain besides anammox bacteria other microbial communities whose identity and relationship with the anammox bacteria are not well understood. High calcium concentrations are often supplied to anammox reactors to obtain sufficient bacterial aggregation and biomass retention. The aim of this study was to provide the first characterization of bacterial and archaeal communities in anammox granules from a full-scale anammox reactor and to explore on the possible role of calcium in such aggregates. High magnification imaging using backscattered electrons revealed that anammox bacteria may be embedded in calcium phosphate precipitates. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments showed, besides anammox bacteria (Brocadiacea, 32 %), substantial numbers of heterotrophic bacteria Ignavibacteriacea (18 %) and Anaerolinea (7 %) along with heterotrophic denitrifiers Rhodocyclacea (9 %), Comamonadacea (3 %), and Shewanellacea (3 %) in the granules. It is hypothesized that these bacteria may form a network in which heterotrophic denitrifiers cooperate to achieve a well-functioning denitrification system as they can utilize the nitrate intrinsically produced by the anammox reaction. This network may provide a niche for the proliferation of archaea. Hydrogenotrophic methananogens, which scavenge the key fermentation product H2, were the most abundant archaea detected. Cells resembling the polygon-shaped denitrifying methanotroph Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera were observed by electron microscopy. It is hypothesized that the anammox process in a full-scale reactor triggers various reactions overall leading to efficient denitrification and a sink of carbon as biomass in anammox granules.

  11. Enrichment culture of marine anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Yong-jie

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the enrichment of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria in the marine environment using sediment samples obtained from the East China Sea and discusses the nitrogen removal efficiency of marine anammox bioreactor. Enrichment of anammox bacteria with simultaneous removal of nitrite and ammonium ions was observed in the Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor under a total nitrogen loading rate of 0.37kg-N m-3day-1. In this study, The nitrogen removal efficiency was up to 80% and the molar-reaction ratio of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate was 1.0:1.22:0.22 which was a little different from a previously reported ratio of 1.0:1.32:0.26 in a freshwater system.

  12. Occurrence and activity of anammox bacteria in surface sediments of the southern North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Bale, N.; de Villanueva, L.; Fan, H.; Hopmans, E. C.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Stal, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence and activity of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) bacteria in sandy and muddy sand sediments of the southern North Sea. The presence of anammox bacteria was established through the detection of specific phosphocholine-monoether ladderane lipids, 16S rRNA gene, and hydrazine synthase (hzsA) genes. Anammox activity was measured in intact sediment cores (in situ rate) and in sediment slurries (potential rate) as the rate of N2 evolution from 15N-labeled substra...

  13. Hot topics and application trends of the anammox biotechnology: a review by bibliometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zuotao; Liu, Sitong

    2014-01-01

    Anammox has been extensively identified as a novel and sustained biotechnology for wastewater treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the hot topics and application trends of anammox biotechnology by bibliometric analysis. The results show that “Water science and technology” and “Environmental science ecology” are the prevalent journal and category in this field. Many researches about “process” and “inhibition” have been carried out to conquer common challenges of anammox biotechnolog...

  14. Coexistence of nitrifying, anammox and denitrifying bacteria in a sequencing batch reactor

    OpenAIRE

    MichelaLangone; JiaYan

    2014-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen removal efficiencies from ammonium-rich wastewaters have been demonstrated by several applications, that combine nitritation and anammox processes. Denitrification will occur simultaneously when organic carbon is also present. In this study, the activity of aerobic ammonia oxidizing, anammox and denitrifying bacteria in a full scale Sequencing Batch Reactor, treating digester supernatants, was studied by means of batch-assays. AOB and anammox activities were maximum at pH of...

  15. Metatranscriptomics reveals the molecular mechanism of large granule formation in granular anammox reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Samik; Lamendella, Regina; Strutt, Steven; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Saikaly, Pascal E.

    2016-06-01

    Granules enriched with anammox bacteria are essential in enhancing the treatment of ammonia-rich wastewater, but little is known about how anammox bacteria grow and multiply inside granules. Here, we combined metatranscriptomics, quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to study the changes in community composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in a granular anammox reactor with the objective of understanding the molecular mechanism of anammox growth and multiplication that led to formation of large granules. Size distribution analysis revealed the spatial distribution of granules in which large granules having higher abundance of anammox bacteria (genus Brocadia) dominated the bottom biomass. Metatranscriptomics analysis detected all the essential transcripts for anammox metabolism. During the later stage of reactor operation, higher expression of ammonia and nitrite transport proteins and key metabolic enzymes mainly in the bottom large granules facilitated anammox bacteria activity. The high activity resulted in higher growth and multiplication of anammox bacteria and expanded the size of the granules. This conceptual model for large granule formation proposed here may assist in the future design of anammox processes for mainstream wastewater treatment.

  16. Metatranscriptomics reveals the molecular mechanism of large granule formation in granular anammox reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Bagchi, Samik

    2016-06-20

    Granules enriched with anammox bacteria are essential in enhancing the treatment of ammonia-rich wastewater, but little is known about how anammox bacteria grow and multiply inside granules. Here, we combined metatranscriptomics, quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to study the changes in community composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in a granular anammox reactor with the objective of understanding the molecular mechanism of anammox growth and multiplication that led to formation of large granules. Size distribution analysis revealed the spatial distribution of granules in which large granules having higher abundance of anammox bacteria (genus Brocadia) dominated the bottom biomass. Metatranscriptomics analysis detected all the essential transcripts for anammox metabolism. During the later stage of reactor operation, higher expression of ammonia and nitrite transport proteins and key metabolic enzymes mainly in the bottom large granules facilitated anammox bacteria activity. The high activity resulted in higher growth and multiplication of anammox bacteria and expanded the size of the granules. This conceptual model for large granule formation proposed here may assist in the future design of anammox processes for mainstream wastewater treatment.

  17. Effects of Inhibiting Acylated Homoserine Lactones (AHLs) on Anammox Activity and Stability of Granules'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Zhang, Hanmin; Zou, Xiang; Yang, Fenglin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the effects of AHL-based QS signals on anammox activity and stability of granules' were investigated. Results clearly showed that the vanillin and porcine kidney acylase I could reduce the AHLs in anammox bacteria. Inactivation of AHLs by vanillin and porcine kidney acylase I depressed the nitrogen removal ability of anammox bacteria. A significant inhibition of specific anammox activity was observed when the concentration of vanillin and porcine kidney acylase I increased to 1 g/L. Anammox activity was depressed on enzyme level. Moreover, degradation of AHLs under vanillin and AHL-acylase exposure could result in anammox granules' disintegration. Further research showed that the contents of protein (PN) and polysaccharides (PS) in extracellular polymeric substances were reduced with AHLs blocked, and it further explained the instability and weakening strength of the anammox granules. The results of our investigation provided new insight into the AHL-based QS-regulated anammox activity, leading a potential way to enhance stability of anammox granules. PMID:27061587

  18. The Increasing Interest of ANAMMOX Research in China: Bacteria, Process Development, and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen pollution created severe environmental problems and increasingly has become an important issue in China. Since the first discovery of ANAMMOX in the early 1990s, this related technology has become a promising as well as sustainable bioprocess for treating strong nitrogenous wastewater. Many Chinese research groups have concentrated their efforts on the ANAMMOX research including bacteria, process development, and application during the past 20 years. A series of new and outstanding outcomes including the discovery of new ANAMMOX bacterial species (Brocadia sinica, sulfate-dependent ANAMMOX bacteria (Anammoxoglobus sulfate and Bacillus benzoevorans, and the highest nitrogen removal performance (74.3–76.7 kg-N/m3/d in lab scale granule-based UASB reactors around the world were achieved. The characteristics, structure, packing pattern and floatation mechanism of the high-rate ANAMMOX granules in ANAMMOX reactors were also carefully illustrated by native researchers. Nowadays, some pilot and full-scale ANAMMOX reactors were constructed to treat different types of ammonium-rich wastewater including monosodium glutamate wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, and leachate. The prime objective of the present review is to elucidate the ongoing ANAMMOX research in China from lab scale to full scale applications, comparative analysis, and evaluation of significant findings and to set a design to usher ANAMMOX research in culmination.

  19. Anammox transited from denitrification in upflow biofilm reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shao-hui; ZHENG Ping; HUA Yu-mei

    2004-01-01

    Anammox was successfully transited from heterotrophic denitrification and autotrophic denitrification in two upflow biofilm reactors, respectively. The results showed that the volumetric loading rate and nitrogen removal efficiency in the reactor transited from heterotrophic denitrification were higher than that in its counterpart. When the hydraulic retention time was 12 h or so, the total nitrogen loading rate was about 0.609 kg N/(m3·d), and the effluent ammonia and nitrite concentrations were less than 8.5 mg/L and 2.5 mg/L, respectively. The upflow anammox biofilm reactor was capable of keeping and accumulating the slow-growing bacteria efficiently. During operation of the reactor, the biomass color was gradually turned from brownish to red, and the ratio of ammonia consumption, nitrite consumption and nitrate production approached the theoretical one. These changes could be used as an indicator for working state of the reactor.

  20. Co-Occurring Anammox, Denitrification, and Codenitrification in Agricultural Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Andrew; Heitman, Joshua; Tobias, Craig; Philips, Rebecca; Song, Bongkeun

    2013-01-01

    Anammox and denitrification mediated by bacteria are known to be the major microbial processes converting fixed N to N2 gas in various ecosystems. Codenitrification and denitrification by fungi are additional pathways producing N2 in soils. However, fungal codenitrification and denitrification have not been well investigated in agricultural soils. To evaluate bacterial and fungal processes contributing to N2 production, molecular and 15N isotope analyses were conducted with soil samples colle...

  1. Modelling and control design for SHARON/Anammox reactor sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Perez, Borja; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Sin, Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    With the perspective of investigating a suitable control design for autotrophic nitrogen removal, this work presents a complete model of the SHARON/Anammox reactor sequence. The dynamics of the reactor were explored pointing out the different scales of the rates in the system: slow microbial metabolism against fast chemical reaction and mass transfer. Likewise, the analysis of the dynamics contributed to establish qualitatively the requirements for control of the reactors, both for regulation...

  2. Comparison of sidestream treatment technologies: post aerobic digestion and Anammox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Heidi; Johnson, Thomas D; Johnson, Bruce R; Oerke, David; Graziano, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Post aerobic digestion (PAD) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) are sidestream treatment technologies which are both excellent options for the reduction of nitrogen recycled back to the liquid stream without the need for supplemental carbon or alkalinity. However, the achievement of this goal is where the similarities between the two technologies end. PAD is an advanced digestion process where aerobic digestion is designed to follow anaerobic digestion. Other benefits of PAD include volatile solids reduction, odor reduction, and struvite formation reduction. Anammox harnesses a specific species of autotrophic bacteria that can help achieve partial nitritation/deammonification. Other benefits of Anammox include lower energy consumption due to requiring less oxygen compared with conventional nitrification. This manuscript describes the unique benefits and challenges of each technology. Example installations are presented with a narrative of how and why the technology was selected. A whole plant simulator is used to compare and contrast the mass balances and net present value costs on an 'apples to apples' basis. The discussion includes descriptions of conditions under which each technology would potentially be the most beneficial and cost-effective against a baseline facility without sidestream treatment. PMID:27232417

  3. Biophysical properties of membrane lipids of anammox bacteria : I. Ladderane phospholipids form highly organized fluid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumann, Henry A.; Longo, Marjorie L.; Stroeve, Pieter; Poolman, Bert; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Damste, Jaap S. Sinninghe; Schouten, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Anammox bacteria that are capable of anaerobically oxidizing ammonium (anammox) with nitrite to nitrogen gas produce unique membrane phospholipids that comprise hydrocarbon chains with three or five linearly condensed cyclobutane rings. To gain insight into the biophysical properties of these 'ladde

  4. Evaluation on the microbial interactions of anaerobic ammonium oxidizers and heterotrophs in Anammox biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Ruscalleda, Mael; Smets, Barth F.

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) is a cost-effective new process to treat high-strength nitrogenous wastewater. In this work, the microbial interactions of anaerobic ammonium oxidizers and heterotrophs through the exchange of soluble microbial products (SMP) in Anammox biofilm and the affec...

  5. Assessment of Heterotrophic Growth Supported by Soluble Microbial Products in Anammox Biofilm using Multidimensional Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiwen; Sun, Jing; Peng, Lai; Wang, Dongbo; Dai, Xiaohu; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is known to autotrophically convert ammonium to dinitrogen gas with nitrite as the electron acceptor, but little is known about their released microbial products and how these are relative to heterotrophic growth in anammox system. In this work, we applied a mathematical model to assess the heterotrophic growth supported by three key microbial products produced by bacteria in anammox biofilm (utilization associated products (UAP), biomass associated products (BAP), and decay released substrate). Both One-dimensional and two-dimensional numerical biofilm models were developed to describe the development of anammox biofilm as a function of the multiple bacteria–substrate interactions. Model simulations show that UAP of anammox is the main organic carbon source for heterotrophs. Heterotrophs are mainly dominant at the surface of the anammox biofilm with small fraction inside the biofilm. 1-D model is sufficient to describe the main substrate concentrations/fluxes within the anammox biofilm, while the 2-D model can give a more detailed biomass distribution. The heterotrophic growth on UAP is mainly present at the outside of anammox biofilm, their growth on BAP (HetB) are present throughout the biofilm, while the growth on decay released substrate (HetD) is mainly located in the inner layers of the biofilm. PMID:27273460

  6. Hot topics and application trends of the anammox biotechnology: a review by bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zuotao; Liu, Sitong

    2014-01-01

    Anammox has been extensively identified as a novel and sustained biotechnology for wastewater treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the hot topics and application trends of anammox biotechnology by bibliometric analysis. The results show that "Water science and technology" and "Environmental science ecology" are the prevalent journal and category in this field. Many researches about "process" and "inhibition" have been carried out to conquer common challenges of anammox biotechnology in its actual engineering application. "Fluorescence in situ hybridization" continues to be the leading rRNA microbiological analysis method after its first application. Most importantly, "Completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON)", "Sequencing batch reactors (SBR) for anammox operation", "black water treatment" and "anammox biofilm" are identified as the prevalent process type, reactor type, wastewater type and bacterial aggregation form in anammox research currently, which forecasts the further engineering application direction of anammox biotechnology. The study will be useful for the researchers to acquaint the current state and the application trends in anammox biotechnology field. PMID:24855588

  7. Effect of Different Filling Materials in Anammox Bacteria Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek ÖZGÜN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox is a process that ammonium as electron donor is oxidized to nitrogen gas using nitrite as electron acceptor. Compared to conventional nitrification-denitrification processes, this process is used less oxygen and no organic material (methanol, glucose. However, the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria (11-30 days is disadvantages. Therefore, batch reactors have been carried out in these bacteria enrichment. In this study continuously operated upflow anaerobic sludge reactor (UASB using different filling materials disposing of sensitive and slow-growing Anammox bacteria out of the system is purposed. Design and Methods: System is operated up-flow column reactor at 2 days hydraulic retention time (HRT in 45 days. In this study, ceramic stones and Linpor filling material are used. Using synthetic wastewater containing ammonium and nitrite, Ar/CO2 anaerobic conditions (95/5% supplied with gas. System is operated at a temperature 253 C in UASB. Temperature, pH, ammonia-nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen are measured. Results: Both filling material reactors are operated in 45 days. Ceramic stones filling reactor is observed quickly reaches 90% were used reactor ammonium removal. The ammonium nitrogen removal was slower in Linpor filling materials reactor. Nitrite removal is reached up to 90% in both the reactor. When compared to the stoichiometric equation in Linpor was composed of large amounts of nitrate. At the end of 25 days the results were similar to ceramic stone filling reactor with Linpor filling material reactors. Conclusions and Original Value: Anammox process as from nitrogen removal processes was discovered in 1995. Anammox bacteria that make up this process due to very low growth rates of microbial bacteria in the system must be kept in the system. Most of the studies in the literature, these bacteria enrichment stage is started instead of a continuous batch reactor system. In this study

  8. Importance of Anammox to the Nitrogen Removal in Deep Cascadian Basin Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, P.; Penton, C. R.; Devol, A. H.

    2006-12-01

    Anammox is a recently discovered N2 producing pathway where NH4+ is oxidized by NO2- to form N2. Before anammox was discovered in a waste water treatment plant in the mid 1990-ties, denitrification was considered the only removal mechanism for bio-available N in the ocean. In marine sediments, the importance of anammox is suggested to increase with water depth. At the deepest site reported (700 m), anammox account for 67-79 percent of total N2 production. If these estimates are consistent for sediments at depths >700 m, anammox would be responsible for at least 2/3 of the total N2 production in deep sediments which suggest this pathway to be highly significant in global N cycling. We investigated the role of anammox in deep sea sediments of the Cascadian basin using microbiological and biogeochemical techniques. Anammox and denitrification rates were measured at depths 2700-3200 m at eight sites in August 2006. Sediments were collected with a Multicorer and 15N isotope pairing was used together with analyses of solute pore water distribution of inorganic N and O2 to estimate activity rates and distribution of anammox and denitrification in the sediment. Pore water profiles of NO2-, NO3-, NH4+ and O2 at all sites show a removal of ammonium in the suboxic zone that strongly suggest an anaerobic ammonium oxidation by nitrite or nitrate. Minimum ammonium removal rates were estimated to vary between 1.7-31 umol NH4+ m-2 day-1 among the 8 stations. The thickness of the ammonium removal zone suggesting anammox activity increased at sites further off the coast (from 1-11 cm) and correlated to the NO2-+NO3- distribution in the sediment. Preliminary results strongly suggest an extensive anammox activity in these sediments responsible for at least 20-60 percent of total benthic N2 production in the Cascadian basin.

  9. Influence of preservation temperature on the characteristics of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Bao-Shan; Guo, Qiong; Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Qian-Qian; Li, Peng; Ni, Wei-Min; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2016-05-01

    Preserving active anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) biomass is a potential method for securing sufficient seeding biomass for the rapid start-up of full-scale anammox processes. In this study, anammox granules were cultured in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor (R0), and then the enriched anammox granules were preserved at 35, 20, 4, and -30 °C. The subsequent reactivation characteristics of the granules were evaluated in four UASB reactors (denoted R1, R2, R3, and R4, respectively) to investigate the effect of preservation temperature on the characteristics of anammox granules and their reactivation performance. The results demonstrated that 4 °C was the optimal preservation temperature for maintaining the biomass, activity, settleability, and integrity of the anammox granules and their cellular structures. During the preservation period, a first-order exponential decay model may be used to simulate the decay of anammox biomass and activity. The protein-to-polysaccharide ratio in the extracellular polymeric substances and the heme c content could not effectively indicate the changes in settleability and activity of the anammox granules, respectively, and a loss of bioactivity was positively associated with the degree of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria cell lysis. After 42 days of storage, the anammox granules preserved at 4 °C (R3) exhibited a better recovery performance than those preserved at 20 °C (R2), -30 °C (R4), and 35 °C (R1). The comprehensive comparison indicated that 4 °C is the optimal storage temperature for anammox granular sludge because it promotes improved maintenance and recovery performance properties. PMID:26780355

  10. Modelling and control design for SHARON/Anammox reactor sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde Perez, Borja; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Sin, Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    With the perspective of investigating a suitable control design for autotrophic nitrogen removal, this work presents a complete model of the SHARON/Anammox reactor sequence. The dynamics of the reactor were explored pointing out the different scales of the rates in the system: slow microbial...... metabolism against fast chemical reaction and mass transfer. Likewise, the analysis of the dynamics contributed to establish qualitatively the requirements for control of the reactors, both for regulation and for optimal operation. Work in progress on quantitatively analysing different control structure...

  11. Effects of inorganic carbon limitation on anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuya; Isaka, Kazuichi; Kazama, Futaba

    2011-03-01

    Anammox bacteria are chemoautotrophic bacteria that oxidize ammonium with nitrite as the electron acceptor and with CO(2) as the main carbon source. The effects of inorganic carbon (IC) limitation on anammox bacteria were investigated using continuous feeding tests. In this study, a gel carrier with entrapped anammox sludge was used. It was clearly shown that the anammox activity deteriorated with a decrease in the influent IC concentration. The relationship between the influent IC concentration and the anammox activity was analyzed using Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and the apparent K(m) was determined to be 1.2mg-C/L. The activity could be recovered by adding IC to the influent. The consumption ratio of IC to ammonium was not constant and mainly depended on the influent ratio of the IC to ammonium concentrations (inf.IC/inf.NH(4)-N). The results indicated that an inf.IC/inf.NH(4)-N ratio of 0.2 in the anammox reactor was ideal for the anammox process using gel cubes. PMID:21256745

  12. Microbial Aggregate and Functional Community Distribution in a Sequencing Batch Reactor with Anammox Granules

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Shan

    2013-05-01

    Anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process is a one-step conversion of ammonia into nitrogen gas with nitrite as an electron acceptor. It has been developed as a sustainable technology for ammonia removal from wastewater in the last decade. For wastewater treatment, anammox biomass was widely developed as microbial aggregate where the conditions for enrichment of anammox community must be delicately controlled and growth of other bacteria especially NOB should be suppressed to enhance nitrogen removal efficiency. Little is known about the distribution of microbial aggregates in anammox process. Thus the objective of our study was to assess whether segregation of biomass occurs in granular anammox system. In this study, a laboratory-scale sequential batch reactor (SBR) was successfully operated for a period of 80 days with granular anammox biomass. Temporal and spatial distribution of microbial aggregates was studied by particle characterization system and the distribution of functional microbial communities was studied with qPCR and 16s rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing. Our study revealed the spatial and temporal distribution of biomass aggregates based on their sizes and density. Granules (>200 μm) preferentially accumulated in the bottom of the reactor while floccules (30-200 μm) were relatively rich at the top layer. The average density of aggregate was higher at the bottom than the density of those at the top layer. Degranulation caused by lack of hydrodynamic shear force in the top layer was considered responsible for this phenomenon. NOB was relatively rich in the top layer while percentage of anammox population was higher at the bottom, and anammox bacteria population gradually increased over a period of time. NOB growth was supposed to be associated with the increase of floccules based on the concurrent occurrence. Thus, segregation of biomass can be utilized to develop an effective strategy to enrich anammox and wash out NOB by shortening the settling

  13. Role of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) in Nitrogen Removal from a Freshwater Aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard L; Böhlke, J K; Song, Bongkeun; Tobias, Craig R

    2015-10-20

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) couples the oxidation of ammonium with the reduction of nitrite, producing N2. The presence and activity of anammox bacteria in groundwater were investigated at multiple locations in an aquifer variably affected by a large, wastewater-derived contaminant plume. Anammox bacteria were detected at all locations tested using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantification of hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) gene transcripts. Anammox and denitrification activities were quantified by in situ (15)NO2(-) tracer tests along anoxic flow paths in areas of varying ammonium, nitrate, and organic carbon abundances. Rates of denitrification and anammox were determined by quantifying changes in (28)N2, (29)N2, (30)N2, (15)NO3(-), (15)NO2(-), and (15)NH4(+) with groundwater travel time. Anammox was present and active in all areas tested, including where ammonium and dissolved organic carbon concentrations were low, but decreased in proportion to denitrification when acetate was added to increase available electron supply. Anammox contributed 39-90% of potential N2 production in this aquifer, with rates on the order of 10 nmol N2-N L(-1) day(-1). Although rates of both anammox and denitrification during the tracer tests were low, they were sufficient to reduce inorganic nitrogen concentrations substantially during the overall groundwater residence times in the aquifer. These results demonstrate that anammox activity in groundwater can rival that of denitrification and may need to be considered when assessing nitrogen mass transport and permanent loss of fixed nitrogen in aquifers. PMID:26401911

  14. Research progress of Anammox-denitrification coupling start up and Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Pi-jian

    2014-01-01

    Since anammox can simultaneously remove ammonia and nitrite nitrogen,And low cost,have been researched by many scholars,Its high ammonia wastewater treatment has great application value. However, high concentrations of organic carbon on anaerobic ammonium oxidation significantly inhibited. How to achieve anaerobic ammonium oxidation and denitrification coupling, is now a focus of research in the training process, anammox bacteria and denitrifying bacteria on pH, organic matter with different requirements, this paper summarizes the anammox and denitrification startup method and pH, organic matter on anaerobic ammonia oxidation and denitrification coupling and explore control strategies for anaerobic ammonium oxidation and denitrification coupling recommendations.

  15. Batch culture enrichment of ANAMMOX populations from anaerobic and aerobic seed cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneethi, S; Joseph, Kurian

    2011-01-01

    Discharge of nitrate and ammonia rich wastewaters into the natural waters encourage eutrophication, and contribute to aquatic toxicity. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation process (ANAMMOX) is a novel biological nitrogen removal alternative to nitrification-denitrification, that removes ammonia using nitrite as the electron acceptor. The feasibility of enriching the ANAMMOX bacteria from the anaerobic digester sludge of a biomethanation plant treating vegetable waste and aerobic sludge from an activated sludge process treating domestic sewage is reported in this paper. ANAMMOX bacterial activity was monitored and established in terms of nitrogen transformations to ammonia, nitrite and nitrate along with formation of hydrazine and hydroxylamine. PMID:20729077

  16. Biphasic Behavior of Anammox Regulated by Nitrite and Nitrate in an Estuarine Sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Trimmer, Mark; Nicholls, Joanna C.; Morley, Nicholas; Davies, Christian A.; Aldridge, John

    2005-01-01

    The production of N2 gas via anammox was investigated in sediment slurries at in situ NO2− concentrations in the presence and absence of NO3−. With single enrichment above 10 μM 14NO2− or 14NO3− and 15NH4+, anammox activity was always linear (P < 0.05), in agreement with previous findings. In contrast, anammox exhibited a range of activity below 10 μM NO2− or NO3−, including an elevated response at lower concentrations. With 100 μM NO3−, no significant transient accumulation of NO2− could be ...

  17. One-stage partial nitritation and anammox in membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowu; Sun, Kaihang; Wei, Qiaoyan; Urata, Kohei; Yamashita, Yuki; Hong, Nian; Hama, Takehide; Kawagoshi, Yasunori

    2016-06-01

    Partial nitritation and anammox (PN/A) was applied in a lab-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) to investigate its technical feasibility for treating ammonium-rich wastewater with low C/N ratio. The bacterial community was analyzed by molecular cloning and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Partial nitritation (PN) was first realized in MBR by seeding aerobic activated sludge. With dissolved oxygen control, a steady effluent mixture with NO2 (-)-N/NH4 (+)-N ratio of 1.13 ± 0.08 was generated from the PN process. Subsequently, the MBR was seeded with anammox biomass on day 59. After running 300 days, the one-stage PN/A achieved a maximum nitrogen removal rate of 1.45 kg N/m(3)/day at the nitrogen removal efficiency of 89.5 %. Microbial community analysis revealed that Nitrosomonas sp. HKU and Nitrosospira sp. YKU corresponded to nitritation; meanwhile, Candidatus Brocadia TKU sp. accounted for nitrogen removal of the PN/A system. Specifically, Nitrosomonas sp. were enriched in the reactor at the PN/A phase and then conquered Nitrosospira sp. to be the predominant ammonia oxidizers. Nitrite oxidizers and denitrifiers were detected in symbiosis with aforementioned microbes. Denitrification promised potential plus nitrogen depletion. The present one-stage PN/A process allows a significant decrease in operational costs compared with classical nitrification/denitrification. PMID:26916267

  18. Kinetics of nitrogen removal in high rate anammox upflow filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process kinetics for laboratory-scale anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) upflow filter using synthetic wastewater as feed were investigated. The experimental unit consisted of a 2.0 L reactor filled with three-dimensional plastic media. The filter was tested for different influent substrate concentrations and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The substrate loading removal rate was compared with prediction of Stover-Kincannon, second-order and the first-order substrate removal models. Upon approaching pseudo-steady-state condition, substrate ammonium or nitrite concentrations were increased from 280 to 462 mg N/L, while HRT was stepwise decreased from 14.4 to 2 h, with a concomitant increase in nitrogen loading rate (NLR) from 0.93 to 7.34 g/L day. Based on calculations, Stover-Kincannon model and second-order 'Grau' model were found to be the appropriate models to describe the upflow filter. According to Stover-Kincannon model, the maximum total substrate removal rate constant (Umax) and saturation value constant (KB) were suggested as 12.4 and 12.0 g N/L day, respectively. As Stover-Kincannon model and second-order model gave high correlation coefficients (97.9% and 98.6%, respectively), these models may be used in predicting the behavior or design of the anammox filter.

  19. Discrepant membrane fouling of partial nitrification and anammox membrane bioreactor operated at the same nitrogen loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhao; Zhang, Zuotao; Liu, Sitong; Miyoshi, Taro; Matsuyama, Hideo; Ni, Jinren

    2016-08-01

    In this study, two times more serious membrane fouling was found in anammox membrane bioreactor, compared to partial nitrification membrane bioreactor (PN-MBR) operated at the same nitrogen loading rate. By protein, polysaccharide, amino acids and functional groups analysis, it was found that the discrepancy in membrane fouling was virtually due to the difference in microbial products of nitrifiers and anammox bacteria. Protein and polysaccharide were main foulants on membrane surface; meanwhile theirs content and ratio in the EPS, supernatant and membrane surface were significantly different in PN-MBR and anammox-MBR. The anammox metabolism products contained much more hydrophobic organics, hydrophobic amino acids, and hydrophobic functional groups than nitrifiers. A mass of anammox bacteria as well as hydrophobic metabolism products deposited on the hydrophobic membrane surface and formed serious fouling. In further, hydrophilic modification is more urgently needed to mitigate membrane fouling when running anammox-MBR, than PN-MBR. PMID:27209455

  20. Performance and control of biofilm systems with partial nitritation and Anammox for supernatant treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Szatkowska, Beata

    2007-01-01

    Separate treatment of supernatant with dewatering of digested sludge with application of partial nitritation/Anammox process is assessed to be a cost-effective way to remove about 10-15% of influent nitrogen and, thereby, facilitate possibilities to reach required effluent requirements from the plant. The combined partial nitritation/Anammox process can be performed in two separate reactors or in one-stage. Both process options have been investigated in technical- and laboratory-scale pilot p...

  1. Ammonium removal from municipal wastewater with application of ion exchange and partial nitritation/Anammox process

    OpenAIRE

    Malovanyy, Andriy

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater with application of Anammox process offers cost reduction, especially if it is combined with maximal use of organic content of wastewater for biogas production. In this study a new technology is proposed, which is based on ammonium concentration from municipal wastewater by ion exchange followed by biological removal of ammonium from the concentrated stream by partial nitritation/Anammox process. In experiments on ammonium concentration four the most...

  2. Identification of the type II cytochrome c maturation pathway in anammox bacteria by comparative genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Ferousi, Christina; Speth, Daan R.; Reimann, Joachim; Op den Camp, Huub JM; Allen, James WA; Keltjens, Jan TM; Jetten, Mike SM

    2013-01-01

    Background Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria may contribute up to 50% to the global nitrogen production, and are, thus, key players of the global nitrogen cycle. The molecular mechanism of anammox was recently elucidated and is suggested to proceed through a branched respiratory chain. This chain involves an exceptionally high number of c-type cytochrome proteins which are localized within the anammoxosome, a unique subcellular organelle. During transport into the organelle the ...

  3. High-rate nitrogen removal by the Anammox process with a sufficient inorganic carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiachun; Zhang, Li; Fukuzaki, Yasuhiro; Hira, Daisuke; Furukawa, Kenji

    2010-12-01

    This study focused on high-rate nitrogen removal by the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process with a sufficient inorganic carbon (IC) source. Experiments were carried out in an up-flow column Anammox reactor fed with synthetic inorganic wastewater for 110 days. The IC source was added into the influent tank in the form of bicarbonate. The results confirmed the positive impact of inorganic matter on stimulating Anammox activity. After the addition of sufficient IC, the nitrogen removal rate sharply increased from 5.2 to 11.8 kg-Nm(-3)day(-1) within only 32 days. NO(2)-N inhibition was not observed even at NO(2)-N concentrations greater than 460 mgN/L, indicating the enriched Anammox consortium adapted to high NO(2)-N concentrations. The ratio of NO(2)-N removal, NO(3)-N production and NH(4)-N removal for the reactor was correspondingly changed from 1.21:0.21:1 to 1.24:0.18:1. Simultaneously, the sludge volume index of the Anammox granules decreased markedly from 36.8 to 21.5 mL/g, which was attributed to the implementation of proper operational strategy. In addition, DNA analysis revealed that a shift from the KSU-1 strain to the KU2 strain occurred in the Anammox community. PMID:20709538

  4. Effects of organic matter in livestock manure digester liquid on microbial community structure and in situ activity of anammox granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindaichi, Tomonori; Awata, Takanori; Mugimoto, Yuichiro; Rathnayake, Rathnayake M L D; Kasahara, Shinsuke; Satoh, Hisashi

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a promising process for NH4(+)-rich wastewaters such as anaerobic digester liquids. In the present study, we investigated various properties of an up-flow column reactor containing anammox granules and fed with a real digester liquid at four different concentrations (Phases 1 to 4). The efficiencies of NH4(+) and NO2(-) removal decreased by up to 32% and 42%, respectively, in the digester-liquid-fed reactor (reactor-DL). When the performance of reactor-DL deteriorated, the community structure, spatial distribution, and in situ anammox activity in the two reactors were further investigated using 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and microelectrode measurements. The phylogenetic analysis and FISH results showed that non-anammox bacteria were predominant in the granule outer layers in reactor-DL, whereas anammox bacteria still dominated the granule interiors. Microelectrode measurements showed clear evidence of NH4(+) oxidation activity in the interiors of granules from reactor-DL. Batch experiments using anammox granules at different acetate concentrations indicated that concentrations up to 50 mM had no effects on the anammox activity, whereas inorganic carbon uptake decreased in the presence of acetate. The present study clearly shows that the anammox activity and anammox bacterial density in the granules were maintained after feeding the digester liquid to the reactor for 140 days. PMID:27314631

  5. Nitrogen polishing in a fully anoxic anammox MBBR treating mainstream nitritation-denitritation effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Pusker; Holgate, Becky; Miller, Mark W; Park, Hongkeun; Chandran, Kartik; Wett, Bernhard; Murthy, Sudhir; Bott, Charles B

    2016-03-01

    As nitrogen discharge limits are becoming more stringent, short-cut nitrogen systems and tertiary nitrogen polishing steps are gaining popularity. For partial nitritation or nitritation-denitritation systems, anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) polishing may be feasible to remove residual ammonia and nitrite from the effluent. Nitrogen polishing of mainstream nitritation-denitritation system effluent via anammox was studied at 25°C in a fully anoxic moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) (V = 0.45 m(3) ) over 385 days. Unlike other anammox based processes, a very fast startup of anammox MBBR was demonstrated, despite nitrite limited feeding conditions (influent nitrite = 0.7 ± 0.59 mgN/L, ammonia = 6.13 ± 2.86 mgN/L, nitrate = 3.41 ± 1.92 mgN/L). The nitrogen removal performance was very stable within a wide range of nitrogen inputs. Anammox bacteria (AMX) activity up to 1 gN/m(2) /d was observed which is comparable to other biofilm-based systems. It is generally believed that nitrate production limits nitrogen removal through AMX metabolism. However, in this study, anammox MBBR demonstrated ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate removal at limited chemical oxygen demand (COD) availability. AMX and heterotrophs contributed to 0.68 ± 0.17 and 0.32 ± 0.17 of TIN removal, respectively. It was speculated that nitrogen removal might be aided by denitratation which could be due to heterotrophs or the recently discovered ability for AMX to use short-chain fatty acids to reduce nitrate to nitrite. This study demonstrates the feasibility of anammox nitrogen polishing in an MBBR is possible for nitritation-denitration systems. PMID:26333200

  6. Concurrent Activity of Anammox and Denitrifying Bacteria in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JohnB.Kirkpatrick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery of ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation (anammox in the Black Sea in 2003, the role of heterotrophic denitrification as the main marine pathway for fixed N loss was questioned. A 3 part, 15 month time series investigating Black Sea nitrite reductase (nirS mRNA transcripts at a single location was conducted in order to better understand the activity of anammox and denitrifying bacteria. Here we show that both of these groups were active, as well as being concurrent in the lower suboxic zone over this time span. Their distributions, however, were fundamentally different; denitrification expression was much more variable. Depth profiles covering the suboxic zone showed that the four groups of anammox-type sequences were expressed consistently in the lower suboxic zone, and were consistent with anammox 16S rDNA gene profiles. By contrast, denitrifier-type nirS sequence groups were mixed; half of the groups exhibited consistent expression in the lower suboxic zone, while others varied between season and depth. Co-occurrence of both anammox and denitrifier expression was common and ongoing. Both types of transcripts were also found in samples with low concentrations of sulfide ( >2 μM. 6 major groups of denitrifier-type nirS transcripts were identified, making these transcripts more diverse than previous DNA clone libraries. Several groups of denitrifier-type nirS transcripts were closely related to sequences from the Baltic Sea. An increase in denitrifier-type nirS transcript diversity and depth range in October 2007 corresponded to an increase in mixed layer net community productivity as measured by O2/Ar gas ratios, as well as to an increase in N2 concentrations in the upper suboxic zone. Taken together, the variations in expression patterns between anammox and denitrification provide one explanation as to how near instantaneous rate measurements, such as isotope spike experiments, may regularly detect anammox activity but underreport

  7. Nitrogen removal by anammox and denitrification in a subtropical seagrass ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, K.; Ostrom, N. E.; Erler, D.; Eyre, B.; Carlson-Perret, N.

    2015-12-01

    Anammox is now recognized as a globally important process that may rival denitrification in its removal of inorganic N from aquatic systems. Owing to its fairly recent discovery, however, measurements of anammox in coastal environments are sparse. This study measured the N removal processes, denitrification and anammox, in a seagrass ecosystem in New South Wales, Australia, using a modified version of the isotope pairing technique. This previously published method has yet to be applied to seagrass environments and relies on the measurement of both N2O and N2 to calculate rates of anammox and denitrification. Intact sediment cores were incubated under in situ conditions and amended with 15N-NO3- as a tracer. The role of organic C quality in controlling N removal rates was evaluated through addition of seagrass or phytoplankton detritus. In control cores (i.e., no C addition), the total N removal rate was 0.48 ± 0.22 μmol N m-2 h-1. These are among the lowest rates measured in seagrasses and other coastal areas. N removal rates were stimulated when seagrass detritus was added (3.3 times higher than control) whereas the addition of phytoplankton detritus did not stimulate N removal. This is surprising, as phytoplankton detritus is generally a more labile C source than seagrass detritus. These results indicate that the microbial community responds more quickly to organic matter they are conditioned to process. Regardless of C treatment, anammox made up a greater proportion of N2 production (71 ± 16%) than denitrification (24 ± 13%), in contrast to most other studies. The high proportion of anammox-derived N2 production implies that previous N removal rates measured in other systems without anammox inclusion could be significantly underestimated.

  8. Operational strategy for nitrogen removal from centrate in a two-stage partial nitrification--anammox process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosari, S F; Rezania, B; Lo, K V; Mavinic, D S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the operational strategy for nitrogen removal in a two-stage, partial nitrification (PN) process coupled with anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process. The process was used to remove ammonium from centrate obtained from a full-scale, wastewater treatment plant in British Columbia, Canada. The PN, which was carried out in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), successfully converted approximately 49.5 +/- 1.0% of ammonium to nitrite. The operation of SBR under higher dissolved oxygen in combination with slow feeding resulted in significant reduced HRT without nitrate accumulation. Partially nitrified centrate was further treated in Anammox reactors, where the mixture of ammonium and nitrite was converted mainly to nitrogen gas. Anammox treatment was carried out in two different types of Anammox reactors: a moving bed hybrid reactor and an up-flow fixed-bed biofilm reactor. The hybrid Anammox reactor removed an average of 55.8% of NH4-N, versus the 48.3% NH4-N removed in the up-flow fixed-bed reactor. Nitrite removal in the hybrid and up-flow fixed-bed Anammox reactors averaged 80.8% and 62.5%, respectively. This study also illustrated that in both Anammox reactors, better ammonium removal was achieved when the nitrite to ammonium ratio is between 1.35 and 1.45. As such, alkalinity was found to neither control nor limit the Anammox reaction. PMID:24701906

  9. Start-Up Characteristics of a Granule-Based Anammox UASB Reactor Seeded with Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The granulation of anammox sludge plays an important role in the high nitrogen removal performance of the anammox reactor. In this study, anaerobic granular sludge was selected as the seeding sludge to start up anammox reactor in order to directly obtain anammox granules. Results showed that the anammox UASB reactor was successfully started up by inoculating anaerobic granular sludge, with substrate capacity of 4435.2 mg/(L·d and average ammonium and nitrite removal efficiency of 90.36% and 93.29%, respectively. During the start-up course, the granular sludge initially disintegrated and then reaggregated and turned red, suggesting the high anammox performance. Zn-Fe precipitation was observed on the surface of granules during the operation by SEM-EDS, which would impose inhibition to the anammox activity of the granules. Accordingly, it is suggested to relatively reduce the trace metals concentrations, of Fe and Zn in the conventional medium. The findings of this study are expected to be used for a shorter start-up and more stable operation of anammox system.

  10. Enrichment of anammox from activated sludge and its application in the CANON process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Third, K A; Paxman, J; Schmid, M; Strous, M; Jetten, M S M; Cord-Ruwisch, R

    2005-02-01

    A microbial culture capable of actively oxidizing ammonium to dinitrogen gas in the absence of oxygen, using nitrite as the electron acceptor, was enriched from local activated sludge (Western Australia) in activity achieved by the anaerobic culture was 0.26 mmol NH (4) (+) (g biomass)(-1) h(-1) (0.58 kg total-N m(-3) day(-1)). Qualitative FISH analysis (fluorescence in situ hybridization) confirmed the phylogenetic position of the enriched microorganism as belonging to the order Planctomycetales, in which all currently identified anammox strains fall. Preliminary FISH analysis suggests the anammox strain belongs to the same phylogenetic group as the Candidatus 'Brocadia anammoxidans' strain discovered in the Netherlands. However, there are quite a few differences in the target sites for the more specific probes of these organisms and it is therefore likely to represent a new species of anammox bacteria. A small amount of aerobic ammonium-oxidizing biomass was inoculated into the anammox reactor (10% v/v) to initiate completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (the CANON process) in chemostat culture. The culture was always under oxygen limitation and no organic carbon was added. The CANON reactor was operated as an intermittently aerated system with 20 min aerobiosis and 30 min anaerobiosis, during which aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidation were performed in sequential fashion, respectively. Anammox was not inhibited by repeated intermittent exposure to oxygen, allowing sustained, completely autotrophic ammonium removal (0.08 kg N m(-3) day(-1)) for an extended period of time. PMID:15735941

  11. Treatment of nitrogen-rich wastewater using partial nitrification and anammox in the CANON process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Third, K A; Paxman, J; Schmid, M; Strous, M; Jetten, M S M; Cord-Ruwisch, R

    2005-01-01

    Partial nitrification combined with Anammox in a single reactor (the CANON process) is an energy-efficient N-removal technology that could substantially lower the N-load of a WWTP by separate treatment of nitrogen-rich side streams, preventing the need for extensive expansion and reducing the total energy requirement. This study looks at the enrichment of Anammox from activated sludge and its application in the CANON process on lab-scale. The aim was to identify the critical process control parameters necessary for successful operation of CANON. An Anammox culture capable of removing 0.6 kg N/m3/d was enriched in 14 weeks in a sequencing batch reactor. Nitrifying biomass was inoculated into the Anammox reactor (10% v/v) together with limited oxygen supply (culture. The small flocs formed by the biomass (< 1000 microm) were sensitive to low O2 concentrations (< 0.1 mg/L) which prevented simultaneous nitrification and Anammox. Operation with 20 min aerobiosis and 30 min anaerobiosis was necessary to achieve sustained, completely autotrophic N-removal for an extended period at a rate of 0.08 kg N/m3/d. Essential process control parameters for stable CANON operation were the nitrite concentration, oxygen concentration, pH and the temperature. PMID:16235745

  12. Effect of feed starvation on side-stream anammox activity and key microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Petra J; Mouilleron, Irina; Chuang, Hui-Ping; Thwaites, Ben; Hyde, Kylie; Dinesh, Nirmala; Krampe, Joerg; Lin, Tsair-Fuh; van den Akker, Ben

    2016-04-15

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process is widely acknowledged to be susceptible to a wide range of environmental factors given the slow growth rate of the anammox bacteria. Surprisingly there is limited experimental data regarding the susceptibility of the anammox process to feed starvations which may be encountered in full-scale applications. Therefore, a study was established to investigate the impact of feed starvations on nitritation and anammox activity in a demonstration-scale sequencing batch reactor. Three starvation periods were trialled, lasting one fortnight (15 d), one month (33 d) and two months (62 d). Regardless of the duration of the starvation period, assessment of the ammonia removal performance demonstrated nitritation and anammox activity were reinstated within one day of recovery operation. Characterisation of the community structure using 16S rRNA and functional genes specific for nitrogen-related microbes showed there was no clear impact or shift in the microbial populations between starvation and recovery phases. PMID:26861222

  13. Performance evaluation of the anammox hybrid reactor seeded with mixed inoculum sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Swati; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Mishra, Brijesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Long startup and poor granulation are the major bottlenecks in field-scale application of the anammox (ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation) process. In the present study, the anammox process was investigated in a modified anammox hybrid reactor (AHR) inoculated with mixed seed culture (anoxic and activated sludge). The startup study delineated four distinct phases, i.e. cell lysis, lag phase, activity elevation and stationary phase. Use of mixed seed culture at influent [Formula: see text] ratio (1:1) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 d led to early startup of the anammox process. The removal efficiencies of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] during acclimation were found to be 94.3% and 96.4%, respectively, at nitrogen loading rate (NLR) of 0.35 kg N/m(3) d. Pearson correlation analysis dictated strong and positive correlation of HRT and sludge retention time (SRT) with nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) while NLR and sludge loading rate (SLR) were negatively correlated. Attached growth system (AGS) in AHR contributed an additional 11% ammonium removal and reduced the sludge washout rate by 29%. Mass balance of nitrogen revealed that the major fraction (74.1%) of input nitrogen was converted into N2 gas indicating higher substrate conversion efficiency of anammox biomass. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of biomass indicated the presence of heterogeneous population of cocci and rod-shaped bacteria of average diameter varying from 1.2 to 1.5 mm. Owing to the features of early start-up, ability to retain high biomass and consistently higher NRE, hybrid reactor configuration seeded with mixed culture offers noble strategy for cultivation of well-compacted anammox granules for field-scale installation. PMID:26411578

  14. [Nitrogen removal performance of ANAMMOX ABR process in tannery wastewater treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guo-Qu; Jia, Xiao-Shan

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-N removal from tannery wastewater was investigated using a lab-scale anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR). The results indicated that ABR could be used as a good anaerobic ammonium oxidation reactor, the stable and effective performance of ammonium-N and COD removal from tannery wastewater was demonstrated in the ANAMMOX ABR. When the NH4(+) -N concentration of the influents were in the range of 25.0 mg x L(-1) to 76.2 mg x L(-1) and COD ranged from 131 mg x L(-1) to 237 mg x L(-1), under the volumetric loading of 0.05 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) to 0.15 kg x (m3 x d)(-1), the NH4(+)-N and COD of the effluents were from 0.20 mg x L(-1) to 7.12 mg x L(-1) and from 35.1 mg x L(-1) to 69.2 mg x L(-1), respectively, and the removal efficiency of NH4(+) -N and COD were 90.8% to 99.6% and 66.9% to 74.7%, respectively. In addition, the brown-red, brown-yellow, red granular sludges were developed in ABR. SEM observation confirmed the presence of ANAMMOX bacteria in granular sludge of all four compartments of ANAMMOX ABR. According to FISH results, ANAMMOX bacteria had grown in all four compartments to various degrees during the acclimatization and running process, the percentage of ANAMMOX bacteria in sludge increased from 4% to 9%, 8%, 12% and 30% in compartment 1, compartment 2, compartment 3 and compartment 4, respectively, and a higher population percentage of ANAMMOX bacteria existed in the rear than in the front compartments. PMID:25826933

  15. Integration of the Anammox process to the rejection water and main stream lines of WWTPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Nicolás; Val Del Río, Ángeles; Vázquez-Padín, José Ramón; Méndez, Ramón; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska; Campos, José Luis

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays the application of Anammox based processes in the wastewater treatment plants has given a step forward. The new goal consists of removing the nitrogen present in the main stream of the WWTPs to improve their energetic efficiencies. This new approach aims to remove not only the nitrogen but also to provide a better use of the energy contained in the organic matter. The organic matter will be removed either by an anaerobic psychrophilic membrane reactor or an aerobic stage operated at low solids retention time followed by an anaerobic digestion of the generated sludge. Then ammonia coming from these units will be removed in an Anammox based process in a single unit system. The second strategy provides the best results in terms of operational costs and would allow reductions of about 28%. Recent research works performed on Anammox based processes and operated at relatively low temperatures and/or low ammonia concentrations were carried out in single-stage systems using biofilms, granules or a mixture of flocculent nitrifying and granular Anammox biomasses. These systems allowed the appropriated retention of Anammox and ammonia oxidizing bacteria but also the proliferation of nitrite oxidizing bacteria which seems to be the main drawback to achieve the required effluent quality for disposal. Therefore, prior to the implementation of the Anammox based processes at full scale to the water line, a reliable strategy to avoid nitrite oxidation should be defined in order to maintain the process stability and to obtain the desired effluent quality. If not, the application of a post-denitrification step should be necessary. PMID:25890586

  16. Elemental sulfur formation and nitrogen removal from wastewaters by autotrophic denitrifiers and anammox bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunshuang; Zhao, Dongfeng; Yan, Laihong; Wang, Aijie; Gu, Yingying; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2015-09-01

    Elemental sulfur (S(0)) formation from and nitrogen removal on sulfide, nitrate and ammonium-laden wastewaters were achieved by denitrifying ammonium oxidation (DEAMOX) reactor with autotrophic denitrifiers and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria. The sulfide to nitrate ratio is a key process parameter for excess accumulation of S(0) and a ratio of 1.31:1 is a proposed optimum. The Alishewanella, Thauera and Candidatus Anammoximicrobium present respectively the autotrophic denitrifiers and anammox bacteria for the reactor. DEAMOX is demonstrated promising biological process for treating organics-deficient (S+N) wastewaters with excess S(0) production. PMID:26022701

  17. Performance of Anammox granular sludge bed reactor started up with nitrifying granular sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ping; LIN Feng-mei; HU Bao-lan; CHEN Jian-song

    2004-01-01

    The anaerobic ammonia oxidation(Anammox) granular sludge bed reactor was started up successfully withnitrifying granular sludge. During the operation, the nitrifying granular sludge was gradually converted into Anammoxgranular sludge with good settling property and high conversion activity. The Anammox reactor worked well with theshortest HRT of 2.43 h. Under the condition that HRT was 6.39 h and influent concentration of ammonia and nitritewas 10 mmol/L, the removal of ammonia and nitrite was 97.17% and 100.00%, respectively. Corresponding

  18. Aeration Strategies To Mitigate Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Single-Stage Nitritation/Anammox Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo Felez, Carlos; Mutlu, A. Gizem; Jensen, Marlene Mark;

    2014-01-01

    -stage nitritation/anammox were operated under different aeration strategies, gradually adjusted over six months. At constant but limiting oxygen loading, synthetic reject water was fed (0.75g-N/L.d) and high nitrogen removal efficiencies (83 +/- 5 and 88 +/- 2%) obtained. Dynamics of liquid phase nitrous (N2O) and...... conditions where anaerobic exceeds aerobic ammonium oxidation activity is proposed to minimize N2O emissions from single-stage nitritation/anammox reactors; increasing the frequency of aeration cycling is an efficient way of obtaining those conditions....

  19. Coupling between anammox and autotrophic denitrification for simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfide by enriched marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Del Toro, E Emilia; Cervantes, Francisco J

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, the capacity of enrichments derived from marine sediments collected from different sites of the Mexican littoral to perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) coupled to sulfide-dependent denitrification for simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfide linked to nitrite reduction was evaluated. Sulfide-dependent denitrification out-competed anammox during the simultaneous oxidation of sulfide and ammonium. Significant accumulation of elemental sulfur (ca. 14-30 % of added sulfide) occurred during the coupling between the two respiratory processes, while ammonium was partly oxidized (31-47 %) due to nitrite limitation imposed in sediment incubations. Nevertheless, mass balances revealed up to 38 % more oxidation of the electron donors available (ammonium and sulfide) than that expected from stoichiometry. Recycling of nitrite, from nitrate produced through anammox, is proposed to contribute to extra oxidation of sulfide, while additional ammonium oxidation is suggested by sulfate-reducing anammox (SR-anammox). The complex interaction between nitrogenous and sulfurous compounds occurring through the concomitant presence of autotrophic denitrification, conventional anammox and SR-anammox may significantly drive the nitrogen and sulfur fluxes in marine environments. PMID:26994921

  20. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria and associated activity in fixed-film biofilters of a marine recirculating aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Yossi; Watts, Joy E M; Schreier, Harold J

    2006-04-01

    Microbial communities in the biological filter and waste sludge compartments of a marine recirculating aquaculture system were examined to determine the presence and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Community DNA was extracted from aerobic and anaerobic fixed-film biofilters and the anaerobic sludge waste collection tank and was analyzed by amplifying 16S rRNA genes by PCR using anammox-selective and universal GC-clamped primers. Separation of amplified PCR products by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of the different phylotypes revealed a diverse biofilter microbial community. While Planctomycetales were found in all three communities, the anaerobic denitrifying biofilters contained one clone that exhibited high levels of sequence similarity to known anammox bacteria. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies using an anammox-specific probe confirmed the presence of anammox Planctomycetales in the microbial biofilm from the denitrifying biofilters, and anammox activity was observed in these biofilters, as detected by the ability to simultaneously consume ammonia and nitrite. To our knowledge, this is the first identification of anammox-related sequences in a marine recirculating aquaculture filtration system, and our findings provide a foundation for incorporating this important pathway for complete nitrogen removal in such systems. PMID:16597996

  1. Molecular detection of Candidatus Scalindua pacifica and environmental responses of sediment anammox bacterial community in the Bohai Sea, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyue Dang

    Full Text Available The Bohai Sea is a large semi-enclosed shallow water basin, which receives extensive river discharges of various terrestrial and anthropogenic materials such as sediments, nutrients and contaminants. How these terrigenous inputs may influence the diversity, community structure, biogeographical distribution, abundance and ecophysiology of the sediment anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox bacteria was unknown. To answer this question, an investigation employing both 16S rRNA and hzo gene biomarkers was carried out. Ca. Scalindua bacteria were predominant in the surface sediments of the Bohai Sea, while non-Scalindua anammox bacteria were also detected in the Yellow River estuary and inner part of Liaodong Bay that received strong riverine and anthropogenic impacts. A novel 16S rRNA gene sequence clade was identified, putatively representing an anammox bacterial new candidate species tentatively named "Ca. Scalindua pacifica". Several groups of environmental factors, usually with distinct physicochemical or biogeochemical natures, including general marine and estuarine physicochemical properties, availability of anammox substrates (inorganic N compounds, alternative reductants and oxidants, environmental variations caused by river discharges and associated contaminants such as heavy metals, were identified to likely play important roles in influencing the ecology and biogeochemical functioning of the sediment anammox bacteria. In addition to inorganic N compounds that might play a key role in shaping the anammox microbiota, organic carbon, organic nitrogen, sulfate, sulfide and metals all showed the potentials to participate in the anammox process, releasing the strict dependence of the anammox bacteria upon the direct availability of inorganic N nutrients that might be limiting in certain areas of the Bohai Sea. The importance of inorganic N nutrients and certain other environmental factors to the sediment anammox microbiota suggests that these

  2. [Effect of gas-lift device on nitrogen removal efficiency of ANAMMOX reactor ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li; Zhang, Da-lini; Huang, Yong; Chen, Zong-heng; Yuan, Yi

    2014-09-01

    The effect of air-lift device on the nitrogen removal efficiency of ANAMMOX reactor was studied by increasing the substrate concentration to improve nitrogen load rate and inoculate ANAMMOX sludge. The results showed that the effluent recirculation was achieved by using nitrogen gas produced from the ANAMMOX process as power in the air-lift room. With the increase of nitrogen removal rate, the rate of effluent recirculation was increased, which diluted influent substrate concentration and alleviated the inhibition of ANAMMOX bacteria,. After 183 d operation, the effluent NH4+ -N and NO2- -N concentrations were increased to 46. 3 mg L-1 and 53.21 mg.L-1, and the nitrogen removal rate was kept stable at 28.3 kg (m3.d)-1, when the influent NH4+ -N and NO2- -N concentrations were increased to 700 mg.L-1 and 840 mgL-1, respectively. The effluent recirculation system formed by gas-lift devices is an economic and effective solution to the inhibition caused by high substrate concentration in traditional reactor, meanwhile, the power consumption of the external reflux pump was reduced. PMID:25518664

  3. Oxygen sensitivity of anammox and coupled N-cycle processes in oxygen minimum zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Jensen, Marlene Mark; Contreras, Sergio;

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient measurements indicate that 30–50% of the total nitrogen (N) loss in the ocean occurs in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). This pelagic N-removal takes place within only ,0.1% of the ocean volume, hence moderate variations in the extent of OMZs due to global warming may have a large impact on...... the global N-cycle. We examined the effect of oxygen (O2) on anammox, NH3 oxidation and NO3 2 reduction in 15N-labeling experiments with varying O2 concentrations (0–25 mmol L21) in the Namibian and Peruvian OMZs. Our results show that O2 is a major controlling factor for anammox activity in OMZ...... waters. Based on our O2 assays we estimate the upper limit for anammox to be ,20 mmol L21. In contrast, NH3 oxidation to NO2 2 and NO3 2 reduction to NO2 2 as the main NH4 + and NO2 2 sources for anammox were only moderately affected by changing O2 concentrations. Intriguingly, aerobic NH3 oxidation was...

  4. Continuous-flow combined process of nitritation and ANAMMOX for treatment of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong; Peng, Yongzhen; Miao, Lei; Cao, Tianhao; Zhang, Fangzhai; Wang, Shuying; Han, Jinhao

    2016-08-01

    Due to the difficulty in removing nitrogen from landfill leachate, a combined continuous-flow process of nitritation and anammox was applied to process mature leachate. The transformation rate of ammonia and nitrite accumulation ratio in A/O reactor were kept above 95% and 92% respectively through associated inhibition of free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid (FNA) to NOB. The total nitrogen volumetric load of anammox in an UASB reactor was brought up from 0.5kg/(m(3)·d) to 1.2kg/(m(3)·d) by gradually increasing influent substrate concentration and reducing hydraulic retention time (HRT). The results show that COD from mature leachate did not bring obvious inhibition effects to anammox. Under concentrations of influent ammonia and COD which were respectively 1330mg/L and 2250mg/L, the removal efficiencies of TN and COD reached 94% and 62% respectively. In the quantitative PCR reactions, the proportions occupied by AOB, NOB and anammox in A/O were 11.39%, 1.76% and 0.05% respectively; and proportions of those in UASB were 0.35%, 4.01% and 7.78% respectively. PMID:27176671

  5. Kinetic models for nitrogen inhibition in ANAMMOX and nitrification process on deammonification system at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of the deammonification process depends on the microbial activity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ANAMMOX bacteria. These autotrophic organisms have different preferences for substrate, operating conditions and some external factors that may cause inhibition or imbalance of t...

  6. [Physicochemical and ecological characteristics of the granular sludge during start-up of Anammox reactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuxia; Xiong, Lei; Chai, Liyuan; Liao, Qi; Tang, Chongjian; Min, Xiaobo; Yang, Zhihui

    2014-12-01

    The anaerobic granular sludge from an Internal Circulation (IC) reactor of a paper mill wastewater treatment plant were seeded in an Anammox upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. After 185 days operation, the reactor was finally started up by increasing the influent ammonium and nitrite concentrations to 224 mg/L and 255 mg/L, respectively, with volumetric nitrogen removal rate increasing to 3.76 kg/(m3·d). The physicochemical characteristics of the cultivated Anammox granules were observed by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results suggested that during the start-up course, the granular sludge initially disintegrated and then re-aggregated. FTIR spectra results revealed that the Anammox granular sludge contained abundant functional groups, indicating that it may also possess good adsorption properties. The ecological structure of the granular sludge, analyzed by the metagenomic sequencing methods, suggested that the relative abundance of the dominant bacterial community in the seeding sludge, i.e., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, significantly reduced, while Planctomycetes which contains anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria remarkably increased from 1.59% to 23.24% in the Anammox granules. PMID:26016375

  7. Bacterial biodiversity from an anaerobic up flow bioreactor with ANAMMOX activity inoculated with swine sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study aimed to identify organisms with ANAMMOX activity in a reactor maintained in a laboratory. Molecular methods as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloning of 16S-rDNA genes probing for Planctomycetes were performed. Seventeen clones were ...

  8. Preliminary research on the anammox process and control of nitrogen compounds in a recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savin Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using anammox process in biological filtration of technological water within recirculatingaquaculture system is an alternative to nitrification / denitrification process which can reduce productioncosts, especially energy by replacing aerobic biological processes that require high oxygen consumption,provided through the addition for optimal function of biofilter (conversion of N-NH4 and N-NO2. Aim ofthis paper is to highlight the first steps in the control of nitrogen compounds in recirculating aquaculturesystems using anammox process. Data shown are obtained after 78 researching days (research stillongoing, the results being encouraging, registering an ammonium removal efficiency of 77% in SC1 andof 32% in SC2. Nitrites registered an increase in SC1 and a decrease in SC2 and there are allprerequisites showing that in SC2 anammox activity is more advanced than in SC1. The average ofoxygen consumption rate was 0.73 mgL-1 in SC1 smaller than 0.99 mgL-1 from SC2, which reinforces theidea that there are anammox process in SC2.

  9. Nitrogen removal by granular nitritation-anammox in an upflow membrane-aerated biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojin; Sun, Shan; Badgley, Brian D; Sung, Shihwu; Zhang, Husen; He, Zhen

    2016-05-01

    The nitritation-anammox process has been a promising nitrogen removal technology towards sustainable wastewater treatment, but its application in treating domestic wastewater with relatively low ammonium concentrations (mainstream) remains a great challenge. In this study, an innovative lab-scale upflow membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (UMABR) was employed to treat a synthetic wastewater containing 70 mg N L(-1) ammonium. With a DO level at 0.6 ± 0.1 mg O2 L(-1) and HRT of 32 h, the effluent ammonium concentration was 4.8 ± 2.0 mg N L(-1). Increasing the nitrogen loading rate from 52.4 to 104.8 g N m(-3) d(-1) with stepwise decreasing HRT from 32 to 16 h resulted in an average TN removal efficiency of 81% without nitrite accumulation. The average observed NO3(-)-N (residue)/NH4(+)-N (consumed) ratio of 8% was below the "theoretical ratio" of 13% and further reduction of nitrate residue needs to be addressed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and high-throughput sequencing analyses showed the coexistence of anammox bacteria and ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in both biofilm and granular samples. Anammox bacteria accounted for up to 63.3% of the microbial community of the granules, with Candidatus Jettenia being the distinctly dominant anammox genus. In contrast, the biofilm contained abundant Nitrosomonadaceae (AOB, 33.1%). In addition, the brown-yellow granules exhibited a more balanced community structure with anammox bacteria and AOB accounting for 33.7% and 18.2%, respectively, which may contribute to the long-term operation of single-stage nitritation-anammox process. These results demonstrate that the nitritation-anammox UMABR could potentially be used for nitrogen removal from mainstream in some specific regions with relatively warm temperature. PMID:26921710

  10. The role of paraffin oil on the interaction between denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation and Anammox processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liang; Ding, Zhao-Wei; Ding, Jing; Zhang, Fang; Zeng, Raymond J

    2015-10-01

    Methane is sparingly soluble in water, resulting in a slow reaction rate in the denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) process. The slow rate limits the feasibility of research to examine the interaction between the DAMO and the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process. In this study, optimized 5 % (v/v) paraffin oil was added as a second liquid phase to improve methane solubility in a reactor containing DAMO and Anammox microbes. After just addition, methane solubility was found to increase by 25 % and DAMO activity was enhanced. After a 100-day cultivation, the paraffin reactor showed almost two times higher consumption rates of NO3 (-) (0.2268 mmol/day) and NH4 (+) (0.1403 mmol/day), compared to the control reactor without paraffin oil. The microbes tended to distribute in the oil-water interface. The quantitative (q) PCR result showed the abundance of gene copies of DAMO archaea, DAMO bacteria, and Anammox bacteria in the paraffin reactor were higher than those in the control reactor after 1 month. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that the percentages of the three microbes were 55.5 and 77.6 % in the control and paraffin reactors after 100 days, respectively. A simple model of mass balance was developed to describe the interactions between DAMO and Anammox microbes and validate the activity results. A mechanism was proposed to describe the possible way that paraffin oil enhanced DAMO activity. It is quite clear that paraffin oil enhances not only DAMO activity but also Anammox activity via the interaction between them; both NO3 (-) and NH4 (+) consumption rates were about two times those of the control. PMID:26036704

  11. Semi-nitritation process producing optimum influent for anammox process in treatment of domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoxue; Yang, Qing; Li, Jianlin; Peng, Yongzhen; Xu, Zhubing; He, Jianzhong

    2016-06-01

    The process of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) requires a proper ratio of NH4(+)-N and NO2(-)-N in the influent, which is difficult to control upon treating domestic wastewater. In this study, a control strategy of semi-nitritation (SN) process based on monitoring the pH profile and NH4(+)-N concentration in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was developed. The aeration time of each cycle in SN-SBR was calculated using the established equation tSN=tCOD+0.56αnS0/(S0-Sn). To verify the suitability of the control strategy, SN-SBR was operated continuously for 20 cycles, fed with real domestic wastewater with a fluctuating COD of 200-400 mg L(-1) and NH4(+)-N of 65-80 mg L(-1). The nitrogen removal performance of SN-anammox system using the developed control strategy was also monitored. Results showed that SN-SBR was able to generate a suitable ratio of NH4(+)-N to NO2(-)-N for the following anammox process, the TN removal rate of the SN-anammox system achieved 91.7 ± 0.4% and the average ammonium, nitrite and nitrate concentration of effluent was only 0.50 ± 0.24, 0.13 ± 0.09 and 4.9 ± 0.22 mg L(-1), respectively. This study has potential application in the treatment of domestic wastewater using combined SN-anammox process. PMID:26963236

  12. ANAMMOX process start up and stabilization with an anaerobic seed in Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneethi, S; Joseph, Kurian

    2011-10-01

    ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation (ANAMMOX) process, an advanced biological nitrogen removal alternative to traditional nitrification--denitrification removes ammonia using nitrite as the electron acceptor without oxygen. The feasibility of enriching anammox bacteria from anaerobic seed culture to start up an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR) for N-removal is reported in this paper. The Anammox activity was established in the AnMBR with anaerobic digester seed culture from a Sewage Treatment Plant in batch mode with recirculation followed by semi continuous process and continuous modes of operation. The AnMBR performance under varying Nitrogen Loading Rates (NLR) and HRTs is reported for a year, in terms of nitrogen transformations to ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate along with hydrazine and hydroxylamine. Interestingly ANAMMOX process was evident from simultaneous Amm-N and nitrite reduction, consistent nitrate production, hydrazine and hydroxylamine presence, notable organic load reduction and bicarbonate consumption. PMID:21775136

  13. Niche segregation of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and anammox bacteria in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    OpenAIRE

    Pitcher, A.; Villanueva, L; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.; G. J. Reichart; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria have emerged as significant factors in the marine nitrogen cycle and are responsible for the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and dinitrogen gas, respectively. Potential for an interaction between these groups exists; however, their distributions are rarely determined in tandem. Here we have examined the vertical distribution of AOA and anammox bacteria through the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), one of ...

  14. Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria and Associated Activity in Fixed-Film Biofilters of a Marine Recirculating Aquaculture System†

    OpenAIRE

    Tal, Yossi; Joy E M Watts; Schreier, Harold J.

    2006-01-01

    Microbial communities in the biological filter and waste sludge compartments of a marine recirculating aquaculture system were examined to determine the presence and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Community DNA was extracted from aerobic and anaerobic fixed-film biofilters and the anaerobic sludge waste collection tank and was analyzed by amplifying 16S rRNA genes by PCR using anammox-selective and universal GC-clamped primers. Separation of amplified PCR product...

  15. Three-Dimensional Stratification of Bacterial Biofilm Populations in a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor for Nitritation-Anammox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Almstrand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs are increasingly used for nitrogen removal with nitritation-anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox processes in wastewater treatment. Carriers provide protected surfaces where ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB and anammox bacteria form complex biofilms. However, the knowledge about the organization of microbial communities in MBBR biofilms is sparse. We used new cryosectioning and imaging methods for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH to study the structure of biofilms retrieved from carriers in a nitritation-anammox MBBR. The dimensions of the carrier compartments and the biofilm cryosections after FISH showed good correlation, indicating little disturbance of biofilm samples by the treatment. FISH showed that Nitrosomonas europaea/eutropha-related cells dominated the AOB and Candidatus Brocadia fulgida-related cells dominated the anammox guild. New carriers were initially colonized by AOB, followed by anammox bacteria proliferating in the deeper biofilm layers, probably in anaerobic microhabitats created by AOB activity. Mature biofilms showed a pronounced three-dimensional stratification where AOB dominated closer to the biofilm-water interface, whereas anammox were dominant deeper into the carrier space and towards the walls. Our results suggest that current mathematical models may be oversimplifying these three-dimensional systems and unless the multidimensionality of these systems is considered, models may result in suboptimal design of MBBR carriers.

  16. Coexistence of nitrifying, anammox and denitrifying bacteria in a sequencing batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela eLangone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Elevated nitrogen removal efficiencies from ammonium-rich wastewaters have been demonstrated by several applications, that combine nitritation and anammox processes. Denitrification will occur simultaneously when organic carbon is also present. In this study, the activity of aerobic ammonia oxidizing, anammox and denitrifying bacteria in a full scale Sequencing Batch Reactor, treating digester supernatants, was studied by means of batch-assays. AOB and anammox activities were maximum at pH of 8.0 and 7.8-8.0, rispectively. Short term effect of nitrite on anammox activity was studied, showing nitrite up to 42 mg/L did not result in inhibition. Both denitrification via nitrate and nitrite were measured. To reduce nitrite-oxidizing activity, high of NH3 – N (1.9-10 mg N-NH3/L and low nitrite (3-8 mg TNN/L are required conditions during the whole SBR cycle.Molecular analysis showed the nitritation-anammox sludge harbored a high microbial diversity, where each microorganism has a specific role. Using ammonia monooxygenase α –subunit (amoA gene as a marker, our analyses suggested different macro- and micro-environments in the reactor strongly affect the AOB community, allowing the development of different AOB species, such as N. europaea/eutropha and N. oligotropha groups, which improve the stability of nitritation process. A specific PCR primer set, used to target the 16S rRNA gene of anammox bacteria, confirmed the presence of the Ca. Brocadia fulgida type, able to grow in precence of organic matter and to tolerate high nitrite concentrations. The diversity of denitrifiers was assessed by using dissimilatory nitrite reductase (nirS gene-based analyses, who showed denitifiers were related to different betaproteobacterial genera, such as Thauera, Pseudomonas, Dechloromonas and Aromatoleum, able to assist in forming microbial aggregates. Concerning possible secondary processes, no n-damo bacteria were found while NOB from the genus of Nitrobacter

  17. Oxygen sensitivity of anammox and coupled N-cycle processes in oxygen minimum zones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kalvelage

    Full Text Available Nutrient measurements indicate that 30-50% of the total nitrogen (N loss in the ocean occurs in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs. This pelagic N-removal takes place within only ~0.1% of the ocean volume, hence moderate variations in the extent of OMZs due to global warming may have a large impact on the global N-cycle. We examined the effect of oxygen (O(2 on anammox, NH(3 oxidation and NO(3(- reduction in (15N-labeling experiments with varying O(2 concentrations (0-25 µmol L(-1 in the Namibian and Peruvian OMZs. Our results show that O(2 is a major controlling factor for anammox activity in OMZ waters. Based on our O(2 assays we estimate the upper limit for anammox to be ~20 µmol L(-1. In contrast, NH(3 oxidation to NO(2(- and NO(3(- reduction to NO(2(- as the main NH(4(+ and NO(2(- sources for anammox were only moderately affected by changing O(2 concentrations. Intriguingly, aerobic NH(3 oxidation was active at non-detectable concentrations of O(2, while anaerobic NO(3(- reduction was fully active up to at least 25 µmol L(-1 O(2. Hence, aerobic and anaerobic N-cycle pathways in OMZs can co-occur over a larger range of O(2 concentrations than previously assumed. The zone where N-loss can occur is primarily controlled by the O(2-sensitivity of anammox itself, and not by any effects of O(2 on the tightly coupled pathways of aerobic NH(3 oxidation and NO(3(- reduction. With anammox bacteria in the marine environment being active at O(2 levels ~20 times higher than those known to inhibit their cultured counterparts, the oceanic volume potentially acting as a N-sink increases tenfold. The predicted expansion of OMZs may enlarge this volume even further. Our study provides the first robust estimates of O(2 sensitivities for processes directly and indirectly connected with N-loss. These are essential to assess the effects of ocean de-oxygenation on oceanic N-cycling.

  18. [Short or Long-Term Influence of Phenol on Nitrogen Removal Efficiency of ANAMMOX Sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng-bing; Li, Xiang; Huang, Yong; Zhu, Liang; Cui, Jian-hong; Xu, Shan-shan

    2015-10-01

    The effects of phenol concentration on nitrogen removal efficiency in ANAMMOX sludge were studied in short or long-term. The nitrogen removal rate decreased rapidly with the increase of concentration of phenol in short-term. When the phenol concentration was above 600 mg x L(-1), the removal rate of NH4(+) -N was lower than 6% and the removal rate of TN was only about 10%. The long-term experimental results showed when the phenol concentration was below 100 mg x L(-1), the removal rate of NH4(+) -N can reach 99%, which indicated that ANAMMOX bacteria have a process of adaptation to the low concentration of phenol. However, when the phenol concentration was above 400 mg x L(-1), the removal rate of NH4(+) -N and TN was only 23.59% and 50.3%, the activity in sludge was significantly inhibited which was similarly to the short-term and the activity of denitrifying bacteria was significantly higher than ANAMMOX bacteria. As an organic carbon source, phenol can activated denitrification reaction and finally plays a dominant role in the system. However, the high concentration of phenol (1 000 mg x L(-1)) also has an inhibitory effect on denitrification bacteria. Half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of phenol to ANAMMOX activity was 71.57 mg x L(-1) by fitting. After 18 days' recovery, the stoichiometric ratios of nitrogen were changed, although the NH4(+) -N was basicly removed. The ratio of removed NH4(+) -N, reomved NO2(-) -N and produced NO3(-) -N was 1: 0.86: 0.2. Our results showed that the concentration of phenol should be controlled within a reasonable range, so that the reactor can achieve simultaneous removal of phenol and nitrogen. PMID:26841611

  19. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system

    OpenAIRE

    Speth, D.R.; Zandt, M.H. in 't; Guerrero Cruz, S.; Dutilh, B.E.; Jetten, M. S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is used to seed reactors in wastewater treatment plants around the world; however, the role of most of its microbial community in ammonium removal remains unknown. Our analysis yielded 23 near-complete d...

  20. Impact of free ammonia on anammox rates (anoxic ammonium oxidation) in a moving bed biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszynski, L W; Cicek, N; Sparling, R; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2012-06-01

    Using a bench scale moving bed bioreactor (MBBR), the effect of free ammonia (FA, NH(3), the un-ionized form of ammonium NH(4)(+)) concentration on anoxic ammonium oxidation (anammox) was evaluated based on the volumetric nitrogen removal rate (NRR). Although, a detailed microbial analysis was not conducted, the major NRR observed was assumed to be by anammox, based on the nitrogen conversion ratios of nitrite to ammonium and nitrate to ammonium. Since the concentration of free ammonia as a proportion of the total ammonia concentration is pH-dependent, the impact of changing the operating pH from 6.9 to 8.2, was investigated under constant nitrogen loading conditions during continuous reactor operation. Furthermore, the effect of sudden nitrogen load changes was investigated under constant pH conditions. Batch tests were conducted to determine the immediate response of the anammox consortium to shifts in pH and FA concentrations. It was found that FA was inhibiting NRR at concentrations exceeding 2 mg N L(-1). In the pH range 7-8, the decrease in anammox activity was independent of pH and related only to the concentration of FA. Nitrite concentrations of up to 120 mg N L(-1) did not negatively affect NRR for up to 3.5 h. It was concluded that a stable NRR in a moving bed biofilm reactor depended on maintaining FA concentrations below 2 mg N L(-1) when the pH was maintained between 7 and 8. PMID:22483855

  1. Optimization and Modelling of Chemical Oxygen Demand Removal by ANAMMOX Process Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Jalilzadeh; Ramin Nabizadeh; Alireza Mesdaghinia; Aliakbar Azimi; Simin Nasseri; Amir Hossein Mahvi; Kazem Naddafi

    2013-01-01

    A systematic model for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal using the ANAMMOX (Anaerobic AMMonium OXidation) process was provided based on an experimental design. At first, the experimental data was collected from a combined biological aerobic/anaerobic reactor. For modelling and optimization of COD removal, the main parameters were considered, such as COD loading, ammonium, pH, and temperature. From the models, the optimum conditions were determined as COD 97.5 mg/L, ammonium concentration e...

  2. Effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and plant species on nitrification, denitrification and anammox in mangrove soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Zhou, Hai Chao; Pan, Ying; Shyla, Farzana Shazia; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee

    2016-05-15

    Little is known about polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and planting affect biogeochemical processes, and their impact on microbial nitrogen (N) transformation in soil. A 12-month microcosm experiment was conducted to understand the effects of a mixture of PBDEs at two contamination levels, 2 and 20 mg kg(-1)dry weight representing low and high soil contamination, respectively, using two mangrove plant species, namely Kandelia obovata (Ko) and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (Bg), on nitrification, denitrification and anammox in mangrove soils. No significant changes in these N transformation processes were found at month 3 and at a low level of PBDEs in both plant species, suggesting that short-term exposure to 2 mg kg(-1) contamination did not affect microbial N transformation. At month 12, a high level of PBDE contamination significantly decreased the nitrification potential activity and the copy numbers of archaeal amoA and bacterial amoA gene in Ko soil, but such inhibitory effect was not significant in Bg soil. On the contrary, the denitrification-related parameters, including the activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, potential denitrification activity and copy numbers of nirK, nirS and nosZ gene, were stimulated by a high level of PBDE contamination in both Ko and Bg soils, and the stimulation was higher in the more anaerobic Bg soil. Different from denitrification, a high level of PBDE contamination decreased the copy numbers of anammox bacterial 16S rRNA gene in Bg soil but not in Ko soil; this was possibly related to the lower nitrate concentration in Bg soil that might inhibit the growth of anammox bacteria. These results indicated that the effects of PBDEs on microbial N transformation were plant species-specific, with the nitrifying microorganisms in Ko soil more susceptible to PBDE contamination, while denitrification and anammox in Bg soil were more sensitive. PMID:26901803

  3. Nitrogen Removal from Digested Black Water by One-stage Partial Nitritation and Anammox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaeminck, S.E.; Terada, Akihiko; Smets, Barth F.;

    2009-01-01

    rate of ca. 700 mg N L-1 d(-1) was reached over the subsequent 5 months. Suppression of the nitrite oxidizing bacteria at free ammonia levels above 3 mg N L-1 resulted in a nitrogen removal efficiency of 76%. The favorable ratios of both organic and inorganic carbon to nitrogen guaranteed endured......-stage partial nitritation and anammox, which will allow a significant decrease in operational costs compared to conventional nitrification/denitrification....

  4. Preliminary research on the anammox process and control of nitrogen compounds in a recirculating aquaculture system

    OpenAIRE

    Savin Cristian; Păsărin Benone; Patriche Neculai; Talpeş Marilena; Cristea Victor; Tenciu Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Using anammox process in biological filtration of technological water within recirculatingaquaculture system is an alternative to nitrification / denitrification process which can reduce productioncosts, especially energy by replacing aerobic biological processes that require high oxygen consumption,provided through the addition for optimal function of biofilter (conversion of N-NH4 and N-NO2). Aim ofthis paper is to highlight the first steps in the control of nitrogen compounds in recirculat...

  5. Anammox bacteria community and nitrogen removal in a strip-like wetland in the riparian zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yuansheng; Wang, Jun; Wang, Ziyuan; Tian, Binghui

    2011-01-01

    A strip-like wetland was constructed in the riparian zone for investigation of ammonium nitrogen (NH(3)-N) removal in the Peach River. An inner zeolite layer was set in the wetland to adsorb NH(3)-N and further to remove total nitrogen (TN). An oxygen-deficient condition with dissolved oxygen of 0.87-1.60 mg L(-1) was observed in the zeolite layer, which benefits anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria survival. The community structure of anammox bacteria was analyzed in the zeolite layer. The analysis shows that the anammox bacterial sequences are grouped into three known distinct clusters: Candidatus Brocadia fulgida, Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans and Candidatus Jettenia asiatica. The intensified test driven by artificial pumping shows that average removal rates of NH(3)-N and TN are 41.6 mg m(-3)d(-1) and 63.2 mg m(-3)d(-1), respectively. The normal test driven by natural hydrodynamics also verifies that NH(3)-N removal mainly happens in the zeolite layer. Microbial mechanism of TN removal in the wetland involves both the autotrophic and heterotrophic process. These results suggest that the strip-like RW can be a cost-effective approach for NH(3)-N removal and can potentially be extended to similar rivers as no extra energy is required to maintain the wetland operation. PMID:21644147

  6. Sustainable operation of submerged Anammox membrane bioreactor with recycling biogas sparging for alleviating membrane fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziyin; Xu, Xindi; Xu, Xiaochen; Yang, FengLin; Zhang, ShuShen

    2015-12-01

    A submerged anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (Anammox) membrane bioreactor with recycling biogas sparging for alleviating membrane fouling has been successfully operated for 100d. Based on the batch tests, a recycling biogas sparging rate at 0.2m(3)h(-1) was fixed as an ultimate value for the sustainable operation. The mixed liquor volatile suspended solid (VSS) of the inoculum for the long operation was around 3000mgL(-1). With recycling biogas sparging rate increasing stepwise from 0 to 0.2m(3)h(-1), the reactor reached an influent total nitrogen (TN) up to 1.7gL(-1), a stable TN removal efficiency of 83% and a maximum specific Anammox activity (SAA) of 0.56kg TNkg(-1) VSSd(-1). With recycling biogas sparging rate at 0.2 m(3) h(-1) (corresponding to an aeration intensity of 118m(3)m(-2)h(-1)), the membrane operation circle could prolong by around 20 times compared to that without gas sparging. Furthermore, mechanism of membrane fouling was proposed. And with recycling biogas sparging, the VSS and EPS content increasing rate in cake layer were far less than the ones without biogas sparging. The TN removal performance and sustainable membrane operation of this system showed the appealing potential of the submerged Anammox MBR with recycling biogas sparging in treating high-strength nitrogen-containing wastewaters. PMID:25311769

  7. Integrating landfill bioreactors, partial nitritation and anammox process for methane recovery and nitrogen removal from leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Faqian; Su, Xiaomei; Kang, Tingting; Wu, Songwei; Yuan, Mengdong; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Xiayun; Xu, Fang; Wu, Weixiang

    2016-06-01

    A new process consisting of a landfill bioreactor, partial-nitritation (PN) and the anammox process has been developed for landfill leachate treatment. In this study, the landfill bioreactor exhibited excellent performance in methane-rich biogas recovery, with a specific biogas yield of 0.47 L gas g‑1 COD and methane percentages of 53–76%. PN was achieved in the aerobic reactor by high free ammonia (101 ± 83 mg NH3 L‑1) inhibition for nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, and the desired PN effluent composition (effluent nitrite: ammonium ratio of 1.1 ± 0.3) was controlled by adjusting the alkalinity concentration per unit of ammonium oxidized to approximately 14.3 mg CaCO3 mg‑1 N in the influent. The startup of anammox process was successfully achieved with a membrane bioreactor in 160 d, and a maximum nitrogen removal rate of 216 mg N L‑1 d‑1 was attained for real landfill leachate treatment. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction results confirmed that the cell-specific anammox activity was approximately 68–95 fmol N cell‑1 d‑1, which finally led to the stable operation of the system.

  8. Nitrogen removal properties in a continuous marine anammox bacteria reactor under rapid and extensive salinity changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiaoyan; Kawagoshi, Yasunori; Huang, Xiaowu; Hong, Nian; Van Duc, Luong; Yamashita, Yuki; Hama, Takehide

    2016-04-01

    Salinity tolerance is one of the most important factors for the application of bioreactors to high-salinity wastewater. Although marine anammox bacteria (MAB) might be expected to tolerate higher salinities than freshwater anammox bacteria, there is little information on the effects of salinity on MAB activity. This study aimed to reveal the nitrogen removal properties in a continuous MAB reactor under conditions of rapid and extensive salinity changes. The reactor demonstrated stable nitrogen removal performance with a removal efficiency of over 85% under salinity conditions ranging from 0 to 50 g/L NaCl. The reactor performance was also well maintained, even though the salinity was rapidly changed from 30 to 50 g/L and from 30 to 0 g/L. Other evidence suggested that the seawater medium used contained components essential for effective MAB performance. Bacterial community analysis using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) showed that planctomycete UKU-1, the dominant MAB species in the inoculum, was the main contributor to anammox activity under all conditions. The PCR-DGGE using a universal bacterial primer set showed different DNA band patterns between the reactor biomass sample collected under conditions of 75 g/L NaCl and all other conditions (0, 30, 50 and freshwater-medium). All DNA sequences determined were very similar to those of bacterial species from marine environments, anaerobic environments, or wastewater-treatment facilities. PMID:26845464

  9. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by marine and freshwater planctomycete-like bacteria RID B-8834-2011 RID B-5428-2008 RID C-3269-2011 RID D-1875-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jetten, MSM; Sliekers, O.; Kuypers, M.; Dalsgaard, T.; Niftrik, L. van; Cirpus, I.; Pas-Schoonen, K. van de; Lavik, G.; Thamdrup, B.; Paslier, D. Le; Camp, HJM Op den; Hulth, S.; Nielsen, LP; Abma, W.; Third, K.; Engstrom, P.; Kuenen, JG; Jørgensen, BB; Canfield, DE; Damste, JSS; Revsbech, NP; Fuerst, J.; Weissenbach, J.; Wagner, M.; Schmidt, I.; Schmid, M.; Strous, M.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, two fresh water species, 'Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans' and 'Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis', and one marine species, 'Candidatus Scalindua sorokinii', of planctomycete anammox bacteria have been identified. 'Candidatus Scalindua sorokinii' was discovered in the Black Sea, and...

  10. Oxygen at nanomolar levels reversibly suppresses process rates and gene expression in anammox and denitrification in the oxygen minimum zone off Northern Chil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; Stewart, Frank J.; Thamdrup, Bo;

    2014-01-01

    at nanomolar levels affects anammox and denitrification rates and the transcription of nitrogen cycle genes in the anoxic OMZ off Chile. Rates of anammox and denitrification were reversibly suppressed, most likely at the enzyme level. Fiftypercent inhibition of N2 and N2O production by...

  11. Model-based evaluation of the role of Anammox on nitric oxide and nitrous oxide productions in membrane aerated biofilm reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Smets, Barth F.; Yuan, Zhiguo;

    2013-01-01

    A multispecies one-dimensional biofilm model considering nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) productions for membrane aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) that remove nitrogen autotrophically through aerobic ammonia oxidation followed by Anammox is used to study the role of Anammox activity on th...

  12. Exogenous nitrate attenuates nitrite toxicity to anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangbin; Vilcherrez, David; Carvajal-Arroyo, Jose Maria; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (anammox) can be severely inhibited by one of its main substrates, nitrite (NO2(-)). At present, there is limited information on the processes by which anammox bacteria are able to tolerate toxic NO2(-). Intracellular consumption or electrochemically driven (transmembrane proton motive force) NO2(-) export are considered the main mechanisms of NO2(-) detoxification. In this work, we evaluated the potential of exogenous nitrate (NO3(-)) on relieving NO2(-) toxicity, putatively facilitated by NarK, a NO3(-)/NO2(-) transporter encoded in the anammox genome. The relative contribution of NO3(-) to NO2(-) detoxification was found to be pH dependent. Exposure of anammox cells to NO2(-) in absence of their electron donating substrate, ammonium (NH4(+)), causes NO2(-) stress. At pH 6.7 and 7.0, the activity of NO2(-) stressed cells was respectively 0 and 27% of the non-stressed control activity (NO2(-) and NH4(+) fed simultaneously). Exogenous NO3(-) addition caused the recovery to 42% and 80% of the control activity at pH 6.7 and 7.0, respectively. The recovery of the activity of NO2(-) stressed cells improved with increasing NO3(-) concentration, the maximum recovery being achieved at 0.85 mM. The NO3(-) pre-incubation time is less significant at pH 7.0 than at pH 6.7 due to a more severe NO2(-) toxicity at lower pH. Additionally, NO3(-) caused almost complete attenuation of NO2(-) toxicity in cells exposed to the proton gradient disruptor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone at pH 7.5, providing evidence that the NO3(-) attenuation is independent of the proton motive force. The absence of a measurable NO3(-) consumption (or NO3(-) dependent N2 production) during the batch tests leaves NO3(-) dependent active transport of NO2(-) as the only plausible explanation for the relief of NO2(-) inhibition. We suggest that anammox cells can use a secondary transport system facilitated by exogenous NO3(-) to alleviate NO2(-) toxicity. PMID

  13. Heterotrophic denitrification vs. autotrophic anammox – quantifying collateral effects on the oceanic carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Koeve

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of fixed nitrogen to N2 in suboxic waters is estimated to contribute roughly a third to total oceanic losses of fixed nitrogen and is hence understood to be of major importance to global oceanic production and, therefore, to the role of the ocean as a sink of atmospheric CO2. At present heterotrophic denitrification and autotrophic anammox are considered the dominant sinks of fixed nitrogen. Recently, it has been suggested that the trophic nature of pelagic N2-production may have additional, "collateral" effects on the carbon cycle, where heterotrophic denitrification provides a shallow source of CO2 and autotrophic anammox a shallow sink. Here, we analyse the stoichiometries of nitrogen and associated carbon conversions in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZ focusing on heterotrophic denitrification, autotrophic anammox, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to nitrite and ammonium in order to test this hypothesis quantitatively. For open ocean OMZs the combined effects of these processes turn out to be clearly heterotrophic, even with high shares of the autotrophic anammox reaction in total N2-production and including various combinations of dissimilatory processes which provide the substrates to anammox. In such systems, the degree of heterotrophy (ΔCO2:ΔN2, varying between 1.7 and 6.5, is a function of the efficiency of nitrogen conversion. On the contrary, in systems like the Black Sea, where suboxic N-conversions are supported by diffusive fluxes of NH4+ originating from neighbouring waters with sulphate reduction, much lower values of ΔCO2:ΔN2 can be found. However, accounting for concomitant diffusive fluxes of CO2, the ratio approaches higher values similar to those computed for open ocean OMZs. Based on this analysis, we question the significance of collateral effects concerning the trophic

  14. Successful start-up of the anammox process: Influence of the seeding strategy on performance and granule properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Hu, Hai-Yan; Chen, Qian-Qian; Shi, Man-Ling; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2016-07-01

    Successful start-up of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in up-flow sludge blanket reactor was achieved by seeding denitrifying (R0) or mixed denitrifying-anammox granular sludge at a 3:1 volume ratio (R1). The results demonstrated that R1 was successfully started-up on day 40 and had a nitrogen removal rate (NRR) of 0.55kgNm(-3)d(-1). By contrast, it took 98days to start up R0 (0.54kgNm(-3)d(-1)). R0 and R1 achieved maximum NRRs of 5.70 and 12.02kgNm(-3)d(-1), respectively. The biogranules from R1 generally possessed greater specific anammox activity (SAA), higher extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and heme c content, larger granules and greater settling velocity. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and high-throughput sequencing techniques were used to monitor the evolution of the bacterial community. These results demonstrated the feasibility of seeding mixed denitrifying-anammox granular sludge to start-up an anammox reactor. PMID:27043054

  15. Long-term performance and microbial community characterization of an osmotic anammox system for removing reverse-fluxed ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojin; Sun, Shan; Badgley, Brian D; He, Zhen

    2016-07-01

    A novel osmotic anammox (OsAMX) system coupling nitritation-anammox with forward osmosis (FO) has been developed for removal of reverse-fluxed ammonium when using NH4HCO3 as a draw solute. In this study, long-term performance and microbial community structure were investigated. The nitritation-anammox reactor maintained an ammonium concentration of 7.0±5.0mgNL(-1) (DO=0.9±0.2mgO2L(-1)), while the FO achieved a water flux of 2.3±0.4LMH (0.5M NH4HCO3 draw). The low water flux was obtained likely due to concentration polarization, reverse salt flux (RSF) and membrane fouling. Sequencing analyses reveled that Candidatus Jettenia was the dominant anammox genus, while Candidatus Brocadia was most abundant in biofilm. The shift of anammox bacterial population indicated possible higher tolerance of Ca. Brocadia for DO or elevated RSF. These results encourage further investigation of OsAMX system optimization, membrane fouling migration strategies, and application with actual wastewater. PMID:27046789

  16. Lactococcus lactis - a diploid bacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Ole; Hansen, Flemming G.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    In contrast to higher eukaryotes, bacteria are haploid, i.e. they store their genetic information in a single chromosome, which is then duplicated during the cell cycle. If the growth rate is sufficiently low, the bacterium is born with only a single copy of the chromosome, which gets duplicated...... before the bacterium divides. Fast-growing bacteria have overlapping rounds of replication, and can contain DNA corresponding to more than four genome equivalents. However, the terminus region of the chromosome is still present in just one copy after division, and is not duplicated until right before...... the next division. Thus, the regions of the chromosome that are the last to be replicated are haploid even in fast-growing bacteria. In contrast to this general rule for bacteria, we found that Lactococcus lactis, a bacterium which has been exploited for thousands of years for the production of fermented...

  17. Single Bacterium Detection Using Sers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchukov, S. A.; Baikova, T. V.; Alushin, M. V.; Svistunova, T. S.; Minaeva, S. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Saraeva, I. N.; Zayarny, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    This work is devoted to the study of a single Staphylococcus aureus bacterium detection using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and resonant Raman spectroscopy (RS). It was shown that SERS allows increasing sensitivity of predominantly low frequency lines connected with the vibrations of Amide, Proteins and DNA. At the same time the lines of carotenoids inherent to this kind of bacterium are well-detected due to the resonance Raman scattering mechanism. The reproducibility and stability of Raman spectra strongly depend on the characteristics of nanostructured substrate, and molecular structure and size of the tested biological object.

  18. A microdiversity study of anammox bacteria reveals a novel Candidatus Scalindua phylotype in marine oxygen minimum zones

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Woebken, D.; Lam, P.; Kuypers, M.M.M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Kartal, B.; Strous, M.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Fuchs, B.M.; Amann, R.

    to the subspecies level (Gürtler and Stanisich, 1996; Normand et al., 1996). Results Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences From the five clone libraries constructed with the planctomycete-specific primer Pla46F and the universal primer1037R,1384... affiliated to the Candidatus genera of anammox bacteria and were further analysed. Sequences related to known anammox bacteria. 16S rRNA gene-ITS clone libraries of the three OMZs and the Black Sea suboxic water column constructed with primer Pla46F and 1037R...

  19. Isotopic evidence for nitrous oxide production pathways in a partial nitritation-anammox reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Eliza; Joss, Adriano; Emmenegger, Lukas; Kipf, Marco; Wolf, Benjamin; Mohn, Joachim; Wunderlin, Pascal

    2015-10-15

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) production pathways in a single stage, continuously fed partial nitritation-anammox reactor were investigated using online isotopic analysis of offgas N2O with quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS). N2O emissions increased when reactor operating conditions were not optimal, for example, high dissolved oxygen concentration. SP measurements indicated that the increase in N2O was due to enhanced nitrifier denitrification, generally related to nitrite build-up in the reactor. The results of this study confirm that process control via online N2O monitoring is an ideal method to detect imbalances in reactor operation and regulate aeration, to ensure optimal reactor conditions and minimise N2O emissions. Under normal operating conditions, the N2O isotopic site preference (SP) was much higher than expected - up to 40‰ - which could not be explained within the current understanding of N2O production pathways. Various targeted experiments were conducted to investigate the characteristics of N2O formation in the reactor. The high SP measurements during both normal operating and experimental conditions could potentially be explained by a number of hypotheses: i) unexpectedly strong heterotrophic N2O reduction, ii) unknown inorganic or anammox-associated N2O production pathway, iii) previous underestimation of SP fractionation during N2O production from NH2OH, or strong variations in SP from this pathway depending on reactor conditions. The second hypothesis - an unknown or incompletely characterised production pathway - was most consistent with results, however the other possibilities cannot be discounted. Further experiments are needed to distinguish between these hypotheses and fully resolve N2O production pathways in PN-anammox systems. PMID:26164660

  20. Transient and long-term effects of bicarbonate on the ANAMMOX process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ren-Cun; Yu, Jin-Jin; Ma, Chun; Yang, Guang-Feng; Zhang, Jue; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Ji, Yu-Xin; Hu, Bao-Lan

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the effects of both transient and long-term inorganic carbon (IC) addition on the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) process under pseudo-steady-state and substrate inhibitions were analyzed using reactor performance and measures of sludge activity. Compared with the nitrogen removal rate (NRR) of 3.42 kg N m(-3) day(-1) in the control bioreactor (ICDR) without IC, the peak NRR reached 21.0 kg N m(-3) day(-1) in the reactor (ICAR) with sufficient IC added. It was revealed that the long-term addition of bicarbonate significantly enhanced the performance of the ANAMMOX reactor. The optimum HCO3 (-)/TN ratio was considered to be 1.20, which is lower than that in normal conditions. The IC concentration affected biomass activity, and the transient addition or removal of IC to differing sludge media caused a significant loss of activity. Sufficient addition of IC alleviated the inhibition of excess substrates, while the inhibition was aggravated by the IC limitation. The half-maximal (50 %) inhibitory concentrations of substrate for the sludge were 295 mg L(-1) NO2 (-)-N and 361 mg L(-1) NH4 (+)-N with 120 mg L(-1) of fixed HCO3 (-) and 346 mg L(-1) NO2 (-)-N and 456 mg L(-1) NH4 (+)-N with unlimited IC, respectively. Changing the HCO3 (-)/TN (in milligrams per milligram) ratio resulted in the variation of ANAMMOX stoichiometric ratios. Sludge characterization parameters in the ICDR, including biomass, extracellular polymeric substances, heme C, and so on, were lower than those in ICAR. Filamentous bacteria and spherical bacteria were also observed in the reactor with limited IC. PMID:23780583

  1. Denitrification, anammox and fixed nitrogen removal in the water column of a tropical great lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darchambeau, François; Roland, Fleur; Crowe, Sean A.; De Brabandere, Loreto; Llirós, Marc; Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; Inceoglu, Ozgul; Michiels, Céline; Servais, Pierre; Morana, Cédric D. T.; Bouillon, Steven; Meysman, Filip; Veuger, Bart; Masilya, Pascal M.; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Borges, Alberto V.

    2013-04-01

    If rates of microbial denitrification in aquatic systems are poorly constrained, it is much more the case for tropical water bodies. Lake Kivu [2.50° S 1.59° S, 29.37° E 28.83° E] is one of the great lakes of the East African Rift. It is an oligotrophic lake characterized by anoxic deep waters rich in dissolved gases (methane and carbon dioxide) and nutrients, and by well oxygenated and nutrient-depleted surface waters. During the seasonally stratified rainy season (October to May), a nitrogenous zone characterized by the accumulation of nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) is often observed in the lower layer of the mixolimnion. It results from nitrification of ammonium released by decaying organic matter. With the seasonal uplift of the oxygen minimum zone, the nitrogenous zone becomes anoxic and might be the most preferential area for fixed nitrogen (N) removal in Lake Kivu. Our work aimed at identifying and quantifying the processes of N losses by denitrification and/or anammox in the nitrogenous zone of the Lake Kivu water column. During 5 sampling campaigns (March 2010, October 2010, June 2011, February 2012 and September 2012), isotopic labelling experiments were used to quantify denitrification and anammox rates along vertical profiles at two pelagic stations of the main lake. Moreover, N2:Ar ratios were estimated during the September 2012 campaign, and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing was used to describe bacterial community composition during the last 2 campaigns. No bacteria related to organisms performing anammox was observed and labelling experiments failed to detect anammox at any locations and any depths. In Lake Kivu, denitrifying bacteria were mainly related to Denitratisoma and Thiobacillus genus. Significant denitrification rates were observed at several occasions, especially under the oxic-anoxic interface in the bottom of the nitracline. The annual average denitrification rate was estimated at ~150 μmoles N m-2 d-1. Denitrification was not the only

  2. Mainstream partial nitritation and anammox: long-term process stability and effluent quality at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureni, Michele; Falås, Per; Robin, Orlane; Wick, Arne; Weissbrodt, David G; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Ternes, Thomas A; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Joss, Adriano

    2016-09-15

    The implementation of autotrophic anaerobic ammonium oxidation processes for the removal of nitrogen from municipal wastewater (known as "mainstream anammox") bears the potential to bring wastewater treatment plants close to energy autarky. The aim of the present work was to assess the long-term stability of partial nitritation/anammox (PN/A) processes operating at low temperatures and their reliability in meeting nitrogen concentrations in the range of typical discharge limits below 2  [Formula: see text] and 10 mgNtot·L(-1). Two main 12-L sequencing batch reactors were operated in parallel for PN/A on aerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater (21 ± 5 [Formula: see text] and residual 69 ± 19 mgCODtot·L(-1)) for more than one year, including over 5 months at 15 °C. The two systems consisted of a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and a hybrid MBBR (H-MBBR) with flocculent biomass. Operation at limiting oxygen concentrations (0.15-0.18 [Formula: see text] ) allowed stable suppression of the activity of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria at 15 °C with a production of nitrate over ammonium consumed as low as 16% in the MBBR. Promising nitrogen removal rates of 20-40 mgN·L(-1)·d(-1) were maintained at hydraulic retention times of 14 h. Stable ammonium and total nitrogen removal efficiencies over 90% and 70% respectively were achieved. Both reactors reached average concentrations of total nitrogen below 10 mgN·L(-1) in their effluents, even down to 6 mgN·L(-1) for the MBBR, with an ammonium concentration of 2 mgN·L(-1) (set as operational threshold to stop aeration). Furthermore, the two PN/A systems performed almost identically with respect to the biological removal of organic micropollutants and, importantly, to a similar extent as conventional treatments. A sudden temperature drop to 11 °C resulted in significant suppression of anammox activity, although this was rapidly recovered after the temperature was increased back to 15 °C. Analyses of 16S

  3. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by anammox bacteria in the Black Sea RID B-8834-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuypers, MMM; Sliekers, AO; Lavik, G.; Schmid, M.; Jørgensen, BB; Kuenen, JG; Damste, JSS; Strous, M.; Jetten, MSM

    2003-01-01

    ). Here we provide evidence for bacteria that anaerobically oxidize ammonium with nitrite to N(2) in the world's largest anoxic basin, the Black Sea. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences shows that these bacteria are related to members of the order Planctomycetales performing the...... anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process in ammonium-removing bioreactors(3). Nutrient profiles, fluorescently labelled RNA probes, (15)N tracer experiments and the distribution of specific 'ladderane' membrane lipids(4) indicate that ammonium diffusing upwards from the anoxic deep water is consumed...

  4. Diversity of total and functional microbiome of anammox reactors fed with complex and synthetic nitrogen-rich wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Mutlu, Ayten Gizem;

    There are few comparitive studies of microbial structure, composition and phylogenetic diversity of the anammox reactors as a function of substrate complexity exist, representing a large gap in the scientific literature. In this study, we applied 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) tag-based 454 pyrosequencing ...

  5. Selection of controlled variables in bioprocesses. Application to a SHARON-Anammox process for autotrophic nitrogen removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Valverde Perez, Borja; Sin, Gürkan

    Selecting the right controlled variables in a bioprocess is challenging since the objectives of the process (yields, product or substrate concentration) are difficult to relate with a given actuator. We apply here process control tools that can be used to assist in the selection of controlled...... variables to the case of the SHARON-Anammox process for autotrophic nitrogen removal....

  6. Niche segregation of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and anammox bacteria in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitcher, A.; Villanueva, L.; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.; Reichart, G.J.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria have emerged as significant factors in the marine nitrogen cycle and are responsible for the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and dinitrogen gas, respectively. Potential for an interaction between these groups exists;

  7. Denitrification and anammox in tropical aquaculture settlement ponds: an isotope tracer approach for evaluating N2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castine, Sarah A; Erler, Dirk V; Trott, Lindsay A; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky; Eyre, Bradley D

    2012-01-01

    Settlement ponds are used to treat aquaculture discharge water by removing nutrients through physical (settling) and biological (microbial transformation) processes. Nutrient removal through settling has been quantified, however, the occurrence of, and potential for microbial nitrogen (N) removal is largely unknown in these systems. Therefore, isotope tracer techniques were used to measure potential rates of denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in the sediment of settlement ponds in tropical aquaculture systems. Dinitrogen gas (N(2)) was produced in all ponds, although potential rates were low (0-7.07 nmol N cm(-3) h(-1)) relative to other aquatic systems. Denitrification was the main driver of N(2) production, with anammox only detected in two of the four ponds. No correlations were detected between the measured sediment variables (total organic carbon, total nitrogen, iron, manganese, sulphur and phosphorous) and denitrification or anammox. Furthermore, denitrification was not carbon limited as the addition of particulate organic matter (paired t-Test; P = 0.350, n = 3) or methanol (paired t-Test; P = 0.744, n = 3) did not stimulate production of N(2). A simple mass balance model showed that only 2.5% of added fixed N was removed in the studied settlement ponds through the denitrification and anammox processes. It is recommended that settlement ponds be used in conjunction with additional technologies (i.e. constructed wetlands or biological reactors) to enhance N(2) production and N removal from aquaculture wastewater. PMID:22962581

  8. Development of Electroactive and Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox Biofilms from Digestate in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea Gino Di Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial Fuel cells (MFCs have been proposed for nutrient removal and energy recovery from different wastes. In this study the anaerobic digestate was used to feed H-type MFC reactors, one with a graphite anode preconditioned with Geobacter sulfurreducens and the other with an unconditioned graphite anode. The data demonstrate that the digestate acts as a carbon source, and even in the absence of anode preconditioning, electroactive bacteria colonise the anodic chamber, producing a maximum power density of 172.2 mW/m2. The carbon content was also reduced by up to 60%, while anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox bacteria, which were found in the anodic compartment of the reactors, contributed to nitrogen removal from the digestate. Overall, these results demonstrate that MFCs can be used to recover anammox bacteria from natural sources, and it may represent a promising bioremediation unit in anaerobic digestor plants for the simultaneous nitrogen removal and electricity generation using digestate as substrate.

  9. Achieving complete nitrogen removal by coupling nitritation-anammox and methane-dependent denitrification: A model-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueming; Guo, Jianhua; Xie, Guo-Jun; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2016-05-01

    The discovery of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) processes enables the complete nitrogen removal from wastewater by utilizing the methane produced on site from anaerobic digesters. This model-based study investigated the mechanisms and operational window for efficient nitrogen removal by coupling nitritation-anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) and methane-dependent denitrification in membrane biofilm reactors (MBfRs). A mathematical model was applied to describe the microbial interactions among Anammox bacteria, DAMO archaea, and DAMO bacteria. The model sufficiently described the batch experimental data from an MBfR containing an Anammox-DAMO biofilm with different feeding nitrogen compositions, which confirmed the validity of the model. The effects of process parameters on the system performance and microbial community structure could therefore be reliably evaluated. The impacts of nitritation produced NO2 (-) /NH4 (+) ratio, methane supply, biofilm thickness and total nitrogen (TN) surface loading were comprehensively investigated with the model. Results showed that the optimum NO2 (-) /NH4 (+) ratio produced from nitritation for the Anammox-DAMO biofilm system was around 1.0 in order to achieve the maximum TN removal (over 99.0%), independent on TN surface loading. The corresponding optimal methane supply increased while the associated methane utilization efficiency decreased with the increase of TN surface loading. The cooperation between DAMO organisms and Anammox bacteria played the key role in the TN removal. Based on these results, the proof-of-concept feasibility of a single-stage MBfR coupling nitritation-Anammox-DAMO for complete nitrogen removal was also tested through integrating the model with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) processes whilst controlling the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the simulated system. The maximum TN removal was found to be achieved at the bulk DO concentration

  10. Presence and diversity of anammox bacteria in cold hydrocarbon-rich seeps and hydrothermal vent sediments of the Guaymas Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina eRuss

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermally active sediments are highly productive, chemosynthetic areas which are characterized by the rapid turnover of particulate organic matter under extreme conditions in which ammonia is liberated. These systems might be suitable habitats for anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox bacteria but this has not been investigated in detail. Here we report the diversity and abundance of anammox bacteria in sediments that seep cold hydrocarbon-rich fluids and hydrothermal vent areas of the Guaymas Basin in the Cortés Sea using the unique functional anammox marker gene, hydrazine synthase (hzsA. All clones retrieved were closely associated to the ‘Candidatus Scalindua’ genus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clusters of hzsA sequences (Ca. Scalindua hzsA cluster I and II. Comparison of individual sequences from both clusters showed that several of these sequences had a similarity as low as 76% on nucleotide level. Based on the analysis of this phylomarker, a very high interspecies diversity within the marine anammox group is apparent. Absolute numbers of anammox bacteria in the sediments samples were determined by amplification of a 257 bp fragment of the hszA gene in a qPCR assay. The results indicate that numbers of anammox bacteria are generally higher in cold hydrocarbon-rich sediments compared to the vent areas and the reference zone. Ladderanes, lipids unique to anammox bacteria were also detected in several of the sediment samples corroborating the hzsA analysis. Due to the high concentrations of reduced sulfur compounds and its potential impact on the cycling of nitrogen we aimed to get an indication about the key players in the oxidation of sulfide in the Guaymas Basin sediments using the alpha subunit of the adenosine-5’-phosphosulfate (APS reductase (aprA. Amplification of the aprA gene revealed a high number of gammaproteobacterial aprA genes covering the two sulfur-oxidizing bacteria aprA lineages as well as

  11. Analysis of the impact of reflux ratio on coupled partial nitrification-anammox for co-treatment of mature landfill leachate and domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lina; Zhang, Lieyu; Shi, Xiao; Liu, Ting; Peng, Yongzhen; Zhang, Jie

    2015-12-01

    A combined system of anaerobic-aerobic techniques was used for deep co-treatment of mature landfill leachate and domestic sewage, mixed at a ratio of 1:5, through partial nitrification-anammox. While ensuring synchronous removal of organic matter and nitrogen, we investigated changes in several factors under different reflux ratios (0%, 100% and 300%). High nitrification efficiency and a relatively high accumulation rate of NO2(-)-N were achieved, the latter through selective inhibition of bacteria by free ammonia. The results indicated that maintaining the reflux ratio within an optimum range contributes to the enrichment of anammox bacteria. In this study, the optimum ratio, which permitted the highest removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4(+)-N, and total nitrogen, was 300%. The COD level in the anammox reactor (ANAOR) decreased to lower than 70 mg/L, resulting in no inhibitory effect on anammox and maximum enrichment of bacteria. PMID:26386424

  12. Study on one-stage Partial Nitritation-Anammox process in Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors: a sustainable nitrogen removal.

    OpenAIRE

    Bertino, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, several novel and cost-effective biological nitrogen removal technologies have been developed. The discovery of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox), about 15 years ago, has resulted in new opportunities for research and development of sustainable nitrogen removal systems. Compared to conventional nitrification/denitrification, Anammox eliminates necessity of external organic carbon source, has a smaller production of excess sludge, reduces energy demand for aeration (up...

  13. Systematic design of an optimal control system for the SHARON-Anammox process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde Perez, Borja; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Sin, Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    found to be dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH in the SHARON reactor. Furthermore, to relate the controller actions to process operation objective, nitrogen removal efficiency, two cascade control systems are designed. The first cascade loop controls TNN/TAN ratio in the influent to the Anammox reactor by...... (CVs). The best candidates to CVs were paired with the manipulated variables using the relative gain array. The proposed control structure was further analyzed and verified for disturbance rejection using the CLDG plots. The optimal pairing of CVs with the actuators (kLa and acid/base addition) is...... adjusting the set point for DO in the regulatory layer, while the second cascade loop controls the nitrogen removal efficiency (i.e. effluent TNN and TAN) by adjusting the TNN/TAN ratio at the effluent of the SHARON reactor. The control system is evaluated and benchmarked using a set of realistic dynamic...

  14. Plant-wide (BSM2) evaluation of reject water treatment with a SHARON-Anammox process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volcke, Eveline; Gernaey, Krist; Vrecko, Darko;

    2006-01-01

    In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with sludge digestion and dewatering systems, the reject water originating from these facilities contributes significantly to the nitrogen load of the activated sludge tanks, to which it is typically recycled. In this paper, the impact of reject water...... streams on the performance of a WWTP is assessed in a simulation study, using the Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 (BSM2), that includes the processes describing sludge treatment and in this way allows for plant-wide evaluation. Comparison of performance of a WWTP without reject water with a WWTP where...... treatment plant, reject water treatment with a combined SHARON-Anammox process seems a promising option. The simulation results indicate that significant improvements of the effluent quality of the main wastewater treatment plant can be realized. An economic evaluation of the different scenarios is...

  15. Aggregate Size and Architecture Determine Microbial Activity Balance for One-Stage Partial Nitritation and Anammox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaeminck, S.E.; Terada, Akihiko; Smets, Barth F.;

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB) and anoxic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) cooperate in partial nitritation/anammox systems to remove ammonium from wastewater. In this process, large granular microbial aggregates enhance the performance, but little is known about granulation so far......AOB abundance and the activity balance for the different aggregate sizes and (ii) to relate aggregate morphology, size distribution, and architecture putatively to the inoculation and operation of the three reactors. A nitrite accumulation rate ratio (NARR) was defined as the net aerobic nitrite production rate...... divided by the anoxic nitrite consumption rate. The smallest reactor A, B, and C aggregates were nitrite sources (NARR, > 1.7). Large reactor A and C aggregates were granules capable of autonomous nitrogen removal (NARR, 0.6 to 1.1) with internal AnAOB zones surrounded by an AerAOB rim. Around 50% of the...

  16. Optimization and Modelling of Chemical Oxygen Demand Removal by ANAMMOX Process Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jalilzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic model for chemical oxygen demand (COD removal using the ANAMMOX (Anaerobic AMMonium OXidation process was provided based on an experimental design. At first, the experimental data was collected from a combined biological aerobic/anaerobic reactor. For modelling and optimization of COD removal, the main parameters were considered, such as COD loading, ammonium, pH, and temperature. From the models, the optimum conditions were determined as COD 97.5 mg/L, ammonium concentration equal to 28.75 mg-N/L, pH 7.72, and temperature 31.3°C. Finally, the analysis of the optimum conditions, performed by the response surface method, predicted COD removal efficiency of 81.07% at the optimum condition.

  17. [Start-up of a full-scale system for short-cut nitrification and Anammox in treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shuang; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Zonghe; Lu, Huifeng; Zhang, Meng; Wu, Datian; Wu, Zegao

    2014-12-01

    In order to broaden the application area of the new nitrogen removal technology, a full-scale system for short-cut nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) was investigated in the nitrogen removal from a strong-ammonium pharmaceutical wastewater. When the influent ammonium concentration was (430.40 ± 55.43) mg/L, ammonia removal efficiency was (81.75 ± 9.10)%. The short-cut nitrification and Anammox system could successfully remove nitrogen from the pharmaceutical wastewater. The start-up of short-cut nitrification system took about 74 d and the nitrite accumulation efficiency was (52.11 ± 9.13)%, the two-step mode using synthetic wastewater and actual wastewater was suitable for the start-up of short-cut nitrification system. The start-up of Anammox system took about 145 d and the maximum volumetric nitrogen removal rate was 6.35 kg N/(m3·d), dozens of times higher than those for the conventional nitrification-denitrification process. The strategy achieving Anammox sludge by self-growth and biocatalyst addition was suitable for the start-up of Anammox system. PMID:26016378

  18. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Daan R; In 't Zandt, Michiel H; Guerrero-Cruz, Simon; Dutilh, Bas E; Jetten, Mike S M

    2016-01-01

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is used to seed reactors in wastewater treatment plants around the world; however, the role of most of its microbial community in ammonium removal remains unknown. Our analysis yielded 23 near-complete draft genomes that together represent the majority of the microbial community. We assign these genomes to distinct anaerobic and aerobic microbial communities. In the aerobic community, nitrifying organisms and heterotrophs predominate. In the anaerobic community, widespread potential for partial denitrification suggests a nitrite loop increases treatment efficiency. Of our genomes, 19 have no previously cultivated or sequenced close relatives and six belong to bacterial phyla without any cultivated members, including the most complete Omnitrophica (formerly OP3) genome to date. PMID:27029554

  19. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Daan R.; in 't Zandt, Michiel H.; Guerrero-Cruz, Simon; Dutilh, Bas E.; Jetten, Mike S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is used to seed reactors in wastewater treatment plants around the world; however, the role of most of its microbial community in ammonium removal remains unknown. Our analysis yielded 23 near-complete draft genomes that together represent the majority of the microbial community. We assign these genomes to distinct anaerobic and aerobic microbial communities. In the aerobic community, nitrifying organisms and heterotrophs predominate. In the anaerobic community, widespread potential for partial denitrification suggests a nitrite loop increases treatment efficiency. Of our genomes, 19 have no previously cultivated or sequenced close relatives and six belong to bacterial phyla without any cultivated members, including the most complete Omnitrophica (formerly OP3) genome to date. PMID:27029554

  20. Temperature response of denitrification and anammox reveals the adaptation of microbial communities to in situ temperatures in permeable marine sediments that span 50° in latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Canion

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research on the physiology and biochemistry of nitrate/nitrite-respiring microorganisms, little is known regarding their metabolic response to temperature, especially under in situ conditions. The temperature regulation of microbial communities that mediate anammox and denitrification was investigated in near shore permeable sediments at polar, temperate, and subtropical sites with annual mean temperatures ranging from −5 to 23 °C. Total N2 production rates were determined using the isotope pairing technique in intact core incubations under diffusive and simulated advection conditions and ranged from 2 to 359 μmol N m−2 d−1. For the majority of sites studied, N2 removal was 2 to 7 times more rapid under advective flow conditions. Anammox comprised 6 to 14% of total N2 production at temperate and polar sites and was not detected at the subtropical site. Potential rates of denitrification and anammox were determined in anaerobic slurries in a temperature gradient block incubator across a temperature range of −1 to 42 °C. The highest optimum temperature (Topt for denitrification was 36 °C and was observed in subtropical sediments, while the lowest Topt of 21 °C was observed at the polar site. Seasonal variation in the Topt was observed at the temperate site with values of 26 and 34 °C in winter and summer, respectively. The Topt values for anammox were 9 and 26 °C at the polar and temperate sites, respectively. The results demonstrate adaptation of denitrifying communities to in situ temperatures in permeable marine sediments across a wide range of temperatures, whereas marine anammox bacteria may be predominately psychrophilic to psychrotolerant. To our knowledge, we provide the first rates of denitrification and anammox from permeable sediments of a polar permanently cold ecosystem. The adaptation of microbial communities to in situ temperatures suggests that the relationship between temperature and rates of N

  1. Shotgun metagenomic data reveals signifcant abundance but low diversity of Candidatus Scalindua marine anammox bacteria in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    laura eVillanueva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox bacteria are responsible for a significant portion of the loss of fixed nitrogen from the oceans, making them important players in the global nitrogen cycle. To date, marine anammox bacteria found in both water columns and sediments worldwide belong almost exclusively to Candidatus Scalindua species. Recently the genome assembly of a marine anammox enrichment culture dominated by Candidatus Scalindua profunda became available and can now be used as a template to study metagenome data obtained from various oxygen minimum zones. Here, we sequenced genomic DNA from suspended particulate matter recovered at the upper (170 m deep and center (600 m area of the oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea by SOLiD and Ion Torrent technology. The genome of Candidatus Scalindua profunda served as a template to collect reads. Based on the mapped reads marine anammox Abundance was estimated to be at least 0.4% in the upper and 1.7% in the center area. Single nucleotide variation (SNV analysis was performed to assess diversity of the Candidatus Scalindua populations. Most highly covered were the two diagnostic anammox genes hydrazine synthase (scal_01318c, hzsA and hydrazine dehydrogenase (scal_03295, hdh, while other genes involved in anammox metabolism (narGH, nirS, amtB, focA and ACS had a lower coverage but could still be assembled and analyzed. The results show that Candidatus Scalindua is abundantly present in the Arabian Sea OMZ, but that the diversity within the ecosystem is relatively low.

  2. [Effect of High Ammonium on Nitrogen Removal in an Partial Nitritation-ANAMMOX Process with Reflux System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Cui, Jian-hong; Yuan, Yan; Huang, Yong; Yuan, Yi; Liu, Xin

    2015-10-01

    The effect of influent ammonia on nitrogen transformation characteristics and microbial communities in partial nitrification-anaerobic ammonia oxidation (PN-ANAMMOX) process was studied by using a series of partial nitrification and ANAMMOX process with air-lift reflux device. The results showed that when the influent ammonia concentration was increased to 700 mg x L(-1) and the nitrogen volume load was stabled at 2.8 kg x (m3 x d)(-1), the fluctuation of pH value was very small in aerobic and anaerobic zone. In the aerobic and anaerobic zone, FA concentrations were maintained at 5'mg x L(-1), 10 mg x L(-1), respectively, which did not inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Nitrite produce rate was stabled at 1.5 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) in the aerobic zone, and nitrogen removal rate was stabled at 31.49 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) in anaerobic zone, the total nitrogen removal rate was stabled at 1.67 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) in combined process. When the influent ammonia concentration was increased to 900 mg x L(-1), the FA and FNA concentration were increased in each areas, total nitrogen removal rate was decreased and stabled at 1.52 kg x- ( m3x- d( 1)'. The nitrite was accumulated in the anaerobic zone, and there was no significant inhibition of ANAMMOX bacteria. Our findings indicated that the reflux can effectively alleviate the fluctuation of pH in each area, and dilute FA concentration which is toxic to microorganisms. PMID:26841608

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF THE BACTERIUM TOMATO STEM CANKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goner A. Shaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseased tomato samples were collected from green house was evaluated for isolation, pathogenicity and biochemical tests. The symptoms of the infected tomato plants were as sudden wilting after curled on leaves and necrotic streak regions developed at the crown and base of the stem and the cavities deepen and expand up and down, brown discoloration and necrosis occurring on xylem and phloem vasculer. All of ages of tomato plant were susceptible to bacteria when the weather condition favorable and immediately, seen collapse symptom on tomato plant at once fail and die. The bacterium was isolated from diseased plant in all regions on nutrient Agar; a yellow bacterium was isolated from infected tomato plant in green houses and fields in Abu-Ghraib, Rashiedia and Qanat Al-Geiaysh nurseries in Baghdad provinces of Iraq. The bacterium was found gram positive, rod-shaped, non-motile and capable an aerobic growth and based on the morphological and biochemical characteristics revealed that this bacterium belongs to: Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. (smith pathogenicity and hypersensitivity of the bacterium Cmm showed the disease index were 18.33, 6.66, 16.66, 5, 0% for tomato seedlings were inoculated treatments as the wounding roots, without wounding roots, crown of the stem, petiole and control respectively.

  4. Source identification of nitrous oxide emission pathways from a single-stage nitritation-anammox granular reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Muhammad

    2016-06-16

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) production pathway in a signal-stage nitritation-anammox sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated based on a multilateral approach including real-time N2O monitoring, N2O isotopic composition analysis, and in-situ analyses of spatial distribution of N2O production rate and microbial populations in granular biomass. N2O emission rate was high in the initial phase of the operation cycle and gradually decreased with decreasing NH4+ concentration. The average emission of N2O was 0.98 ± 0.42% and 1.35 ± 0.72% of the incoming nitrogen load and removed nitrogen, respectively. The N2O isotopic composition analysis revealed that N2O was produced via NH2OH oxidation and NO2− reduction pathways equally, although there is an unknown influence from N2O reduction and/or anammox N2O production. However, the N2O isotopomer analysis could not discriminate the relative contribution of nitrifier denitrification and heterotrophic denitrification in the NO2− reduction pathway. Various in-situ techniques (e.g. microsensor measurements and FISH (fluorescent in-situ hybridization) analysis) were therefore applied to further identify N2O producers. Microsensor measurements revealed that approximately 70% of N2O was produced in the oxic surface zone, where nitrifiers were predominantly localized. Thus, NH2OH oxidation and NO2 reduction by nitrifiers (nitrifier-denitrification) could be responsible for the N2O production in the oxic zone. The rest of N2O (ca. 30%) was produced in the anammox bacteria-dominated anoxic zone, probably suggesting that NO2− reduction by coexisting putative heterotrophic denitrifiers and some other unknown pathway(s) including the possibility of anammox process account for the anaerobic N2O production. Further study is required to identify the anaerobic N2O production pathways. Our multilateral approach can be useful to quantitatively examine the relative contributions of N2O production pathways. Good understanding of the key N2O

  5. Source identification of nitrous oxide emission pathways from a single-stage nitritation-anammox granular reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad; Rathnayake, Rathnayake M L D; Zhang, Lei; Ishii, Satoshi; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Satoh, Hisashi; Toyoda, Sakae; Yoshida, Naohiro; Okabe, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) production pathway in a signal-stage nitritation-anammox sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated based on a multilateral approach including real-time N2O monitoring, N2O isotopic composition analysis, and in-situ analyses of spatial distribution of N2O production rate and microbial populations in granular biomass. N2O emission rate was high in the initial phase of the operation cycle and gradually decreased with decreasing NH4(+) concentration. The average emission of N2O was 0.98 ± 0.42% and 1.35 ± 0.72% of the incoming nitrogen load and removed nitrogen, respectively. The N2O isotopic composition analysis revealed that N2O was produced via NH2OH oxidation and NO2(-) reduction pathways equally, although there is an unknown influence from N2O reduction and/or anammox N2O production. However, the N2O isotopomer analysis could not discriminate the relative contribution of nitrifier denitrification and heterotrophic denitrification in the NO2(-) reduction pathway. Various in-situ techniques (e.g. microsensor measurements and FISH (fluorescent in-situ hybridization) analysis) were therefore applied to further identify N2O producers. Microsensor measurements revealed that approximately 70% of N2O was produced in the oxic surface zone, where nitrifiers were predominantly localized. Thus, NH2OH oxidation and NO2 reduction by nitrifiers (nitrifier-denitrification) could be responsible for the N2O production in the oxic zone. The rest of N2O (ca. 30%) was produced in the anammox bacteria-dominated anoxic zone, probably suggesting that NO2(-) reduction by coexisting putative heterotrophic denitrifiers and some other unknown pathway(s) including the possibility of anammox process account for the anaerobic N2O production. Further study is required to identify the anaerobic N2O production pathways. Our multilateral approach can be useful to quantitatively examine the relative contributions of N2O production pathways. Good understanding of the

  6. Design and evaluation of universal 16S rRNA gene primers for high-throughput sequencing to simultaneously detect DAMO microbes and anammox bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong-Ze; Ding, Zhao-Wei; Ding, Jing; Fu, Liang; Zeng, Raymond J

    2015-12-15

    To develop universal 16S rRNA gene primers for high-throughput sequencing for the simultaneous detection of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) archaea, DAMO bacteria, and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria, four published primer sets (PS2-PS5) were modified. The overall coverage of the four primer pairs was evaluated in silico with the Silva SSU r119 dataset. Based on the virtual evaluation, the two best primer pairs (PS4 and PS5) were selected for further verification. Illumina MiSeq sequencing of a freshwater sediment and a culture from a DAMO-anammox reactor using these two primer pairs revealed that PS5 (341b4F-806R) was the most promising universal primer pair. This pair of primers detected both archaea and bacteria with less bias than PS4. Furthermore, an anaerobic fermentation culture and a wastewater treatment plant culture were used to verify the accuracy of PS5. More importantly, it detected DAMO archaea, DAMO bacteria, and anammox bacteria simultaneously with no false positives appeared. This universal 16S rRNA gene primer pair extends the existing molecular tools for studying the community structures and distributions of DAMO microbes and their potential interactions with anammox bacteria in different environments. PMID:26454634

  7. Distribution and microbial community structure analysis of a single-stage partial nitritation/anammox granular sludge bioreactor operating at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Purswani, Jessica; Lotti, Tommaso; Maza-Marquez, Paula; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Vahala, Riku; Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro

    2016-09-01

    In the last decade, autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies based on anammox metabolism have become state of the art in urban and industrial wastewater treatment systems, due to their advantages over traditional nitrogen removal processes. However, their application is currently limited to the treatment of warm wastewater (25-40°C) mainly due to the low growth rate of the anammox bacteria. The extension of the application field to wastewater characterized by lower temperatures (8-20°C), such as those typical for municipal sewage, allows the design of treatment systems with a net energy production. In this study, the distribution and bacterial community structure of a lab-scale single-stage partial nitritation/anammox (PN/A) granular sludge bioreactor operating at low temperatures was analysed using next-generation sequencing techniques. The presence of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacteria was found, but the appearance of other bacterial species shows a complex microbial ecosystem. Evaluation of ecological roles of representative species inside the single-stage PN/A bioreactor was accomplished. Results obtained will be helpful for the future design and operation of PN/A systems performing at low temperatures. PMID:26829222

  8. Intact polar lipids of Thaumarchaeota and anammox bacteria as indicators of N cycling in the eastern tropical North Pacific oxygen-deficient zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollai, M.; Hopmans, E. C.; Schouten, S.; Keil, R. G.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2015-08-01

    In the last decade our understanding of the marine nitrogen cycle has improved considerably thanks to the discovery of two novel groups of microorganisms: ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Both groups are important in oxygen-deficient zones (ODZs), where they substantially affect the marine N budget. These two groups of microbes are also well known for producing specific membrane lipids, which can be used as biomarkers to trace their presence in the environment. We investigated the occurrence and distribution of AOA and anammox bacteria in the water column of the eastern tropical North Pacific (ETNP) ODZ, one of the most prominent ODZs worldwide. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected at different depths of the water column in high resolution, at both a coastal and an open-ocean setting. The SPM was analyzed for AOA- and anammox bacteria-specific intact polar lipids (IPLs), i.e., hexose-phosphohexose (HPH)-crenarchaeol and phosphatidylcholine (PC)-monoether ladderane. Comparison with oxygen profiles reveals that both the microbial groups are able to thrive at low (niche segregation of AOA and anammox bacteria in the coastal waters of the ETNP but a partial overlap of the two niches of these microbial species in the open-water setting. The latter distribution suggests the potential for an interaction between the two microbial groups at the open-ocean site, although the nature of this hypothetical interaction (i.e., either competition or cooperation) remains unclear.

  9. Intact polar lipids of Thaumarchaeota and anammox bacteria as indicators of N-cycling in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific oxygen deficient zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollai, M.; Hopmans, E. C.; Schouten, S.; Keil, R. G.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2015-03-01

    In the last decade our understanding of the marine nitrogen cycle has improved considerably thanks to the discovery of two novel groups of microorganisms: ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Both groups are important in oxygen deficient zones (ODZs), where they substantially affect the marine N-budget. These two groups of microbes are also well known for producing specific membrane lipids, which can be used as biomarkers to trace their presence in the environment. We investigated the occurrence and distribution of AOA and anammox bacteria in the water column of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP) ODZ, one of the most prominent ODZs worldwide. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected at different depths of the water column in high resolution, at both a coastal and an open ocean setting. The SPM was analyzed for AOA- and anammox bacteria-specific intact polar lipids (IPLs), i.e. hexose-phosphohexose (HPH)-crenarchaeol and phosphatidylcholine (PC)-monoether ladderane. Comparison with oxygen profiles reveals that both the microbial groups are able to thrive at low (niche segregation of AOA and anammox bacteria in the coastal waters of the ETNP, but a partial overlap of the two niches of these microbial species in the open water setting. The latter distribution suggests the potential for an interaction between the two microbial groups at the open ocean site, either as competition or cooperation.

  10. Intact polar lipids of Thaumarchaeota and anammox bacteria as indicators of N-cycling in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific oxygen deficient zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sollai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade our understanding of the marine nitrogen cycle has improved considerably thanks to the discovery of two novel groups of microorganisms: ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing (anammox bacteria. Both groups are important in oxygen deficient zones (ODZs, where they substantially affect the marine N-budget. These two groups of microbes are also well known for producing specific membrane lipids, which can be used as biomarkers to trace their presence in the environment. We investigated the occurrence and distribution of AOA and anammox bacteria in the water column of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP ODZ, one of the most prominent ODZs worldwide. Suspended particulate matter (SPM was collected at different depths of the water column in high resolution, at both a coastal and an open ocean setting. The SPM was analyzed for AOA- and anammox bacteria-specific intact polar lipids (IPLs, i.e. hexose-phosphohexose (HPH-crenarchaeol and phosphatidylcholine (PC-monoether ladderane. Comparison with oxygen profiles reveals that both the microbial groups are able to thrive at low (<1 μM concentrations of oxygen. Our results indicate a clear niche segregation of AOA and anammox bacteria in the coastal waters of the ETNP, but a partial overlap of the two niches of these microbial species in the open water setting. The latter distribution suggests the potential for an interaction between the two microbial groups at the open ocean site, either as competition or cooperation.

  11. Nitrogen removal from wastewater and external waste activated sludge reutilization/reduction by simultaneous sludge fermentation, denitrification and anammox (SFDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Peng, Yongzhen; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Mengyue; Wang, Shuying

    2016-08-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous nitrogen removal and external waste activated sludge (WAS) reutilization/reduction by using the synergy of sludge fermentation, denitrification and anammox processes in up-flow reactors (SFDA). Pre-treated domestic wastewater and synthetic wastewater (containing nitrite ∼20mg/L, ammonium ∼10mg/L in both) were fed to 1# and 2# SFDA, respectively. Long-term operation of 1# SFDA was investigated with achieving the peak ammonium removal rate of 0.021 and nitrite removal rate of 0.081kgN/(m(3)d) as nitrogen loading rate elevated from 0.075 to 0.106kgN/(m(3)d). Negative effect of dissolved oxygen on anammox or fermentation in the 2# SFDA was demonstrated negligible due to rapid depletion by microorganisms. Furthermore, a "net" sludge reduction of 38.8% was obtained due to sludge decay and organics consumption by denitrification. The SFDA process was expected to potentially be used for nitrogen removal and WAS reutilization/reduction in full-scale application. PMID:27140818

  12. Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus From Reject Water Using Chlorella vulgaris Algae After Partial Nitrification/Anammox Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutwinski, Piotr; Cema, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater containing nutrients like ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and phosphates have been identified as the main cause of eutrophication in natural waters. Therefore, a suitable treatment is needed. In classical biological processes, nitrogen and phosphorus removal is expensive, especially due to the lack of biodegradable carbon, thus new methods are investigated. In this paper, the new possibility of nitrogen and phosphorus removal in side stream after the partial nitrification/Anammox process is proposed. Research was carried out in a lab-scale vertical tubular photobioreactor (VTR) fed with real reject water, from dewatering of digested sludge, after partial nitrification/Anammox process from lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were measured every three days. The average nitrogen and phosphorus loads were 0.0503 ± 0.036 g N g(vss)/d and 0.0389 ± 0.013 g P g(vss)/d accordingly. Results have shown that microalgae were able to efficiently remove nitrogen and phosphorus. The average nitrogen removal was 36.46% and phosphorus removal efficiency varied between 93 and 100%. PMID:26803028

  13. Microflora of urogenital tract in pregnancy with asymptomatic bacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article contains results of research interrelationship from colonization of vagina and urinary tract diseases. E.coli one of the main factors in development asymptomatic bacterium. Presented high effects of penicillin medicaments and nitrofurans in treatment of asymptomatic bacterium

  14. Temperature response of denitrification and anammox reveals the adaptation of microbial communities to in situ temperatures in permeable marine sediments that span 50° in latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canion, A.; Kostka, J. E.; Gihring, T. M.; Huettel, M.; van Beusekom, J. E. E.; Gao, H.; Lavik, G.; Kuypers, M. M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of research on the physiology and biochemistry of nitrate/nitrite-respiring microorganisms, little is known regarding their metabolic response to temperature, especially under in situ conditions. The temperature regulation of microbial communities that mediate anammox and denitrification was investigated in near shore permeable sediments at polar, temperate, and subtropical sites with annual mean temperatures ranging from -5 to 23 °C. Total N2 production rates were determined using the isotope pairing technique in intact core incubations under diffusive and simulated advection conditions and ranged from 2 to 359 μmol N m-2 d-1. For the majority of sites studied, N2 removal was 2-7 times more rapid under simulated advective flow conditions. Anammox comprised 6-14% of total N2 production at temperate and polar sites and was not detected at the subtropical site. Potential rates of denitrification and anammox were determined in anaerobic slurries in a temperature gradient block incubator across a temperature range of -1 °C to 42 °C. The highest optimum temperature (Topt) for denitrification was 36 °C and was observed in subtropical sediments, while the lowest Topt of 21 °C was observed at the polar site. Seasonal variation in the Topt was observed at the temperate site with values of 26 and 34 °C in winter and summer, respectively. The Topt values for anammox were 9 and 26 °C at the polar and temperate sites, respectively. The results demonstrate adaptation of denitrifying communities to in situ temperatures in permeable marine sediments across a wide range of temperatures, whereas marine anammox bacteria may be predominately psychrophilic to psychrotolerant. The adaptation of microbial communities to in situ temperatures suggests that the relationship between temperature and rates of N removal is highly dependent on community structure.

  15. Isotopic Monitoring of N2O Emissions from Wastewater Treatment: Evidence for N2O Production Associated with Anammox Metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, E. J.; Wunderlin, P.; Joss, A.; Emmenegger, L.; Kipf, M.; Wolf, B.; Mohn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial production is the major source of N2O, the strongest greenhouse gas produced within the nitrogen cycle, and the most important stratospheric ozone destructant released in the 21st century. Wastewater treatment is an important and growing source of N2O, with best estimates predicting N2O emissions from this sector will have increased by >25% by 2020. Novel treatment employing partial nitritation-anammox, rather than traditional nitrification-denitrification, has the potential to achieve a neutral carbon footprint due to increased biogas production - if N2O production accounts for wastewater treatment can be applied to our understanding of N cycling in the natural environment. This study presents the first online isotopic measurements of offgas N2O from a partial-nitritation anammox reactor 1. The measured N2O isotopic composition - in particular the N2O isotopic site preference (SP = δ15Nα - δ15Nβ) - was used to understand N2O production pathways in the reactor. When N2O emissions peaked due to high dissolved oxygen concentrations, low SP showed that N2O was produced primarily via nitrifier denitrification by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOBs). N2O production by AOBs via NH2OH oxidation, in contrast, did not appear to be important under any conditions. Over the majority of the one-month measurement period, the measured SP was much higher than expected following our current understanding of N2O production pathways 2. SP reached 41‰ during normal operating conditions and achieved a maximum of 45‰ when nitrite was added under anoxic conditions. These results could be explained by unexpectedly strong heterotrophic N2O reduction despite low dissolved organic matter concentrations, or by an incomplete understanding of isotopic fractionation during N2O production from NH2OH oxidation by AOBs - however the explanation most consistent with all results is a previously unknown N2O production pathway associated with anammox metabolism. Harris et al. (2015

  16. NOx and ammonium isotopic fingerprints of anammox in natural and engineered systems: Implications for N isotope budgets and the use of NOx isotopes to diagnose process stability in wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, M. F.; Stöcklin, N.; Brunner, B.; Frame, C. H.; Joss, A.; Kipf, M.; Kuhn, T.; Wunderlin, P.

    2014-12-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of ammonium with nitrite (anammox) has been identified as a very important fixed nitrogen (N) sink, accounting for a large fraction of global fixed N loss in marine, freshwater, and semi-terrestrial environments. In engineered systems, combined nitritation-anammox is an efficient process to remove N from ammonium-rich wastewater, with nitrite as the central intermediate. During the anammox process, nitrate is being produced, providing reducing equivalents for carbon fixation. Measuring the N isotope ratios in fixed N species (i.e., ammonium, nitrite, nitrate) has proven to be a valuable tool to track N cycling in freshwater and marine ecosystems, yet its application in wastewater treatment as a tool to diagnose nitrate production pathways is novel. In this presentation we will elucidate, and compare, the N isotope effects associated with anammox 1) in vitro, 2) in a lacustrine setting, and 3) in a small-scale batch reactor for wastewater treatment. We demonstrate that the anammox nitrite/nitrate isotopic signatures are modulated by the superposition of strong kinetic (normal and inverse) and equilibrium (nitrite-nitrate) N isotope fractionation. The ammonium N isotope effect is driven by kinetic N isotope fractionation, and is similar to that of nitrification. We will discuss the possible controls on the expression of the anammox N isotope effects in the natural environment. We will also evaluate the use of nitrate/nitrite N (and O) isotope signatures to distinguish between nitrate production by anammox versus nitrite oxidation, which is important for optimizing process efficiency during wastewater treatment.

  17. Mainstream partial nitritation and anammox in a 200,000 m(3)/day activated sludge process in Singapore: scale-down by using laboratory fed-batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshi, Cao; Hong, Kwok Bee; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Daigger, Glen T; Yi, Png Hui; Wah, Yuen Long; Chye, Chua Seng; Ghani, Yahya Abd

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory fed-batch reactor has been used to study under controlled conditions the performance of partial nitritation/anammox for the 200,000 m(3)/day step-feed activated sludge process at the Changi Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore. The similarity of the concentrations of NH4, NO2, NO3, PO4, suspended chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), pH, and alkalinity (ALK) between the on-site process and laboratory reactor illustrates that the laboratory fed-batch reactor can be used to simulate the site performance. The performance of the reactor fed by primary effluent illustrated the existence of anammox and heterotrophic denitrification and apparent excessive biological phosphorus removal as observed from the site. The performance of the reactor fed by final effluent proved the presence of anammox process on site. Both the laboratory reactor and on-site process showed that higher influent 5-day biochemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (BOD5/TN) (COD/TN) ratio increases the nitrogen removal efficiency of the process. PMID:27386982

  18. Importance of the operating pH in maintaining the stability of anoxic ammonium oxidation (anammox) activity in moving bed biofilm reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszynski, L W; Cicek, N; Sparling, R; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2011-07-01

    Two bench-scale parallel moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) were operated to assess pH-associated anammox activity changes during long term treatment of anaerobically digested sludge centrate pre-treated in a suspended growth partial nitrification reactor. The pH was maintained at 6.5 in reactor R1, while it was allowed to vary naturally between 7.5 and 8.1 in reactor R2. At high nitrogen loads reactor R2 had a 61% lower volumetric specific nitrogen removal rate than reactor R1. The low pH and the associated low free ammonia (FA) concentrations were found to be critical to stable anammox activity in the MBBR. Nitrite enhanced the nitrogen removal rate in the conditions of low pH, all the way up to the investigated level of 50mg NO(2)-N/L. At low FA levels nitrite concentrations up to 250 mg NO(2)-N/L did not cause inactivation of anammox consortia over a 2-days exposure time. PMID:21565492

  19. Isolation of a Bacterium Strain Degraded Agar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    One in 58 strains of bacteria isolated from the compost showed clear colonies after a few days of growth on the plates containing medium made of only agar and water.Water suspension contained only agar (2 and 8g·L -1 ) with two controls (normal saline,LB medium) was inoculated with the bacterium BR5-1 to see whether there was an increasement of the alive bacteria concentration after 48 h of the growth.The results showed that there was a significant rising of the alive bacteria concentration in the agar susp...

  20. Biodegradation of heavy oils by halophilic bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruixia Hao; Anhuai Lu

    2009-01-01

    A halophilic bacterial strain TM-1 was isolated from the reservoir of the Shengli oil field in East China. Strain TM-1, which was found to be able to degrade crude oils, is a gram-positive non-motile bacterium with a coccus shape that can grow at temperatures of up to 58 ℃ and in 18% NaCl solution. Depending on the culture conditions, the organism may occur in tetrads. In addition, strain TM-1 pro-duced acid from glucose without gas formation and was catalase-negative. Furthermore, strain TM-I was found to be a facultative aer-obe capable of growth under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, it produced butylated hydroxytoluene, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid-bis ester and dibutyl phthalate and could use different organic substrates. Laboratory studies indicated that strain TM-1 affected different heavy oils by degrading various components and by changing the chemical properties of the oils. In addition, growth of the bacterium in heavy oils resulted in the loss of aromatic hydrocarbons, resins and asphaltenes, and enrichment with light hydrocarbons and an overall redistribution of these hydrocarbons.

  1. Start-up of simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate from an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in an anaerobic up-flow bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory testing of simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate (SRAS) was studied from an anammox process in an anaerobic bioreactor filled with granular activated carbon. Two different phases of experiment were investigated to start up the SRAS process, and final batch tests were performed to analyze the SRAS process. The experiment included an anammox process and an SRAS process. During the anammox process, the highest removal efficiency of ammonium and nitrite was up to 97 and 98%, respectively. After 160 days in the stationary phase of anammox process, the ratio of ammonium to nitrite consumption was approximately 1:1.15, which is much higher than 1:1.32 in the traditional anammox process. The extra electron acceptor, such as sulfate, was thought to react with ammonium by bacteria. Synthetic wastewater containing ammonium chlorine and sodium sulfate was used as the feed for the bioreactor in the second phase of experiment. During the SRAS process, the influent concentrations of ammonium and sulfate were controlled to be 50-60 and 210-240 mg L-1 respectively. After start-up and acclimatization of this process for 60 days, the average effluent concentrations of ammonium and sulfate were 30 and 160 mg L-1, respectively. The simultaneous ammonium and sulfate removal was detected in the reactor. In order to further validate the biochemical interaction between ammonium and sulfate, batch tests was carried out. Abiotic tests were carried out to demonstrate that the pure chemical action between ammonium and sulfate without microorganism was not possible. Biotic assays with different ammonium and sulfate concentrations were further investigated that high concentrations of ammonium and sulfate could promote simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfate. And elemental sulfur and nitrogen gas as the products measured in the SRAS process helped to demonstrate the occurrence of new interaction between nitrogen and sulfur. The new process of SRAS in the inorganic

  2. Ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane: isolation of the causal bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M J; Gillaspie, A G; Harris, R W; Lawson, R H

    1980-12-19

    A small coryneform bacterium was consistently isolated from sugarcane with ratoon stunting disease and shown to be the causal agent. A similar bacterium was isolated from Bermuda grass. Both strains multiplied in sugarcane and Bermuda grass, but the Bermuda grass strain did not incite the symptoms of ratoon stunting disease in sugarcane. Shoot growth in Bermuda grass was retarded by both strains. PMID:17817853

  3. Fluctuation-Enhanced Sensing of Bacterium Odors

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Hung-Chih; King, Maria D; Kwan, Chiman

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the possibility to detect and identify bacteria by sensing their odor via fluctuation-enhanced sensing with commercial Taguchi sensors. The fluctuations of the electrical resistance during exposure to different bacterial odors, Escherichia coli and anthrax-surrogate Bacillus subtilis, have been measured and analyzed. In the present study, the simplest method, the measurement and analysis of power density spectra was used. The sensors were run in the normal heated and the sampling-and-hold working modes, respectively. The results indicate that Taguchi sensors used in these fluctuation-enhanced modes are effective tools of bacterium detection and identification even when they are utilizing only the power density spectrum of the stochastic sensor signal.

  4. High-rate partial nitrification treatment of reject water as a pretreatment for anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Jiachun; Hira, Daisuke; Fujii, Takao; Furukawa, Kenji

    2011-02-01

    In this study, a lab-scale swim-bed partial nitrification reactor was developed to treat ammonium-rich reject water to achieve an appropriate NO(2)(-)-N/NH(4)(+)-N mixture that could serve as a pretreatment for anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Strictly controlling the DO concentration was adopted as the main operational strategy. In addition, the influent concentrations of inorganic carbon/ammonium (IC/NH(4)(+)) and alkalinity/ammonium (Alk/NH(4)(+)) that were approximately 0.8 and 4.8, respectively, were regarded as the suitable ratios for the steady and high-rate operation of the reactor in this study. When reject water that was not diluted was introduced to this system, the maximum nitrogen loading rate was 5.9 kg-N/m(3)/day, the ammonium conversion rate was 3.1 kg-N/m(3)/day, and the effluent NO(2)-N/(NO(2)-N+NO(3)-N) percentage ratio was over 99.9%. Furthermore, DNA analysis confirmed the existence of AOB, which was responsible for the stable performance that was achieved in the PN reactor. PMID:21190840

  5. Long-term operation performance and variation of substrate tolerance ability in an anammox attached film expanded bed (AAFEB) reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanlong; Niu, Qigui; Ma, Haiyuan; He, Shilong; Kubota, Kengo; Li, Yu-You

    2016-07-01

    An anammox attached film expanded bed (AAFEB) reactor was operated to study the long-term performance and the variation of substrate tolerance ability. The results indicated that the nitrogen loading potential (NLP) was significantly enhanced from 13.56gN·(L·d)(-)(1) to 20.95gN·(L·d)(-)(1) during the stable operation period. The inhibitory concentration of 10% (IC10) for free ammonia (FA), free nitrous acid (FNA) and SNinf (diluted substrate concentration) increased from 18mg/L, 12μgL(-1) and 370mgNL(-)(1) to 31mg/L, 19μgL(-1) and 670mgNL(-)(1), respectively. However, the substrate shock of 2500mgNL(-)(1) for 24h terribly weakened the treatment performance and substrate tolerance ability of the reactor. The results of batch tests indicated that the existence of lag phase made the AAFEB reactor more vulnerable to substrate variation. The SNinf was accurate to be used to monitor the reactor performance and should be maintained below 320mgNL(-)(1) to ensure the absolute stable operation. PMID:26995619

  6. Step-wise temperature decreasing cultivates a biofilm with high nitrogen removal rates at 9°C in short-term anammox biofilm tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekker, Ivar; Rikmann, Ergo; Mandel, Anni; Kroon, Kristel; Seiman, Andrus; Mihkelson, Jana; Tenno, Taavo; Tenno, Toomas

    2016-08-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and nitritation-anammox (deammonification) processes are widely used for N-rich wastewater treatment. When deammonification applications move towards low temperature applications (mainstream wastewater has low temperature), temperature effect has to be studied. In current research, in a deammonification moving bed biofilm reactor a maximum total nitrogen removal rate (TNRR) of 1.5 g N m(-2 )d(-1) (0.6 kg N m(-3 )d(-1)) was achieved. Temperature was gradually lowered by 0.5°C per week, and a similar TNRR was sustained at 15°C during biofilm cultivation. Statistical analysis confirmed that a temperature decrease from 20°C down to 15° did not cause instabilities. Instead, TNRR rose and treatment efficiency remained stable at lower temperatures as well. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses showed an increase in Candidatus Brocadia quantities from 5 × 10(3) to 1 × 10(7) anammox gene copies g(-1) total suspended solids (TSS) despite temperature lowered to 15°C. Fluctuations in TNRR were rather related to changes in influent [Formula: see text] concentration. To study the short-term effect of temperature on the TNRR, a series of batch-scale experiments were performed which showed sufficient TNRRs even at 9-15°C (1.24-3.43 mg N g(-1 )TSS h(-1), respectively) with anammox temperature constants (Q10) ranging 1.3-1.6. Experiments showed that a biofilm adapted to 15°C can perform N-removal most sufficiently at temperatures down to 9°C as compared with biofilm adapted to higher temperature. After biomass was adapted to 15°C, the decrease in TNRR in batch tests at 9°C was lower (15-20%) than that for biomass adapted to 17-18°C. PMID:26708295

  7. Genome Sequence of the Soil Bacterium Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711

    OpenAIRE

    Shoemaker, William R.; Muscarella, Mario E.; Lennon, Jay T

    2015-01-01

    We present a draft genome of Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711 that was isolated from agricultural soil. The genome provides insight into the ecological strategies of this bacterium in free-living and host-associated environments.

  8. Trichloroethylene Biodegradation by a Methane-Oxidizing Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Little, C. Deane; Palumbo, Anthony V; Herbes, Stephen E.; Lidstrom, Mary E.; Tyndall, Richard L.; Gilmer, Penny J.

    1988-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE), a common groundwater contaminant, is a suspected carcinogen that is highly resistant to aerobic biodegradation. An aerobic, methane-oxidizing bacterium was isolated that degrades TCE in pure culture at concentrations commonly observed in contaminated groundwater. Strain 46-1, a type I methanotrophic bacterium, degraded TCE if grown on methane or methanol, producing CO2 and water-soluble products. Gas chromatography and 14C radiotracer techniques were used to determine...

  9. Taxonomic characterization of the cellulose-degrading bacterium NCIB 10462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, C.; Ringleberg, D.; Scott, T.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phelps, T. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The gram negative cellulase-producing bacterium NCIB 10462 has been previously named Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. or var. cellulosa. Since there is renewed interest in cellulose-degrading bacteria for use in bioconversion of cellulose to chemical feed stocks and fuels, we re-examined the characteristics of this microorganism to determine its proper taxonomic characterization and to further define it`s true metabolic potential. Metabolic and physical characterization of NCIB 10462 revealed that this was an alkalophilic, non-fermentative, gram negative, oxidase positive, motile, cellulose-degrading bacterium. The aerobic substrate utilization profile of this bacterium was found to have few characteristics consistent with a classification of P. fluorescens with a very low probability match with the genus Sphingomonas. Total lipid analysis did not reveal that any sphingolipid bases are produced by this bacterium. NCIB 10462 was found to grow best aerobically but also grows well in complex media under reducing conditions. NCIB 10462 grew slowly under full anaerobic conditions on complex media but growth on cellulosic media was found only under aerobic conditions. Total fatty acid analysis (MIDI) of NCIB 10462 failed to group this bacterium with a known pseudomonas species. However, fatty acid analysis of the bacteria when grown at temperatures below 37{degrees}C suggest that the organism is a pseudomonad. Since a predominant characteristic of this bacterium is it`s ability to degrade cellulose, we suggest it be called Pseudomonas cellulosa.

  10. Illumina MiSeq sequencing reveals the key microorganisms involved in partial nitritation followed by simultaneous sludge fermentation, denitrification and anammox process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Peng, Yongzhen; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Mengyue; Wang, Shuying

    2016-05-01

    A combined process including a partial nitritation SBR (PN-SBR) followed by a simultaneous sludge fermentation, denitrification and anammox reactor (SFDA) was established to treat low C/N domestic wastewater in this study. An average nitrite accumulation rate of 97.8% and total nitrogen of 9.4mg/L in the effluent was achieved during 140days' operation. The underlying mechanisms were investigated by using Illumina MiSeq sequencing to analyze the microbial community structures in the PN-SBR and SFDA. Results showed that the predominant bacterial phylum was Proteobacteria in the external waste activated sludge (WAS, added to the SFDA) and SFDA while Bacteroidetes in the PN-SBR. Further study indicated that in the PN-SBR, the dominant nitrobacteria, Nitrosomonas genus, facilitated nitritation and little nitrate was generated in the PN-SBR effluent. In the SFDA, the co-existence of functional microorganisms Thauera, Candidatus Anammoximicrobium and Pseudomonas were found to contribute to simultaneous sludge fermentation, denitrification and anammox. PMID:26874440

  11. The ANAMMOX reactor under transient-state conditions: process stability with fluctuations of the nitrogen concentration, inflow rate, pH and sodium chloride addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-Jin; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2012-09-01

    The process stability of an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) was investigated in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor subjected to overloads of 2.0- to 3.0-fold increases in substrate concentrations, inflow rates lasting 12 or 24h, extreme pH levels of 4 and 10 for 12h and a 12-h 30 g l(-1) NaCl addition. During the overloads, the nitrogen removal rate improved, and the shock period was an important factor affecting the reactor performance. In the high pH condition, the reactor performance significantly degenerated; while in the low pH condition, it did not happen. The NaCl addition caused the most serious deterioration in the reactor, which took 108 h to recover and was accompanied by a stoichiometric ratio divergence. There are well correlations between the total nitrogen and the electrical conductivity which is considered to be a convenient signal for controlling and monitoring the ANAMMOX process under transient-state conditions. PMID:22728197

  12. Anammox for nitrogen removal from anaerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater: Effect of COD/N ratios on process performance and bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Cíntia Dutra; Pereira, Alyne Duarte; Nunes, Fernando Terra; Ferreira, Luísa Ornelas; Coelho, Aline Carolina Cirilo; Bicalho, Sarah Kinaip; Mac Conell, Erika F Abreu; Ribeiro, Thiago Bressani; de Lemos Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto; de Araújo, Juliana Calábria

    2016-07-01

    Long-term effects of COD/N ratios on the nitrogen removal performance and bacterial community of an anammox reactor were evaluated by adding a synthetic medium (with glucose) and real anaerobic effluent to a SBR. At a COD/N ratio of 2.8 (COD, 390mg·L(-1)) ammonium removal efficiency was 66%, while nitrite removal remained high (99%). However, at a COD/N ratio of 5.0 (COD, 300mg·L(-1)), ammonium and nitrite removal efficiencies were high (84% and 99%, respectively). High COD, nitrite, and ammonium removal efficiencies (80%, 90% and 95%, respectively) were obtained on adding anaerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater (with nitrite) to the reactor. DGGE revealed that the addition of anaerobic effluent changed the bacterial community structure and selected for DNA sequences related to Brocadia sinica and Chloroflexi. Adding glucose and anaerobic effluent increased denitrifiers concentration threefold. Thus, the possibility of using the anammox process to remove nitrogen from anaerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater was demonstrated. PMID:27023380

  13. Start-up of single-stage partial nitrification-anammox process treating low-strength swage and its restoration from nitrate accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Liang; Yang, Yandong; Peng, Yongzhen; Li, Baikun; Wang, Shuying; Zhang, Qian

    2016-10-01

    A single-stage partial nitrification-anammox (PN/A) reactor treating low-strength swage was operated for 288days to investigate the recovery of nitrogen removal from nitrate accumulation. The reactor was quickly started up by inoculating anammox sludge. However, nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) abundance gradually increased on day 25, leading to high effluent nitrate concentration. Two strategies were executed to control the effluent nitrate. In strategy I, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was kept low (0.17±0.08mg/L), but nitrate production increased from 4.71 to 38.18mg-N/L. In strategy II, intermittent aeration operation mode (aeration 7min/anoxic 21min) was adopted, which significantly lowered the nitrate concentration to 1.3mg-N/L, indicating the NOB was inhibited. The high nitrogen removal rate of 73mg-N/(L·d) was achieved. The evolution of bacterial activity and abundance verified the changes of the nitrogen removal performance and proved the intermittent aeration strategy could successfully solve the problem of nitrate build-up in the PN/A process. PMID:27423544

  14. Fate of hormones and pharmaceuticals during combined anaerobic treatment and nitrogen removal by partial nitritation-anammox in vacuum collected black water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, M S; Vieno, N M; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Zeeman, G; Temmink, H; Buisman, C J N

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum collected black (toilet) water contains hormones and pharmaceuticals in relatively high concentrations (μg/L to mg/L range) and separate specific treatment has the potential of minimizing their discharge to surface waters. In this study, the fate of estrogens (natural and synthetical hormones) and pharmaceuticals (paracetamol, metoprolol, propranolol, cetirizine, doxycycline, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, carbamazepine, ibuprofen and diclofenac) in the anaerobic treatment of vacuum collected black water followed by nitrogen removal by partial nitritation-anammox was investigated. A new analytical method was developed to detect the presence of several compounds in the complex matrix of concentrated black water. Detected concentrations in black water ranged from 1.1 μg/L for carbamazepine to >1000 μg/L for paracetamol. Anaerobic treatment was only suitable to remove the majority of paracetamol (>90%). Metoprolol was partly removed (67%) during aerobic treatment. Deconjugation could have affected the removal efficiency of ibuprofen as concentrations even increased during anaerobic treatment and only after the anammox treatment 77% of ibuprofen was removed. The presence of persistent micro-pollutants (diclofenac, carbamazepine and cetirizine), which are not susceptible for biodegradation, makes the application of advanced physical and chemical treatment unavoidable. PMID:20832097

  15. Extreme Ionizing-Radiation-Resistant Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Schwendner, Petra

    2013-01-01

    potential for transfer, and subsequent proliferation, on another solar body such as Mars and Europa. These organisms are more likely to escape planetary protection assays, which only take into account presence of spores. Hence, presences of extreme radiation-resistant Deinococcus in the cleanroom facility where spacecraft are assembled pose a serious risk for integrity of life-detection missions. The microorganism described herein was isolated from the surfaces of the cleanroom facility in which the Phoenix Lander was assembled. The isolated bacterial strain was subjected to a comprehensive polyphasic analysis to characterize its taxonomic position. This bacterium exhibits very low 16SrRNA similarity with any other environmental isolate reported to date. Both phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses clearly indicate that this isolate belongs to the genus Deinococcus and represents a novel species. The name Deinococcus phoenicis was proposed after the Phoenix spacecraft, which was undergoing assembly, testing, and launch operations in the spacecraft assembly facility at the time of isolation. D. phoenicis cells exhibited higher resistance to ionizing radiation (cobalt-60; 14 kGy) than the cells of the D. radiodurans (5 kGy). Thus, it is in the best interest of NASA to thoroughly characterize this organism, which will further assess in determining the potential for forward contamination. Upon the completion of genetic and physiological characteristics of D. phoenicis, it will be added to a planetary protection database to be able to further model and predict the probability of forward contamination.

  16. Molybdate Reduction to Molybdenum Blue by an Antarctic Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Ahmad; Shukor, M. Y.; Shamaan, N. A.; W. P. Mac Cormack; Syed, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    A molybdenum-reducing bacterium from Antarctica has been isolated. The bacterium converts sodium molybdate or Mo6+ to molybdenum blue (Mo-blue). Electron donors such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose supported molybdate reduction. Ammonium sulphate was the best nitrogen source for molybdate reduction. Optimal conditions for molybdate reduction were between 30 and 50 mM molybdate, between 15 and 20°C, and initial pH between 6.5 and 7.5. The Mo-blue produced had a unique absorption spe...

  17. Combination of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and partial nitritation/anammox moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malovanyy, Andriy; Yang, Jingjing; Trela, Jozef; Plaza, Elzbieta

    2015-03-01

    In this study the combination of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a deammonification moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for mainstream wastewater treatment was tested. The competition between aerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was studied during a 5months period of transition from reject water to mainstream wastewater followed by a 16months period of mainstream wastewater treatment. The decrease of influent ammonium concentration led to a wash-out of suspended biomass which had a major contribution to nitrite production. Influence of a dissolved oxygen concentration and a transient anoxia mechanism of NOB suppression were studied. It was shown that anoxic phase duration has no effect on NOB metabolism recovery and oxygen diffusion rather than affinities of AOB and NOB to oxygen determine the rate of nitrogen conversion in a biofilm system. Anammox activity remained on the level comparable to reject water treatment systems. PMID:25600011

  18. Investigating the role of co-substrate-substrate ratio and filter media on the performance of anammox hybrid reactor treating nitrogen rich wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Swati; Gupta, Sunil Kumar

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the feasibility of using the anammox hybrid reactor (AHR), which combines suspended and attached growth media, for the biodegradation of ammonical nitrogen in wastewater. The study was performed in four laboratory-scale AHRs, inoculated with mixed seed culture (1:1). The anammox process was established by feeding the AHR with synthetic wastewater, containing NH(4)-N and NO(2)-N (1:1), at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day. The reactors were gradually acclimated to a higher ammonium concentration (1200 mg/l) until the pseudo-steady state was attained. Subsequently, the reactors were operated at various HRTs (0.25-3.0 days) to optimize the HRT and nitrogen loading rate (NLR). The study demonstrated that HRT of 1 day, corresponding to 95.1% of nitrogen removal was optimal. Pearson correlation analysis indicated the strong and positive correlation of HRT and sludge retention time (SRT), whereas the NLR and biomass yield correlated negatively with the nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE). The mass balance of nitrogen showed that a major fraction (79.1%) of the input nitrogen was converted into N2 gas, and 11.25% was utilized in synthesizing the biomass. The filter media in the AHR contributed to an additional 15.4% of ammonium removal and a reduction of 29% in the sludge washout rate. The nitrogen removal kinetics in the AHR followed the modified Stover-Kincannon model, whereas the Lawrence-McCarty model best described the bacterial growth kinetics. The study concludes that the hybrid configuration of the reactor demonstrated promising results and could be suitably applied for industrial applications. PMID:26277220

  19. A new mathematical model for nitrogen gas production with special emphasis on the role of attached growth media in anammox hybrid reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Swati; Gupta, Sunil Kumar

    2015-11-01

    The present study emphasised on the development of new mathematical models based on mass balance and stoichiometry of nitrogen removal in anammox hybrid reactor (AHR). The performance of AHR at varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and nitrogen loading rates (NLRs) revealed that nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) increases with increase in HRT and was found optimal (89 %) at HRT of 2 days. Mass balance of nitrogen revealed that major fraction (74.1 %) of input nitrogen is converted into N2 gas followed by 11.2 % utilised in biomass synthesis. Attached growth media (AGM) in AHR contributed to an additional 15.4 % ammonium removal and reduced the sludge washout rate by 29 %. This also enhanced the sludge retention capacity of AHR and thus minimised the formation of nitrate in the treated effluent, which is one of the bottlenecks of anammox process. Process kinetics was also studied using various mathematical models. The mass balance model derived from total nitrogen was found most precise and predicted N2 gas with least error (1.68 ± 4.44 %). Model validation for substrate removal kinetics dictated comparatively higher correlation for Grau second-order model (0.952) than modified Stover-Kincannon model (0.920). The study concluded that owing to features of high biomass retention, less nitrate formation and consistently higher nitrogen removal efficiency, this reactor configuration is techno-economically most efficient and viable. The study opens the door for researchers and scientists for pilot-scale testing of AHR leading to its wide industrial application. PMID:26143610

  20. Nitrous oxide production pathways in a partial nitritation-anammox reactor: Isotopic evidence for nitrous oxide production associated anaerobic ammonium oxidation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlin, P.; Harris, E. J.; Joss, A.; Emmenegger, L.; Kipf, M.; Mohn, J.; Siegrist, H.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a strong greenhouse gas and a major sink for stratospheric ozone. In biological wastewater treatment N2O can be produced via several pathways. This study investigates the dynamics of N2O emissions from a nitritation-anammox reactor, and links its interpretation to the nitrogen and oxygen isotopic signature of the emitted N2O. A 400-litre single-stage nitritation-anammox reactor was operated and continuously fed with digester liquid. The isotopic composition of N2O emissions was monitored online with quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS; Aerodyne Research, Inc.; Waechter et al., 2008). Dissolved ammonium and nitrate were monitored online (ISEmax, Endress + Hauser), while nitrite was measured with test strips (Nitrite-test 0-24mgN/l, Merck). Table 1. Summary of experiments conducted to understand N2O emissions Experimental conditions O2[mgO2/L] NO2-[mgN/L] NH4+[mgN/L] N2O/NH4+[%] Normal operation reactor. Our data reveal that N2O emissions increased when reactor operation was not ideal, for example when dissolved oxygen was too high (Table 1). SP measurements confirmed that these N2O peaks were due to enhanced nitrifier denitrification, generally related to nitrite build-up in the reactor (Figure 1; Table 1). Overall, process control via online N2O monitoring was confirmed to be an ideal method to detect imbalances in reactor operation and regulate aeration, to ensure optimal reactor conditions and minimise N2O emissions. ReferencesWaechter H. et al. (2008) Optics Express, 16: 9239-9244. Wunderlin, P et al. (2013) Environmental Science & Technology 47: 1339-1348.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Oral Bacterium Streptococcus mutans JH1140

    OpenAIRE

    Escano, Jerome; Deng, Peng; Lu, Shi-En; Smith, Lief

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans JH1140 is an oral bacterium known to produce the bacteriocin mutacin 1140, and the strain has been genetically engineered to combat dental caries. Here, we report the 2.0-Mb draft genome of S. mutans JH1140. This genome provides new insights into the strain’s superior colonization properties and its utility in replacement therapy.

  2. Genome of a mosquito-killing bacterium decoded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Researchers with the CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology (WHIOV) recently completed the genome sequencing of a mosquitocidal bacterium Bacillus shaericus C3-41. The feat, first of its kind in China, is expected to further promote the bio-control studies of mosquitoes.

  3. Rnf Genes in Purple Sulfur Bacterium Allochromatium vinosum

    OpenAIRE

    DİNÇTÜRK, H. Benan; DEMİR, Volkan

    2006-01-01

    Allochromatium vinosum is a photosynthetic, diazotrophic purple sulfur bacterium that oxidizes reduced sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, elemental sulfur and thiosulfide. In this article, we report the presence of rnf genes in Allochromatium vinosum, some of which have been reported to take part in nitrogen fixation in some species.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Oral Bacterium Streptococcus mutans JH1140

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escano, Jerome; Deng, Peng; Lu, Shi-En

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans JH1140 is an oral bacterium known to produce the bacteriocin mutacin 1140, and the strain has been genetically engineered to combat dental caries. Here, we report the 2.0-Mb draft genome of S. mutans JH1140. This genome provides new insights into the strain’s superior colonization properties and its utility in replacement therapy. PMID:27257196

  5. Shotgun Genome Sequence of the Large Purple Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodospirillum photometricum DSM122

    OpenAIRE

    Duquesne, K.; Sturgis, James N.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we present the shotgun genome sequence of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum photometricum DSM122. The photosynthetic apparatus of this bacterium has been particularly well studied by microscopy. The knowledge of the genome of this oversize bacterium will allow us to compare it with the other purple bacterial organisms to follow the evolution of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  6. Distribution and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria in natural freshwater wetland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li-dong; Wu, Hong-sheng; Gao, Zhi-qiu; Cheng, Hai-xiang; Li, Ji; Liu, Xu; Ren, Qian-qi

    2016-04-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process plays a significant role in the marine nitrogen cycle. However, the quantitative importance of this process in nitrogen removal in wetland systems, particularly in natural freshwater wetlands, is still not determined. In the present study, we provided the evidence of the distribution and activity of anammox bacteria in a natural freshwater wetland, located in southeastern China, by using (15)N stable isotope measurements, quantitative PCR assays and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. The potential anammox rates measured in this wetland system ranged between 2.5 and 25.5 nmol N2 g(-1) soil day(-1), and up to 20% soil dinitrogen gas production could be attributed to the anammox process. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that anammox bacteria related to Candidatus Brocadia, Candidatus Kuenenia, Candidatus Anammoxoglobus and two novel anammox clusters coexisted in the collected soil cores, with Candidatus Brocadia and Candidatus Kuenenia being the dominant anammox genera. Quantitative PCR of hydrazine synthase genes showed that the abundance of anammox bacteria varied from 2.3 × 10(5) to 2.2 × 10(6) copies g(-1) soil in the examined soil cores. Correlation analyses suggested that the soil ammonium concentration had significant influence on the activity of anammox bacteria. On the basis of (15)N tracing technology, it is estimated that a total loss of 31.1 g N m(-2) per year could be linked the anammox process in the examined wetland. PMID:26621804

  7. Response of anammox bacteria community structure to nitrogen in paddy soils%稻田厌氧氨氧化菌群落结构对氮肥的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋亚娜; 吴明基; 林艳

    2013-01-01

    为探明稻田厌氧氨氧化菌多样性及其对氮肥用量的响应状况,利用厌氧氨氧化菌16S rRNA基因特异引物对定位试验稻田土壤DNA进行PCR-DGGE(聚合酶链反应-变性梯度凝胶电泳)并结合DNA克隆测序,研究了氮肥供应量对厌氧氨氧化菌群落结构的影响.DGGE图谱及依据其条带位置和亮度数值计算的多样性指数均显示:高氮处理[N3:225 kg(N)·hm-2]的厌氧氨氧化菌群落结构多样性在表层或根层土壤中均显著(P<0.05)高于中、低氮[N2:150 kg(N)·hm-2; N1:75 kg(N)·hm-2]处理和不施肥对照(CK);同时,高氮处理下表层土壤厌氧氨氧化菌群落多样性指数显著高于根层土壤(P<0.05).冗余分析(RDA)结果表明,表层土壤中厌氧氨氧化菌群落结构组成与不同氮肥水平处理存在显著相关性(P=0.006).此外,本试验获得厌氧氨氧化菌DGGE条带DNA序列18条,登录GenBank并获得登录号.研究表明稻田厌氧氨氧化菌群落结构对高氮水平具有较强的响应,尤其是在表层土壤中.%Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria of phylum Planctomycetes origin have been identified to be responsible for N removal in terrestrial and aquatic environments through combined NFL4+ oxidation and NO2 reduction. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation mediated by anammox bacteria has been noted to be a key process of biogeochemical N cycle in various ecosystems. It was also possible to have anammox processes in flooded paddy fields because of the low oxygen habitat conditions. To investigate the existence of anammox bacteria and the bacteria community diversity response to applied N fertilizer in paddy fields, anammox bacteria community structures in paddy fields were investigated with the aid of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and cloning sequencing by assay 16S rRNA gene in the third year of N fertilizer experiment in the field. DGGE images of 16S rRNA gene in surface or root-zone soil showed rich anammox bacteria

  8. A Streamlined Strategy for Biohydrogen Production with an Alkaliphilic Bacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL; Wall, Judy D. [University of Missouri; Mormile, Dr. Melanie R. [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Begemann, Matthew B [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are anticipated to enable a shift from fossil fuels for renewable transportation and manufacturing fuels, with biohydrogen considered attractive since it could offer the largest reduction of global carbon budgets. Currently, biohydrogen production remains inefficient and heavily fossil fuel-dependent. However, bacteria using alkali-treated biomass could streamline biofuel production while reducing costs and fossil fuel needs. An alkaliphilic bacterium, Halanaerobium strain sapolanicus, is described that is capable of biohydrogen production at levels rivaling neutrophilic strains, but at pH 11 and hypersaline conditions. H. sapolanicus ferments a variety of 5- and 6- carbon sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose including cellobiose, and forms the end products hydrogen and acetate. Further, it can also produce biohydrogen from switchgrass and straw pretreated at temperatures far lower than any previously reported and in solutions compatible with growth. Hence, this bacterium can potentially increase the efficiency and efficacy of biohydrogen production from renewable biomass resources.

  9. Rock Phosphate Solubilization Mechanisms of One Fungus and One Bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qi-mei; ZHAO Xiao-rong; ZHAO Zi-juan; LI Bao-guo

    2002-01-01

    Many microorganisms can dissolve the insoluble phosphates like apatite. However, the mechanisms are still not clear. This study was an attempt to investigate the mechanisms of rock phosphate solubilization by an Aspergillus 2TCiF2 and an Arthrobacter1TCRi7. The results indicated that the fungus produced a large amount of organic acids, mainly oxalic acid. The total quantity of the organic acids produced by the fungus was 550 times higher than that by the bacterium. Different organic acids had completely different capacities to solubilize the rock. Oxalic acid and citric acid had stronger capacity to dissolve the rock than malic acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, malonic acid and succinic acid. The fungus solubilized the rock through excreting both proton and organic acids. The rock solubilization of the bacterium depended on only proton.

  10. A physical map of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus chromosome.

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Z; Mages, W; Schmitt, R.

    1994-01-01

    A genomic map of the hyperthermophilic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus was established with NotI (GC/GGCCGC), SpeI (A/CTAGT), and XbaI (T/CTAGA). Linking clones and cross-hybridization of restriction fragments revealed a single circular chromosome of 1.6 Mbp. A single flagellin gene and six rRNA gene units were located on this map by Southern hybridization.

  11. Isolation of a Bacterium Capable of Degrading Peanut Hull Lignin

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Thomas J.; Kerr, Robert D.; Benner, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter sp., was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled [14C]lignin-labeled lignocellulose and [14C]cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the...

  12. Nitrous oxide production pathways in a partial nitritation-anammox reactor: Isotopic evidence for nitrous oxide production associated anaerobic ammonium oxidation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlin, P.; Harris, E. J.; Joss, A.; Emmenegger, L.; Kipf, M.; Mohn, J.; Siegrist, H.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a strong greenhouse gas and a major sink for stratospheric ozone. In biological wastewater treatment N2O can be produced via several pathways. This study investigates the dynamics of N2O emissions from a nitritation-anammox reactor, and links its interpretation to the nitrogen and oxygen isotopic signature of the emitted N2O. A 400-litre single-stage nitritation-anammox reactor was operated and continuously fed with digester liquid. The isotopic composition of N2O emissions was monitored online with quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS; Aerodyne Research, Inc.; Waechter et al., 2008). Dissolved ammonium and nitrate were monitored online (ISEmax, Endress + Hauser), while nitrite was measured with test strips (Nitrite-test 0-24mgN/l, Merck). Table 1. Summary of experiments conducted to understand N2O emissions Experimental conditions O2[mgO2/L] NO2-[mgN/L] NH4+[mgN/L] N2O/NH4+[%] Normal operation <0.1 <0.5 10 0.6 Normal operation, high NH4+ <0.1 <0.5 100 6.1 High aeration 0.5 to 1.5 up to 50 10 and 50 4.9 NO2- addition (oxic) <0.1 <0.5 to 4 10 5.8 NO2- addition (anoxic) 0 <0.5 to 4 10 3.2 NH2OH addition <0.1 <0.5 10 2.5 Results showed that under normal operating conditions, the N2O isotopic site preference (SP = d15Nα - d15Nβ) was much higher than expected - up to 41‰ - strongly suggesting an unknown N2O production pathway, which is hypothesized to be mediated by anammox activity (Figure 1). A less likely explanation is that the SP of N2O was increased by partial N2O reduction by heterotrophic denitrification. Various experiments were conducted to further investigate N2O formation pathways in the reactor. Our data reveal that N2O emissions increased when reactor operation was not ideal, for example when dissolved oxygen was too high (Table 1). SP measurements confirmed that these N2O peaks were due to enhanced nitrifier denitrification, generally related to nitrite build-up in the reactor (Figure 1; Table 1). Overall

  13. Salt-inducible promoter derivable from a lactic acid bacterium, and its use in a lactic acid bacterium for production of a desired protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Jan Willem; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerard; Ledeboer, Adrianus Marinus

    1998-01-01

    The invention provides a salt-inducible promoter present in SEQ ID NO: 10 and derivable from a lactic acid bacterium in isolation from the coding sequence normally controlled by said promoter in a wild-type lactic acid bacterium, with modifications and important parts thereof. Also provided are a re

  14. Research Progress and Perspectives of Nitrogen Fixing Bacterium, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, in Monocot Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Eskin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen fixing bacterium originally found in monocotyledon sugarcane plants in which the bacterium actively fixes atmosphere nitrogen and provides significant amounts of nitrogen to plants. This bacterium mainly colonizes intercellular spaces within the roots and stems of plants and does not require the formation of the complex root organ like nodule. The bacterium is less plant/crop specific and indeed G. diazotrophicus has been found in a number of unrelated plant species. Importantly, as the bacterium was of monocot plant origin, there exists a possibility that the nitrogen fixation feature of the bacterium may be used in many other monocot crops. This paper reviews and updates the research progress of G. diazotrophicus for the past 25 years but focuses on the recent research development.

  15. Nitrogen removal by autotrophic ammonium oxidizing bacteria enrichment under anaerobic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsak (Lek Noophan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sludge from an anoxic tank at the centralized wastewater treatment plant, Nong Khaem, Bangkok, Thailand, was inoculatedin an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR. The optimal compositions and operating conditions of the stock of autotrophic ammonium oxidizing bacteria medium were determined. The process of oxidizing ammonium with bacteria under anaerobic conditions is often referred to as the Anammox process (NO2- to N2 gas, using NH4+ as the electron donor and NO2- as the electron acceptor. The startup period for the anammox culture took more than three months. With ammoniumand nitrite concentration ratios of 1:1.38 and 1:1.6, the nitrogen conversion rate zero order. Fluorescent in situ hybridization(FISH was used to identify specific autotrophic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas spp., Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans, and Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. Results from this work demonstrated a shift in the species of ammonium oxidizing bacteria from Nitrosomonas spp. to Candidati Brocadia anammoxidans and Kuenenia stuttgartiensis, with increased ammonium concentrations from 3 mM to 15 mM. Under NH4+:NO2- ratios of 1:1.38 and 1:1.6 the ammoniumoxidizing bacteria were able to remove both ammonium and nitrite simultaneously. The specific nitrogen removal rate of theanammox bacteria (Candidati Brocadia anammoxidans and Kuenenia stuttgartiensis was significantly higher than that of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas spp.. Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (Candidati Brocadia anammoxidans and Kuenenia stuttgartiensis are strict anaerobes.

  16. Phosphate enhances levan production in the endophytic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5

    OpenAIRE

    Idogawa, Nao; Amamoto, Ryuta; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a gram-negative and endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that has several beneficial effects in host plants; thus, utilization of this bacterium as a biofertilizer in agriculture may be possible. G. diazotrophicus synthesizes levan, a D-fructofuranosyl polymer with β-(2→6) linkages, as an exopolysaccharide and the synthesized levan improves the stress tolerance of the bacterium. In this study, we found that phosphate enhances levan production by G. diazotro...

  17. A Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium That Decreases Nickel Toxicity in Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Burd, Genrich I.; Dixon, D. George; Glick, Bernard R.

    1998-01-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and CrO4−, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride w...

  18. Magnetic guidance of the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, Johannes; Pfeiffer, Daniel; Schüler, Dirk; Fischer, Thomas M

    2016-04-21

    Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense is a magnetotactic bacterium with a permanent magnetic moment capable of swimming using two bipolarly located flagella. In their natural environment these bacteria swim along the field lines of the homogeneous geomagnetic field in a typical run and reversal pattern and thereby create non-differentiable trajectories with sharp edges. In the current work we nevertheless achieve stable guidance along curved lines of mechanical instability by using a heterogeneous magnetic field of a garnet film. The successful guidance of the bacteria depends on the right balance between motility and the magnetic moment of the magnetosome chain. PMID:26972517

  19. Intracellular iron minerals in a dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasauer, Susan; Langley, Sean; Beveridge, Terry J

    2002-01-01

    Among prokaryotes, there are few examples of controlled mineral formation; the formation of crystalline iron oxides and sulfides [magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4)] by magnetotactic bacteria is an exception. Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacterium that is capable of dissimilatory iron reduction, produced microscopic intracellular grains of iron oxide minerals during growth on two-line ferrihydrite in a hydrogen-argon atmosphere. The minerals, formed at iron concentrations found in the soil and sedimentary environments where these bacteria are active, could represent an unexplored pathway for the cycling of iron by bacteria. PMID:11778045

  20. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  1. Effects of intermittent starvation on preservation characteristics of ANAMMOX bacteria%间歇性饥饿对厌氧氨氧化菌混培物保藏特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪彩华; 郑平; 唐崇俭; 陈婷婷

    2013-01-01

    The effects of intermittent starvation on preservation characteristics of anammox bacteria were studied using three different preservation methods, which contained 4℃, 4℃ with addition of substrate ( NO2- -N/NH4+ -N ratio of 1. 32) every ten days and 4℃ with addition of substrate ( NO2- -N/ NH4+ -N ratio of 1.63) every ten days. Results indicated that intermittent starvation was more harmful to anammox bacteria than that of the long-term continuous starvation under anaerobic conditions. Besides, it could be found that the higher concentration of nitrite would have stronger inhibiting effects on the preservation of anammox bacteria. In addition, the anammox bacterial activities were directly correlated with the content of heme c. The color of anammox bacteria could reflect the relative bacterial activities as well as heme c content under the conditions without deliberate color interference. Further, results also showed that the particle structure and the extracellular polymers of anammox bacteria would help to increase the resistance of bacteria to adverse factors. During the 5-month preservations, all the activity decaying rates of the three methods decreased fast initially, and then slowed down to relatively stable values with survival activity percentages of 75. 3% , 70.8% and 62. 7% , respectively.%厌氧条件下,采用4℃、4℃并每隔10 d换1次NO-2-N/NH+4-N浓度比为1.32的基质、4℃并每隔10 d换1次NO-2-N/NH+4-N浓度比为1.63的基质3种方法保藏厌氧氨氧化菌混培物,研究间歇性饥饿对厌氧氨氧化菌混培物保藏特性的影响.结果表明,间歇性饥饿对厌氧氨氧化菌混培物的危害大于长期性饥饿,且亚硝态氮浓度越高危害越大;另厌氧氨氧化菌混培物活性还与血红素c含量有直接相关性,无外界颜色干扰时厌氧氨氧化菌混培物颜色还可直观反映其活性和血红素c含量,且厌氧氨氧化菌混培物的颗粒结构及其富含的胞外多聚物能增强

  2. Screening, identification and desilication of a silicate bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong-bo; ZENG Xiao-xi; LIU Fei-fei; QIU Guan-zhou; HU Yue-hua

    2006-01-01

    The strain Lv1-2 isolated from the Henan bauxite was characterized by morphological observation, biochemical and physiological identification, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The influences of temperature, initial pH value, the volume of medium, shaking speed and illite concentration on the desilicating ability of the strain Lv1-2 were investigated. The results show that the bacterium is a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium with oval endspores and thick capsule, but without flagellum. The biochemical and physiological tests indicate that the strain Lv1-2 is similar to Bacillus mucilaginosus. In GenBank the 16S rDNA sequence similarity of the strain Lv1-2 and the B. mucilaginosus YNUCC0001 (AY571332) is more than 99 %. Based on the above results, the strain Lv1-2 is identified as B. mucilaginosus. The optimum conditions for the strain Lv1-2 to remove silicon from illite are as follows: temperature is 30℃ ;initial pH value is 7.5; medium volume in 200 mL bottle is 60 mL; shaking speed of rotary shaker is 220 r/m; illite concentration is 1%.

  3. Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla Using an Antagonistic Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeong Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the efficacy of a bacterium for biocontrol of the root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne hapla in carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Among 542 bacterial isolates from various soils and plants, the highest nematode mortality was observed for treatments with isolate C1-7, which was identified as Bacillus cereus based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the Biolog program, and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. The population density and the nematicidal activity of B. cereus C1-7 remained high until the end of culture in brain heart infusion broth, suggesting that it may have sustainable biocontrol potential. In pot experiments, the biocontrol efficacy of B. cereus C1-7 was high, showing complete inhibition of root gall or egg mass formation by RKN in carrot and tomato plants, and subsequently reducing RKN damage and suppressing nematode population growth, respectively. Light microscopy of RKN-infected carrot root tissues treated with C1-7 showed reduced formation of gall cells and fully developed giant cells, while extensive gall cells and fully mature giant cells with prominent cell wall ingrowths formed in the untreated control plants infected with RKNs. These histopathological characteristics may be the result of residual or systemic biocontrol activity of the bacterium, which may coincide with the biocontrol efficacies of nematodes in pots. These results suggest that B. cereus C1-7 can be used as a biocontrol agent for M. hapla.

  4. Isolation and characterization of luminescent bacterium for sludge biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahaba, Maryam; Halmi, Mohd Izuan Effendi; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Shukor, Mohd Yunus; Syed, Mohd Arif

    2015-11-01

    Microtox is based on the inhibition of luminescence of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri by the toxicants. This technique has been accepted by the USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) as a biomonitoring tool for remediation of toxicants such as hydrocarbon sludge. In the present study, a luminescent bacterium was isolated from yellow striped scad (Selaroides leptolepis) and was tentatively identified as Vibrio sp. isolate MZ. This aerobic isolate showed high luminescence activity in a broad range of temperature from 25 to 35 °C. In addition, optimal conditions for high bioluminescence activity in range of pH 7.5 to 8.5 and 10 gl(-1) of sodium chloride, 10 gl(-1) of peptone and 10 gl(-1) of sucrose as carbon source. Bench scale biodegradation 1% sludge (w/v) was set up and degradation was determined using gas chromatography with flame ionised detector (GC-FID). In this study, Rhodococcus sp. strain AQ5NOL2 was used to degrade the sludge. Based on the preliminary results obtained, Vibrio sp. isolate MZwas able to monitor the biodegradation of sludge. Therefore, Vibrio sp. isolate MZ has the potential to be used as a biomonitoring agent for biomonitoring of sludge biodegradation particularly in the tropical ranged environment. PMID:26688958

  5. Polysaccharide degradation systems of the saprophytic bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jeffrey G

    2016-07-01

    Study of recalcitrant polysaccharide degradation by bacterial systems is critical for understanding biological processes such as global carbon cycling, nutritional contributions of the human gut microbiome, and the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. One bacterium that has a robust ability to degrade polysaccharides is the Gram-negative saprophyte Cellvibrio japonicus. A bacterium with a circuitous history, C. japonicus underwent several taxonomy changes from an initially described Pseudomonas sp. Most of the enzymes described in the pre-genomics era have also been renamed. This review aims to consolidate the biochemical, structural, and genetic data published on C. japonicus and its remarkable ability to degrade cellulose, xylan, and pectin substrates. Initially, C. japonicus carbohydrate-active enzymes were studied biochemically and structurally for their novel polysaccharide binding and degradation characteristics, while more recent systems biology approaches have begun to unravel the complex regulation required for lignocellulose degradation in an environmental context. Also included is a discussion for the future of C. japonicus as a model system, with emphasis on current areas unexplored in terms of polysaccharide degradation and emerging directions for C. japonicus in both environmental and biotechnological applications. PMID:27263016

  6. Structure and morphology of magnetite anaerobically-produced by a marine magnetotactic bacterium and a dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, N.H.C.; Mann, S.; Bazylinski, D.A.; Lovley, D.R.; Jannasch, H.W.; Frankel, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    Intracellular crystals of magnetite synthesized by cells of the magnetotactic vibroid organism, MV-1, and extracellular crystals of magnetite produced by the non-magnetotactic dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium strain GS-15, were examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and 57Fe Mo??ssbauer spectroscopy. The magnetotactic bacterium contained a single chain of approximately 10 crystals aligned along the long axis of the cell. The crystals were essentially pure stoichiometric magnetite. When viewed along the crystal long axis the particles had a hexagonal cross-section whereas side-on they appeared as rectangules or truncated rectangles of average dimension, 53 ?? 35 nm. These findings are explained in terms of a three-dimensional morphology comprising a hexagonal prism of {110} faces which are capped and truncated by {111} end faces. Electron diffraction and lattice imaging studies indicated that the particles were structurally well-defined single crystals. In contrast, magnetite particles produced by the strain, GS-15 were irregular in shape and had smaller mean dimensions (14 nm). Single crystals were imaged but these were not of high structural perfection. These results highlight the influence of intracellular control on the crystallochemical specificity of bacterial magnetites. The characterization of these crystals is important in aiding the identification of biogenic magnetic materials in paleomagnetism and in studies of sediment magnetization. ?? 1990.

  7. Treatment of common warts with the immune stimulant Propionium bacterium parvum Tratamento das verrugas vulgares com o imunoestimulante Propionium bacterium parvum

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Warts are epithelial proliferations in the skin and mucous membrane caused by various types of HPV. They can decrease spontaneously or increase in size and number according to the patient's immune status. The Propionium bacterium parvum is a strong immune stimulant and immune modulator and has important effects in the immune system and it is able to produce antibodies in the skin. OBJECTIVE: To show the efficacy of the Propionium bacterium parvum in saline solution in the treatmen...

  8. Dense populations of a giant sulfur bacterium in Namibian shelf sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Brinkhoff, T.; Ferdelman, TG;

    1999-01-01

    A previously unknown giant sulfur bacterium is abundant in sediments underlying the oxygen minimum zone of the Benguela Current upwelling system. The bacterium has a spherical cell that exceeds by up to 100-fold the biovolume of the largest known prokaryotes. On the basis of 16S ribosomal DNA...

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Ensifer adhaerens M78, a Mineral-Weathering Bacterium Isolated from Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanli; Chen, Wei; He, Linyan; Wang, Qi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Ensifer adhaerens M78, a bacterium isolated from soil, can weather potash feldspar and release Fe, Si, and Al from rock under nutrient-poor conditions. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain M78, which may facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in mineral weathering by the bacterium. PMID:27609930

  10. Burkholderia phytofirmans sp. nov., a novel plant-associated bacterium with plant-beneficial properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sessitsch, A; Coenye, T; Sturz, AV; Vandamme, P; Barka, EA; Salles, JF; Van Elsas, JD; Faure, D; Reiter, B; Glick, BR; Wang-Pruski, G; Nowak, J

    2005-01-01

    A Gram-negative, non-sporulating, rod-shaped, motile bacterium, with a single polar flagellum, designated strain PsJNT, was isolated from surface-sterilized onion roots. This isolate proved to be a highly effective plant-beneficial bacterium, and was able to establish rhizosphere and endophytic popu

  11. Fate of 17β-Estradiol as a model estrogen in source separated urine during integrated chemical P recovery and treatment using partial nitritation-anammox process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pei; Mukherji, Sachiyo T; Wu, Sha; Muller, James; Goel, Ramesh

    2016-10-15

    Recently, research on source separation followed by the treatment of urine and/or resource recovery from human urine has shown promise as an emerging management strategy. Despite contributing only 1% of the total volume of wastewater, human urine contributes about 80% of the nitrogen, 70% of the potassium, and up to 50% of the total phosphorus in wastewater. It is also a known fact that many of the micropollutants, especially selected estrogens, get into municipal wastewater through urine excretion. In this research, we investigated the fate of 17β-estradiol (E2) as a model estrogen during struvite precipitation from synthetic urine followed by the treatment of urine using a partial nitritation-anammox (PN/A) system. Single-stage and two-stage suspended growth PN/A configurations were used to remove the nitrogen in urine after struvite precipitation. The results showed an almost 95% phosphorous and 5% nitrogen recovery/removal from the synthetic urine due to struvite precipitation. The single and two stage PN/A processes were able to remove around 50% and 75% of ammonia and nitrogen present in the post struvite urine solution, respectively. After struvite precipitation, more than 95% of the E2 remained in solution and the transformation of E2 to E1 happened during urine storage. Most of the E2 removal that occurred during the PN/A process was due to sorption on the biomass and biodegradation (transformation of E2 to E1, and slow degradation of E1 to other metabolites). These results demonstrate that a combination of chemical and biological unit processes will be needed to recover and manage nutrients in source separated urine. PMID:27566951

  12. Systematic design of membership functions for fuzzy-logic control: A case study on one-stage partial nitritation/anammox treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo; Gernaey, Krist V; Sin, Gürkan

    2016-10-01

    A methodology is developed to systematically design the membership functions of fuzzy-logic controllers for multivariable systems. The methodology consists of a systematic derivation of the critical points of the membership functions as a function of predefined control objectives. Several constrained optimization problems corresponding to different qualitative operation states of the system are defined and solved to identify, in a consistent manner, the critical points of the membership functions for the input variables. The consistently identified critical points, together with the linguistic rules, determine the long term reachability of the control objectives by the fuzzy logic controller. The methodology is highlighted using a single-stage side-stream partial nitritation/Anammox reactor as a case study. As a result, a new fuzzy-logic controller for high and stable total nitrogen removal efficiency is designed. Rigorous simulations are carried out to evaluate and benchmark the performance of the controller. The results demonstrate that the novel control strategy is capable of rejecting the long-term influent disturbances, and can achieve a stable and high TN removal efficiency. Additionally, the controller was tested, and showed robustness, against measurement noise levels typical for wastewater sensors. A feedforward-feedback configuration using the present controller would give even better performance. In comparison, a previously developed fuzzy-logic controller using merely expert and intuitive knowledge performed worse. This proved the importance of using a systematic methodology for the derivation of the membership functions for multivariable systems. These results are promising for future applications of the controller in real full-scale plants. Furthermore, the methodology can be used as a tool to help systematically design fuzzy logic control applications for other biological processes. PMID:27390035

  13. Effects of high LET radiation on radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that Deinococcus radiodurans is extremely resistant to ionizing and ultraviolet (UV) radiations, as well as chemical agents and hyperthermia (heat treatment) which cause DNA damage. It was reported in this paper that studies on the synergistic killing effect of high LET (linear energy transfer) radiation and hyperthermia in D. radiodurans were performed in Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University as the Visiting Researcher's Program. The difference of cellular response in this bacterium against low LET (i.e. gamma) and high LET (i.e. BNC beam and heavy ion beam) radiations was analyzed by using Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) operated at 5 MW and AVF cyclotron in Takasaki Ion Accelerator for Radiation Application (TIARA). Also, The DNA sequence specificity (hot spot) for mutation on supF gene of a shuttle vector plasmid pZ189 induced by BNC beam is being researched using Escherichia coli DNA repair capability. (author)

  14. Genome analysis of the Anerobic Thermohalophilic bacterium Halothermothrix orenii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Anderson, Iain; Lykidis, Athanasios; Hooper, Sean D.; Sun, Hui; Kunin, Victor; Lapidus, Alla; Hugenholtz, Philip; Patel, Bharat; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2008-11-03

    Halothermothirx orenii is a strictly anaerobic thermohalophilic bacterium isolated from sediment of a Tunisian salt lake. It belongs to the order Halanaerobiales in the phylum Firmicutes. The complete sequence revealed that the genome consists of one circular chromosome of 2578146 bps encoding 2451 predicted genes. This is the first genome sequence of an organism belonging to the Haloanaerobiales. Features of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were identified with the presence of both a sporulating mechanism typical of Firmicutes and a characteristic Gram negative lipopolysaccharide being the most prominent. Protein sequence analyses and metabolic reconstruction reveal a unique combination of strategies for thermophilic and halophilic adaptation. H. orenii can serve as a model organism for the study of the evolution of the Gram negative phenotype as well as the adaptation under thermohalophilic conditions and the development of biotechnological applications under conditions that require high temperatures and high salt concentrations.

  15. A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shosuke; Hiraga, Kazumi; Takehana, Toshihiko; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yamaji, Hironao; Maeda, Yasuhito; Toyohara, Kiyotsuna; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kimura, Yoshiharu; Oda, Kohei

    2016-03-11

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is used extensively worldwide in plastic products, and its accumulation in the environment has become a global concern. Because the ability to enzymatically degrade PET has been thought to be limited to a few fungal species, biodegradation is not yet a viable remediation or recycling strategy. By screening natural microbial communities exposed to PET in the environment, we isolated a novel bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, that is able to use PET as its major energy and carbon source. When grown on PET, this strain produces two enzymes capable of hydrolyzing PET and the reaction intermediate, mono(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalic acid. Both enzymes are required to enzymatically convert PET efficiently into its two environmentally benign monomers, terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol. PMID:26965627

  16. Algicidal lactones from the marine Roseobacter clade bacterium Ruegeria pomeroyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Riclea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatiles released by the marine Roseobacter clade bacterium Rugeria pomeroyi were collected by use of a closed-loop stripping headspace apparatus (CLSA and analysed by GC–MS. Several lactones were found for which structural proposals were derived from their mass spectra and unambiguously verified by the synthesis of reference compounds. An enantioselective synthesis of two exemplary lactones was performed to establish the enantiomeric compositions of the natural products by enantioselective GC–MS analyses. The lactones were subjected to biotests to investigate their activity against several bacteria, fungi, and algae. A specific algicidal activity was observed that may be important in the interaction between the bacteria and their algal hosts in fading algal blooms.

  17. The capacity of phototrophic sulfur bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina for chemosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratieva, E N; Zhukov, V G; Ivanovsky, R N; Petushkova, U P; Monosov, E Z

    1976-07-01

    Purple sulfur bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina strain BBS requiring vitamin B12 may grow in the dark in media containing no other organic compounds. Under such conditions the cells oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate with the use of O2 and assimilate carbon dioxide. After 10--30s assimilation of NaH14CO3 about 60% of radioactivity is found in phosphorylated compounds characteristic for the reductive pentose phosphate cycle. The possibility of the function of this cycle in the dark in the presence of O2 is confirmed by the capacity of cells grown under such conditions to synthesize ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase. All this evidence suggests the ability of T. roseopersicina to change from phototrophy to aerobic chemolithoautotrophy. PMID:942280

  18. Moritella viscosa, a pathogenic bacterium affecting the fillet quality in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2011-01-01

    Moritella viscosa is a bacterium belonging to the family Moritellaceae and was formerly known as Vibrio viscosus. The name ‘viscosa’ originates from the slimy nature of the bacterium. M. viscosa is considered to be the main causative agent of the phenomenon ‘winter ulcer’ or ‘cold-water ulcer......’ which affects various fish species in seawater during cold periods (Lunder et al. 1995). The bacterium is mainly a problem for farmed salmonid species, such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), but has also been isolated from other fish species, including Atlantic...

  19. Treatment of common warts with the immune stimulant Propionium bacterium parvum Tratamento das verrugas vulgares com o imunoestimulante Propionium bacterium parvum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Warts are epithelial proliferations in the skin and mucous membrane caused by various types of HPV. They can decrease spontaneously or increase in size and number according to the patient's immune status. The Propionium bacterium parvum is a strong immune stimulant and immune modulator and has important effects in the immune system and it is able to produce antibodies in the skin. OBJECTIVE: To show the efficacy of the Propionium bacterium parvum in saline solution in the treatment of skin warts. METHODS: A randomized double-blind study. Twenty patients with multiple warts were divided into two groups: one received 0,1ml intradermal injection of placebo solution in just one of the warts and the other received 0,1 ml of saline solution of Propionium bacterium parvum, one dose a month, for 3 to 5 months. RESULTS: Among the 20 patients who participated in the study, ten received the placebo and ten received the saline solution with Propionium bacterium parvum. In 9 patients treated with the Propionium bacterium parvum solution the warts disappeared without scars and in 1 patient it decreased in size. In 9 patients who received the placebo no change to the warts was observed and in 1 it decreased in size. CONCLUSIONS: The immune modulator and immune stimulant Propionium bacterium parvum produced antibodies in the skin which destroyed the warts without scars, with statistically significant results (PFUNDAMENTOS: Verrugas são proliferações epiteliais na pele e mucosas causadas por diversos tipos de HPV. Elas podem involuir espontaneameme ou aumentar em número e tamanho de acordo com estado imunitário do paciente. O Propionium bacterium parvum é urn potente imunoestimulador e imunomodulador e tem efeitos importantes no sistema imune e é capaz de produzir anticorpos na pele. OBJETIVO: Mostrar a eficácia do Propionium bacterium parvum diluído em solução salina no tratamento de verrugas cutâneas. MÊTODOS: Estudo duplo

  20. High cell density cultivation of the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Benedek; Török, Tibor; Sándor, Erzsébet; Fekete, Erzsébet; Flipphi, Michel; Karaffa, Levente

    2016-05-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea is a chemolithoautotrophic nitrifier, a gram-negative bacterium that can obtain all energy required for growth from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, and this may be beneficial for various biotechnological and environmental applications. However, compared to other bacteria, growth of ammonia oxidizing bacteria is very slow. A prerequisite to produce high cell density N. europaea cultures is to minimize the concentrations of inhibitory metabolic by-products. During growth on ammonia nitrite accumulates, as a consequence, N. europaea cannot grow to high cell concentrations under conventional batch conditions. Here, we show that single-vessel dialysis membrane bioreactors can be used to obtain substantially increased N. europaea biomasses and substantially reduced nitrite levels in media initially containing high amounts of the substrate. Dialysis membrane bioreactor fermentations were run in batch as well as in continuous mode. Growth was monitored with cell concentration determinations, by assessing dry cell mass and by monitoring ammonium consumption as well as nitrite formation. In addition, metabolic activity was probed with in vivo acridine orange staining. Under continuous substrate feed, the maximal cell concentration (2.79 × 10(12)/L) and maximal dry cell mass (0.895 g/L) achieved more than doubled the highest values reported for N. europaea cultivations to date. PMID:26358065

  1. Bioconversion of methane to lactate by an obligate methanotrophic bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henard, Calvin A.; Smith, Holly; Dowe, Nancy; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Pienkos, Philip T.; Guarnieri, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Methane is the second most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG), with nearly 60% of emissions derived from anthropogenic sources. Microbial conversion of methane to fuels and value-added chemicals offers a means to reduce GHG emissions, while also valorizing this otherwise squandered high-volume, high-energy gas. However, to date, advances in methane biocatalysis have been constrained by the low-productivity and limited genetic tractability of natural methane-consuming microbes. Here, leveraging recent identification of a novel, tractable methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomicrobium buryatense, we demonstrate microbial biocatalysis of methane to lactate, an industrial platform chemical. Heterologous overexpression of a Lactobacillus helveticus L-lactate dehydrogenase in M. buryatense resulted in an initial titer of 0.06 g lactate/L from methane. Cultivation in a 5 L continuously stirred tank bioreactor enabled production of 0.8 g lactate/L, representing a 13-fold improvement compared to the initial titer. The yields (0.05 g lactate/g methane) and productivity (0.008 g lactate/L/h) indicate the need and opportunity for future strain improvement. Additionally, real-time analysis of methane utilization implicated gas-to-liquid transfer and/or microbial methane consumption as process limitations. This work opens the door to develop an array of methanotrophic bacterial strain-engineering strategies currently employed for biocatalytic sugar upgrading to “green” chemicals and fuels. PMID:26902345

  2. Presence of an unusual methanogenic bacterium in coal gasification waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomei, F.A.; Rouse, D.; Maki, J.S.; Mitchell, R.

    1988-12-01

    Methanogenic bacteria growing on a pilot-scale, anaerobic filter processing coal gasification waste were enriched in a mineral salts medium containing hydrogen and acetate as potential energy sources. Transfer of the enrichments to methanol medium resulted in the initial growth of a strain of Methanosarcina barkeri, but eventually small cocci became dominant. The cocci growing on methanol produced methane and exhibited the typical fluorescence of methanogenic bacteria. They grew in the presence of the cell wall synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics D-cycloserine, fosfomycin, penicillin G, and vancomycin as well as in the presence of kanamycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis in eubacteria. The optimal growth temperature was 37 degrees C, and the doubling time was 7.5 h. The strain lysed after reaching stationary phase. The bacterium grew poorly with hydrogen as the energy source and failed to grow on acetate. Morphologically, the coccus shared similarities with Methanosarcina sp. Cells were 1 ..mu..m wide, exhibited the typical thick cell wall and cross-wall formation, and formed tetrads. Packets and cysts were not formed. 62 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Bioconversion of methane to lactate by an obligate methanotrophic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henard, Calvin A; Smith, Holly; Dowe, Nancy; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Pienkos, Philip T; Guarnieri, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Methane is the second most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG), with nearly 60% of emissions derived from anthropogenic sources. Microbial conversion of methane to fuels and value-added chemicals offers a means to reduce GHG emissions, while also valorizing this otherwise squandered high-volume, high-energy gas. However, to date, advances in methane biocatalysis have been constrained by the low-productivity and limited genetic tractability of natural methane-consuming microbes. Here, leveraging recent identification of a novel, tractable methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomicrobium buryatense, we demonstrate microbial biocatalysis of methane to lactate, an industrial platform chemical. Heterologous overexpression of a Lactobacillus helveticus L-lactate dehydrogenase in M. buryatense resulted in an initial titer of 0.06 g lactate/L from methane. Cultivation in a 5 L continuously stirred tank bioreactor enabled production of 0.8 g lactate/L, representing a 13-fold improvement compared to the initial titer. The yields (0.05 g lactate/g methane) and productivity (0.008 g lactate/L/h) indicate the need and opportunity for future strain improvement. Additionally, real-time analysis of methane utilization implicated gas-to-liquid transfer and/or microbial methane consumption as process limitations. This work opens the door to develop an array of methanotrophic bacterial strain-engineering strategies currently employed for biocatalytic sugar upgrading to "green" chemicals and fuels. PMID:26902345

  4. Electromicrobiology of Dissimilatory Sulfur Reducing Bacterium Desulfuromonas acetexigens

    KAUST Repository

    Bin Bandar, Khaled

    2014-12-01

    Bioelectrochmical systems (BES) are engineered electrochemical devices that harness hidden chemical energy of the wastewater in to the form of electricity or hydrogen. Unique microbial communities enrich in these systems for oxidation of organic matter as well as transfer of resulted electron to anode, known them as “electricigens” communities. Exploring novel electricigenesis microbial communities in the nature and understanding their electromicrobiology is one the important aspect for BES systems scale up. Herein, we report first time the electricigenesis property of an anaerobic, fresh water sediment, sulfur reducing bacterium Desulfuromona acetexigens. The electrochemical behavior of D. acetexigens biofilms grown on graphite-rod electrodes in batch-fed mode under an applied potential was investigated with traditional electroanalytical tools, and correlate the electron transfer from biofilms to electrode with a model electricigen Geobacter sulfurreducens electrochemical behavior. Research findings suggest that D. acetexigens has the ability to use electrode as electron acceptor in BES systems through establishing the direct contact with anode by expressing the membrane bound redox proteins, but not due to the secretion of soluble redox mediators. Preliminary results revealed that D. acetexigens express three distinct redox proteins in their membranes for turnover of the electrons from biofilm to electrode, and the 4 whole electricigenesis process observed to be unique in the D. acetexigens compared to that of well-studied model organism G. sulfurreducens.

  5. Molecular study on cloned endoglucanase gene from rumen bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkose, Emin; Akyol, Ismail; Ekinci, Mehmet Sait

    2004-01-01

    An endoglucanase gene was subcloned from anaerobic rumen bacterium Ruminococcus flavefaciens strain 17. To express endoglucanase gene in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus bovis JB1, an endoglucanase gene fragment was inserted into pVA838-based shuttle vectors. Removal of endoglucanase gene promoter and expression of endoglucanase by promoter of S. bovis JB1 alpha-amylase gene (pACMCS) was also achieved. Survival of constructs pVACMCI, pTACMC and pACMCS, which carry endoglucanase gene, and stability of endoglucanase gene in S. bovis JB1, were observed. Maximal endoglucanase activities from S. bovis JB1/pVACMCI were 2- to 3-fold higher than from E. coli/pVACMCI. Specific cell activity of E. coli/pACMCS was found to be approximately 2- to -3 fold higher than the both E. coli/pVACMCI and E. coli/pTACMC. Specific cell activity of S. bovis JB1/pACMCS was also found to be approximately 2-fold higher than the both S. bovis/pVACMCI and S. bovis JB1/pTACMC. PMID:15925902

  6. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Ying; Sun, Guangdong; Gao, Xiyan; Zhang, Qingling; Liu, Zhipei

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium, strain S1-1, was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system. Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp. based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp. TSBY-70. Strain S1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite, and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%, respectively. The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low level accumulation of nitrite, suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S1-1 occurred mainly in this phase. The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1. Finally, factors affecting the growth of strain S1-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated. Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source, C/N ratio15, salinity 10 g/L NaCl, incubation temperature 20 degrees C and initial pH 6.5. PMID:22432315

  7. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan Zheng; Ying Liu; Guangdong Sun; Xiyan Gao; Qingling Zhang; Zhipei Liu

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium,strain S1-1,was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system.Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp.based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence,which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp.TSBY-70.Strain S 1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite,and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%,respectively.The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low leve 1 accumulation of nitrite,suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S l-1 occurred mainly in this phase.The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1.Finally,factors affecting the growth of strain Sl-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated.Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source,C/N ratio15,salinity 10 g/L NaCl,incubation temperature 20℃ and initial pH 6.5.

  8. Isolation and characterization of Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus sp. nov., an extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic, anaerobic bacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana; Mathrani, Indra M.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    An anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic, non-spore-forming bacterium, strain 6A, was isolated from an alkaline hot spring in Hverageroi, Iceland. The bacterium was non-motile, rod-shaped (1.5-3.5 x 0.7 mu m) and occurred singly, in pairs or in chains and stained gram-negative. The growth...... temperature was between 50 and 78 degrees C with a temperature optimum near 68 degrees C. Growth occurred between pH 5.8 and 8.2 with an optimum mum near 7.0. The bacterium fermented microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) and produced lactate, acetate and H-2 as the major fermentation products, and CO2...... and ethanol occurred as minor fermentation products. Only a restricted number of carbon sources (cellulose, xylan, starch, pectin, cellobiose, xylose, maltose and lactose) were used as substrates. During growth on Avicel, the bacterium produced free cellulases with carboxymethylcellulase and avicelase...

  9. Dinoroseobacter shibae gen. nov., sp. nov., a new aerobic phototrophic bacterium isolated from dinoflagellates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biebl, H.; Allgaier, M.; Tindall, B. J.; Koblížek, Michal; Lünsdorf, H.; Pukall, R.; Wagner-Döbler, I.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 55, - (2005), s. 1089-1096. ISSN 1466-5026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Dinoroseobacter shibae * phototrophic bacterium Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2005

  10. Carbohydrate utilization patterns for the extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus reveal broad growth substrate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanfossen, A.L.; Verhaart, M.R.A.; Kengen, S.W.M.; Kelly, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Co-utilization of hexoses and pentoses derived from lignocellulose is an attractive trait in microorganisms considered for consolidated biomass processing to biofuels. This issue was examined for the H2-producing, extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus growing on indiv

  11. Genome Sequence of the Haloalkaliphilic Methanotrophic Bacterium Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z

    OpenAIRE

    Vuilleumier, Stéphane; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Bringel, Françoise; Reshetnikov, Alexandr S.; Lajus, Aurélie; Mangenot, Sophie; Rouy, Zoé; Op Den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S. M.; DiSpirito, Alan A.; Dunfield, Peter; Klotz, Martin G.; Semrau, Jeremy D.; Stein, Lisa Y.; Barbe, Valérie

    2012-01-01

    Methylomicrobium strains are widespread in saline environments. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z, a haloalkaliphilic methanotrophic bacterium, which will provide the basis for detailed characterization of the core pathways of both single-carbon metabolism and responses to osmotic and high-pH stresses. Final assembly of the genome sequence revealed that this bacterium contains a 128-kb plasmid, making M. alcaliphilum 20Z the first methanotrophic...

  12. Effect of alginic acid decomposing bacterium on the growth of Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG You; TANG Xue-xi; YANG Zhen; YU Zhi-ming

    2006-01-01

    We collected the diseased blades of Laminaria japonica from Yantai Sea Farm from October to December 2002, and the alginic acid decomposing bacterium on the diseased blade was isolated and purified, and was identified as Alteromonas espejiana. This bacterium was applied as the causative pathogen to infect the blades of L. japonica under laboratory conditions. The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of the bacterium on the growth of L. japonica, and to find the possibly effective mechanism. Results showed that: (1)The blades of L.japonica exhibited symptoms of lesion,bleaching and deterioration when infected by the bacterium,and their growth and photosynthesis were dramatically suppressed. At the same time, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation enhanced obviously, and the relative membrane permeability increased significantly. The contents of malonaldehyde (MDA) and free fatty acid in the microsomol membrane greatly elevated, but the phospholipid content decreased. Result suggested an obvious peroxidation and deesterrification in the blades of L. japonica when infected by the bacterium. (2) The simultaneous assay on the antioxidant enzyme activities demonstrated that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased greatly when infected by the bacterium, but glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) did not exhibit active responses to the bacterium throughout the experiment. (3) The histomorphological observations gave a distinctive evidence of the severity of the lesions as well as the relative abundance in the bacterial population on the blades after infection. The bacterium firstly invaded into the endodermis of L. japonica and gathered around there, and then resulted in the membrane damage, cells corruption and ultimately, the death of L.japonica.

  13. High Prevalence of Antibodies against the Bacterium Treponema pallidum in Senegalese Guinea Baboons (Papio papio)

    OpenAIRE

    Knauf, Sascha; Barnett, Ulrike; Maciej, Peter; Klapproth, Matthias; Ndao, Ibrahima; Frischmann, Sieghard; Fischer, Julia; Zinner, Dietmar; Liu, Hsi

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Treponema pallidum is known to cause syphilis (ssp. pallidum), yaws (ssp. pertenue), and endemic syphilis (ssp. endemicum) in humans. Nonhuman primates have also been reported to be infected with the bacterium with equally versatile clinical manifestations, from severe skin ulcerations to asymptomatic. At present all simian strains are closely related to human yaws-causing strains, an important consideration for yaws eradication. We tested clinically healthy Guinea baboons (Papi...

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of DLB, a Dyella-Like Bacterium from the Planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Tamar; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Naor, Vered; Freilich, Shiri

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a Dyella-like bacterium (DLB) isolated from Hyalesthes obsoletus, the insect vector of the uncultivable mollicute bacterium “Candidatus Phytoplasma.” This isolate inhibits Spiroplasma melliferum, a cultivable mollicute. The draft genome of DLB consists of 4,196,214 bp, with a 68.6% G+C content, and 3,757 genes were predicted. PMID:27445378

  15. Biosynthesis Of Gold Nanoparticles By Marine Purple Non Sulphur Bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas Sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Abirami. G; Asmathunisha. N; Kathiresan. K

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes for the first time that an anaerobic marine bacterium is capable of producing gold nanoparticles. A marine purple non-sulphur bacterium was isolated from mangrove sediment and identified as Rhodopseudomonas sp. . The bacterial culture was tested for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles by using aqueous HAuCl4 solution as substrate in darkness. The gold nanoparticles synthesized were found to be of cubical structure in the size range of 10–20 nm.

  16. Carbonate biomineralization induced by soil bacterium Bacillus megaterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Bin; Hu, Qiaona; Chen, Jun; Ji, Junfeng; Teng, H. Henry

    2006-11-01

    Biogenic carbonates spawned from microbial activities are common occurrences in soils. Here, we investigate the carbonate biomineralization mediated by the bacterium Bacillus megaterium, a dominant strain separated from a loess profile in China. Upon completing bacterial cultivation, the ensuring products are centrifuged, and the resultant supernatant and the concentrated bacterial sludge as well as the un-separated culture are added separately into a Ca-CO 3 containing solution for crystallization experiments. Results of XRD and SEM analysis indicate that calcite is the dominant mineral phase formed when the bacteria are present. When the supernatant alone is used, however, a significant portion of vaterite is also precipitated. Experimental results further reveal that the bacteria have a strong tendency to colonize the center area of the calcite {1 0 1¯ 4} faces. Observed crystal morphology suggests that the bacterial colony may promote the growth normal to each individual {1 0 1¯ 4} face of calcite when the cell concentration is high, but may retard it or even cause dissolution of the immediate substrate surfaces when the concentration is low. SEM images taken at earlier stages of the crystallization experiments demonstrate the nucleation of calcite on the bacterial cell walls but do not show obvious morphological changes on the nanometer- to submicron-sized nuclei. δ 13C measurements unveil that the crystals grown in the presence of bacteria are further enriched in the heavy carbon isotope, implying that the bacterial metabolism may not be the carbon sources for the mineralization. Based upon these findings, we propose a mechanism for the B. megaterium mediated calcite mineralization and conclude that the whole process involves epi- and inter-cellular growth in the local microenvironments whose conditions may be controlled by cell sequestration and proton pumping during bacterial respiration.

  17. Metabolic evolution of a deep-branching hyperthermophilic chemoautotrophic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakman, Rogier; Smith, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Aquifex aeolicus is a deep-branching hyperthermophilic chemoautotrophic bacterium restricted to hydrothermal vents and hot springs. These characteristics make it an excellent model system for studying the early evolution of metabolism. Here we present the whole-genome metabolic network of this organism and examine in detail the driving forces that have shaped it. We make extensive use of phylometabolic analysis, a method we recently introduced that generates trees of metabolic phenotypes by integrating phylogenetic and metabolic constraints. We reconstruct the evolution of a range of metabolic sub-systems, including the reductive citric acid (rTCA) cycle, as well as the biosynthesis and functional roles of several amino acids and cofactors. We show that A. aeolicus uses the reconstructed ancestral pathways within many of these sub-systems, and highlight how the evolutionary interconnections between sub-systems facilitated several key innovations. Our analyses further highlight three general classes of driving forces in metabolic evolution. One is the duplication and divergence of genes for enzymes as these progress from lower to higher substrate specificity, improving the kinetics of certain sub-systems. A second is the kinetic optimization of established pathways through fusion of enzymes, or their organization into larger complexes. The third is the minimization of the ATP unit cost to synthesize biomass, improving thermodynamic efficiency. Quantifying the distribution of these classes of innovations across metabolic sub-systems and across the tree of life will allow us to assess how a tradeoff between maximizing growth rate and growth efficiency has shaped the long-term metabolic evolution of the biosphere. PMID:24516572

  18. Interaction of Cadmium With the Aerobic Bacterium Pseudomonas Mendocina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, P. J.; Haack, E. A.; Maurice, P. A.

    2006-05-01

    The fate of toxic metals in the environment can be heavily influenced by interaction with bacteria in the vadose zone. This research focuses on the interactions of cadmium with the strict aerobe Pseudomonas mendocina. P. mendocina is a gram-negative bacterium that has shown potential in the bioremediation of recalcitrant organic compounds. Cadmium is a common environmental contaminant of wide-spread ecological consequence. In batch experiments P. mendocina shows typical bacterial growth curves, with an initial lag phase followed by an exponential phase and a stationary to death phase; concomitant with growth was an increase in pH from initial values of 7 to final values at 96 hours of 8.8. Cd both delays the onset of the exponential phase and decreases the maximum population size, as quantified by optical density and microscopic cell counts (DAPI). The total amount of Cd removed from solution increases over time, as does the amount of Cd removed from solution normalized per bacterial cell. Images obtained with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the production of a cadmium, phosphorus, and iron containing precipitate that was similar in form and composition to precipitates formed abiotically at elevated pH. However, by late stationary phase, the precipitate had been re-dissolved, perhaps by biotic processes in order to obtain Fe. Stressed conditions are suggested by TEM images showing the formation of pili, or nanowires, when 20ppm Cd was present and a marked decrease in exopolysaccharide and biofilm material in comparison to control cells (no cadmium added).

  19. Metabolic evolution of a deep-branching hyperthermophilic chemoautotrophic bacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier Braakman

    Full Text Available Aquifex aeolicus is a deep-branching hyperthermophilic chemoautotrophic bacterium restricted to hydrothermal vents and hot springs. These characteristics make it an excellent model system for studying the early evolution of metabolism. Here we present the whole-genome metabolic network of this organism and examine in detail the driving forces that have shaped it. We make extensive use of phylometabolic analysis, a method we recently introduced that generates trees of metabolic phenotypes by integrating phylogenetic and metabolic constraints. We reconstruct the evolution of a range of metabolic sub-systems, including the reductive citric acid (rTCA cycle, as well as the biosynthesis and functional roles of several amino acids and cofactors. We show that A. aeolicus uses the reconstructed ancestral pathways within many of these sub-systems, and highlight how the evolutionary interconnections between sub-systems facilitated several key innovations. Our analyses further highlight three general classes of driving forces in metabolic evolution. One is the duplication and divergence of genes for enzymes as these progress from lower to higher substrate specificity, improving the kinetics of certain sub-systems. A second is the kinetic optimization of established pathways through fusion of enzymes, or their organization into larger complexes. The third is the minimization of the ATP unit cost to synthesize biomass, improving thermodynamic efficiency. Quantifying the distribution of these classes of innovations across metabolic sub-systems and across the tree of life will allow us to assess how a tradeoff between maximizing growth rate and growth efficiency has shaped the long-term metabolic evolution of the biosphere.

  20. Paenibacillus xylanilyticus sp. nov., an airborne xylanolytic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Raúl; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna

    2005-01-01

    During a search for xylan-degrading micro-organisms, a sporulating bacterium was recovered from xylan-containing agar plates exposed to air in a research laboratory (Salamanca University, Spain). The airborne isolate (designated strain XIL14T) was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as representing a Paenibacillus species most closely related to Paenibacillus illinoisensis JCM 9907T (99.3 % sequence similarity) and Paenibacillus pabuli DSM 3036T (98 % sequence similarity). Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and DNA-DNA hybridization data indicated that the isolate belongs to a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus. Cells of strain XIL14T were motile, sporulating, rod-shaped, Gram-positive and facultatively anaerobic. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) and C(16 : 0). The DNA G+C content of strain XIL14T was 50.5 mol%. Growth was observed with many carbohydrates, including xylan, as the only carbon source and gas production was not observed from glucose. Catalase was positive and oxidase was negative. The airborne isolate produced a variety of hydrolytic enzymes, including xylanases, amylases, gelatinase and beta-galactosidase. DNA-DNA hybridization levels between strain XIL14T and P. illinoisensis DSM 11733T and P. pabuli DSM 3036T were 43.3 and 36.3 %, respectively. According to the data obtained, strain XIL14T is considered to represent a novel species for which the name Paenibacillus xylanilyticus sp. nov. is proposed (=LMG 21957T=CECT 5839T). PMID:15653909

  1. Regulation of Polyhydroxybutyrate Synthesis in the Soil Bacterium Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelas, J I; Mesa, S; Mongiardini, E J; Jendrossek, D; Lodeiro, A R

    2016-07-15

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a carbon and energy reserve polymer in various prokaryotic species. We determined that, when grown with mannitol as the sole carbon source, Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens produces a homopolymer composed only of 3-hydroxybutyrate units (PHB). Conditions of oxygen limitation (such as microoxia, oxic stationary phase, and bacteroids inside legume nodules) were permissive for the synthesis of PHB, which was observed as cytoplasmic granules. To study the regulation of PHB synthesis, we generated mutations in the regulator gene phaR and the phasin genes phaP1 and phaP4 Under permissive conditions, mutation of phaR impaired PHB accumulation, and a phaP1 phaP4 double mutant produced more PHB than the wild type, which was accumulated in a single, large cytoplasmic granule. Moreover, PhaR negatively regulated the expression of phaP1 and phaP4 as well as the expression of phaA1 and phaA2 (encoding a 3-ketoacyl coenzyme A [CoA] thiolases), phaC1 and phaC2 (encoding PHB synthases), and fixK2 (encoding a cyclic AMP receptor protein [CRP]/fumarate and nitrate reductase regulator [FNR]-type transcription factor of genes for microoxic lifestyle). In addition to the depressed PHB cycling, phaR mutants accumulated more extracellular polysaccharides and promoted higher plant shoot dry weight and competitiveness for nodulation than the wild type, in contrast to the phaC1 mutant strain, which is defective in PHB synthesis. These results suggest that phaR not only regulates PHB granule formation by controlling the expression of phasins and biosynthetic enzymes but also acts as a global regulator of excess carbon allocation and symbiosis by controlling fixK2 IMPORTANCE: In this work, we investigated the regulation of polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis in the soybean-nodulating bacterium Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens and its influence in bacterial free-living and symbiotic lifestyles. We uncovered a new interplay between the synthesis of this carbon reserve polymer

  2. Photoactive yellow protein from the halophilic bacterium Salinibacter ruber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmi, Samy; Kyndt, John; Meyer, Terry; Devreese, Bart; Cusanovich, Michael; Van Beeumen, Jozef

    2008-02-19

    A gene for photoactive yellow protein (PYP) was identified from the genome sequence of the extremely halophilic aerobic bacterium Salinibacter ruber (Sr). The sequence is distantly related to the prototypic PYP from Halorhodospira halophila (Hh) (37% identity) and contains most of the amino acid residues identified as necessary for function. However, the Sr pyp gene is not flanked by its two biosynthetic genes as in other species. To determine as to whether the Sr pyp gene encodes a functional protein, we cloned and expressed it in Escherichia coli, along with the genes for chromophore biosynthesis from Rhodobacter capsulatus. The Sr PYP has a 31-residue N-terminal extension as compared to other PYPs that appears to be important for dimerization; however, truncation of these extra residues did not change the spectral and photokinetic properties. Sr PYP has an absorption maximum at 431 nm, which is at shorter wavelengths than the prototypical Hh PYP (at 446 nm). It is also photoactive, being reversibly bleached by either blue or white light. The kinetics of dark recovery is slower than any of the PYPs reported to date (4.27 x 10(-4) s(-1) at pH 7.5). Sr PYP appears to have a normal photocycle with the I1 and I2 intermediates. The presence of the I2' intermediate is also inferred on the basis of the effects of temperature and alchohol on recovery. Sr PYP has an intermediate spectral form in equilibrium with the 431 nm form, similar to R. capsulatus PYP and the Y42F mutant of Hh PYP. Increasing ionic strength stabilizes the 431 nm form at the expense of the intermediate spectral form, and the kinetics of recovery is accelerated 6.4-fold between 0 and 3.5 M salt. This is observed with ions from both the chaotropic and the kosmotropic series. Ionic strength also stabilizes PYP against thermal denaturation, as the melting temperature is increased from 74 degrees C in buffer alone to 92 degrees C in 2 M KCl. Sr accumulates KCl in the cytoplasm, like Halobacterium, to

  3. A plant growth-promoting bacterium that decreases nickel toxicity in seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burd, G.I.; Dixon, D.G.; Glick, B.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    1998-10-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and CrO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride were partially protected against nickel toxicity. In addition, protection by the bacterium against nickel toxicity was evident in pot experiments with canola and tomato seeds. The presence of K. ascorbata SUD165 had no measurable influence on the amount of nickel accumulated per milligram (dry weight) of either roots or shoots of canola plants. Therefore, the bacterial plant growth-promoting effect in the presence of nickel was probably not attributable to the reduction of nickel uptake by seedlings. Rather, it may reflect the ability of the bacterium to lower the level of stress ethylene induced by the nickel.

  4. Action of the Selenomorpholine Compounds on the Bacterium Growth by Microcalorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Xi(李曦); LIU,Yi(刘义); WU,Jun(吴军); QU,Song-Sheng(屈松生)

    2002-01-01

    The action of β-(N-selenomorpholine) ethyl phenyl ketone hy drochloride and 4-(N-selenomorpholine)-2-butanone hydrochloride on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was studied by microcalorimetry. Differences in their capacities to affect the metabolism of this bacterium were observed. The kinetics shows that the selenomorphline compounds had action on the metabolism process of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The rate constant (k) of the studied bacterium in the presence of the drugs are concentration-dependant. The growth rate constants decrease with an increase in the mass of the selenomorpholine compounds, but their relationship is different. As deduced from the rate constant (k) of the studied bacterium (in log phase) and the half inhibitory concentration (IC50), the experimental results reveal that the studied selenomorphline compounds all have good antibiotic activity and better antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus than on Escherichia coli.

  5. Studies on the pathogenic bacterium of ulcer disease in Epinephelus awoara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the cause of the acute mortality of cage-cultured Epinephelus awoara in the Tong'an Bay of Xiamen, China during the summer of 2002. Predominant bacteria strain TS-628 was isolated from the diseased grouper. The virulence test confirmed that TS-628 was the pathogenic bacterium. Biochemical characteristics of the isolates were determined using the automatic bacterial identification system and standard tube tests. To further confirm the identification, a 1 121 bp 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate was amplified by PCR, which had been deposited into Genbank (accession number: AY747308). According to the biochemical characteristics and by comparing the 16S rRNA gene homology of the isolate, the pathogenic bacterium was identified as Vibrio harveyi. Drug sensitivity tests showed that this pathogenic bacterium was sensitive to 16 antibacterials, especially to chloramphenicol and actinospectacin, but completely resistant to antibacterials likes vancomycin, penicillin, lincomycin, and so on.

  6. Action of the Selenomorpholine Compounds on the Bacterium Growth by Microcalorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李曦; 刘义; 等

    2002-01-01

    The action of β-(N-selenomorpholine) ethyl phenyl ketone hydrochloride and 4-(N-selenomorpholine)-2-butanone hydro-chloride on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was studied by microcalorimetry,Differences in their capacities to affect the metabolism of this bacterium were observed.The kinetics shows that the selenomorpholine compounds had action on the metabolism process of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.The rate constant (k) of the studied bacterium in the presence of the drugs are concentration-dependant.The growth rate constants decrease with an increase in the mass of the selenomorpholine compounds ,but their relationship is different.As deduced from the rate constant(k) of the studied bacterium(in log phase )and the half inhibitory concentration (IC50),the experimental results reveal that the studied selenomorpholine compounds all have good antibiotic activity and better antibacterial activity on Staphylcoccus aureus than on Escherichia coli.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Land, Miriam L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer-ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi-cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome squence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Mun Su [University of Florida, Gainesville; Moritz, Brelan E. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Patel, Milind [University of Florida, Gainesville; Ou, Mark [University of Florida, Gainesville; Harbrucker, Roberta [University of Florida, Gainesville; Ingram, Lonnie O. [University of Florida; Shanmugam, Keelnathan T. [University of Florida

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer- ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this spo- rogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attrac- tive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi- cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome se- quence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  9. Removal of corper(II) Ions from aqueous solution by a lactic acid bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    M. Yilmaz(Department of Physics, Gazi University, Ankara); T. Tay; M. Kivanc; H. Turk

    2010-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium, a lactic acid bacterium (LAB), was evaluated for its ability to remove copper(II) ions from water. The effects of the pH, contact time, initial concentration of copper(II) ions, and temperature on the biosorption rate and capacity were studied. The initial concentrations of copper(II) ions used to determine the maximum amount of biosorbed copper(II) ions onto lyophilised lactic acid bacterium varied from 25 mg L-1 to 500 mg L-1. Maximum biosorption capacities were attain...

  10. Sensitivity of the bacterium Bacillus Thuringiensis as an insect disease agent to gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma radiation on the viability of the entomopathogenic spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, was tested. The different gamma doses varied much in their effect on such bacterium. All irradiated Bacillus suspensions with doses below 85 krad showed different degrees of inhibitory activity. However, bacterial suspensions irradiated at a dose of 90 krad. proved to promote spore germination. Changes in the physiological, and morphological characters of the irradiated Bacillus at these levels were detected. The new observed characters were induced at a particular dose level of 90 krad. These new characters are assumed to be due to genetic changes induced at this particular gamma dose

  11. Physiological and taxonomic description of the novel autotrophic, metal oxidizing bacterium, Pseudogulbenkiania sp. strain 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Karrie A; Hedrick, David B.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Thrash, J. Cameron; White, David C.; Achenbach, Laurie A.; Coates, John D.

    2009-01-01

    A lithoautotrophic, Fe(II) oxidizing, nitrate-reducing bacterium, strain 2002 (ATCC BAA-1479; =DSM 18807), was isolated as part of a study on nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation in freshwater lake sediments. Here we provide an in-depth phenotypic and phylogenetic description of the isolate. Strain 2002 is a gram-negative, non-spore forming, motile, rod-shaped bacterium which tested positive for oxidase, catalase, and urease. Analysis of the complete 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain 2002 in...

  12. Aminomonas paucivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a mesophilic, anaerobic, amino-acid-utilizing bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Baena, S.; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Ollivier, Bernard; Labat, Marc; Thomas, P; Garcia, Jean-Louis; Patel, B.K.C.

    1999-01-01

    A novel, asaccharolytic, amino-acid-degrading bacterium, designated strain GLU-3T, was isolated from an anaerobic lagoon of a dairy wastewater treatment plant. Strain GLU-3T stained Gram-negative and was an obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming, slightly curved, rod-shaped bacterium (0.3 x 4.0-6.0 micrometers) which existed singly or in pairs. The DNA G+C content was 43 mol%. Optimum growth occurred at 35°C and pH 7.5 on arginine, histidine, threonine and glycine. Acetate was the end-produc...

  13. Genome sequence of Symbiobacterium thermophilum, an uncultivable bacterium that depends on microbial commensalism

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, Kenji; YAMASHITA Atsushi; Ishikawa, Jun; Shimada, Masafumi; Watsuji, Tomo-o; Morimura, Kohji; Ikeda, Haruo; Hattori, Masahira; Beppu, Teruhiko

    2004-01-01

    Symbiobacterium thermophilum is an uncultivable bacterium isolated from compost that depends on microbial commensalism. The 16S ribosomal DNA-based phylogeny suggests that this bacterium belongs to an unknown taxon in the Gram-positive bacterial cluster. Here, we describe the 3.57 Mb genome sequence of S.thermophilum. The genome consists of 3338 protein-coding sequences, out of which 2082 have functional assignments. Despite the high G + C content (68.7%), the genome is closest to that of Fir...

  14. Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus NY-4, a novel denitrifying, moderately halophilic marine bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Rongpeng; Zi, Xiaoli; Wang, Xinfeng; Zhang, Xia; Gao, Haofeng; Hu, Nan

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of a novel halophilic denitrifying marine bacterium is described. The halophilic bacterium, designated as NY-4, was isolated from soil in Yancheng City, China, and identified as Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus by 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis. This organism can grow in NaCl concentrations ranging from 20 to 120 g/L. Optimum growth occurs at 80 g/L NaCl and pH 8.0. The organism can grow on a broad range of carbon sources and demonstrated eff...

  15. Purification and Characterization of Haloalkaline, Organic Solvent Stable Xylanase from Newly Isolated Halophilic Bacterium-OKH

    OpenAIRE

    Sanghvi, Gaurav; Jivrajani, Mehul; Patel, Nirav; Jivrajani, Heta; Bhaskara, Govinal Badiger; Patel, Shivani

    2014-01-01

    A novel, alkali-tolerant halophilic bacterium-OKH with an ability to produce extracellular halophilic, alkali-tolerant, organic solvent stable, and moderately thermostable xylanase was isolated from salt salterns of Mithapur region, Gujarat, India. Identification of the bacterium was done based upon biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence. Maximum xylanase production was achieved at pH 9.0 and 37°C temperature in the medium containing 15% NaCl and 1% (w/v) corn cobs. Sugarcane bagasse and whe...

  16. Enhanced Cadmium (Cd) Phytoextraction from Contaminated Soil using Cd-Resistant Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Kunchaya Setkit; Acharaporn Kumsopa; Jaruwan Wongthanate; Benjaphorn Prapagdee

    2014-01-01

    A cadmium (Cd)-resistant bacterium, Micrococcus sp. MU1, is able to produce indole-3-acetic acid and promotes root elongation and plant growth. The potential of this bacterium on enhancement of Cd uptake and bioaccumulation of Cd in Helianthus annuus L. planted in Cd-contaminated soil was evaluated in greenhouse condition. The results showed that Micrococcus sp. MU1promoted the growth of H. annuus L. by increasing the root length, stem height, dry biomass, root to shoot ratio and also signifi...

  17. Isolation from swine feces of a bacterium which decarboxylates p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid to 4-methylphenol (p-cresol).

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Ward; Johnson, K A; Robinson, I.M.; Yokoyama, M T

    1987-01-01

    An obligate anaerobe has been isolated from swine feces which decarboxylates p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid to 4-methylphenol (p-cresol). The bacterium was an ovoid rod, gram positive, nonsporeforming, and nonmotile. Lactate and acetate were major end products of glucose fermentation. Based on its characteristics, the bacterium is tentatively assigned to the genus Lactobacillus.

  18. Occurrence of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation in the Yangtze Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, L.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past several decades, a large quantity of reactive nitrogen has been transported into the Yangtze estuarine and coastal water, due to intense human activities in the Yangtze River Basin. At present, it annually receives a high load of anthropogenic inorganic nitrogen (about 1.1 × 1011 mol N) from increased agricultural activities, fish farming, and domestic and industrial wastewater discharge in the Yangtze River Basin, consequently leading to severe eutrophication and frequent occurrences of harmful algal blooms in the estuary and adjacent coastal areas. Hence, the microbial nitrogen transformations are of major concern in the Yangtze Estuary. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been reported to play a significant role in the removal of reactive nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the occurrences of anammox bacteria and associated activity in the Yangtze Estuary were evidenced with molecular and isotope-tracing techniques. It is observed that the anammox bacteria at the study area mainly consisted of Candidatus Scalindua, Brocadia, Kuenenia. Salinity was found to be a key environmental factor controlling distribution and diversity of the anammox bacterial community at the estuarine ecosystem. Also, temperature and organic carbon had significant influences on anammox bacterial biodiversity. Q-PCR assays of anammox bacteria indicated that their abundance had a range of 2.63 ×106 - 9.48 ×107 copies g-1 dry sediment, with high spatiotemporal heterogeneity. The potential anammox activities measured in the present work varied between 0.94 - 6.61nmol N g-1 dry sediment h-1, which were related to temperature, nitrite and anammox bacterial abundance. On the basis of the 15N tracing experiments, the anammox process was estimated to contribute 6.6 - 12.9 % to the total nitrogen loss whereas the remainder was attributed to denitrification.

  19. New recombinant bacterium comprises a heterologous gene encoding glycerol dehydrogenase and/or an up-regulated native gene encoding glycerol dehydrogenase, useful for producing ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    TECHNOLOGY FOCUS - BIOTECHNOLOGY - Preparation (claimed): Producing recombinant bacterium having enhanced ethanol production characteristics when cultivated in growth medium comprising glycerol comprises: (a) transforming a parental bacterium by (i) the insertion of a heterologous gene encoding...... glycerol dehydrogenase; and/or (ii) up-regulating a native gene encoding glycerol dehydrogenase; and (b) obtaining the recombinant bacterium. Preferred Bacterium: In the recombinant bacterium above, the inserted heterologous gene and/or the up-regulated native gene is encoding a glycerol dehydrogenase...... dehydrogenase encoding region of the bacterium, or is inserted into a phosphotransacetylase encoding region of the bacterium, or is inserted into an acetate kinase encoding region of the bacterium. It is operably linked to an inducible, a regulated or a constitutive promoter. The up-regulated glycerol...

  20. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of a Novel Yellow Pigment from the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kumar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is a major source for many novel natural compounds. A new yellow pigment has been isolated from the marine bacterium P. tunicata and identified as a new member of the tambjamine class of compounds. The structural identification was achieved by a combination of 1D and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry data.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA, a Chromium-Resistant Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Nahar, Noor; Olsson, Björn; Mandal, Abul

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we reported a chromium-resistant bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA, isolated from the landfills of tannery industries in Bangladesh. Here, we investigated its genetic composition using massively parallel sequencing and comparative analysis with other known Enterobacter genomes. Assembly of the sequencing reads revealed a genome of ~4.21 Mb in size. PMID:27257201

  2. Identification and Characterization of Clostridium paraputrificum, a Chitinolytic Bacterium of Human Digestive Tract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimůnek, Jiří; Kopečný, Jan; Hodrová, Blanka; Bartoňová, Hana

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2002), s. 559-564. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5020115; GA ČR GA525/00/0984; GA AV ČR KSK5052113 Keywords : Clostridium paraputrificum * Chitinolytic bacterium * digestive tract Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.979, year: 2002

  3. Complete genome sequence of the bioleaching bacterium Leptospirillum sp. group II strain CF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Alonso; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Valdés, Natalia; Jahn, Martina; Jahn, Dieter; Orellana, Omar; Levicán, Gloria

    2016-03-20

    We describe the complete genome sequence of Leptospirillum sp. group II strain CF-1, an acidophilic bioleaching bacterium isolated from an acid mine drainage (AMD). This work provides data to gain insights about adaptive response of Leptospirillum spp. to the extreme conditions of bioleaching environments. PMID:26853478

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Moderately Thermophilic Bacterium Schleiferia thermophila Strain Yellowstone (Bacteroidetes)

    OpenAIRE

    Thiel, Vera; Hamilton, Trinity L.; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Burhans, Richard; Gay, Scott E.; Ramaley, Robert F.; Stephan C Schuster; Steinke, Laurey; Bryant, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of the moderately thermophilic bacterium Schleiferia thermophila strain Yellowstone (Bacteroidetes), isolated from Octopus Spring (Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA) was sequenced and comprises 2,617,694 bp in 35 contigs. The draft genome is predicted to encode 2,457 protein coding genes and 37 tRNA encoding genes and two rRNA operons.

  5. Genome Sequence of the Acetogenic Bacterium Moorella mulderi DSM 14980T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Villamizar, Genis Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Moorella mulderi DSM 14980T, a thermophilic acetogenic bacterium, which is able to grow autotrophically on H2 plus CO2 using the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The genome consists of a circular chromosome (2.99 Mb). PMID:27231372

  6. Removal of zinc from aqueous solution by metal resistant symbiotic bacterium Mesorhizobium amorphae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Xiuli; Mohamad, Osama Abdalla; Xie, Pin;

    2014-01-01

    Biosorption of zinc by living biomasses of metal resistant symbiotic bacterium Mesorhizobium amorphae CCNWGS0123 was investigated under optimal conditions at pH 5.0, initial metal concentrations of 100 mg L-1, and a dose of 1.0 g L-1. M. amorphae exhibited an efficient removal of Zn2+ from aqueous...

  7. Cloning, sequencing, and sequence analysis of two novel plasmids from the thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Anaerocellum thermophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Mikkelsen, Marie Just; Schrøder, I.;

    2004-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of two novel plasmids isolated from the extreme thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Anaerocellum thermophilum DSM6725 (A. thermophilum), growing optimally at 70degreesC, has been determined. pBAS2 was found to be a 3653 bp plasmid with a GC content of 43%, and the sequence...

  8. Thermaerobacter litoralis sp. nov., a strictly aerobic and thermophilic bacterium isolated from a coastal hydrothermal field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanaka, Reiji; Kawaichi, Satoshi; Nishimura, Hiroshi;

    2006-01-01

    A novel thermophilic bacterium, strain KW1T, was isolated from a coastal hydrothermal field on the Satsuma Peninsula, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. The variably Gram-stained cells were motile rods with flagella, did not form spores and proliferated at 52-78°C (optimum, 70°C), pH 5-8 (optimum, pH 7...

  9. The atherogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis evades circulating phagocytes by adhering to erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Damgaard, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    A relationship between periodontitis and coronary heart disease has been investigated intensively. A pathogenic role for the oral bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis has been suggested for both diseases. We examined whether complement activation by P. gingivalis strain ATCC 33277 allows the bacter......A relationship between periodontitis and coronary heart disease has been investigated intensively. A pathogenic role for the oral bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis has been suggested for both diseases. We examined whether complement activation by P. gingivalis strain ATCC 33277 allows...... the bacterium to adhere to human red blood cells (RBCs) and thereby evade attack by circulating phagocytes. On incubation with normal human serum, the P. gingivalis strain efficiently fixed complement component 3 (C3). Incubation of bacteria with washed whole blood cells suspended in autologous serum resulted......) and that by monocytes after between 15 min and 30 min of incubation (by 66% and 53%, respectively). The attachment of C3b/iC3b to bacterium-bearing RBCs decreased progressively after 15 min, indicating that conversion of C3 fragments into C3dg occurred, decreasing the affinity for CR1 on RBCs. We propose that P...

  10. Isolation and algae-lysing characteristics of the algicidal bacterium B5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Water blooms have become a worldwide environmental problem. Recently, algicidal bacteria have attracted wide attention as possible agents for inhibiting algal water blooms. In this study, one strain of algicidal bacterium B5 was isolated from activated sludge. On the basis of analysis of its physiological characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence, it was identified as Bacillus fusiformis. Its algae-lysing characteristics on Microcystis aeruginosa, Chlorella and Scenedesmus were tested. The results showed that: (1) the algicidal bacterium B5 is a Gram-negative bacterium. The 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence homology of strain B5 with 2 strains of B. fusiformis reached 99.86%, so B5 was identified as B. fusiformis; (2) the algal-lysing effects of the algicidal bacterium B5 on M. aeruginosa, Chlorella and Scenedesmus were pronounced. The initial bacterial and algal cell densities strongly influence the removal rates of chlorophyll-a. The greater the initial bacterial cell density, the faster the degradation of chlorophyll-a. The greater the initial algal cell density, the slower the degradation of chlorophyll-a. When the bacterial cell density was 3.6 × 107 cells/ml, nearly 90% of chlorophyll-a was removed. When the chlorophyll-a concentration was less than 550 μg/L, about 70 % was removed; (3) the strain B5 lysed algae not directly but by secreting metabolites and these metabolites could bear heat treatment.

  11. Engineering a predatory bacterium as a proficient killer agent for intracellular bio-products recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Virginia; Herencias, Cristina; Jurkevitch, Edouard;

    2016-01-01

    This work examines the potential of the predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100, an obligate predator of other Gram-negative bacteria, as an external cell-lytic agent for recovering valuable intracellular bio-products produced by prey cultures. The bio-product targets to be recovered...

  12. The Mechanism and Usage for Enhanced Oil Recovery by Chemotaxis of Bacterium BS2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiYiqian; JingGuicheng; GaoShusheng; XungWei

    2005-01-01

    Due to its chemotaxis, the motion ability of bacterium BS2 is very strong, and under the microscope, the distribution grads of bacterium concentration can be seen at the oil-water interface. During the experiments in glass box, it can be observed, with eyes, because of the chemotaxis, that muddy gets thicker and thicker at the interface gradually, and it is measured there, from sampling, that the bacterium concentration is 109 cells/mL, pH value 4.4 and the concentration of bio-surfactant 2.87%; The microbial oil-displacement experiments are carried out in emulational network models, and the oil-displacement mechanism by the bacterium and its metabolizing production is studied. And, during oil-displacement experiments in the gravel-input glass models, because of the profile control of thalli and the production, the sweep area of subsequent waterflood becomes wider, which can be seen with eyes and the recovery is enhanced by 13.6%. Finally, the successful field test is introduced in brief: the ratio of response producers is 85.7%, and the water-cut degrades by 6.4%, while 20038t oil has increased in accumulative total in 2 years.

  13. Two-dimensional gel-based alkaline proteome of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majumder, Avishek; Cai, Liyang; Ejby, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) is a well‐documented probiotic bacterium isolated from human gut. Detailed 2D gel‐based NCFM proteomics addressed the so‐called alkaline range, i.e., pH 6–11. Proteins were identified in 150 of the 202 spots picked from the Coomassie Brilliant Blue stained 2D...

  14. Photobacterium galatheae sp. nov., a bioactive bacterium isolated from a mussel in the Solomon Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Giubergia, Sonia; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina;

    2015-01-01

    A novel, Gram-negative marine bacterium, S2753T, was isolated from a mussel of the Solomon Sea, Solomon Islands. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence and whole genome sequence data placed strain S2753T in the genus Photobacterium with the closest relative being Photobacterium halotolerans...

  15. Design of semi industrial radium separator by a new bacterium MGF-48

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following of a research work which has been recently published in AEOI scientific Bulletin no. 14, a semi industrial bioreactor has been designed for separation of radium using a new bacterium MGF-48. This bioreactor could be utilized for a high rate separation of radium in semi industrial scale. (author)

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Sphingomonas sp. Strain NIC1, an Efficient Nicotine-Degrading Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiongyu; Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain NIC1, an efficient nicotine-degrading bacterium, was isolated from tobacco leaves. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of strain NIC1, which contains one circular chromosome and two circular plasmids. The genomic information will provide insights into its molecular mechanism for nicotine degradation. PMID:27417841

  17. First Insights into the Genome of the Moderately Thermophilic Bacterium Clostridium tepidiprofundi SG 508T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlein, Anja; Friedrich, Ines; Krüger, Larissa; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The moderately thermophilic bacterium Clostridium tepidiprofundi is Gram-positive and belongs to clostridial cluster I. It was isolated from a hydrothermal vent chimney. Substrates utilized by C. tepidiprofundi include casein, peptone, tryptone, yeast extract, beef extract, starch, maltose, and glucose. The genome consists of one replicon (3.06 Mb). PMID:27174286

  18. First Insights into the Genome of the Moderately Thermophilic Bacterium Clostridium tepidiprofundi SG 508T

    OpenAIRE

    Poehlein, Anja; Friedrich, Ines; Krüger, Larissa; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The moderately thermophilic bacterium Clostridium tepidiprofundi is Gram-positive and belongs to clostridial cluster I. It was isolated from a hydrothermal vent chimney. Substrates utilized by C. tepidiprofundi include casein, peptone, tryptone, yeast extract, beef extract, starch, maltose, and glucose. The genome consists of one replicon (3.06 Mb).

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88, an Entomopathogenic Bacterium Isolated from Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, Shimaa; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Khalil, Kamal M; Tisa, Louis S

    2016-01-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88 is an entomopathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiotic association with Heterorhabditis nematodes. We report here a 5.27-Mbp draft genome sequence for P. luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88, with a G+C content of 42.4% and containing 4,243 candidate protein-coding genes. PMID:26988056

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88, an Entomopathogenic Bacterium Isolated from Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazal, Shimaa; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Khalil, Kamal M.; Tisa, Louis S.

    2016-01-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88 is an entomopathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiotic association with Heterorhabditis nematodes. We report here a 5.27-Mbp draft genome sequence for P. luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88, with a G+C content of 42.4% and containing 4,243 candidate protein-coding genes.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of the Ionic Liquid-Tolerant Bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CMW1

    OpenAIRE

    Kurata, Atsushi; Hirose, Yuu; Misawa, Naomi; Hurunaka, Kohei; Kishimoto, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of an ionic liquid-tolerant bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CMW1, which is newly isolated from a Japanese fermented soybean paste. The genome sequence will allow for a characterization of the molecular mechanism of its ionic liquid tolerance.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of a Bacillus Bacterium from the Atacama Desert Wetlands Metagenome

    OpenAIRE

    Vilo, Claudia; Galetovic, Alexandra; Araya, Jorge E.; Gómez-Silva, Benito; Dong, Qunfeng

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a Bacillus bacterium isolated from the microflora of Nostoc colonies grown at the Andean wetlands in northern Chile. We consider this genome sequence to be a molecular tool for exploring microbial relationships and adaptation strategies to the prevailing extreme conditions at the Atacama Desert.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of a Bacillus Bacterium from the Atacama Desert Wetlands Metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilo, Claudia; Galetovic, Alexandra; Araya, Jorge E; Gómez-Silva, Benito; Dong, Qunfeng

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a Bacillus bacterium isolated from the microflora of Nostoc colonies grown at the Andean wetlands in northern Chile. We consider this genome sequence to be a molecular tool for exploring microbial relationships and adaptation strategies to the prevailing extreme conditions at the Atacama Desert. PMID:26294639

  4. Genome Sequence of Bacillus mycoides B38V, a Growth-Promoting Bacterium of Sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, Adriana; Sant'Anna, Fernando Hayashi; de Souza, Rocheli; Tadra-Sfeir, Michele; Faoro, Helisson; Alvarenga, Samuel M; Pedrosa, Fabio Oliveira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus mycoides B38V is a bacterium isolated from the sunflower rhizosphere that is able to promote plant growth and N uptake. The genome of the isolate has approximately 5.80 Mb and presents sequence codifiers for plant growth-promoting characteristics, such as nitrate reduction and ammonification and iron-siderophore uptake. PMID:25838494

  5. Genome Sequence of Bacillus mycoides B38V, a Growth-Promoting Bacterium of Sunflower

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosini, Adriana; Sant’Anna, Fernando Hayashi; de Souza, Rocheli; Tadra-Sfeir, Michele; Faoro, Helisson; Alvarenga, Samuel M.; Pedrosa, Fabio Oliveira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Passaglia, Luciane M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus mycoides B38V is a bacterium isolated from the sunflower rhizosphere that is able to promote plant growth and N uptake. The genome of the isolate has approximately 5.80 Mb and presents sequence codifiers for plant growth-promoting characteristics, such as nitrate reduction and ammonification and iron-siderophore uptake.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Perfluorooctane Acid-Degrading Bacterium Pseudomonas parafulva YAB-1

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Langbo; Tang, Chongjian; Peng, Qingjing; Peng, Qingzhong; Chai, Liyuan

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas parafulva YAB-1, isolated from perfluorinated compound-contaminated soil, has the ability to degrade perfluorooctane acid (PFOA) compound. Here, we report the draft genome sequence and annotation of the PFOA-degrading bacterium P. parafulva YAB-1. The data provide the basis to investigate the molecular mechanism of PFOA metabolism.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Perfluorooctane Acid-Degrading Bacterium Pseudomonas parafulva YAB-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chongjian; Peng, Qingjing; Peng, Qingzhong

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas parafulva YAB-1, isolated from perfluorinated compound-contaminated soil, has the ability to degrade perfluorooctane acid (PFOA) compound. Here, we report the draft genome sequence and annotation of the PFOA-degrading bacterium P. parafulva YAB-1. The data provide the basis to investigate the molecular mechanism of PFOA metabolism. PMID:26337877

  8. Comment on "A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate)".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Lei

    2016-08-19

    Yoshida et al (Report, 11 March 2016, p. 1196) reported that the bacterium Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6 can degrade and assimilate poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). However, the authors exaggerated degradation efficiency using a low-crystallinity PET and presented no straightforward experiments to verify depolymerization and assimilation of PET. Thus, the authors' conclusions are rather misleading. PMID:27540159

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Burkholderia cenocepacia Strain 869T2, a Plant-Beneficial Endophytic Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ying-Ning; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2015-01-01

    An endophytic bacterium, Burkholderia cenocepacia 869T2, isolated from vetiver grass, has shown its abilities for both in planta biocontrol and plant growth promotion. Its draft genome sequence was determined to provide insights into those metabolic pathways involved in plant-beneficial activity. This is the first genome report for endophytic B. cenocepacia. PMID:26564046

  10. Expression of Heterogenous Arsenic Resistance Genes in the Obligately Autotrophic Biomining Bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Ji-Bin; Yan, Wang-Ming; Bao, Xue-Zhen

    1994-01-01

    Two arsenic-resistant plasmids were constructed and introduced into Thiobacillus ferrooxidans strains by conjugation. The plasmids with the replicon of wide-host-range plasmid RSF1010 were stable in T. ferrooxidans. The arsenic resistance genes originating from the heterotroph were expressed in this obligately autotrophic bacterium, but the promoter derived from T. ferrooxidans showed no special function in its original host.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ, a Halotolerant Di-n-Butyl-Phthalate-Degrading Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Decai; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Xinxin; Kong, Xiao; Liu, Huijun; Wang, Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ is a halotolerant di-n-butyl-phthalate-degrading bacterium, isolated from the Haihe estuary in Bohai Bay, Tianjin, China. Here, we report the 5.1-Mb draft genome sequence of this strain, which will provide insights into the diversity of Sphingobium spp. and the mechanism of phthalate ester degradation in the estuary. PMID:27313307

  12. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Pseudomonas viridiflava, a Bacterium Species Pathogenic to Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Lefort, Francois; Calmin, Gautier; Crovadore, Julien; Osteras, Magne; Farinelli, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    We report here the first whole-genome shotgun sequence of Pseudomonas viridiflava strain UASWS38, a bacterium species pathogenic to the biological model plant Arabidopsis thaliana but also usable as a biological control agent and thus of great scientific interest for understanding the genetics of plant-microbe interactions.

  13. Biohydrogen Production by the Thermophilic Bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus: Current Status and Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielen, A.A.M.; Verhaart, M.R.A.; Oost, van der J.; Kengen, S.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus is one of the most thermophilic cellulolytic organisms known to date. This Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium ferments a broad spectrum of mono-, di- and polysaccharides to mainly acetate, CO2 and hydrogen. With hydrogen yields approaching the theoretical limit fo

  14. Genome sequence of the mycorrhizal helper bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BBc6R8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deveau, Aurelie [French National Insitute for Agricultural Research (INRA); Grob, Harald [University of Bonn, Germany; Morin, Emmanuelle [INRA, Nancy, France; Karpinets, Tatiana V [ORNL; Utturkar, Sagar M [ORNL; Mehnaz, Samina [University of the Punjab, Pakistan; Kurz, Sven [University of Bonn, Germany; Martin, Francis [INRA, Nancy, France; Frey-Klett, Pascale [INRA, Nancy, France; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of the mycorrhiza helper bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain BBc6R8 . Several traits which could be involved in the mycorrhiza helper ability of the bacterial strain such as multiple secretion systems, auxin metabolism and phosphate mobilization were evidenced in the genome.

  15. Complete genome sequence of a novel chlorpyrifos degrading bacterium, Cupriavidus nantongensis X1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lian-Cheng; Chen, Yi-Fei; Zhou, Yan-Long; Wang, Dao-Sheng; Sun, Le-Ni; Tang, Xin-Yun; Hua, Ri-Mao

    2016-06-10

    Cupriavidus nantongensis X1 is a chlorpyrifos degrading bacterium, which was isolated from sludge collected at the drain outlet of a chlorpyrifos manufacture plant. It is the first time to report the complete genome sequence of C. nantongensis species, which has been reported as a novel species of Cupriavidus genus. It could provide further pathway information in chlorpyrifos degradation. PMID:27063140

  16. Toxicity of herbicides used in the sugarcane crop to diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio de Oliveira Procópio; Marcelo Ferreira Fernandes; Daniele Araújo Teles; José Guedes Sena Filho; Alberto Cargnelutti Filho; Marcelo Araújo Resende; Leandro Vargas

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify herbicides used in the sugarcane crop that affects neither the growth, the development, of nor the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by the diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae. Eighteen herbicides (paraquat, ametryne, tebuthiuron, amicarbazone, diuron, metribuzin, [hexazinone + diuron], [hexazinone + clomazone], clomazone, isoxaflutole, sulfentrazone, oxyfluorfen, imazapic, imazapyr, [trifloxysulfuron sodium + ametryne], gly...

  17. An ATP transport system in the intracellular bacterium, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruby, E G; McCabe, J B

    1986-01-01

    The intracellularly growing bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J transports intact ATP by a specific, energy-requiring process. ATP transport does not involve either an ADP-ATP or an AMP-ATP exchange mechanism but, instead, has characteristics of an active transport permease. Kinetically distinct systems for ATP transport are expressed by the two developmental stages of the bdellovibrio life cycle.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA, a Chromium-Resistant Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Nahar, Noor; Olsson, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we reported a chromium-resistant bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA, isolated from the landfills of tannery industries in Bangladesh. Here, we investigated its genetic composition using massively parallel sequencing and comparative analysis with other known Enterobacter genomes. Assembly of the sequencing reads revealed a genome of ~4.21 Mb in size. PMID:27257201

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of the Radioresistant Bacterium Deinococcus grandis, Isolated from Freshwater Fish in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Takefumi; Omoso, Kota; Takeda-Yano, Kiyoko; Katayama, Takeshi; Oono, Yutaka; Narumi, Issay

    2016-01-01

    Deinococcus grandis is a radioresistant bacterium isolated from freshwater fish in Japan. Here we reported the draft genome sequence of D. grandis (4.1 Mb), which will be useful for elucidating the common principles of radioresistance in Deinococcus species through the comparative analysis of genomic sequences. PMID:26868384

  20. Genome Sequence of the Spinosyns-Producing Bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa NRRL 18395 ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuanlong; Yang, Xi; Li, Jing; Zhang, Ruifen; Hu, Yongfei; Zhou, Yuguang; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Baoli

    2011-01-01

    Saccharopolyspora spinosa is a Gram-positive bacterium that produces spinosad, a well-known biodegradable insecticide that is used for agricultural pest control and has an excellent environmental and mammalian toxicological profile. Here, we present the first draft genome sequence of the type strain Saccharopolyspora spinosa NRRL 18395, which consists of 22 scaffolds. PMID:21478350

  1. Genome Sequence of Marichromatium gracile YL-28, a Purple Sulfur Bacterium with Bioremediation Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Zhao, Chungui; Hong, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Marichromatium gracile YL-28 contains 3,840,251 bp, with a G+C content of 68.84%. The annotated genome sequence provides the genetic basis for revealing its role as a purple sulfur bacterium in the harvesting of energy and the development of bioremediation applications. PMID:27151789

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of the Oyster Larval Probiotic Bacterium Vibrio sp. Strain OY15

    OpenAIRE

    Harold J. Schreier; Schott, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Vibrio sp. strain OY15, a Gram-negative marine bacterium isolated from an oyster (Crassostrea virginica) digestive tract and shown to possess probiotic activity. The availability of this genome sequence will facilitate the study of the mechanisms of probiotic activity as well as virulence capacity.

  3. Genome Sequence of the Highly Efficient Arsenite-Oxidizing Bacterium Achromobacter arsenitoxydans SY8

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiangyang; Hu, Yao; Gong, Jing; Lin, Yanbing; Johnstone, Laurel; Rensing, Christopher; Wang, Gejiao

    2012-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Achromobacter arsenitoxydans SY8, the first reported arsenite-oxidizing bacterium belonging to the genus Achromobacter and containing a genomic arsenic island, an intact type III secretion system, and multiple metal(loid) transporters. The genome may be helpful to explore the mechanisms intertwining metal(loid) resistance and pathogenicity.

  4. A commensal symbiotic interrelationship for the growth of Symbiobacterium toebii with its partner bacterium, Geobacillus toebii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masui Ryoji

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symbiobacterium toebii is a commensal symbiotic thermophile that absolutely requires its partner bacterium Geobacillus toebii for growth. Despite development of an independent cultivation method using cell-free extracts, the growth of Symbiobacterium remains unknown due to our poor understanding of the symbiotic relationship with its partner bacterium. Here, we investigated the interrelationship between these two bacteria for growth of S. toebii using different cell-free extracts of G. toebii. Results Symbiobacterium toebii growth-supporting factors were constitutively produced through almost all growth phases and under different oxygen tensions in G. toebii, indicating that the factor may be essential components for growth of G. toebii as well as S. toebii. The growing conditions of G. toebii under different oxygen tension dramatically affected to the initial growth of S. toebii and the retarded lag phase was completely shortened by reducing agent, L-cysteine indicating an evidence of commensal interaction of microaerobic and anaerobic bacterium S. toebii with a facultative aerobic bacterium G. toebii. In addition, the growth curve of S. toebii showed a dependency on the protein concentration of cell-free extracts of G. toebii, demonstrating that the G. toebii-derived factors have nutrient-like characters but not quorum-sensing characters. Conclusions Not only the consistent existence of the factor in G. toebii during all growth stages and under different oxygen tensions but also the concentration dependency of the factor for proliferation and optimal growth of S. toebii, suggests that an important biosynthetic machinery lacks in S. toebii during evolution. The commensal symbiotic bacterium, S. toebii uptakes certain ubiquitous and essential compound for its growth from environment or neighboring bacteria that shares the equivalent compounds. Moreover, G. toebii grown under aerobic condition shortened the lag phase of S

  5. Evaluation of Biosynthetic Pathways of 2Н- and 13С-Labeled Amino Acids by an Obligate Methylotrophic Bacterium Methylobacillus Flagellatum and a Facultative Methylotrophic Bacterium Brevibacterium Methylicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Mosin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available By the method of electron impact mass-spectrometry was studied the pathways of biosynthesis of 2H, 13C-labeled amino acids of a facultative methylotrophic bacterium Brevibacterium methylicum and an obligate methylotrophic bacterium Methylobacillus flagellatum obtained on growth media containing as a source of stable isotopes [2H]methanol, [13C]methanol and 2H2O. For mass-spectrometric analysis the multicomponential mixtures of 2H- and 13C-labeled amino acids, derived from cultural media and protein hydrolysates after hydrolysis in 6 M 2HСl (3 % phenol and 2 M Ва(OH2 were modified into N-benzyloxycarbonyl-derivatives of amino acids as well as into methyl esters of N-5-(dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl chloride (dansyl derivatives of [2H, 13С]amino acids, which were preparative separated using a method of reverse-phase HCLP. Biosynthetically obtained 2H- and 13C-labeled amino acids represented the mixtures differing in quantities of isotopes incorporated into molecule. The levels of 2H and 13С enrichment of secreted amino acids and amino acid resigues of protein were found to vary from 20,0 atom % to L-leucine/isoleucine up to 97,5 atom % for L-alanine depending on concentration of 2H- and 13C-labelled substrates.

  6. Influence of pH and Oxidant Ozone to Amount of Bacterium Coliform at Hospital Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of pH and oxidant ozone to amount of bacterium coliform at hospital waste have been done. As sample is liquid waste Public Hospital of town (RSUD) Yogyakarta. Sample waste processed by 3 kinds of treatment, that is first certain ozone waste during, that is waste given by the third and just chalk of waste given by the certain and ozonization chalk during. From third the treatment, in the reality third treatment which can give the maximal result, that is waste given the chalk until pH waste 8.5 and ozonization during 40 minute give the following result : bacterium coliform from 810.000 MPN become 0 MPN ( cell / 100 mL). This result have fulfilled the conditions as according to decision of Governor of DIY no. 65 year 1999 for the waste of faction II, that is waste used for the irrigation of fishery and agriculture. (author)

  7. Crystal structure of ribosomal protein L1 from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonova, E. Yu.; Tishchenko, S. V.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Shklyaeva, A. A.; Garber, M. B.; Nikonov, S. V.; Nevskaya, N. A.

    2011-07-01

    The crystal structure of ribosomal protein L1 from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus was solved by the molecular-replacement method and refined to R cryst = 19.4% and R free = 25.1% at 2.1 Å protein consists of two domains linked together by a flexible hinge region. In the structure under consideration, the domains are in close proximity and adopt a closed conformation. Earlier, this conformation has been found in the structure of protein L1 from the bacterium Thermus thermophilus, whereas the structures of archaeal L1 proteins and the structures of all L1 proteins in the RNA-bound form have an open conformation. The fact that a closed conformation was found in the structures of two L1 proteins which crystallize in different space groups and belong to different bacteria suggests that this conformation is a characteristic feature of L1 bacterial proteins in the free form.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a new arsenic methylating bacterium from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honschopp, S. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Abt. Mikrobiologie; Brunken, N. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie; Nehrkorn, A. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Abt. Mikrobiologie; Breunig, H.J. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie

    1996-12-31

    An arsenic resistant and arsenic methylating bacterium belonging to the Flavobacterium-Cytophaga group was isolated from soil with an arsenic content of 1.5 ppm. The growth of the bacterium is enhanced in the presence of As compounds in concentrations up to 200 ppm in the cultural media with a stronger effect of As(V) than of As(III) compounds. As a volatile product of the methylation of both NaH{sub 2}AsO{sub 3} and NaH{sub 2}AsO{sub 4} exclusively, Me{sub 3}As was formed and detected by mass spectrometry. Quantitative aspects of the methylation were studied with GC/MS. The intracellular accumulation of arsenic in the methylating strain was compared with two non methylating strains from the same soil. (orig.)

  9. Effect of Sulfate Reduced Bacterium on Corrosion Behavior of 10CrMoAl Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua; LIANG Cheng-hao

    2007-01-01

    The effects of sulfate reduced bacterium (SRB) on the corrosion behavior of 10CrMoAl steel in seawater were studied by chemical immersion, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement, and scanning electron microscope techniques. The results show that the content of element sulfur in the corrosion product of 10CrMoAl steel in seawater with SRB is up to 9.23%, which is higher than that of the same in sterile seawater. X-ray diffraction demonstrates that the main corrosion product is FeS. SRB increases the corrosion rate by anodic depolarization of the metabolized sulfide product. SEM observation indicates that the corrosion product is not distributed continuously; in addition, bacilliform sulfate-reduced bacterium accumulates on the local surface of 10CrMoAl steel. Hence, SRB enhances sensitivity to the localized corrosion of 10CrMoAl steel in seawater.

  10. Isolation and biological characteristics of aerobic marine magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jun; PAN Hongmiao; YUE Haidong; SONG Tao; ZHAO Yong; CHEN Guanjun; Wu Longfei; XIAO Tian

    2006-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria have become a hot spot of research in microbiology attracting intensive interest of researchers in multiple disciplinary fields. However, the studies were limited in few fastidious bacteria. The objective of this study aims at isolating new marine magnetic bacteria and better comprehension of magnetotactic bacteria. In this study, an aerobic magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1 was isolated from sediments in the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). In TEM, magnetic cells have one or several circular magnetosomes in dimeter of 100nm, and consist of Fe and Co shown on energy dispersive X-ray spectrum. The biological and physiological characteristics of this bacterium were also described. The colour of YSC-1 colony is white in small rod. The gran stain is negative. Results showed that Strain YSC-1 differs from microaerophile magnetotactic bacteria MS-1 and WD-1 in biology.

  11. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of NiZn alloy coatings by Delftia acidovorans bacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Delftia acidovorans isolated from water treatment pipe system. ► Bacterium attached to the alloy coatings. ► Ecorr exhibited cathodic shift. ► Mass loss reached highest value after inoculation. ► Crevice corrosion was observed on the surface due to bacterium. - Abstract: In this study, Delftia acidovorans was isolated from water treatment pipe system and used to demonstrate microbiologically influenced corrosion of NiZn alloy coatings using electrochemical techniques. The surface morphologies and the corrosion products were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS) analysis. Results showed that when the metabolic activity reached maximum level, corrosion activity of NiZn alloy coatings significantly increased in correlation with Ecorr, Icorr, QCM and Rct. Furthermore, crevice corrosion which has been seen due to bacterial adhesion confirms that D. acidovorans plays an important role in corrosion of NiZn alloy coating.

  12. N-Acyl Dehydrotyrosines, Tyrosinase Inhibitors from the Marine Bacterium Thalassotalea sp. PP2-459.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Robert W; Chen, Jianwei; Sun, Jiadong; Ma, Hang; Dubert, Javier; Barja, Juan L; Seeram, Navindra P; Wang, Hong; Rowley, David C

    2016-02-26

    Thalassotalic acids A-C and thalassotalamides A and B are new N-acyl dehydrotyrosine derivatives produced by Thalassotalea sp. PP2-459, a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from a marine bivalve aquaculture facility. The structures were elucidated via a combination of spectroscopic analyses emphasizing two-dimensional NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometric data. Thalassotalic acid A (1) displays in vitro inhibition of the enzyme tyrosinase with an IC50 value (130 μM) that compares favorably to the commercially used control compounds kojic acid (46 μM) and arbutin (100 μM). These are the first natural products reported from a bacterium belonging to the genus Thalassotalea. PMID:26824128

  13. Economic Game Theory to Model the Attenuation of Virulence of an Obligate Intracellular Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tago, Damian; Meyer, Damien F

    2016-01-01

    Diseases induced by obligate intracellular pathogens have a large burden on global human and animal health. Understanding the factors involved in the virulence and fitness of these pathogens contributes to the development of control strategies against these diseases. Based on biological observations, a theoretical model using game theory is proposed to explain how obligate intracellular bacteria interact with their host. The equilibrium in such a game shows that the virulence and fitness of the bacterium is host-triggered and by changing the host's defense system to which the bacterium is confronted, an evolutionary process leads to an attenuated strain. Although, the attenuation procedure has already been conducted in practice in order to develop an attenuated vaccine (e.g., with Ehrlichia ruminantium), there was a lack of understanding of the theoretical basis behind this process. Our work provides a model to better comprehend the existence of different phenotypes and some underlying evolutionary mechanisms for the virulence of obligate intracellular bacteria. PMID:27610355

  14. The bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila inhibits phospholipases A2 from insect, prokaryote, and vertebrate sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngjin; Kim, Yonggyun; Stanley, David

    The bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, is a virulent insect pathogen. Part of its pathogenicity is due to impairing cellular immunity by blocking biosynthesis of eicosanoids, the major recognized signal transduction system in insect cellular immunity. X. nematophila inhibits the first step in eicosanoid biosynthesis, phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Here we report that the bacterium inhibits PLA2 from two insect immune tissues, hemocytes and fat body, as well as PLA2s selected to represent a wide range of organisms, including prokaryotes, insects, reptiles, and mammals. Our finding on a bacterial inhibitor of PLA2 activity contributes new insight into the chemical ecology of microbe-host interactions, which usually involve actions rather than inhibitors of PLA2s.

  15. A Streamlined Strategy for Biohydrogen Production with Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, an Alkaliphilic Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew eBegemann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are anticipated to enable a shift from fossil fuels for renewable transportation and manufacturing fuels, with biohydrogen considered attractive since it could offer the largest reduction of global carbon budgets. Currently, lignocellulosic biohydrogen production remains inefficient with pretreatments that are heavily fossil fuel-dependent. However, bacteria using alkali-treated biomass could streamline biofuel production while reducing costs and fossil fuel needs. An alkaliphilic bacterium, Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, is described that is capable of biohydrogen production at levels rivaling neutrophilic strains, but at pH 11 and hypersaline conditions. H. hydrogeniformans ferments a variety of 5- and 6- carbon sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose including cellobiose, and forms the end products hydrogen, acetate and formate. Further, it can also produce biohydrogen from switchgrass and straw pretreated at temperatures far lower than any previously reported and in solutions compatible with growth. Hence, this bacterium can potentially increase the efficiency and efficacy of biohydrogen production from renewable biomass resources.

  16. Chlorhexidine resistance in a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from an aquatic source

    OpenAIRE

    Sekavec, Jeffrey G.; Moore, William T.; Gillock, Eric T.

    2013-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacterium of considerable importance in both clinical, especially nosocomial infections, and zoonotic respects, both aquatic and terrestrial infections. In addition to the ability to thrive in a wide range of conditions, A. hydrophila is resistant to numerous antibiotics and antimicrobials. In conjunction with Kansas State University and the Kansas Water Office, water samples from various locations within Kansas were screened for organisms resistant to ...

  17. Sensitivity of ribosomes of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus to aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Bocchetta, M; Huber, R.; Cammarano, P

    1996-01-01

    A poly(U)-programmed cell-free system from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus has been developed, and the susceptibility of Aquifex ribosomes to the miscoding-inducing and inhibitory actions of all known classes of aminoglycoside antibiotics has been assayed at temperatures (75 to 80 degrees C) close to the physiological optimum for cell growth. Unlike Thermotoga maritima ribosomes, which are systematically refractory to all known classes of aminoglycoside compounds (P. Londei...

  18. Calcium-ion mediated assembly and function of glycosylated flagellar sheath of marine magnetotactic bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Lefèvre, Christopher T; Santini, Claire-Lise; Bernadac, Alain; Zhang, Wei-Jia; Ying LI; Wu, Long-Fei

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Flagella of some pathogens or marine microbes are sheathed by an apparent extension of the outer cell membrane. Although flagellar sheath has been reported for almost 60 years, little is known about its function and the mechanism of its assembly. Recently, we have observed a novel type of sheath that encloses a flagellar bundle, instead of a single flagellum, in a marine magnetotactic bacterium MO-1. Here, we reported isolation and characterization of the sheath which can ...

  19. Campylobacter pylori, the spiral bacterium associated with human gastritis, is not a true Campylobacter sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Romaniuk, P J; Zoltowska, B; Trust, T J; Lane, D J; Olsen, G.J.; Pace, N R; Stahl, D A

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of partial 16S rRNA sequences from representative Campylobacter species indicates that the Campylobacter species form a previously undescribed basic eubacterial group, which is related to the other major groups only by very deep branching. This analysis was extended to include the spiral bacterium associated with human gastritis, Campylobacter pylori (formerly Campylobacter pyloridis). The distance between C. pylori and the other Campylobacter species is sufficient to exclude the p...

  20. The Complete Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Pseudomonas sp. UW4

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Jin; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Zhenyu; Heikkila, John J.; Bernard R. Glick

    2013-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) Pseudomonas sp. UW4, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of common reeds growing on the campus of the University of Waterloo, promotes plant growth in the presence of different environmental stresses, such as flooding, high concentrations of salt, cold, heavy metals, drought and phytopathogens. In this work, the genome sequence of UW4 was obtained by pyrosequencing and the gaps between the contigs were closed by directed PCR. The P. sp. UW4 gen...

  1. Physiological Adaptation of the Bacterium Lactococcus lactis in Response to the Production of Human CFTR*

    OpenAIRE

    A. Steen; Wiederhold, E.; T Gandhi; Breitling, R.; D. J. Slotboom

    2010-01-01

    Biochemical and biophysical characterization of CFTR (the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) is thwarted by difficulties to obtain sufficient quantities of correctly folded and functional protein. Here we have produced human CFTR in the prokaryotic expression host Lactococcus lactis. The full-length protein was detected in the membrane of the bacterium, but the yields were too low (< 0.1% of membrane proteins) for in vitro functional and structural characterization, and indu...

  2. Bioinformatic Prediction of Gene Functions Regulated by Quorum Sensing in the Bioleaching Bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Banderas; Nicolas Guiliani

    2013-01-01

    The biomining bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans oxidizes sulfide ores and promotes metal solubilization. The efficiency of this process depends on the attachment of cells to surfaces, a process regulated by quorum sensing (QS) cell-to-cell signalling in many Gram-negative bacteria. At. ferrooxidans has a functional QS system and the presence of AHLs enhances its attachment to pyrite. However, direct targets of the QS transcription factor AfeR remain unknown. In this study, a bioinforma...

  3. Functional Genomic Analysis of Three Nitrogenase Isozymes in the Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris‡

    OpenAIRE

    Oda, Yasuhiro; Samanta, Sudip K.; Rey, Federico E.; Wu, Liyou; Liu, Xiudan; Yan, Tingfen; Zhou, Jizhong; Harwood, Caroline S.

    2005-01-01

    The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris is one of just a few prokaryotes described so far that has vnf and anf genes for alternative vanadium cofactor (V) and iron cofactor (Fe) nitrogenases in addition to nif genes for a molybdenum cofactor (Mo) nitrogenase. Transcriptome data indicated that the 32 genes in the nif gene cluster, but not the anf or vnf genes, were induced in wild-type and Mo nitrogenase-expressing strains grown under nitrogen-fixing conditions in Mo-containing...

  4. Identifying the assembly pathway of cyanophage inside the marine bacterium using electron cryo-tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in electron cryo-tomography open up a new avenue to visualize the 3-D internal structure of a single bacterium before and after its infection by bacteriophages in its native environment, without using chemical fixatives, fluorescent dyes or negative stains. Such direct observation reveals the presence of assembly intermediates of the bacteriophage and thus allows us to map out the maturation pathway of the bacteriophage inside its host.

  5. Two New Cholic Acid Derivatives from the Marine Ascidian-Associated Bacterium Hasllibacter halocynthiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hun Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of secondary metabolites in liquid cultures of a recently discovered marine bacterium, Hasllibacter halocynthiae strain KME 002T, led to the isolation of two new cholic acid derivatives. The structures of these compounds were determined to be 3,3,12-trihydroxy-7-ketocholanic acid (1 and 3,3,12-trihydroxy-7-deoxycholanic acid (2 through HRFABMS and NMR data analyses.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Uncultured SAR324 Bacterium lautmerah10, Binned from a Red Sea Metagenome

    KAUST Repository

    Haroon, Mohamed F.

    2016-02-11

    A draft genome of SAR324 bacterium lautmerah10 was assembled from a metagenome of a surface water sample from the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. The genome is more complete and has a higher G+C content than that of previously sequenced SAR324 representatives. Its genomic information shows a versatile metabolism that confers an advantage to SAR324, which is reflected in its distribution throughout different depths of the marine water column.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of the Antitrypanosomally Active Sponge-Associated Bacterium Actinokineospora sp. Strain EG49

    KAUST Repository

    Harjes, Janno

    2014-03-06

    The marine sponge-associated bacterium Actinokineospora sp. strain EG49 produces the antitrypanosomal angucycline-like compound actinosporin A. The draft genome of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 has a size of 7.5 megabases and a GC content of 72.8% and contains 6,629 protein-coding sequences (CDS). antiSMASH predicted 996 genes residing in 36 secondary metabolite gene clusters.

  8. Encapsulated in silica: genome, proteome and physiology of the thermophilic bacterium Anoxybacillus flavithermus WK1

    OpenAIRE

    Saw, Jimmy H; Mountain, Bruce W; Feng, Lu; Omelchenko, Marina V; Hou, Shaobin; Saito, Jennifer A.; Stott, Matthew B.; Li, Dan; Zhao, Guang; Wu, Junli; Galperin, Michael Y.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Makarova, Kira S.; Wolf, Yuri I; Rigden, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Anoxybacillus have been found in diverse thermophilic habitats, such as geothermal hot springs and manure, and in processed foods such as gelatin and milk powder. Anoxybacillus flavithermus is a facultatively anaerobic bacterium found in super-saturated silica solutions and in opaline silica sinter. The ability of A. flavithermus to grow in super-saturated silica solutions makes it an ideal subject to study the processes of sinter formation, whic...

  9. The Genome Sequence of the Obligately Chemolithoautotrophic, Facultatively Anaerobic Bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans

    OpenAIRE

    Beller, Harry R.; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Letain, Tracy E.; Chakicherla, Anu; Larimer, Frank W.; Richardson, Paul M.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Wood, Ann P.; Kelly, Donovan P.

    2006-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Thiobacillus denitrificans ATCC 25259 is the first to become available for an obligately chemolithoautotrophic, sulfur-compound-oxidizing, β-proteobacterium. Analysis of the 2,909,809-bp genome will facilitate our molecular and biochemical understanding of the unusual metabolic repertoire of this bacterium, including its ability to couple denitrification to sulfur-compound oxidation, to catalyze anaerobic, nitrate-dependent oxidation of Fe(II) and U(IV), and to...

  10. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, a bacterium pathogenic for marine animals and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Amable J. Rivas; Lemos, Manuel L.; Osorio, Carlos R.

    2013-01-01

    Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (formerly Vibrio damsela) is a pathogen of a variety of marine animals including fish, crustaceans, molluscs, and cetaceans. In humans, it can cause opportunistic infections that may evolve into necrotizing fasciitis with fatal outcome. Although the genetic basis of virulence in this bacterium is not completely elucidated, recent findings demonstrate that the phospholipase-D Dly (damselysin) and the pore-forming toxins HlyApl and HlyAch play a main role...

  11. A Highly Stable d-Amino Acid Oxidase of the Thermophilic Bacterium Rubrobacter xylanophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Shouji; Furukawara, Makoto; Omae, Keishi; Tadokoro, Namiho; Saito, Yayoi; Abe, Katsumasa; Kera, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    d-Amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a biotechnologically attractive enzyme that can be used in a variety of applications, but its utility is limited by its relatively poor stability. A search of a bacterial genome database revealed a gene encoding a protein homologous to DAO in the thermophilic bacterium Rubrobacter xylanophilus (RxDAO). The recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli was a monomeric protein containing noncovalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor. This protei...

  12. Sexual transmission of a plant pathogenic bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, between conspecific insect vectors during mating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder S Mann

    Full Text Available Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus is a fastidious, phloem-inhabiting, gram-negative bacterium transmitted by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae. The bacterium is the presumed causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB, one of the most destructive and economically important diseases of citrus. We investigated whether Las is transmitted between infected and uninfected D. citri adults during courtship. Our results indicate that Las was sexually transmitted from Las-infected male D. citri to uninfected females at a low rate (<4% during mating. Sexual transmission was not observed following mating of infected females and uninfected males or among adult pairs of the same sex. Las was detected in genitalia of both sexes and also in eggs of infected females. A latent period of 7 days or more was required to detect the bacterium in recipient females. Rod shaped as well as spherical structures resembling Las were observed in ovaries of Las-infected females with transmission electron microscopy, but were absent in ovaries from uninfected D. citri females. The size of the rod shaped structures varied from 0.39 to 0.67 µm in length and 0.19 to 0.39 µm in width. The spherical structures measured from 0.61 to 0.80 µm in diameter. This investigation provides convincing evidence that a plant pathogenic bacterium is sexually transmitted from male to female insects during courtship and established evidence that bacteria persist in reproductive organs. Moreover, these findings provide an alternative sexually horizontal mechanism for the spread of Las within populations of D. citri, even in the absence of infected host trees.

  13. Expression of Heterogenous Arsenic Resistance Genes in the Obligately Autotrophic Biomining Bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J B; Yan, W M; Bao, X Z

    1994-07-01

    Two arsenic-resistant plasmids were constructed and introduced into Thiobacillus ferrooxidans strains by conjugation. The plasmids with the replicon of wide-host-range plasmid RSF1010 were stable in T. ferrooxidans. The arsenic resistance genes originating from the heterotroph were expressed in this obligately autotrophic bacterium, but the promoter derived from T. ferrooxidans showed no special function in its original host. PMID:16349341

  14. Physiological features of Halomonas lionensis sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from a Mediterranean Sea sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Gaboyer, Frederic; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, Odile; Cao, Junwei; Ciobanu, Maria-Cristina; Jebbar, Mohamed; Le Romancer, Marc; Alain, Karine

    2014-01-01

    A novel halophilic bacterium, strain RHS90T, was isolated from marine sediments from the Gulf of Lions, in the Mediterranean Sea. Its metabolic and physiological characteristics were examined under various cultural conditions, including exposure to stressful ones (oligotrophy, high pressure and high concentrations of metals). Based on phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, the strain was found to belong to the genus Halomonas in the class Gammaproteobacteria. Its closest relatives are H....

  15. The Potential Biotechnological Applications of the Exopolysaccharide Produced by the Halophilic Bacterium Halomonas almeriensis

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Béjar; Emilia Quesada; Juan Antonio Mata; Inmaculada Llamas; Hakima Amjres

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) produced by the type strain, M8T, of the halophilic bacterium Halomonas almeriensis, to ascertain whether it might have any biotechnological applications. All the cultural parameters tested influenced both bacterial growth and polysaccharide production. EPS production was mainly growth-associated and under optimum environmental and nutritional conditions M8T excreted about...

  16. Biohydrogen Production by the Thermophilic Bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus: Current Status and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kengen, Servé W. M.; Verhaart, Marcel R. A.; John van der Oost; Abraham A. M. Bielen

    2013-01-01

    Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus is one of the most thermophilic cellulolytic organisms known to date. This Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium ferments a broad spectrum of mono-, di- and polysaccharides to mainly acetate, CO2 and hydrogen. With hydrogen yields approaching the theoretical limit for dark fermentation of 4 mol hydrogen per mol hexose, this organism has proven itself to be an excellent candidate for biological hydrogen production. This review provides an overview of the resear...

  17. Copper-induced production of copper-binding supernatant proteins by the marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus.

    OpenAIRE

    Harwood-Sears, V; Gordon, A S

    1990-01-01

    Growth of the marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus is temporarily inhibited by micromolar levels of copper. During the copper-induced lag phase, supernatant compounds which complex and detoxify copper are produced. In this study two copper-inducible supernatant proteins having molecular masses of ca. 21 and 19 kilodaltons (CuBP1 and CuBP2) were identified; these proteins were, respectively, 25 and 46 times amplified in supernatants of copper-challenged cultures compared with controls. Experi...

  18. Dynamic detection of a single bacterium: nonlinear rotation rate shifts of driven magnetic microsphere stages

    OpenAIRE

    McNaughton, Brandon H.; Agayan, Rodney R.; Kopelman, Raoul

    2006-01-01

    We report on a new technique which was used to detect single Escherichia coli that is based on the changes in the nonlinear rotation of a magnetic microsphere driven by an external magnetic field. The presence of one Escherichia Coli bacterium on the surface of a 2.0 micron magnetic microsphere caused an easily measurable change in the drag of the system and, therefore, in the nonlinear rotation rate. The straight-forward measurement uses standard microscopy techniques and the observed averag...

  19. Five new amicoumacins isolated from a marine-derived Bacterium bacillus subtilis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yongxin

    2012-02-03

    Four novel amicoumacins, namely lipoamicoumacins A-D (1-4), and one new bacilosarcin analog (5) were isolated from culture broth of a marine-derived bacterium Bacillus subtilis, together with six known amicoumacins. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (2D NNR, IR, CD and MS) analysis and in comparison with data in literature. 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  20. Novel Poly[(R)-3-Hydroxybutyratel-producing bacterium isolated from a bolivian hypersaline lake

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Contreras, Alejandra María; Koller, Martin; de Sousa Dias, Miranda; Calafell Monfort, Margarita; Braunegg, Gerhart; Marqués Calvo, M. Soledad

    2013-01-01

    Poly [ ( R )-3-hydroxybutyrate ] (PHB) constitutes a biopolymer synthesized from renew- able resources by various microorganisms. This work focuses on finding a new PHB-produc- ing bacterium capable of growing in conventional media used for industrial biopolymer production, its taxonomical identification, and characterization of its biopolymer. Thus, a bacterial isolation process was carried out from environmental samples of water and mud. Among the isolates, ...

  1. Purification and Characterization of a Feruloyl Esterase from the Intestinal Bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaokun; Geng, Xin; Egashira, Yukari; Sanada, Hiroo

    2004-01-01

    Dietary ferulic acid (FA), a significant antioxidant substance, is currently the subject of extensive research. FA in cereals exists mainly as feruloylated sugar ester. To release FA from food matrices, it is necessary to cleave ester cross-linking by feruloyl esterase (FAE) (hydroxycinnamoyl esterase; EC 3.1.1.73). In the present study, the FAE from a human typical intestinal bacterium, Lactobacillus acidophilus, was isolated, purified, and characterized for the first time. The enzyme was pu...

  2. Cadmium resistance and uptake by bacterium, Salmonella enterica 43C, isolated from industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zaman; Rehman, Abdul; Hussain, Syed Z; Nisar, Muhammad A; Zulfiqar, Soumble; Shakoori, Abdul R

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium resistant bacterium, isolated from industrial wastewater, was characterized as Salmonella enterica 43C on the basis of biochemical and 16S rRNA ribotyping. It is first ever reported S. enterica 43C bared extreme resistance against heavy metal consortia in order of Pb(2+)>Cd(2+)>As(3+)>Zn(2+)>Cr(6+)>Cu(2+)>Hg(2+). Cd(2+) stress altered growth pattern of the bacterium in time dependent manner. It could remove nearly 57 % Cd(2+) from the medium over a period of 8 days. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies based on various adsorption isotherm models (Langmuir and Freundlich) depicted the Cd(2+) biosorption as spontaneous, feasible and endothermic in nature. Interestingly, the bacterium followed pseudo first order kinetics, making it a good biosorbent for heavy metal ions. The S. enterica 43C Cd(2+) processivity was significantly influenced by temperature, pH, initial Cd(2+) concentration, biomass dosage and co-metal ions. FTIR analysis of the bacterium revealed the active participation of amide and carbonyl moieties in Cd(2+) adsorption confirmed by EDX analysis. Electron micrographs beckoned further surface adsorption and increased bacterial size due to intracellular Cd(2+) accumulation. An overwhelming increase in glutathione and other non-protein thiols levels played a significant role in thriving oxidative stress generated by metal cations. Presence of metallothionein clearly depicted the role of such proteins in bacterial metal resistance mechanism. The present study results clearly declare S. enterica 43C a suitable candidate for green chemistry to bioremediate environmental Cd(2+). PMID:27491862

  3. Studies of the Extracellular Glycocalyx of the Anaerobic Cellulolytic Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7▿

    OpenAIRE

    Weimer, Paul J.; Price, Neil P. J.; Kroukamp, Otini; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Wolfaardt, Gideon M.; Van Zyl, Willem H

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria are thought to adhere to cellulose via several mechanisms, including production of a glycocalyx containing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). As the compositions and structures of these glycocalyces have not been elucidated, variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM) and chemical analysis were used to characterize the glycocalyx of the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus strain 7. VP-SEM revealed that growth of this strain was accompanied b...

  4. Purification and Characterization of EDTA Monooxygenase from the EDTA-Degrading Bacterium BNC1

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Jason W.; Bolton, Harvey; Campbell, James A.; XUN, Luying

    1998-01-01

    The synthetic chelating agent EDTA can mobilize radionuclides and heavy metals in the environment. Biodegradation of EDTA should reduce this mobilization. Although several bacteria have been reported to mineralize EDTA, little is known about the biochemistry of EDTA degradation. Understanding the biochemistry will facilitate the removal of EDTA from the environment. EDTA-degrading activities were detected in cell extracts of bacterium BNC1 when flavin mononucleotide (FMN), NADH, and O2 were p...

  5. Regulation of dissimilatory sulfur oxidation in the purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum

    OpenAIRE

    Frauke eGrimm; Bettina eFranz; Christiane eDahl

    2011-01-01

    In the purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum, thiosulfate oxidation is strictly dependent on the presence of three periplasmic Sox proteins encoded by the soxBXAK and soxYZ genes. It is also well documented that proteins encoded in the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsr) operon, dsrABEFHCMKLJOPNRS, are essential for the oxidation of sulfur that is stored intracellularly as an obligatory intermediate during the oxidation of thiosulfate and sulfide. Until recently, detailed knowledge...

  6. Comprehensive insights into the response of Alexandrium tamarense to algicidal component secreted by a marine bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Xueqian; Li, Dong; Li, Yi; Chen, Zhangran; Chen, Yao; Cai, Guanjing; Yang, Xujun; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms occur throughout the world, threatening human health, and destroying marine ecosystems. Alexandrium tamarense is a globally distributed and notoriously toxic dinoflagellate that is responsible for most paralytic shellfish poisoning incidents. The culture supernatant of the marine algicidal bacterium BS02 showed potent algicidal effects on A. tamarense ATGD98-006. In this study, we investigated the effects of this supernatant on A. tamarense at physiological and biochemica...

  7. Isolation and characterization of an anaerobic ruminal bacterium capable of degrading hydrolyzable tannins.

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, K E; A. N. Pell; Schofield, P; Zinder, S

    1995-01-01

    An anaerobic diplococcoid bacterium able to degrade hydrolyzable tannins was isolated from the ruminal fluid of a goat fed desmodium (Desmodium ovalifolium), a tropical legume which contains levels as high as 17% condensed tannins. This strain grew under anaerobic conditions in the presence of up to 30 g of tannic acid per liter and tolerated a range of phenolic monomers, including gallic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids. The predominant fermentation product from tannic acid breakdown was pyrog...

  8. Metabolism of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol in a Gram-positive bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. PMA

    OpenAIRE

    Arora Pankaj; Sharma Ashutosh; Mehta Richa; Shenoy Belle; Srivastava Alok; Singh Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chloronitrophenols (CNPs) are widely used in the synthesis of dyes, drugs and pesticides, and constitute a major group of environmental pollutants. 4-Chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP) is an isomer of CNPs that has been detected in various industrial effluents. A number of physicochemical methods have been used for treatment of wastewater containing 4C2NP. These methods are not as effective as microbial degradation, however. Results A 4C2NP-degrading bacterium, Exiguobacterium s...

  9. Coregulation of beta-galactoside uptake and hydrolysis by the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana

    OpenAIRE

    Galperin, MY; Noll, KM; Romano, AH

    1997-01-01

    Regulation of the beta-galactoside transport system in response to growth substrates in the extremely thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana was studied with the nonmetabolizable analog methyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (TMG) as the transport substrate. T. neapolitana cells grown on galactose or lactose accumulated TMG against a concentration gradient in an intracellular free sugar pool that was exchangeable with external galactose or lactose and showed induced levels of be...

  10. Desulfotomaculum thermobenzoicum subsp. thermosyntrophicum subsp. nov., a thermophilic, syntrophic, propionate-oxidizing, spore-forming bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Plugge, C. M.; Balk, M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    From granular sludge from a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor operated at 55 degrees C with a mixture of volatile fatty acids as feed, a novel anaerobic, moderately thermophilic, syntrophic, spore-forming bacterium, strain TPO, was enriched on propionate in co-culture with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Z245. The axenic culture was obtained by using pyruvate as the sole source of carbon and energy. The cells were straight rods with pointed ends and became lens-shaped ...

  11. Direct bioconversion of brown algae into ethanol by thermophilic bacterium Defluviitalea phaphyphila

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Shi-Qi; Wang, Bing; Lu, Ming; Li, Fu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background Brown algae are promising feedstocks for biofuel production with inherent advantages of no structural lignin, high growth rate, and no competition for land and fresh water. However, it is difficult for one microorganism to convert all components of brown algae with different oxidoreduction potentials to ethanol. Defluviitalea phaphyphila Alg1 is the first characterized thermophilic bacterium capable of direct utilization of brown algae. Results Defluviitalea phaphyphila Alg1 can si...

  12. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of intact cells of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnev, A. A.; Ristić, M.; Antonyuk, L. P.; Chernyshev, A. V.; Ignatov, V. V.

    1997-06-01

    The data of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic measurements performed on intact cells of the soil nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense grown in a standard medium and under the conditions of an increased metal uptake are compared and discussed. The structural FTIR information obtained is considered together with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) data on the content of metal cations in the bacterial cells. Some methodological aspects concerning preparation of bacterial cell samples for FTIR measurements are also discussed.

  13. Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Strain KB1, a Potential Biocontrol Agent against Phytopathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Jo, Sung Hee; Hong, Chi Eun; Park, Jeong Mee

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely known microbial pesticide used in agricultural applications. Herein, we report a draft genome sequence of the endophytic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis strain KB1, which exhibits antagonism against phytopathogens.

  14. Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Strain KB1, a Potential Biocontrol Agent against Phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Jo, Sung Hee; Hong, Chi Eun; Park, Jeong Mee

    2016-01-01

    ITALIC! Bacillus thuringiensisis the most widely known microbial pesticide used in agricultural applications. Herein, we report a draft genome sequence of the endophytic bacterium ITALIC! Bacillus thuringiensisstrain KB1, which exhibits antagonism against phytopathogens. PMID:27103716

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa EBL06, a Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Isolated from Wheat Phyllosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Shengxian; Jin, Decai; Wang, Xinxin; Fan, Haiyan; Bai, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Paenibacillus polymyxa strain EBL06 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium with high antifungal activity. The estimated genome of this strain is 5.68 Mb in size and harbors 4,792 coding sequences (CDSs).

  16. Phosphate enhances levan production in the endophytic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idogawa, Nao; Amamoto, Ryuta; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a gram-negative and endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that has several beneficial effects in host plants; thus, utilization of this bacterium as a biofertilizer in agriculture may be possible. G. diazotrophicus synthesizes levan, a D-fructofuranosyl polymer with β-(2→6) linkages, as an exopolysaccharide and the synthesized levan improves the stress tolerance of the bacterium. In this study, we found that phosphate enhances levan production by G. diazotrophicus Pal5, a wild type strain that showed a stronger mucous phenotype on solid medium containing 28 mM phosphate than on solid medium containing 7 mM phosphate. A G. diazotrophicus Pal5 levansucrase disruptant showed only a weak mucous phenotype regardless of the phosphate concentration, indicating that the mucous phenotype observed on 28 mM phosphate medium was caused by levan. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the effect of a high concentration of phosphate on exopolysaccharide production. PMID:24717418

  17. Studies on culture condition of new marine bacterium Zooshikella sp. SY01

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjian LAN; Linfeng MO; Chuanghua CAI; Yipin ZHOU; Junhua YAO; Houjin LI

    2008-01-01

    New marine bacterium Zooshikella sp. SY01, producer of prodigiosin, was isolated from the seawaters of Sanya Bay. The culture conditions of this bacterium were investigated. Zooshikella sp. SY01 was cultured in 2216E media which contained tryptophan, histidine, lac-tonic acid, camphor, limonene, casein, diphenyl guani-dine, coumarin and 1,3-dinitrobenzene, respectively. After 5 days cultivation, the extracts of different culture broths were detected by direct infusion mass spectroscopy using positive ESI mode. As the results, tryptophan, his-tidine and casein didn't show any observable influences on the biosynthesis of prodigiosin. Lactonic acid, camphor, limonene, diphenyl guanidine, coumarin could inhibit the bacterium growth and prodigiosin biosynthesis to a cer-tain extent, slower the culture broth to turn red. However, 1, 3-dinitrobenzene inhibited the bacteria to produce pro-digiosin completely. MS data suggested that various metabolites with chemodiversity were produced in differ-ent culture media. In particular, a series of high-molecu-lar-weight compounds with high relative abundances were observed in the medium containing limonene. To further optimize the culture condition, more new prodigiosin ana-logues and lead compounds can be obtained and the goal of "one strain-many compounds" can be achieved.

  18. Programmed cell death in Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyta) tissues infected with alginic acid decomposing bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gaoge; LIN Wei; ZHANG Lijing; YAN Xiaojun; DUAN Delin

    2004-01-01

    TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) is a sensitive and valid method for detecting DNA cleavage in programmed cell death (PCD). Using this method, DNA cleavage was observed in Laminaria japonica sporophytic tissues, which were infected with alginic acid decomposing bacterium. It was found that DNA cleavage occurred 5 min after the infection, the fragments with 3′-OH groups of cleaved nuclear DNA increased with time of infection and spread from the infection site. Although no typical DNA ladder (200 bp/180 bp) was detected by routine agarose gel electrophoresis, the cleavage of nuclear DNA fragments of 97~48.5 kb could be detected by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By using CaspGLOWTM fluorescein active caspase-3 staining method, caspase-3 activity has been detected in response to the infection of alginic acid decomposing bacterium. Our results are similar to the observations in hypersensitive response (HR) of higher plant, suggesting that the rapid cell death of L. Japonica infected by alginic acid decomposing bacterium might be involved in PCD, and indicating that the occurrence of PCD is an active defense process against the pathogen's infection.

  19. Antagonism and Molecular Identification of an Antibiotic Bacterium BS04 Against Phytopathogenic Fungi and Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Jing(谢晶); Ge Shaorong; Tao Yong; Gao Ping; Liu Kun; Liu Shigui

    2004-01-01

    Through a modified agar well diffusion assay, antagonism of bacterium BS04 is tested. The data show that BS04 has antibiotic activity against phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria, including Phoma wasabiae Yokogi, Cochlibolus Heterostrophu, Exserohilum Turcicum, Curuvularia Lunata (Walk) Boed, Thantephorus cucumris, Fusarium graminearum, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Citri (Hasse) Dye and Xanthomonas zingiberi (Uyeda) Savulescu. The products of bacterium BS04 can endure the treatment of a wide range of pH, and maintain the antibiotic activity after treatment of 100℃ for 30 min. The result suggests that bacterium BS04 has the potential as a promising biocontrol agent. In order to determine the taxonomic placement, the molecular identification of BS04 is performed. The comparative analysis of 16s rDNA sequences indicates that the 16s rDNA sequence of BS04 is highly homologous with sequences of typical Paenibacillus bacteria from the RPD library (from 92% to 99%). And the constructed phylogenetic tree by using maximum-likelihood method with Bootstrap Trial 1000 proves that BS04 is subjected to Paenibacillus polymyxa.

  20. The effect of Pseudoxanthomonas sp. as manganese oxidizing bacterium on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigated the role of manganese oxidizing bacterium (MOB), namely Pseudoxanthomonas sp. on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. This bacterium was isolated from sewage treatment plants and identified by biochemical and molecular methods. The electrochemical techniques such as open circuit potentiometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic and cyclic polarization were used to measure the corrosion rate and observe the corrosion mechanism. Also, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies were applied to surface analysis. This study revealed the strong adhesion of the biofilm on the metal surface in the presence of Pseudoxanthomonas sp. that enhanced the corrosion of carbon steel. X-ray diffraction patterns identified a high content of MnO2 deposition within these biofilms. This is the first report that discloses the involvement of Pseudoxanthomonas sp. as manganese oxidizing bacteria on the corrosion of carbon steel. - Highlights: ► A new type of manganese oxidizing bacteria, namely Pseudoxanthomonas sp. was indicated. ► This bacterium can create a biofilm on the part of metal surface and affect localized corrosion. ► In the presence of biofilm, the diffusion of oxygen vacancies and manganese ions has occurred.

  1. Chitin Degradation Proteins Produced by the Marine Bacterium Vibrio harveyi Growing on Different Forms of Chitin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitil, A. L.; Chadhain, S.; Moore, J. A.; Kirchman, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the number, diversity, and function of chitinases produced by bacteria, even though chitin is one of the most abundant polymers in nature. Because of the importance of chitin, especially in marine environments, we examined chitin-degrading proteins in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi. This bacterium had a higher growth rate and more chitinase activity when grown on (beta)-chitin (isolated from squid pen) than on (alpha)-chitin (isolated from snow crab), probably because of the more open structure of (beta)-chitin. When exposed to different types of chitin, V. harveyi excreted several chitin-degrading proteins into the culture media. Some chitinases were present with all of the tested chitins, while others were unique to a particular chitin. We cloned and identified six separate chitinase genes from V. harveyi. These chitinases appear to be unique based on DNA restriction patterns, immunological data, and enzyme activity. This marine bacterium and probably others appear to synthesize separate chitinases for efficient utilization of different forms of chitin and chitin by-products. PMID:16535505

  2. Antimicrobial activity and biosynthesis of nanoparticles by endophytic bacterium inhabiting Coffee arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Baker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The interface between endophytes and nanomaterials is a relatively new and unexplored area the present study evaluates screening of bacterial endophytes from surfaced sterilized leaf and stem segments of agro economical plant Coffee arabica L. towards synthesis of silver nanoparticles and antimicrobial metabolites. Among thirty two endophytes isolated nine isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity among which one bacterium was capable of extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles upon evaluation of supernatant with 1 mM of silver nitrate, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles were assessed by UV-Visible Spectroscopy and the bacterium was capable of secreting antimicrobial secondary metabolites upon crude ethyl acetate extract evaluated for antimicrobial activity against panel of both gram positive and gram negative as well as phytopathogenic fungi. Partial characterization was carried out via bioautographic technique with Rf value 0.3 and 0.6 exhibiting antimicrobial activity against MRSA strain. Further studies in this area will be promising enough for molecular characterization of endophytic bacterium and chemical profiling of antimicrobial metabolites at the same time physiochemical characterization of nanoparticles will be valuable to reveal the size and shape. 

  3. Genetic Engineering of a Radiation-Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueous mixed low level wastes (MLLW) containing radionuclides, solvents, and/or heavy metals represent a serious current and future problem for DOE environmental management and cleanup. In order to provide low-cost treatment alternatives under mild conditions for such contained wastes, we have proposed to use the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans. This project has focused on developing D. radiodurans strains for dual purpose processes: cometabolic treatment of haloorganics and other solvents and removal of heavy metals from waste streams in an above-ground reactor system. The characteristics of effective treatment strains that must be attained are: (a) high biodegradative and metal binding activity; (b) stable treatment characteristics in the absence of selection and in the presence of physiological stress; (c) survival and activity under harsh chemical conditions, including radiation. The result of this project has been a suite of strains with high biodegradative capabilities that are candidates for pilot stage treatment systems. In addition, we have determined how to create conditions to precipitate heavy metals on the surface of the bacterium, as the first step towards creating dual-use treatment strains for contained mixed wastes of importance to the DOE. Finally, we have analyzed stress response in this bacterium, to create the foundation for developing treatment processes that maximize degradation while optimizing survival under high stress conditions

  4. Deinococcus mumbaiensis sp. nov., a radiation-resistant pleomorphic bacterium isolated from Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2006-01-01

    A radiation-resistant, Gram-negative and pleomorphic bacterium (CON-1) was isolated from a contaminated tryptone glucose yeast extract agar plate in the laboratory. It was red pigmented, nonmotile, nonsporulating, and aerobic, and contained MK-8 as respiratory quinone. The cell wall of this bacterium contained ornithine. The major fatty acids were C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C18:1 and iso C18:0. The DNA of CON-1 had a G+C content of 70 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that CON-1 exhibited a maximum similarity (94.72%) with Deinococcus grandis. Based on the genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, the bacterium CON-1 was identified as a new species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus mumbaiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of D. mumbaiensis is CON-1 (MTCC 7297(T)=DSM 17424(T)). PMID:16445756

  5. Genetic Engineering of a Radiation-Resistant Bacterium for Biodegradation of Mixed Wastes--Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mary E. Lidstrom

    2003-12-26

    Aqueous mixed low level wastes (MLLW) containing radionuclides, solvents, and/or heavy metals represent a serious current and future problem for DOE environmental management and cleanup. In order to provide low-cost treatment alternatives under mild conditions for such contained wastes, we have proposed to use the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans. This project has focused on developing D. radiodurans strains for dual purpose processes: cometabolic treatment of haloorganics and other solvents and removal of heavy metals from waste streams in an above-ground reactor system. The characteristics of effective treatment strains that must be attained are: (a) high biodegradative and metal binding activity; (b) stable treatment characteristics in the absence of selection and in the presence of physiological stress; (c) survival and activity under harsh chemical conditions, including radiation. The result of this project has been a suite of strains with high biodegradative capabilities that are candidates for pilot stage treatment systems. In addition, we have determined how to create conditions to precipitate heavy metals on the surface of the bacterium, as the first step towards creating dual-use treatment strains for contained mixed wastes of importance to the DOE. Finally, we have analyzed stress response in this bacterium, to create the foundation for developing treatment processes that maximize degradation while optimizing survival under high stress conditions.

  6. The Role of Exopolymers in Protection of Ralstonia sp., a Cadmium-resistant Bacterium, from Cadmium Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Anchulee Watcharamusik; Benjaphorn Prapagdee

    2008-01-01

    Production of exopolymers is one of heavy metal resistance mechanisms in bacteria. Ralstonia sp. TAK1, a cadmium-resistant bacterium, was isolated from a high cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil at the zinc mine, Tak province, Thailand. The bacterium was cultivated in LB broth and its growth was monitored. The yields of exopolymers were measured by the phenol-sulfuric method at different growth phases. The levels of Cd resistance were quantitatively determined by survival cell assay. The highest a...

  7. Photoproduction of hydrogen by a non-sulphur bacterium isolated from root zones of water fern Azolla pinnata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Srivastava, S.C.; Pandey, K.D. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (IN). Centre of Advanced Study in Botany)

    1990-01-01

    A photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. BHU strain 1 was isolated from the root zone of water fern Azolla pinnata. The bacterium was found to produce hydrogen with potato starch under phototrophic conditions. The immobilized bacterial cells showed sustained hydrogen production with a more than 4-fold difference over free cell suspensions. The data have been discussed in the light of possible utilization of relatively cheaper raw materials by non-sulphur bacteria to evolve hydrogen. (author).

  8. Anaerobic, Nitrate-Dependent Oxidation of U(IV) Oxide Minerals by the Chemolithoautotrophic Bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, H R

    2004-06-25

    Under anaerobic conditions and at circumneutral pH, cells of the widely-distributed, obligate chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans oxidatively dissolved synthetic and biogenic U(IV) oxides (uraninite) in nitrate-dependent fashion: U(IV) oxidation required the presence of nitrate and was strongly correlated to nitrate consumption. This is the first report of anaerobic U(IV) oxidation by an autotrophic bacterium.

  9. Community composition and activity of anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria in the rhizosphere of salt-marsh grass Spartina alterniflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanling; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Yin, Guoyu; Gao, Juan; Jiang, Xiaofen; Lin, Xianbiao; Li, Xiaofei; Yu, Chendi; Wang, Rong

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) as an important nitrogen removal pathway has been investigated in intertidal marshes. However, the rhizosphere-driven anammox process in these ecosystems is largely overlooked so far. In this study, the community dynamics and activities of anammox bacteria in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere sediments of salt-marsh grass Spartina alterniflora (a widely distributed plant in estuaries and intertidal ecosystems) were investigated using clone library analysis, quantitative PCR assay, and isotope-tracing technique. Phylogenetic analysis showed that anammox bacterial diversity was higher in the non-rhizosphere sediments (Scalindua and Kuenenia) compared with the rhizosphere zone (only Scalindua genus). Higher abundance of anammox bacteria was detected in the rhizosphere (6.46 × 10(6)-1.56 × 10(7) copies g(-1)), which was about 1.5-fold higher in comparison with that in the non-rhizosphere zone (4.22 × 10(6)-1.12 × 10(7) copies g(-1)). Nitrogen isotope-tracing experiments indicated that the anammox process in the rhizosphere contributed to 12-14 % N2 generation with rates of 0.43-1.58 nmol N g(-1) h(-1), while anammox activity in the non-rhizosphere zone contributed to only 4-7 % N2 production with significantly lower activities (0.28-0.83 nmol N g(-1) h(-1)). Overall, we propose that the rhizosphere microenvironment in intertidal marshes might provide a favorable niche for anammox bacteria and thus plays an important role in nitrogen cycling. PMID:27225476

  10. Pontibacter diazotrophicus sp. nov., a novel nitrogen-fixing bacterium of the family Cytophagaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linghua Xu

    Full Text Available Few diazotrophs have been found to belong to the family Cytophagaceae so far. In the present study, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that forms red colonies, was isolated from sands of the Takalamakan desert. It was designated H4XT. Phylogenetic and biochemical analysis indicated that the isolate is a new species of the genus Pontibacter. The 16S rRNA gene of H4XT displays 94.2-96.8% sequence similarities to those of other strains in Pontibacter. The major respiratory quinone is menaquinone-7 (MK-7. The DNA G+C content is 46.6 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids are iso-C15∶0, C16∶1ω5c, summed feature 3 (containing C16∶1ω6c and/or C16∶1ω7c and summed feature 4 (comprising anteiso-C17∶1B and/or iso-C17∶1I. The major polar lipids are phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, one aminophospholipid (APL and some unknown phospholipids (PLs. It is interesting to see that this bacterium can grow very well in a nitrogen-free medium. PCR amplification suggested that the bacterium possesses at least one type of nitrogenase gene. Acetylene reduction assay showed that H4XT actually possesses nitrogen-fixing activity. Therefore, it can be concluded that H4XT is a new diazotroph. We thus referred it to as Pontibacter diazotrophicus sp. nov. The type strain is H4XT ( = CCTCC AB 2013049T = NRRL B-59974T.

  11. Treatment of Alkaline Cr(VI)-Contaminated Leachate with an Alkaliphilic Metal-Reducing Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Mathew P; Khijniak, Tatiana V; Boothman, Christopher; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2015-08-15

    Chromium in its toxic Cr(VI) valence state is a common contaminant particularly associated with alkaline environments. A well-publicized case of this occurred in Glasgow, United Kingdom, where poorly controlled disposal of a cementitious industrial by-product, chromite ore processing residue (COPR), has resulted in extensive contamination by Cr(VI)-contaminated alkaline leachates. In the search for viable bioremediation treatments for Cr(VI), a variety of bacteria that are capable of reduction of the toxic and highly soluble Cr(VI) to the relatively nontoxic and less mobile Cr(III) oxidation state, predominantly under circumneutral pH conditions, have been isolated. Recently, however, alkaliphilic bacteria that have the potential to reduce Cr(VI) under alkaline conditions have been identified. This study focuses on the application of a metal-reducing bacterium to the remediation of alkaline Cr(VI)-contaminated leachates from COPR. This bacterium, belonging to the Halomonas genus, was found to exhibit growth concomitant to Cr(VI) reduction under alkaline conditions (pH 10). Bacterial cells were able to rapidly remove high concentrations of aqueous Cr(VI) (2.5 mM) under anaerobic conditions, up to a starting pH of 11. Cr(VI) reduction rates were controlled by pH, with slower removal observed at pH 11, compared to pH 10, while no removal was observed at pH 12. The reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) resulted in the precipitation of Cr(III) biominerals, which were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (TEM-EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effectiveness of this haloalkaliphilic bacterium for Cr(VI) reduction at high pH suggests potential for its use as an in situ treatment of COPR and other alkaline Cr(VI)-contaminated environments. PMID:26048926

  12. Studies of the extracellular glycocalyx of the anaerobic cellulolytic bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Paul J; Price, Neil P J; Kroukamp, Otini; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Van Zyl, Willem H

    2006-12-01

    Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria are thought to adhere to cellulose via several mechanisms, including production of a glycocalyx containing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). As the compositions and structures of these glycocalyces have not been elucidated, variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM) and chemical analysis were used to characterize the glycocalyx of the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus strain 7. VP-SEM revealed that growth of this strain was accompanied by the formation of thin cellular extensions that allowed the bacterium to adhere to cellulose, followed by formation of a ramifying network that interconnected individual cells to one another and to the unraveling cellulose microfibrils. Extraction of 48-h-old whole-culture pellets (bacterial cells plus glycocalyx [G] plus residual cellulose [C]) with 0.1 N NaOH released carbohydrate and protein in a ratio of 1:5. Boiling of the cellulose fermentation residue in a neutral detergent solution removed almost all of the adherent cells and protein while retaining a residual network of adhering noncellular material. Trifluoroacetic acid hydrolysis of this residue (G plus C) released primarily glucose, along with substantial amounts of xylose and mannose, but only traces of galactose, the most abundant sugar in most characterized bacterial exopolysaccharides. Linkage analysis and characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance suggested that most of the glucosyl units were not present as partially degraded cellulose. Calculations suggested that the energy demand for synthesis of the nonprotein fraction of EPS by this organism represents only a small fraction (<4%) of the anabolic ATP expenditure of the bacterium. PMID:17028224

  13. Adhesive properties of a symbolic bacterium from a wood-boreing marine shipworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhesive properties of cellulolytic, nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from a marine shipworm are described. 35S-labeled cells of the shipworm bacterium bound preferentially Whatman no.1 cellulose filter paper, compared with its binding to other cellulose substrata or substrata lacking cellulose. The ability of the bacteria to bind to Whatman no. 1 filter paper was significantly reduced by glutaraldehyde or heat treatment of cells. Pretreatment of cells with azide, valinomycin, gramicidin-D, bis-hexafluoroacetylacetone (1799), or carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone inhibited adhesion activity. Cells pretreated with pronase or trypsin also exhibited reduced binding activity, but chymotrypsin and peptidase had no effect on adhesion activity. Cellodextrins and methyl cellulose 15 inhibited the adhesion of the shipworm bacteria to filter paper, whereas glucose, cellobiose, and soluble carboxymethyl cellulose had no significant effect. The divalent cation chelators EDTA and EGTA [ethylene hlycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid] had little or no effect on adhesive properties of shipworm bacteria. Also, preabsorbing the substratum with extracellular endoglucanase isolated from the ship worm bacterium or 1% bovine serum albumin had no apparent effect on bacterial binding. Low concentration (0.01%) of sodium dodecyl sulfate solubilized a fraction from whole cells, which appeared to be involved in cellular binding activity. After removal of sodium dodecyl, sulfate, several proteins in this fraction associated with intact cells. These cells exhibited up to 50% enhanced binding to filter paper in comparison to cells which had not been exposed to the sodium dodecyl sulfate-solubilized fraction

  14. Biochemical Analyses of Multiple Endoxylanases from the Rumen Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8 and Their Synergistic Activities with Accessory Hemicellulose-Degrading Enzymes ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Young Hwan; Iakiviak, Michael; Bauer, Stefan; Roderick I. Mackie; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 8 is a ruminal bacterium capable of metabolizing hemicellulose and cellulose, the major components of the plant cell wall. The enzymes that allow this bacterium to capture energy from the two polysaccharides, therefore, have potential application in plant cell wall depolymerization, a process critical to biofuel production. For this purpose, a partial genome sequence of R. albus 8 was generated. The genomic data depicted a bacterium endowed with multiple forms of plant cell...

  15. Leucyl-tRNA synthetase from the ancestral bacterium Aquifex aeolicus contains relics of synthetase evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ming-Wei; Zhu, Bin; Hao, Rui; Xu, Min-Gang; Eriani, Gilbert; Wang, En-Duo

    2005-01-01

    The editing reactions catalyzed by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are critical for the faithful protein synthesis by correcting misactivated amino acids and misaminoacylated tRNAs. We report that the isolated editing domain of leucyl-tRNA synthetase from the deep-rooted bacterium Aquifex aeolicus (αβ-LeuRS) catalyzes the hydrolytic editing of both mischarged tRNALeu and minihelixLeu. Within the domain, we have identified a crucial 20-amino-acid peptide that confers editing capacity when transplan...

  16. Microbial coal desulfurization in an airlift bioreactor by sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thiobacillus ferooxidans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, H.W.; Chang, Y.K.; Kim, S.D. (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and BioProcess Engineering Research Center)

    1993-12-01

    Microbial desulfurization of a domestic anthracite coal by using an acidophilic, sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, [ital Thiobacillus ferrooxidans] has been studied in an airlift slurry reactor of 12 L volume. Effects of coal slurry density and CO[sub 2] supplement on microbial pyrite removal have been evaluated. High sulfur removal rates have been obtained even for very high coal slurry densities (up to 70% w/v). About 90-95% of the sulfur in the coal could be removed in 15-20 days. The efficiency of microbial desulfurization was significantly improved with CO[sub 2] enriched air supply for high coal slurry densities. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Biodegradation of bisphenol A and other bisphenols by a gram-negative aerobic bacterium.

    OpenAIRE

    Lobos, J. H.; Leib, T K; Su, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    A novel bacterium designated strain MV1 was isolated from a sludge enrichment taken from the wastewater treatment plant at a plastics manufacturing facility and shown to degrade 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol or bisphenol A). Strain MV1 is a gram-negative, aerobic bacillus that grows on bisphenol A as a sole source of carbon and energy. Total carbon analysis for bisphenol A degradation demonstrated that 60% of the carbon was mineralized to CO2, 20% was associated...

  18. Isolation and Characterization of a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium That Anaerobically Degrades Alkanes

    OpenAIRE

    So, Chi Ming; Young, L. Y.

    1999-01-01

    An alkane-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterial strain, AK-01, was isolated from an estuarine sediment with a history of chronic petroleum contamination. The bacterium is a short, nonmotile, non-spore-forming, gram-negative rod. It is mesophilic and grows optimally at pH 6.9 to 7.0 and at an NaCl concentration of 1%. Formate, fatty acids (C4 to C16) and hydrogen were readily utilized as electron donors. Sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate were used as electron acceptors, but sulfur, nitrite, an...

  19. Aggregation of the rhizospheric bacterium Azospirillum brasilense in response to oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoun, Hamid; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Azospirillum brasilense spp. have ecological, scientific and agricultural importance. As model plant growth promoting rhizobacteria they interact with a large variety of plants, including important food and cash crops. Azospirillum strains are known for their production of plant growth hormones that enhance root systems and for their ability to fix nitrogen. Azospirillum cells transform in response to environmental cues. The production of exopolysaccharides and cell aggregation during cellular transformation are important steps in the attachment of Azospirillum to roots. We investigate signals that induce cellular transformation and aggregation in the Azospirillum and report on the importance of oxygen to the process of aggregation in this rhizospheric bacterium.

  20. Bisucaberin B, a Linear Hydroxamate Class Siderophore from the Marine Bacterium Tenacibaculum mesophilum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Sakai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A siderophore, named bisucaberin B, was isolated from Tenacibaculum mesophilum bacteria separated from a marine sponge collected in the Republic of Palau. Using spectroscopic and chemical methods, the structure of bisucaberin B (1 was clearly determined to be a linear dimeric hydroxamate class siderophore. Although compound 1 is an open form of the known macrocyclic dimer bisucaberin (2, and was previously described as a bacterial degradation product of desferrioxamine B (4, the present report is the first description of the de novo biosynthesis of 1. To the best of our knowledge, compound 1 is the first chemically characterized siderophore isolated from a bacterium belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes.

  1. Bisucaberin B, a linear hydroxamate class siderophore from the marine bacterium Tenacibaculum mesophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Masaki J; Nakano, Koji; Sakai, Ryuichi

    2013-01-01

    A siderophore, named bisucaberin B, was isolated from Tenacibaculum mesophilum bacteria separated from a marine sponge collected in the Republic of Palau. Using spectroscopic and chemical methods, the structure of bisucaberin B (1) was clearly determined to be a linear dimeric hydroxamate class siderophore. Although compound 1 is an open form of the known macrocyclic dimer bisucaberin (2), and was previously described as a bacterial degradation product of desferrioxamine B (4), the present report is the first description of the de novo biosynthesis of 1. To the best of our knowledge, compound 1 is the first chemically characterized siderophore isolated from a bacterium belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. PMID:23549298

  2. Isolation and identification of a novel alginate-degrading bacterium, Ochrobactrum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-wei Zhao

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An alginate-degrading bacterium, identified as Ochrobactrum sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequencing, was isolated from brown algal samples collected from the waters in close vicinity to the Dongtou Isles in the East China Sea. The strain, designated WZUH09-1, is a short rod, gram-negative, obligatory aerobic, grows under the following conditions: 5-40oC, pH 3-9, and 0-2 times of the seawater concentration, and is able to depolymerize alginates with higher enzyme activity than that of others reported so far.

  3. Mutagenesis and reparation processes in the methylotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas methanolica after UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High resistance of cells of methylotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas methanolica to bactericidal and mutagenous effects of ultraviolet irradiation is shown as well as activity of reparation processes after UV irradiation. The presence of low photoreactivating activity in P. methanolica is shown as well. Observed recovery in innutritious medium and decrease of irradiated cells survival rates under effect of reparation inhibitors (coffeine and acriflavine) testify to activity of excision reparation and, perhaps, recombination branch of postreplicative reparation. No manifestation of inducible reparation system is discovered. It is concluded that increased resistance of P. methanolica cells to bactericidal and mutagenous effects of short-wave ultraviolet radiation is related to activity of exact reparation systems

  4. Aerobic Reduction of Arsenate by a Bacterium Isolated From Activated Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, N.; Ohnuki, T.; Hanada, S.; Nakamura, K.; Francis, A. J.

    2006-12-01

    Microlunatus phosphovorus strain NM-1 is a polyphosphate-accumulating bacterium isolated from activated sludge. This bacterium takes up a large amount of polyphosphate under aerobic conditions and release phosphate ions by hydrolysis of polyphosphate to orthophosphate under anaerobic conditions to derive energy for taking up substrates. To understand the nature of this strain, especially, influence of potential contaminants in sewage and wastewater on growth, we have been investigating behavior of this bacterium in media containing arsenic. The present paper mainly reports reduction of arsenate by this bacterium under aerobic conditions. The strain NM-1 (JCM 9379) was aerobically cultured at 30 °C in a nutrient medium containing 2.5 g/l peptone, 0.5 g/l glucose, 1.5 g/l yeast extract, and arsenic [Na2HAsO4 (As(V)) or Na3AsO3 (As(III))] at concentrations between 0 and 50 mM. The cells collected from arsenic-free media were dispersed in buffer solutions containing 2mM HEPES, 10mM NaCl, prescribed concentrations of As(V), and 0-0.2 percent glucose. Then, this cell suspension was kept at 20 °C under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The speciation of arsenic was carried out by ion chromatography and ICP-MS. The growth of the strain under aerobic conditions was enhanced by the addition of As(V) at the concentration between 1 and 10 mM. The maximum optical density of the culture in the medium containing 5mM As(V) was 1.4 times greater than that of the control culture. Below the As(V) concentration of 10mM, most of the As(V) was reduced to As(III). The growth of the strain under anaerobic conditions has not been observed so far. The cells in the buffer solutions reduced As(V) under aerobic condition. The reduction was enhanced by the addition of glucose. However, the cell did not reduce As(V) under anaerobic conditions. The strain NM-1 showed high resistance to As(V) and As(III). The maximum optical density of the culture grown in a medium containing 50 mM As(V) was only

  5. Acetylcholinesterase-Inhibiting Activity of Pyrrole Derivatives from a Novel Marine Gliding Bacterium, Rapidithrix thailandica

    OpenAIRE

    Khanit Suwanborirux; Anuchit Plubrukarn; Kornkanok Ingkaninan; Akkharawit Kanjana-opas; Supreeya Yuenyongsawad; Oraphan Sakulkeo; Yutthapong Sangnoi

    2008-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting activity of marinoquinoline A (1), a new pyrroloquinoline from a novel species of a marine gliding bacterium Rapidithrix thailandica, was assessed (IC50 4.9 mM). Two related pyrrole derivatives, 3-(2'-aminophenyl)-pyrrole (3) and 2,2-dimethyl-pyrrolo-1,2-dihydroquinoline (4), were also isolated from two other strains of R. thailandica. The isolation of 3 froma natural source is reported here for the first time. Compound 4 was proposed to be an isolation artifac...

  6. Acetylcholinesterase-Inhibiting Activity of Pyrrole Derivatives from a Novel Marine Gliding Bacterium, Rapidithrix thailandica

    OpenAIRE

    Sangnoi, Yutthapong; Sakulkeo, Oraphan; Yuenyongsawad, Supreeya; Kanjana-opas, Akkharawit; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Plubrukarn, Anuchit; Suwanborirux, Khanit

    2008-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting activity of marinoquinoline A (1), a new pyrroloquinoline from a novel species of a marine gliding bacterium Rapidithrix thailandica, was assessed (IC50 4.9 μM). Two related pyrrole derivatives, 3-(2′-aminophenyl)-pyrrole (3) and 2,2-dimethyl-pyrrolo-1,2-dihydroquinoline (4), were also isolated from two other strains of R. thailandica. The isolation of 3 from a natural source is reported here for the first time. Compound 4 was proposed to be an isolation artifa...

  7. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas azotoformans S4, a potential biocontrol bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yang; Wu, Lijuan; Chen, Guoqing; Feng, Guozhong

    2016-06-10

    Pseudomonas azotoformans is a Gram-negative bacterium and infects cereal grains, especially rice. P. azotoformans S4 from soil sample derived from Lijiang, Yunnan Province, China, appeared to be strong inhibitory activity against Fusarium fujikurio, a serious rice fungal pathogen. Here, we present the complete genome of P. azotoformans S4, which consists of 6,859,618bp with a circle chromosome, 5991 coding DNA sequences, 70 tRNA and 19 rRNA. The genomic analysis revealed that 9 candidate gene clusters are involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. PMID:27080451

  8. Genome sequence of the marine bacterium Corynebacterium maris type strain Coryn-1T (= DSM 45190T)

    OpenAIRE

    Schaffert, Lena; Albersmeier, Andreas; Bednarz, Hanna; Niehaus, Karsten; Kalinowski, Jörn; Rückert, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium maris Coryn-1T Ben-Dov et al. 2009 is a member of the genus Corynebacterium which contains Gram-positive, non-spore forming bacteria with a high G+C content. C. maris was isolated from the mucus of the Scleractinian coral Fungia granulosa and belongs to the aerobic and non-haemolytic corynebacteria. It displays tolerance to salts (up to 10%) and is related to the soil bacterium Corynebacterium halotolerans . As this is a type strain in a subgroup of Corynebacterium without com...

  9. A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe-Simon, F; Blum, J S; Kulp, T R; Gordon, G W; Hoeft, S E; Pett-Ridge, J; Stolz, J F; Webb, S M; Weber, P K; Davies, P W; Anbar, A D; Oremland, R S

    2010-11-01

    Life is mostly composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur and phosphorus. Although these six elements make up nucleic acids, proteins and lipids and thus the bulk of living matter, it is theoretically possible that some other elements in the periodic table could serve the same functions. Here we describe a bacterium, strain GFAJ-1 of the Halomonadaceae, isolated from Mono Lake, CA, which substitutes arsenic for phosphorus to sustain its growth. Our data show evidence for arsenate in macromolecules that normally contain phosphate, most notably nucleic acids and proteins. Exchange of one of the major bio-elements may have profound evolutionary and geochemical significance.

  10. Characterization of Two New Glycosyl Hydrolases from the Lactic Acid Bacterium Carnobacterium piscicola Strain BA

    OpenAIRE

    Coombs, Jonna; Brenchley, Jean E.

    2001-01-01

    Three genes with homology to glycosyl hydrolases were detected on a DNA fragment cloned from a psychrophilic lactic acid bacterium isolate, Carnobacterium piscicola strain BA. A 2.2-kb region corresponding to an α-galactosidase gene, agaA, was followed by two genes in the same orientation, bgaB, encoding a 2-kb β-galactosidase, and bgaC, encoding a structurally distinct 1.76-kb β-galactosidase. This gene arrangement had not been observed in other lactic acid bacteria, including Lactococcus la...

  11. Role for Vitamin B12 in Light Induction of Gene Expression in the Bacterium Myxococcus xanthus

    OpenAIRE

    Cervantes, María; Murillo, Francisco J.

    2002-01-01

    A light-inducible promoter (PB) drives the carB operon (carotenoid genes) of the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. A gene encoding a regulator of carotenoid biosynthesis was identified by studying mutant strains carrying a transcriptional fusion to PB and deletions in three candidate genes. Our results prove that the identified gene, named carA, codes for a repressor of the PB promoter in the dark. They also show that the carA gene product does not participate in the light activation of two other...

  12. Halomonas olivaria sp nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from olive-processing effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Amouric, A.; Liebgott, Pierre-Pol; Joseph, Manon; Brochier-Armanet, C; LORQUIN, Jean

    2014-01-01

    A moderately halophilic, Gram-stain-negative, non-sporulating bacterium designed as strain TYRC17(T) was isolated from olive-processing effluents. The organism was a straight rod, motile by means of peritrichous flagella and able to respire both oxygen and nitrate. Growth occurred with 0-25 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 7%), at pH 5-11 (optimum, pH 7.0) and at 4-50 degrees C (optimally at 35 degrees C). It accumulated poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate granules and produced exopolysaccharides. The predomina...

  13. Sequencing and Characterization of the xyl Operon of a Gram-Positive Bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophila

    OpenAIRE

    TAKEDA, YASUO; Takase, Kazuma; Yamato, Ichiro; Abe, Keietsu

    1998-01-01

    The xyl operon of a gram-positive bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophila (previously called Pediococcus halophilus), was cloned and sequenced. The DNA was about 7.7 kb long and contained genes for a ribose binding protein and part of a ribose transporter, xylR (a putative regulatory gene), and the xyl operon, along with its regulatory region and transcription termination signal, in this order. The DNA was AT rich, the GC content being 35.8%, consistent with the GC content of this gram-positive ...

  14. Mageeibacillus indolicus gen. nov., sp. nov: A novel bacterium isolated from the female genital tract

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Michele N.; Rabe, Lorna K.; Srinivasan, Sujatha; Fredricks, David N.; Wiesenfeld, Harold C.; Hillier, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Three isolates of a bacterium recovered from human endometrium using conventional culture methods were characterized biochemically and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Isolates were non-motile, obligately anaerobic, non-spore forming, asaccharolytic, non-cellulolytic, indole positive, Gram positive rods. Cell wall fatty acid profiling revealed C14:0, C16:0, C18:2 ω6, 9c, C18:1 ω9c and C18:0 to be the major fatty acid composition. The DNA mol % G+C was determine...

  15. Ercella succinigenes gen. nov., sp. nov., ananaerobic succinate-producing bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gelder, A.H.; Sousa, D.Z.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; J. S. Sinninghe Damsté; Stams, A. J. M.; Sánchez-Andrea, I.

    2014-01-01

    A novel anaerobic succinate-producing bacterium, strain ZWBT, was isolated from sludge collected from a biogas desulfurization bioreactor (Eerbeek, The Netherlands). Cells were non-spore forming, motile, slightly curved rods (0.4 to 0.5 µm in diameter and 2 to 3 µm in length), and stained Gram-negative. The temperature range for growth was 25 to 40°C, with an optimum at 37°C. The pH range for growth was 7.0 to 9.0, with an optimum at pH 7.5. Strain ZWBT ferments glycerol and several carbohydr...

  16. (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5–0.8 μm in diameter, and 2–8 μm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37°C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H2/CO2 to acetate, usually as the only product. ...

  17. (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage

    OpenAIRE

    Balk, M.; Mehboob, F.; Gelder, van, M.; Rijpstra, I.; Sinninghe-Damsté, J.S.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5-0.8 microm in diameter, and 2-8 microm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37 degrees C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H(2)/CO(2) to acetate, usually a...

  18. Pseudomonas chloritidismutans sp. nov., a non-denitrifying chlorate-reducing bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Wolterink, A.F.W.M.; Jonker, A.B.; Kengen, S.W.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, dissimilatory chlorate-reducing bacterium, strain AW-1(T), was isolated from biomass of an anaerobic chlorate-reducing bioreactor. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence showed 100␜equence similarity to Pseudomonas stutzeri DSM 50227 and 98.6␜equence similarity to the type strain of P. stutzeri (DSM 5190(T)). The species P. stutzeri possesses a high degree of genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Therefore, eight genomic groups, ...

  19. (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage

    OpenAIRE

    Balk, M.; Mehboob, F.; van Gelder, T; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; J. S. Sinninghe Damsté; Stams, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5–0.8 μm in diameter, and 2–8 μm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37°C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H2/CO2 to acetate, usually as the only product. ...

  20. Genome Sequence of the Boron-Tolerant and -Requiring Bacterium Bacillus boroniphilus

    OpenAIRE

    ÇÖL, Bekir; Özkeserli, Zeynep; Kumar, Dibyendu; ÖZDAĞ, Hilal; Alakoç, Yeşim D.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus boroniphilus is a highly boron-tolerant bacterium that also requires this element for its growth. The complete genome sequence of B. boroniphilus was determined by a combination of shotgun sequencing and paired-end sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing technology. A total of 84,872,624 reads from shotgun sequencing and a total of 194,092,510 reads from paired-end sequencing were assembled using Newbler 2.3. The estimated size of the draft genome is 5.2 Mb.

  1. Clostridium peptidivorans sp. nov., a peptide-fermenting bacterium from an olive mill wastewater treatment digester

    OpenAIRE

    Mechichi, T.; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Labat, Marc; Garcia, Jean-Louis; Verhé, F.; Patel, B.K.C.

    2000-01-01

    A new peptid-degrading, strictly anaerobic bacterium, designated strain TMC4T, was isolated from an olive mill wastewater treatment digester. Cells of strain TMC4T were motile, rod-shaped (5-10 x 0.6-1.2 microns), stained Gram-positive and formed terminal to subterminal spores that distended the cells. Optimal growth occurred at 37°C and pH 7 in an anaerobic basal medium containing 0.5% Casamino acids. Arginine, lysine, cysteine, methionine, histidine, serine, isoleucine, yeast extract, pepto...

  2. p-cresol methylhydroxylase from a denitrifying bacterium involved in anaerobic degradation of p-cresol.

    OpenAIRE

    Hopper, D. J.; Bossert, I D; Rhodes-Roberts, M E

    1991-01-01

    A bacterium, strain PC-07, previously isolated as part of a coculture capable of growing on p-cresol under anaerobic conditions with nitrate as the acceptor was identified as an Achromobacter sp. The first enzyme of the pathway, p-cresol methylhydroxylase, which converts its substrate into p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, was purified. The enzyme had an Mr of 130,000 and the spectrum of a flavocytochrome. It was composed of flavoprotein subunits of Mr 54,000 and cytochrome subunits of Mr 12,500. The ...

  3. Response to Comments on "A Bacterium That Can Grow Using Arsenic Instead of Phosphorus"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe-Simon, F; Blum, J S; Kulp, T R; Gordon, G W; Hoeft, S E; Pett-Ridge, J; Stolz, J F; Webb, S M; Weber, P K; Davies, P W; Anbar, A D; Oremland, R S

    2011-03-07

    Concerns have been raised about our recent study describing a bacterium that can grow using arsenic (As) instead of phosphorus (P). Our data suggested that As could act as a substitute for P in major biomolecules in this organism. Although the issues raised are of investigative interest, we contend that they do not invalidate our conclusions. We argue that while no single line of evidence we presented was sufficient to support our interpretation of the data, taken as an entire dataset we find no plausible alternative to our conclusions. Here we reply to the critiques and provide additional arguments supporting the assessment of the data we reported.

  4. Coarse grained simulation reveals antifreeze properties of hyperactive antifreeze protein from Antarctic bacterium Colwellia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung; Van, Thanh Dac; Le, Ly

    2015-10-01

    The novel hyperactive antifreeze protein (AFP) of Antarctic sea ice bacterium Colwellia sp. provides a target for studying the protection of psychrophilic microgoranisms against freezing environment. Interestingly, the Colwellia sp. hyperactive antifreeze protein (ColAFP) was crystallized without the structural dynamic characteristics. Here, the result indicated, through coarse grained simulation of ColAFP under various subfreezing temperature, that ColAFP remains active at temperature of equal and greater than 275 K (∼2 °C). Extensive simulation analyses also revealed the adaptive mechanism of ColAFP in subfreezing environment. Our result provides a structural dynamic understanding of the ColAFP.

  5. Penetration of the Coral-Bleaching Bacterium Vibrio shiloi into Oculina patagonica

    OpenAIRE

    Banin, E.; Israely, T.; Kushmaro, A.; Y. Loya; Orr, E; Rosenberg, E

    2000-01-01

    Inoculation of the coral-bleaching bacterium Vibrio shiloi into seawater containing its host Oculina patagonica led to adhesion of the bacteria to the coral surface via a β-d-galactose receptor, followed by penetration of the bacteria into the coral tissue. The internalized V. shiloi cells were observed inside the exodermal layer of the coral by electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy using specific anti-V. shiloi antibodies to stain the intracellular bacteria. At 29°C, 80% of the bac...

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of the Filamentous Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Kuo-Hsiang [Washington University, St. Louis; Barry, Kerrie [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Honchak, Barbara M [Washington University, St. Louis; Karbach, Lauren E [Washington University, St. Louis; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Pierson, Beverly K [University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA

    2011-01-01

    Chloroflexus aurantiacus is a thermophilic filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic (FAP) bacterium, and can grow phototrophically under anaerobic conditions or chemotrophically under aerobic and dark conditions. According to 16S rRNA analysis, Chloroflexi species are the earliest branching bacteria capable of photosynthesis, and Cfl. aurantiacus has been long regarded as a key organism to resolve the obscurity of the origin and early evolution of photosynthesis. Cfl. aurantiacus contains a chimeric photosystem that comprises some characters of green sulfur bacteria and purple photosynthetic bacteria, and also has some unique electron transport proteins compared to other photosynthetic bacteria.

  7. Improved manganese-oxidizing activity of DypB, a peroxidase from a lignolytic bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rahul; Grigg, Jason C.; Qin, Wei; Kadla, John F.; Murphy, Michael E. P.; Eltis, Lindsay D.

    2013-01-01

    DypB, a dye-decolorizing peroxidase from the lignolytic soil bacterium Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, catalyzes the peroxide-dependent oxidation of divalent manganese (Mn2+), albeit less efficiently than fungal manganese peroxidases. Substitution of Asn246, a distal heme residue, with alanine, increased the enzyme’s apparent kcat and kcat/Km values for Mn2+ by 80- and 15-fold, respectively. A 2.2 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of the N246A variant revealed the Mn2+ to be bound within a pocket...

  8. Inflammasomes Coordinate Pyroptosis and Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity to Clear Infection by a Ubiquitous Environmental Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltez, Vivien I; Tubbs, Alan L; Cook, Kevin D; Aachoui, Youssef; Falcone, E Liana; Holland, Steven M; Whitmire, Jason K; Miao, Edward A

    2015-11-17

    Defective neutrophils in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) cause susceptibility to extracellular and intracellular infections. Microbes must first be ejected from intracellular niches to expose them to neutrophil attack, so we hypothesized that inflammasomes detect certain CGD pathogens upstream of neutrophil killing. Here, we identified one such ubiquitous environmental bacterium, Chromobacterium violaceum, whose extreme virulence was fully counteracted by the NLRC4 inflammasome. Caspase-1 protected via two parallel pathways that eliminated intracellular replication niches. Pyroptosis was the primary bacterial clearance mechanism in the spleen, but both pyroptosis and interleukin-18 (IL-18)-driven natural killer (NK) cell responses were required for liver defense. NK cells cleared hepatocyte replication niches via perforin-dependent cytotoxicity, whereas interferon-γ was not required. These insights suggested a therapeutic approach: exogenous IL-18 restored perforin-dependent cytotoxicity during infection by the inflammasome-evasive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Therefore, inflammasomes can trigger complementary programmed cell death mechanisms, directing sterilizing immunity against intracellular bacterial pathogens. PMID:26572063

  9. Hyperthermostable and oxygen resistant hydrogenases from a hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus: Physicochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiral, Marianne; Tron, Pascale; Belle, Valerie; Aubert, Corinne; Leger, Christophe; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Therese [Laboratoire de Bioenergetique et Ingenierie des Proteines (BIP) IBSM, CNRS, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille cedex 20 (France)

    2006-09-15

    The discovery of hydrogenases in hyperthermophiles has important ramifications not only in microbial physiology and evolution but also in biotechnologies. These organisms are the source of extremely stable enzymes (regarding temperature, pressure, and O{sub 2}). Aquifex aeolicus is a microaerophilic, hyperthermophilic bacterium containing three [NiFe] hydrogenases. It is the most hyperthermophilic bacterium known to date and grows at 85{sup o}C under a H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} atmosphere. The Aquificales represent the earliest branching order of the bacterial domain indicating that they are the most ancient bacteria. Two Aquifex hydrogenases (one membrane-bound and one soluble) have been purified and characterized. In contrast to the majority of the [NiFe] hydrogenases, the hydrogenases from A. aeolicus are rather tolerant to oxygen. The molecular basis of the oxygen resistance of Aquifex hydrogenases has been investigated. The great stability of Aquifex hydrogenases with respect to oxygen and high temperatures make these enzymes good candidates for biotechnological uses. (author)

  10. Enrichment and physiological characterization of a novel Nitrospira-like bacterium obtained from a marine sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Off, Sandra; Alawi, Mashal; Spieck, Eva

    2010-07-01

    Members of the nitrite-oxidizing genus Nitrospira are most likely responsible for the second step of nitrification, the conversion of nitrite (NO(2)(-)) to nitrate (NO(3)(-)), within various sponges. We succeeded in obtaining an enrichment culture of Nitrospira derived from the mesohyl of the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba using a traditional cultivation approach. Electron microscopy gave first evidence of the shape and ultrastructure of this novel marine Nitrospira-like bacterium (culture Aa01). We characterized these bacteria physiologically with regard to optimal incubation conditions, especially the temperature and substrate range in comparison to other Nitrospira cultures. Best growth was obtained at temperatures between 28 degrees C and 30 degrees C in mineral medium with 70% North Sea water and a substrate concentration of 0.5 mM nitrite under microaerophilic conditions. The Nitrospira culture Aa01 is very sensitive against nitrite, because concentrations higher than 1.5 mM resulted in a complete inhibition of growth. Sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the novel Nitrospira-like bacterium is separated from the sponge-specific subcluster and falls together with an environmental clone from Mediterranean sediments (98.6% similarity). The next taxonomically described species Nitrospira marina is only distantly related, with 94.6% sequence similarity, and therefore the culture Aa01 represents a novel species of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:20511427

  11. (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage.

    KAUST Repository

    Balk, Melike

    2010-08-03

    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5-0.8 microm in diameter, and 2-8 microm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37 degrees C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H(2)/CO(2) to acetate, usually as the only product. Succinate was decarboxylated to propionate. The isolate was able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, and CO(2). The G+C content of the DNA was 42.6 mol%. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain An4 was most closely related to Sporomusa ovata (98% similarity). The bacterium reduced perchlorate and chlorate completely to chloride. Key enzymes, perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, were detected in cell-free extracts.

  12. Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to intraperitoneal injection of bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjie; Zou, Wenzheng; Yan, Qingpi

    2008-08-01

    Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was studied to 60 individuals in two groups. Each bullfrog in bacterium-injected group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.2 ml bacterial suspension at a density of 5.2 × 106 CFU/ml, while each one in control group injected i.p. with 0.2 ml sterile saline solution (0.85%, w/v). Three bullfrogs in both groups were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 7, 11, 15 and 20 days post-injection (dpi) for the evaluation of non-specific immune parameters. It was observed that intraperitoneal injection of A. hydrophila significantly increased the number of leucocytes and that of NBT-positive cells in peripheral blood. Significant increases in serum bactericidal activity and serum acid phosphatase activity were also observed in the bacterium-injected frogs when compared with those in the control group. However, a significant reduction was detected in vitro in phagocytosis activity of peripheral blood phagocytes. No significant difference in changes in the number of peripheral erythrocytes, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity was detected between the two groups. It is suggested that bullfrogs may produce a series of non-specific immune reactions in response to the A. hydrophila infection.

  13. Evaluation of nitrate removal by continuous culturing of an aerobic denitrifying bacterium, Paracoccus pantotrophus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa-Kurisu, K; Otani, Y; Hanaki, K

    2006-01-01

    Nitrate removal under aerobic conditions was investigated using pure cultures of Paracoccus pantotrophus, which is a well-known aerobic-denitrifying (AD) bacterium. When a high concentration of cultures with a high carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio was preserved at the beginning of batch experiments, subsequently added nitrate was completely removed. When continuous culturing was perpetuated, a high nitrate removal rate (66.5%) was observed on day 4 post-culture, although gradual decreases in AD ability with time were observed. The attenuation in AD ability was probably caused by carbon limitation, because when carbon concentration of inflow water was doubled, nitrate removal efficiency improved from 18.1% to 59.6%. Bacterial community analysis using the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method showed that P. pantotrophus disappeared in the suspended medium on day 8 post-culture, whereas other bacterial communities dominated by Acidovorax sp. appeared. Interestingly, this replaced bacterial community also showed AD ability. As P. pantotrophus was detected as attached colonies around the membrane and bottom of the reactor, this bacterium can therefore be introduced in a fixed form for treatment of wastewater containing nitrate with a high C/N ratio. PMID:17163031

  14. Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to intraperitoneal injection of bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was studied to 60 individuals in two groups. Each bullfrog in bacterium-injected group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.2 ml bacterial suspension at a density of 5.2 × 106 CFU/ml, while each one in control group injected i.p. with 0.2 ml sterile saline solution (0.85%, w/v). Three bullfrogs in both groups were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 7, 11, 15 and 20 days post-injection (dpi) for the evaluation of non-specific immune parameters. It was observed that intraperitoneal injection of A. hydrophila significantly increased the number of leucocytes and that of NBT-positive cells in peripheral blood. Significant increases in serum bactericidal activity and serum acid phosphatase activity were also observed in the bacterium-injected frogs when compared with those in the control group. However, a significant reduction was detected in vitro in phagocytosis activity of peripheral blood phagocytes. No significant difference in changes in the number of peripheral erythrocytes, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity was detected between the two groups. It is suggested that bullfrogs may produce a series of non-specific immune reactions in response to the A. hydrophila infection.

  15. Biogenesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from Garcinia xanthochymus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swetha Sunkar; C Valli Nachiyar

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To synthesize the ecofriendly nanoparticles, which is viewed as an alternative to the chemical method which initiated the use of microbes like bacteria and fungi in their synthesis. Methods: The current study uses the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from the Garcinia xanthochymus to synthesize the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNPs were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate solution by the endophytic bacterium after incubation for 3-5 d at room temperature. The synthesis was initially observed by colour change from pale white to brown which was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The AgNPs were further characterized using FTIR, SEM-EDX and TEM analyses. Results:The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical with the size in the range of 20-40 nm which showed a slight aggregation. The energy-dispersive spectra of the nanoparticle dispersion confirmed the presence of elemental silver. The AgNPs were found to have antibacterial activity against a few pathogenic bacteria like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions:The endophytic bacteria identified as Bacillus cereus was able to synthesize silver nanoparticles with potential antibacterial activity.

  16. Production and characterization of bioemulsifier from a marine bacterium, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus SM7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulnaree Phetrong

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine bacterium strain SM7 was isolated as a bioemulsifier-producing bacterium from oil-spilled seawater in Songkhla lagoon, Thailand. It was identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus based on morphology, biochemicalcharacteristics and 16S rRNA sequence. A. calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus SM7 produced an extracellular emulsifying agent when grown in a minimal salt medium (pH 7.0 containing 0.3% (v/v n-heptadecane and 0.1% (w/v ammoniumhydrogen carbonate as carbon source and nitrogen source, respectively, at 30oC with agitation rate of 200 rpm. Crude bioemulsifier was recovered from the culture supernatant by ethanol precipitation with a yield of 2.94 g/l and had a criticalemulsifier concentration of 0.04 g/ml. The crude bioemulsifier was capable of emulsifying n-hexadecane in a broad pH range (6-12, temperatures (30-121oC and in the presence of NaCl up to 12% (w/v. The bioemulsifier was stable in saltsolution ranging from 0 to 0.1% (w/v of MgCl2 and CaCl2. The broad range of pH stability, thermostability and salt tolerance suggested that the bioemulsifier from A. calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus SM7 could be useful in environmentalapplication, especially bioremediation of oil-polluted seawater.

  17. Microfabrication of patterns of adherent marine bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens using soft lithography and scanning probe lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan; Burchardt, Malte; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Beardsley, Christine; Simon, Meinhard; Wittstock, Gunther

    2010-06-01

    Two lithographic approaches have been explored for the microfabrication of cellular patterns based on the attachment of marine bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens strain T5. Strain T5 produces a new antibiotic that makes this bacterium potentially interesting for the pharmaceutical market and as a probiotic organism in aquacultures and in controlling biofouling. The microcontact printing (microCP) method is based on the micropatterning of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) terminated with adhesive end groups such as CH(3) and COOH and nonadhesive groups (e.g., short oligomers of ethylene glycol (OEG)) to form micropatterned substrates for the adhesion of strain T5. The scanning probe lithographic method is based on the surface modification of OEG SAM by using a microelectrode, the probe of a scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM). Oxidizing agents (e.g., Br(2)) were electrogenerated in situ at the microelectrodes from Br(-) in aqueous solution to remove OEG SAMs locally, which allows the subsequent adsorption of bacteria. Various micropatterns of bacteria could be formed in situ on the substrate without a prefabricated template. The fabricated cellular patterns may be applied to a variety of marine biological studies that require the analysis of biofilm formation, cell-cell and cell-surface interactions, and cell-based biosensors and bioelectronics. PMID:20397716

  18. INDISIM-Paracoccus, an individual-based and thermodynamic model for a denitrifying bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo Granda, Pablo; Gras, Anna; Ginovart, Marta; Moulton, Vincent

    2016-08-21

    We have developed an individual-based model for denitrifying bacteria. The model, called INDISIM-Paracoccus, embeds a thermodynamic model for bacterial yield prediction inside the individual-based model INDISIM, and is designed to simulate the bacterial cell population behavior and the product dynamics within the culture. The INDISIM-Paracoccus model assumes a culture medium containing succinate as a carbon source, ammonium as a nitrogen source and various electron acceptors such as oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, nitric oxide and nitrous oxide to simulate in continuous or batch culture the different nutrient-dependent cell growth kinetics of the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans. The individuals in the model represent microbes and the individual-based model INDISIM gives the behavior-rules that they use for their nutrient uptake and reproduction cycle. Three previously described metabolic pathways for P. denitrificans were selected and translated into balanced chemical equations using a thermodynamic model. These stoichiometric reactions are an intracellular model for the individual behavior-rules for metabolic maintenance and biomass synthesis and result in the release of different nitrogen oxides to the medium. The model was implemented using the NetLogo platform and it provides an interactive tool to investigate the different steps of denitrification carried out by a denitrifying bacterium. The simulator can be obtained from the authors on request. PMID:27179457

  19. Data supporting functional diversity of the marine bacterium Cobetia amphilecti KMM 296.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Larissa; Nedashkovskaya, Olga; Podvolotskaya, Anna; Slepchenko, Lubov; Golotin, Vasily; Belik, Alexey; Shevchenko, Ludmila; Son, Oksana; Rasskazov, Valery

    2016-09-01

    Data is presented in support of functionality of hyper-diverse protein families encoded by the Cobetia amphilecti KMM 296 (formerly Cobetia marina KMM 296) genome ("The genome of the marine bacterium Cobetia marina KMM 296 isolated from the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (Dunker, 1853)" [1]) providing its nutritional versatility, adaptability and biocontrol that could be the basis of the marine bacterium evolutionary and application potential. Presented data include the information of growth and biofilm-forming properties of the food-associated isolates of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Listeria, Salmonella and Staphylococcus under the conditions of their co-culturing with C. amphilecti KMM 296 to confirm its high inter-species communication and anti-microbial activity. Also included are the experiments on the crude petroleum consumption by C. amphilecti KMM 296 as the sole source of carbon in the presence of sulfate or nitrate to ensure its bioremediation capacity. The multifunctional C. amphilecti KMM 296 genome is a promising source for the beneficial psychrophilic enzymes and essential secondary metabolites. PMID:27508225

  20. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, a bacterium pathogenic for marine animals and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amable J. Rivas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (formerly Vibrio damsela is a pathogen of a variety of marine animals including fish, crustaceans, molluscs and cetaceans. In humans, it can cause opportunistic infections that may evolve into necrotizing fasciitis with fatal outcome. Although the genetic basis of virulence in this bacterium is not completely elucidated, recent findings demonstrate that the phospholipase-D Dly (damselysin and the pore-forming toxins HlyApl and HlyAch play a main role in virulence for homeotherms and poikilotherms. The acquisition of the virulence plasmid pPHDD1 that encodes Dly and HlyApl has likely constituted a main driving force in the evolution of a highly hemolytic lineage within the subspecies. Interestingly, strains that naturally lack pPHDD1 show a strong pathogenic potential for a variety of fish species, indicating the existence of yet uncharacterized virulence factors. Future and deep analysis of the complete genome sequence of P. damselae subsp. damselae will surely provide a clearer picture of the virulence factors employed by this bacterium to cause disease in such a varied range of hosts.

  1. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, a bacterium pathogenic for marine animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Amable J; Lemos, Manuel L; Osorio, Carlos R

    2013-01-01

    Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (formerly Vibrio damsela) is a pathogen of a variety of marine animals including fish, crustaceans, molluscs, and cetaceans. In humans, it can cause opportunistic infections that may evolve into necrotizing fasciitis with fatal outcome. Although the genetic basis of virulence in this bacterium is not completely elucidated, recent findings demonstrate that the phospholipase-D Dly (damselysin) and the pore-forming toxins HlyApl and HlyAch play a main role in virulence for homeotherms and poikilotherms. The acquisition of the virulence plasmid pPHDD1 that encodes Dly and HlyApl has likely constituted a main driving force in the evolution of a highly hemolytic lineage within the subspecies. Interestingly, strains that naturally lack pPHDD1 show a strong pathogenic potential for a variety of fish species, indicating the existence of yet uncharacterized virulence factors. Future and deep analysis of the complete genome sequence of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae will surely provide a clearer picture of the virulence factors employed by this bacterium to cause disease in such a varied range of hosts. PMID:24093021

  2. The fate of a nitrobenzene-degrading bacterium in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuan; Yang, Juan; Chen, Shaoyi

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the fate of a nitrobenzene-degrading bacterium, Klebsiella oxytoca NBA-1, which was isolated from a pharmaceutical wastewater treatment facility. The 90-day survivability of strain NBA-1 after exposure to sludge under anaerobic and aerobic conditions was investigated. The bacterium was inoculated into sludge amended with glucose and p-chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB) to compare the bacterial community variations between the modified sludge and nitrobenzene amendment. The results showed that glucose had no obvious effect on nitrobenzene biodegradation in the co-metabolism process, regardless of the presence/absence of oxygen. When p-CNB was added under anaerobic conditions, the biodegradation rate of nitrobenzene remained unchanged although p-CNB inhibited the production of aniline. The diversity of the microbial community increased and NBA-1 continued to be one of the dominant strains. Under aerobic conditions, the degradation rate of both nitrobenzene and p-CNB was only 20% of that under anaerobic conditions. p-CNB had a toxic effect on the microorganisms in the sludge so that most of the DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) bands, including that of NBA-1, began to disappear under aerobic conditions after 90days of exposure. These data show that the bacterial community was stable under anaerobic conditions and the microorganisms, including NBA-1, were more resistant to the adverse environment. PMID:26086561

  3. Structural characterization of the lipid A from the LPS of the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Halomonas pantelleriensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillo, Sara; Pieretti, Giuseppina; Casillo, Angela; Lindner, Buko; Romano, Ida; Nicolaus, Barbara; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Giuliano, Mariateresa; Cammarota, Marcella; Lanzetta, Rosa; Corsaro, Maria Michela

    2016-09-01

    Halomonas pantelleriensis DSM9661(Τ) is a Gram-negative haloalkaliphilic bacterium isolated from the sand of the volcanic Venus mirror lake, closed to seashore in the Pantelleria Island in the south of Italy. It is able to optimally grow in media containing 3-15 % (w/v) total salt and at pH between 9 and 10. To survive in these harsh conditions, the bacterium has developed several strategies that probably concern the bacteria outer membrane, a barrier regulating the exchange with the environment. In such a context, the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), which are among the major constituent of the Gram-negative outer membrane, are thought to contribute to the restrictive membrane permeability properties. The structure of the lipid A family derived from the LPS of Halomonas pantelleriensis DSM 9661(T) is reported herein. The lipid A was obtained from the purified LPS by mild acid hydrolysis. The lipid A, which contains different numbers of fatty acids residues, and its partially deacylated derivatives were completely characterized by means of ESI FT-ICR mass spectrometry and chemical analysis. Preliminary immunological assays were performed, and a comparison with the lipid A structure of the phylogenetic proximal Halomonas magadiensis is also reported. PMID:27329160

  4. Isolation, cloning and characterization of an azoreductase from the halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Maryam; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Asad, Sedigheh

    2016-04-01

    Azo dyes are a major class of colorants used in various industries including textile, paper and food. These dyes are regarded as pollutant since they are not readily reduced under aerobic conditions. Halomonas elongata, a halophilic bacterium, has the ability to decolorize different mono and di-azo dyes in anoxic conditions. In this study the putative azoreductase gene of H. elongata, formerly annotated as acp, was isolated, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized. The gene product, AzoH, was found to have a molecular mass of 22 kDa. The enzyme requires NADH, as an electron donor for its activity. The apparent Km was 63 μM for NADH and 12 μM for methyl red as a mono-azo dye substrate. The specific activity for methyl red was 0.27 μmol min(-1)mg(-1). The optimum enzyme activity was achieved in 50mM sodium phosphate buffer at pH 6. Although increased salinity resulted in reduced activity, AzoH could decolorize azo dye at NaCl concentrations up to 15% (w/v). The enzyme was also shown to be able to decolorize remazol black B as a representative of di-azo dyes. This is the first report describing the sequence and activity of an azo-reducing enzyme from a halophilic bacterium. PMID:26724685

  5. Emulsification potential of a newly isolated biosurfactant-producing bacterium, Rhodococcus sp. strain TA6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavandi, Mahmoud; Mohebali, Ghasemali; Haddadi, Azam; Shakarami, Heidar; Nuhi, Ashrafossadat

    2011-02-01

    An indigenous biosurfactant producing bacterium, Rhodococcus sp. strain TA6 was isolated from Iranian oil contaminated soil using an efficient enrichment and screening method. During growth on sucrose and several hydrocarbon substrates as sole carbon source, the bacterium could produce biosurfactants. As a result of biosurfactant synthesis, the surface tension of the growth medium was reduced from 68mNm(-1) to values below 30mNm(-1). The biosurfactant was capable of forming stable emulsions with various hydrocarbons ranging from pentane to light motor oil. Preliminary chemical characterization revealed that the TA6 biosurfactant consisted of extracellular lipids and glycolipids. The biosurfactant was stable during exposure to high salinity (10% NaCl), elevated temperatures (120°C for 15min) and within a wide pH range (4.0-10.0). The culture broth was effective in recovering up to 70% of the residual oil from oil-saturated sand packs which indicates the potential value of the biosurfactant in enhanced oil recovery. PMID:21030223

  6. (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Melike; Mehboob, Farrakh; van Gelder, Antonie H; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Stams, Alfons J M

    2010-09-01

    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5-0.8 microm in diameter, and 2-8 microm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37 degrees C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H(2)/CO(2) to acetate, usually as the only product. Succinate was decarboxylated to propionate. The isolate was able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, and CO(2). The G+C content of the DNA was 42.6 mol%. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain An4 was most closely related to Sporomusa ovata (98% similarity). The bacterium reduced perchlorate and chlorate completely to chloride. Key enzymes, perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, were detected in cell-free extracts. PMID:20680263

  7. Enhanced Cadmium (Cd Phytoextraction from Contaminated Soil using Cd-Resistant Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunchaya Setkit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cadmium (Cd-resistant bacterium, Micrococcus sp. MU1, is able to produce indole-3-acetic acid and promotes root elongation and plant growth. The potential of this bacterium on enhancement of Cd uptake and bioaccumulation of Cd in Helianthus annuus L. planted in Cd-contaminated soil was evaluated in greenhouse condition. The results showed that Micrococcus sp. MU1promoted the growth of H. annuus L. by increasing the root length, stem height, dry biomass, root to shoot ratio and also significantly increased Cd accumulation in the root and above-ground tissues of H. annuus L. compared to uninoculated control. Re-inoculation with Micrococcus sp. MU1in contaminated soil helped in promoting plant growth and Cd phytoextraction throughout the cultivation period. In addition, phytoextraction coefficient and translocation factor (TF of H. annuus L. inoculated with Micrococcus sp. MU1were higher than that of uninoculated control and TF continuously increased with time. Our results suggested that Micrococcus sp. MU1 has an ability to enhance plant growth and Cd uptake in H. annuus L. Synergistic interaction between Micrococcus sp. MU1 and H. annuus L. could be further applied for Cd phytoextraction in polluted areas.

  8. Melanin from the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum: a spectroscopic characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulie Banerjee

    Full Text Available Melanins, the ubiquitous hetero-polymer pigments found widely dispersed among various life forms, are usually dark brown/black in colour. Although melanins have variety of biological functions, including protection against ultraviolet radiation of sunlight and are used in medicine, cosmetics, extraction of melanin from the animal and plant kingdoms is not an easy task. Using complementary physicochemical techniques (i.e. MALDI-TOF, FTIR absorption and cross-polarization magic angle spinning solid-state (13C NMR, we report here the characterization of melanins extracted from the nitrogen-fixing non-virulent bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum, a safe viable source. Moreover, considering dihydroxyindole moiety as the main constituent, an effort is made to propose the putative molecular structure of the melanin hetero-polymer extracted from the bacterium. Characterization of the melanin obtained from Azotobacter chroococcum would provide an inspiration in extending research activities on these hetero-polymers and their use as protective agent against UV radiation.

  9. Removal of corper(II Ions from aqueous solution by a lactic acid bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yilmaz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecium, a lactic acid bacterium (LAB, was evaluated for its ability to remove copper(II ions from water. The effects of the pH, contact time, initial concentration of copper(II ions, and temperature on the biosorption rate and capacity were studied. The initial concentrations of copper(II ions used to determine the maximum amount of biosorbed copper(II ions onto lyophilised lactic acid bacterium varied from 25 mg L-1 to 500 mg L-1. Maximum biosorption capacities were attained at pH 5.0 and 6.0. Temperature variation between 20°C and 40°C did not affect the biosorption capacity of the bacterial biomass. The highest copper(II ion removal capacity was 106.4 mg per g dry biomass. The correlation regression coefficients show that the biosorption process can be well defined by the Freundlich equation. The change in biosorption capacity with time was found to fit a pseudo-second-order equation.

  10. The algae-lytic ability of bacterium DC10 and the influence of environmental factors on the ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI; Shunyu; LIU; Yongding; SHEN; Yinwu; LI; Genbao

    2005-01-01

    A lysing-bacterium DC10, isolated from Dianchi Lake of Yunnan Province, was characterized to be Pseudomonas sp. It was able to lyse some algae well, such as Microcystis viridis, Selenastrum capricornutum, and so on. In this study, it was shown that the bacterium lysed the algae by releasing a substance; the best lytic effects were achieved at Iow temperatures and in the dark. Different concentrations of CaCI2 and NaNO3 influenced the lytic effects;the ability to lyse algae decreased in the following order: pH 4 > pH 9 > pH 7 > pH 5.5. It was significant to develop a special technology with this kind of bacterium for controlling the bloomforming planktonic microalgae.

  11. Cloning of the cnr operon into a strain of Bacillaceae bacterium for the development of a suitable biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosso-Kankeu, Elvis; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Antoine F; Piater, Lizelle A; Tlou, Matsobane G

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a potential microbial biosorbent was engineered to improve its capacity to remediate heavy metal contaminated water resources. A Bacillaceae bacterium isolated from a mining area was transformed with a plasmid carrying the (pECD312)-based cnr operon that encodes nickel and cobalt resistance. The bioadsorption ability of the transformed strain was evaluated for removal of nickel from metallurgical water relative to the wildtype strain. Results showed that transformation improved the adsorption capacity of the bacterium by 37 % at nickel concentrations equivalent to 150 mg/L. Furthermore it was possible to apply prediction modelling to study the bioadsorption behaviour of the transformed strain. As such, this work may be extended to the design of a nickel bioremediation plant utilising the newly developed Bacillaceae bacterium as a biosorbent. PMID:27263009

  12. Antibacterial Property of a Coral-Associated Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea Against Shrimp Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi (In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OCKY KARNA RADJASA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A coral-associated bacterium was successfully screened for secondary metabolites production based on PCR amplification of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene and was identified as closely related to Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea based on its 16S rDNA.The bacterium was found to inhibit the growth of shrimp pathogenic bacterium tested, Vibrio harveyi. To characterize the inhibiting metabolite, a 279 bp long DNA fragment was obtained and the deduced amino acid sequence showed conserved signature regions for peptide synthetases and revealed a high similarity to NosD (40% identity, a multifunctional peptide synthetase from Nostoc sp. GSV224, and NdaB (44% identity, a peptide synthetase module of Nodularia spumigena.

  13. Co-occurrence of nitrite-dependent anaerobic ammonium and methane oxidation processes in subtropical acidic forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Han; Wang, Yong-Feng; Chan, Ho-Wang; Wu, Ruo-Nan; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) are two new processes of recent discoveries linking the microbial nitrogen and carbon cycles. In this study, 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of anammox bacteria and pmoA gene of n-damo bacteria were used to investigate their distribution and diversity in natural acidic and re-vegetated forest soils. The 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved featured at least three species in two genera known anammox bacteria, namely Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans, Candidatus Brocadia fulgida, and Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis while the pmoA gene amplified was affiliated with two species of known n-damo bacteria Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera and a newly established Candidatus Methylomirabilis sp. According to the results, the diversity of anammox bacteria in natural forests was lower than in re-vegetated forests, but no significant difference was observed in n-damo community between them. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that both anammox and n-damo bacteria were more abundant in the lower layer (10-20 cm) than the surface layer (0-5 cm). The abundance of anammox bacteria varied from 2.21 × 10(5) to 3.90 × 10(6) gene copies per gram dry soil, and n-damo bacteria quantities were between 1.69 × 10(5) and 5.07 × 10(6) gene copies per gram dry soil in the two different layers. Both anammox and n-damo bacteria are reported for the first time to co-occur in acidic forest soil in this study, providing a more comprehensive information on more defined microbial processes contributing to C and N cycles in the ecosystems. PMID:27178181

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter spp. MR1, Isolated from Drought Tolerant Plant (Butea monosperma)

    OpenAIRE

    Parakhia, Manoj V.; Tomar, Rukam S.; Malaviya, Bipin J.; Dhingani, Rashmin M.; Rathod, Visha M.; Thakkar, Jalpa R.; Golakiya, B. A.

    2013-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. MR1 an endophytic plant growth promoting bacterium was isolated from the roots of Butea monosperma, a drought tolerant plant. Genome sequencing of Enterobacter spp. MR1 was carried out in Ion Torrent (PGM), Next Generation Sequencer. The data obtained revealed 640 contigs with genome size of 4.58 Mb and G+C content of 52.8 %. This bacterium may contain genes responsible for inducing drought tolerance in plant, including genes for phosphate solubilization, growth hormones and ...

  15. Bacterium-like Particles for efficient immune stimulation of existing vaccines and new subunit vaccines in mucosal applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija eVan Braeckel-Budimir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The successful development of a mucosal vaccine critically depends on the use of a safe and effective immunostimulant and/or carrier system. This review describes the effectiveness and mode of action of an immunostimulating particle derived from bacteria in mucosal subunit vaccines. The non-living particles, designated Bacterium-like Particles (BLPs are based on the food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis. The focus of the overview is on the development of intranasal BLP-based vaccines to prevent diseases caused by influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, and includes a selection of Phase I clinical data for the intranasal FluGEM vaccine.

  16. Bacterium-Like Particles for Efficient Immune Stimulation of Existing Vaccines and New Subunit Vaccines in Mucosal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Braeckel-Budimir, Natalija; Haijema, Bert Jan; Leenhouts, Kees

    2013-01-01

    The successful development of a mucosal vaccine depends critically on the use of a safe and effective immunostimulant and/or carrier system. This review describes the effectiveness and mode of action of an immunostimulating particle, derived from bacteria, used in mucosal subunit vaccines. The non-living particles, designated bacterium-like particles are based on the food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis. The focus of the overview is on the development of intranasal BLP-based vaccines to prevent diseases caused by influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, and includes a selection of Phase I clinical data for the intranasal FluGEM vaccine. PMID:24062748

  17. Dehalobacter restrictus gen. nov. and sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic bacterium that reductively dechlorinates tetra- and trichloroethene in an anaerobic respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holliger, C; Hahn, D; Harmsen, H; Ludwig, W; Schumacher, W; Tindall, B; Vazquez, F; Weiss, N; Zehnder, AJB

    1998-01-01

    The highly enriched anaerobic bacterium that couples the reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene to growth, previously referred to as PER-K23, was obtained in pure culture and characterized. The bacterium, which does not form spores, is a small, gram-negative rod with one lateral flagellum. It

  18. High Prevalence of Antibodies against the Bacterium Treponema pallidum in Senegalese Guinea Baboons (Papio papio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Knauf

    Full Text Available The bacterium Treponema pallidum is known to cause syphilis (ssp. pallidum, yaws (ssp. pertenue, and endemic syphilis (ssp. endemicum in humans. Nonhuman primates have also been reported to be infected with the bacterium with equally versatile clinical manifestations, from severe skin ulcerations to asymptomatic. At present all simian strains are closely related to human yaws-causing strains, an important consideration for yaws eradication. We tested clinically healthy Guinea baboons (Papio papio at Parc National Niokolo Koba in south eastern Senegal for the presence of anti-T. pallidum antibodies. Since T. pallidum infection in this species was identified 50 years ago, and there has been no attempt to treat non-human primates for infection, it was hypothesized that a large number of West African baboons are still infected with simian strains of the yaws-bacterium. All animals were without clinical signs of treponematoses, but 18 of 20 (90% baboons tested positive for antibodies against T. pallidum based on treponemal tests. Yet, Guinea baboons seem to develop no clinical symptoms, though it must be assumed that infection is chronic or comparable to the latent stage in human yaws infection. The non-active character is supported by the low anti-T. pallidum serum titers in Guinea baboons (median = 1:2,560 versus serum titers that are found in genital-ulcerated olive baboons with active infection in Tanzania (range of medians among the groups of initial, moderate, and severe infected animals = 1:15,360 to 1:2.097e+7. Our findings provide evidence for simian infection with T. pallidum in wild Senegalese baboons. Potentially, Guinea baboons in West Africa serve as a natural reservoir for human infection, as the West African simian strain has been shown to cause sustainable yaws infection when inoculated into humans. The present study pinpoints an area where further research is needed to support the currently on-going second WHO led yaws eradication

  19. High Prevalence of Antibodies against the Bacterium Treponema pallidum in Senegalese Guinea Baboons (Papio papio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Sascha; Barnett, Ulrike; Maciej, Peter; Klapproth, Matthias; Ndao, Ibrahima; Frischmann, Sieghard; Fischer, Julia; Zinner, Dietmar; Liu, Hsi

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Treponema pallidum is known to cause syphilis (ssp. pallidum), yaws (ssp. pertenue), and endemic syphilis (ssp. endemicum) in humans. Nonhuman primates have also been reported to be infected with the bacterium with equally versatile clinical manifestations, from severe skin ulcerations to asymptomatic. At present all simian strains are closely related to human yaws-causing strains, an important consideration for yaws eradication. We tested clinically healthy Guinea baboons (Papio papio) at Parc National Niokolo Koba in south eastern Senegal for the presence of anti-T. pallidum antibodies. Since T. pallidum infection in this species was identified 50 years ago, and there has been no attempt to treat non-human primates for infection, it was hypothesized that a large number of West African baboons are still infected with simian strains of the yaws-bacterium. All animals were without clinical signs of treponematoses, but 18 of 20 (90%) baboons tested positive for antibodies against T. pallidum based on treponemal tests. Yet, Guinea baboons seem to develop no clinical symptoms, though it must be assumed that infection is chronic or comparable to the latent stage in human yaws infection. The non-active character is supported by the low anti-T. pallidum serum titers in Guinea baboons (median = 1:2,560) versus serum titers that are found in genital-ulcerated olive baboons with active infection in Tanzania (range of medians among the groups of initial, moderate, and severe infected animals = 1:15,360 to 1:2.097e+7). Our findings provide evidence for simian infection with T. pallidum in wild Senegalese baboons. Potentially, Guinea baboons in West Africa serve as a natural reservoir for human infection, as the West African simian strain has been shown to cause sustainable yaws infection when inoculated into humans. The present study pinpoints an area where further research is needed to support the currently on-going second WHO led yaws eradication campaign with

  20. Metabolism of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol in a Gram-positive bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. PMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Pankaj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloronitrophenols (CNPs are widely used in the synthesis of dyes, drugs and pesticides, and constitute a major group of environmental pollutants. 4-Chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP is an isomer of CNPs that has been detected in various industrial effluents. A number of physicochemical methods have been used for treatment of wastewater containing 4C2NP. These methods are not as effective as microbial degradation, however. Results A 4C2NP-degrading bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. PMA, which uses 4C2NP as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from a chemically-contaminated site in India. Exiguobacterium sp. PMA degraded 4C2NP with the release of stoichiometeric amounts of chloride and ammonium ions. The effects of different substrate concentrations and various inoculum sizes on degradation of 4C2NP were investigated. Exiguobacterium sp. PMA degraded 4C2NP up to a concentration of 0.6 mM. High performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry identified 4-chloro-2-aminophenol (4C2AP and 2-aminophenol (2AP as possible metabolites of the 4C2NP degradation pathway. The crude extract of 4C2NP-induced PMA cells contained enzymatic activity for 4C2NP reductase and 4C2AP dehalogenase, suggesting the involvement of these enzymes in the degradation of 4C2NP. Microcosm studies using sterile and non-sterile soils spiked with 4C2NP were carried out to monitor the bioremediation potential of Exiguobacterium sp. PMA. The bioremediation of 4C2NP by Exiguobacterium sp. PMA was faster in non-sterilized soil than sterilized soil. Conclusions Our studies indicate that Exiguobacterium sp. PMA may be useful for the bioremediation of 4C2NP-contaminated sites. This is the first report of (i the formation of 2AP in the 4C2NP degradation pathway by any bacterium and (iii the bioremediation of 4C2NP by any bacterium.

  1. Isolation of pigmentation mutants of the green filamentous photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutants deficient in the production of bateriochlorophyll c (Bchl c) and one mutant lacking colored carotenoids were isolated from the filamentous gliding bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus, Mutagenesis was achieved by using UV radiation or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Several clones were isolated that were deficient in Bchl c synthesis. All reverted. One double mutant deficient both in Bchl c synthesis and in the synthesis of colored carotenoids under anaerobic conditions was isolated. Isolation of a revertant in Bchl c synthesis from this double mutant produced a mutant strain of Chloroflexus that grew photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions and lacked colored carotenoids. Analysis of pigment contents and growth rates of the mutants revealed a positive association between growth rate and content of Bchl c under light-limiting conditions. 11 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  2. Two-dimensional gel-based alkaline proteome of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Avishek; Cai, Liyang; Ejby, Morten; Schmidt, Bjarne G; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Jacobsen, Susanne; Svensson, Birte

    2012-04-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) is a well-documented probiotic bacterium isolated from human gut. Detailed 2D gel-based NCFM proteomics addressed the so-called alkaline range, i.e., pH 6-11. Proteins were identified in 150 of the 202 spots picked from the Coomassie Brilliant Blue stained 2D gel using MALDI-TOF-MS. The 102 unique gene products among the 150 protein identifications were assigned to different functional categories, and evaluated by considering a calculated distribution of abundance as well as grand average of hydrophobicity values. None of the very few available lactic acid bacteria proteome reference maps included the range of pI >7.0. The present report of such data on the proteome of NCFM fundamentally complements current knowledge on protein profiles limited to the acid and neutral pH range. PMID:22522807

  3. A Mutant Strain of a Surfactant-Producing Bacterium with Increased Emulsification Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qingmei; Yao Jianming; Pan Renrui; Yu Zengliang

    2005-01-01

    As reported in this paper, a strain of oil-degrading bacterium Sp- 5- 3 was determined to belong to Enterobacteriaceae, which would be useful for microbial enhanced oil recovery(MEOR). The aim of our study was to generate a mutant using low energy N+ beam implantation. With 10 keV of energy and 5.2 × 10TM N+/cm2 of dose - the optimum condition, a mutant,S - 34, was obtained, which had nearly a 5-fold higher surface and a 13-fold higher of emulsification activity than the wild type. The surface activity was measured by two methods, namely, a surface tension measuring instrument and a recording of the repulsive circle of the oil film; the emulsification activity was scaled through measuring the separating time of the oil-fermentation mixture. The metabolic acid was determined as methane by means of gas chromatography.

  4. A Mutant Strain of a Surfactant-Producing Bacterium with Increased Emulsification Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingmei; Yao, Jianming; Pan, Renrui; Yu, Zengliang

    2005-06-01

    As reported in this paper, a strain of oil-degrading bacterium Sp-5-3 was determined to belong to Enterobacteriaceae, which would be useful for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The aim of our study was to generate a mutant using low energy N+ beam implantation. With 10 keV of energy and 5.2 × 1014 N+/cm2 of dose - the optimum condition, a mutant, S-34, was obtained, which had nearly a 5-fold higher surface and a 13-fold higher of emulsification activity than the wild type. The surface activity was measured by two methods, namely, a surface tension measuring instrument and a recording of the repulsive circle of the oil film; the emulsification activity was scaled through measuring the separating time of the oil-fermentation mixture. The metabolic acid was determined as methane by means of gas chromatography.

  5. A Marine Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Producing Multiple Antibiotics: Biological and Chemical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Wang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A marine sulfate-reducing bacterium SRB-22 was isolated by means of the agar shake dilution method and identified as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans by morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA analysis. In the bioassay, its extract showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity using the paper disc agar diffusion method. This isolate showed a different antimicrobial profile than either ampicillin or nystatin and was found to produce at least eight antimicrobial components by bioautography. Suitable fermentation conditions for production of the active constituents were determined to be 28 day cultivation at 25 °C to 30 °C with a 10% inoculation ratio. Under these conditions, the SRB-22 was fermented, extracted and chemically investigated. So far an antimicrobial compound, mono-n-butyl phthalate, and an inactive compound, thymine, have been isolated and characterized.

  6. Genome sequence of the marine bacterium Corynebacterium maris type strain Coryn-1(T) (= DSM 45190(T)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffert, Lena; Albersmeier, Andreas; Bednarz, Hanna; Niehaus, Karsten; Kalinowski, Jörn; Rückert, Christian

    2013-07-30

    Corynebacterium maris Coryn-1(T) Ben-Dov et al. 2009 is a member of the genus Corynebacterium which contains Gram-positive, non-spore forming bacteria with a high G+C content. C. maris was isolated from the mucus of the Scleractinian coral Fungia granulosa and belongs to the aerobic and non-haemolytic corynebacteria. It displays tolerance to salts (up to 10%) and is related to the soil bacterium Corynebacterium halotolerans. As this is a type strain in a subgroup of Corynebacterium without complete genome sequences, this project, describing the 2.78 Mbp long chromosome and the 45.97 kbp plasmid pCmaris1, with their 2,584 protein-coding and 67 RNA genes, will aid the G enomic E ncyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. PMID:24501635

  7. The Antitumor Components from Marine-derived Bacterium Streptoverticillium luteoverticillatum 11014 Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dehai; ZHU Tianjiao; FANG Yuchun; LIU Hongbing; GU Qianqun; ZHU Weiming

    2007-01-01

    Eight known compounds were isolated from a marine-derived bacterium Streptoverticillium luteoverticillatum 11014 using bioassay-guided fractionations. Their structures were identified by spectral analysis as bis (4-hydroxybenzyl) ether (1), p-hydroxyphenylethyl alcohol (2), N-(4-hydroxyphenethyl) acetamide (3), indole-3 carboxylic acid methyl ester (4), dibenzo[b,e] [1,4]dioxine (5), thymine (6), cytosine deoxyribonucleoside (7) and 2, 3-butanediol (8). These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against K562 cell line with the SRB method for the first time. Compounds 2 and 4 showed cytotoxcities with IC50 values of 101.1 and 165.3 μmolL-1, respectively. All compounds were isolated from S. luteoverticillatum 11014 for the first time.

  8. Analysis of convergent gene transcripts in the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia prowazekii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Woodard

    Full Text Available Termination of transcription is an important component of bacterial gene expression. However, little is known concerning this process in the obligate intracellular pathogen and model for reductive evolution, Rickettsia prowazekii. To assess transcriptional termination in this bacterium, transcripts of convergent gene pairs, some containing predicted intrinsic terminators, were analyzed. These analyses revealed that, rather than terminating at a specific site within the intervening region between the convergent genes, most of the transcripts demonstrated either a lack of termination within this region, which generated antisense RNA, or a putative non-site-specific termination that occurred throughout the intervening sequence. Transcripts terminating at predicted intrinsic terminators, as well as at a putative Rho-dependant terminator, were also examined and found to vary based on the rickettsial host environment. These results suggest that transcriptional termination, or lack thereof, plays a role in rickettsial gene regulation.

  9. Plague bacterium as a transformer species in prairie dogs and the grasslands of western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A; Biggins, Dean E

    2015-08-01

    Invasive transformer species change the character, condition, form, or nature of ecosystems and deserve considerable attention from conservation scientists. We applied the transformer species concept to the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis in western North America, where the pathogen was introduced around 1900. Y. pestis transforms grassland ecosystems by severely depleting the abundance of prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) and thereby causing declines in native species abundance and diversity, including threatened and endangered species; altering food web connections; altering the import and export of nutrients; causing a loss of ecosystem resilience to encroaching invasive plants; and modifying prairie dog burrows. Y. pestis poses an important challenge to conservation biologists because it causes trophic-level perturbations that affect the stability of ecosystems. Unfortunately, understanding of the effects of Y. pestis on ecosystems is rudimentary, highlighting an acute need for continued research. PMID:25817984

  10. The glucose transport system of the hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galperin, M.Y.; Noll, K.M.; Romano, A.H. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The glucose transport system of the extremely thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana was studied with the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DOG). T. neapolitana accumulated 2-DOG against a concentration gradient in an intracellular free sugar pool that was exchangeable with external D-glucose. This active transport of 2-DOG was dependent upon the presence of sodium ion and an external source of energy, such as pyruvate, and was inhibited by arsenate and gramicidin D. There was no phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphorylation of glucose, 2-DOG, or fructose by cell extracts or toluene-treated cells, indicating the absence of a phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system. These data indicate that D-glucose is taken up by T.neapolitana via an active transport system that is energized by an ion gradient generated by ATP, derived from substrate-level phosphorylation. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Microbially influenced corrosion of stainless steel by marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens: (I) Corrosion behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Sha; Tian Jintao [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Chen Shougang, E-mail: sgchen@ouc.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Lei Yanhua; Chang Xueting; Liu Tao [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Yin Yansheng, E-mail: yys2006@ouc.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2009-04-30

    The microbially influenced corrosion of stainless steel (SS) by marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens (V. natriegens) was investigated using surface analysis (atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA)) and electrochemical techniques (the open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potentiodynamic polarization curves ). AFM images corroborated the results from the EIS models which show biofilm attachment and subsequent detachment over time. The SEM images revealed the occurrence of micro-pitting corrosion underneath the biofilms on the metal surface after the biofilm removal. The presence of carbon, oxygen, phosphor and sulfur obtained from EDXA proved the formation of biofilm. The electrochemical results showed that the corrosion of SS was accelerated in the presence of V. natriegens based on the decrease in the resistance of the charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) obtained from EIS and the increase in corrosion current densities obtained from potentiodynamic polarization curves.

  12. Microbially influenced corrosion of 303 stainless steel by marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens: (II) Corrosion mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Yansheng, E-mail: yys2006@ouc.edu.cn [Institute of Ocean Materials and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 200135 (China); Cheng Sha [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Chen Shougang, E-mail: sgchen@ouc.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Tian Jintao; Liu Tao; Chang Xueting [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2009-04-30

    Electrochemical techniques (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization curves) and surface analysis (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) were carried out to determine the possible mechanism of the microbially influenced corrosion of 303 stainless steel (303 SS) by marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens (V. natriegens). In order to clarify the mechanism, 303 SS coupons were immersed in four different mediums. EIS results were interpreted with different equivalent circuits to model the physicoelectric characteristics of the electrode/biofilm/solution interface. The results showed that N{sub 2}-fixation actually promoted the corrosion of 303 SS; however, the influence of the produced NH{sub 3} was negligible. It can be speculated that the electron transfer and/or the nitrogenase catalyzing the process may influence the corrosion.

  13. Uncoupling effect of fatty acids in halo- and alkalotolerant bacterium Bacillus pseudofirmus FTU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, I V; Bodrova, M E; Mokhova, E N; Muntyan, M S

    2004-10-01

    Natural uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, long-chain non-esterified fatty acids, cause uncoupling in the alkalo- and halotolerant bacterium Bacillus pseudofirmus FTU. The uncoupling effect in the bacterial cells was manifested as decrease of membrane potential and increase of respiratory activity. The membrane potential decrease was detected only in bacterial cells exhausted by their endogenous substrates. In proteoliposomes containing reconstituted bacterial cytochrome c oxidase, fatty acids caused a "mild" uncoupling effect by reducing membrane potential only at low rate of membrane potential generation. "Free respiration" induced by the "mild" uncouplers, the fatty acids, can be considered as possible mechanism responsible for adaptation of the bacteria to a constantly changed environment. PMID:15527418

  14. Vibrio ruber (S2A1, a Marine Bacterium that Exhibits Significant Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Norhana, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A potential antimicrobial-producing marine bacterium, designated as S2A1, was isolated from a seagrass collected in Setiu Lagoon, Terengganu. S2A1 was a Gram negative rod that was motile by means of a polar flagellum. Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation indicated that strain S2A1 represented a species in the genus Vibrio. The antimicrobial activities of S2A1 against a number of test microorganisms showed a broad antimicrobial spectrum property with inhibition towards 25 out of 29 test microorganisms. The antimicrobial compound(s of S2A1 was more effective against Gram-positive bacteria with 100% inhibition, compared to yeast (88.8% and Gram-negative bacteria (75.0% tested. High activity scores were observed when using whole cells compared to cell free extract.

  15. Microbially influenced corrosion of 303 stainless steel by marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens: (II) Corrosion mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical techniques (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization curves) and surface analysis (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) were carried out to determine the possible mechanism of the microbially influenced corrosion of 303 stainless steel (303 SS) by marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens (V. natriegens). In order to clarify the mechanism, 303 SS coupons were immersed in four different mediums. EIS results were interpreted with different equivalent circuits to model the physicoelectric characteristics of the electrode/biofilm/solution interface. The results showed that N2-fixation actually promoted the corrosion of 303 SS; however, the influence of the produced NH3 was negligible. It can be speculated that the electron transfer and/or the nitrogenase catalyzing the process may influence the corrosion.

  16. Microbially influenced corrosion of stainless steel by marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens: (I) Corrosion behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microbially influenced corrosion of stainless steel (SS) by marine bacterium Vibrio natriegens (V. natriegens) was investigated using surface analysis (atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA)) and electrochemical techniques (the open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potentiodynamic polarization curves ). AFM images corroborated the results from the EIS models which show biofilm attachment and subsequent detachment over time. The SEM images revealed the occurrence of micro-pitting corrosion underneath the biofilms on the metal surface after the biofilm removal. The presence of carbon, oxygen, phosphor and sulfur obtained from EDXA proved the formation of biofilm. The electrochemical results showed that the corrosion of SS was accelerated in the presence of V. natriegens based on the decrease in the resistance of the charge transfer resistance (Rct) obtained from EIS and the increase in corrosion current densities obtained from potentiodynamic polarization curves.

  17. A cultured greigite-producing magnetotactic bacterium in a novel group of sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Christopher T; Menguy, Nicolas; Abreu, Fernanda; Lins, Ulysses; Pósfai, Mihály; Prozorov, Tanya; Pignol, David; Frankel, Richard B; Bazylinski, Dennis A

    2011-12-23

    Magnetotactic bacteria contain magnetosomes--intracellular, membrane-bounded, magnetic nanocrystals of magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) or greigite (Fe(3)S(4))--that cause the bacteria to swim along geomagnetic field lines. We isolated a greigite-producing magnetotactic bacterium from a brackish spring in Death Valley National Park, California, USA, strain BW-1, that is able to biomineralize greigite and magnetite depending on culture conditions. A phylogenetic comparison of BW-1 and similar uncultured greigite- and/or magnetite-producing magnetotactic bacteria from freshwater to hypersaline habitats shows that these organisms represent a previously unknown group of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the Deltaproteobacteria. Genomic analysis of BW-1 reveals the presence of two different magnetosome gene clusters, suggesting that one may be responsible for greigite biomineralization and the other for magnetite. PMID:22194580

  18. An outbreak in 1965 of severe respiratory illness caused by the Legionnaires' disease bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, S B; Bennett, J V; Tsai, T F; Fraser, D W; McDade, J E; Shepard, C C; Williams, K H; Stuart, W H; Dull, H B; Eickhoff, T C

    1978-10-01

    In January 1977 an unsolved outbreak of infection at St. Elizabeth's Hospital (Washington, D.C.) that occurred in 1965 was linked with Legionnaires' disease. The link was made by fluorescent antibody testing with the bacterium isolated from tissues of persons with Legionnaires' disease in the 1976 outbreak in Philadelphia. In July and August 1965, an epidemic of severe respiratory disease characterized by abrupt onset of high fever, weakness, malaise, and nonproductive cough, frequently accompanied by radiographic evidence of pneumonia, affected at least 81 patients at St. Elizabeth's Hospital, a general psychiatric hospital. Fourteen (17%) of the affected patients died. Intensive epidemiologic and laboratory investigations in 1965 did not determine the etiology. The etiologic organism may have become airborne from sites of soil excavation. PMID:361897

  19. DNA Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression in Antifungal Bacterium of Bacillus lenthmorbus WJ5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This simultaneous expression levels of antifungal activity related was analyzed by DNA microarray. We constructured DNA chips contained 2,000 randomly digested genome spots of the antifungal bacterium of Bacillus lentimorbus WJ5 and compared it squantitative aspect with 7 antifungal activity deficient mutants induced by gamma radiation . From the analysis of microarray hybridization by the Gene Cluster, totally 408 genes were expressed and 20 genes among them were significantly suppressed in mutants. pbuX, ywbA, ptsG,yufO, and ftsY were simultaneously down-regulated in all muatants. It suggested that they were supposed to be related to the antifungal activity of B. lentimorbus WJ5

  20. Brevibacterium rufescens nov. comb. , a facultative anaerobic methylotrophic bacterium from oil-bearing strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazina, T.N.

    1981-03-01

    The paper presents the results of studying the bacterial population from the microaerophilic zone of oil-bearing strata of the Apsheron Peninsula. The incidence of bacteria capable of growing at the account of organic substances present in stratal water could reach dozens of thousands of cells in 1 ml. A bacterium predominant in the bacterial cenosis of the microaerophilic zone was islated as a pure culture. A new combination, Brevibacterium rufescens nov. comb. was created on the basis of morphological, physiologo-biochemical properties and the GC content in the DNA of the organism under study. The microorganism is adapted to its habitat in a number of properties. The necessity of recreating the genus Brevibacterium is discussed.

  1. UV-induced variability of the amylolytic thermophilic bacterium Bacillus diastaticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV-induced variability of a thermophilic bacterium Bacillus diastaticus 13 by amylase formation has been studied. It has been shown, that variability limits in amylase biosynthesis vary from 2.2 to 158.7% under UV irradiation. At 41.8x102 erg/mm2 UV dose a ''plus-variant'' designated as the UV1 mutant has been prepared. Its subsequent selection without using mutagene permitted to select the UV 1-25 variant, exceeding the initial strain in amylase biosynthesis by 43.3%. Under UV irradiation two low-active in biosynthesis amylases of the mutant were prepared. Demands for growth factors of some mutant have been studied as well

  2. Triplet excited state spectra and dynamics of carotenoids from the thermophilic purple photosynthetic bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Blankenship, R. E.

    2011-01-13

    Light-harvesting complex 2 from the anoxygenic phototrophic purple bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum was purified and studied by steady-state absorption, fluorescence and flash photolysis spectroscopy. Steady-state absorption and fluorescence measurements show that carotenoids play a negligible role as supportive energy donors and transfer excitation to bacteriochlorophyll-a with low energy transfer efficiency of ~30%. HPLC analysis determined that the dominant carotenoids in the complex are rhodopin and spirilloxanthin. Carotenoid excited triplet state formation upon direct (carotenoid) or indirect (bacteriochlorophyll-a Q{sub x} band) excitation shows that carotenoid triplets are mostly localized on spirilloxanthin. In addition, no triplet excitation transfer between carotenoids was observed. Such specific carotenoid composition and spectroscopic results strongly suggest that this organism optimized carotenoid composition in the light-harvesting complex 2 in order to maximize photoprotective capabilities of carotenoids but subsequently drastically suppressed their supporting role in light-harvesting process.

  3. Structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase has been determined to 1.72 Å resolution and is presented with a brief comparison to other known ribose 5-phosphate isomerase A structures. The structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius UCC188 has been determined at 1.72 Å resolution. The structure was solved by molecular replacement, which identified the functional homodimer in the asymmetric unit. Despite only showing 57% sequence identity to its closest homologue, the structure adopted the typical α and β d-ribose 5-phosphate isomerase fold. Comparison to other related structures revealed high homology in the active site, allowing a model of the substrate-bound protein to be proposed. The determination of the structure was expedited by the use of in situ crystallization-plate screening on beamline I04-1 at Diamond Light Source to identify well diffracting protein crystals prior to routine cryocrystallography

  4. Separation and characterization of a radioresistant bacterium strain BR501 from radiation polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain BR501, an extremely radioresistant bacterium isolated from the radioactive experimental soil. The optimal temperature for the growth of strain BR501 was 30 degree C. The UV radiation and γ-radiation survival curves showed the strain BR501 had highly radio-resistance. The strain was sensitive to Amp, Km, Rif, Cm and Tc. The 16S rDNA of the BR501 shared highly similarity to those of species in genus Deinococcus, especially to that of D.radiodurans r1(99%). Based on the 16S rDNA sequence analysis and the phenotype characteristics, the BR501 belongs to the evolution branch of Deinococcus and was designated Deinococcus sp. BR501. (authors)

  5. Extraction and physicochemical characteristics of a red pigment produced by marine bacterium strain S-9801

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田黎; 何培青; 刘晨临; 边际; 苗金来

    2002-01-01

    -- A red pigment that has better biological properties is produced by marine bacterium strain S- 9801. The extraction methods, physicochemical and toxicity of the pigment have been studied.Dissolubility of pigment in the five organic solvent has been tested, and ethanol is optimally chosen for extraction. Physicochemical characteristics of this pigment was stable. The absorbance of the pigment solution was no losing when put under natural light for 10 days or treated by UV for 30 minutes, color of the pigment unchanged after 100 ℃ hythere for 1 h or 80 ℃ xerother for 2 h. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the rat by celiac injection was 670.04 mg/kg and minimum lethal dose of oral was greater than 2 000 mg/kg.

  6. Genetic manipulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Maresca, Julia A; Yunker, Colleen E;

    2004-01-01

    The green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum is a strict anaerobe and an obligate photoautotroph. On the basis of sequence similarity with known enzymes or sequence motifs, nine open reading frames encoding putative enzymes of carotenoid biosynthesis were identified in the genome sequence of C....... tepidum, and all nine genes were inactivated. Analysis of the carotenoid composition in the resulting mutants allowed the genes encoding the following six enzymes to be identified: phytoene synthase (crtB/CT1386), phytoene desaturase (crtP/CT0807), zeta-carotene desaturase (crtQ/CT1414), gamma......-carotene desaturase (crtU/CT0323), carotenoid 1',2'-hydratase (crtC/CT0301), and carotenoid cis-trans isomerase (crtH/CT0649). Three mutants (CT0180, CT1357, and CT1416 mutants) did not exhibit a discernible phenotype. The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in C. tepidum is similar to that in cyanobacteria and plants...

  7. Bioluminescent reporter bacterium for toxicity monitoring in biological wastewater treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, C.J.; Lajoie, C.A.; Layton, A.C.; Sayler, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    Toxic shock due to certain chemical loads in biological wastewater treatment systems can result in death of microorganisms and loss of floc structure. To overcome the limitations of existing approaches to toxicity monitoring, genes encoding enzymes for light production were inserted to a bacterium (Shk 1) isolated from activated sludge. The Shk 1 bioreporter indicated a toxic response to concentrations of cadmium, 2,4-dinitrophenol, and hydroquinone by reductions in initial levels of bioluminescence on exposure to the toxicant. The decrease in bioluminescence was more severe with increasing toxicant concentration. Bioluminescence did not decrease in response to ethanol concentrations up to 1,000 mg/L or to pH conditions between 6.1 and 7.9. A continuous toxicity monitoring system using this bioreporter was developed for influent wastewater and tested with hydroquinone. The reporter exhibited a rapid and proportional decrease in bioluminescence in response to increasing hydroquinone concentrations.

  8. Genomic Sequence of Burkholderia multivorans NKI379, a Soil Bacterium That Inhibits the Growth of Burkholderia pseudomallei

    OpenAIRE

    Hsueh, Pei-Tan; Liu, Jong-Kang; Chen, Ya-Lei; Liu, Pei-Ju; Ni, Wen-Fan; Chen, Yao-Shen; Wu, Keh-Ming; Lin, Hsi-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia multivorans NKI379 is a soil bacterium that exhibits an antagonistic effect against the growth of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of the infectious disease melioidosis. We report the draft genomic sequence of B. multivorans NKI379, which has a G+C content of 67% and 5,203 candidate protein-encoding genes.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus salivarius HSISS4, a Human Commensal Bacterium Highly Prevalent in the Digestive Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Mignolet, Johann; Fontaine, Laetitia; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The human commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius plays a major role in the equilibrium of microbial communities of the digestive tract. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of a Streptococcus salivarius strain isolated from the small intestine, namely, HSISS4. Its circular chromosome comprises 1,903 coding sequences and 2,100,988 nucleotides.

  10. Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus sp. nov., an anaerobic, extreme thermophilic, high ethanol-yielding bacterium isolated from household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás, Ana Faria; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    An extremely thermophilic, xylanolytic, spore-forming and strict anaerobic bacterium DTU01(T) was isolated from a continuously stirred tank reactor fed with xylose and household waste. Cells stained Gram-negative and were rod-shaped (0.5-2 µm in length). Spores were terminal with a diameter...

  11. Marinimicrobium haloxylanilyticum sp. nov., a new moderately halophilic, polysaccharide-degrading bacterium isolated from Great Salt Lake, Utah

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh Møller, Mette; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2010-01-01

    A new moderately halophilic, strictly aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, strain SX15T, was isolated from hypersaline surface sediment of the southern arm of Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA). The strain grew on a number of carbohydrates and carbohydrate polymers such as xylan, starch, carboxymethyl...

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of the Bacterium Aalborg_AAW-1, Representing a Novel Family within the Candidate Phylum SR1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; Albertsen, Mads; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel;

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the candidate phylum SR1 bacterium Aalborg_AAW-1. Its 16S rRNA gene is only 85.5% similar to that of the closest relative, RAAC1_SR1, and the genome of Aalborg_AAW-1 consequently represents the first of a novel family within the candidate phylum SR1....

  13. Concentration and Transport of Nitrate by the Mat-Forming Sulfur Bacterium Thioploca Rid E-1821-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FOSSING, H.; GALLARDO, VA; JØRGENSEN, BB;

    1995-01-01

    , at between 40 and 280 m water depth. The metabolism of this marine bacterium(5,6) remained a mystery until long after its discovery(1,7). We report here that Thioploca cells are able to concentrate nitrate to up to 500 mM in a liquid vacuole that occupies >80% of the cell volume. Gliding filaments transport...

  14. Thermoregulation of N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone-Based Quorum Sensing in the Soft Rot Bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum▿

    OpenAIRE

    Latour, Xavier; Diallo, Stéphanie; Chevalier, Sylvie; Morin, Danièle; Smadja, Bruno; Burini, Jean-François; Haras, Dominique; Orange, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    The psychrotolerant bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum produces four N-acyl homoserine lactones under a wide range of temperatures. Their thermoregulation differs from that of the exoenzyme production, described as being under quorum-sensing control. A mechanism involved in this thermoregulation consists of controlling N-acyl homoserine lactones synthase production at a transcriptional level.

  15. Extraction of DNA from orange juice and detection of bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus by real-time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange juice processed from Huanglongbing (HLB) affected fruit is often associated with bitter taste and/or off-flavor. HLB disease in Florida is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), a phloem limited bacterium. The current standard to confirm CLas for citrus trees is to take sam...

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Photorhabdus luminescens Strain BA1, an Entomopathogenic Bacterium Isolated from Nematodes Found in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, Shimaa; Hurst, Sheldon G; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Badr, Usama M; Hussein, Mona A; Abouzaied, Mohamed A; Khalil, Kamal M; Tisa, Louis S

    2014-01-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens strain BA1 is an entomopathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiotic association with Heterorhabditis nematodes. We report here a 5.0-Mbp draft genome sequence for P. luminscens strain BA1, with a G+C content of 42.46% and 4,250 candidate protein-coding genes. PMID:24786955

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Photorhabdus temperata Strain Meg1, an Entomopathogenic Bacterium Isolated from Heterorhabditis megidis Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst, Sheldon G.; Ghazal, Shimaa; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Badr, Usama M.; Hussein, Mona A.; AbouZaied, Mohamed A.; Khalil, Kamal M.; Tisa, Louis S.

    2014-01-01

    Photorhabdus temperata strain Meg1 is an entomopathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiotic association with Heterorhabditis nematodes. We report here a 4.9-Mbp draft genome sequence for P. temperata strain Meg1, with a G+C content of 43.18% and containing 4,340 candidate protein-coding genes.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Photorhabdus temperata Strain Meg1, an Entomopathogenic Bacterium Isolated from Heterorhabditis megidis Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Sheldon G; Ghazal, Shimaa; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Badr, Usama M; Hussein, Mona A; AbouZaied, Mohamed A; Khalil, Kamal M; Tisa, Louis S

    2014-01-01

    Photorhabdus temperata strain Meg1 is an entomopathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiotic association with Heterorhabditis nematodes. We report here a 4.9-Mbp draft genome sequence for P. temperata strain Meg1, with a G+C content of 43.18% and containing 4,340 candidate protein-coding genes. PMID:25502670

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Photorhabdus luminescens Strain BA1, an Entomopathogenic Bacterium Isolated from Nematodes Found in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazal, Shimaa; Hurst, Sheldon G.; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Badr, Usama M.; Hussein, Mona A.; AbouZaied, Mohamed A.; Khalil, Kamal M.; Tisa, Louis S.

    2014-01-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens strain BA1 is an entomopathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiotic association with Heterorhabditis nematodes. We report here a 5.0-Mbp draft genome sequence for P. luminscens strain BA1, with a G+C content of 42.46% and 4,250 candidate protein-coding genes.

  20. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of the Keratinolytic Bacterium Lysobacter sp. A03, Isolated from the Antarctic Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Jamile Queiroz; Ambrosini, Adriana; Sant’Anna, Fernando Hayashi; Tadra-Sfeir, Michele; Faoro, Helisson; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Adriano BRANDELLI; Passaglia, Luciane M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Lysobacter sp. strain A03 is a protease-producing bacterium isolated from decomposing-penguin feathers collected in the Antarctic environment. This strain has the ability to degrade keratin at low temperatures. The A03 genome sequence provides the possibility of finding new genes with biotechnological potential to better understand its cold-adaptation mechanism and survival in cold environments.

  1. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of the Keratinolytic Bacterium Lysobacter sp. A03, Isolated from the Antarctic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jamile Queiroz; Ambrosini, Adriana; Sant'Anna, Fernando Hayashi; Tadra-Sfeir, Michele; Faoro, Helisson; Pedrosa, Fábio Oliveira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Brandelli, Adriano; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2015-01-01

    Lysobacter sp. strain A03 is a protease-producing bacterium isolated from decomposing-penguin feathers collected in the Antarctic environment. This strain has the ability to degrade keratin at low temperatures. The A03 genome sequence provides the possibility of finding new genes with biotechnological potential to better understand its cold-adaptation mechanism and survival in cold environments. PMID:25838495

  2. Thermoregulation of N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone-Based Quorum Sensing in the Soft Rot Bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, Xavier; Diallo, Stéphanie; Chevalier, Sylvie; Morin, Danièle; Smadja, Bruno; Burini, Jean-François; Haras, Dominique; Orange, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    The psychrotolerant bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum produces four N-acyl homoserine lactones under a wide range of temperatures. Their thermoregulation differs from that of the exoenzyme production, described as being under quorum-sensing control. A mechanism involved in this thermoregulation consists of controlling N-acyl homoserine lactones synthase production at a transcriptional level. PMID:17468275

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus salivarius HSISS4, a Human Commensal Bacterium Highly Prevalent in the Digestive Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignolet, Johann; Fontaine, Laetitia; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The human commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius plays a major role in the equilibrium of microbial communities of the digestive tract. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of a Streptococcus salivarius strain isolated from the small intestine, namely, HSISS4. Its circular chromosome comprises 1,903 coding sequences and 2,100,988 nucleotides. PMID:26847886

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CFL1, a Lactic Acid Bacterium Isolated from French Handcrafted Fermented Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Julie; Irlinger, Françoise; Loux, Valentin; Vidal, Marie; Passot, Stéphanie; Béal, Catherine; Layec, Séverine

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) is a lactic acid bacterium widely used for the production of yogurt and cheeses. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. bulgaricus CFL1 to improve our knowledge on its stress-induced damages following production and end-use processes. PMID:26941141

  5. Isolation and characterization of an Enterococcus-like bacterium causing muscle necrosis and mortality in Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, W; Chen, J C

    1998-10-01

    A Gram-positive, ovoid, diplococoid bacterium tentatively identified as Enterococcus-like was isolated from diseased Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Taiwanese aquaculture ponds. The diseased prawns displayed poor growth, anorexia, inactivity, opaque and whitish musculature, and mortality. In histological preparations, melanized hemocytic granulomas were seen in the connective tissue around hemal sinuses together with hemocytic aggregation in necrotic musculature. Five isolates of diplococci were collected from diseased prawns at 4 farms and these were evaluated for 93 characteristics including morphology, physiology, biochemistry and sensitivity to antibiotics. The results indicated that the isolates belonged to a single species. They grew in 0.5 to 6.0% NaCl, at 10 to 40 degrees C, at pH 9.6 and on bile esculin medium, gave positive pyrrolidonylarylamidase, arginine dehydrolase and Voges-Proskauer tests, were resistant to bacitracin and SXT, and were CAMP-negative and non-hemolytic on sheep blood agar. These findings indicated an Enterococcus-like bacterium closely related to Enterococcus seriolicida (recently reduced to synonymy with Lactococcus garvieae). Experimental injection of 3 x 10(5) cells of strain KM002 of this Enterococcus-like bacterium into the ventral sinus of the prawn cephalothorax caused 100% mortality in 11 d, and induced muscular necrosis and hepatopancreatitis, gross signs and histopathology similar to those observed in the naturally infected prawns. It was concluded that this Enterococcus-like bacterium was the etiological agent associated with mortality of the farmed, diseased prawns. PMID:9828405

  6. Complete genome of Pandoraea pnomenusa RB-38, an oxalotrophic bacterium isolated from municipal solid waste landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yan-Lue; Ee, Robson; Yong, Delicia; Tee, Kok-Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-11-20

    Pandoraea pnomenusa RB-38 is a bacterium isolated from a former sanitary landfill site. Here, we present the complete genome of P. pnomenusa RB38 in which an oxalate utilization pathway was identified. The genome analysis suggested the potential of this strain as an effective biocontrol agent against oxalate-producing phytopathogens. PMID:26393955

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of the Extremely Halophilic Bacterium Halomonas salina Strain CIFRI1, Isolated from the East Coast of India

    OpenAIRE

    Behera, Bijay Kumar; Das, Priyanka; Maharana, Jitendra; Paria, Prasenjit; Mandal, Shambhu Nath; Meena, Dharmendra Kumar; Sharma, Anil Prakash; Jayarajan, Rijith; Dixit, Vishal; Verma, Ankit; Vellarikkal, Shamsudheen Karuthedath; Scaria, Vinod; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Rao, Atmakuri Ramakrishna; Mohapatra, Trilochan

    2015-01-01

    Halomonas salina strain CIFRI1 is an extremely salt-stress-tolerant bacterium isolated from the salt crystals of the east coast of India. Here we report the annotated 3.45-Mb draft genome sequence of strain CIFRI1 having 86 contigs with 3,139 protein coding loci, including 62 RNA genes.

  8. Antioxidants keep the potentially probiotic but highly oxygen-sensitive human gut bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii alive at ambient air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M. Tanweer; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Harmsen, Hermie J M

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial human gut microbe Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a 'probiotic of the future' since it produces high amounts of butyrate and anti-inflammatory compounds. However, this bacterium is highly oxygen-senstive, making it notoriously difficult to cultivate and preserve. This has so far precl

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus farraginis R-6540T (DSM 16013), a Spore-Forming Bacterium Isolated at Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-ping; Liu, Guo-hong; Ge, Ci-bin; Xiao, Rong-feng; Zheng, Xue-fang; Shi, Huai

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus farraginis R-6540T is a Gram-positive, aerobic, and spore-forming bacterium with very high intrinsic heat resistance. Here, we report the 5.32-Mb draft genome sequence of B. farraginis R-6540T, which is the first genome sequence of this species and will promote its fundamental research. PMID:27313303

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CFL1, a Lactic Acid Bacterium Isolated from French Handcrafted Fermented Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Julie; Dugat-Bony, Eric; Irlinger, Françoise; Loux, Valentin; Vidal, Marie; Passot, Stéphanie; Béal, Catherine; Layec, Séverine; Fonseca, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) is a lactic acid bacterium widely used for the production of yogurt and cheeses. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. bulgaricus CFL1 to improve our knowledge on its stress-induced damages following production and end-use processes. PMID:26941141

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Nitrosospira sp. Strain APG3, a Psychrotolerant Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Isolated from Sandy Lake Sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Juan C.; Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Le, Vang Q.; Stein, Lisa Y.; Klotz, Martin G; Nielsen, Jeppe L.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria in the genus Nitrosospira play vital roles in the nitrogen cycle. Nitrosospira sp. strain APG3 is a psychrotolerant betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacterium isolated from freshwater lake sediment. The draft genome revealed that it represents a new species of cluster 0 Nitrosospira, which is presently not represented by described species.

  12. Draft Genome of Shewanella frigidimarina Ag06-30, a Marine Bacterium Isolated from Potter Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeciano Di Noto, Gisela; Vázquez, Susana C; MacCormack, Walter P; Iriarte, Andrés; Quiroga, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    We present the draft genome of Shewanella frigidimarina Ag06-30, a marine bacterium from King George Island, Antarctica, which encodes the carbapenemase SFP-1. The assembly contains 4,799,218 bp (G+C content 41.24%). This strain harbors several mobile genetic elements that provide insight into lateral gene transfer and bacterial plasticity and evolution. PMID:27151790

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Dyella thiooxydans ATSB10, a Thiosulfate-Oxidizing Bacterium Isolated from Sunflower Fields in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwangbo, Kyeong; Um, Yurry; Chung, Hee; Yoo, Jemin; Kim, Ki Yoon; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Sa, Tong Min; Lee, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Dyella thiooxydans ATSB10 (KACC 12756(T) = LMG 24673(T)) is a thiosulfate-oxidizing bacterium isolated from rhizosphere soils of sunflower plants. In this study, we completely sequenced the genome of D. thiooxydans ATSB10 and identified the genes involved in thiosulfate oxidation and the metabolism of aromatic intermediates. PMID:27340060

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Anaeromyxobacter sp. Strain PSR-1, an Arsenate-Respiring Bacterium Isolated from Arsenic-Contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Tonomura, Mimori; Ehara, Ayaka; Suzuki, Haruo; Amachi, Seigo

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report a draft genome sequence of Anaeromyxobacter sp. strain PSR-1, an arsenate-respiring bacterium isolated from arsenic-contaminated soil. It contained three distinct arsenic resistance gene clusters (ars operons), while no respiratory arsenate reductase gene (arr) was identified.

  15. Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. Strain S9, an Extracellular Arylsulfatase-Producing Bacterium Isolated from Mangrove Soil ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Mengxian; Ruan, Lingwei; Yu, Ziniu; Xu, Xun

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain S9 was originally isolated from mangrove soil in Xiamen, China. It is an aerobic bacterium which shows extracellular arylsulfatase activity. Here, we describe the 4.8-Mb draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. S9, which exhibits novel cysteine-type sulfatases.

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Raoultella ornithinolytica Strain S12, a Lignin-Degrading Bacterium Isolated from Forest Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Wenying; Zhou, Yun; Jiang, Jingwei; Xu, Zhihui; Hou, Liyuan; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Raoultella ornithinolytica strain S12, isolated from a soil sample collected from areas bordering rotten wood and wet soil on Mt. Zijin, Nanjing. The complete genome of this bacterium may contribute toward the discovery of efficient lignin-degrading pathways.

  17. Isolation and characterization of a novel poly(vinyl alcohol)-degrading bacterium, Sphingopyxis sp. PVA3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamatsu, Atsushi; Matsumi, Rie; Atomi, Haruyuki; Imanaka, Tadayuki

    2006-10-01

    We have isolated a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-degrading bacterium from an activated sludge sample obtained from the drainage of a dyeing factory. Enrichment cultures were performed in media containing PVA as the sole or major carbon source. After several rounds of cultivation on liquid and solid media, we were able to isolate a single colony with PVA-degrading ability (strain PVA3). The bacterium could degrade PVA in the absence of symbionts or cofactors such as pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ). Over 90% of PVA, at an initial concentration of 0.1%, was degraded within a 6-day cultivation. Degradation was confirmed by both iodometric methods and gel permeation chromatography. Examination of the PVA attached to the cells revealed a large increase in carbonyl groups, suggesting the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of the polymer on the surfaces of cells. Addition of PQQ to the culture medium did not enhance the growth and the PVA-degrading rates of strain PVA3. Furthermore, we found that cells grown on PVA generated hydrogen peroxide upon the addition of PVA. The results strongly suggest that the initial oxidation of PVA is mediated via a PVA oxidase, and not a PQQ-dependent dehydrogenase. A biochemical and phylogenetic characterization of the bacterium was performed. The sequence of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of the bacterium indicated a phylogenetic position of the strain within the genus Sphingopyxis, and the strain was therefore designated Sphingopyxis sp. PVA3. PMID:16583228

  18. The use of fluorescent probes to assess viability of the plant pathogenic bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis by flow cytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, L.G.; Breeuwer, P.; Abee, T.; Bulk, van den R.W.

    2006-01-01

    Determination of the viability of bacteria by the conventional plating technique is a time-consuming process. Methods based on enzyme activity or membrane integrity are much faster and may be good alternatives. Assessment of the viability of suspensions of the plant pathogenic bacterium Clavibacter

  19. THE ENDOPHYTE CURTOBACTERIUM FLACCUMFACIENS REDUCES SYMPTOMS CAUSED BY XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA IN CATHARANTHUS ROSEUSAN ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIUM FROM CITRUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is a disease of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.)) caused by Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all sweet orange cultivars. Sweet orange trees are sometimes observed to be infected by Xylella fastidiosa without showing seve...

  20. A Comparative biochemical study on two marine endophytes, Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS, Isolated from red sea algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Eman Fadl; Hassan, Hossam Mokhtar; Rateb, Mostafa Ezzat; Abdel-Wahab, Noha; Sameer, Somayah; Aly Taie, Hanan Anwar; Abdel-Hameed, Mohammed Sayed; Hammouda, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Two marine endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Red Sea algae; a red alga; Acanthophora dendroides and the brown alga Sargassum sabrepandum. The isolates were identified based on their 16SrRNA sequences as Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential anti-microbial and antioxidant activities of the extracts of the isolated bacteria grown in different nutrient conditions. Compared to amoxicillin (25μg/disk) and erythromycin (15μg/disk), the extracts of Bacterium SRCn min media II, III, IV and V were potent inhibitors of the gram-positive bacterium Sarcina maxima even at low concentrations. Also, the multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) was more sensitive to the metabolites produced in medium (II) of the same endophyte than erythromycin (15μg/disk). A moderate activity of the Bacillus sp. JS extracts of media I and II was obtained against the same pathogen. The total compounds (500ug/ml) of both isolated endophytes showed moderate antioxidant activities (48.9% and 46.1%, respectively). LC/MS analysis of the bacterial extracts was carried out to investigate the likely natural products produced. Cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Leu), dihydrosphingosine and 2-Amino-1,3-hexadecanediol were identified in the fermentation medium of Bacterium SRCnm, whereas cyclo (D-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo (L-Leu-L-Pro) were the suggested compounds of Bacillus sp. JS. PMID:26826831