WorldWideScience

Sample records for analyzing short-term noise

  1. Analyzing short-term noise dependencies of spike-counts in macaque prefrontal cortex using copulas and the flashlight transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Onken

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous spike-counts of neural populations are typically modeled by a Gaussian distribution. On short time scales, however, this distribution is too restrictive to describe and analyze multivariate distributions of discrete spike-counts. We present an alternative that is based on copulas and can account for arbitrary marginal distributions, including Poisson and negative binomial distributions as well as second and higher-order interactions. We describe maximum likelihood-based procedures for fitting copula-based models to spike-count data, and we derive a so-called flashlight transformation which makes it possible to move the tail dependence of an arbitrary copula into an arbitrary orthant of the multivariate probability distribution. Mixtures of copulas that combine different dependence structures and thereby model different driving processes simultaneously are also introduced. First, we apply copula-based models to populations of integrate-and-fire neurons receiving partially correlated input and show that the best fitting copulas provide information about the functional connectivity of coupled neurons which can be extracted using the flashlight transformation. We then apply the new method to data which were recorded from macaque prefrontal cortex using a multi-tetrode array. We find that copula-based distributions with negative binomial marginals provide an appropriate stochastic model for the multivariate spike-count distributions rather than the multivariate Poisson latent variables distribution and the often used multivariate normal distribution. The dependence structure of these distributions provides evidence for common inhibitory input to all recorded stimulus encoding neurons. Finally, we show that copula-based models can be successfully used to evaluate neural codes, e.g., to characterize stimulus-dependent spike-count distributions with information measures. This demonstrates that copula-based models are not only a versatile

  2. Ultra–Short-Term Reproducibility of Speckle-Noise Freed Fluid and Tissue Compartmentalization of the Choroid Analyzed by Standard OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloca, Peter; Gyger, Cyrill; Schoetzau, Andreas; Hasler, Pascal W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We measured reproducibility of speckle-noise freed fluid and tissue compartmentalization of the choroid (choroidal angiography and tissue characterization). Methods This study included 26 eyes of 13 healthy females: 13 were used for repeated measurements and 13 were used for side comparison. A semiautomated algorithm removed speckle-noise with structure preservation. Results Intraclass correlation (ICC), with respect to reproducibility of the method, showed an ICC for choroidal fluid inner space analysis (FISA) of 95.15% (90.01–98.24). The ICC of tissue inner space analysis (TISA) was 99.75% (99.47–99.91). The total choroid ratio (TCR), calculated from volumes of tissue to vessels, showed an ICC of 88.84% (78.28–95.82). Comparison of eyes (left to right) showed a difference for FISA of 0.033 (95% confidence interval [CI] −0.0018–0.0680, P = 0.063), TISA −0.118 (CI −0.2373–0.0023, P = 0.055), and TCR −0.590 (CI −0.9047 to −0.2754, P = 0.004). The ICC for FISA and TISA showed a trend in the difference comparing left and right eyes; however, TCR showed a significant difference between the eyes in the measured area (P TISA was 3.45 mm3 (range, 2.38–5.0 mm3, SD 0.072). Mean TCR was 6.13 (overall range, 3.93–10.2, SD = 1.34). Conclusions Differences in choroidal layers between subjects were found mainly due to alterations in choroidal tissue. Reproducibility of speckle-noise freed choroidal angiography appeared excellent. Translational Relevance Speckle noise is a granular “noise” that appears in a wide range of medical imaging methods as ultrasonography, magnetic resonance, computer tomography, or optical coherence tomography (OCT). Findings from basic science about speckle noise were translated into a novel, medical image postprocessing application that can separate signal from speckle noise with structure preservation with high reproducibility and enhance medical imaging. PMID:26629399

  3. Influence of short-term sampling parameters on the uncertainty of the Lden environmental noise indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the influence of the sampling parameters on the uncertainty of noise equivalent level in environmental noise measurements. The study has been carried out through the test of different sampling strategies doing resampling trials over continuous monitoring noise files obtained previously in an urban location in the city of Coimbra, in Portugal. On short term measurements, not only the duration of the sampling episodes but also its number have influence on the uncertainty of the result. This influence is higher for the time periods where sound levels suffer a greater variation, such as during the night period. In this period, in case both parameters (duration and number of sampling episodes) are not carefully selected, the uncertainty level can reach too high values contributing to a loss of precision of the measurements. With the obtained data it was investigated the sampling parameters influence on the long term noise indicator uncertainty, calculated according the Draft 1st CD ISO 1996-2:2012 proposed method. It has been verified that this method allows the possibility of defining a general methodology which enables the setting of the parameters once the precision level is fixed. For the three reference periods defined for environmental noise (day, evening and night), it was possible to derive a two variable power law representing the uncertainty of the determined values as a function of the two sampling parameters: duration of sampling episode and number of episodes

  4. Short-term annoyance reactions to stationary and time-varying wind turbine and road traffic noise: A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffer, Beat; Schlittmeier, Sabine J; Pieren, Reto; Heutschi, Kurt; Brink, Mark; Graf, Ralf; Hellbrück, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Current literature suggests that wind turbine noise is more annoying than transportation noise. To date, however, it is not known which acoustic characteristics of wind turbines alone, i.e., without effect modifiers such as visibility, are associated with annoyance. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate and compare the short-term noise annoyance reactions to wind turbines and road traffic in controlled laboratory listening tests. A set of acoustic scenarios was created which, combined with the factorial design of the listening tests, allowed separating the individual associations of three acoustic characteristics with annoyance, namely, source type (wind turbine, road traffic), A-weighted sound pressure level, and amplitude modulation (without, periodic, random). Sixty participants rated their annoyance to the sounds. At the same A-weighted sound pressure level, wind turbine noise was found to be associated with higher annoyance than road traffic noise, particularly with amplitude modulation. The increased annoyance to amplitude modulation of wind turbines is not related to its periodicity, but seems to depend on the modulation frequency range. The study discloses a direct link of different acoustic characteristics to annoyance, yet the generalizability to long-term exposure in the field still needs to be verified. PMID:27250186

  5. Short-Term Effects of Low-Level Heavy Metal Contamination on Soil Health Analyzed by Nematode Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byeong-Yong; Lee, Jae-Kook; Ro, Hee-Myong; Kim, Young Ho

    2016-01-01

    The short-term effects of low-level contamination by heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, and Pb) on the soil health were examined by analyzing soil nematode community in soils planted with tomatoes. For this, the soils were irrigated with five metal concentrations ([1, 1/4, 1/42, 1/43, and 0] × maximum concentrations [MC] detected in irrigation waters near abandoned mine sites) for 18 weeks. Heavy metal concentrations were significantly increased in soils irrigated with MC of heavy metals, among which As and Cu exceeded the maximum heavy metal residue contents of soil approved in Korea. In no heavy metal treatment controls, nematode abundances for all trophic groups (except omnivorous-predatory nematodes [OP]) and colonizer-persister (cp) values (except cp-4–5) were significantly increased, and all maturity indices (except maturity index [MI] of plant-parasitic nematodes) and structure index (SI) were significantly decreased, suggesting the soil environments might have been disturbed during 18 weeks of tomato growth. There were no concentration-dependent significant decreases in richness, abundance, or MI for most heavy metals; however, their significant decreases occurred in abundance and richness of OP and cp-4, MI2–5 (excluding cp-1) and SI, indicating disturbed soil ecosystems, at the higher concentrations (MC and MC/4) of Pb that had the most significant negative correlation coefficients for heavy metal concentrations and nematode community among the heavy metals. Therefore, the short-term effects of low-level heavy metal contamination on soil health can be analyzed by nematode community structures before the appearance of plant damages caused by the abiotic agents, heavy metals. PMID:27493608

  6. Road and rail traffic noise induce comparable extra-aural effects as revealed during a short-term memory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallasch, Eugen; Raggam, Reinhard B; Cik, Michael; Rabensteiner, Jasmin; Lackner, Andreas; Piber, Barbara; Marth, Egon

    2016-01-01

    To examine extraaural effects as induced by 20 min of road (ROAD) and 20 min of rail (RAIL) traffic noise with same loudness (75 dBA), a laboratory study was carried out. The study (N = 54) consisted of 28 high and 26 low-annoyed healthy individuals as determined by a traffic annoyance test. To control attention, all individuals performed a nonauditory short-term memory test during the noise exposures. A within-subject design, with phases of ROAD, RAIL, and CALM (memory test only), alternated by phases of rest, was defined. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (sBP), total peripheral resistance (TPR), as well as three autonomic variables, preejection period (PEP), 0.15-0.4 Hz high-frequency component of HR variability (HF), and salivary stress biomarker alpha amylase (sAA) were measured. In relation to CALM, HR increased (RAIL +2.1%, ROAD +2.5%), sBP tended to increase against the end of noise exposure, PEP decreased (RAIL -0.7%, ROAD -0.8%), HF decreased (RAIL -3.4%, ROAD -2.9%), and sAA increased (RAIL +78%, ROAD +69%). No differences were found between RAIL and ROAD, indicating that both noise stressors induced comparable extraaural effects. Factor annoyance showed significant during CALM. Here a reduced sympathetic drive (higher PEP values) combined with an increased vascular tone (higher TPR values) was found at the high-annoyed subgroup. PMID:27569408

  7. Long- and Short-Term Magmatic Behavior of Piton De La Fournaise Volcano Inferred from Noise-Based Seismic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenguier, F.; Rivet, D. N.; Kowalski, P.; Larose, E. F.; Lecocq, T.; Chaput, J. A.; Rambaud, S.; Shapiro, N.; Campillo, M.; Roux, P.; Ferrazzini, V.; Villeneuve, N.

    2014-12-01

    Probing the long-term preparation of eruptions as well as the short-term initiation and transport of magma to surface remains extremely difficult. One reason is that it is hardly possible to directly monitor at depth the magma storage area. One way to overcome this issue is to use seismic waves that, through their propagation, sample the targets of interest. Here we use ambient seismic waves to infer temporal mechanical property changes of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (PdF, La Réunion island). We find both 1) a long-term behavior that might reflect processes of deep magma replenishment as well as 2) short-term variations that are controlled by both environmental (rainfall) and pre-eruptive perturbations that are or not associated with edifice deformation. We will discuss the possible origins for such pre-eruptive perturbations (effects of magma pressure buildup or fluid pore pressure increase by heat transfer). In order to improve the depth resolution of our observations we deployed 3 seismic arrays for a total of 300 seismometers on PdF volcano in the framework of VolcArray project. We will present first results discussing how dense seismic arrays can be useful for noise-based seismic imaging and monitoring.

  8. Road and rail traffic noise induce comparable extra-aural effects as revealed during a short-term memory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Gallasch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine extraaural effects as induced by 20 min of road (ROAD and 20 min of rail (RAIL traffic noise with same loudness (75 dBA, a laboratory study was carried out. The study (N = 54 consisted of 28 high and 26 low-annoyed healthy individuals as determined by a traffic annoyance test. To control attention, all individuals performed a nonauditory short-term memory test during the noise exposures. A within-subject design, with phases of ROAD, RAIL, and CALM (memory test only, alternated by phases of rest, was defined. Heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (sBP, total peripheral resistance (TPR, as well as three autonomic variables, preejection period (PEP, 0.15–0.4 Hz high-frequency component of HR variability (HF, and salivary stress biomarker alpha amylase (sAA were measured. In relation to CALM, HR increased (RAIL +2.1%, ROAD +2.5%, sBP tended to increase against the end of noise exposure, PEP decreased (RAIL −0.7%, ROAD −0.8%, HF decreased (RAIL −3.4%, ROAD −2.9%, and sAA increased (RAIL +78%, ROAD +69%. No differences were found between RAIL and ROAD, indicating that both noise stressors induced comparable extraaural effects. Factor annoyance showed significant during CALM. Here a reduced sympathetic drive (higher PEP values combined with an increased vascular tone (higher TPR values was found at the high-annoyed subgroup.

  9. Advanced bridge instrument for the measurement of the phase noise and of the short-term frequency stability of ultra-stable quartz resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Sthal, Fabrice; Salzenstein, Patrice; Galliou, Serge; Cibiel, Gilles; Rubiola, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    High-stability quartz oscillators are needed in a number of space applications. A short-term stability of parts in 10^{-14} [Allan deviation \\sigma y(\\tau) ] is sometimes required, for integration time \\tau of approximately 1-10 s. The Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the FEMTO-ST Institute (formerly LPMO and LCEP), have been collaborating for many years in this domain, aiming at measuring and at understanding the oscillator noise. The highest stability has been observed on 5 MHz and 10 MHz bulk acoustic-wave resonators. Yet this stability is still not sufficient, or the the manufacturing method is not reproducible. Recently, the analysis of a few premium-stability oscillators has demonstrated that the oscillator frequency instability is due to the fluctuation of the resonator natural frequency, rather than to the noise of the sustaining amplifier via the Leeson effect. It is therefore natural to give attention to the measurement of the resonator fluctuations.

  10. Does Content Matter? Analyzing the Change in Global Awareness between Business- and Nonbusiness-Focused Short-Term Study Abroad Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Stephen B.; Kurt, Mark; Olitsky, Neal H.

    2015-01-01

    Business schools have long sought to increase students' global awareness. Short-term study abroad (STSA) experiences are becoming increasingly popular ways of generating awareness. While a handful of studies have found evidence of efficacy, none have specifically tested how courses with business content differ from other STSAs. Using a…

  11. Short term synaptic depression improves information transfer in perceptual multistability

    OpenAIRE

    Zachary P Kilpatrick

    2013-01-01

    Competitive neural networks are often used to model the dynamics of perceptual bistability. Switching between percepts can occur through fluctuations and/or a slow adaptive process. Here, we analyze switching statistics in competitive networks with short term synaptic depression and noise. We start by analyzing a ring model that yields spatially structured solutions and complement this with a study of a space-free network whose populations are coupled with mutual inhibition. Dominance times a...

  12. Aircraft noise-induced annoyance in the vicinity of Cologne/Bonn Airport - The examination of short-term and long-term annoyance as well as their major determinants

    OpenAIRE

    BARTELS, SUSANNE

    2014-01-01

    In the light of a continuously growing air traffic and a presumably resulting impairment of the quality of life of airport residents, the present doctoral thesis aims at the extensive investi-gation and description of short-term and long-term annoyance induced by aircraft noise in the vicinity of Cologne/Bonn Airport, Germany. This thesis was written in the framework of the European project COSMA (Community Oriented Solutions to Minimise Aircraft noise annoyance). A telephone study with 1,262...

  13. The Effect of Short-Term Auditory Training on Speech in Noise Perception and Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in Adults with Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Nathan; Purdy, Suzanne C; Sharma, Mridula; Giles, Ellen; Narne, Vijay

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated whether a short intensive psychophysical auditory training program is associated with speech perception benefits and changes in cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) in adult cochlear implant (CI) users. Ten adult implant recipients trained approximately 7 hours on psychophysical tasks (Gap-in-Noise Detection, Frequency Discrimination, Spectral Rippled Noise [SRN], Iterated Rippled Noise, Temporal Modulation). Speech performance was assessed before and after training using Lexical Neighborhood Test (LNT) words in quiet and in eight-speaker babble. CAEPs evoked by a natural speech stimulus /baba/ with varying syllable stress were assessed pre- and post-training, in quiet and in noise. SRN psychophysical thresholds showed a significant improvement (78% on average) over the training period, but performance on other psychophysical tasks did not change. LNT scores in noise improved significantly post-training by 11% on average compared with three pretraining baseline measures. N1P2 amplitude changed post-training for /baba/ in quiet (p = 0.005, visit 3 pretraining versus visit 4 post-training). CAEP changes did not correlate with behavioral measures. CI recipients' clinical records indicated a plateau in speech perception performance prior to participation in the study. A short period of intensive psychophysical training produced small but significant gains in speech perception in noise and spectral discrimination ability. There remain questions about the most appropriate type of training and the duration or dosage of training that provides the most robust outcomes for adults with CIs. PMID:27587925

  14. Photomultiplier short-term instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper gives a description of the apparatus and method to measure PM gain short-term instability under the condition of pulsed light source simulating the operation at proton synchrotrons. Experimental results are presented for FEU-84, FEU-85, FEU-110, FEU-115 and XP2010 photomultipliers. It is shown that the short-term gain instability can be described by a simple mathematical model. (Auth.)

  15. A technique for noise measurement optimization with spectrum analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measuring low noise of electronic devices with a spectrum analyzer requires particular care as the instrument could add significant contributions. A Low Noise Amplifier, LNA, is therefore necessary to be connected between the source to be measured and the instrument, to mitigate its effect at the LNA input. In the present work we suggest a technique for the implementation of the LNA that allows to optimize both low frequency noise and white noise, obtaining outstanding performance in a very broad frequency range

  16. A technique for noise measurement optimization with spectrum analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Pessina, G.

    2015-08-01

    Measuring low noise of electronic devices with a spectrum analyzer requires particular care as the instrument could add significant contributions. A Low Noise Amplifier, LNA, is therefore necessary to be connected between the source to be measured and the instrument, to mitigate its effect at the LNA input. In the present work we suggest a technique for the implementation of the LNA that allows to optimize both low frequency noise and white noise, obtaining outstanding performance in a very broad frequency range.

  17. Short term thermal energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Abhat, A.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper reviews the problem of short term thermal energy storage for low temperature solar heating applications. The techniques of sensible and latent heat storage are discussed, with particular emphasis on the latter. Requirements for hot water storage subsystems are provided and the importance of stratification in hot water storage tanks is described. Concerning latent heat storage, both material and heat exchanger aspects are considered in detail. The example of a passively opera...

  18. The base-scale entropy analysis of short-term heart rate variability signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jin; NING Xinbao

    2005-01-01

    The complexity of heart rate variability (HRV) signal can reflect physiological functions and healthy status of heart system. Detecting complexity of the short-term HRV signal has an important practical meaning. We introduce the base-scale entropy method to analyze the complexity of time series. The advantages of our method are its simplicity, extremely fast calculation for very short data and anti-noise characteristic. For the well-known chaotic dynamical system―logistic map, it is shown that our complexity behaves similarly to Lyapunov exponents, and is especially effective in the presence of random Gaussian noise. This paper addresses the use of base-scale entropy method to 3 low-dimensional nonlinear deterministic systems. At last, we apply this idea to short-term HRV signal, and the result shows the method could robustly identify patterns generated from healthy and pathologic states, as well as aging. The base-scale entropy can provide convenience in practically applications.

  19. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  20. Cross-spectrum Analyzer for Low Frequency Noise Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Xing; Jones, Josh; Mewes, Claudia; LeClair, Patrick R

    2014-01-01

    The design and performance of a sensitive and reliable cross-correlation spectrum analyzer for studying low frequency transport noise is described in detail. The design makes use of common PC-based data acquisition hardware and preamplifiers to acquire time-based data, along with software we have developed to compute the cross-correlation and noise spectral density. The impedance of device under test may cover four decades from ${100\\,{\\Omega}}$ to ${1\\,{\\mathrm{M}\\Omega}}$. By utilizing a custom developed signal processing program, this system is tested to be accurate and efficient for measuring voltage noise as low as $\\sim\\!10^{-19}\\,\\mathrm{V}^2/\\mathrm{Hz}$ from ${0.001\\,}$Hz to ${100\\,}$kHz within one day's averaging time, comparable with more expensive hardware solutions (bandwidth in real measurements may be limited by the sample impedance and stray capacitance). The time dependence of measurement sensitivity is discussed theoretically and characterized experimentally to optimize between measuring tim...

  1. Noise and analyzer-crystal angular position analysis for analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analyzer-based phase-contrast x-ray imaging (ABI) method is emerging as a potential alternative to conventional radiography. Like many of the modern imaging techniques, ABI is a computed imaging method (meaning that images are calculated from raw data). ABI can simultaneously generate a number of planar parametric images containing information about absorption, refraction, and scattering properties of an object. These images are estimated from raw data acquired by measuring (sampling) the angular intensity profile of the x-ray beam passed through the object at different angular positions of the analyzer crystal. The noise in the estimated ABI parametric images depends upon imaging conditions like the source intensity (flux), measurements angular positions, object properties, and the estimation method. In this paper, we use the Cramér–Rao lower bound (CRLB) to quantify the noise properties in parametric images and to investigate the effect of source intensity, different analyzer-crystal angular positions and object properties on this bound, assuming a fixed radiation dose delivered to an object. The CRLB is the minimum bound for the variance of an unbiased estimator and defines the best noise performance that one can obtain regardless of which estimation method is used to estimate ABI parametric images. The main result of this paper is that the variance (hence the noise) in parametric images is directly proportional to the source intensity and only a limited number of analyzer-crystal angular measurements (eleven for uniform and three for optimal non-uniform) are required to get the best parametric images. The following angular measurements only spread the total dose to the measurements without improving or worsening CRLB, but the added measurements may improve parametric images by reducing estimation bias. Next, using CRLB we evaluate the multiple-image radiography, diffraction enhanced imaging and scatter diffraction enhanced imaging estimation techniques

  2. Short-term intercultural psychotherapy: ethnographic inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Karen M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical practice. Such approaches allow clinicians conducting short-term intercultural treatments to foreground clients' indigenous conceptions of selfhood, mind, relationship, and emotional disturbance, and thus to more fully grasp their internal, interpersonal, and external worlds. This article demonstrates the uses of clinically adapted ethnographic inquiry in three short-term intercultural cases. PMID:14964524

  3. Possibilities of short-term tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-term tomosynthesis enables continuous analysis of structures which appear interesting. The results of short-term tomosynthesis were compared with those of plain roentgenography and conventional tomography. Short-term tomosynthesis appears as an alternative to spot-film radiography and as a complement to tomography in the analysis of spatially limited regions. It facilitates orientation in space and free projection of oblique structures. Good results were obtained in examinations of the pyramids (auditory canal and mandibular joint), the paranasal sinuses, the cervical vertebral column, the extremities and their joints. Examination of soft tissues was usually not very promising in view of the conditions under which tomosynthesis was performed. The same applied likewise to the infusion cholecystocholangiogram and the infusion urogram. Technical improvements will certainly bring about an extension of the uses of this method. (orig.)

  4. An optical spectrum analyzer with quantum limited noise floor

    CERN Document Server

    Bishof, Michael; Martin, Michael J; Ye, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between atoms and lasers provide the potential for unprecedented control of quantum states. Fulfilling this potential requires detailed knowledge of frequency noise in optical oscillators with state-of-the-art stability. We demonstrate a technique that precisely measures the noise spectrum of an ultra-stable laser using optical lattice-trapped $^{87}$Sr atoms as a quantum projection noise-limited reference. We determine the laser noise spectrum from near DC to 100 Hz via the measured fluctuations in atomic excitation, guided by a simple and robust theory model. The noise spectrum yields a 26(4) mHz linewidth at a central frequency of 429 THz, corresponding to an optical Q of $1.6\\times10^{16}$. This approach improves upon optical heterodyne beats between two similar laser systems by providing information unique to a single laser, and complements the traditionally used Allan deviation which evaluates laser performance at relatively long time scales. We use this technique to verify the reduction of...

  5. The Uniqueness of Short-Term Collateralization

    OpenAIRE

    Klapper, Leora

    2001-01-01

    The author finds evidence that lines of credit secured by accounts receivable are associated with business borrowers with a high risk of default. While an unsecured short-term loan is repaid from the borrower's future cash flow, a loan secured by accounts receivable (a unique form of "inside" collateral) is repaid from previously generated and observed sales (the borrower's trade credit te...

  6. Short-Term Study Abroad, 2001: IIE's Complete Guide to Summer and Short-Term Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Marie, Ed.

    This guide, formerly called "Vacation Study Abroad," lists short-term educational programs of varying lengths from 1 week to several months. Offerings are for the winter and spring breaks, the summer, and other short-term intervals. Some 60% of these programs are sponsored by U.S. accredited colleges and universities. The guide also offers…

  7. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The principal users of the Outlook are managers and energy analysts in private industry and government. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Values for the second quarter of 1992, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding

  8. Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding

  9. Short-term energy outlook, Quarterly projections. Third quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-04

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding.

  10. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. Fourth quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-05

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.

  11. Binding in short-term visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Mary E; Treisman, Anne M

    2002-03-01

    The integration of complex information in working memory, and its effect on capacity, shape the limits of conscious cognition. The literature conflicts on whether short-term visual memory represents information as integrated objects. A change-detection paradigm using objects defined by color with location or shape was used to investigate binding in short-term visual memory. Results showed that features from the same dimension compete for capacity, whereas features from different dimensions can be stored in parallel. Binding between these features can occur, but focused attention is required to create and maintain the binding over time, and this integrated format is vulnerable to interference. In the proposed model, working memory capacity is limited both by the independent capacity of simple feature stores and by demands on attention networks that integrate this distributed information into complex but unified thought objects. PMID:11900102

  12. Comfort control for short-term occupancy

    OpenAIRE

    Fountain, M; Brager, G. S.; Arens, Edward A; Bauman, Fred; Benton, C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the logic of a microprocessor-controlled thermostat termed 'comfortstat' to address the needs of temporary room occupants such as hotel guests while reducing energy consumption. The 'comfortstat' design grew out of a study of thermal control in a luxury hotel in San Francisco, California, USA. Hotel guests frequently arrive from widely disparate climates and have high expectation so of the thermal environment. Their short-term occupancy (for periods ranging from one day ...

  13. Expectations, Liquidity, and Short-term Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Cespa, Giovanni; Vives, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    In a market with short term agents and heterogeneous information, when liquidity trading displays persistence, prices reflect average expectations about fundamentals and liquidity trading. Informed investors exploit a private learning channel to infer the demand of liquidity traders from the order flow to anticipate the evolution of the future aggregate demand for the stock. This yields multiple equilibria which can be ranked in terms of liquidity and informational effciency. Our results have...

  14. Grid Long Short-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kalchbrenner, Nal; Danihelka, Ivo; Graves, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces Grid Long Short-Term Memory, a network of LSTM cells arranged in a multidimensional grid that can be applied to vectors, sequences or higher dimensional data such as images. The network differs from existing deep LSTM architectures in that the cells are connected between network layers as well as along the spatiotemporal dimensions of the data. The network provides a unified way of using LSTM for both deep and sequential computation. We apply the model to algorithmic tas...

  15. Short-term LNG-markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) industry has experienced substantial growth in the past decades. In the traditional trade patterns of LNG the product has typically been handled within a dedicated chain of plants and vessels fully committed by long term contracts or common ownership, providing risk sharing of large investments in a non-liquid market. Increasing gas prices and substantial cost reductions in all parts of the LNG chain have made LNG projects viable even if only part of the capacity is secured by long-term contracts, opening for more flexible trade of the remainder. Increasing gas demand, especially in power generation, combined with cost reductions in the cost of LNG terminals, open new markets for LNG. For the LNG supplier, the flexibility of shifting volumes between regions represents an additional value. International trade in LNG has been increasing, now accounting for more than one fifth of the world's cross-border gas trade. Despite traditional vertical chain bonds, increased flexibility has contributed in fact to an increasing LNG spot trade, representing 8% of global trade in 2002. The focus of this paper is on the development of global short-term LNG markets, and their role with respect to efficiency and security of supply in European gas markets. Arbitrage opportunities arising from price differences between regional markets (such as North America versus Europe) are important impetuses for flexible short-term trade. However, the short-term LNG trade may suffer from problems related to market access, e.g. limited access to terminals and regulatory issues, as well as rigidities connected to vertical binding within the LNG chain. Important issues related to the role of short-term LNG-trade in the European gas market are: Competition, flexibility in meeting peak demand, security of supply and consequences of differences in pricing policies (oil-linked prices in Europe and spot market prices in North America). (Author)

  16. Short-term fasting protects mice against γ ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the antagonistic effects of short-term fasting against 60Co γ ray radiation. Methods: After fasting ICR mice were irradiated for 3 min at a dose rate of 2.5 Gy/min and then returned to normal diet. General situation, body weight changes, food consumption and toxic status were observed. WBC, organ index and anti-oxidative ability (ROS, SOD, MDA, T-AOC) were analyzed. Results: After 60Co γ ray radiation, the mice exhibited severe toxic symptoms before death. The survival rates were 0 for control and 12 h group, 12.5% for 48 h group and 50% for 72 h group respectively. ROS production of 72 h group was reduced compared with 0 h group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Short-term fasting may attenuate radiation induced injuries, evidenced by a significant increase in mice survival rate. (authors)

  17. Insensitivity of visual short-term memory to irrelevant visual information

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Jackie; Kemps, Eva; Werniers, Yves; May, Jon; Szmalec, Arnaud

    2002-01-01

    Several authors have hypothesised that visuo-spatial working memory is functionally analogous to verbal working memory. Irrelevant background speech impairs verbal short-term memory. We investigated whether irrelevant visual information has an analogous effect on visual short-term memory, using a dynamic visual noise (DVN) technique known to disrupt visual imagery (Quinn & McConnell, 1996a). Experiment 1 replicated the effect of DVN on pegword imagery. Experiments 2 and 3 showed no effect of ...

  18. Visual Short-Term Memory Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 letters has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez and...... of objective complexity, it seems that subjective complexity - which is dependent on the familiarity of the stimulus - plays a more important role than the objective visual complexity of the objects stored. In two studies, we explored how familiarity influences the capacity of VSTM. 1) In children...

  19. Implementation of short-term prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landberg, L.; Joensen, A.; Giebel, G. [and others

    1999-03-01

    This paper will giver a general overview of the results from a EU JOULE funded project (`Implementing short-term prediction at utilities`, JOR3-CT95-0008). Reference will be given to specialised papers where applicable. The goal of the project was to implement wind farm power output prediction systems in operational environments at a number of utilities in Europe. Two models were developed, one by Risoe and one by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Both prediction models used HIRLAM predictions from the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). (au) EFP-94; EU-JOULE. 11 refs.

  20. Short Term Airing by Natural Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Perino, M.

    2010-01-01

    principles is necessary. The present study analyses and presents the results of an experimental evaluation of airing performance in terms of ventilation characteristics, IAQ and thermal comfort. It includes investigations of the consequences of opening time, opening frequency, opening area and expected...... airflow rate, ventilation efficiency, thermal comfort and dynamic temperature conditions. A suitable laboratory test rig was developed to perform extensive experimental analyses of the phenomenon under controlled and repeatable conditions. The results showed that short-term window airing is very effective...... and can provide both acceptable IAQ and thermal comfort conditions in buildings....

  1. Role of short-term memory in loudness comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Werner, Birgit

    2003-04-01

    In an earlier study of the auditory discrimination of time-varying noise bursts [Ellermeier and Schrödl, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2596 (2000)], listeners were found to place greater weight on the beginning and end of the sounds than on the middle portion. To investigate whether this outcome is due to primacy and recency effects in short-term memory which tend to be sensitive to manipulations of the inter-stimulus interval (ISI), the ISI separating the two noise bursts in a 2IFC task was varied systematically. Six participants performed loudness comparisons on 1-s samples of white noise randomly changing in level every 100 ms. In different blocks of trials, the two noise bursts to be compared were either separated by a 500-ms or a 2-s ISI. COSS analysis [Berg, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 1743-1746 (1989)] of the overall loudness judgments revealed elevated weights for the beginning and end of the noises, as in the earlier study. These weighting patterns were largely unaffected by the manipulation of ISI, suggesting that the temporal weights found characterize loudness integration in general, and are not just due to idiosyncrasies of the timing used in the 2IFC procedure.

  2. Short Term Clinical Outcome of Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Nemati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: The first case of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV was performed by French radiologists in 1984 for the treatment of vertebral hemangioma. Nowadays this procedure is useful in the treatment of osteoporotic compression fracures, hemangiomas, osteolytic metastasis and vertebral involvement by multiple myeloma. We carried out this study to clarify the short term results of PV in reducing the pain and disabilities of these patients. "nMaterials and Methods: From September 2008 to December 2008, 20 patients with compression fracture, hemangioma and metastasis to the lumbar vertebral bodies underwent PV and short term postprocedural results were studied by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (Oswestry LBPDQ and the results were compared with preprocedural measurements. "nResults: Comparison of pre and postprocedural VAS and Oswestry LBPDQ, showed a statistically meaningful decrease in pain intensity and improvement in functional ability of these patients post PV. No other significant side effect was detected. "nConclusion: PV is safe and effective in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in the above mentioned groups. "nKeywords: Percutaneous Vertebroplasty (PV, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Oswestry Low Back Pain, Diasability Questionnaire  

  3. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. Short-term energy outlook, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. Measuring Short-term Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES) to evaluate the energy security risks and resilience capacities of its member countries. The current version of MOSES covers short-term security of supply for primary energy sources and secondary fuels among IEA countries. It also lays the foundation for analysis of vulnerabilities of electricity and end-use energy sectors. MOSES contains a novel approach to analysing energy security, which can be used to identify energy security priorities, as a starting point for national energy security assessments and to track the evolution of a country's energy security profile. By grouping together countries with similar 'energy security profiles', MOSES depicts the energy security landscape of IEA countries. By extending the MOSES methodology to electricity security and energy services in the future, the IEA aims to develop a comprehensive policy-relevant perspective on global energy security. This Brochure provides and overview of the analysis and results. Readers interested in an in-depth discussion of methodology are referred to the MOSES Working Paper.

  6. Short term depression unmasks the ghost frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeerd V Olde Scheper

    Full Text Available Short Term Plasticity (STP has been shown to exist extensively in synapses throughout the brain. Its function is more or less clear in the sense that it alters the probability of synaptic transmission at short time scales. However, it is still unclear what effect STP has on the dynamics of neural networks. We show, using a novel dynamic STP model, that Short Term Depression (STD can affect the phase of frequency coded input such that small networks can perform temporal signal summation and determination with high accuracy. We show that this property of STD can readily solve the problem of the ghost frequency, the perceived pitch of a harmonic complex in absence of the base frequency. Additionally, we demonstrate that this property can explain dynamics in larger networks. By means of two models, one of chopper neurons in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus and one of a cortical microcircuit with inhibitory Martinotti neurons, it is shown that the dynamics in these microcircuits can reliably be reproduced using STP. Our model of STP gives important insights into the potential roles of STP in self-regulation of cortical activity and long-range afferent input in neuronal microcircuits.

  7. Meteor automatic imager and analyzer: Analysis of noise characteristics and possible noise suppression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švihlík, J.; Fliegel, K.; Páta, P.; Vítek, S.; Koten, Pavel

    Bellingham: SPIE, 2010, 779821/1-779821/9. (Proceedings of SPIE. 7798). ISBN 978-0-8194-8294-5. ISSN 0277-786X. [Applications of Digital Image Processing /33./. San Diego (US), 02.08.2010-04.08.2010] Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : MAIA * meteor * noise analysis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  8. Economics of solar energy: Short term costing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, H.

    The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.

  9. Visual Short-Term Memory Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 letters has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez and...... Cavanagh (2004) have raised the question that the capacity of VSTM is dependent on visual complexity rather than the number of objects. We hypothesise that VSTM capacity is dependent on both the objective and subjective complexity of visual stimuli. Contrary to Alvarez and Cavanagh, who argue for the role...... of objective complexity, it seems that subjective complexity - which is dependent on the familiarity of the stimulus - plays a more important role than the objective visual complexity of the objects stored. In two studies, we explored how familiarity influences the capacity of VSTM. 1) In children...

  10. Comfort control for short-term occupancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountain, M. (Center for Environmental Design Research, California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Brager, G. (Center for Environmental Design Research, California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Arens, E. (Center for Environmental Design Research, California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Bauman, F. (Center for Environmental Design Research, California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Benton, C. (Center for Environmental Design Research, California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the logic of a microprocessor-controlled thermostat termed 'comfortstat' to address the needs of temporary room occupants such as hotel guests while reducing energy consumption. The 'comfortstat' integrates an infrared occupancy sensor, door switch, radiant temperature sensor, and control logic to optimize room conditions while 'learning' about the occupant's preferred comfort zone. This paper focuses on how the joint requirements of the guests and the hotel management guided the design of the 'comfortstat' for increased occupant satisfaction and lower energy use in the hotel. The concepts are completely generic and could be applied to the design of comfort systems for other types of short-term occupancy. We present control logic flowcharts and typical examples of the action of the hotel 'comfortstat' in response to data received from the physical environment and/or human input. (orig./GL)

  11. A Simple Hybrid Model for Short-Term Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suseelatha Annamareddi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a simple hybrid model to forecast the electrical load data based on the wavelet transform technique and double exponential smoothing. The historical noisy load series data is decomposed into deterministic and fluctuation components using suitable wavelet coefficient thresholds and wavelet reconstruction method. The variation characteristics of the resulting series are analyzed to arrive at reasonable thresholds that yield good denoising results. The constitutive series are then forecasted using appropriate exponential adaptive smoothing models. A case study performed on California energy market data demonstrates that the proposed method can offer high forecasting precision for very short-term forecasts, considering a time horizon of two weeks.

  12. Short-term prognosis and risk factors of ventricular septal rupture following acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小莹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the short-term prognosis and risk factors of ventricular septal rupture(VSR)following acute myocardial infarction(AMI).Methods A total of 70 consecutive VSR patients following AMI hospitalized in

  13. Short-term prognosis and risk factors of ventricular septal rupture following acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小莹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the short-term prognosis and risk factors of ventricular septal rupture(VSR)following acute myocardial infarction(AMI).Methods A total of 70 consecutive VSR patients following AMI

  14. Noise and Analyzer-Crystal Angular Position Analysis for Analyzer-Based Phase-Contrast Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Majidi, Keivan; Li, Jun; Muehleman, Carol; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2014-01-01

    The analyzer-based phase-contrast X-ray imaging (ABI) method is emerging as a potential alternative to conventional radiography. Like many of the modern imaging techniques, ABI is a computed imaging method (meaning that images are calculated from raw data). ABI can simultaneously generate a number of planar parametric images containing information about absorption, refraction, and scattering properties of an object. These images are estimated from raw data acquired by measuring (sampling) the...

  15. Group Processes in Short-Term Group Therapy of Psychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalic, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Presents fundamental principles of short-term psychotherapy in reference to psychotic patients. Emphasizes empirical hermeneutical research into group process within the phenomenological approach. Presents case study of short-term psychotherapy with psychotic patients. Outlines four-stage approach to short-term therapy. (Author/ABL)

  16. Short-term energy outlook, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  18. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  19. Short-Term Periodicities in Solar Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of the present communication is to identify the short-term (few tens of months) periodicities of several solar indices (sunspot number, Caii area and K index, Lyman α, 2800 MHz radio emission, coronal green-line index, solar magnetic field). The procedure used was: from the 3-month running means (3m) the 37-month running means (37m) were subtracted, and the factor (3m - 37m) was examined for several parameters. For solar indices, considerable fluctuations were seen during the ± 4 years around sunspot maxima of cycles 18-23, and virtually no fluctuations were seen in the ± 2 years around sunspot minima. The spacings between successive peaks were irregular but common for various solar indices. Assuming that there are stationary periodicities, a spectral analysis was carried out which indicated periodicities of months: 5.1 5.7, 6.2 7.0, 7.6 7.9, 8.9 9.6, 10.4 12.0, 12.8 13.4, 14.5 17.5, 22 25, 28 (QBO), 31 36 (QBO), 41 47 (QTO). The periodicities of 1.3 year (15.6 months) and 1.7 years (20.4 months) often mentioned in the literature were seen neither often nor prominently. Other periodicities occurred more often and more prominently. For the open magnetic flux estimated by Wang, Lean, and Sheeley (2000) and Wang and Sheeley (2002), it was noticed that the variations were radically different at different solar latitudes. The open flux for 45∘ solar latitudes had variations anti-parallel to the sunspot cycle. The open fluxes, interplanetary magnetic field and cosmic rays, all showed periodicities similar to those of solar indices. Many peaks (but not all) matched, indicating that the open flux for < 45∘ solar latitudes was at least partially an adequate carrier of the solar characteristics to the interplanetary space and thence for galactic cosmic ray modulation.

  20. Short-term precursor of the geomagnetic horizontal field transfer functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, using the variometer data of Changli station and Baijiatuan station from 1972 to 1997, the inter-station transfer functions of horizontal field and the single-station transfer functions of vertical field have been calculated. With analyzing the whole changing process of the transfer functions, we have discovered that only the horizontal field transfer functions arose obvious short-term precursors before Tangshan earthquake. This fact may provide a new method for short-term prediction of earthquake.

  1. Advancement and prospect of short-term numerical climate prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The defects of present methods of short-term numerical climate prediction are discussed in this paper, and four challenging problems are put forward. Considering our under developed computer conditions, we should innovate in the approcuch of numerical climate prediction on the basis of our own achievements and experiences in the field of short-term numerical climate prediction. It is possibly an effective way to settle the present defects of short-term numerical climate prediction.``

  2. Analysis of short-term reactor cavity transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the transient of a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a nuclear reactor, peak pressures are reached within the first 0.03 s at different locations inside the reactor cavity. Due to the complicated multidimensional nature of the reactor cavity, the short-term analysis of the LOCA transient cannot be performed by using traditional containment codes, such as CONTEMPT. The advanced containment code, BEACON/MOD3, developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), can be adapted for such analysis. This code provides Eulerian, one and two-dimensional, nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium flow modeling as well as lumped parameter, homogeneous, equilibrium flow modeling for the solution of two-component, two-phase flow problems. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of the BEACON code to analyze complex containment geometry such as a reactor cavity

  3. Short-term facilitation may stabilize parametric working memory trace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Itskov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Networks with continuous set of attractors are considered to be a paradigmatic model for parametric working memory, but require fine-tuning of connections and are thus structurally unstable. Here we analyzed the network with ring attractor, where connections are not perfectly tuned and the activity state therefore drifts in the absence of the stabilizing stimulus. We derive an analytical expression for the drift dynamics and conclude that the network cannot function as working memory for a period of several seconds, a typical delay time in monkey memory experiments. We propose that short-term synaptic facilitation in recurrent connections significantly improves the robustness of the model by slowing down the drift of activity bump. Extending the calculation of the drift velocity to network with synaptic facilitation, we conclude that facilitation can slow down the drift by a large factor, rendering the network suitable as a model of working memory.

  4. 用新型探测资料分析武汉一次短时强降水过程的中尺度对流系统%Analyzing the mesoscale convective system in a short-term severe precipitation process in Wuhan based on new sounding data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪小康; 王晓芳; 崔春光; 周志敏

    2012-01-01

    The mesoscale convective system in a short-term severe precipitation process in Wuhan on 9 June 2011 was analyzed by using the observation data with high spatial and temporal resolution from wind profiler radar and ground-based microwave radiometer,radar echo data and surface automatic weather observations.The results show that this short-term severe precipitation was caused by a linear trailing stratiform mesoscale convective system(TS MCS).Fifteen min before the precipitation happening,strong tilting updraft occurred in the mid-and low-level and formed two small scale vertical vortices in front and at back of it.This characteristic conformed to the new cell generation model in balance between cool pool and wind shear.Before the severe precipitation occurred the surface air pressure rapidly fell,wind speed suddenly increased and,cloud base fluctuated in a drop process.After the severe precipitation occurred,in the front part of MCS the airflows moved from back to front relative to the"convection line"movement in boundary layer and high level of the troposphere,and moved from front to back in low level.In the back part of MCS the airflows moved from front to back in boundary layer,low and high levels of the troposphere,and moved from back to front in middle level.These airflow characteristics conformed to mature stage model of linear mesoscale convective system.%利用武汉站风廓线雷达和地基微波辐射计获取的高时空分辨率资料,结合雷达回波和地面自动站加密观测资料,分析了2011年6月9日武汉短时强降水过程的中尺度对流系统。结果表明:引起短时强降水的是一个尾随层云类中尺度对流系统。降水开始前15 min,对流层中低层有显著倾斜上升气流,并在其前后形成两个小尺度涡旋,与冷池和风切变抗衡下新单体的生成模型相一致。强降水开始前,地面气压迅速降低,地面风速迅速增大,云底高度波动降低;降水发生后,成熟单体前部

  5. Errors in the measurement of non-Gaussian noise spectra using rf spectrum analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the nature of errors which may occur when the spectra of random signals not obeying Gaussian statistics are measured with typical rf spectrum analyzers. These errors depend on both the noise statistics and the process used to detect the random signal after it has been passed through a narrow bandpass filter within the spectrum analyzer. In general, for random signals not obeying Gaussian statistics, the output of the bandpass filter must be measured with a square law detector if the resulting measurement is to be strictly proportional to the power spectrum of the input signal. We compare measurements of the power spectra of non-Gaussian noise using a commerical spectrum analyzer with its resident envelope detector, with measurements by the same analyzer fitted with a square law detector. Differences of about 5% were observed

  6. Short-term sleep deprivation stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis in rats following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumei Cheng

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation (SD plays a complex role in central nervous system (CNS diseases. Recent studies indicate that short-term SD can affect the extent of ischemic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether short-term SD could stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (GCIR.One hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Sham, GCIR and short-term SD groups based on different durations of SD; the short-term SD group was randomly divided into three subgroups: the GCIR+6hSD*3d-treated, GCIR+12hSD-treated and GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated groups. The GCIR rat model was induced via the bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries and hemorrhagic hypotension. The rats were sleep-deprived starting at 48 h following GCIR. A Morris water maze test was used to assess learning and memory ability; cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed via 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and neuron-specific enolase (NSE, respectively, at 14 and 28 d; the expression of hippocampal BDNF was measured after 7 d.The different durations of short-term SD designed in our experiment exhibited improvement in cognitive function as well as increased hippocampal BDNF expression. Additionally, the short-term SD groups also showed an increased number of BrdU- and BrdU/NSE-positive cells compared with the GCIR group. Of the three short-term SD groups, the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated group experienced the most substantial beneficial effects.Short-term SD, especially the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated method, stimulates neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG of rats that undergo GCIR, and BDNF may be an underlying mechanism in this process.

  7. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific. PMID:26476140

  8. Short-Term Robustness of Production Management Systems : New Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Gaury, E.G.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the short-term robustness of production planning and control systems. This robustness is defined here as the systems ability to maintain short-term service probabilities (i.e., the probability that the fill rate remains within a prespecified range), in a variety of environmen

  9. Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts

  10. Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  11. Short-term Memory Training in Listening Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一菡

    2015-01-01

    Listening comprehension is a basic skill in English learning.Here,we will talk about the relationship between the short-term memory and listening comprehension, and try to find the way of the short-term memory training to improve the skill of the students in middle school.

  12. Why do short term workers have high mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    Increased mortality is often reported among workers in short term employment. This may indicate either a health-related selection process or the presence of different lifestyle or social conditions among short term workers. The authors studied these two aspects of short term employment among 16...... employment showed a 20% higher risk of early termination of employment than those never hospitalized (rate ratio (RR) = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.16-1.29), and the risk increased with number of hospitalizations. For workers with two or more preemployment hospitalizations related to alcohol abuse...... or violence, the rate ratios for short term employment were 2.30 (95% Cl 1.74-3.06) and 1.86 (95% Cl 1.35-2.56), respectively. An unhealthy lifestyle may also be a determinant of short term employment. While it is possible in principle to adjust for lifestyle factors if proper data are collected, the...

  13. The epidemiology of long- and short-term cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarlbæk, Lene; Christensen, Linda; Bruera, Eduardo; Hansen, Dorte Gilså

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In this study, we present data from a population-based cohort of incident cancer patients separated in long- and short-term survivors. Our aim was to procure denominators for use in the planning of rehabilitation and palliative care programs. Material and methods. A registry......' difference in age at TOCD was seen between long- and short-term survivors, with median ages of 60 versus 72 years, respectively. Females comprised 64% of long-term, and 46% of short-term survivors. The proportion of breast and lung cancers differed between the groups: Long-term survivors: 31% breast cancer......, 2.4% lung cancer. Short-term survivors: 21% lung cancer, 7.2% breast cancer. Chemotherapy was provided to 15% of all patients, and to 10% of the 60 + year olds. Discussion. The epidemiology of long- and short-term survivors shows significant differences with regard to age at TOCD, cancer types and...

  14. Short term load forecasting: two stage modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOARES, L. J.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the hourly electricity load demand in the area covered by a utility situated in the Seattle, USA, called Puget Sound Power and Light Company. Our proposal is put into proof with the famous dataset from this company. We propose a stochastic model which employs ANN (Artificial Neural Networks to model short-run dynamics and the dependence among adjacent hours. The model proposed treats each hour's load separately as individual single series. This approach avoids modeling the intricate intra-day pattern (load profile displayed by the load, which varies throughout days of the week and seasons. The forecasting performance of the model is evaluated in similiar mode a TLSAR (Two-Level Seasonal Autoregressive model proposed by Soares (2003 using the years of 1995 and 1996 as the holdout sample. Moreover, we conclude that non linearity is present in some series of these data. The model results are analyzed. The experiment shows that our tool can be used to produce load forecasting in tropical climate places.

  15. Analog VLSI Circuits for Short-Term Dynamic Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chii Liu

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Short-term dynamical synapses increase the computational power of neuronal networks. These synapses act as additional filters to the inputs of a neuron before the subsequent integration of these signals at its cell body. In this work, we describe a model of depressing and facilitating synapses derived from a hardware circuit implementation. This model is equivalent to theoretical models of short-term synaptic dynamics in network simulations. These circuits have been added to a network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. A cortical model of direction-selectivity that uses short-term dynamic synapses has been implemented with this network.

  16. Short-Term Debt in International Banking Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Eunsook Seo

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores how a bank run can occur when a bank takes into account short-term capital inflow from abroad. My model is an extension of the Diamond-Dybvig model to include the possibility that short-term liquidity needs can be met by borrowing from abroad. In the model, it is more efficient to meet short-term liquidity needs this way than by holding liquid domestic assets. I show conditions under which a ¡°bad¡± equilibrium exists in which pessimistic foreign investors withhold their i...

  17. UTILITY OF SHORT-TERM TESTS FOR GENETIC TOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    By definition, short-term test (STTs) for genetic toxicity detect genotoxic agents, not carcinogens specifically. owever, there is ufficient evidence, based on mechanistic considerations alone, to say that genotoxic agents are potential carcinogens. TTs have high statistical powe...

  18. Identity modulates short-term memory for facial emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Galster, Murray; Kahana, Michael J.; Wilson, Hugh R.; Sekuler, Robert

    2009-01-01

    For some time, the relationship between processing of facial expression and facial identity has been in dispute. Using realistic synthetic faces, we reexamined this relationship for both perception and short-term memory. In Experiment 1, subjects tried to identify whether the emotional expression on a probe stimulus face matched the emotional expression on either of two remembered faces that they had just seen. The results showed that identity strongly influenced recognition short-term memory...

  19. Reverse Detection of Short-Term Earthquake Precursors

    OpenAIRE

    V. Keilis-Borok; Shebalin, P.; Gabrielov, A.; Turcotte, D.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to short-term earthquake prediction based on the concept of selforganization of seismically active fault networks. That approach is named "Reverse Detection of Precursors" (RDP), since it considers precursors in reverse order of their appearance. This makes it possible to detect precursors undetectable by direct analysis. Possible mechanisms underlying RDP are outlined. RDP is described with a concrete example: we consider as short-term precursors the newly introdu...

  20. CONSUMER CONFIDENCE INDICES AND SHORT-TERM FORECASTING OF CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Al-Eyd; Ray Barrell; E. Philip Davis

    2008-01-01

    Recently there has been growing interest in examining the potential short-term link between survey-based confidence indicators and real economic activity, notably for macroeconomic policy making. This paper builds on previous studies to establish whether there is a short-term predictive relationship between measures of consumer confidence and actual consumption, which could be used for forecasting, in a range of major industrial countries. It then extends such previous analyses by assessing w...

  1. Short-term incentive schemes for hospital managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Malambe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Short-term incentives, considered to be an extrinsic motivation, are commonly used to motivate performance. This study explored hospital managers’ perceptions of short term incentives in maximising performance and retention.Research purpose: The study explored the experiences, views and perceptions of private hospital managers in South Africa regarding the use of short-term incentives to maximise performance and retention, as well as the applicability of the findings to public hospitals.Motivation for the study: Whilst there is an established link between performance reward schemes and organisational performance, there is little understanding of the effects of short term incentives on the performance and retention of hospital managers within the South African context.Research design, approach, and method: The study used a qualitative research design: interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 19 hospital managers, and a thematic content analysis was performed.Main findings: Short-term incentives may not be the primary motivator for hospital managers, but they do play a critical role in sustaining motivation. Participants indicated that these schemes could also be applicable to public hospitals.Practical/managerial implications: Hospital managers are inclined to be more motivated by intrinsic than extrinsic factors. However, hospital managers (as middle managers also seem to be motivated by short-term incentives. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators should thus be used to maximise performance and retention.Contribution/value-add: Whilst the study sought to explore hospital managers’ perceptions of short-term incentives, it also found that an adequate balance between internal and external motivators is key to implementing an effective short-term incentive scheme.

  2. Short-term memory and dual task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two hypotheses concerning the way in which short-term memory interacts with another task in a dual task situation are considered. It is noted that when two tasks are combined, the activity of controlling and organizing performance on both tasks simultaneously may compete with either task for a resource; this resource may be space in a central mechanism or general processing capacity or it may be some task-specific resource. If a special relationship exists between short-term memory and control, especially if there is an identity relationship between short-term and a central controlling mechanism, then short-term memory performance should show a decrement in a dual task situation. Even if short-term memory does not have any particular identity with a controlling mechanism, but both tasks draw on some common resource or resources, then a tradeoff between the two tasks in allocating resources is possible and could be reflected in performance. The persistent concurrence cost in memory performance in these experiments suggests that short-term memory may have a unique status in the information processing system.

  3. Short term power load forecasting using a modified generalized regression neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, K.S. [Tenaga National Univ. (Malaysia). Dept. of Electronics and Communication Engineering; Lim, C.P. [Sains Univ. (Malaysia). School of Electronics and Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The importance of short-term load forecasting in the operation of power grids was discussed. The short-term time frame may consist of half hourly predictions up to monthly predictions. Accurate forecasting would benefit electric utilities in terms of grid reliability and stability and ensuring adequate supply to meet with the load demand. Short-term forecasting would also affect the financial performance of electric utilities. This paper presented short-term load forecasting experiments using a Modified Generalized Regression Neural Network (MGRNN) with modification by e-ILF. The experiments were based on power load data from Jan 1997 to Jan 1999 from the East Slovakian Electricity Corporation. According to simulation results, the MGRNN has comparable prediction accuracy to benchmark results archived by Support Vector Regression (SVR). One of the potential improvements of MGRNN is to use a non-quadratic loss function, such as one norm of e-ILF, to prevent the problem of noise data. 9 refs., 16 figs.

  4. Mid-latitude summer response of the middle atmosphere to short-term solar UV changes

    OpenAIRE

    Keckhut, P

    1995-01-01

    Temperature and wind data obtained with Rayleigh lidar since 1979 and Russian rockets since 1964 are analyzed to deduce the summer response of the middle atmosphere to short-term solar UV changes. The equivalent width of the 1083 nm He I line is used as a proxy to monitor the short-term UV flux changes. Spectral analyses are performed on 108-day windows to extract the 27-day component from temperature, wind and solar data sets. Linear regressions between these spectral harmonics show some sig...

  5. Short-term load forecasting using neural network for future smart grid application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zennamo, Joseph Anthony, III

    Short-term load forecasting of power system has been a classic problem for a long time. Not merely it has been researched extensively and intensively, but also a variety of forecasting methods has been raised. This thesis outlines some aspects and functions of smart meter. It also presents different policies and current statuses as well as future projects and objectives of SG development in several countries. Then the thesis compares main aspects about latest products of smart meter from different companies. Lastly, three types of prediction models are established in MATLAB to emulate the functions of smart grid in the short-term load forecasting, and then their results are compared and analyzed in terms of accuracy. For this thesis, more variables such as dew point temperature are used in the Neural Network model to achieve more accuracy for better short-term load forecasting results.

  6. Local short-term variability in solar irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Gerald M.; Monahan, Adam H.; Heinemann, Detlev

    2016-05-01

    Characterizing spatiotemporal irradiance variability is important for the successful grid integration of increasing numbers of photovoltaic (PV) power systems. Using 1 Hz data recorded by as many as 99 pyranometers during the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), we analyze field variability of clear-sky index k* (i.e., irradiance normalized to clear-sky conditions) and sub-minute k* increments (i.e., changes over specified intervals of time) for distances between tens of meters and about 10 km. By means of a simple classification scheme based on k* statistics, we identify overcast, clear, and mixed sky conditions, and demonstrate that the last of these is the most potentially problematic in terms of short-term PV power fluctuations. Under mixed conditions, the probability of relatively strong k* increments of ±0.5 is approximately twice as high compared to increment statistics computed without conditioning by sky type. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation structures of k* increment fields differ considerably between sky types. While the profiles for overcast and clear skies mostly resemble the predictions of a simple model published by , this is not the case for mixed conditions. As a proxy for the smoothing effects of distributed PV, we finally show that spatial averaging mitigates variability in k* less effectively than variability in k* increments, for a spatial sensor density of 2 km-2.

  7. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration approximately 28, 59, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights. Reticulocyte count was decreased after both short- and long-term flights, indicating that a reduction in red blood cell mass is probably more closely related to suppression of red cell production than to an increase in destruction of erythrocytes. Serum ferritin and number of platelets were also elevated after Shuttle flights. In determining the reasons for postflight differences between the shorter and longer flights, it is important to consider not only duration but also countermeasures, differences between spacecraft, and procedures for landing and egress.

  8. Some analytical results pertaining to Cournot models for short-term electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, C.; Conejo, A.J.; Garcia-Bertrand, R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Univ. Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    This paper provides some theoretical results pertaining to the Cournot model applied to short-term electricity markets. Price, quantities and profits are first obtained, and then results related to sensitivities and limit values are derived and discussed. The cases of both several identical Cournot producers and one dominant Cournot producer are analyzed. A case example illustrates the results obtained. (author)

  9. Exposing Students to Repeat Photography: Increasing Cultural Understanding on a Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmons, Kelly K.; Brannstrom, Christian; Hurd, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, repeat photography has been used to analyze land cover change. This paper describes how repeat photography may be used as a tool to enhance the short-term study abroad experience by facilitating cultural interaction and understanding. We present evidence from two cases and suggest a five-step repeat photography method for educators…

  10. Impaired short-term memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26505915

  11. Short term memory, physical fitness, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Rossanti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity in adolescents is a major health problem and has been associated with low academic achievement. Brainderived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a role in appetite suppression and memory, and its secretion is enhanced by physical activity. This neurotrophin may be associated with academic achievement in obese. Objective To compare physical fitness and serum BDNF levels to short term memory levels in obese adolescents aged 10–14 years. Methods This comparative, cross-sectional, analytic study was carried out on 40 elementary and high school students in Bandung, West Java, who were recruited by stratified random sampling. Short term memory was assessed by a psychologist using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Digit Span test (WISC-III Digit Span. Physical fitness was assessed by a clinical exercise physiologist using the Asian Committee on the Standardization of Physical Fitness Test (ACSPFT. Serum BDNF levels were measured by ELISA test in a certified laboratory. ANOVA test was used to assess for a correlation between serum BDNF concentration and short term memory, as well as between physical fitness level and short term memory. Pearson’s correlation test was used to analyze for a correlation between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels. Results The majority of subjects were in the physical fitness categories of moderate or poor. Subjects had a mean BDNF level of 44,227.8 (SD 10,359 pg/mL. There was no statistically significant difference in physical fitness with either serum BDNF or with short term memory levels (P=0.139 and P=0.383, respectively. Also, no correlation was determined between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels (r=0.222; P=0.169. Conclusion In obese adolescents, short term memory levels are not significantly different between physical fitness levels nor between serum BDNF levels.

  12. Short term memory, physical fitness, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Rossanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity in adolescents is a major health problem and has been associated with low academic achievement. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a role in appetite suppression and memory, and its secretion is enhanced by physical activity. This neurotrophin may be associated with academic achievement in obese. Objective To compare physical fitness and serum BDNF levels to short term memory levels in obese adolescents aged 10–14 years. Methods This comparative, cross-sectional, analytic study was carried out on 40 elementary and high school students in Bandung, West Java, who were recruited by stratified random sampling. Short term memory was assessed by a psychologist using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Digit Span test (WISC-III Digit Span. Physical fitness was assessed by a clinical exercise physiologist using the Asian Committee on the Standardization of Physical Fitness Test (ACSPFT. Serum BDNF levels were measured by ELISA test in a certified laboratory. ANOVA test was used to assess for a correlation between serum BDNF concentration and short term memory, as well as between physical fitness level and short term memory. Pearson’s correlation test was used to analyze for a correlation between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels. Results The majority of subjects were in the physical fitness categories of moderate or poor. Subjects had a mean BDNF level of 44,227.8 (SD 10,359 pg/mL. There was no statistically significant difference in physical fitness with either serum BDNF or with short term memory levels (P=0.139 and P=0.383, respectively. Also, no correlation was determined between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels (r=0.222; P=0.169. Conclusion In obese adolescents, short term memory levels are not significantly different between physical fitness levels nor between serum BDNF levels.

  13. Verbal short-term memory and vocabulary learning in polyglots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagno, C; Vallar, G

    1995-02-01

    Polyglot and non-polyglot Italian subjects were given tests assessing verbal (phonological) and visuo-spatial short-term and long-term memory, general intelligence, and vocabulary knowledge in their native language. Polyglots had a superior level of performance in verbal short-term memory tasks (auditory digit span and nonword repetition) and in a paired-associate learning test, which assessed the subjects' ability to acquire new (Russian) words. By contrast, the two groups had comparable performance levels in tasks assessing general intelligence, visuo-spatial short-term memory and learning, and paired-associate learning of Italian words. These findings, which are in line with neuropsychological and developmental evidence, as well as with data from normal subjects, suggest a close relationship between the capacity of phonological memory and the acquisition of foreign languages. PMID:7754088

  14. The pedagogy of Short-Term Study-Abroad Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Gonsalvez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on establishing guidelines on the pedagogy of short term study abroad programs. This study follows 33 students who participated in a short-term study-abroad program to India with the researcher from 2006 through 2011. The study relies heavily on the student reflections and expressions as they experienced them. It is qualitative in nature. Focus groups were the main method of data collection, where participants were invited to reflect, express, and share their experiences with one another. This provided an opportunity for the participants to come together, relive their experiences, and help provide information as to how and what type of an influence this short-term study-abroad program provided.

  15. Model documentation report: Short-Term Hydroelectric Generation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Short- Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on the model structure. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with the Energy Information Administration's (AYE) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). The STHGM performs a short-term (18 to 27- month) forecast of hydroelectric generation in the United States using an autoregressive integrated moving average (UREMIA) time series model with precipitation as an explanatory variable. The model results are used as input for the short-term Energy Outlook

  16. Short-term tocolytics for preterm delivery – current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas DM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available David M Haas, Tara Benjamin, Renata Sawyer, Sara K QuinneyDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Administration of short-term tocolytic agents can prolong pregnancy for women in preterm labor. Prolonging pregnancy has many benefits because it allows for other proven interventions, such as antenatal corticosteroid administration, to be accomplished. This review provides an overview of currently utilized tocolytic agents and the evidence demonstrating their efficacy for prolonging pregnancy by at least 48 hours. General pharmacological principles for the clinician regarding drugs in pregnancy are also briefly discussed. In general, while the choice of the best first-line short-term tocolytic drug is not clear, it is evident that use of these agents has a clear place in current obstetric therapeutics.Keywords: tocolytics, short-term, preterm delivery

  17. Short-term cortical plasticity induced by conditioning pain modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Line Lindhardt; Buchgreitz, Line; Wang, Li;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of homotopic and heterotopic conditioning pain modulation (CPM) on short-term cortical plasticity. Glutamate (tonic pain) or isotonic saline (sham) was injected in the upper trapezius (homotopic) and in the thenar (heterotopic) muscles. Intramuscular electrical...... CPM caused short-term cortical plasticity within the cingulate that was correlated to subjective pain ratings. The degree of long-term depressive effect to homotopic CPM was correlated to the change in location of the P200 dipole....... stimulation was applied to the trapezius at pain threshold intensities, and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded with 128 channel EEG. Pain ratings were obtained during glutamate and sham pain injection. Short-term cortical plasticity to electrical stimulation was investigated before, during, and...

  18. Reconstructing Clusters for Preconditioned Short-term Load Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagaki, Tadahiro; Mori, Hiroyuki

    This paper presents a new preconditioned method for short-term load forecasting that focuses on more accurate predicted value. In recent years, the deregulated and competitive power market increases the degree of uncertainty. As a result, more sophisticated short-term load forecasting techniques are required to deal with more complicated load behavior. To alleviate the complexity of load behavior, this paper presents a new preconditioned model. In this paper, clustering results are reconstructed to equalize the number of learning data after clustering with the Kohonen-based neural network. That enhances a short-term load forecasting model at each reconstructed cluster. The proposed method is successfully applied to real data of one-step ahead daily maximum load forecasting.

  19. Short-Termed Integrated Forecasting System: 1993 Model documentation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) and describe its basic properties. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Energy Department (DOE) developed the STIFS model to generate short-term (up to 8 quarters), monthly forecasts of US supplies, demands, imports exports, stocks, and prices of various forms of energy. The models that constitute STIFS generate forecasts for a wide range of possible scenarios, including the following ones done routinely on a quarterly basis: A base (mid) world oil price and medium economic growth. A low world oil price and high economic growth. A high world oil price and low economic growth. This report is written for persons who want to know how short-term energy markets forecasts are produced by EIA. The report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public.

  20. A new ensemble model for short term wind power prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Albu, Razvan-Daniel; Felea, Ioan;

    2012-01-01

    As the objective of this study, a non-linear ensemble system is used to develop a new model for predicting wind speed in short-term time scale. Short-term wind power prediction becomes an extremely important field of research for the energy sector. Regardless of the recent advancements in the re......-search of prediction models, it was observed that different models have different capabilities and also no single model is suitable under all situations. The idea behind EPS (ensemble prediction systems) is to take advantage of the unique features of each subsystem to detain diverse patterns that exist in...

  1. Top-down Tree Long Short-Term Memory Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xingxing; Lu, Liang; Lapata, Mirella

    2015-01-01

    Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks, a type of recurrent neural network with a more complex computational unit, have been successfully applied to a variety of sequence modeling tasks. In this paper we develop Tree Long Short-Term Memory (TreeLSTM), a neural network model based on LSTM, which is designed to predict a tree rather than a linear sequence. TreeLSTM defines the probability of a sentence by estimating the generation probability of its dependency tree. At each time step, a node is...

  2. A short-term group with drug users in prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Campo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a short term group, according to the viewpoint of group analysis theory. The experience was made in the prison of Sicily. The group was composed by prisoners in the protected area with issues of addiction. The article highlights the usefulness of a work on the Motivation to change through the device of the group. Furthermore, it underlines how much of the work in this context was to encourage participants in the transition to reflection, critical to work on yourself. We walk through fragments of sessions, those were the main themes emerged: the relationship, responsibility, guilt, punishment.Keywords: Addiction, Motivation to change, Short-term group

  3. Why do short term workers have high mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    employment showed a 20% higher risk of early termination of employment than those never hospitalized (rate ratio (RR) = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.16-1.29), and the risk increased with number of hospitalizations. For workers with two or more preemployment hospitalizations related to alcohol abuse...... or violence, the rate ratios for short term employment were 2.30 (95% Cl 1.74-3.06) and 1.86 (95% Cl 1.35-2.56), respectively. An unhealthy lifestyle may also be a determinant of short term employment. While it is possible in principle to adjust for lifestyle factors if proper data are collected, the...

  4. Short-Term Shareholders, Bubbles, And CEO Myopia

    OpenAIRE

    John Thanassoulis

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the real economy effects of firms having some shareholders with a short investment horizon on their shareholder register. Short-term shareholders cause management to be concerned with the path of the share price as well as its ultimate value. Such shareholders in an economy lead to bubbles in the prices of key inputs, to the misallocation of firms to risky business models, and to increased costs of capital. For individual firms short-term shareholders induce the Board to r...

  5. Auditory Short-Term Memory Activation during Score Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Simoens, Veerle L; Mari Tervaniemi

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during ...

  6. Algorithms for short-term production planning of cogeneration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotzauer, E.

    1998-03-01

    A cogeneration plant, feeding its output water into a district-heating network, may include several types of energy producing units. The most important being the Co-generation unit, which produces both heat and electricity. Most plants also have a Heat water storage. Finding the optimal production of both heat and electricity and the optimal use of the storage is a challenging mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem. The calculations may be divided into two sub-problems. The unit commitment problem is the problem to determine when a unit should be producing (on) or not (off). To solve the economic dispatch problem is to find the optimal production plan given which units are producing in each time interval. Together the solution of these two problems form the solution of the short-term production-planning problem. In this thesis a general approach for the mathematical modeling of a co-generation plant is presented. The model objective function is nonlinear, with nonlinear constraints. Internal plant temperatures, mass flows, storage losses, minimal up and down times and time dependent start-up costs are considered. The demand for heat, the forward temperature from the plant, the return temperature to the plant and the price of electricity are assumed to be known quantities. The net electric power produced is sold for the estimated current market price of electricity. The unit commitment problem is solved with an algorithm based on Lagrangian relaxation. The dual search direction is computed by the sub gradient method and the step length by the Polyak rule II. A heuristic method for the generation of primal feasible solutions is developed. The economic dispatch problem is solved using a combination of dynamic programming and general-purpose solvers. Algorithms to find starting values for the problem are developed. The model and the algorithms are implemented in MATLAB, illustrated with numerical examples and analyzed with numerical tests

  7. Autoradiographic thyroid evaluation in short-term experimental diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento-Saba C.C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that in vitro thyroid peroxidase (TPO iodide oxidation activity is decreased and thyroid T4-5'-deiodinase activity is increased 15 days after induction of experimental diabetes mellitus (DM. In the present study we used thyroid histoautoradiography, an indirect assay of in vivo TPO activity, to determine the possible parallelism between the in vitro and in vivo changes induced by experimental DM. DM was induced in male Wistar rats (about 250 g body weight by a single ip streptozotocin injection (45 mg/kg, while control (C animals received a single injection of the vehicle. Seven and 30 days after diabetes induction, each diabetic and control animal was given ip a tracer dose of 125I (2 µCi, 2.5 h before thyroid excision. The glands were counted, weighed, fixed in Bouin's solution, embedded in paraffin and cut. The sections were stained with HE and exposed to NTB-2 emulsion (Kodak. The autohistograms were developed and the quantitative distribution of silver grains was evaluated with a computerized image analyzer system. Thyroid radioiodine uptake was significantly decreased only after 30 days of DM (C: 0.38 ± 0.05 vs DM: 0.20 ± 0.04%/mg thyroid, P<0.05 while in vivo TPO activity was significantly decreased 7 and 30 days after DM induction (C: 5.3 and 4.5 grains/100 µm2 vs DM: 2.9 and 1.6 grains/100 µm2, respectively, P<0.05 . These data suggest that insulin deficiency first reduces in vivo TPO activity during short-term experimental diabetes mellitus

  8. Rapid recovery following short-term acoustic disturbance in two fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruintjes, Rick; Purser, Julia; Everley, Kirsty A.; Mangan, Stephanie; Simpson, Stephen D.; Radford, Andrew N.

    2016-01-01

    Noise from human activities is known to impact organisms in a variety of taxa, but most experimental studies on the behavioural effects of noise have focused on examining responses associated with the period of actual exposure. Unlike most pollutants, acoustic noise is generally short-lived, usually dissipating quickly after the source is turned off or leaves the area. In a series of experiments, we use established experimental paradigms to examine how fish behaviour and physiology are affected, both during short-term (2 min) exposure to playback of recordings of anthropogenic noise sources and in the immediate aftermath of noise exposure. We considered the anti-predator response and ventilation rate of juvenile European eels (Anguilla anguilla) and ventilation rate of juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). As previously found, additional-noise exposure decreased eel anti-predator responses, increased startle latency and increased ventilation rate relative to ambient-noise-exposed controls. Our results show for the first time that those effects quickly dissipated; eels showed rapid recovery of startle responses and startle latency, and rapid albeit incomplete recovery of ventilation rate in the 2 min after noise cessation. Seabass in both laboratory and open-water conditions showed an increased ventilation rate during playback of additional noise compared with ambient conditions. However, within 2 min of noise cessation, ventilation rate showed complete recovery to levels equivalent to ambient-exposed control individuals. Care should be taken in generalizing these rapid-recovery results, as individuals might have accrued other costs during noise exposure and other species might show different recovery times. Nonetheless, our results from two different fish species provide tentative cause for optimism with respect to recovery following short-duration noise exposure, and suggest that considering periods following noise exposures could be important

  9. Rapid recovery following short-term acoustic disturbance in two fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruintjes, Rick; Purser, Julia; Everley, Kirsty A; Mangan, Stephanie; Simpson, Stephen D; Radford, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    Noise from human activities is known to impact organisms in a variety of taxa, but most experimental studies on the behavioural effects of noise have focused on examining responses associated with the period of actual exposure. Unlike most pollutants, acoustic noise is generally short-lived, usually dissipating quickly after the source is turned off or leaves the area. In a series of experiments, we use established experimental paradigms to examine how fish behaviour and physiology are affected, both during short-term (2 min) exposure to playback of recordings of anthropogenic noise sources and in the immediate aftermath of noise exposure. We considered the anti-predator response and ventilation rate of juvenile European eels (Anguilla anguilla) and ventilation rate of juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). As previously found, additional-noise exposure decreased eel anti-predator responses, increased startle latency and increased ventilation rate relative to ambient-noise-exposed controls. Our results show for the first time that those effects quickly dissipated; eels showed rapid recovery of startle responses and startle latency, and rapid albeit incomplete recovery of ventilation rate in the 2 min after noise cessation. Seabass in both laboratory and open-water conditions showed an increased ventilation rate during playback of additional noise compared with ambient conditions. However, within 2 min of noise cessation, ventilation rate showed complete recovery to levels equivalent to ambient-exposed control individuals. Care should be taken in generalizing these rapid-recovery results, as individuals might have accrued other costs during noise exposure and other species might show different recovery times. Nonetheless, our results from two different fish species provide tentative cause for optimism with respect to recovery following short-duration noise exposure, and suggest that considering periods following noise exposures could be important

  10. Panorama 2013 - Short term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outlook for gas industry development in the short term is clouded by uncertainties (impact of the economic slowdown, competition between energies, price fluctuations, etc.). However, as in 2012, many favorable factors in terms of natural gas supply and demand point to sustained and sustainable growth of this energy. (author)

  11. 22 CFR 62.21 - Short-term scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to the United States for a period of up to four months to lecture, observe, consult, and to... shall satisfy the definition of a short-term scholar as set forth in § 62.4. (e) Cross-cultural... activities stated on his or her Form DS-2019. A participant may also lecture or consult at institutions...

  12. On short-term traffic flow forecasting and its reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Abouaissa, Hassane; Fliess, Michel; Join, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    International audience Recent advances in time series, where deterministic and stochastic modelings as well as the storage and analysis of big data are useless, permit a new approach to short-term traffic flow forecasting and to its reliability, i.e., to the traffic volatility. Several convincing computer simulations, which utilize concrete data, are presented and discussed.

  13. Valuing Short-Term Study Abroad in Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Chung-Ping A.; Steagall, Jeffrey W.; Gallo, Andres; Michelman, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    Short-term study abroad courses often claim to provide a unique experience for students, but it is not clear how the value translates into a dollar amount. The paper uses the contingent valuation method to assess participating students' pre- and post-trip perceived dollar value of their study abroad courses at an AACSB accredited business school.…

  14. Emotive-reconstruction psychotherapy: a short-term cognitive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, J K; Cometa, M S

    1977-04-01

    Emotive-Reconstructive Therapy, a recently developed therapeutic modality deriving from cognitive theory, may be a promising short-term approach to psychopathology. Combining the use of imagery with selective hyperventilation, a therapist induces patients to reexperience past events, and subsequently to radically reconstrue themselves and significant others in a personally satisfying direction. PMID:879383

  15. Short-term prediction towards the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.; Madsen, Henrik;

    2000-01-01

    A new chapter in the continued and exiting story of short-term prediction has begun! The paper will describe a new project funded by the Dnaisn Ministry of Energy where all the Danish utilities (Elkraft, ELsam, Eltra, and SEAS) will participate. The goal of the project is to develop and implement...

  16. A Short Term Real Time Study in Syntactic Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Maria Eugenia Lamoglia

    Recent research has shown that Brazilian Portuguese is undergoing a change regarding the null subject parameter, evolving from a null subject to a non-null subject language. This paper presents the results of a short term, real time study of speakers of Brazilian Portuguese with low and mid levels of formal education. The study was based on…

  17. Short-term robustness of production management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Gaury, E.G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Short-term performance of a production management system for make-to-stock factories may be quantified through the service rate per shift; long-term performance through the average monthly work in process (WIP). This may yield, for example, that WIP is minimized, while the probability of the service

  18. A Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy Approach for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the need for university counseling centers (UCCs) to implement brief therapies and describes one such treatment, intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP), as a particularly viable therapeutic approach in this setting. Because ISTDP is not appropriate for all students seeking therapy, a careful assessment of the…

  19. SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS INDEPENDENT OF BRAIN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Hasker P.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Jones, Oliver W.

    1980-09-01

    Male Swiss albino CD-1 mice given a single injection of a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI) (1 mg/animal), 20 min prior to single trial passive avoidance training demonstrated impaired retention at tests given 3 hr, 6 hr, 1 day, and 7 days after training. Retention was not significantly different from saline controls when tests were given 0.5 or 1.5 hr after training. Prolonging inhibition of brain protein synthesis by giving either 1 or 2 additional injections of ANI 2 or 2 and 4 hr after training did not prolong short-term retention performance. The temporal development of impaired retention in ANI treated mice could not be accounted for by drug dosage, duration of protein synthesis inhibition, or nonspecific sickness at test. In contrast to the suggestion that protein synthesis inhibition prolongs short-term memory (Quinton, 1978), the results of this experiment indicate that short-term memory is not prolonged by antibiotic drugs that inhibit cerebral protein synthesis. All evidence seems consistent with the hypothesis that short-term memory is protein synthesis independent and that the establishment of long-term memory depends upon protein synthesis during or shortly after training. Evidence for a role of protein synthesis in memory maintenance is discussed.

  20. Short-term feeding strategies and pork quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geesink, G.H.; Buren, van R.G.C.; Savenije, B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ducro, B.J.; Palen, van der J.G.P.; Hemke, G.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine whether short-term supplementation (5 days pre-slaughter) with magnesium acetate, or a combination of magnesium acetate, tryptophan, vitamin E and vitamin C would improve pork quality. In the first experiment the pigs (Pietrain x Yorkshire, n = 96) were fed a s

  1. Physical approach to short-term wind power prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Offers an approach to the ultimate goal of the short-term prediction of the power output of winds farms. This book addresses scientists and engineers working in wind energy related R and D and industry, as well as graduate students and nonspecialists researchers in the fields of atmospheric physics and meteorology.

  2. Short-Term Effects of Playing Computer Games on Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca Gul; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Uzel, Mehtap; Altunbas, Handan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term cognitive effects of computer games in children with different psychiatric disorders and normal controls. Method: One hundred one children are recruited for the study (aged between 9 and 12 years). All participants played a motor-racing game on the computer for 1 hour.…

  3. Orienting attention to objects in visual short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dell'Acqua, Roberto; Sessa, Paola; Toffanin, Paolo; Luria, Roy; Joliccoeur, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    We measured electroencephalographic activity during visual search of a target object among objects available to perception or among objects held in visual short-term memory (VSTM). For perceptual search, a single shape was shown first (pre-cue) followed by a search-array and the task was to decide w

  4. Interference-Based Forgetting in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Geiger, Sonja M.; Oberauer, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    This article presents four experiments that tested predictions of SOB (Serial Order in a Box), an interference-based theory of short-term memory. Central to SOB is the concept of novelty-sensitive encoding, which holds that items are encoded to the extent that they differ from already-encoded information. On the additional assumption that…

  5. Pigeon visual short-term memory directly compared to primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A; Elmore, L Caitlin

    2016-02-01

    Three pigeons were trained to remember arrays of 2-6 colored squares and detect which of two squares had changed color to test their visual short-term memory. Procedures (e.g., stimuli, displays, viewing times, delays) were similar to those used to test monkeys and humans. Following extensive training, pigeons performed slightly better than similarly trained monkeys, but both animal species were considerably less accurate than humans with the same array sizes (2, 4 and 6 items). Pigeons and monkeys showed calculated memory capacities of one item or less, whereas humans showed a memory capacity of 2.5 items. Despite the differences in calculated memory capacities, the pigeons' memory results, like those from monkeys and humans, were all well characterized by an inverse power-law function fit to d' values for the five display sizes. This characterization provides a simple, straightforward summary of the fundamental processing of visual short-term memory (how visual short-term memory declines with memory load) that emphasizes species similarities based upon similar functional relationships. By closely matching pigeon testing parameters to those of monkeys and humans, these similar functional relationships suggest similar underlying processes of visual short-term memory in pigeons, monkeys and humans. PMID:26344580

  6. Panorama 2012 - Short-term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Against the background of an energy market beset by the Fukushima crisis, the Arab spring and economic uncertainty, 2011 saw dynamic growth in demand for natural gas, although developments varied widely from region to region. New trends are emerging in the gas market, and these will have both short-term and longer-term impacts on how the industry develops. (author)

  7. Short-term outcomes following laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, Dara O

    2011-03-01

    Laparoscopic resection for colon cancer has been proven to have a similar oncological efficacy compared to open resection. Despite this, it is performed by a minority of colorectal surgeons. The aim of our study was to evaluate the short-term clinical, oncological and survival outcomes in all patients undergoing laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

  8. Somatostatin analogue in short term management of hyperinsulinism.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, J M; Di Silvio, L; Hindmarsh, P. C.; Brook, C G

    1988-01-01

    Five infants with hypoglycaemia due to hyperinsulinism were treated for between three and 11 days with a somatostatin analogue, which raised the mean blood glucose concentration and lowered the glucose requirements in all. Somatostatin analogue appears to be useful in the short term management of these patients.

  9. Assessment of highly active dune mobility in the medium, short and very short term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Marina; Muñoz-Pérez, Juan J.; Román-Sierra, Jorge; Tsoar, Haim; Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Gómez-Pina, Gregorio

    2011-06-01

    Dune activity or stability has usually been studied over long time periods; however, this may not reflect changes that occur in the short term, especially for highly active dunefields. Extreme wind conditions that are generated near the Strait of Gibraltar (SW Spain) have given rise to the transgressive Valdevaqueros dunefield. The current work focuses on analyzing the sand drift potential and the evolution of the dune profile in the medium term (months), the short term (days) and the very short term (hours). Topographic data, which were collected with a differential GPS, were interpreted from reconstructed empirical orthogonal functions (EOF). The results showed that generally the dune profile presented shifting morphologies, especially around the crest and brink, and a trend towards migration to a gentler steady state. As a result, the leeward side adopted continuous slope variations during the different survey periods, whereas the windward slope did not undergo any significant change. Lateral and vertical displacements were analyzed during a severe easterly sandstorm, when the dune brink experienced an advance migration rate of 1.75 m in 24 h. Sand transport rates of 25.5-36.5 m 3 m - 1 month - 1 , 22.52 m 3 m - 1 day - 1 and 0.93 m 3 m - 1 h - 1 were measured for the medium term, short term and very short term, respectively. These values were compared to the theoretical sand transport rate for Valdevaqueros dune, based on the classic Bagnold equation as well other more recent formulae, to obtain a ratio between the real and the theoretical rates for each study period. These results together with the sand drift potential (up to 10,000 vector units) demonstrate that Valdevaqueros (Tarifa) is a dunefield with one of the highest sand transport capacities in Europe.

  10. Variability of breast density assessment in short-term reimaging with digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Hwa [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Mi [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jung Min; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Lee, Su Hyun; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    Objective: To evaluate the variability of breast density assessments in short-term reimaging with digital mammography. Materials and methods: In 186 women, short term (mean interval, 27.6 days) serial digital mammograms including CC and MLO views were obtained without any treatment. Mammographic density assessments were performed by three blinded radiologists for Breast Imaging Report and Data System (BI-RADS, grades 1–4) and visual percentage density (PD) estimation, and by one radiologist for computer-aided PD estimation. The variability of assessments was analyzed according to the age, breast density, and mammography types by multivariate logistic regression. Results: In BI-RADS assessments, 29% (161 of 558) of breast density categories were assessed differently after short-term reimaging and the mean absolute difference in PD for CC and MLO view was 7.6% and 8.1% for visual assessments, and 7.4% and 6.4% for computer-aided assessments, respectively. Among all computer-aided assessments, 29% (54 of 186) of CC view and 22% (41 of 186) of MLO view assessments had discrepancy over 10% in PD. Younger age (<50), greater breast density (grades 3 and 4), and different mammography types were significantly associated with the variability. Conclusion: Considerable variability in breast density assessments occurred in short-term reimaging with digital mammography, particularly in women with younger age and greater breast density and when examined using different types of mammography.

  11. Variability of breast density assessment in short-term reimaging with digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the variability of breast density assessments in short-term reimaging with digital mammography. Materials and methods: In 186 women, short term (mean interval, 27.6 days) serial digital mammograms including CC and MLO views were obtained without any treatment. Mammographic density assessments were performed by three blinded radiologists for Breast Imaging Report and Data System (BI-RADS, grades 1–4) and visual percentage density (PD) estimation, and by one radiologist for computer-aided PD estimation. The variability of assessments was analyzed according to the age, breast density, and mammography types by multivariate logistic regression. Results: In BI-RADS assessments, 29% (161 of 558) of breast density categories were assessed differently after short-term reimaging and the mean absolute difference in PD for CC and MLO view was 7.6% and 8.1% for visual assessments, and 7.4% and 6.4% for computer-aided assessments, respectively. Among all computer-aided assessments, 29% (54 of 186) of CC view and 22% (41 of 186) of MLO view assessments had discrepancy over 10% in PD. Younger age (<50), greater breast density (grades 3 and 4), and different mammography types were significantly associated with the variability. Conclusion: Considerable variability in breast density assessments occurred in short-term reimaging with digital mammography, particularly in women with younger age and greater breast density and when examined using different types of mammography

  12. Ordered Short-Term Memory Differs in Signers and Speakers: Implications for Models of Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavelier, Daphne; Newport, Elissa L.; Hall, Matt; Supalla, Ted; Boutla, Mrim

    2008-01-01

    Capacity limits in linguistic short-term memory (STM) are typically measured with forward span tasks in which participants are asked to recall lists of words in the order presented. Using such tasks, native signers of American Sign Language (ASL) exhibit smaller spans than native speakers ([Boutla, M., Supalla, T., Newport, E. L., & Bavelier, D.…

  13. The application of short-term efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niebudek-Bogusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: An objective determination of the range of vocal efficiency is rather difficult. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of application of short-term acoustic efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders. Material and Methods: The study covered 98 people (87 women and 11 men diagnosed with occupational dysphonia through videostroboscopic examination. The control group comprised 100 people (81 women and 19 men with normal voices. The short-term acoustic analysis was carried out by means of DiagnoScope software, including classical parameters (Jitter group, Shimmer group and the assessment of noise degree NHR, as well as new short-term efficiency parameters determined in a short time period during sustained phonation of the vowel “a.” The results were then compared. Results: The values of all the examined classical parameters were considerably higher in the study group of pathological voices than in the control group of normal voices (p = 0.00. The aerodynamic parameter, maximum phonation time, was significantly shorter by over 0.5 s in the study group than in the control group. The majority of the acoustic efficiency parameters were also considerably worse in the study group of subjects with occupational dysphonia than in the control group (p = 0.00. Moreover, the correlation between the efficiency parameters and most of the classical acoustic parameters in the study group implies that for the voices with occupational pathology the decreased efficiency of the vocal apparatus is reflected in the acoustic voice structure. Conclusions: Efficiency parameters determined during short-term acoustic analysis can be an objective indicator of the decreased phonatory function of the larynx, useful in diagnosing occupational vocal pathology. Med Pr 2015;66(2:225–234

  14. Short-term change detection for UAV video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saur, Günter; Krüger, Wolfgang

    2012-11-01

    In the last years, there has been an increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for video reconnaissance and surveillance. An important application in this context is change detection in UAV video data. Here we address short-term change detection, in which the time between observations ranges from several minutes to a few hours. We distinguish this task from video motion detection (shorter time scale) and from long-term change detection, based on time series of still images taken between several days, weeks, or even years. Examples for relevant changes we are looking for are recently parked or moved vehicles. As a pre-requisite, a precise image-to-image registration is needed. Images are selected on the basis of the geo-coordinates of the sensor's footprint and with respect to a certain minimal overlap. The automatic imagebased fine-registration adjusts the image pair to a common geometry by using a robust matching approach to handle outliers. The change detection algorithm has to distinguish between relevant and non-relevant changes. Examples for non-relevant changes are stereo disparity at 3D structures of the scene, changed length of shadows, and compression or transmission artifacts. To detect changes in image pairs we analyzed image differencing, local image correlation, and a transformation-based approach (multivariate alteration detection). As input we used color and gradient magnitude images. To cope with local misalignment of image structures we extended the approaches by a local neighborhood search. The algorithms are applied to several examples covering both urban and rural scenes. The local neighborhood search in combination with intensity and gradient magnitude differencing clearly improved the results. Extended image differencing performed better than both the correlation based approach and the multivariate alternation detection. The algorithms are adapted to be used in semi-automatic workflows for the ABUL video exploitation system of Fraunhofer

  15. Vitamin D endocrine system after short-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoten, William B. (Principal Investigator); Sergeev, Igor N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca(2+) metabolism, yet the cellular/molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. There is some evidence for microgravity-induced alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system, which is known to be primarily involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) metabolism. Vitamin D-dependent Ca(2+) binding proteins, or calbindins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. We used immunocytochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D(sub 28k) and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in kidneys and intestines of rats flown for 9 days aboard the Spacelab 3 mission. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats in space vs. 'grounded' animals (synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls and tail suspension controls) were compared. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant decrease in calbindin-D(sub 28k) content in kidneys and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in the intestine of flight and suspended animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in kidneys and intestine, and insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease in the distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 28k) and absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 9k) immunoreactivity in the space and suspension kidneys and intestine, as compared with matched ground controls. No consistent differences in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space, suspension and ground controls was observed. There were significant correlations between results by quantitative ICC and ELISA. Western blot analysis showed no consistent changes in the low levels of intestinal and renal vitamin D receptors. These findings suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins after a short-term

  16. Discrimination power of short-term heart rate variability measures for CHF assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pecchia, Leandro; Melillo, Paolo; Bracale, Marcello

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the discrimination power of short-term Heart Rate Variability (HRV) for discriminating normal subjects versus Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) patients. We analyzed 1,914.40 hours of ECG of 83 patients of which 54 are normal and 29 are suffering from CHF with New York Heart Classification (NYHA) I, II, III, extracted by public databases. Following guidelines, we performed time and frequency analysis in order to measure HRV features. To assess the discrimination power...

  17. Survival analysis to estimate association between short-term mortality and air pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Lepeule, Johanna; Rondeau, Virginie; Filleul, Laurent; Dartigues, Jean-Francois

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ecologic studies are commonly used to report associations between short-term air pollution and mortality. In such studies, the unit of observation is the day rather than the individual. Moreover, individual data on the subjects are rarely available, which limits the assessment of individual risk factors. These associations can also be investigated using case-crossover studies. However, by definition, individual risk factors are not studied, and such studies analyze only dead subje...

  18. EC multicentre study on short-term effects of air pollution on health. The aphea project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Univ. of Athens (Greece). Medical School; Zmirou, D. [Grenoble Univ. (France). Faculte de Medecine; Spix, C. [GSF- Forschungszentrum Umwelt und Gesundheit (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The APHEA project is an attempt to provide quantitative estimates of the short-term health effects of air pollution, using an extensive data base from ten different European countries which represent various social, environmental and air pollution situations. Within the framework of the project, the methodology of analyzing epidemiologic time series data, as well as that of performing meta-analysis, are further developed and standardized

  19. Nutritional and Protein Deficiencies in the Short Term following Both Gastric Bypass and Gastric Banding

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Aron-Wisnewsky; Verger, Eric O.; Carine Bounaix; Maria Carlota Dao; Jean-Michel Oppert; Jean-Luc Bouillot; Jean-Marc Chevallier; Karine Clément

    2016-01-01

    International audience BackgroundThe number of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery (BS) has increased dramatically in recent years. Therefore, monitoring food intake and its consequences in terms of nutritional status is necessary to prevent nutritional deficiencies. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of food restriction on nutritional parameters in the short-term (≤3 months) period after BS in morbid obesity.MethodIn a prospective study, we followed 22 obese ...

  20. Short-Term Effects of Carbon Monoxide on Mortality: An Analysis within the APHEA Project

    OpenAIRE

    Samoli, Evangelia; Touloumi, Giota; Anderson, Hugh Ross; Schindler, Christian; Forsberg, Bertil; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Vonk, Judith,; Košnik, Mitja; Skorkovsky, Jiri; Katsouyanni, Klea; Schwartz, Joel David

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the short-term effects of carbon monoxide on total and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cities participating in the APHEA-2 (Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach) project. Methods: We examined the association using hierarchical models implemented in two stages. In the first stage, data from each city were analyzed separately, whereas in the second stage the city-specific air pollution estimates were regressed on city-specific covariates to obtain ov...

  1. Is frailty associated with short-term outcomes for elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Lin; Zhang, Shu-Yang; Zhu, Wen-ling; Pang, Hai-Yu; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Ming-Lei; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Yong-tai

    2015-01-01

    Background Frailty is a new prognostic factor in cardiovascular medicine due to the aging and increasingly complex nature of elderly patients. It is useful and meaningful to prospectively analyze the manner in which frailty predicts short-term outcomes for elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods Patients aged ≥ 65 years, with diagnosis of ACS from cardiology department and geriatrics department were included from single-center. Clinical data including geriatrics syndromes...

  2. Effects of short-term wear of silicone hydrogel contact lenses on refractive behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    W. D. H. Gillan

    2012-01-01

    Contact lens wear is known to induce change in both the cornea and refractive state. Often a shift towards increased myopia is noted. Historically investigations into the effects of contact lenses onrefractive state have often been incomplete in terms of statistical analysis whereby nearest equivalent sphere is used or the spherical, cylindrical and axis components are analyzed in isolation. The aim ofthis study was to investigate the short-term effects of silicone hydrogel contact lenses on ...

  3. Short term options to ease the energy crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India is typically characterized one of the lowest per capita energy consuming countries of the world and even this quantum of energy is not assured and reliably available. To ease this energy crisis some short term options are suggested in this article. On the short term, the country will have to concentrate on realistic planning, efficient generation, transmission and distribution of energy, on exploiting all possible avenues of augmenting energy availability at lower cost and an optimum use of energy avoiding wastage. The strategy includes the exploitation of cogeneration potential, conservation potential and renewable sources of energy. This route will enable the country to augment energy availability by nearly 40% of the present installed capacity at minimal cost to the exchequer. (author). 9 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting for Power System Operations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xinxin

    2012-04-01

    The emphasis on renewable energy and concerns about the environment have led to large-scale wind energy penetration worldwide. However, there are also significant challenges associated with the use of wind energy due to the intermittent and unstable nature of wind. High-quality short-term wind speed forecasting is critical to reliable and secure power system operations. This article begins with an overview of the current status of worldwide wind power developments and future trends. It then reviews some statistical short-term wind speed forecasting models, including traditional time series approaches and more advanced space-time statistical models. It also discusses the evaluation of forecast accuracy, in particular, the need for realistic loss functions. New challenges in wind speed forecasting regarding ramp events and offshore wind farms are also presented. © 2012 The Authors. International Statistical Review © 2012 International Statistical Institute.

  5. Short-term effects of radiation in glioblastoma spheroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg Petterson, Stine; Pind Jakobsen, Ida; Jensen, Stine Skov;

    2016-01-01

    investigate the short-term effects of radiation of spheroids containing tumor-initiating stem-like cells. We used a patient-derived glioblastoma stem cell enriched culture (T76) and the standard glioblastoma cell line U87. Primary spheroids were irradiated with doses between 2 and 50 Gy and assessed after two...... capacity. Gene expression analysis of nine stem cell- and two hypoxia-related genes did not reveal any upregulation after radiation. In conclusion, this study suggests that a major short-term effect of radiation is pronounced reduction of tumor cell proliferation. We found no upregulation of stem cell......-related genes. This may suggest a limited effect of targeting these genes within the first days after radiation therapy....

  6. INCAP ? Applying short-term flexibility to control inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Lödding, Hermann; Lohmann, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Inventory Based Capacity Control (INCAP) is a very simple method that allows inventory levels to be effectively controlled by using short-term capacity flexibility in make-to-stock settings. Moreover, INCAP can be used for finished goods inventories as well as for semi-finished goods inventories. The basic idea is to define upper and lower inventory limits and to adjust capacities if the inventory level reaches either limit. Should the inventory fall below the lower limit,...

  7. Remembering Past States using Long Short Term Memory Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sjonfjell, Vegard Aksland

    2014-01-01

    This project explores the ability of Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) to memorize previous input states in time series problems.A type of RNN called Long Short Term Memory (LSTM), which is designed specifically to be able to handle long term dependencies in input data, is being compared against recurrent multi layer perceptrons (recurrent MLPs) on two non-trivial time series problems which require a varying number of previous events to be remembered to predict the next state. The first proble...

  8. Target-Dependent Sentiment Classification with Long Short Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Duyu; Qin, Bing; Feng, Xiaocheng; Liu, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Target-dependent sentiment classification remains a challenge: modeling the semantic relatedness of a target with its context words in a sentence. Different context words have different influences on determining the sentiment polarity of a sentence towards the target. Therefore, it is desirable to integrate the connections between target word and context words when building a learning system. In this paper, we develop two target dependent long short-term memory (LSTM) models, where target inf...

  9. Short Term Investment in Agriculture: Is there a Gender Bias?

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagowalia, Priya; Chen, Susan E.; Shively, Gerald E

    2007-01-01

    Most developing countries strive to improve agricultural productivity by relaxing credit constraints, supplying better inputs, improving marketing and distribution. However the efficacy of these reforms needs to be examined in the context of the behavioral responses of farming households. This study examines gender biases within households that affect short-term investments in agriculture. The study utilizes data from ICRISATs village level studies in India (1975-85) to highlight the effects ...

  10. Wind-CSP short-term coordination by MILP approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pousinho, Hugo Miguel Inácio; Silva, Hugo Alexandre Fernandes dos Santos e; Mendes, Víctor Manuel Fernandes; Collares-Pereira, M.; Cabrita, C. Pereira

    2014-01-01

    This paper is on the maximization of total profit in a day-ahead market for a price-taker producer needing a short-term scheduling for wind power plants coordination with concentrated solar power plants, having thermal energy storage systems. The optimization approach proposed for the maximization of profit is a mixed-integer linear programming problem. The approach considers not only transmission grid constraints, but also technical operating constraints on both wind and concentrated solar p...

  11. Short-Term Results of Medial Unicondylar Knee Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Yılmaz; Samed Ordu; Erhan Bayram; İbrahim Sungur; Ercan Çetinus

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to determine the short-term clinical and radiologic results of medial unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA). Methods: We retrospectively evaluated hospital records of eight patients who have undergone Oxford phase-3 medial UKA between 2011 and 2013. We included seven patients (two males and five females) in the study. The mean age of the patients was 63 years and the mean follow-up period was 17 months. The patients underwent UKA with the Oxford phase 3 cemented mobile ...

  12. COORDINATES OF SHORT-TERM BENEFITS GRANTED TO ACADEMICS

    OpenAIRE

    Iuliana Cenar

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Academics‘ work means a great responsibility in preparing young generations ofgraduates in different fields of knowledge, as well as in the future of society, the future state ofthe nation. That is why we considered appropriate an approach the coordinates of short-termbenefits provided to academics. This paper deals with issues concerning the structure andcharacteristics of short-term benefits granted to academics, the method of finance andaccounting recognition and presenting these...

  13. A short-term group with drug users in prison

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Campo; Laura Pavia

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a short term group, according to the viewpoint of group analysis theory. The experience was made in the prison of Sicily. The group was composed by prisoners in the protected area with issues of addiction. The article highlights the usefulness of a work on the Motivation to change through the device of the group. Furthermore, it underlines how much of the work in this context was to encourage participants in the transition to reflection, critical to work on yourself. We...

  14. Short-term instability and stabilization of photomultiplier gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The short-term instability of FEU-84-3, FEU-49B, and FEU-110 photomultipliers under high pulse loads is investigated. The dependence of photomultiplier gain on currents to 0.8 mA is studied. It is proposed that gain be stabilized under pulse loads by illumination of the photocathode, which reduces gain variation by a factor of 10-20. The instability of the dynode signals is measured

  15. Biomimetic treatment on dental implants for short -term bone regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Mur, Francisco Javier; Manzanares, Norberto; Badet de Mena, Armando; Aparicio Bádenas, Conrado José; Ginebra Molins, Maria Pau

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The main purpose of this work was to assess the short-term bone regenerative potential of new osteoconductive implants. The novelty of the study lies in the analysis of the effectiveness of a novel two-step treatment which combines shot-blasting with a thermo-chemical treatment, at very short times after implant placement in a minipig model. Materials and methods Three hundred twenty implants with four different surface treatments, namely bioactivated sur...

  16. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, first quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the fourth quarter of 1994, however, are preliminary EIA estimates or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the first quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. The EIA model is available on computer tape from the National Technical Information Service

  17. The Beauty Contest and Short-Term Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Cespa; Xavier Vives

    2014-01-01

    Short-termism need not breed informational price inefficiency even when generating Beauty Contests. We demonstrate this claim in a two-period market with persistent liquidity trading and risk-averse, privately informed, short-term investors and find that prices reect average expectations about fundamentals and liquidity trading. Informed investors engage in "retrospective" learning to reassess inferences (about fundamentals) made during the trading game's early stages. This behavior introduce...

  18. The Fragility of Short-Term Secured Funding Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Antoine; Skeie, David; von Thadden, Ernst-Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops an infinite-horizon model of financial institutions that borrow short-term and invest in long-term assets that can be traded in frictionless markets. Because these financial intermediaries perform maturity transformation, they are subject to potential runs. We derive distinct liquidity, collateral, and asset liquidation constraints, which determine whether a run can occur as a result of changing market expectations. We show that the extent to which borrowers can ward off a...

  19. Channel Stuffing with Short-Term Interest in Market Value

    OpenAIRE

    Guoming Lai; Laurens Debo; Lin Nan

    2011-01-01

    We study how a manager's short-term interest in the firm's market value may motivate channel stuffing: shipping excess inventory to the downstream channel. Channel stuffing allows a manager to report sales in excess of demand in order to influence investors' valuation of the firm. We apply an inventory model that highlights the potential role of inventory in the manager's channel stuffing and the investors' valuation strategies. Sales in our model are constrained by available inventory. Our m...

  20. Cardioprotective Signature of Short-Term Caloric Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Noyan

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular pathways underlying the cardiac preconditioning effect of short-term caloric restriction (CR.Lifelong CR has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease through a variety of mechanisms. However, prolonged adherence to a CR life-style is difficult. Here we reveal the pathways that are modulated by short-term CR, which are associated with protection of the mouse heart from ischemia.Male 10-12 wk old C57bl/6 mice were randomly assigned to an ad libitum (AL diet with free access to regular chow, or CR, receiving 30% less food for 7 days (d, prior to myocardial infarction (MI via permanent coronary ligation. At d8, the left ventricles (LV of AL and CR mice were collected for Western blot, mRNA and microRNA (miR analyses to identify cardioprotective gene expression signatures. In separate groups, infarct size, cardiac hemodynamics and protein abundance of caspase 3 was measured at d2 post-MI.This short-term model of CR was associated with cardio-protection, as evidenced by decreased infarct size (18.5±2.4% vs. 26.6±1.7%, N=10/group; P=0.01. mRNA and miR profiles pre-MI (N=5/group identified genes modulated by short-term CR to be associated with circadian clock, oxidative stress, immune function, apoptosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM. Western blots pre-MI revealed CR-associated increases in phosphorylated Akt and GSK3ß, reduced levels of phosphorylated AMPK and mitochondrial related proteins PGC-1α, cytochrome C and cyclooxygenase (COX IV, with no differences in the levels of phosphorylated eNOS or MAPK (ERK1/2; p38. CR regimen was also associated with reduced protein abundance of cleaved caspase 3 in the infarcted heart and improved cardiac function.

  1. Short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Natile, Miria; Ventura, Maria Luisa; Colombo, Marco; Bernasconi, Davide; Locatelli, Anna; Plevani, Cristina; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Tagliabue, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants (LPI) compared with those of term infants (TI). Methods A retrospective study conducted in a single third level Italian centre (2005–2009) to analyse the incidence and risk factors of composite respiratory morbidity (CRM), the need for adjunctive therapies (surfactant therapy, inhaled nitric oxide, pleural drainage), the highest level of respiratory support (mechanical ventilation – MV, nasal continuous positive air...

  2. Long and short term pump testing for landfill gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.W.; Fleming, I.R. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Geological Engineering

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate vertical well designs drilled into existing landfills as part of a landfill gas collection retrofitting project. Well designs and construction techniques were compared in relation to pneumatic efficiency and the capacity of each well. The aim of the study was to devise a method of evaluating well efficiency and long-term performance. Short-term, single well step-drawdown tests were conducted. Long-term pumping from the entire well field was conducted using different flow rate control approaches. Flow rates were measured at several different system pressures. Data were then compared with drawdown flow rate data from the short-term tests. The study proved that the single well short-term tests accurately predicted the long-term performance of the well field. The study also demonstrated that there was no apparent relationship between well productivity and the length of the screened zone, the diameter of the well, or the diameter of the borehole. No relationship was observed between well performance and the capital costs of individual wells.

  3. Short-term forecasting model for aggregated regional hydropower generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Original short-term forecasting model for the hourly hydropower generation. • The use of NWP forecasts allows horizons of several days. • New variable to represent the capacity level for generating hydroelectric energy. • The proposed model significantly outperforms the persistence model. - Abstract: This paper presents an original short-term forecasting model of the hourly electric power production for aggregated regional hydropower generation. The inputs of the model are previously recorded values of the aggregated hourly production of hydropower plants and hourly water precipitation forecasts using Numerical Weather Prediction tools, as well as other hourly data (load demand and wind generation). This model is composed of three modules: the first one gives the prediction of the “monthly” hourly power production of the hydropower plants; the second module gives the prediction of hourly power deviation values, which are added to that obtained by the first module to achieve the final forecast of the hourly hydropower generation; the third module allows a periodic adjustment of the prediction of the first module to improve its BIAS error. The model has been applied successfully to the real-life case study of the short-term forecasting of the aggregated hydropower generation in Spain and Portugal (Iberian Peninsula Power System), achieving satisfactory results for the next-day forecasts. The model can be valuable for agents involved in electricity markets and useful for power system operations

  4. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  5. Short-term indicators. Intensities as a proxy for savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M.; Gerdes, J. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Faberi, S. [Institute of Studies for the Integration of Systems ISIS, Rome (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    The ODYSSEE database on energy efficiency indicators (www.odyssee-indicators.org) has been set up to enable the monitoring and evaluation of realised energy efficiency improvements and related energy savings. The database covers the 27 EU countries as well as Norway and Croatia and data are available from 1990 on. This work contributes to the growing need for quantitative monitoring and evaluation of the impacts of energy policies and measures, both at the EU and national level, e.g. due to the Energy Services Directive and the proposed Energy Efficiency Directive. Because the underlying data become available only after some time, the savings figures are not always timely available. This is especially true for the ODEX efficiency indices per sector that rely on a number of indicators. Therefore, there is a need for so-called short-term indicators that become available shortly after the year has passed for which data are needed. The short term indicators do not replace the savings indicators but function as a proxy for the savings in the most recent year. This proxy value is faster available, but will be less accurate than the saving indicators themselves. The short term indicators have to be checked regularly with the ODEX indicators in order to see whether they can function still as a proxy.

  6. Short-term extractability of sulfadiazine after application to soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term environmental fate of the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) in soils is determined by a reversible sequestration into a residual fraction and an irreversible formation of non-extractable residues (NER), which can be described as first-order rate processes. However, the concentration dynamics of the resulting fractions of SDZ in soil show an unexplained rapid reduction of extractability during the first 24 h. We therefore investigated the short-term extractability of SDZ in two different soils under different SDZ application procedures over 24 h: with and without manure, for air-dried and for moist soils. In all batches, we observed an instantaneous loss of extractability on a time scale of minutes as well as kinetically determined sequestration and NER formation over 24 h. Data evaluation with a simple kinetic model led to the conclusion that application with manure accelerated the short-term formation of NER, whereas sequestration was very similar for all batches. - Highlights: ► There is an instantaneous loss in extractability of sulfadiazine (SDZ) from soil samples. ► Further sequestration and NER formation are kinetically determined within 24 h ► Manure application accelerates short-term kinetic NER formation. ► Non-zero initial conditions for sequestered and non-extractable SDZ are tenable. - The extractability of sulfadiazine from soil is reduced by an instantaneous process on a time scale of minutes followed by a kinetic sequestration on a time scale of days.

  7. Short-term memory trace in rapidly adapting synapses of inferior temporal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Sugase-Miyamoto

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Visual short-term memory tasks depend upon both the inferior temporal cortex (ITC and the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Activity in some neurons persists after the first (sample stimulus is shown. This delay-period activity has been proposed as an important mechanism for working memory. In ITC neurons, intervening (nonmatching stimuli wipe out the delay-period activity; hence, the role of ITC in memory must depend upon a different mechanism. Here, we look for a possible mechanism by contrasting memory effects in two architectonically different parts of ITC: area TE and the perirhinal cortex. We found that a large proportion (80% of stimulus-selective neurons in area TE of macaque ITCs exhibit a memory effect during the stimulus interval. During a sequential delayed matching-to-sample task (DMS, the noise in the neuronal response to the test image was correlated with the noise in the neuronal response to the sample image. Neurons in perirhinal cortex did not show this correlation. These results led us to hypothesize that area TE contributes to short-term memory by acting as a matched filter. When the sample image appears, each TE neuron captures a static copy of its inputs by rapidly adjusting its synaptic weights to match the strength of their individual inputs. Input signals from subsequent images are multiplied by those synaptic weights, thereby computing a measure of the correlation between the past and present inputs. The total activity in area TE is sufficient to quantify the similarity between the two images. This matched filter theory provides an explanation of what is remembered, where the trace is stored, and how comparison is done across time, all without requiring delay period activity. Simulations of a matched filter model match the experimental results, suggesting that area TE neurons store a synaptic memory trace during short-term visual memory.

  8. Approximate entropy analysis of short-term HFECG based on wave mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xinbao; Xu, Yinlin; Wang, Jun; Ma, Xiaofei

    2005-02-01

    An improved approximate entropy (ApEn) algorithm based on wave mode is proposed by analyzing and modifying ApEn, so that the irregular analysis can be applied to analyze the short-term series, which contain a great deal of detailed information and fluctuate slowly but in a wide range, such as high-frequency electrocardiogram (HFECG). By analyzing the complexity of HFECG, a conclusion can be drawn that ApEn algorithm based on wave mode can obviously distinguish heart diseases from the healthy group. Therefore, it is of significance for diagnosing myocardial infarction in time.

  9. Study on Short-term Variability of Ship Responses in Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Iseki, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Short-term variability of ship responses is investigated by cross-spectrum analysis. In a steady state condition, it is well known that a certain length of sampled data is required for stable results of the spectral analysis. However, the phase lag between responses, in terms of the phase angle of...... the cross-spectra, has not been discussed in detail. Using long stationary time series, the transition of amplitudes and relative phase angles of the cross-spectra has been investigated by iterative analyzes with a few seconds of time shifting. In the results, the short-term variability of the...... relative phase angle was observed. In effect, the variability may compromise the accuracy of the wave buoy analogy....

  10. Short-term probabilistic earthquake risk assessment considering time-dependent b values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia, Laura; Tormann, Thessa; Wiemer, Stefan; Herrmann, Marcus; Seif, Stefanie

    2016-02-01

    Laboratory experiments highlight a systematic b value decrease during the stress increase period before failure, and some large natural events are known to show a precursory decrease in the b value. However, short-term forecast models currently consider only the generic probability that an event can trigger subsequent seismicity in the near field. While the probability increase over a stationary Poissonian background is substantial, selected case studies have shown through cost-benefit analysis that the absolute main shock probability remains too low to warrant significant mitigation actions. We analyze the probabilities considering both changes in the seismicity rates and temporal changes in the b value. The precursory b value decrease in the 2009 L'Aquila case results in an additional fiftyfold probability increase for a M6.3 event. Translated into time-varying hazard and risk, these changes surpass the cost-benefit threshold for short-term evacuation.

  11. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM SOFT CONTACT LENS WEAR ON HUMAN OCULAR ABERRATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jing; CHEN Yi-hui; CHEN Hui; SHENG Min-jie

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of short-term soft contact lens (SCLs) wearing on human ocular aberrations (HOA).Methods This prospective study included 50 eyes of 50 young volunteers wearing SCLs for 1month. The ocular aberrations were measured by Allegretto Wavefront Analyzer. The root-mean-square (RMS) values of the general (RMSG), higher-order (RMSH), first to sixth order (RMS1 to RMS6) and aberration coefficients were analyzed.Results There were no significant differences in the mean values of RMSG, RMSH, RMS1 to RMS6 (P>0.05) and changes of absolute values of aberration coefficients between baseline and various visits after SCLs discontinuation. However, at d1 after the discontinuation of SCLs, changes in coefficient values of the third-order aberrations (C6 to C9) were slightly higher than others, and C7 was the highest. The increase factors of RMS values were higher at 1 week and lower at the 2 week visit after SCLs discontinuation. The uniformity of dominating type in HOA and the corneal topography form was both about 60% after discontinuation of SCLs. The corneal thickness increased after SCLs wear and gradually decreased to baseline until 1month discontinuation of SCLs.Conclusion The effect of short-term SCLs wear on human ocular aberrations is slight but profound. A month or more wait should be allowed before the short-term SCLs wearers are scheduled for wavefronted-guided LASIK.

  12. Short-term memory binding deficits in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mario A; Abrahams, Sharon; Fabi, Katia; Logie, Robert; Luzzi, Simona; Della Sala, Sergio

    2009-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease impairs long term memories for related events (e.g. faces with names) more than for single events (e.g. list of faces or names). Whether or not this associative or 'binding' deficit is also found in short-term memory has not yet been explored. In two experiments we investigated binding deficits in verbal short-term memory in Alzheimer's disease. Experiment 1: 23 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 23 age and education matched healthy elderly were recruited. Participants studied visual arrays of objects (six for healthy elderly and four for Alzheimer's disease patients), colours (six for healthy elderly and four for Alzheimer's disease patients), unbound objects and colours (three for healthy elderly and two for Alzheimer's disease patients in each of the two categories), or objects bound with colours (three for healthy elderly and two for Alzheimer's disease patients). They were then asked to recall the items verbally. The memory of patients with Alzheimer's disease for objects bound with colours was significantly worse than for single or unbound features whereas healthy elderly's memory for bound and unbound features did not differ. Experiment 2: 21 Alzheimer's disease patients and 20 matched healthy elderly were recruited. Memory load was increased for the healthy elderly group to eight items in the conditions assessing memory for single or unbound features and to four items in the condition assessing memory for the binding of these features. For Alzheimer's disease patients the task remained the same. This manipulation permitted the performance to be equated across groups in the conditions assessing memory for single or unbound features. The impairment in Alzheimer's disease patients in recalling bound objects reported in Experiment 1 was replicated. The binding cost was greater than that observed in the healthy elderly group, who did not differ in their performance for bound and unbound features. Alzheimer's disease grossly impairs the

  13. Genotoxicity Assessment of Erythritol by Using Short-term Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Young-Shin; Lee, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Erythritol is a sugar alcohol that is widely used as a natural sugar substitute. Thus, the safety of its usage is very important. In the present study, short-term genotoxicity assays were conducted to evaluate the potential genotoxic effects of erythritol. According to the OECD test guidelines, the maximum test dose was 5,000 μg/plate in bacterial reverse mutation tests, 5,000 μg/ml in cell-based assays, and 5,000 mg/kg for in vivo testing. An Ames test did not reveal any positive results. No...

  14. Short-term headline-core inflation dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Yash P. Mehra; Devin Reilly

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates empirically short-term dynamics between headline and core measures of consumer price index and personal consumption expenditure inflation over three sample periods: 1959:1-1979:1, 1979:2-2001:2, and 1985:1-2007:2. Headline and core inflation measures are co-integrated, suggesting long-run co-movement. However, the ways these two variables adjust to each other in the short run and generate co-movement have changed across these sample periods. In the pre-1979 sample pe...

  15. Long Short-Term Memory Over Tree Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiaodan; Sobhani, Parinaz; Guo, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    The chain-structured long short-term memory (LSTM) has showed to be effective in a wide range of problems such as speech recognition and machine translation. In this paper, we propose to extend it to tree structures, in which a memory cell can reflect the history memories of multiple child cells or multiple descendant cells in a recursive process. We call the model S-LSTM, which provides a principled way of considering long-distance interaction over hierarchies, e.g., language or image parse ...

  16. Guiding Long-Short Term Memory for Image Caption Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Xu; Gavves, Efstratios; Fernando, Basura; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2015-01-01

    In this work we focus on the problem of image caption generation. We propose an extension of the long short term memory (LSTM) model, which we coin gLSTM for short. In particular, we add semantic information extracted from the image as extra input to each unit of the LSTM block, with the aim of guiding the model towards solutions that are more tightly coupled to the image content. Additionally, we explore different length normalization strategies for beam search in order to prevent from favor...

  17. The stability of short-term hearing outcome after stapedotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Öhman, Malin Charlotta; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten

    2015-01-01

    currently recommended > 12-month follow-up. The use of 3-month data in reporting outcome could reduce the bias inherent to the loss to follow-up at 12 months. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the stability of short-term postoperative hearing after stapedotomy for otosclerosis. METHODS: This was a prospective......-up in both primary and revision cases were minimal and clinically insignificant. In all, 3-5% of primary cases and 14-16% of revision cases experienced a change of ≥ 10 dB for the worse of one or more parameters between follow-ups. Results were also stable when considering a range of traditional success...

  18. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. Music Learning with Long Short Term Memory Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, Florian François

    2015-01-01

    Humans are able to learn and compose complex, yet beautiful, pieces of music as seen in e.g. the highly complicated works of J.S. Bach. However, how our brain is able to store and produce these very long temporal sequences is still an open question. Long short-term memory (LSTM) artificial neural networks have been shown to be efficient in sequence learning tasks thanks to their inherent ability to bridge long time lags between input events and their target signals. Here, I investigate the po...

  20. Short-term bioconcentration studies of Np in freshwater biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-term laboratory exposures were conducted to determine the potential accumulation of Np in aquatic organisms. Concentration factors were highest in green algae. Daphnia magna, a filter-feeding crustacean, accumulated Np at levels one order of magnitude greater than the amphipod Gammarus sp., an omnivorous substrate feeder. Accumulation of Np in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was highest in carcass (generally greater than 78% of the total body burden) and lowest in fillets. Recommended concentration factors for Np, based on fresh weight, were 300 for green algae, 100 for filter-feeding invertebrates, for nonfilter-feeding invertebrates, 10 for whole fish, and one for fish flesh

  1. MHz Gravitational Waves from Short-term Anisotropic Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Asuka

    2016-01-01

    We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around $10^{-26}$ ~ $10^{-27}$ are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10MHz~100MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.

  2. Short-term price overreaction: Identification, testing, exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Gil-Alana, Luis; Plastun, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines short-term price reactions after one-day abnormal price changes and whether they create exploitable profit opportunities in various financial markets. A t-test confirms the presence of overreactions and also suggests that there is an “inertia anomaly”, i.e. after an overreaction day prices tend to move in the same direction for some time. A trading robot approach is then used to test two trading strategies aimed at exploiting the detected anomalies to make abnormal profits...

  3. Short-Term Price Overreactions: Identification, Testing, Exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Luis A. Gil-Alana; Plastun, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines short-term price reactions after one-day abnormal price changes and whether they create exploitable profit opportunities in various financial markets. A t-test confirms the presence of overreactions and also suggests that there is an “inertia anomaly”, i.e. after an overreaction day prices tend to move in the same direction for some time. A trading robot approach is then used to test two trading strategies aimed at exploiting the detected anomalies to make abnormal profits...

  4. Short term storage of goods in cross-docking operations

    OpenAIRE

    I F A Vis; Roodbergen, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Cross docking is one of the options to reduce lead times and inventories and to improve customer response time in supply chains. Cross-docking centres are dynamic environments where products arrive, are regrouped, and leave the same day. In this paper we focus on the process of short-term storage of unit-Ioads in a cross-docking environment. The goal is to determine temporary storage locations for incoming unit loads such that the travel distances of the forklift trucks with these unit loads ...

  5. Short term settlement of footing on snow foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Mahajan

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available "A constitutive theory for snow, developed by the authors, is applied to solve for the short-term settlement of footing on snow foundation. The constitutive law used is a microstructurally-based formulation which includes the effects of bond deformation and fracture. It also includes transient creep effects and strain hardening of snow. The foundation problem is solved for stress and displacement distribution, with two different loads of 0.008 MPa and 0.1 MPa distributed uniformly over a part of the top face. The stress distribution matches closely with the existing theoretical results.

  6. Short-term effects of relaxation music on patients suffering from primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertelmann T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Bertelmann, Ilse Strempel Department of Ophthalmology, Philipps-University Marburg, Baldingerstraβe, Marburg, Germany Purpose: To evaluate whether additive relaxation music (RM has an adjuvant short-term effect on physiological and psychological parameters in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.Methods: Prospective, randomized clinical trial. Patients in the therapy group (TG received a 30-minute RM via headphones, whereas members of the control group (CG did not. Best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, visual field testing, short- and long-term mental states, and blood levels of different stress hormones were analyzed and compared.Results: A total of 25 (61%/16 (39% patients were assigned to the TG/CG. Best corrected visual acuity, daily intraocular pressure, and short-term mental state (KAB development were significantly better in the TG in comparison to controls. Visual field testing, long-term mental well-being (profile of mood states, and adrenalin, cortisol, and endothelin-I blood levels did not differ significantly between both groups.Conclusion: Additive RM applied on a daily basis can positively impact various physiological and psychological parameters in the short term. Keywords: primary open angle glaucoma, POAG, music therapy, intraocular pressure, IOP, mental health

  7. Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting Using Support Vector Regression Optimized by Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhou Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an effectively intelligent model to forecast short-term wind speed series. A hybrid forecasting technique is proposed based on recurrence plot (RP and optimized support vector regression (SVR. Wind caused by the interaction of meteorological systems makes itself extremely unsteady and difficult to forecast. To understand the wind system, the wind speed series is analyzed using RP. Then, the SVR model is employed to forecast wind speed, in which the input variables are selected by RP, and two crucial parameters, including the penalties factor and gamma of the kernel function RBF, are optimized by various optimization algorithms. Those optimized algorithms are genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO, and cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA. Finally, the optimized SVR models, including COA-SVR, PSO-SVR, and GA-SVR, are evaluated based on some criteria and a hypothesis test. The experimental results show that (1 analysis of RP reveals that wind speed has short-term predictability on a short-term time scale, (2 the performance of the COA-SVR model is superior to that of the PSO-SVR and GA-SVR methods, especially for the jumping samplings, and (3 the COA-SVR method is statistically robust in multi-step-ahead prediction and can be applied to practical wind farm applications.

  8. Predicting short-term weight loss using four leading health behavior change theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conceived to analyze how exercise and weight management psychosocial variables, derived from several health behavior change theories, predict weight change in a short-term intervention. The theories under analysis were the Social Cognitive Theory, the Transtheoretical Model, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Self-Determination Theory. Methods Subjects were 142 overweight and obese women (BMI = 30.2 ± 3.7 kg/m2; age = 38.3 ± 5.8y, participating in a 16-week University-based weight control program. Body weight and a comprehensive psychometric battery were assessed at baseline and at program's end. Results Weight decreased significantly (-3.6 ± 3.4%, p Conclusion The present models were able to predict 20–30% of variance in short-term weight loss and changes in weight management self-efficacy accounted for a large share of the predictive power. As expected from previous studies, exercise variables were only moderately associated with short-term outcomes; they are expected to play a larger explanatory role in longer-term results.

  9. The IEA Model of Short-term Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES) to evaluate the energy security risks and resilience capacities of its member countries. The current version of MOSES covers short-term security of supply for primary energy sources and secondary fuels among IEA countries. It also lays the foundation for analysis of vulnerabilities of electricity and end-use energy sectors. MOSES contains a novel approach to analysing energy security, which can be used to identify energy security priorities, as a starting point for national energy security assessments and to track the evolution of a country's energy security profile. By grouping together countries with similar 'energy security profiles', MOSES depicts the energy security landscape of IEA countries. By extending the MOSES methodology to electricity security and energy services in the future, the IEA aims to develop a comprehensive policy-relevant perspective on global energy security. This Working Paper is intended for readers who wish to explore the MOSES methodology in depth; there is also a brochure which provides an overview of the analysis and results.

  10. A method for short term electricity spot price forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Finland, the electricity market was de-regulated in November 1995. For the electricity purchase of power companies this has caused big changes, since the old tariff based contracts of bulk power supply have been replaced by negotiated bilateral short term contracts and by power purchase from the spot market. In the spot market, in turn, there are at the present two strong actors: The electricity exchange of Finland and the Nordic power pool which is run by the Swedish and Norwegian companies. Today, the power companies in Finland have short term trade with both of the electricity exchanges. The aim of this chapter is to present methods for spot price forecasting in the electricity exchange. The main focus is given to the Finnish circumstances. In the beginning of the presentation, the practices of the electricity exchange of Finland are described, and a brief presentation is given on the different contracts, or electricity products, available in the spot market. For comparison, the practices of the Nordic electricity exchange are also outlined. A time series technique for spot price forecasting is presented. The structure of the model is presented, and its validity is tested using real case data obtained from the Finnish power market. The spot price forecasting model is a part of a computer system for distribution energy management (DEM) in a de-regulated power market

  11. Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). The base scope has been applied to the entire complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. Findings from the implementation, commissioning, and short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach. Despite being a moderate rehab instead of a gut rehab, the Bay Ridge DER is currently projected to achieve energy savings ≥ 50% compared to pre-retrofit, and the short-term testing supports this estimate.

  12. Plant community controls on short-term ecosystem nitrogen retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D

    2016-05-01

    Retention of nitrogen (N) is a critical ecosystem function, especially in the face of widespread anthropogenic N enrichment; however, our understanding of the mechanisms involved is limited. Here, we tested under glasshouse conditions how plant community attributes, including variations in the dominance, diversity and range of plant functional traits, influence N uptake and retention in temperate grassland. We added a pulse of (15) N to grassland plant communities assembled to represent a range of community-weighted mean plant traits, trait functional diversity and divergence, and species richness, and measured plant and microbial uptake of (15) N, and leaching losses of (15) N, as a short-term test of N retention in the plant-soil system. Root biomass, herb abundance and dominant plant traits were the main determinants of N retention in the plant-soil system: greater root biomass and herb abundance, and lower root tissue density, increased plant (15) N uptake, while higher specific leaf area and root tissue density increased microbial (15) N uptake. Our results provide novel, mechanistic insight into the short-term fate of N in the plant-soil system, and show that dominant plant traits, rather than trait functional diversity, control the fate of added N in the plant-soil system. PMID:26749302

  13. A method for short term electricity spot price forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koreneff, G.; Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M.; Kekkonen, V. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, E.; Haekli, J. [Vaasa Univ. (Finland); Antila, E. [ABB Transmit Oy (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In Finland, the electricity market was de-regulated in November 1995. For the electricity purchase of power companies this has caused big changes, since the old tariff based contracts of bulk power supply have been replaced by negotiated bilateral short term contracts and by power purchase from the spot market. In the spot market, in turn, there are at the present two strong actors: The electricity exchange of Finland and the Nordic power pool which is run by the Swedish and Norwegian companies. Today, the power companies in Finland have short term trade with both of the electricity exchanges. The aim of this chapter is to present methods for spot price forecasting in the electricity exchange. The main focus is given to the Finnish circumstances. In the beginning of the presentation, the practices of the electricity exchange of Finland are described, and a brief presentation is given on the different contracts, or electricity products, available in the spot market. For comparison, the practices of the Nordic electricity exchange are also outlined. A time series technique for spot price forecasting is presented. The structure of the model is presented, and its validity is tested using real case data obtained from the Finnish power market. The spot price forecasting model is a part of a computer system for distribution energy management (DEM) in a de-regulated power market

  14. Reverse Detection of Short-Term Earthquake Precursors

    CERN Document Server

    Keilis-Borok, V; Gabrielov, A; Turcotte, D L

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to short-term earthquake prediction based on the concept of selforganization of seismically active fault networks. That approach is named "Reverse Detection of Precursors" (RDP), since it considers precursors in reverse order of their appearance. This makes it possible to detect precursors undetectable by direct analysis. Possible mechanisms underlying RDP are outlined. RDP is described with a concrete example: we consider as short-term precursors the newly introduced chains of earthquakes reflecting the rise of an earthquake correlation range; and detect (retrospectively) such chains a few months before two prominent Californian earthquakes - Landers, 1992, M = 7.6, and Hector Mine, 1999, M = 7.3, with one false alarm. Similar results (described elsewhere) are obtained by RDP for 21 more strong earthquakes in California (M >= 6.4), Japan (M >= 7.0) and the Eastern Mediterranean (M >= 6.5). Validation of the RDP approach requires, as always, prediction in advance for which this stu...

  15. Algorithm for removing the noise from γ energy spectrum by analyzing the evolution of the wavelet transform maxima across scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The γ energy spectrum is expanded in allied energy-frequency space. By the different characterization of the evolution of wavelet transform modulus maxima across scales between energy spectrum and noise, the algorithm for removing the noise from γ energy spectrum by analyzing the evolution of the wavelet transform maxima across scales is presented. The results show, in contrast to the methods in energy space or in frequency space, the method has the advantages that the peak of energy spectrum can be indicated accurately and the energy spectrum can be reconstructed with a good approximation

  16. Panorama 2011: Short-term trends in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009 was a particularly bad year for the natural gas industry, with demand falling dramatically by 2.8% as a result of the world economic crisis. However, 2010 appears to have been a very positive year for the industry, with a sustained increase in production and trade. Increased economic activity, together with harsh winters and competitive gas prices are the reasons for the markets having rediscovered their buoyancy. Although the economic recovery has shown signs of fragility in OECD countries, global natural gas demand should continue to grow rapidly in the short-term, driven by consumption in developing countries, suggesting that the gas bubble will be reabsorbed faster than expected on the international markets. (author)

  17. Performance Analysis of ANFIS in short term Wind Speed Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandatilde;andshy;ctor Hugo Garcandatilde;andshy;a Rodrandatilde;andshy;guez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the performance of Adaptive NeuroFuzzy Inference system (ANFIS for wind velocity forecasts in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec region in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. The data bank was provided by the meteorological station located at the University of Isthmus, Tehuantepec campus, and this data bank covers the period from 2008 to 2011. Three data models were constructed to carry out 16, 24 and 48 hours forecasts using the following variables: wind velocity, temperature, barometric pressure, and date. The performance measure for the three models is the mean standard error (MSE. In this work, performance analysis in short-term prediction is presented, because it is essential in order to define an adequate wind speed model for eolian parks, where a right planning provide economic benefits.

  18. Short-term Variability of Extinction by Broadband Stellar Photometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musat, I.C.; Ellingson, R.G.

    2005-03-18

    Aerosol optical depth variation over short-term time intervals is determined from broadband observations of stars with a whole sky imager. The main difficulty in such measurements consists of accurately separating the star flux value from the non-stellar diffuse skylight. Using correction method to overcome this difficulty, the monochromatic extinction at the ground due to aerosols is extracted from heterochromatic measurements. A form of closure is achieved by comparison with simultaneous or temporally close measurements with other instruments, and the total error of the method, as a combination of random error of measurements and systematic error of calibration and model, is assessed as being between 2.6 and 3% rms.

  19. Astronomical observation tasks short-term scheduling using PDDS algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    A concept of the ground-based optical astronomical observation efficiency is considered in this paper. We believe that a telescope efficiency can be increased by properly allocating observation tasks with respect to the current environment state and probability to obtain the data with required properties under the current conditions. An online observations scheduling is assumed to be an essential part for raising the efficiency. The short-term online scheduling is treated as the discrete optimisation problems which are stated using several abstraction levels. The optimisation problems are solved using the parallel depth-bounded discrepancy search (PDDS) algorithm by Moisan et al. (2014). Some aspects of the algorithm performance are discussed. The presented algorithm is a core of open-source chelyabinsk C++ library which is planned to be used at 2.5 m telescope of Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University.

  20. Short-Term Test Results. Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, James [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. This report describes the Bay Ridge project, a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). Findings from the short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach.

  1. The effects of short-term hypergravity on Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Jenifer N.; Pandey, Santosh; Powell-Coffman, Jo Anne

    2016-08-01

    As we seek to recognize the opportunities of advanced aerospace technologies and spaceflight, it is increasingly important to understand the impacts of hypergravity, defined as gravitational forces greater than those present on the earth's surface. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been established as a powerful model to study the effects of altered gravity regimens and has displayed remarkable resilience to space travel. In this study, we investigate the effects of short-term and defined hypergravity exposure on C. elegans motility, brood size, pharyngeal pumping rates, and lifespan. The results from this study advance our understanding of the effects of shorter durations of exposure to increased gravitational forces on C. elegans, and also contribute to the growing body of literature on the impacts of altered gravity regimens on earth's life forms.

  2. Attentional priorities and access to short-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillebert, Celine; Dyrholm, Mads; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup;

    2012-01-01

    The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) has been implicated in selective attention as well as visual short-term memory (VSTM). To contrast mechanisms of target selection, distracter filtering, and access to VSTM, we combined behavioral testing, computational modeling and functional magnetic resonance...... activity, thereby displaying a significant interaction between the two factors. The interaction between target and distracter set size in IPS could not be accounted for by a simple explanation in terms of number of items accessing VSTM. Instead, it led us to a model where items accessing VSTM receive...... differential weights depending on their behavioral relevance, and secondly, a suppressive effect originates during the selection phase when multiple targets and multiple distracters are simultaneously present. The reverse interaction between target and distracter set size was significant in the right...

  3. Short Term Load Forecast Using Wavelet Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui Min; Rong Fei; Luo An

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a wavelet neural network (WNN) model combining wavelet transform and artificial neural networks for short term load forecast (STLF). Both historical load and temperature data having important impacts on load level were used in the proposed forecasting model. The model used the three-layer feed forward network trained by the error back-propagation algorithm. To enhance the forecasting accuracy by neural networks, wavelet multi-resolution analysis method was introduced to pre-process these data and reconstruct the predicted output. The proposed model has been evaluated with actual data of electricity load and temperature of Hunan Province. The simulation results show that the model is capable of providing a reasonable forecasting accuracy in STLF.

  4. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26541581

  5. Short-term outcomes after conventional transthoracic esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Yukiko; Koike, Masahiko; Hattori, Masashi; Iwata, Naoki; Takami, Hideki; Hayashi, Masamichi; Kanda, Mitsuro; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Tanaka, Chie; Yamada, Suguru; Fujii, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Goro; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Nomoto, Shuji; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2016-02-01

    In our department, we have attempted to reduce the incidence of complications of conventional esophagectomy. The objective of this retrospective study was to report the short-term outcomes of esophagectomy. We reviewed 138 consecutive patients who had undergone subtotal esophagectomy by combined laparotomy via a 12-cm upper abdominal vertical incision combined with right anterior muscle-sparing thoracotomy from August 2010 to August 2014. Most of the cervical para-esophageal lymph node dissection was completed within the thoracic cavity. We performed three-field dissection in patients with tumors in the upper or middle third of the esophagus with clinical lymph node metastases in the superior mediastinum; the others underwent two-field dissection. We performed neck anastomoses in patients undergoing three-field dissection and thoracic anastomoses in those undergoing two-field dissection. Effective postoperative pain management was achieved with a combination of epidural anesthesia and paravertebral block. Postoperative rehabilitation was instituted for early ambulation and recovery. Enteral nutrition via a duodenal feeding tube was administered from postoperative day 2. Median hospital stay after surgery was 15 days (range, 10-129). Rates for both 30-day and in-hospital mortality were 0%. Morbidity rate for all Clavien-Dindo grades was 41.3%, whereas the morbidity rate for Clavien-Dindo grades III and IV was 7.2%. Anastomotic leakage developed in two patients (1.4%), recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in 11 (8.0%), and pneumonia in nine (6.5%). Good short-term outcomes, especially regarding anastomotic leaks, were achieved by consistent improvements in surgical techniques, optimization of several operative procedures, and appropriate perioperative management. PMID:27018983

  6. The economic value of short-term regulated hydropower production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic value of short-term regulation of hydropower depends on the marginal price of electricity. A systematic method to estimate the revenue from short-term regulated hydropower production has been developed. It can thus be used to compare the cost of different restrictions and constraints imposed on the regulation practice. Constraints on water level or discharge variations in the river can be imposed e.g because of environmental reasons. In this method the total hydropower production of the river is optimized. Input to the model consists of the amount of available water, the marginal price of production, price elasticity and the given constraints. The following constraints can be applied: maximum and minimum discharge at each power plant, maximum and minimum reservoir levels at each power plant, maximum variation of tailwaters at each power plant during the period of interest, maximum change of discharge per time unit and the minimum spinning reserves of the system. Output data comprises power output, discharge and water levels (head) at each power plant, and the calculated revenue based on produced power and the given marginal price of production. The method has two basic components: an optimization algorithm and a river simulation algorithm. The optimization algorithm is based on a quadratic cost function and a linear model. The model has been applied to Oulujoki River in Northern Finland. There are seven hydropower plants along the river, it is over 100 km long and it is extensively used for peak power production. Two typical weeks were simulated with different restrictions set on water level variation and available amount of water

  7. International Short-Term Countermeasures Survey - 2012 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear emergency planning, preparedness, response, and management, in general, are essential elements of any country's nuclear power programme. Part of nuclear emergency planning and preparedness is the implementation of national emergency plans, including detailed procedures for the implementation of short-term countermeasures, before during, and after the release of radioactive substances. The timely and appropriate implementation of short-term countermeasures, such as sheltering, evacuation, and iodine prophylaxis, can, in case of a nuclear emergency with a release of radioactive material, considerably reduce the doses to the public in the vicinity of the nuclear installation. Although international guidelines exist, national procedures and practices may differ due to different national habits, cultural specificity, and societal needs. Different national procedures and practices may, however, in the case of a radioactive release affecting two neighbouring countries, lead to different decisions in the implementation of countermeasures. In order to better understand existing approaches and to facilitate the comparison of national practices, the NEA decided to launch a questionnaire on current practices regarding short-term countermeasures, updating a similar survey performed in 1994 and 2003, as countries' practices have since evolved and been modified. In 2012, it was decided to reevaluate the country approaches in light of the early lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The information collected may be used to understand the basis for decisions in various countries, and, if deemed appropriate, as a basis for international harmonisation. This may also assist member countries to explain to the public affected by an emergency why the decisions in neighbouring countries may vary. This report summarises the information given by member countries and includes nine sections to explore the different aspects, covering the following topics: member

  8. Short-Term Effects of Land Leveling on Irrigation-Related Some Soil Properties in a Clay Loam Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Öztekin, Tekin

    2013-01-01

    There are few studies conducted on the short-term effects of land leveling on soil water holding capacity. The objectives of this study were to analyze the short-term effects of land leveling on the magnitudes, variances, spatial variability, and distributions of surface (0–20 cm) and subsurface (20–40 cm) soil properties of bulk density, field capacity, permanent wilting point, water holding capacity and particle size fractions. The study was conducted in a 1.2 ha field with clay loam soil l...

  9. Predicting short-term weight loss using four leading health behavior change theories

    OpenAIRE

    Barata José T; Minderico Cláudia S; Martins Sandra S; Branco Teresa L; Teixeira Pedro J; Palmeira António L; Serpa Sidónio O; Sardinha Luís B

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background This study was conceived to analyze how exercise and weight management psychosocial variables, derived from several health behavior change theories, predict weight change in a short-term intervention. The theories under analysis were the Social Cognitive Theory, the Transtheoretical Model, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Self-Determination Theory. Methods Subjects were 142 overweight and obese women (BMI = 30.2 ± 3.7 kg/m2; age = 38.3 ± 5.8y), participating in a 16-wee...

  10. Concrete/Febex Bentonite Interaction: Results On Short-Term Column Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escribano, A.; Turrero, M.J.; Torres, E.; Martin, P.L. [CIEMAT, Environmental Department, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Interaction between the alkaline pore fluids from the concrete engineered barriers and the bentonite at the repository conditions may generate products that can diffuse through the porous structure of the bentonite affecting their properties. A comprehensive study based on series of short term experiments is being performed to provide experimental evidences on the physical, chemical and mineralogical changes during the concrete-compacted bentonite interaction. Samples were analyzed by XRD, SEM-EDS and FTIR. Measurements of swelling capacity, specific surface area and chemical analysis for cation exchange capacity and soluble salts analyses were also performed. (authors)

  11. Impacts of Short-Term Solar Power Forecasts in System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, Eduardo; Krad, Ibrahim; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ela, Erik

    2016-05-05

    Solar generation is experiencing an exponential growth in power systems worldwide and, along with wind power, is posing new challenges to power system operations. Those challenges are characterized by an increase of system variability and uncertainty across many time scales: from days, down to hours, minutes, and seconds. Much of the research in the area has focused on the effect of solar forecasting across hours or days. This paper presents a methodology to capture the effect of short-term forecasting strategies and analyzes the economic and reliability implications of utilizing a simple, yet effective forecasting method for solar PV in intra-day operations.

  12. Concrete/Febex Bentonite Interaction: Results On Short-Term Column Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction between the alkaline pore fluids from the concrete engineered barriers and the bentonite at the repository conditions may generate products that can diffuse through the porous structure of the bentonite affecting their properties. A comprehensive study based on series of short term experiments is being performed to provide experimental evidences on the physical, chemical and mineralogical changes during the concrete-compacted bentonite interaction. Samples were analyzed by XRD, SEM-EDS and FTIR. Measurements of swelling capacity, specific surface area and chemical analysis for cation exchange capacity and soluble salts analyses were also performed. (authors)

  13. Adolescent Development of Global Competencies through a Short-Term International Study-Travel Experience to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Rachel Zucker

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of adolescents to develop global competencies was examined by collecting and analyzing data from 62 student-travelers before, during, and after a short-term study-travel experience to China. The Global Perspectives Inventory was used to compare the student-travelers' perspectives before and after travel with a comparison group of…

  14. Short-term Tests of Potassium dIdD Vector Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujić, Eugen

    2015-10-01

    In this paper the results of short-term tests of a suspended Potassium dIdD vector magnetometer are presented. The instrument was installed on a stable pillar during May 2012 near Milton (Ontario, Canada). The aim was to investigate primarily the bias current stability and the noise level of the instrument (for measured components less than 10 pT in a root-mean-square sense). A brief description of the measurement principles and a review of formulae used for field component calculations are given. The errors of components, which arise from assumptions on dIdD orientation as well as from the total field time variations during a measurement cycle, are estimated and discussed, both for real and simulated data. Finally, the accuracy of the instrument was estimated, and the maximal theoretical accuracies of components were better than 60 pT at mid-latitudes.

  15. Sensory adaptation and short term plasticity as Bayesian correction for a changing brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian H Stevenson

    Full Text Available Neurons in the sensory system exhibit changes in excitability that unfold over many time scales. These fluctuations produce noise and could potentially lead to perceptual errors. However, to prevent such errors, postsynaptic neurons and synapses can adapt and counteract changes in the excitability of presynaptic neurons. Here we ask how neurons could optimally adapt to minimize the influence of changing presynaptic neural properties on their outputs. The resulting model, based on Bayesian inference, explains a range of physiological results from experiments which have measured the overall properties and detailed time-course of sensory tuning curve adaptation in the early visual cortex. We show how several experimentally measured short term plasticity phenomena can be understood as near-optimal solutions to this adaptation problem. This framework provides a link between high level computational problems, the properties of cortical neurons, and synaptic physiology.

  16. Short-term Tests of Potassium dIdD Vector Magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Eugen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of short-term tests of a suspended Potassium dIdD vector magnetometer are presented. The instrument was installed on a stable pillar during May 2012 near Milton (Ontario, Canada. The aim was to investigate primarily the bias current stability and the noise level of the instrument (for measured components less than 10 pT in a root-mean-square sense. A brief description of the measurement principles and a review of formulae used for field component calculations are given. The errors of components, which arise from assumptions on dIdD orientation as well as from the total field time variations during a measurement cycle, are estimated and discussed, both for real and simulated data. Finally, the accuracy of the instrument was estimated, and the maximal theoretical accuracies of components were better than 60 pT at mid-latitudes.

  17. The stimulation of hematosis on short-term and prolong irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book studies the stimulation of hematosis on short-term and prolong irradiation, pathogenetic mechanisms of lesion and reconstruction of hematosis at critical radiation sickness, action hematosis stimulators in short-term irradiation conditions

  18. Combined mid- and short-term optimization of multireservoir systems via dynamic programming with function approximators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea; Wörman, Anders; Zmijewski, Nicholas

    2013-04-01

    A main challenge for the planning and management of water resources is the development of strategies for regulation of multireservoir systems under a complex stochastic environment. The sequential decision problem involving the release of water from multiple reservoirs depends on the stochastic variability of the hydrologic inflows over a spectrum of time scales. An important distinction is made between short-term and mid-term planning: the first is associated with regulation on the hourly scale within the one-week time horizon, whilst the second is associated with the weekly scale within the one-year horizon. Although a variety of optimization methods have been suggested, the achievement of a global optimum in the operation of large-scale systems is hindered by their high dimensional state space and by the stochastic nature of the hydrologic inflows. In this work, operational plans for multireservoir systems are derived via an approximate dynamic programming approach using a policy iteration algorithm. The algorithm is based on an off-line learning process in which policies are evaluated for a number of stochastic inflow scenarios by constructing approximations of their value functions, and the resulting value functions are used iteratively to design new, improved policies. In the mid-term planning phase, inflow scenarios are generated with a periodic autoregressive model that is calibrated against historical inflow data, and the policy iteration algorithm leads to a cyclostationary operating policy. In the short-term planning phase, the mid-term value function is used to calculate the value of a policy at the end of the short-term operating horizon, and synthetic inflow scenarios are generated by perturbing streamflow forecasts with Gaussian noise, following Zhao et al. (Water Resour. Res., 48, W01540, 2012). The variance of the noise is assumed to increase linearly over time and converges to the local variance of the historical time series. A case study is

  19. 47 CFR 1.9035 - Short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Short-term de facto transfer leasing... PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9035 Short-term de facto transfer leasing...) and a spectrum lessee may enter into a short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangement in which...

  20. Short-Term Effects of Midseason Coach Turnover on Team Performance in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduck, Anne-Line; Buelens, Marc; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term team performance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team…

  1. 34 CFR 664.11 - What is a short-term seminar project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a short-term seminar project? 664.11 Section... Projects Does the Secretary Assist Under This Program? § 664.11 What is a short-term seminar project? A short-term seminar project is— (a) Designed to help integrate international studies into an...

  2. Implications of short-term financial outlook for Canadian producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The short-term outlook for the Western Canadian natural gas industry was reviewed. Based on the dramatic growth in the demand for gas, and the explosive growth of the industry in response to export opportunities, the outlook for the remainder of this decade remains good, notwithstanding low internal returns, below-average returns on equity, and increased competition for U.S. markets. The competition will come from offshore wells in the US Gulf, from offshore wells of Sable Island, and from offshore wells in the Gulf of Mexico. Despite the increasing sources of supply gas prices are actually expected to improve slightly in 1997 and beyond, giving rise to cautious optimism. Nevertheless, more favorable tax treatment is urgently required to head off the likelihood of investment dollars moving to Africa, the Middle East, South America, and most especially China and Russia. Once those countries open up for business in the not-too-distant future, the likelihood of them offering substantially better tax treatment than what is available in Canada could do serious damage to domestic gas industry development. 12 figs

  3. Short-term generation scheduling model of Fujian hydro system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fujian hydropower system (FHS) is one of the provincial hydropower systems with the most complicated hydraulic topology in China. This paper describes an optimization program that is required by Fujian Electric Power Company Ltd. (FEPCL) to aid the shift engineers in making decisions with the short-term hydropower scheduling such that the generation benefit can be maximal. The problem involves 27 reservoirs and is formulated as a nonlinear and discrete programming. It is a very challenging task to solve such a large-scale problem. In this paper, the Lagrangian multipliers are introduced to decompose the primal problem into a hydro subproblem and many individual plant-based subproblems, which are respectively solved by the improved simplex-like method (SLM) and the dynamic programming (DP). A numerical example is given and the derived solution is very close to the optimal one, with the distance in benefit less than 0.004%. All the data needed for the numerical example are presented in detail for further tests and studies from more experts and researchers

  4. Short term forecasting of petroleum product demand in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of petroleum product demand became a privileged thrust of research following the modifications in terms of structure and level of the petroleum markets since eighties. The greatest importance to econometrics models of Energy demand, joint works about nonstationary data, explained the development of error-correction models and the co-integration. In this context, the short term econometrics modelling of petroleum product demand does not only focus on forecasts but also on the measure of the gain acquired from using error-correction techniques and co-integration. It's filling to take the influence of technical improvement and environment pressures into account in econometrics modelling of petroleum products demand. The first part presents the evolution of Energy Demand in France and more particularly the petroleum product demand since 1986. The objective is to determine the main characteristics of each product, which will help us to analyse and validate the econometrics models. The second part focus on the recent developments in times series modelling. We study the problem of nonstationary data and expose different unit root tests. We examine the main approaches to univariate and multivariate modelling with nonstationary data and distinguish the forecasts of the latter's. The third part is intended to applications; its objective is to illustrate the theoretic developments of the second part with a comparison between the performances of different approaches (approach Box and Jenkins, Johansen approach's and structural approach). The models will be applied to the main French petroleum market. The observed asymmetrical demand behaviour is also considered. (author)

  5. Short-term ionic plasticity at GABAergic synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Valentino Raimondo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fast synaptic inhibition in the brain is mediated by the pre-synaptic release of the neurotransmitter γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA and the post-synaptic activation of GABA-sensitive ionotropic receptors. As with excitatory synapses, it is being increasinly appreciated that a variety of plastic processes occur at inhibitory synapses, which operate over a range of timescales. Here we examine a form of activity-dependent plasticity that is somewhat unique to GABAergic transmission. This involves short-lasting changes to the ionic driving force for the postsynaptic receptors, a process referred to as short-term ionic plasticity. These changes are directly related to the history of activity at inhibitory synapses and are influenced by a variety of factors including the location of the synapse and the post-synaptic cell’s ion regulation mechanisms. We explore the processes underlying this form of plasticity, when and where it can occur, and how it is likely to impact network activity.

  6. A model for sustainable short-term international medical trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchdev, Parminder; Ahrens, Kym; Click, Eleanor; Macklin, Lori; Evangelista, Doris; Graham, Elinor

    2007-01-01

    The health status of many people in developing countries is often dismal compared with the norms in industrialized countries. Increasingly, medical practitioners in the United States and other industrialized countries have become interested in global health issues, an interest that often takes the form of short-term international medical trips. We discuss several ethical issues associated with participation in such trips and use our experiences in developing the Children's Health International Medical Project of Seattle (CHIMPS) to outline and illustrate a set of 7 guiding principles for making these trips. CHIMPS is a resident-run, faculty-supported international medical program founded in 2002 by pediatric residents at the University of Washington in Seattle. Members of CHIMPS work with a rural community in El Salvador to support ongoing public health interventions there and provide sustainable medical care in collaboration with the community and a local nongovernmental organization. The 7 principles developed as a result of this work-mission, collaboration, education, service, teamwork, sustainability, and evaluation-can be used as a model for health practitioners as they develop or select international medical trips. The importance of partnering with the community and working within the existing medical and public health infrastructure is emphasized. Many of the challenges of doing international medical work can be overcome when efforts are guided by a few specific principles, such as those we have outlined. PMID:17660105

  7. Short-term thermal generation scheduling using improved immune algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Gwo-Ching [Department of Electrical Engineering, Fortune Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung County, 125-8 Chyi-Wen Road, Chyi-Shan 842 (Taiwan)

    2006-03-15

    This paper proposes a new immune algorithm (NIA), which merges the fuzzy system (FS), the annealing immune (AI) method and the immune algorithm (IA) together, to resolve short-term thermal generation unit commitment (UC) problems. This proposed method differs from its counterparts in three main aspects, namely: (1) changing the crossover and mutation ratios from a fixed value to a variable value determined by the fuzzy system method, (2) using the memory cell and (3) adding the annealing immune operator. With these modifications, we can attain three major advantages with the NIA, i.e. (1) the NIA will not fall into a local optimal solution trap; (2) the NIA can quickly and correctly find a full set of global optimal solutions and (3) the NIA can achieve the most economic solution for unit commitment with ease. The UC determines the start-up and shut-down schedules for related generation units to meet the forecasted demand at a minimum cost while satisfying other constraints, such as each unit's generating limit. The NIA is applied to six cases with various numbers of thermal generation units over a 24-h period. The schedule generated by the NIA is compared with that by several other methods, including the dynamic programming (DP), the Lagrangian relaxation (LR), the standard genetic algorithm (GA), the traditional simulated annealing (SA) and the traditional Tabu search (TS). The comparisons verify the validity and superiority in accuracy for the proposed method. (author)

  8. Short term mutagenicity tests and their application to irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although traditional long-term animal tests are likely to continue to be required, these are not only extremely costly but are coming more and more to be recognised as an imprecise and unsatisfactory method of testing the safety of irradiated foods for human consumption. It is therefore clearly advisable to include a selection of quicker and more direct testing methods in any toxicological assessment procedures. The International Project has therefore undertaken a study of the feasibility of using the newer systems for investigation of irradiated foodstuffs. Although some work in this field has already been carried out, some shortcomings in the published work can be identified which justify a more detailed and intensive research programme. As expected, little difficulty has been encountered in testing food by methods involving mammals, but considerable effort has been required to adapt in vitro systems. The use of enzymatic digestion in vitro to provide food samples for testing in mammalian cell cultures has never been attempted before and the procedures developed by the Project represent a positive contribution to methodology in this field. A series of foodstuffs is being tested by a wide spectrum of short-term tests and the first results are now being obtained. (orig./MG)

  9. Short term pumped storage scheduling using two proposed techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Salama, M.M. Elgazar, S.M. Abdelmaksoud, H.A. Henry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a genetic algorithm and constriction factor based particle swarm optimization technique are proposed for solving the short term pumped storage hydro thermal scheduling problem. The performance efficiency of the proposed techniques is demonstrated on hydrothermal test system comprising of five thermal units and one pumped storage power plant. A wide rang of thermal and hydraulic constraints are taken into consideration such as real power balance constraint, minimum and maximum limits of thermal units and pumped storage power plant, water discharge and water pumping rate limits and reservoir storage volume constraints. The simulation results obtained from the constriction factor based particle swarm optimization technique are compared with the outcomes obtained from the genetic algorithm in terms of cost saving and execution time to reveal the validity and verify the feasibility of the proposed methods. The test results show that the constriction factor based particle swarm optimization technique performs better than genetic algorithm in solving this problem in terms of cost saving and computational time.

  10. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. Short-Term Outcomes and Mortality of Late Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Cahide; Gürsoy, Tuğba; Ovalı, Fahri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Late preterm infants have increased rates of morbidity and mortality compared to term infants. Determining the risk factors in these infants leads to more comprehensive preventive and treatment strategies. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the morbidity rates such as respiratory system diseases, infections, congenital anomalies, hypoglycemia and hematologic abnormalities and mortality rates in a large group of patients at a referral center. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Medical records of late preterm and term infants who were managed at the referral center were analysed. Results: 41752 births were analysed in 3 years. 71.9% of all births were between 37–42 gestational weeks (i.e. term) and 16.1% were between 34–37 weeks (i.e. late preterm). Compared to term infants, late preterm infants had increased rates of short-term problems. The rate of mortality increased with decreased gestational age. The duration of hospitalization was significantly higher in the smallest late preterm infants. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the need that late preterm infants who have higher risk for morbidity and mortality, compared to term infants require close monitoring. The rate of mortality and hospitalization increased with decreased gestational age.

  12. Audiovisual integration facilitates monkeys' short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, James; Poremba, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Many human behaviors are known to benefit from audiovisual integration, including language and communication, recognizing individuals, social decision making, and memory. Exceptionally little is known about the contributions of audiovisual integration to behavior in other primates. The current experiment investigated whether short-term memory in nonhuman primates is facilitated by the audiovisual presentation format. Three macaque monkeys that had previously learned an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task were trained to perform a similar visual task, after which they were tested with a concurrent audiovisual DMS task with equal proportions of auditory, visual, and audiovisual trials. Parallel to outcomes in human studies, accuracy was higher and response times were faster on audiovisual trials than either unisensory trial type. Unexpectedly, two subjects exhibited superior unimodal performance on auditory trials, a finding that contrasts with previous studies, but likely reflects their training history. Our results provide the first demonstration of a bimodal memory advantage in nonhuman primates, lending further validation to their use as a model for understanding audiovisual integration and memory processing in humans. PMID:27010716

  13. The short-term fixation of radiopharmaceuticals in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between local blood flow and bone clearance of 18 F, 32 P-P (orthophosphate), 32 P-PPi (pyrophosphate), 45 Ca, 85 Sr, 99mTc- and 113 Sn-EHDP was evaluated in the non-adult rat. During one single blood passage nearly 100% of 18 F was extracted in the femoral diaphysis, the extraction efficiency for the other radiopharmaceuticals was about 40%. Blood flow and bone clearance was higher and the extraction efficiency lower in the distal femoral epiphysis including the growth plate. The short-term bone uptake of 32 P-P was lowered considerably by the simultaneous application of inactive orthophosphate, whereas the bone uptake of 32 P-PP, was not suppressed. It is suggested that the rapid deposition of radiopharmaceuticals in bone is not caused by an ionic exchange process on crystal surfaces of already existing mineral but is due to an ionic exchange during the precipitation of calcium phosphate in the calcifying bone matrix. Only 18 F is exchanged with hydroxyl groups of already precipitated hydroxyapatite, whereas the calcium and phosphate ions in the precipitated hydroxyapatite are not further accessible to an exchange process. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MBE

  14. Short-term visual deprivation improves the perception of harmonicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Simon P; Shiller, Douglas M; Champoux, François

    2013-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that the perception of auditory stimuli involves occipital cortical regions traditionally associated with visual processing, even in the absence of any overt visual component to the task. Analogous behavioral evidence of an interaction between visual and auditory processing during purely auditory tasks comes from studies of short-term visual deprivation on the perception of auditory cues, however, the results of such studies remain equivocal. Although some data have suggested that visual deprivation significantly increases loudness and pitch discrimination and reduces spatial localization inaccuracies, it is still unclear whether such improvement extends to the perception of spectrally complex cues, such as those involved in speech and music perception. We present data demonstrating that a 90-min period of visual deprivation causes a transient improvement in the perception of harmonicity: a spectrally complex cue that plays a key role in music and speech perception. The results provide clear behavioral evidence supporting a role for the visual system in the processing of complex auditory stimuli, even in the absence of any visual component to the task. PMID:23957309

  15. Short term fluctuations of wind and solar power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvari, M.; Lohmann, G.; Wächter, M.; Milan, P.; Lorenz, E.; Heinemann, D.; Rahimi Tabar, M. Reza; Peinke, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Wind and solar power are known to be highly influenced by weather events and may ramp up or down abruptly. Such events in the power production influence not only the availability of energy, but also the stability of the entire power grid. By analysing significant amounts of data from several regions around the world with resolutions of seconds to minutes, we provide strong evidence that renewable wind and solar sources exhibit multiple types of variability and nonlinearity in the time scale of seconds and characterise their stochastic properties. In contrast to previous findings, we show that only the jumpy characteristic of renewable sources decreases when increasing the spatial size over which the renewable energies are harvested. Otherwise, the strong non-Gaussian, intermittent behaviour in the cumulative power of the total field survives even for a country-wide distribution of the systems. The strong fluctuating behaviour of renewable wind and solar sources can be well characterised by Kolmogorov-like power spectra and q-exponential probability density functions. Using the estimated potential shape of power time series, we quantify the jumpy or diffusive dynamic of the power. Finally we propose a time delayed feedback technique as a control algorithm to suppress the observed short term non-Gaussian statistics in spatially strong correlated and intermittent renewable sources.

  16. Dimension-based attention in visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Michael; Barrett, Doug J K

    2016-07-01

    We investigated how dimension-based attention influences visual short-term memory (VSTM). This was done through examining the effects of cueing a feature dimension in two perceptual comparison tasks (change detection and sameness detection). In both tasks, a memory array and a test array consisting of a number of colored shapes were presented successively, interleaved by a blank interstimulus interval (ISI). In Experiment 1 (change detection), the critical event was a feature change in one item across the memory and test arrays. In Experiment 2 (sameness detection), the critical event was the absence of a feature change in one item across the two arrays. Auditory cues indicated the feature dimension (color or shape) of the critical event with 80 % validity; the cues were presented either prior to the memory array, during the ISI, or simultaneously with the test array. In Experiment 1, the cue validity influenced sensitivity only when the cue was given at the earliest position; in Experiment 2, the cue validity influenced sensitivity at all three cue positions. We attributed the greater effectiveness of top-down guidance by cues in the sameness detection task to the more active nature of the comparison process required to detect sameness events (Hyun, Woodman, Vogel, Hollingworth, & Luck, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35; 1140-1160, 2009). PMID:26920437

  17. Visual short-term memory load strengthens selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Zachary J J; Vecera, Shaun P

    2014-04-01

    Perceptual load theory accounts for many attentional phenomena; however, its mechanism remains elusive because it invokes underspecified attentional resources. Recent dual-task evidence has revealed that a concurrent visual short-term memory (VSTM) load slows visual search and reduces contrast sensitivity, but it is unknown whether a VSTM load also constricts attention in a canonical perceptual load task. If attentional selection draws upon VSTM resources, then distraction effects-which measure attentional "spill-over"-will be reduced as competition for resources increases. Observers performed a low perceptual load flanker task during the delay period of a VSTM change detection task. We observed a reduction of the flanker effect in the perceptual load task as a function of increasing concurrent VSTM load. These findings were not due to perceptual-level interactions between the physical displays of the two tasks. Our findings suggest that perceptual representations of distractor stimuli compete with the maintenance of visual representations held in memory. We conclude that access to VSTM determines the degree of attentional selectivity; when VSTM is not completely taxed, it is more likely for task-irrelevant items to be consolidated and, consequently, affect responses. The "resources" hypothesized by load theory are at least partly mnemonic in nature, due to the strong correspondence they share with VSTM capacity. PMID:24002967

  18. Short-term stress: the case of transport and slaughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Nanni Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term stressors such as transport and slaughter include psychological and physical stimuli that might be aversive for the animals. Restraint, manipulation and sudden change lead to fear, or psychological stress, while hunger, thirst, fatigue, injury and extreme thermal conditions are considered as physical stresses. Animal responses to these stimuli include behavioural and physiological changes devoted to coping with adverse situations. If the recovery or the adaptation fails, the consequences can be extremely serious, ranging from weight loss and death to impaired carcass and meat quality. As the stress during transport and slaughter is unavoidable, only the knowledge of the physiological and behavioural needs of the animals during all procedures from pre-transport handling to stunning, together with the correct use of the facilities for handling and transportation, can minimize the intensity and the duration of stress. The final goal is to improve transport and slaughter conditions for the animal and, as a consequence, animal welfare and meat quality.

  19. Broadband short term variability of the quasar PDS 456

    CERN Document Server

    Matzeu, G A; Nardini, E; Braito, V; Costa, M T; Tombesi, F; Gofford, J

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a recent $500$ ks net exposure \\textit{Suzaku} observation, carried out in 2013, of the nearby ($z=0.184$) luminous (L$_{\\rm bol}\\sim10^{47}$ erg s$^{-1}$) quasar PDS 456 in which the X-ray flux was unusually low. The short term X-ray spectral variability has been interpreted in terms of variable absorption and/or intrinsic continuum changes. In the former scenario, the spectral variability is due to variable covering factors of two regions of partially covering absorbers. We find that these absorbers are characterised by an outflow velocity comparable to that of the highly ionised wind, i.e. $\\sim0.25$ c, at the $99.9\\%$ $(3.26\\sigma)$ confidence level. This suggests that the partially absorbing clouds may be the denser clumpy part of the inhomogeneous wind. Following an obscuration event we obtained a direct estimate of the size of the X-ray emitting region, to be not larger than $20~R_{\\rm g}$ in PDS 456.

  20. Short term hydrogen generation following LOCA and loss of ECCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate the amount of hydrogen that can be generated due to metal water reaction following LOCA and loss of ECCS in a 500 MWe PHWR. A computer code HYGEN (Hydrogen Generation) written in FORTRAN calculates time-dependent fuel temperature during the post blowdown period and the amount of hydrogen generated as a result of metal water reaction. It is seen from the analyses that metal water reaction depends on fuel bundle power, its initial temperature and steam flow conditions. At present, four groups of channels have been analysed for different steam flow conditions, and it is found that, for an about 5 gm/sec steam flow condition, the maximum of amount of hydrogen is generated (5.76 x 104 gm-mole) due to the zircaloy - steam reaction. This amount of hydrogen, when considered mixed in volume V1 (drywell) of the reactor building, means that the global concentration reaches about 2.76% by volume. So, it is seen that in the short term, the global hydrogen concentration in the reactor building is well below the flammability limit of 4% by volume. (author) 4 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  1. A Single Brief Burst Induces GluR1-Dependent Associative Short-Term Potentiation: A Potential Mechanism for Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Martha A.; Maramara, Lauren A.; Lisman, John

    2010-01-01

    Recent work showed that short-term memory (STM) is selectively reduced in GluR1 knockout mice. This raises the possibility that a form of synaptic modification dependent on GluR1 might underlie STM. Studies of synaptic plasticity have shown that stimuli too weak to induce long-term potentiation induce short-term potentiation (STP), a phenomenon…

  2. Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you ... sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. More than 30 million Americans ...

  3. Simulation of demand side participation in Spanish short term electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Benefits from customer active participation can be obtained with a proper generation of bids and offers. → Simulation of Spanish customers' participation is shown in daily, intra-daily and balancing markets. → Market efficiency and economics profits arise in balancing markets by using customer load reductions. → Real market prices and real customers' consumptions profiles are used in the simulations. -- Abstract: Demand response resources management is one of the most investigated solutions oriented to improve the efficiency in electricity markets. In this paper, the capability of customers to participate in short term markets is analyzed. An available methodology to analyze the daily and monthly energy consumptions of large customers is used to create energy offers and bids. This allows customers to participate in energy markets in order to buy, as first step, the usual electricity consumption and, additionally, to offer demand reductions in the short term electricity markets. Additionally, this paper shows the customer potential to participate in the Spanish electricity markets.

  4. Effect of pullulan on the short-term and long-term retrogradation of rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Ren, Fei; Zhang, Zipei; Tong, Qunyi; Rashed, Marwan M A

    2015-01-22

    The effect of pullulan (PUL) on the retrogradation of rice starch (RS) was investigated by means of rapid visco-analyzer (RVA), rotational rheometer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). RVA results showed that addition of pullulan significantly decreased the breakdown and setback values, which meant that the short-term retrogradation of RS was inhibited. The dynamic time sweep of samples also proved the retarding effect of pullulan on the retrogradation of RS. DSC curves showed clearly that pullulan significantly reduced the retrogradation enthalpy of amylopectin, and the kinetics of retrogradation was analyzed using the Avrami model. XRD results showed that recrystallinity of RS was reduced from 11.565% to 8.841% with the addition of pullulan and this was in line with the DSC results. It could be concluded that the addition of pullulan apparently influenced not only the short-term retrogradation of amylose, but also the long-term retrogradation of amylopectin. PMID:25439913

  5. Short-term CT findings after osteosynthesis of fractures of the vertebral spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: evaluation of a correlation between surgical stabilization of fractures of the vertebral spine and postoperative short-term CT findings with special attention to degenerative changes. Materials and methods: The pre- and post-operative CT of 55 patients (43male, 12 female, age: 7 - 73 years, mean = 37.7 years) with traumatic fractures of the vertebral spine who underwent surgical stabilization using an internal fixator were analyzed retrospectively. The interval between surgical intervention and first postoperative CT control did not exceed one week. The interval to the second short-term follow-up CT ranged from 6 up to 24 months (mean: 10.3 ± 2.7 months). The consensus reading of the short-term CT by two experienced radiologists was compared to the pre- and immediately postoperative CT examinations and with the neurologic findings. Statistical analysis was done using the chi-square- or the Fisher's exact-test. Results: no statistically significant correlation (p > 0.05) was found between the patient's age and the postoperative incidence of osteoporosis, spondylarthrosis, scoliosis, spondylolisthesis or disc protrusion after posttraumatic surgical stabilization using an internal fixator. Also, there was no significant correlation between the fracture's type or location, presence of polytraumatization, the technique of surgical intervention, and the incidence of postoperative degenerative changes in the neighboring segments. The thesis has not been verified (p > 0.05) that polysegment stabilization or prior surgical interventions at the vertebral spine with scar induction are responsible for a higher rate of degeneration. The only risk factor observed for postoperative scoliosis was the burst rotation fracture type C1.3 (AO-classification). (orig.)

  6. Nutritional and Protein Deficiencies in the Short Term following Both Gastric Bypass and Gastric Banding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Aron-Wisnewsky

    Full Text Available The number of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery (BS has increased dramatically in recent years. Therefore, monitoring food intake and its consequences in terms of nutritional status is necessary to prevent nutritional deficiencies. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of food restriction on nutritional parameters in the short-term (≤3 months period after BS in morbid obesity.In a prospective study, we followed 22 obese women who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GBP or adjustable gastric banding (AGB at baseline (T0 and 1 (T1 and 3 (T3 months after surgery. We evaluated food intake, nutrient adequacy and serum concentrations of vitamins and minerals known to be at risk for deficiency following BS.Before surgery, we observed suboptimal food intakes, leading to a risk of micronutrient deficiencies. Serum analysis confirmed nutritional deficiencies for iron and thiamine for 27 and 23% of the patients, respectively. The drastic energy and food reduction seen in the short term led to very low probabilities of adequacy for nutrients equivalent across both surgeries. Serum analysis demonstrated a continuous decrease in prealbumin during the follow-up, indicating mild protein depletion in 21 and 57% of GBP patients and 50 and 63% of AGB patients, respectively, at T1 and T3. Regarding vitamins and minerals, systematic supplementation after GBP prevented most nutritional deficiencies. By contrast, AGB patients, for whom there is no systematic supplementation, developed such deficiencies.Our results suggest that cautious monitoring of protein intake after BS is mandatory. Furthermore, AGB patients might also benefit from systematic multivitamin and mineral supplementation at least in the short term.

  7. Time-resolved neuroimaging of visual short term memory consolidation by post-perceptual attention shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Marcus; Thiemann, Ulf; Freitag, Christine M; Bender, Stephan

    2016-01-15

    Post-perceptual cues can enhance visual short term memory encoding even after the offset of the visual stimulus. However, both the mechanisms by which the sensory stimulus characteristics are buffered as well as the mechanisms by which post-perceptual selective attention enhances short term memory encoding remain unclear. We analyzed late post-perceptual event-related potentials (ERPs) in visual change detection tasks (100ms stimulus duration) by high-resolution ERP analysis to elucidate these mechanisms. The effects of early and late auditory post-cues (300ms or 850ms after visual stimulus onset) as well as the effects of a visual interference stimulus were examined in 27 healthy right-handed adults. Focusing attention with post-perceptual cues at both latencies significantly improved memory performance, i.e. sensory stimulus characteristics were available for up to 850ms after stimulus presentation. Passive watching of the visual stimuli without auditory cue presentation evoked a slow negative wave (N700) over occipito-temporal visual areas. N700 was strongly reduced by a visual interference stimulus which impeded memory maintenance. In contrast, contralateral delay activity (CDA) still developed in this condition after the application of auditory post-cues and was thereby dissociated from N700. CDA and N700 seem to represent two different processes involved in short term memory encoding. While N700 could reflect visual post processing by automatic attention attraction, CDA may reflect the top-down process of searching selectively for the required information through post-perceptual attention. PMID:26571051

  8. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-02-04

    the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  9. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-03-04

    results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  10. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested

  11. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested

  12. Remedial measures at the short-term regulated rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building up and producing hydro power causes environmental effects, which are directed at the geomorfology, hydrology, water quality, organisms and landscape of the water system. To reduce and eliminate these various effects there are available an abundance of technical remedial measures, many of which contribute to several effects at the same time. In Finland a lot of remedial measures have been carried out at voluntary or obligatory bases. The information concerning remedial measures implemented in large build-up rivers were collected as a part of the study of the effects of the short-term regulation of hydro power plants. Material for the study was collected via literature, postal inquiry and terrain visits. Measures handled in the study were protection and reinforcement of shores, boating projects, submerged weirs, improvement of water turnover, fishery, clearing of peat rafts and stubs, landscaping, maintaining ice roads and shaping river banks. Nowadays planning and implementation of the remedial measures varies greatly depending on the nature and extent of the project. Large projects, which are more expensive, are naturally planned more carefully and comprehensively than simple routine measures. Also the quality of follow-up of the sites changes and the main portion of the information is received through terrain checks and direct feed-back from the users of the water system. In the future there is a need for model plans of the different routine measures. Also a systemic method to evaluate and compare different actions is needed to help decision making and to solve possible conflicts between different interests. Fishery, which is generally managed well, must in the future utilize better possibilities offered by other measures. According to the study there is no particular need to develop the follow-up systems. However, if the follow-up information is going to be used to develop the measures further, more systematic systems are needed for follow-up. (author)

  13. Short-term effect of antibiotics on human gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Panda

    Full Text Available From birth onwards, the human gut microbiota rapidly increases in diversity and reaches an adult-like stage at three years of age. After this age, the composition may fluctuate in response to external factors such as antibiotics. Previous studies have shown that resilience is not complete months after cessation of the antibiotic intake. However, little is known about the short-term effects of antibiotic intake on the gut microbial community. Here we examined the load and composition of the fecal microbiota immediately after treatment in 21 patients, who received broad-spectrum antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones and β-lactams. A fecal sample was collected from all participants before treatment and one week after for microbial load and community composition analyses by quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Fluoroquinolones and β-lactams significantly decreased microbial diversity by 25% and reduced the core phylogenetic microbiota from 29 to 12 taxa. However, at the phylum level, these antibiotics increased the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio (p = 0.0007, FDR = 0.002. At the species level, our findings unexpectedly revealed that both antibiotic types increased the proportion of several unknown taxa belonging to the Bacteroides genus, a Gram-negative group of bacteria (p = 0.0003, FDR<0.016. Furthermore, the average microbial load was affected by the treatment. Indeed, the β-lactams increased it significantly by two-fold (p = 0.04. The maintenance of or possible increase detected in microbial load and the selection of Gram-negative over Gram-positive bacteria breaks the idea generally held about the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics on gut microbiota.

  14. Short-term wind speed predictions with machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, M. A.; Khatibi, R.; FazeliFard, M. H.; Naghipour, L.; Makarynskyy, O.

    2016-02-01

    Hourly wind speed forecasting is presented by a modeling study with possible applications to practical problems including farming wind energy, aircraft safety and airport operations. Modeling techniques employed in this paper for such short-term predictions are based on the machine learning techniques of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic expression programming (GEP). Recorded values of wind speed were used, which comprised 8 years of collected data at the Kersey site, Colorado, USA. The January data over the first 7 years (2005-2011) were used for model training; and the January data for 2012 were used for model testing. A number of model structures were investigated for the validation of the robustness of these two techniques. The prediction results were compared with those of a multiple linear regression (MLR) method and with the Persistence method developed for the data. The model performances were evaluated using the correlation coefficient, root mean square error, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient and Akaike information criterion. The results indicate that forecasting wind speed is feasible using past records of wind speed alone, but the maximum lead time for the data was found to be 14 h. The results show that different techniques would lead to different results, where the choice between them is not easy. Thus, decision making has to be informed of these modeling results and decisions should be arrived at on the basis of an understanding of inherent uncertainties. The results show that both GEP and ANN are equally credible selections and even MLR should not be dismissed, as it has its uses.

  15. Neural circuit mechanisms of short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Mark

    Memory over time scales of seconds to tens of seconds is thought to be maintained by neural activity that is triggered by a memorized stimulus and persists long after the stimulus is turned off. This presents a challenge to current models of memory-storing mechanisms, because the typical time scales associated with cellular and synaptic dynamics are two orders of magnitude smaller than this. While such long time scales can easily be achieved by bistable processes that toggle like a flip-flop between a baseline and elevated-activity state, many neuronal systems have been observed experimentally to be capable of maintaining a continuum of stable states. For example, in neural integrator networks involved in the accumulation of evidence for decision making and in motor control, individual neurons have been recorded whose activity reflects the mathematical integral of their inputs; in the absence of input, these neurons sustain activity at a level proportional to the running total of their inputs. This represents an analog form of memory whose dynamics can be conceptualized through an energy landscape with a continuum of lowest-energy states. Such continuous attractor landscapes are structurally non-robust, in seeming violation of the relative robustness of biological memory systems. In this talk, I will present and compare different biologically motivated circuit motifs for the accumulation and storage of signals in short-term memory. Challenges to generating robust memory maintenance will be highlighted and potential mechanisms for ameliorating the sensitivity of memory networks to perturbations will be discussed. Funding for this work was provided by NIH R01 MH065034, NSF IIS-1208218, Simons Foundation 324260, and a UC Davis Ophthalmology Research to Prevent Blindness Grant.

  16. Short-Term Results of Medial Unicondylar Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yılmaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to determine the short-term clinical and radiologic results of medial unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated hospital records of eight patients who have undergone Oxford phase-3 medial UKA between 2011 and 2013. We included seven patients (two males and five females in the study. The mean age of the patients was 63 years and the mean follow-up period was 17 months. The patients underwent UKA with the Oxford phase 3 cemented mobile insert unicondylar prosthesis using minimally invasive surgery technique. The patients were assessed preoperatively, postoperatively and at final controls according to the Knee Society’s clinical and Functional Scoring system (KSS. The mean anatomic tibiofemoral angle was measured preoperatively and postoperatively and any complication was recorded. Results: The mean knee score according to the KSS was 37.50 preoperatively and was 90.75 at the final follow-up; the mean function score according to the KSS was 31.88 preoperatively and was 93.12 at the final follow-up. The mean anatomic tibiofemoral angle was improved from 4.37 degree varus to 4.75 degree valgus. There was no complication in any patient except one with superficial infection who was treated by simply antibiotic treatment. Conclusion: UKA is a favorable surgical technique for appropriately selected patients with medial unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 191-4

  17. A novel economy reflecting short-term load forecasting approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We combine MA line of TAIEX and SVR to overcome the load demands over-prediction problems caused by the economic downturn. ► The Taiwan island-wide electricity power system was used as the case study. ► Short- to middle-term MA lines of TAIEX are found to be good economic input variables for load forecasting models. - Abstract: The global economic downturn in 2008 and 2009, which was spurred by the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers, sharply reduced the demand for electricity load. Conventional load-forecasting approaches were unable to respond to sudden changes in the economy, because these approaches do not consider the effect of economic factors. Therefore, the over-prediction problem occurred. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel, economy-reflecting, short-term load forecasting (STLF) approach based on theories of moving average (MA) line of stock index and machine learning. In this approach, the stock indices decision model is designed to reflect fluctuations in the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index (TAIEX) series, which is selected as an optimal input variable in support vector regression load forecasting model at an appropriate timing. The Taiwan island-wide hourly electricity load demands from 2008 to 2010 are used as the case study for performance benchmarking. Results show that the proposed approach with a 60-day MA of the TAIEX as economic learning pattern achieves good forecasting performance. It outperforms the conventional approach by 29.16% on average during economic downturn-affected days. Overall, the proposed approach successfully overcomes the over-prediction problems caused by the economic downturn. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first attempt to apply MA line theory of stock index on STLF.

  18. Is Earthquake Prediction Possible from Short-Term Foreshocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Avlonitis, Markos; Di Fiore, Boris; Minadakis, George

    2015-04-01

    Foreshocks preceding mainshocks in the short-term, ranging from minutes to a few months prior the mainshock, have been known from several decades ago. Understanding the generation mechanisms of foreshocks was supported by seismicity observations and statistics, laboratory experiments, theoretical considerations and simulation results. However, important issues remain open. For example, (1) How foreshocks are defined? (2) Why only some mainshocks are preceded by foreshocks but others do not? (2) Is the mainshock size dependent on some attributes of the foreshock sequence? (3) Is that possible to discriminate foreshocks from other seismicity styles (e.g. swarms, aftershocks)? To approach possible replies to these issues we reviewed about 400 papers, reports, books and other documents referring to foreshocks as well as to relevant laboratory experiments. We found that different foreshock definitions are used by different authors. We found also that the ratio of mainshocks preceded by foreshocks increases with the increase of monitoring capabilities and that foreshock activity is dependent on source mechanical properties and favoured by material heterogeneity. Also, the mainshock size does not depend on the largest foreshock size but rather by the foreshock area. Seismicity statistics may account for an effective discrimination of foreshocks from other seismicity styles since during foreshock activities the seismicity rate increases with the inverse of time and, at the same, the b-value of the G-R relationship as a rule drops significantly. Our literature survey showed that only the last years the seismicity catalogs organized in some well monitored areas are adequately complete to search for foreshock activities. Therefore, we investigated for a set of "good foreshock examples" covering a wide range of mainshock magnitudes from 4.5 to 9 in Japan (Tohoku 2011), S. California, Italy (including L' Aquila 2009) and Greece. The good examples used indicate that foreshocks

  19. Validation of PC-based sound card with Biopac for digitalization of ECG recording in short-term HRV analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Maheshkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart rate variability (HRV analysis is a simple and noninvasive technique capable of assessing autonomic nervous system modulation on heart rate (HR in healthy as well as disease conditions. The aim of the present study was to compare (validate the HRV using a temporal series of electrocardiograms (ECG obtained by simple analog amplifier with PC-based sound card (audacity and Biopac MP36 module. Materials and Methods: Based on the inclusion criteria, 120 healthy participants, including 72 males and 48 females, participated in the present study. Following standard protocol, 5-min ECG was recorded after 10 min of supine rest by Portable simple analog amplifier PC-based sound card as well as by Biopac module with surface electrodes in Leads II position simultaneously. All the ECG data was visually screened and was found to be free of ectopic beats and noise. RR intervals from both ECG recordings were analyzed separately in Kubios software. Short-term HRV indexes in both time and frequency domain were used. Results: The unpaired Student′s t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient test were used for the analysis using the R statistical software. No statistically significant differences were observed when comparing the values analyzed by means of the two devices for HRV. Correlation analysis revealed perfect positive correlation (r = 0.99, P < 0.001 between the values in time and frequency domain obtained by the devices. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of the present study, we suggest that the calculation of HRV values in the time and frequency domains by RR series obtained from the PC-based sound card is probably as reliable as those obtained by the gold standard Biopac MP36.

  20. Evaluating the relationship between breakfast pattern and short-term memory in junior high school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, A; Sohrabi, Z; Eftekhari, M H

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between breakfast pattern and short-term memory in guidance-school students. Memory improves for subjects who have eaten breakfast. It appears that breakfast consumption influences cognition via several mechanisms. What children eat for breakfast before going to school is very important. A total of 150 junior high school girls were taken from a subject pool in four schools in Shiraz (capital of the Fars Province in Iran). They filled out the socio-economic questionnaires as well as food frequency questionnaires for breakfast and provided two-three day breakfast records in two different seasons and their short-term memories were evaluated by Weksler test socio-economic conditions and dietary intakes were analyzed. The results of the study showed that there was no correlation between parents job, students mean age and their school grades with their memory scores. Dietary analysis demonstrated a negative correlation between local soup consumption in breakfast and memory scores. Food record analysis showed no correlation between fat, cholesterol, protein, vitamin B6, B12, calorie and iodine intake in breakfast and memory scores, but there was a positive correlation between carbohydrate, iron and vitamin B3 intake in breakfast and memory scores, similarly there was a positive correlation between B12 intake in the breakfast and students' average school grades during the year. PMID:19634483

  1. Evaluating the Relationship Between Breakfast Pattern and Short-Term Memory in Junior High School Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between breakfast pattern and short-term memory in guidance-school students. Memory improves for subjects who have eaten breakfast. It appears that breakfast consumption influences cognition via several mechanisms. What children eat for breakfast before going to school is very important. A total of 150 junior high school girls were taken from a subject pool in four schools in Shiraz (capital of the Fars Province in Iran. They filled out the socio-economic questionnaires as well as food frequency questionnaires for breakfast and provided two-three day breakfast records in two different seasons and their short-term memories were evaluated by Weksler test socio-economic conditions and dietary intakes were analyzed. The results of the study showed that there was no correlation between parents job, students mean age and their school grades with their memory scores. Dietary analysis demonstrated a negative correlation between local soup consumption in breakfast and memory scores. Food record analysis showed no correlation between fat, cholesterol, protein, vitamin B6, B12, calorie and iodine intake in breakfast and memory scores, but there was a positive correlation between carbohydrate, iron and vitamin B3 intake in breakfast and memory scores, similarly there was a positive correlation between B12 intake in the breakfast and students’ average school grades during the year.

  2. Assessment of the short-term radiometric stability between Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chander, Gyanesh; Angal, A.

    2009-01-01

    Short-term radiometric stability was evaluated using continuous ETM+ scenes within a single orbit (contact period) and the corresponding MODIS scenes for the four matching solar reflective visible and near-infrared (VNIR) band pairs between the two sensors. The near-simultaneous earth observations were limited by the smaller swath size of ETM+ (183 km) compared to MODIS (2330 km). Two sets of continuous granules for Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ were selected and mosaicked based on pixel geolocation information for noncloudy pixels over the African continent. The matching pixel pairs were resampled from a fine to a coarse pixel resolution, and the at-sensor spectral radiance values for a wide dynamic range of the sensors were compared and analyzed, covering various surface types. The following study focuses on radiometric stability analysis from the VNIR band-pairs of ETM+ and MODIS. The Libya-4 desert target was included in the path of this continuous orbit, which served as a verification point between the short-term and the long-term trending results from previous studies. MODTRAN at-sensor spectral radiance simulation is included for a representative desert surface type to evaluate the consistency of the results.

  3. Mid-latitude summer response of the middle atmosphere to short-term solar UV changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Keckhut

    Full Text Available Temperature and wind data obtained with Rayleigh lidar since 1979 and Russian rockets since 1964 are analyzed to deduce the summer response of the middle atmosphere to short-term solar UV changes. The equivalent width of the 1083 nm He I line is used as a proxy to monitor the short-term UV flux changes. Spectral analyses are performed on 108-day windows to extract the 27-day component from temperature, wind and solar data sets. Linear regressions between these spectral harmonics show some significant correlations around 45 km at mid-latitudes. For large 27-day solar cycles, amplitudes of 2 K and 6 m s-1 are calculated for temperature data series over the south of France (44°N, and on wind data series over Volgograd (49°N, respectively. Cross-spectrum analyses have indicated correlations between these atmospheric parameters and the solar proxy with a phase lag of less than 2 days. These statistically correlative results, which provide good qualitative agreement with numerical simulations, are both obtained at mid-latitude. However, the observed amplitudes are larger than expected, with numerical models suggesting that dynamical processes such as equatorial or gravity waves may be responsible.

  4. Effect of short-term pranayama and meditation on cardiovascular functions in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopa B Ankad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Asana, pranayama, and meditation are three main techniques of yoga practiced in India over thousands of years to attain functional harmony between the body and mind. Recent studies on long-term yogic practices have shown improvements in cardiovascular functions. Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain if a short-term practice of pranayama and meditation had improvements in cardiovascular functions in healthy individuals with respect to age, gender, and body mass index (BMI. Settings and Design: This interventional study was conducted in the Department of physiology of S.N. Medical College, Bagalkot. Patients and Methods: Fifty healthy subjects (24 males and 26 females of 20−60 years age group, fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria underwent two hours daily yoga program for 15 days taught by a certified yoga teacher. Pre and post yoga cardiovascular functions were assessed by recording pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean blood pressure. Statistical analysis used: The parameters were analyzed by Student′s t test. Results: There was significant reduction in resting pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure after practicing pranayama and meditation for 15 days. The response was similar in both the genders, both the age groups, 40 yrs and both the groups with BMI, 25 kg/m2 . Conclusion: This study showed beneficial effects of short term (15 days regular pranayama and meditation practice on cardiovascular functions irrespective of age, gender, and BMI in normal healthy individuals.

  5. Methodologies used in non-anonymous IAEA short term intercomparison exercises for radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA has conducted two short term intercomparison exercises for the determination of gamma, alpha and beta emitters in different matrices to evaluate the readiness of ALMERA network laboratories, as one of the objectives, for using their services in case of boundary transgression of radioactive contamination. Procedures used in the Lab were applied in analyzing the samples and the results submitted with in the target time of less than a week. Total of 42 radionuclides including alpha-beta emitters in grass, spinach, water and soil were analyzed. The paper discusses the procedures used and analyses the short comings. A weighted summary index (WSI) was formulated to compare the performance of the Lab in two exercises conducted in 2006 and 2007. (author)

  6. Short-Term flood forecasting in developing countries and in non-ordinary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, V. A.

    2001-05-01

    Every natural process may be separated on four additions: 1. Deterministic component described by differential equations; 2. Stochastic component having a clear period of fluctuation, a physic reasons of which is unknown; 3. Deterministic component having extremely small inertia; this component is not to be forecasted; 4. Noises. The following principles of the forecasting of catastrophes to be offered: a) Real process may be considered as a combination of known deterministic process, unknown periodic one, and noises; b) This combination must be described correctly by the forecasting model which must be robust; c) Correct forecast of extreme hydro-logical events cannot be deterministic; and finally d) As parameters of model cease to be adequacy reflection of their natural prototypes, the non-parametric methods of determination of latent trends are prefer-able. Offered scheme may be used for both short-term and long-term forecasting as follows: 1. Deterministic differential equation of the first moment; 2. Non-parametric method of accounting of unknown factors; 3. Stochastic differential equation for an analysis of unknown com-ponents of studied process or residuals. As a result, we have the equations for the mode of the forecasted probability distribution, which compose the Unified Stochastic Self-Training Procedure (USSTP). It gave more then 50 successful fore-casts of disastrous floods and droughts. This gives ground to propose the USSTP for its application in the developing countries and in most difficult situations.

  7. Short term hypothyroidism affects ovarian function in the cycling rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamarra-Luques Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rats made hypothyroid with propilthyouracil start showing abnormal cycling on the second cycle after the start of the treatment, with a high proportion of spontaneous pseudopregnancies and reduced fertility. Methods To investigate some of the mechanisms involved in these reproductive abnormalities, hypothyroidism was induced in virgin rats by propilthyouracil (0.1 g/L in the drinking water and we determined circulating hormones by radioimmunoassay and whole ovary expression of ovarian hormone receptors, growth factors and steroidogenic enzymes using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The study was performed on days 6 to 9 of treatment, corresponding to diestrus I (at 20.00-22.00 h, diestrus II (at 20.00-22.00 h, proestrus and estrus (both at 8.00-10.00 h and 20.00-22.00 h of the second estrous cycle after beginning propilthyouracil treatment. Another group of rats was mated on day 8 and the treatment continued through the entire pregnancy to evaluate reproductive performance. Results Hypothyroidism increased circulating prolactin and estradiol on estrus 5 to 7-fold and 1.2 to 1.4-fold respectively. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 diminished 60 and 20% respectively on proestrus morning. Hypothyroidism doubled the ovarian mRNA contents of estrogen receptor-beta on proestrus and estrus evenings, cyp19A1 aromatase mRNA on estrus evening and of growth hormone receptor on proestrus evening. Hypothyroidism did not influence ovulation rate or the number of corpora lutea at term, but a diminished number of implantation sites and pups per litter were observed (Hypothyroid: 11.7 +/- 0.8 vs. Control: 13.9 +/- 0.7. Conclusions Short term hypothyroidism alters normal hormone profile in the cycling rat increasing the expression of estrogen receptor-beta and cyp19A1 aromatase on estrus, which in turn may stimulate estradiol and prolactin secretion, favouring corpus luteum survival and the subsequent instauration of pseudopregnancy.

  8. Are there multiple visual short-term memory stores?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja G Sligte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Classic work on visual short-term memory (VSTM suggests that people store a limited amount of items for subsequent report. However, when human observers are cued to shift attention to one item in VSTM during retention, it seems as if there is a much larger representation, which keeps additional items in a more fragile VSTM store. Thus far, it is not clear whether the capacity of this fragile VSTM store indeed exceeds the traditional capacity limits of VSTM. The current experiments address this issue and explore the capacity, stability, and duration of fragile VSTM representations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We presented cues in a change-detection task either just after off-set of the memory array (iconic-cue, 1,000 ms after off-set of the memory array (retro-cue or after on-set of the probe array (post-cue. We observed three stages in visual information processing 1 iconic memory with unlimited capacity, 2 a four seconds lasting fragile VSTM store with a capacity that is at least a factor of two higher than 3 the robust and capacity-limited form of VSTM. Iconic memory seemed to depend on the strength of the positive after-image resulting from the memory display and was virtually absent under conditions of isoluminance or when intervening light masks were presented. This suggests that iconic memory is driven by prolonged retinal activation beyond stimulus duration. Fragile VSTM representations were not affected by light masks, but were completely overwritten by irrelevant pattern masks that spatially overlapped the memory array. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We find that immediately after a stimulus has disappeared from view, subjects can still access information from iconic memory because they can see an after-image of the display. After that period, human observers can still access a substantial, but somewhat more limited amount of information from a high-capacity, but fragile VSTM that is overwritten when new items are presented

  9. Multilingual Part-of-Speech Tagging with Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory Models and Auxiliary Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Plank, Barbara; Søgaard, Anders; Goldberg, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    Bi-directional long short-term memory (LSTM) networks have recently proven successful for various NLP sequence modeling tasks, but little is known about their reliance to input representations, target languages, data set size, and label noise. We address these issues and evaluate bi-LSTMs with word, character, and unicode byte embeddings for POS tagging. We compare bi-LSTMs to traditional POS taggers across languages and data sizes. We also present a novel bi-LSTM model, which combines the PO...

  10. Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In contrast, the goal of this research is to address the problem of evaluating the utility of the short-term tests for hazard assessment using an alternative method of investigation. Chemicals were selected mostly from the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC); a few other chemicals commonly recognized as hazardous were included. Tumorigenicity and mutagenicity data on 52 chemicals were obtained from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) and were analyzed using a relative potency approach. The data were evaluated in a format which allowed for a comparison of the ranking of the mutagenic relative potencies of the compounds (as estimated using short-term data) vs. the ranking of the tumorigenic relative potencies (as estimated from the chronic bioassays). Although this was a preliminary investigation, it offers evidence that the short-term tests systems may be of utility in ranking the hazards represented by chemicals which may contribute to increased carcinogenesis in humans as a result of occupational or environmental exposures. 177 refs., 8 tabs

  11. Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, L.R.; Jones, T.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In contrast, the goal of this research is to address the problem of evaluating the utility of the short-term tests for hazard assessment using an alternative method of investigation. Chemicals were selected mostly from the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC); a few other chemicals commonly recognized as hazardous were included. Tumorigenicity and mutagenicity data on 52 chemicals were obtained from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) and were analyzed using a relative potency approach. The data were evaluated in a format which allowed for a comparison of the ranking of the mutagenic relative potencies of the compounds (as estimated using short-term data) vs. the ranking of the tumorigenic relative potencies (as estimated from the chronic bioassays). Although this was a preliminary investigation, it offers evidence that the short-term tests systems may be of utility in ranking the hazards represented by chemicals which may contribute to increased carcinogenesis in humans as a result of occupational or environmental exposures. 177 refs., 8 tabs.

  12. Short-term heat load forecasting for single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg;

    2013-01-01

    house the following two days is forecasted. The forecast models are adaptive linear time-series models and the climate inputs used are: ambient temperature, global radiation and wind speed. A computationally efficient recursive least squares scheme is used. The models are optimized to fit the individual...... noise and that practically all correlation to the climate variables are removed. Furthermore, the results show that the forecasting errors mainly are related to: unpredictable high frequency variations in the heat load signal (predominant only for some houses), shifts in resident behavior patterns...... and uncertainty of the weather forecasts for longer horizons, especially for solar radiation....

  13. A review of Beijing's vehicle registration lottery: Short-term effects on vehicle growth and fuel consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many cities worldwide have considered vehicle restriction policies to curb proliferating problems related to traffic and pollution. At the beginning of 2011, Beijing became the first city to allocate vehicle license plates using a lottery. We provide a background on Beijing's lottery and analyze its short-term effects. We find that growth in new vehicle registrations has been sharply curtailed. However, this policy may not reduce fuel consumption as much as expected. - Highlights: • In 2011, Beijing became the first city to allocate vehicle license plates using a lottery. • We provide a background on Beijing's lottery and analyze its short-term effects. • Beijing's lottery has sharply curtailed new vehicle registrations and reduced the growth of cars in Beijing. • While the number of vehicles will be cut 11 percent, fuel consumption will be reduced by only 1 percent

  14. Spatiotemporal traffic-flow dependency and short-term traffic forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yue; Anthony Gar-On Yeh

    2008-01-01

    Short-term traffic forecasting is playing an increasing role in modern transport management. Although many short-term traffic forecasting methods have been explored, the spatiotemporal dependency of traffic flow, an important characteristic of traffic dynamics that can benefit the forecasting of traffic changes, is often neglected in short-term traffic forecasting. This paper first investigates the spatiotemporal dependency of traffic flow using cross-correlation analysis and then discusses i...

  15. The Effects of Short-Term Liabilities on Profitability: The Case of Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Christopher F.; Schäfer, Dorothea; Talavera, Oleksandr

    2006-01-01

    Using data from Germany this paper examines the direct effect of non-financial firms' use of short-term versus long-term liabilities. We develop a structural model of a firm's value maximization problem that predicts that profitability of the firm will change if firms alter their use of short-term versus long-term liabilities. We find that firms that rely more heavily on short-term liabilities are likely to be more profitable.

  16. Effects of metoclopramide on gastric motility measured by short-term bio-impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Raquel Huerta-Franco, Miguel Vargas-Luna, Kathleen M Capaccione, Etna Yañez-Roldán, Ulises Hernández-Ledezma, Ismael Morales-Mata, Teodoro Córdova-Fraga

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the accuracy of short-term bio-impedance as a means of measuring gastric motility.METHODS: We evaluated differences in the short-term electrical bio-impedance signal from the gastric region in the following conditions: (1 fasting state, (2 after the administration of metoclopramide (a drug that induces an increase in gastric motility and (3 after food ingestion in 23 healthy volunteers. We recorded the real component of the electrical impedance signal from the gastric region for 1000 s. We performed a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT on this data and then compared the signal among the fasting, medicated, and postprandial conditions using the median of the area under the curve, the relative area under the curve and the main peak activity.RESULTS: The median of the area under the curve of the frequency range in the region between 2-8 cycles per minute (cpm decreased from 4.7 cpm in the fasting condition to 4.0 cpm in the medicated state (t = 3.32, P = 0.004. This concurred with the decrease seen in the relative area under the FFT curve in the region from 4 to 8 cpm from 38.3% to 26.6% (t = 2.81, P = 0.012 and the increase in area in the region from 2 to 4 cpm from 22.4% to 27.7%, respectively (t = -2.5, P = 0.022. Finally the main peak position also decreased in the region from 2 to 8 cpm. Main peak activity in the fasting state was 4.72 cpm and declined to 3.45 cpm in the medicated state (t = 2.47, P = 0.025. There was a decrease from the fasting state to the postprandial state at 3.02 cpm (t = 4.0, P = 0.0013.CONCLUSION: Short-term electrical bio-impedance can assess gastric motility changes in individuals experiencing gastric stress by analyzing the area medians and relative areas under the FFT curve.

  17. Urban Environment Noise Analyzing and Control Countermeasure of Nanning City%南宁市环境噪声分析及污染防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝庆

    2011-01-01

    介绍了2009年南宁市环境噪声污染现状,分析了环境噪声污染的原因,最后提出了环境噪声污染防治对策.%Discussing urban environment noise state of Nanning city in 2009, the article analyzes the reasons of noise pollution and puts forward control countermeasure of noise pollution.

  18. Short-term predictability of crude oil markets: A detrended fluctuation analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the auto-correlations of international crude oil prices on the basis of the estimation of the Hurst exponent dynamics for returns over the period from 1987 to 2007. In doing so, a model-free statistical approach - detrended fluctuation analysis - that reduces the effects of non-stationary market trends and focuses on the intrinsic auto-correlation structure of market fluctuations over different time horizons, is used. Tests for time variations of the Hurst exponent indicate that over long horizons the crude oil market is consistent with the efficient market hypothesis. However, meaningful auto-correlations cannot be excluded for time horizons smaller than one month where the Hurst exponent manifests cyclic, non-periodic dynamics. This means that the market exhibits a time-varying short-term inefficient behavior that becomes efficient in the long term. The proposed methodology and its findings are put in perspective with previous studies and results. (author)

  19. Effects of Short-Term Training of Community-Dwelling Elderly with Modular Interactive Tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Jessen, Jari Due

    2014-01-01

    community activity centers for the elderly. Three different tests from the Senior Fitness Test were used in order to test a variety of health parameters of the community-dwelling elderly, including those parameters related to fall prevention. Materials and Methods: Eighteen community-dwelling elderly......Objective: The objective of this study is to test for the increased mobility, agility, balancing, and general fitness of community-dwelling elderly individuals as a result of short-term training involving playing with modular interactive tiles (Entertainment Robotics, Odense, Denmark) at two...... centers for the elderly. Data were collected using pre-tests and post-tests of the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), the 8-foot Timed Up & Go Test (TUG), and the Chair-Stand Test (CS). Data were analyzed for statistically significant differences and increases of means. Results: The 6MWT, TUG, and CS measurements...

  20. PRINCIPLE OF ESTIMATION ANNUAL RADON EEC IN BUILDING BY RESULTS OF SHORT-TERM MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tsapalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of reliable estimation of annual radon concentration in the new buildings by results of short-term measurements is still actual. The task is to determine the relevant real values of the coefficient of temporal variations of radon. To this end, analyzed two fundamentally different approach to research methodology and accounting regularities of variations of radon EEC in indoor buildings. Based on experimental data shows that in assessing the average radon EEC levels is the most effective and took into account the ratio of current and annual air temperature differences inside and outside the building. The proposed principle is recommended for use in the development of improved methods of radon control of buildings.

  1. A dynamic marker of very short-term heartbeat under pathological states via network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Feng-Zhen; Wang, Jun; Wu, Xiao-Chuan; Yan, Fang-Rong

    2014-09-01

    We developed a novel network to probe pathological states with the aid of heartbeat time series, by regarding each vector in the embedding phase space as one node of the network and using a permutation-based measure to determine links between nodes. The entropy of the degree distribution (E_{{DD}}) of the network shows a general and significant reduction under pathological conditions, even when there are only ultra short-term heartbeats (\\approx 50\\text{ beats}) available. The reduction of E_{{DD}} is possibly a dynamic marker of cardiac disorders. Our results reveal that a comparatively strong “memory” should usually exist in the healthy cardiovascular system whereas it dramatically declines when a cardiac disease is arising. The proposed method shows great promise in screening cardiac diseases and monitoring dynamic changes of the autonomic nervous system. Besides, as a universal method for analyzing the time series, the proposed approach seems to be promising also for other research disciplines.

  2. Comparison of Specifications, Short Term Outcome and Prognosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Opium Dependent Patients and Nondependents

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Alidoosti; Soodabeh Darvish; Shahin Akhondzadeh; Saeed Sadeghian; Gholamreza Davoodi; Alireza Amirzadegan

    2006-01-01

    Background: The effects of opium dependence on prognosis and short term outcome of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are not clear yet. Methods: From March 2004 to August 2004 all male patients admitted with diagnosis of AMI were enrolled. Patients who fulfilled DSM- IV-TR criteria were chosen as opium dependent patients (ODP). Demographic data, risk factors, peak enzyme levels, location of MI, mortality and ejection fraction were collected and analyzed. We studied the mortality...

  3. Modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor short term thermal response to flow and reactivity transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The short-term thermal response of the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) is analyzed for a range of flow and reactivity transients. These include loss of forced circulation (LOFC) without scram, moisture ingress, spurious withdrawal of a control rod group, hypothetical large and rapid positive reactivity insertion, and a rapid core cooling event. The coupled heat transfer-neutron kinetics model is also described

  4. Kidins220/ARMS Is a Novel Modulator of Short-Term Synaptic Plasticity in Hippocampal GABAergic Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Scholz-Starke; Fabrizia Cesca; Giampietro Schiavo; Fabio Benfenati; Pietro Baldelli

    2012-01-01

    Kidins220 (Kinase D interacting substrate of 220 kDa)/ARMS (Ankyrin Repeat-rich Membrane Spanning) is a scaffold protein highly expressed in the nervous system. Previous work on neurons with altered Kidins220/ARMS expression suggested that this protein plays multiple roles in synaptic function. In this study, we analyzed the effects of Kidins220/ARMS ablation on basal synaptic transmission and on a variety of short-term plasticity paradigms in both excitatory and inhibitory synapses using a r...

  5. A short-term clinical study of marginal bone level change around microthreaded and platform-switched implants

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Hee-Jung; Park, Jung-Chul; Yun, Jeong-Ho; Jung, Ui-Won; Kim, Chang-Sung; Choi, Seong-Ho; Cho, Kyoo-Sung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The marginal bone levels around implants following restoration are used as a reference for evaluating implant success and survival. Two design concepts that can reduce crestal bone resorption are the microthread and platform-switching concepts. The aims of this study were to analyze the placement of microthreaded and platform-switched implants and their short-term survival rate, as well as the level of bone around the implants. Methods The subjects of this study were 27 patients (79 i...

  6. DYNAMICS OF THE ANXIETY DISORDERS IN THE COURSE OF SHORT-TERM PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Hmylova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of psychotherapy modern concepts referring to the short-term forms having been taken into account, we carried out the research aimed at the study of short-term form personality-oriented psychotherapy effect on the anxiety disorder dynamics. 103 patients with neurotic disorders were examined in the neurosis and psychotherapy department of the Bekhterev Psychoneurological Research Institute. The findings revealed the situational and personal anxiety level to be objectively decreased in the short-term group psychotherapy course. The short-term group psychotherapy was proved to bean effective method in anxiety disorders treatment considering indications and limitations.

  7. Short-term Library and Information Science Training Courses in India

    OpenAIRE

    G. Mahesh; Narendra Kumar; Dinesh K. Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Short-term courses have been the pre-cursor to the LIS education programmes. However, after the educational programmes came into being, the short-term LIS programmes stopped and not many of these were conducted during the 1960s and 1970s. With the advent of information technologies in Indian libraries in the late 1980s, the short-term courses have made a slow but steady comeback. The recent years have seen the strong resurgence of short-term LIS training courses in India with new players join...

  8. PSTAR: Primary and secondary terms analysis and renormalization: A unified approach to building energy simulations and short-term monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbarao, K.

    1988-09-01

    This report presents a unified method of hourly simulation of a building and analysis of performance data. The method is called Primary and Secondary Terms Analysis and Renormalization (PSTAR). In the PSTAR method, renormalized parameters are introduced for the primary terms such that the renormalized energy balance equation is best satisfied in the least squares sense, hence, the name PSTAR. PSTAR allows extraction of building characteristics from short-term tests on a small number of data channels. These can be used for long-term performance prediction (''ratings''), diagnostics, and control of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems (HVAC), comparison of design versus actual performance, etc. By combining realistic building models, simple test procedures, and analysis involving linear equations, PSTAR provides a powerful tool for analyzing building energy as well as testing and monitoring. It forms the basis for the Short-Term Energy Monitoring (STEM) project at SERI.

  9. Short-term overfeeding increases circulating adiponectin independent of obesity status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrell Cahill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is an adipose tissue derived hormone which strengthens insulin sensitivity. However, there is little data available regarding the influence of a positive energy challenge (PEC on circulating adiponectin and the role of obesity status on this response. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate how circulating adiponectin will respond to a short-term PEC and whether or not this response will differ among normal-weight(NW, overweight(OW and obese(OB. DESIGN: We examined adiponectin among 64 young men (19-29 yr before and after a 7-day overfeeding (70% above normal energy requirements. The relationship between adiponectin and obesity related phenotypes including; weight, percent body fat (%BF, percent trunk fat (%TF, percent android fat (%AF, body mass index (BMI, total cholesterol, HDLc, LDLc, glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and β-cell function (HOMA-β were analyzed before and after overfeeding. RESULTS: Analysis of variance (ANOVA and partial correlations were used to compute the effect of overfeeding on adiponectin and its association with adiposity measurements, respectively. Circulating Adiponectin levels significantly increased after the 7-day overfeeding in all three adiposity groups. Moreover, adiponectin at baseline was not significantly different among NW, OW and OB subjects defined by either %BF or BMI. Baseline adiponectin was negatively correlated with weight and BMI for the entire cohort and %TF, glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR in OB. However, after controlling for insulin resistance the correlation of adiponectin with weight, BMI and %TF were nullified. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence that the protective response of adiponectin is preserved during a PEC regardless of adiposity. Baseline adiponectin level is not directly associated with obesity status and weight gain in response to short-term overfeeding. However, the significant increase of

  10. Responses of activities, abundances and community structures of soil denitrifiers to short-term mercury stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifeng Zhou; Yuanming Zheng; Jupei Shen; Limei Zhang; Yurong Liu; Jizheng He

    2012-01-01

    The responses of activities,abundances and community structures of soil denitrifiers to mercury(Hg)stress were investigated through a short-term incubation experiment.Four soil treatments with different concentrations of Hg(CK,Hg25,Hg50,and Hgl00,denoted as 0,25,50,and 100 mg Hg/kg dry soil,respectively)were incubated for 28 days.Soil denitrification enzyme activity(DEA)was measured at day 3,7 and 28.The abundances and community structures of two denitrification concerning genes,nirS(Cd1-nitrite reductase gene)and nosZ(nitrous oxide reductase gene),were analyzed using real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE).Results showed that soil DEA was significantly stimulated in the treatments of Hg25 and Hg50 compared with others at day 7.Meanwhile,no difference in the abundances of soil nirS and nosZ was found between Hg spiked treatments and CK,except the lower abundance of nirS(P < 0.05)in the Hg added treatments compared with that in the CK at day 28.The community structures of denitrifiers based on nirS gene presented obvious change at day 7 along with the Hg additions,however,no variation was found in all treatments based on the nosZ gene.The results indicated that Hg(Hg25 and Hg50)had a strongly short-term stimulation on soil DEA,and nirS gene is more sensitive than nosZ gene to Hg stress.

  11. The Role of Short Term Synaptic Plasticity in Temporal Coding of Neuronal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Short term synaptic plasticity is a phenomenon which is commonly found in the central nervous system. It could contribute to functions of signal processing namely, temporal integration and coincidence detection by modulating the input synaptic strength. This dissertation has two parts. First, we study the effects of short term synaptic plasticity…

  12. Short-Term Volunteer Teachers in Rural China: Challenges and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huiquan; Shang, Xinyuan

    2011-01-01

    The brain-drain caused by imbalanced economic development has produced a lack of qualified teachers in rural China. Short-term volunteer teaching has emerged as a response. Despite the popularity of such programs, little systematic data have been gathered regarding their strengths and weaknesses. A short-term volunteer teaching program was…

  13. Effect of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs on Students' Cultural Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapp, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    The number of U.S. students studying abroad has been growing, particularly those participating in short-term trips. However, literature on the effect of these short-term trips is lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess quantitatively the effect on bachelor students' cross-cultural adaptability using a pre-post design. Significant changes…

  14. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  15. How Emotional Pictures Influence Visuospatial Binding in Short-Term Memory in Ageing and Alzheimer's Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Celine; Leroy, Nicolas; Favre, Emilie; Laurent, Bernard; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the prediction that emotion can facilitate short-term memory. Nevertheless, emotion also recruits attention to process information, thereby disrupting short-term memory when tasks involve high attentional resources. In this way, we aimed to determine whether there is a differential influence of emotional information on…

  16. Short-Term Water Dynamics in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M Fullerton Jr; Ana Cecilia Nava

    2004-01-01

    Linear transfer ARIMA analysis of monthly per meter water consumption is conducted for Chihuahua City, Mexico. Sample data from January 1988 to December 2000 are analyzed. Time series utilized include water system revenue, climate, and industrial production data. Out-of-sample simulations are used to confirm the reliability of the in-sample estimation results.

  17. Short-Term Momentum Effect: a Case of Middle East Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ejaz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to find short-term momentum effect in stock markets of the Middle East and to examine whether short-term momentum profits can be explained by risk-based CAPM model. Seven major stock markets from the Middle East were selected. Short-term momentum effect was found in all seven stock markets and CAPM does not adequately explain the short-term momentum profits but momentum portfolio returns are statistically significant. This paper is first attempt to bring major stock markets of the Middle East together and examine them for the short term momentum effect phenomenon. Future research should include more stock markets in order to have a better understanding of Middle Eastern stock markets.

  18. Very short-term wind speed prediction: A new artificial neural network-Markov chain model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourmousavi Kani, S.A. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, 627 Cobleigh Hall, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Ardehali, M.M. [Energy Research Center, Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Ave., Tehran 15914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    As the objective of this study, artificial neural network (ANN) and Markov chain (MC) are used to develop a new ANN-MC model for forecasting wind speed in very short-term time scale. For prediction of very short-term wind speed in a few seconds in the future, data patterns for short-term (about an hour) and very short-term (about minutes or seconds) recorded prior to current time are considered. In this study, the short-term patterns in wind speed data are captured by ANN and the long-term patterns are considered utilizing MC approach and four neighborhood indices. The results are validated and the effectiveness of the new ANN-MC model is demonstrated. It is found that the prediction errors can be decreased, while the uncertainty of the predictions and calculation time are reduced. (author)

  19. Very short-term wind speed prediction: A new artificial neural network-Markov chain model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the objective of this study, artificial neural network (ANN) and Markov chain (MC) are used to develop a new ANN-MC model for forecasting wind speed in very short-term time scale. For prediction of very short-term wind speed in a few seconds in the future, data patterns for short-term (about an hour) and very short-term (about minutes or seconds) recorded prior to current time are considered. In this study, the short-term patterns in wind speed data are captured by ANN and the long-term patterns are considered utilizing MC approach and four neighborhood indices. The results are validated and the effectiveness of the new ANN-MC model is demonstrated. It is found that the prediction errors can be decreased, while the uncertainty of the predictions and calculation time are reduced.

  20. Noise suppression by noise

    OpenAIRE

    Vilar, J. M. G.; Rubí Capaceti, José Miguel

    2001-01-01

    We have analyzed the interplay between an externally added noise and the intrinsic noise of systems that relax fast towards a stationary state, and found that increasing the intensity of the external noise can reduce the total noise of the system. We have established a general criterion for the appearance of this phenomenon and discussed two examples in detail.

  1. Efficacy of acute caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Roberson, Daniel W

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used drug in the world, commonly ingested in coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks. Its ability to enhance muscular work has been apparent since the early 1900s. Caffeine typically increases endurance performance; however, efficacy of caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise is equivocal, which may be explained by discrepancies in exercise protocols, dosing, and subjects' training status and habitual caffeine intake found across studies. The primary aim of this review is to critically examine studies that have tested caffeine's ability to augment performance during exercise dependent on nonoxidative metabolism such as sprinting, team sports, and resistance training. A review of the literature revealed 29 studies that measured alterations in short-term performance after caffeine ingestion. Each study was critically analyzed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The mean PEDro score was 7.76 +/- 0.87. Eleven of 17 studies revealed significant improvements in team sports exercise and power-based sports with caffeine ingestion, yet these effects were more common in elite athletes who do not regularly ingest caffeine. Six of 11 studies revealed significant benefits of caffeine for resistance training. Some studies show decreased performance with caffeine ingestion when repeated bouts are completed. The exact mechanism explaining the ergogenic effect of caffeine for short-term exercise is unknown. PMID:19924012

  2. Short-term pharmacological suppression of the hyperprolactinemia of infertile hCG-overproducing female mice persistently restores their fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Laura D; Gonzalez, Betina; Ahtiainen, Petteri; Di Giorgio, Noelia P; Poutanen, Matti; Calandra, Ricardo S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Rulli, Susana B

    2012-12-01

    Female infertility is often associated with deregulation of hormonal networks, and hyperprolactinemia is one of the most common endocrine disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis affecting the reproductive functions. We have shown previously that transgenic female mice overexpressing human chorionic gonadotropin β-subunit (hCGβ+ mice), and producing elevated levels of bioactive LH/hCG, exhibit increased production of testosterone and progesterone, are overweight and infertile, and develop hyperprolactinemia associated with pituitary lactotrope adenomas in adult age. In the present study, we analyzed the influence of the hyperprolactinemia of hCGβ+ females on their reproductive phenotype by treating them with the dopamine agonists, bromocriptine and cabergoline. Long-term bromocriptine treatment of adult mice was effective in the control of obesity, pituitary growth, and disturbances in the hormone profile, demonstrating that hyperprolactinemia was the main cause of the hCGβ+ female phenotype. Interestingly, short-term treatment (1 wk) with cabergoline applied on 5-wk-old mice corrected hyperprolactinemia, hyperandrogenism, and hyperprogesteronemia, prevented pituitary overgrowth, normalized gonadal function, and recovered fertility of adult hCGβ+ females after hormone-induced and natural ovulation. The same cabergoline treatment in the short term applied on 3-month-old hCGβ+ females failed to recover their reproductive function. Hence, we demonstrated that the short-term cabergoline treatment applied at a critical early stage of the phenotype progression effectively prevented the hyperprolactinemia-associated reproductive dysfunction of hCG-overproducing females. PMID:23117930

  3. Investigating Effect of Drug Use on Short-term Complications and Bleeding in Patients Undergoing Off-pump CABG (OPCAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hadadzadeh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Opioid abuse is a major social and health problem in many parts of the world especially in Iran. There are not much information about effect of drugs (addiction on short-term complications and bleeding after CABG. This study aimed to assess the relationship between addiction with short-term complications and bleeding after CABG. Methods: This is a descriptive study in which 100 male patients who underwent off-pump CABG in Afshar hospital in yazd were followed during 3 months to investigate their short-term complications. preoperative and post-operative Hb, Plt, Pt, Ptt, bleeding and packed cells after operation were recorded. Then, collected data was analyzed by chi-square, fisher and exact test . Results: In this study, 30 patients were addicts and 70 male patients were non-addicts. All patients were males and similar in preoperative characteristics such as HTN, DM, HLP, CAD, LIMA usage and NYHA FC. Addicted patients were younger than non-addicts and most of them were cigarette smokers. Regarding medical and dietary recommendation after operation, addicted patients observed these recommendation significantly less than non-addicted patients. After operation, pulmonary, neurologic and infective complications were significantly more common in addicted patients. Conclusion: According the study results and other similar studies, drug use in patients with cardiovascular disease is noticeable. Moreover, regarding the postoperative outcomes in addicted patients, more studies needs to be conducted in this field.

  4. Short-term and long-term earthquake occurrence models for Italy: ETES, ERS and LTST

    OpenAIRE

    Maura Murru; Rodolfo Console; Giuseppe Falcone

    2010-01-01

    This study describes three earthquake occurrence models as applied to the whole Italian territory, to assess the occurrence probabilities of future (M ≥5.0) earthquakes: two as short-term (24 hour) models, and one as long-term (5 and 10 years). The first model for short-term forecasts is a purely stochastic epidemic type earthquake sequence (ETES) model. The second short-term model is an epidemic rate-state (ERS) forecast based on a model that is physically constrained by the application to t...

  5. Short-term hot hardness characteristics of rolling-element steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, J. L.; Dietrich, M. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    Short-term hot hardness studies were performed with five vacuum-melted steels at temperatures from 294 to 887 K (70 to 1140 F). Based upon a minimum Rockwell C hardness of 58, the temperature limitation on all materials studied was dependent on the initial room temperature hardness and the tempering temperature of each material. For the same room temperature hardness, the short-term hot hardness characteristics were identical and independent of material composition. An equation was developed to predict the short-term hardness at temperature as a function of initial room temperature hardness for AISI 52100, as well as the high-speed tool steels.

  6. A NEURAL NETWORK MODEL FOR SHORT TERM PREDICTION OF SURFACE OZONE AT TROPICAL CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.SAMUEL SELVARAJ,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A new method for short term prediction is presented using the neural network technique. Due to increase in industrial and anthropogenic activity, air pollution is a serious subject of concern today. Surface ozone prediction using the technique of adaptive pattern recognition is developed. The model can predict the mean surface ozonebased on the parameters like Nitrogen-di-oxide, temperature and % Relative Humidity. The model can perform well both in training and independent periods. The classical methods of short term modeling are not reliable enough. The method can also be used for short term prediction of other air pollutants.

  7. SHORT TERM LOAD FORECASTING SYSTEM BASED ON SUPPORT VECTOR KERNEL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Hussain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Load Forecasting is powerful tool to make important decisions such as to purchase and generate the electric power, load switching, development plans and energy supply according to the demand. The important factors for forecasting involve short, medium and long term forecasting. Factors in short term forecasting comprises of whether data, customer classes, working, non-working days and special event data, while long term forecasting involves historical data, population growth, economic development and different categories of customers.In this paper we have analyzed the load forecasting data collected from one grid that contain the load demands for day and night, special events, working and non-working days and different hours in day. We have analyzed the results using Machine Learning techniques, 10 fold cross validation and stratified CV. The Machines Learning techniques used are LDA, QDA, SVM Polynomial, Gaussian, HRBF, MQ kernels as well as LDA and QDA. The errors methods employed against the techniques are RSE, MSE, RE and MAPE as presented in the table 2 below. The result calculated using the SVM kernel shows that SVM MQ gives the highest performance of 99.53%.

  8. Effects of short-term wear of silicone hydrogel contact lenses on refractive behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D. H. Gillan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Contact lens wear is known to induce change in both the cornea and refractive state. Often a shift towards increased myopia is noted. Historically investigations into the effects of contact lenses onrefractive state have often been incomplete in terms of statistical analysis whereby nearest equivalent sphere is used or the spherical, cylindrical and axis components are analyzed in isolation. The aim ofthis study was to investigate the short-term effects of silicone hydrogel contact lenses on refractive behaviour. Seven volunteers agreed to wear a silicone hydrogel lens on one eye for a period of thirty minutes. Prior to lens wear, after ten minutes of lens wear and after thirty minutes of lens wear 50 autorefractor measurements were taken of refractive state from each subject. Data were analyzed using multivariate statistical methods. Scatter plots and other multivariate statistics are used to show how lens wear influences refractive behaviour. The results of this study show that silicone hydrogel contact lenses do influence refractive behaviour in both a spherical as well as an antistigmatic (astigmatism fashion. (S Afr Optom 2012 71(2 78-85 

  9. Short-Term Side Effects after Radioiodine Treatment in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liyan; Shan, Fengling; Li, Wenbin; Lu, Hankui

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. I-131 therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) could induce adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to report and analyze symptoms after I-131 treatment within the hospitalization and present relevant medical intervention. Methods. I-131 doses ranging from 3.7 to 9.25 GBq (100-250 mCi) were administrated for thyroid remnant ablation or treating DTC metastases. 117 patients with DTC for I-131 therapy were monitored through the video and intercommunicating with standardized questionnaire at different time points after I-131 oral administration. Adverse effects were recorded and relevant clinical factors were analyzed. Results. Among all the 117 patients, 55 cases complained of neck's pain or swelling and 79 cases presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. Pain or swelling of salivary gland occurred in 15 patients, headache and vertigo in 10, insomnia in 9, vocal cord paralysis in 6, fatigue or general malaise in 6, and foreign body sensation in 5. Body numbness and urinary symptoms were observed in only 1 case, respectively. Those side effects were related with sex, pre-I-131 treatment TSH levels, frequency of I-131 therapy, and lymph node metastases. Conclusions. Short-term side effects after I-131 therapy for DTC patients varied individually; severe symptoms were not uncommon but generally did not need emergent medical intervention. PMID:26989683

  10. Daily prediction of short-term trends of crude oil prices using neural networks exploiting multimarket dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heping PAN; Imad HAIDAR; Siddhivinayak KULKARNI

    2009-01-01

    This paper documents a systematic investigation on the predictability of short-term trends of crude oil prices on a daily basis. In stark contrast with longer-term predic-tions of crude oil prices, short-term prediction with time horizons of 1-3 days posits an important problem that is quite different from what has been studied in the litera-ture. The problem of such short-term predicability is tackled through two aspects. The first is to examine the existence of linear or nonlinear dynamic processes in crude oil prices.This sub-problem is addressed with statistical analysis in-volving the Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman test for nonlinearity.The second aspect is to test the capability of artificial neu-ral networks (ANN) for modeling the implicit nonlinearity for prediction. Four experimental models are designed and tested with historical data: (1) using only the lagged returns of filtered crude oil prices as input to predict the returns of the next days; this is used as the benchmark, (2) using only the information set of filtered crude oil futures price as in-put, (3) combining the inputs from the benchmark and sec-ond models, and (4) combing the inputs from the benchmark model and the intermarket information. In order to filter out the noise in the original price data, the moving averages of prices are used for all the experiments. The results provided sufficient evidence to the predictability of crude oil prices using ANN with an out-of-sample hit rate of 80%, 70%, and 61% for each of the next three days' trends.

  11. Effects of metoclopramide on gastric motility measured by short-term bio-impedance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    María-Raquel Huerta-Franco; Miguel Vargas-Luna; Kathleen M Capaccione; Etna Ya(n)ez-Roldán; Ulises Hernández-Ledezma; Ismael Morales-Mata; Teodoro Córdova-Fraga

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the accuracy of short-term bio-impedance as a means of measuring gastric motility.METHODS: We evaluated differences in the shortterm electrical bio-impedance signal from the gastric region in the following conditions: (1) fasting state,(2) after the administration of metoclopramide (a drug that induces an increase in gastric motility) and (3) after food ingestion in 23 healthy volunteers. We recorded the real component of the electrical impedance signal from the gastric region for 1000 s. We performed a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) on this data and then compared the signal among the fasting, medicated, and postprandial conditions using the median of the area under the curve, the relative area under the curve and the main peak activity. RESULTS: The median of the area under the curve of the frequency range in the region between 2-8 cycles per minute (cpm) decreased from 4.7 cpm in the fasting condition to 4.0 cpm in the medicated state ( t = 3.32, P = 0.004). This concurred with the decrease seen in the relative area under the FFT curve in the region from 4 to 8 cpm from 38.3% to 26.6% ( t = 2.81, P = 0.012) and the increase in area in the region from 2to 4 cpm from 22.4% to 27.7%, respectively ( t = -2.5,P = 0.022). Finally the main peak position also decreased in the region from 2 to 8 cpm. Main peak activity in the fasting state was 4.72 cpm and declined to 3.45 cpmin the medicated state ( t = 2.47, P = 0.025). There was a decrease from the fasting state to the postprandial state at 3.02 cpm ( t = 4.0, P = 0.0013).CONCLUSION: Short-term electrical bio-impedance can assess gastric motility changes in individuals experiencing gastric stress by analyzing the area medians and relative areas under the FFT curve.

  12. Short-term intraocular pressure changes after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in diabetic retinopathy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhood QK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Qasim Kadhim Farhood,1 Sinan Mohammad Twfeeq21College of Medicine, Babylon University, Babylon; 2Al-Jumhori teaching hospital, Mosul, IraqBackground: This study examined the changes in short-term intraocular pressure (IOP in a prospective series of patients undergoing intravitreal bevacizumab injection. The aim was to evaluate the frequency and predictive factors related to intraocular pressure (IOP elevation in patients receiving intravitreal bevacizumab.Patients and methods: This study included 52 patients with diabetic retinopathy between 28 to 75 years of age with a mean age of 51 years; 30 (58% were females, and 22 (42% were males. All patients received bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 mL injected intravitreally in a standard fashion between May 2012 to February 2013 in the AL-Jumhoury teaching hospital. IOP was measured at baseline, 5, 10, and 30 minutes after injection using Goldman applanation tonometry.Statistics: Data were analyzed using the SPSS v.12.0 for windows. Basic, demographic, and clinical data were analyzed using means, proportions, and appropriate 95% confidence intervals (CIs.Results: Most patients (85% were diagnosed with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, while 15% presented with diabetic macular edema. The mean IOP values at baseline, 5, 10, and 30 minutes after injection were 14.0 mmHg (95% CI 13.4–14.7, 36.1 mmHg (95% CI 33.5–38.6, 25.7 mmHg (95% CI 23.8–27.5, and 15.5 mmHg (95% CI 12.4–16.51, respectively. Regression analysis showed a trend toward phakic patients having higher IOP at 30 minutes.Conclusion: Intravitreal injection of bevacizumab is safe with respect to short-term IOP changes, as almost all IOP returned to a safe range (<25 mmHg within 30 minutes. Elevated IOP 30 minutes after injection only occurs rarely, so routine prophylactic use of anti-glaucoma medication is not indicated.Keywords: intravitreal injection, bevacizumab, intraocular pressure, Goldmann applanation tonometry

  13. Short-term feed deprivation alters immune status of surface mucosa in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short-term feed deprivation (or fasting) is a common occurrence in aquacultured fish species whether due to season, production strategies, or disease. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fasting impacts susceptibility to several bacterial pathogens including Flavobacterium columnare, the causat...

  14. Investigation Into The Effectiveness Of Long Short Term Memory Networks For Stock Price Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Hengjian

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of long short term memory networks trained by backpropagation through time for stock price prediction is explored in this paper. A range of different architecture LSTM networks are constructed trained and tested.

  15. Stochastic Optimal Wind Power Bidding Strategy in Short-Term Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    minimization problem for trading wind power in the short-term electricity market is described, to help the wind power owners optimize their bidding strategy. Stochastic optimization and a Monte Carlo method are adopted to find the optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the short-term electricity...... market in order to deal with the uncertainty of the regulation price, the activated regulation of the power system and the forecasted wind power generation. The Danish short-term electricity market and a wind farm in western Denmark are chosen as study cases due to the high wind power penetration here....... Simulation results show that the stochastic optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the Danish short-term electricity market is an effective measure to maximize the revenue of the wind power owners....

  16. Dissociating Measures of Consciousness from Measures of Short-Term Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Staugaard, Camilla Funch;

    found that increasing task-load through varying set-sizes affected performance in the short-term memory task as well as in the PAS ratings systematically in the both experiments. Interestingly, the two experiments also revealed systematic set-size effect within each of the individual PAS categories......Often, the contents of consciousness are equated with the contents of short-term memory (or working memory), sometimes to a point where they are treated as identical entities. In the present study we aimed to investigate whether they may be modulated independently and thus dissociated from each...... conscious content simply can be reduced to a cognitive process like short-term memory. In two experiments, we combined two different measures of short-term memory capacity to investigate how manipulations of set-size affect performance in observers with the Perceptual Awareness Scale (PAS) to measure...

  17. Short-term effects of air temperature on plasma metabolite concentrations in patients undergoing cardiac cattheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown associations between air temperature and cardiovascular health outcomes. Metabolic dysregulation might also play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease.OBJECTIVES: To investigate short-term temperature effects on metabol...

  18. Gummed-up memory: chewing gum impairs short-term recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Michail D; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity. Experiment 3 demonstrated that manual tapping produces a similar pattern of impairment to that of chewing gum. These results clearly qualify the assertion that chewing gum improves short-term memory. They also pose a problem for short-term memory theories asserting that forgetting is based on domain-specific interference given that chewing does not interfere with verbal memory any more than tapping. It is suggested that tapping and chewing reduce the general capacity to process sequences. PMID:22150606

  19. Factors relating to the short term effectiveness of percutaneous biliary drainage for hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    TSAI, HONG-MING; Chuang, Chiao-Hsiung; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Chen, Chiung-Yu

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To identify factors that were related to the short term effectiveness of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in cholangiocarcinoma patients and to evaluate the impact of palliative drainage on their survival.

  20. Analysis of the short-term overproduction capability of variable speed wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit; Margaris, Ioannis D.;

    2014-01-01

    extensions of the Type IV standard wind turbine model proposed by the IEC Committee in IEC 61400-27-1. This modified standard model is able to account for dynamic features relevant for integrating active power ancillary services in wind power plants, such as frequency support capabilities. The performance of......Emphasis in this article is on variable speed wind turbines (VSWTs) capability to provide short-term overproduction and better understanding of VSWTs’ mechanical and electrical limits to deliver such support. VSWTs’ short-term overproduction capability is of primary concern for the transmission...... VSWTs during short-term overproduction is assessed and discussed by means of simulations for different wind speed levels, overproduction percentages and durations. The results show that the capability of VSWTs providing short-term overproduction to the grid strongly depends on the initial pre...

  1. Linking Genetic Counseling Content to Short-Term Outcomes in Individuals at Elevated Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Kimberly M.; Ellington, Lee; Schoenberg, Nancy; Agarwal, Parul; Jackson, Thomas; Dickinson, Stephanie; Abraham, Jame; Paskett, Electra D.; Leventhal, Howard; Andrykowski, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have linked actual genetic counseling content to short-term outcomes. Using the Self-regulation Model, the impact of cognitive and affective content in genetic counseling on short-term outcomes was studied in individuals at elevated risk of familial breast-ovarian cancer. Surveys assessed dependent variables: distress, perceived risk, and 6 knowledge measures (Meaning of Positive Test; Meaning of Negative Test; Personal Behavior; Practitioner Knowledge; Mechanisms of Cancer Inheri...

  2. Clinical and No-Clinical Setting Specificities in First Session Short-Term Psychotherapy Psychodrama Group

    OpenAIRE

    Mindoljević Drakulić, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Modern history of short-term group psychotherapy dates back to the late 1950-ies. From then to present day, this psychotherapeutic method has been used in various forms, from dynamic-oriented to cognitive behavioural psychotherapies. Although it has always been considered rather controversial, due its cost-effectiveness, it has been capturing more and more popularity. This paper presents the specificities of first session short-term psychotherapy psychodrama group through session ...

  3. Short-term storage in vitro and large-scale propagation of grapevine genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael de Carvalho Silva; Zanderluce Gomes Luis; Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the large-scale propagation of grapevine genotypes after short-term storage in vitro. Microshoots from ten grapevine genotypes were used. The following storage temperatures were evaluated: 10, 20, and 25°C. After short-term storage, the shoots were propagated in up to five successive subcultures, to assess the large-scale propagation of the germplasm maintained under conditions of minimal growth. The propagated shoots were rooted in different concent...

  4. Vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory: computational and neural bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P; MacWhinney, B

    1997-09-01

    In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that human vocabulary acquisition processes and verbal short-term memory abilities utilize a common cognitive and neural system. We begin by reviewing behavioral evidence for a shared set of processes. Next, we examine what the computational bases of such a shared system might be and how vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory might be related in mechanistic terms. We examine existing computational models of vocabulary acquisition and of verbal short-term memory, concluding that they fail to adequately relate these two domains. We then propose an alternative model which accounts not only for the relationship between word learning and verbal short-term memory, but also for a wide range of phenomena in verbal short-term memory. Furthermore, this new account provides a clear statement of the relationship between the proposed system and mechanisms of language processing more generally. We then consider possible neural substrates for this cognitive system. We begin by reviewing what is known of the neural substrates of speech processing and outline a conceptual framework within which a variety of seemingly contradictory neurophysiological and neuropsychological findings can be accommodated. The linkage of the shared system for vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory to neural areas specifically involved in speech processing lends further support to our functional-level identification of the mechanisms of vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory with those of language processing. The present work thus relates vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory to each other and to speech processing, at a cognitive, computational, and neural level. PMID:9299067

  5. Short-term synaptic enhancement and long-term potentiation in neocortex.

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Alamancos, M A; Connors, B W

    1996-01-01

    Repetitive stimuli reliably induce long-term potentiation (LTP) of synapses in the upper layers of the granular somatosensory cortex but not the agranular motor cortex of rats. Herein we examine, in these same cortical areas, short-term changes in synaptic strength that occur during the LTP induction period. theta-Burst stimulation produced a strong short-term enhancement of synapses in the granular area but only weak enhancement in the agranular area. The magnitude of enhancement during stim...

  6. Determinants of Expected Short-term Export Performance Improvement: An Empirical Study of Industrial Exporters

    OpenAIRE

    Lages, Luis Filipe; Leal, Ana Catarina

    2004-01-01

    In this research, key determinants of expected short-term export performance improvement are identified. We develop a conceptual framework that incorporates past, current and expected performance, internal and external forces of the firm, and pricing strategy adaptation to the foreign market. The framework is tested via a field survey of industrial exporters. Surprisingly, findings reveal that the effect of firms commitment to exporting on expected short-term export performance improvement is...

  7. Short-term outcome of primary operated early breast cancer by hormone and HER-2 receptors

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Prognostic subgroup classification of operable breast cancers using cDNA clustering of breast cancer-related genes resembles the classification based on the combined immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of the hormone and HER-2 receptors. We here report the short-term disease-free interval (DFI) of operable breast cancers by their joint hormone receptor/HER-2 phenotype. Patients and methods Short-term follow-up (FU) of ...

  8. A Novel Hybrid Model for Short-Term Forecasting in PV Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Kang Wu; Chao-Rong Chen; Hasimah Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of solar power as a source of electricity has led to increased interest in forecasting its power output over short-time horizons. Short-term forecasts are needed for operational planning, switching sources, programming backup, reserve usage, and peak load matching. However, the output of a photovoltaic (PV) system is influenced by irradiation, cloud cover, and other weather conditions. These factors make it difficult to conduct short-term PV output forecasting. In this pape...

  9. Shared representations in language processing and verbal short-term memory: The case of grammatical gender

    OpenAIRE

    Schweppe, Judith

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates short-term memory for syntactically structured verbal information. Five experiments have demonstrated that grammatical gender contributes substantially to short-term recall of sentences and short texts. This study is based on models that assume that comprehension, production, and retention of verbal materials share the same representations (language-based models of working memory, e.g., Martin & Saffran, 1997). Findings that lexical features (such as phonolo...

  10. Evaluation of Short Term Outcomes of Transportal Femoral Cross Pin Fixation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Zehir, Sinan; Şahin, Ercan; Çalbıyık, Murat; Kalem, Mahmut; İpek, Deniz; Songür, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Many fixation techniques are currently in use for femoral side graft fixation at ACL reconstruction surgery. Short term success following ACL reconstruction highly depends on fixation strength of the graft. In this study we report short term results of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using double hamstring tendon autograft using double cross pin for femoral tunnel fixation. Methods: Between years 2009 and 2013, 51 male adult anterior cruciate ligament injury cases treate...

  11. Short-term nuclear annual power production simulation documentation (SNAPPS). Task 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-Term Nuclear Annual Power Production Simulation (SNAPPS) is a FORTRAN computer program that projects the short-term monthly and annual generation of electricity by the nation's nuclear reactors. SNAPPS develops a power supply curve (histograms) for each individual reactor and then tallies its monthly and annual electricity production. The SNAPPS input requirements include reactor characteristics, cycle parameters, and scheduled outage data. This report contains the documentation for the program

  12. Gummed-up memory: Chewing gum impairs short-term recall

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, Michail D; Robert W Hughes; Jones, Dylan M.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity...

  13. Interaction of short-term depression and firing dynamics in shaping single neuron encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, Ashutosh; McDonnell, Mark D.; Stricker, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated how the two properties short-term synaptic depression of afferent input and postsynaptic firing dynamics combine to determine the operating mode of a neuron. While several computational roles have been ascribed to either, their interaction has not been studied. We considered two types of short-term synaptic dynamics (release-dependent and release-independent depression) and two classes of firing dynamics (regular firing and firing with spike-frequency adaptation). The input–ou...

  14. Short-term memory in the service of executive control functions

    OpenAIRE

    Farshad Alizadeh Mansouri

    2015-01-01

    Short-term memory is a crucial cognitive function for supporting on-going and upcoming behaviours, allowing storage of information across delay periods. The content of this memory may typically include tangible information about features such as the shape, colour or texture of an object, its location and motion relative to the body, or phonological information. The neural correlate of these short-term memories has been found in different brain areas involved in organizing perceptual or motor ...

  15. Short-term visual memory properties sheet secondary school age with different levels of physical development

    OpenAIRE

    Menshikh, E.E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose . The results presented properties of short-term visual memory with different levels of physical development. Materials and methods. The study included 405 boys and girls Cherkassy school 11 in age from 13 to 16 years. Study of short-term visual memory was carried out using tables with 10 characters ( numbers and ambiguous geometric shapes ). Indicator memory was the higher, the more information was displayed. Measured the length and body weight was recorded cardiorespiratory indicato...

  16. Radiology, histology and short-term outcome of asymptomatic congenital thoracic malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Thomas; Buchvald, Frederik; Brenøe, Jørn;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and short-term outcome of our management of asymptomatic children with antenatally diagnosed congenital thoracic malformations (CTM), compared with recommendations from a recent review and meta-analysis.......The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and short-term outcome of our management of asymptomatic children with antenatally diagnosed congenital thoracic malformations (CTM), compared with recommendations from a recent review and meta-analysis....

  17. A Hybrid Short-Term Traffic Flow Prediction Model Based on Singular Spectrum Analysis and Kernel Extreme Learning Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qiang; Lin, Ciyun; Yang, Zhaosheng; Bing, Qichun; Zhou, Xiyang

    2016-01-01

    Short-term traffic flow prediction is one of the most important issues in the field of intelligent transport system (ITS). Because of the uncertainty and nonlinearity, short-term traffic flow prediction is a challenging task. In order to improve the accuracy of short-time traffic flow prediction, a hybrid model (SSA-KELM) is proposed based on singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and kernel extreme learning machine (KELM). SSA is used to filter out the noise of traffic flow time series. Then, the filtered traffic flow data is used to train KELM model, the optimal input form of the proposed model is determined by phase space reconstruction, and parameters of the model are optimized by gravitational search algorithm (GSA). Finally, case validation is carried out using the measured data of an expressway in Xiamen, China. And the SSA-KELM model is compared with several well-known prediction models, including support vector machine, extreme learning machine, and single KLEM model. The experimental results demonstrate that performance of the proposed model is superior to that of the comparison models. Apart from accuracy improvement, the proposed model is more robust. PMID:27551829

  18. 宏观经济学中的长期与短期%Long-term and Short-term of Macroeconomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范小仲

    2013-01-01

    The long-term and short-term factors in macroeconomics are intertwined and interacting. Modern macroeconomics theory is mainly based on the wage and price adjustment speed to define long-term and short-term, study macroeconomics variable decisions in long-term and short-term, using different model analyze long-term and short-term problem, study the ef-fects of macroeconomics policy on long-term and short-term perspective, and attempts through a combination of long and short approach to compatible main macroeconomics theoretical divergences.%宏观经济中的长期和短期因素交织在一起并且相互作用。现代宏观经济学主要依据工资和价格调整速度来界定长期和短期,研究宏观经济变量的长期和短期决定,运用不同模型分析长期问题和短期问题,从长期和短期视角考察宏观经济政策效应,并试图通过长期和短期相结合的方法兼容宏观经济学主要流派的理论分歧。

  19. Evaluating short-term and working memory in older adults: French normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournet, Nathalie; Roulin, Jean-Luc; Vallet, Fanny; Beaudoin, Marine; Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Paignon, Adeline; Dantzer, Cécile; Desrichard, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Short-term and working memory (WM) capacities are subject to change with ageing, both in normal older adults and in patients with degenerative or non-degenerative neurological disease. Few normative data are available for comparisons of short-term and WM capacities in the verbal, spatial and visual domains. To provide researchers and clinicians with a set of standardised tasks that assess short-term and WM using verbal and visuospatial materials, and to present normative data for that set of tasks. The present study compiled normative French data for three short-term memory tasks (verbal, visual and spatial simple span tasks) and two WM tasks (verbal and spatial complex span tasks) obtained from 445 healthy older adults aged between 55 and 85 years. Our data reveal main effects of age, education level and gender on older adults' short-term and WM performances. Equation-based normalisation can therefore be used to take these factors into account. The results provide a set of cut-off scores for five standardised tasks that can be used to determine the presence of short-term or WM impairment in older adults. PMID:22533476

  20. A novel TRNSYS type for short-term borehole heat exchanger simulation: B2G model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel dynamic borehole heat exchanger model is presented. • Theoretical approach for model parameters calculation is described. • The short-term model is validated against experimental data of a real GSHP. • Strong dynamic conditions due to the ON–OFF regulation are investigated. - Abstract: Models of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are used as an aid for the correct design and optimization of the system. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop models which correctly reproduce the dynamic thermal behavior of each component in a short-term basis. Since the borehole heat exchanger (BHE) is one of the main components, special attention should be paid to ensuring a good accuracy on the prediction of the short-term response of the boreholes. The BHE models found in literature which are suitable for short-term simulations usually present high computational costs. In this work, a novel TRNSYS type implementing a borehole-to-ground (B2G) model, developed for modeling the short-term dynamic performance of a BHE with low computational cost, is presented. The model has been validated against experimental data from a GSHP system located at Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain. Validation results show the ability of the model to reproduce the short-term behavior of the borehole, both for a step-test and under normal operating conditions

  1. Effect of Short Term Pranayama and Meditation on Respiratory Parameters in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankad Roopa B.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pranayama is a technique of controlling and modulating breath and meditation, a process through which one attains a state of deep rest yet active state of mind. Recent studies on long-term yogic practices have shown improvements in respiratory functions.Aim: The present study was done to evaluate the effects of pranayama and meditation on respiratory parameters.Settings and Design: The present study was a comparative prospective study consisting of 50 (24 male and 26 female healthy subjects of 20-60 years age.Methods and Material: Participants fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria underwent two hours daily yoga program for 15 days taught by yoga teacher. Pre and post yoga respiratory functions were assessed by measuring chest expansion, breath holding time and peak expiratory flow rate. The parameters were analyzed by Student t test.Results: There was significant increase in chest expansion, breath holding time and peak expiratory flow rate compared to pre yoga practice. The response was similar in both genders, both age groups 40yrs and both groups of BMI 25 kg/m2.Conclusions: This study showed beneficial effects of short term (15 days regular pranayama and meditation practice on respiratory functions irrespective of age, gender and BMI in normal healthy individuals.

  2. The short term effects of Low-dose-rate Radiation on EL4 Lymphoma Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bong, Jin Jong; Kang, Yu Mi; Shin, Suk Chull; Choi, Moo Hyun; Choi, Seung Jin; Kim, Hee Sun [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Mi [Global Research Lab, BAERI Institute, Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    To determine the biological effects of low-dose-rate radiation ({sup 137}Cs, 2.95 mGy/h) on EL4 lymphoma cells during 24 h, we investigated the expression of genes related to apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, iron transport, and ribonucleotide reductase. EL4 cells were continuously exposed to low-dose-rate radiation (total dose: 70.8 mGy) for 24 h. We analyzed cell proliferation and apoptosis by trypan blue exclusion and flow cytometry, gene expression by real-time PCR, and protein levels with the apoptosis ELISA kit. Apoptosis increased in the Low-dose-rate irradiated cells, but cell number did not differ between non- (Non-IR) and Low-dose-rate irradiated (LDR-IR) cells. In concordance with apoptotic rate, the transcriptional activity of ATM, p53, p21, and Parp was upregulated in the LDR-IR cells. Similarly, Phospho-p53 (Ser15), cleaved caspase 3 (Asp175), and cleaved Parp (Asp214) expression was upregulated in the LDR-IR cells. No difference was observed in the mRNA expression of DNA repair-related genes (Msh2, Msh3, Wrn, Lig4, Neil3, ERCC8, and ERCC6) between Non-IR and LDR-IR cells. Interestingly, the mRNA of Trfc was upregulated in the LDR-IR cells. Therefore, we suggest that short-term Low-dose-rate radiation activates apoptosis in EL4 lymphoma cells.

  3. Hybrid computational strategy for structural damage detection with short-term monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, P. H.; Law, S. S.

    2016-03-01

    The scenario of damage detection of a structure without permanent structural health monitoring system is explored. Dynamic responses are collected from different measurement setups and excitations in different regions of a structure. All the measured data are analyzed together in the proposed strategy with consideration of the different excitations. Local damages in terms of physical structural parameters are evaluated from the direct analysis using the Pattern Search method with a hybrid parallel computing strategy using CPU and GPU instead of the usual inverse analysis. The objective function is the difference between the measured and calculated responses from an updated finite element model of the structure. The proposed approach is illustrated with a plane frame structure with different tests and measurements in three regions. The effect of the size of the Generating Matrix of the Pattern Search method is also investigated and discussed. There is noted and improved computation efficiency when a large Generating Matrix with 2000 columns is used. The simulations illustrate the feasibility of using a few sensors for the damage detection of a large-scale structure with short-term monitoring data.

  4. Short-term effects of a randomized controlled worksite relaxation intervention in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos C Alexopoulos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available objective. To evaluate the short-term benefits of simple relaxation techniques in white-collar employees. materials and methods. The study was a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial. 152 employees were randomly assigned to receive the 8-week programme (N=80 (relaxation breathing and progressive muscle relaxation, twice a day or not (wait-list group N=72. Self-reported validated measures were used to evaluate perceived stress, health locus of control, job and lifestyle related variables. Saliva cortisol were also sampled and measured. Adjusted mean changes on outcomes were estimated by linear mixed model analysis. 127 employees were finally analyzed (68 in the intervention and 59 in the control group. results. Specific stress-related symptoms, psychological job demands and cortisol levels were found to be significantly decreased after 8-weeks in the intervention group. The result was probably affected by the general socio-economic condition during the study period. Cortisol levels were also significantly related with age, family situation, gender and sampling time. conclusions. Simple relaxation training (diaphragmatic breathing and progressive muscle relaxation could benefit employees and it is strongly proposed that these and other similar techniques should be tested in various labour settings

  5. Optimal short-term operation schedule of a hydropower plant in a competitive electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a dynamic programming model to solve the short-term scheduling problem of a hydropower plant that sells energy in a pool-based electricity market with the objective of maximizing the revenue. This is a nonlinear and non-concave problem subject to strong technical and strategic constraints, and in which discrete and continuous variables take part. The model described in this paper determines, in each hour of the planning horizon (typically from one day to one week), both the optimal number of units in operation (unit commitment) and the power to be generated by the committed units (generation dispatch). The power generated by each unit is considered as a nonlinear function of the actual water discharge and volume of the associated reservoir. The dependence of the units' efficiency and operating limits with the available gross head is also accounted for in this model. The application of this model to a real hydropower plant demonstrates its capabilities in providing the operation schedule that maximizes the revenue of the hydro plant while satisfying several constraints of different classes. In addition, the use of this model as a supporting tool to estimate the economic feasibility of a hydropower plant development project is also analyzed in the paper.

  6. Long-stay inpatients in short-term emergency units in France: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansel, Yannis; Danet, François; Rauscher, Catherine

    2010-02-01

    Lacking any conventional definition, the phenomenon of so-called "bed-blockers" concerns the issue of long-stay inpatients in short-term units. Our paper explores this question in the context of French Emergency Rooms (ERs) and focuses not on "bed-blocking" as a patient phenomenon but rather on the social constructs developed around these patients by ER professionals. In this paper, we present a case study on one of these "bed-blockers" and venture some hypotheses regarding this phenomenon. On the one hand, it appears as a dysfunction in the healthcare system. Indeed, French ERs take on patients that specialized medical units are reluctant to admit, either because they do not fit into any one specific scientific or clinical category, or because they are not "profitable" when analyzed using care-management tools. On the other hand, bed-blockers play an important role in building a positive identity for the French emergency doctors and personnel performing the "dirty work" of treating them. PMID:19926188

  7. The short term effects of Low-dose-rate Radiation on EL4 Lymphoma Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the biological effects of low-dose-rate radiation (137Cs, 2.95 mGy/h) on EL4 lymphoma cells during 24 h, we investigated the expression of genes related to apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, iron transport, and ribonucleotide reductase. EL4 cells were continuously exposed to low-dose-rate radiation (total dose: 70.8 mGy) for 24 h. We analyzed cell proliferation and apoptosis by trypan blue exclusion and flow cytometry, gene expression by real-time PCR, and protein levels with the apoptosis ELISA kit. Apoptosis increased in the Low-dose-rate irradiated cells, but cell number did not differ between non- (Non-IR) and Low-dose-rate irradiated (LDR-IR) cells. In concordance with apoptotic rate, the transcriptional activity of ATM, p53, p21, and Parp was upregulated in the LDR-IR cells. Similarly, Phospho-p53 (Ser15), cleaved caspase 3 (Asp175), and cleaved Parp (Asp214) expression was upregulated in the LDR-IR cells. No difference was observed in the mRNA expression of DNA repair-related genes (Msh2, Msh3, Wrn, Lig4, Neil3, ERCC8, and ERCC6) between Non-IR and LDR-IR cells. Interestingly, the mRNA of Trfc was upregulated in the LDR-IR cells. Therefore, we suggest that short-term Low-dose-rate radiation activates apoptosis in EL4 lymphoma cells.

  8. Effects of Short-Term Training of Community-Dwelling Elderly with Modular Interactive Tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Jessen, Jari Due

    2014-10-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to test for the increased mobility, agility, balancing, and general fitness of community-dwelling elderly individuals as a result of short-term training involving playing with modular interactive tiles (Entertainment Robotics, Odense, Denmark) at two community activity centers for the elderly. Three different tests from the Senior Fitness Test were used in order to test a variety of health parameters of the community-dwelling elderly, including those parameters related to fall prevention. Materials and Methods: Eighteen community-dwelling elderly individuals (63-95 years of age; mean, 83.2 years of age) were assessed in one intervention group without the use of a control group. The intervention group performed nine group sessions (1-1.5 hours each) of playful training with the modular interactive tiles over a 12-week period in two community activity centers for the elderly. Data were collected using pre-tests and post-tests of the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), the 8-foot Timed Up & Go Test (TUG), and the Chair-Stand Test (CS). Data were analyzed for statistically significant differences and increases of means. Results: The 6MWT, TUG, and CS measurements showed statistically significant differences and increases of means between the pre-tests and post-tests with the 6MWT (Pexergames with the modular interactive tiles. PMID:25276497

  9. A simulation approach for analysis of short-term security of natural gas supply in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achieving security of gas supply implies diversifying gas sources, while having enough supply, transportation, and storage capacity to meet demand peaks and supply interruptions. Devising a strategy for securing gas supply is not straightforward because gas supply depends on complex interactions of production, demand and infrastructure, and it is exposed to economic, regulatory, political, environmental and technical risks. To address this complexity, we propose a simulation approach that replicates the structure of the gas supply chain, including transportation constraints and demand fluctuations. We build and calibrate a computer model for the Colombian gas sector, and run the model to assess the impact of expanding transportation capacity and increasing market flexibility on the security of supply. Our analysis focuses on the operation and planned and proposed expansions of the transportation infrastructure because adequate regulation and development of this infrastructure can contribute to increase the security of supply in the gas sector. We find that proposed import facilities, specifically LNG import terminals at Buenaventura, increase system's security under the current market structure. - Highlights: ► We build a simulation model for analyzing natural gas trade in Colombia. ► The model captures the structure of the gas network and on market rules. ► We simulate investment decisions to increase short-term security of supply. ► Securing supply would need LNG imports and expansion of pipeline capacity.

  10. Weather factors in the short-term forecasting of daily ambulance calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ho-Ting; Lai, Poh-Chin

    2014-07-01

    The daily ambulance demand for Hong Kong is rising, and it has been shown that weather factors (temperature and humidity) play a role in the demand for ambulance services. This study aimed at developing short-term forecasting models of daily ambulance calls using the 7-day weather forecast data as predictors. We employed the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) method to analyze over 1.3 million cases of emergency attendance in May 2006 through April 2009 and the 7-day weather forecast data for the same period. Our results showed that the ARIMA model could offer reasonably accurate forecasts of daily ambulance calls at 1-7 days ahead of time and with improved accuracy by including weather factors. Specifically, the inclusion of average temperature alone in our ARIMA model improved the predictability of the 1-day forecast when compared to that of a simple ARIMA model (8.8 % decrease in the root mean square error, RMSE = 53 vs 58). The improvement in the 7-day forecast with average temperature as a predictor was more pronounced, with a 10 % drop in prediction error (RMSE = 62 vs 69). These findings suggested that weather forecast data can improve the 1- to 7-day forecasts of daily ambulance demand. As weather forecast data are readily accessible from Hong Kong Observatory's official website, there is virtually no cost to including them in the ARIMA models, which yield better prediction for forward planning and deployment of ambulance manpower.

  11. Probalistisk short-term risk modeling for back-end fuel cycle and waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study of probabilistic short-term risk modeling of back-end fuel cycle and waste management facilities represents the continuation of work started in 1977. The purpose of the report is to present a more detailed survey of models and analysis techniques that mey be applicable. The definition of the risk concept and the nature of the facilities and events which are to be analyzed are described. The most important criteria are that the model or method shall be quantitative, logically/scientifically based, and be able to handle systems of some complexity. Several formalized analysis methods are described, most of them emanating from reliability theory. No single model will fulfill all criteria simultaneously, to the degree desired. Nevertheless, fault tree analysis seems to be an efficient tool in many applications, although it must probably be used together with other models in most cases. Other methodologies described can also be useful, such as failure modes and effects analysis, renewal theory and Markov chains, reliability block diagrams, event trees and cause/consequence diagrams, the GO methodology, Monte Carlo simulation, and, often necessary, various consequence modeling techniques. (author)

  12. Short-term and long-term clinostat and vibration-induced biochemical changes in dwarf Marigold stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.

    Stems of 21-day dwarf Marigold plants cultivated on the clinostat were compared with plants cultivated on vertical axis rotators (``vibrational controls'') and stationary controls for long-term changes in cell wall composition. Stems of 21-day plants grown under stationary conditions and subsequently exposed to the clinostat for 24 hours were also analyzed. Among the long-term markers, calcium, lignin, and protein-bound hemicellulose (possibly cell wall glycoprotein) clearly differentiated the effects of vibration from those of the clinostat. Short-term differential responses included rate of ethylene production, nastic movement and peroxidase activity of the cell wall, but not of the protoplast.

  13. Method for analyzing electromagnetic-force-induced vibration and noise analysis; Denjiryoku reiki ni yoru dendoki no shindo hoshaon kaisekiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiohata, K.; Nemoto, K.; Nagawa, Y.; Sakamoto, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Ito, M.; Koharagi, H. [Hitachi, Ltd, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    In this analysis method, electromagnetic force calculated by 2-dimensional analysis is transformed into external force for 3-dimensional structural-vibration analysis. And a modeling procedure for a vibrating structure is developed. Further, a space-modal-resonance criteria which relates electromagnetic force to structural-vibration or noise is introduced. In the structural-vibration analysis, the finite element method is used; and in the noise analysis, the boundary element method is used. Finally, vibration and noise of an induction motor are calculated using this criteria. Consequently, high-accuracy modeling is achieved and noise the calculated by the simulation almost coincides with that obtained by experiments. And it is clarified that the-space-modal resonance criteria is effective in numerical simulation. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Short-term Mobility and Increased Partnership Concurrency among Men in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Cassels

    Full Text Available Migration has long been understood as an underlying factor for HIV transmission, and sexual partner concurrency has been increasingly studied as an important component of HIV transmission dynamics. However, less work has examined the role of short-term mobility in sexual partner concurrency using a network approach. Short-term mobility may be a risk for HIV for the migrant's partner as well either through the partner's risk behaviors while the migrant is away, such as the partner having additional partners, or via exposure to the return migrant.Using data from the 2010-11 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey, weighted generalized linear regression models were used to investigate the associations between short-term mobility and partnership concurrency at the individual and partnership levels.At the individual level, we find strong evidence of an association between short-term mobility and concurrency. Men who traveled were more likely to have concurrent partnerships compared to men who did not travel and the relationship was non-linear: each trip was associated with a 2% higher probability of concurrency, with a diminishing risk at 60 trips (p<0.001. At the partnership level, short-term mobility by the male only or both partners was associated with male concurrency. Couples in which the female only traveled exhibited less male concurrency.Short-term mobility has the ability to impact population-level transmission dynamics by facilitating partnership concurrency and thus onward HIV transmission. Short-term migrants may be an important population to target for HIV testing, treatment, or social and behavioral interventions to prevent the spread of HIV.

  15. Deciphering the record of short-term base-level changes in Gilbert-type deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobo, Katarina; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Nemec, Wojciech

    2016-04-01

    -front accommodation driven by short-term base-level changes, with some accompanying inevitable 'noise' in the facies record due to the system autogenic variability and regional climatic fluctuations. Comparison of delta coeval foreset and toeset/bottomset deposits in a delta shows further a reverse pattern of reciprocal changes in facies assemblages, with the TFA assemblage of foreset deposits passing downdip into a DFA assemblage of delta-foot deposits, and the DFA assemblage of foreset deposits passing downdip into a TFA assemblage. This reverse reciprocal alternation of TFA and DFA facies assemblages is attributed to the delta-slope own morphodynamics. When the delta slope is dominated by deposition of debrisflows, only the most diluted turbulent flows and chute bypassing turbidity currents are reaching the delta-foot zone. When the delta slope is dominated by turbiditic sedimentation, larger chutes and gullies form - triggering and conveying debrisflows to the foot zone. These case studies as a whole shed a new light on the varying pattern of subaqueous sediment dispersal processes in an evolving Gilbert-type deltaic system and point to an the attractive possibility of the recognition of a 'hidden' record of base-level changes on the basis of detailed facies analysis.

  16. Short-term Resistance and Plyometric Training Improves Eccentric Phase Kinetics in Jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijowksi, Kevin N; Capps, Christopher R; Goodman, Courtney L; Erickson, Travis M; Knorr, Daniel P; Triplett, N Travis; Awelewa, Olumide O; McBride, Jeffrey M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of an abbreviated resistance and plyometric training program on force- and power-time curve variables during jumping. Nineteen male subjects were assigned to either a training (n = 9) or control group (n = 10). Training consisted of performing 3 sets of 3 repetition squats (90% of 1 repetition maximum [RM]) and 5 sets of 6 repetition drop jumps from 40 cm twice per week for 4 weeks. A 1RM in the squat and countermovement (CMJ) and static jump (SJ) performance was assessed before and after training. Several variables were analyzed for individual subject force- and power-time curves for the jumps. Average force- and power-time curves for all subjects combined were also analyzed. Absolute and relative squat strength significantly increased in training group (p ≤ 0.05). Calculation of variables from individual subject force-time curves during the CMJ indicated a significant decrease in eccentric time, minimum force, and eccentric impulse and significant increase in eccentric rate of force development in training group. Analysis of individual power-time curves in the CMJ also revealed a significant decrease in minimum power and eccentric work and a significant increase in eccentric rate of power development. No significant changes occurred in the variables measured for the SJ. The results of this study indicate that short-term strength and plyometric training may preferentially influence eccentric performance variables during jumping in comparison with longer term training enhancements to the concentric phase performance. PMID:26203736

  17. Perceptions of short-term medical volunteer work: a qualitative study in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scandlyn Jean

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each year medical providers from wealthy countries participate in short-term medical volunteer work in resource-poor countries. Various authors have raised concern that such work has the potential to be harmful to recipient communities; however, the social science and medical literature contains little research into the perceptions of short-term medical volunteer work from the perspective of members of recipient communities. This exploratory study examines the perception of short-term medical volunteer work in Guatemala among groups of actors affected by or participating in these programs. Methods The researchers conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 72 individuals, including Guatemalan healthcare providers and health authorities, foreign medical providers, non-medical personnel working on health projects, and Guatemalan parents of children treated by a short-term volunteer group. Detailed notes and summaries of these interviews were uploaded, coded and annotated using Atlas.ti (Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin to identify recurrent themes from the interviews. Results Informants commonly identified a need for increased access to medical services in Guatemala, and many believed that short-term medical volunteers are in a position to offer improved access to medical care in the communities where they serve. Informants most frequently cited appropriate patient selection and attention to payment systems as the best means to avoid creating dependence on foreign aid. The most frequent suggestion to improve short-term medical volunteer work was coordination with and respect for local Guatemalan healthcare providers and their communities, as insufficient understanding of the country's existing healthcare resources and needs may result in perceived harm to the recipient community. Conclusion The perceived impact of short-term medical volunteer projects in Guatemala is highly variable and dependent upon the

  18. Short-term regulation of hydro powerplants. Studies on the environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisalmi, T. [ed.; Forsius, J.; Muotka, J.; Soimakallio, H. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Riihimaeki, J. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Vehanen, T. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Inst. (Finland); Yrjaenae, T. [North Ostrobothnia Regional Environmental Centre, Oulu (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The publication is a final report on a project studying effects of short-term regulation of hydro power plants. The project consists of two parts: (1) examining and developing methods for evaluation, (2) applying methods in a case study at the Oulujoki River. The economic value of short-term regulation was studied with a model consisting of an optimization model and a river simulation model. Constraints on water level or discharge variations could be given to the power plants and their economical influence could be studied. Effects on shoreline recreation use due to water level fluctuation were studied with a model where various effects are made commensurable and expressed in monetary terms. A literature survey and field experiments were used to study the methods for assessing effects of short-term regulation on river habitats. The state and development needs of fish stocks and fisheries in large regulated rivers were studied and an environmental classification was made. Remedial measures for the short-term regulated rivers were studied with a literature survey and enquiries. A comprehensive picture of the various effects of short-term regulation was gained in the case study in Oulujoki River (110 km long, 7 power plants). Harmful effects can be reduced with the given recommendations of remedial measures on environment and the usage of the hydro power plants. (orig.) 52 refs.

  19. Differential effects of ecstasy on short-term and working memory: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulsen, Claire E; Fox, Allison M; Hammond, Geoffrey R

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative analysis of studies examining the effect of ecstasy on short-term and working memory in the verbal and visuo-spatial domain was undertaken. Thirty verbal short-term memory, 22 verbal working memory, 12 visuospatial short-term memory and 9 visuospatial working memory studies met inclusion criteria. Ecstasy users performed significantly worse in all memory domains, both in studies using drug-naïve controls and studies using polydrug controls. These results are consistent with previous meta-analytic findings that ecstasy use is associated with impaired short-term memory function. Lifetime ecstasy consumption predicted effect size in working memory but not in short-term memory. The current meta-analysis adds to the literature by showing that ecstasy use in humans is also associated with impaired working memory, and that this impairment is related to total lifetime ecstasy consumption. These findings highlight the long-term, cumulative behavioral consequences associated with ecstasy use in humans. PMID:20157852

  20. Operationalizing the assessment and management of violence risk in the short-term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Michael; Logan, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Assessing risk of violence in the short term is crucial for managing and preventing violence, especially in institutions such as psychiatric units and prisons. Despite a lack of consensus on the definition of "short term", a number of recent tools and guidelines have been developed to aid short-term clinical decision-making. Whereas the supporting evidence for the new tools is impressive, limitations remain in terms of the focus on prediction, limited consideration of strengths, and poor integration with formulation and risk management. The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) is a brief clinical guide for the dynamic assessment of risks, strengths and treatability. It focuses on short-term risks and the characteristics of the individual that, if changed, might lead to an increase or decrease in risk. The START has the potential to operationalize the structured professional judgment (SPJ) approach in order to inform the evaluation of multiple risk domains relevant to everyday psychiatric clinical practice. However, explicit guidance on integrating risk assessment, formulation and management is limited in the START and this paper describes the SPJ approach, reviews recent developments in approaches to risk, and considers how the START can be used to inform SPJ approaches and link risk assessment, formulation, and management. PMID:22753147

  1. Response of stream invertebrates to short-term salinization: A mesocosm approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinization is a major and growing threat to freshwater ecosystems, yet its effects on aquatic invertebrates have been poorly described at a community-level. Here we use a controlled experimental setting to evaluate short-term stream community responses to salinization, under conditions designed to replicate the duration (72 h) and intensity (up to 5 mS cm−1) of salinity pulses common to Mediterranean rivers subjected to mining pollution during runoff events. There was a significant overall effect, but differences between individual treatments and the control were only significant for the highest salinity treatment. The community response to salinization was characterized by a decline in total invertebrate density, taxon richness and diversity, an increase in invertebrate drift and loss of the most sensitive taxa. The findings indicate that short-term salinity increases have a significant impact on the stream invertebrate community, but concentrations of 5 mS cm−1 are needed to produce a significant ecological response. - Highlights: ► Short-term salinization has a significant impact on the aquatic invertebrates. ► A significant short-term ecological response is registered at 5 mS cm−1. ► Salinization causes a decline in invertebrate density, richness and diversity. ► Biotic quality indices decline with increasing salinity and exposure time. - Short-term salinization in a stream mesocosm caused a significant response in the aquatic invertebrate community and led to declines in biological quality indices.

  2. Short-term memory in the service of executive control functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Alizadeh Mansouri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory is a crucial cognitive function for supporting on-going and upcoming behaviours, allowing storage of information across delay periods. The content of this memory may typically include tangible information about features such as the shape, colour or texture of an object, its location and motion relative to the body, or phonological information. The neural correlate of these short-term memories has been found in different brain areas involved in organizing perceptual or motor functions. In particular, neuronal activity in different prefrontal areas encodes task-related information corresponding to short-term memory across delay periods, and lesions in the prefrontal cortex severely affect the ability to hold this type of memory. Recent studies have further expanded the scope and possible role of short-term memory by showing that information of abstract entities such as a behaviour-guiding rule, or the occurrence of a conflict in information processing; can also be maintained in short-term memory and used for adjusting the allocation of executive control in dynamic environments. It has also been shown that neuronal activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices encodes information about such abstract entities. These findings suggest that the prefrontal cortex plays crucial roles in organizing goal-directed behaviour by supporting various mnemonic processes that maintain a wide range of information in the service of executive control of on-going or upcoming behaviour.

  3. Short-term regulation of hydro powerplants. Studies on the environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication is a final report on a project studying effects of short-term regulation of hydro power plants. The project consists of two parts: (1) examining and developing methods for evaluation, (2) applying methods in a case study at the Oulujoki River. The economic value of short-term regulation was studied with a model consisting of an optimization model and a river simulation model. Constraints on water level or discharge variations could be given to the power plants and their economical influence could be studied. Effects on shoreline recreation use due to water level fluctuation were studied with a model where various effects are made commensurable and expressed in monetary terms. A literature survey and field experiments were used to study the methods for assessing effects of short-term regulation on river habitats. The state and development needs of fish stocks and fisheries in large regulated rivers were studied and an environmental classification was made. Remedial measures for the short-term regulated rivers were studied with a literature survey and enquiries. A comprehensive picture of the various effects of short-term regulation was gained in the case study in Oulujoki River (110 km long, 7 power plants). Harmful effects can be reduced with the given recommendations of remedial measures on environment and the usage of the hydro power plants. (orig.) 52 refs

  4. A CPT-based Cs vapor cell atomic clock with a short-term fractional frequency stability of 3 x 10-13 τ-1/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Hafiz, Moustafa; Liu, Xiaochi; Guérandel, Stéphane; De Clercq, Emeric; Boudot, Rodolphe

    2016-06-01

    This article reports on the development and short-term fractional frequency stability of a continuous-regime (CW) Cs vapor cell atomic clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT). The push-pull optical pumping technique is used to increase the number of atoms that participate to the clock transition, yielding a typical CPT resonance contrast of 25% for a CPT linewidth of about 450 Hz. The clock short-term fractional frequency stability is measured to be 3 x 10-13 τ-1/2 up to 100 seconds averaging time, in correct agreement with the signal-to-noise ratio limit. The mid-term frequency stability results are currently mainly limited by laser power effects. The detection of high-contrast narrow Raman-Ramsey fringes is demonstrated with this setup by making the atoms interact with a light pulse sequence.

  5. Effect of repetitive end-inspiration breath holding on very short-term heart rate variability in healthy humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very short-term heart rate variability (HRV) is thought to reflect dynamic changes in autonomic nervous activity, which is helpful in understanding the role of autonomic nervous function (ANF) in the mechanisms underlying apnea-induced cardiac arrhythmias. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of repetitive end-inspiration breath holding on very short-term HRV. A total of 32 young healthy participants took part in the experiments. Three trials were performed, each involving seven repetitive end-inspiration breath holding and a 30 s recovery period between breath holding. Durations of breath holding in the three trials were 1:2:3. The study first evaluated the effect of analyzed data lengths on the stability of HRV indices and determined three HRV indices suitable for very short-term analysis. The results showed that in most cases, during breath holding, the square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal RR intervals (rMSSD) was significantly lower, but normalized units of the power in the low frequency band ranging from 0.04 to 0.15 Hz (nLF) and LF/high frequency (HF) were significantly higher than those during corresponding durations under the normal breathing conditions. On the contrary, during recovery after breath holding, rMSSD was significantly higher but nLF and LF/HF were lower than normal. Moreover, the durations of breath holding had no significant influence on the variations of LF/HF. In addition, as participants repeated the breath holding, HRV indices varied non-linearly. HRV changes may indicate sympathetic activation during breath holding and parasympathetic activation during recovery after breath holding. In conjunction with the existing physiological interpretation based on changes in heart rate, the results may imply that breath holding leads to both cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic activation simultaneously, which may be a possible pathogenic factor of apnea-induced arrhythmias. (paper)

  6. Improved hepatic lipid composition following short-term exercise in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas; Kelly, Karen R;

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, inflammation, low levels of polyunsaturated lipids, and adiponectin are implicated in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Objective: We examined the effects of short-term aerobic exercise on these metabolic risk factors...... to assess reactive oxygen species production during the OGTT. Circulating glucose, insulin, and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were determined from plasma. Main Outcome: Short-term aerobic exercise training improved hepatic lipid composition in patients with NAFLD. Results: Exercise training...... after the exercise program and the increase was positively correlated with the increase in liver PUI (r = 0.52, P = .05). Body weight remained stable during the program (P > .05). Conclusion: Short-term exercise can target hepatic lipid composition, which may reduce the risk of NAFLD progression...

  7. Jump Diffusion Modelling for the Brazilian Short-Term Interest Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Nogueira Cavalcante Filho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to capture the informational effect of the Brazilian short-term interest rate (SELIC rate by Poisson jumps, we build on the tests condu cted by Das (2002 and Johannes (2004, which show the significance of such structures for U.S. Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC announcements. As in the above researches, w e have found evidence that a relevant amount of the short-term volatility in the fixed in come market is captured by introducing jumps on the stochastic process of the short-term r ate. This structure also allows the verification of the information content of specific events, such as Brazilian monetary policy authority (COPOM meetings and public bond auctions.

  8. Improvements over time in short-term mortality following myocardial infarction in the D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatleberg, Camilla Ingrid; Nielsen, Lene Ryom; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Smith, Colette; Weber, Rainer; Reiss, Peter; Fontas, Eric; Dabis, Francois; Law, Matthew; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; De Wit, Stephane; Mocroft, Amanda; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens D; Sabin, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Few studies have described mortality and clinical outcomes after myocardial infarction (MI) in the HIV-positive population. This study evaluated changes in short-term mortality after MI in HIV-positive individuals in the D:A:D Study, and investigated possible reasons for any changes seen.......4% in 2011-2014. Later calendar year was associated with decreased short-term mortality; this effect was attenuated after adjusting for CVD-related interventions received in the first month after MI (odds ratio changed from 0.88 [95% confidence interval 0.83, 0.93] to 0.97 [0.91, 1.02]). CONCLUSIONS......: Improvements in short-term survival after MI appear to be largely driven by improved medical management of CVD risk in HIV-positive individuals after MI. Efforts are still needed to treat CVD risk factors and increase access to CVD-related interventions....

  9. Improving the uncertainty on short-term radon measurements using PADC detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon measurements over a short-term period of a few days have proven a popular choice with the general public, despite the issue that the radon concentration can vary significantly over time and longer periods of integration are recommended. Performing short-term radon measurements using a Poly Allyl Diglycol Carbonate (PADC) detector would see a larger contribution from the statistical error associated with the measurements than for longer term measurements. This motivated the investigation to improve the uncertainty on short-term measurements by utilising a new formulation of high-sensitivity PADC and also by investigating the effect of increasing the scan area and extending the measurement time by just a few days. (authors)

  10. Obese patients have similar short-term outcomes to nonobese in laparoscopic colorectal surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manish; Chand; Henry; D; De’Ath; Muhammed; Siddiqui; Chetanya; Mehta; Shahnawaz; Rasheed; James; Bromilow; Tahseen; Qureshi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether obese patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery within an enhanced recovery program had worse short-term outcomes.METHODS: A prospective study of consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal resection was carried out between 2008 and 2011 in a single institution. Patients were divided in groups based on body mass index(BMI). Short-term outcomes including operative data, length of stay, complications and readmission rates were recorded and compared between the groups. Continuous data were analysed using t-test or oneway Analysis of Variance. χ2 test was used to compare categorical data.RESULTS: Two hundred and fifty four patients were included over the study period. The majority of individuals(41.7%) recruited were of a healthy weight(BMI 25) does not lead to worse short-term outcomes in laparoscopic colorectal surgery and therefore such patients should not be precluded from laparoscopic surgery.

  11. Modeling and Optimization for Short-term Scheduling of Multipurpose Batch Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国辉; 鄢烈祥; 史彬

    2014-01-01

    In the past two decades, short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants has received significant at-tention. Most scheduling problems are modeled using either state-task-network or resource-task-network (RTN) process representation. In this paper, an improved mixed integer linear programming model for short-term schedul-ing of multipurpose batch plants under maximization of profit is proposed based on RTN representation and unit-specific events. To solve the model, a hybrid algorithm based on line-up competition algorithm and linear pro-gramming is presented. The proposed model and hybrid algorithm are applied to two benchmark examples in lit-erature. The simulation results show that the proposed model and hybrid algorithm are effective for short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants.

  12. Theta coupling between V4 and prefrontal cortex predicts visual short-term memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Stefanie; Hoerzer, Gregor M; Logothetis, Nikos K; Rainer, Gregor

    2012-03-01

    Short-term memory requires communication between multiple brain regions that collectively mediate the encoding and maintenance of sensory information. It has been suggested that oscillatory synchronization underlies intercortical communication. Yet, whether and how distant cortical areas cooperate during visual memory remains elusive. We examined neural interactions between visual area V4 and the lateral prefrontal cortex using simultaneous local field potential (LFP) recordings and single-unit activity (SUA) in monkeys performing a visual short-term memory task. During the memory period, we observed enhanced between-area phase synchronization in theta frequencies (3-9 Hz) of LFPs together with elevated phase locking of SUA to theta oscillations across regions. In addition, we found that the strength of intercortical locking was predictive of the animals' behavioral performance. This suggests that theta-band synchronization coordinates action potential communication between V4 and prefrontal cortex that may contribute to the maintenance of visual short-term memories. PMID:22286175

  13. Short term scheduling in a wind/diesel autonomous energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In small autonomous energy systems the wind power penetration may reduce drastically the cost of the produced energy. The solution of the short term scheduling problem faces great difficulties because of the randomness of wind speed and the resulting randomness of the wind generators production. This paper describes an algorithm developed at the National Technical University of Athens for determining the optimal operation scheduling over a period of T hours for an autonomous energy system consisting of diesel units and wind generators (WECs). The proposed method requires the solution of the following two problems: The short term forecasting of load and wind velocity; The short term unit commitment. In this paper results from the application of the proposed method to the system of a medium size Greek island are reported

  14. The Role of Bond Covenants and Short-Term Debt: Evidence from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Augusto Brunassi Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of financial covenants as substitutes for short-term debt and a possible trade off between short-term debt and long-term debt, especially for companies with growth opportunities. Using a sample of 159 corporate bonds issued on the Brazilian Market, we found evidence that: first, financial covenants and short-term debt are substitute tools to minimize agency conflict, as per literature confirming that stronger financial covenants could limit the possible expropriation of debt holders and in exchange debt holders may be willing to lend at longer terms and; second, companies with growth opportunities are willing to exchange shortterm debt for long-term debt under the presence of covenants. Most importantly, this does not seem to be a restriction for financing growth opportunities.

  15. Dissociating Contents of Consciousness from Contents of Short-Term Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Staugaard, Camilla Funch;

    2014-01-01

    The contents of consciousness and of short-term memory are hard to disentangle. As it seems intuitive that we represent attended objects in short-term memory and in experience, to many, it also seems intuitive to equate this content. Here we investigated memory resolution for orientation......” to a “clear experience” of a probed target. To assess memory resolution we used a Landolt-variation on the visual short-term memory (VSTM) resolution paradigm (e.g. Wilken & Ma, 2004). Set-sizes in the memory display were varied between 1, 2, or 4 elements. With increasing set-size we found that both...... the guessing parameter and the standard deviation increased, replicating patterns seen in more traditional paradigms using colors (see for example Bays, Catalao, & Husain, 2009). Moreover, we also find a decrease in guessing and standard deviation across PAS scores, showing that the resolution of content...

  16. Advanced performance and scalability of Si nanowire field-effect transistors analyzed using noise spectroscopy and gamma radiation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Vitusevich, S. A., E-mail: s.vitusevich@fz-juelich.de; Pud, S.; Offenhäusser, A. [Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Petrychuk, M. V. [Radiophysics Faculty, Shevchenko National University, Kiev (Ukraine); Danilchenko, B. A. [Institute of Physics, NASU, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2013-11-28

    High-quality Si nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated using thermal nanoimprint and chemical wet etching technologies. FET structures of different lengths demonstrate high carrier mobility with values of about 750 cm{sup 2}/Vs and low volume densities of active traps in the dielectric layers of 5 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} eV{sup −1}. We investigated the transport properties of these n-type channel structures using low-frequency noise spectroscopy before and after gamma radiation treatment. Before gamma irradiation, FET structures with lengths of less than 4 μm exhibited noise from contact regions with 1/(L{sup 2}) dependence for the relative 1/f noise. After gamma radiation, the spectra reflected the priority of channel noise with 1/L dependence for all samples. The transport characteristics show that the fabricated nanowire FETs improved scalability, decreased parameter scattering, and increased stability after treatment. The results demonstrate that these nanowire FETs are promising for nanoelectronic and biosensor applications due to the cost-efficient technology and advanced performance of FETs with improved stability and reliability.

  17. Some risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally guided by long-term contracts, the international natural gas trade is experiencing new methods of operating, based on the short term and more flexibility. Today, indeed, the existence of uncommitted quantities of natural gas, combined with gas price discrepancies among different regions of the world, gives room for the expansion of the spot-trading of gas. The main objective of this paper is to discuss three fundamental risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas: volume risk, price risk and infrastructure risk. The defenders of globalisation argue that the transition from the long-term to the short-term trading of natural gas is mainly a question of access to gas reserves, decreasing costs of gas liquefaction, the building of liquefied natural gas (LNG) fleets and regasification facilities and third-party access to the infrastructure. This process needs to be as short as possible, so that the risks related to the transition process will disappear rapidly. On the other hand, the detractors of globalisation put the emphasis on the complexity of the gas value chain and on the fact that eliminating long-term contracts increases the risks inherent to the international natural gas business. In this paper, we try to untangle and assess the risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas. Our main conclusions are: the short-term trading of gas is far from riskless; volume risk requires stock-building in both consuming and producing countries; price risk, through the high volatility for gas, induces an increase in options prices; there is no evidence to suggest that money-lenders' appetite for financing gas infrastructure projects will continue in a short-term trading system. This would be a threat to consumers' security of supply. (Author)

  18. Characterizing short-term stability for Boolean networks over any distribution of transfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadhri, C.; Smith, Andrew M.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Mayo, Jackson R.; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2016-07-01

    We present a characterization of short-term stability of Kauffman's N K (random) Boolean networks under arbitrary distributions of transfer functions. Given such a Boolean network where each transfer function is drawn from the same distribution, we present a formula that determines whether short-term chaos (damage spreading) will happen. Our main technical tool which enables the formal proof of this formula is the Fourier analysis of Boolean functions, which describes such functions as multilinear polynomials over the inputs. Numerical simulations on mixtures of threshold functions and nested canalyzing functions demonstrate the formula's correctness.

  19. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SHORT TERM AND LONG TERM MEMORY BETWEEN ATHLETE AND NON ATHLETE

    OpenAIRE

    GOPAL CHANDRA SAHA; SHANTANU HALDER; PULEN DAS

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the Short Term Memory and Long Term Memory of Athlete and non Athlete. One hundred college boys (50 Athlete participated in inter-college tournament and 50 non Athlete) from different colleges of north 24 district in West Bengal were considered for this study whose age range between 22 to 25 years. Only, Short Term and Long Term memory were measured for this study. Standard questionnaires were used for this study. The statistical 't' test was a...

  20. The role of marine microbiota in short-term climate regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Simó, Rafel

    2011-01-01

    Marine life, and particularly microscopic plankton, influence climate over long and short time scales. In the long term they do this by shaping the biogeochemical cycles of elements (such as C, O, N, P, Si, S, Fe) essential for Earth-system functioning. In the short term they do it by exchanging climate-active gases with the atmosphere. Here we focuse on the short term effects. Oceans influence heat retention in the atmosphere by the exchange of green-house gases, regulate atmospheric photoch...

  1. Near-infrared spectroscopic study on the effects of chewing on short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Mayumi; Hoshi, Yoko; Iguchi, Yoshinobu; Kida, Ikuhiro

    2011-12-01

    Using near-infrared spectroscopy, we examined whether chewing gum improves performance in a short-term memory task - immediate recall of random eight-digit numbers - by assessing cerebral hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex. We found that the oxyhemoglobin concentration during and after chewing gum was higher than that before chewing; further, the concentration increased during the task, and this increase was reduced with chewing, although non-significantly. Chewing did not improve task performance. Therefore, chewing-induced hemodynamic responses were unrelated to the performance in short-term memory tasks. PMID:21911018

  2. Deafferentation affects short-term but not long-term control of food intake

    OpenAIRE

    van de Wall, EHEM; Pomp, ER; Strubbe, JH; Scheurink, AJW; Koolhaas, JM; Pomp, Elisabeth R.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2005-01-01

    Deafferentation affects short-term but not long-term control of food intake (PHYSIOL BEHAV XX(X) 000-000, 2005). Rats were treated neonatally with capsaicin (CAP) to investigate the involvement of vagal afferents in food intake control and body weight regulation. In the first set of experiments, rats were offered increasing concentrations of sucrose (10-15-20-40%) in short-term feeding tests of 1 h. At the end, 10% was offered again to see whether CAP rats modified their intake after repeated...

  3. Short-term consumption of sucralose, a nonnutritive sweetener, is similar to water with regard to select markers of hunger signaling and short-term glucose homeostasis in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew W; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Onken, Kristine L; Beitz, Donald C

    2011-12-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners have been used to lower the energy density of foods with the intention of affecting weight loss or weight maintenance. However, some epidemiological and animal evidence indicates an association between weight gain or insulin resistance and artificial sweetener consumption. In the present study, we hypothesized that the nonnutritive sweetener sucralose, a trichlorinated sucrose molecule, would elicit responses similar to water but different from sucrose and sucrose combined with sucralose on subjective and hormonal indications of hunger and short-term glucose homeostasis. Eight female volunteers (body mass index, 22.16 ± 1.71 kg/m(2); age, 21.75 ± 2.25 years) consumed sucrose and/or sucralose in water in a factorial design. Blood samples were taken at fasting and 30 and 60 minutes after treatment followed by a standardized breakfast across treatments, and blood samples were taken 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after breakfast. Plasma was analyzed for glucose, insulin, glucagon, triacylglycerols (TAG), and acylated ghrelin. Perceptions of hunger and other subjective measurements were assessed before each blood sample. No differences were detected in subjective responses, circulating triacylglycerol, or glucagon concentrations among treatments over time. Significant differences were observed in insulin, glucose, and acylated ghrelin concentrations over time only between sucrose-containing treatments and non-sucrose-containing treatments regardless of sucralose consumption. Therefore, sucralose may be a relatively inert nonnutritive sweetener with regard to hunger signaling and short-term glucose homeostasis. PMID:22153513

  4. Effects of metformin on inflammation and short-term memory in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Wilma Helena; Nunes, Ana Karolina; França, Maria Eduarda Rocha; Santos, Laise Aline; Lós, Deniele Bezerra; Rocha, Sura Wanessa; Barbosa, Karla Patrícia; Rodrigues, Gabriel Barros; Peixoto, Christina Alves

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the action of metformin on short-term memory, glial cell activation and neuroinflammation caused by experimental diabetic encephalopathy in C57BL/6 mice. Diabetes was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of a dose of 90mg/kg of streptozotocin on two successive days. Mice with blood glucose levels ≥200dl/ml were considered diabetic and were given metformin hydrochloride at doses of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg (by gavage, twice daily) for 21 days. On the final day of treatment, the mice underwent a T-maze test. On the 22nd day of treatment all the animals were anesthetized and euthanized. Diabetic animals treated with metformin had a higher spatial memory score. The hippocampus of the diabetic animals presented reactive gliosis, neuronal loss, NF-kB signaling activation, and high levels of IL-1 and VEGF. In addition, the T-maze test scores of these animals were low. Treatment with metformin reduced the expression of GFAP, Iba-1 (astrocyte and microglial markers) and the inflammation markers (p-IKB, IL-1 and VEGF), while enhancing p-AMPK and eNOS levels and increasing neuronal survival (Fox-1 and NeuN). Treatment with metformin also improved the spatial memory scores of diabetic animals. In conclusion, the present study showed that metformin can significantly reduce neuroinflammation and can decrease the loss of neurons in the hippocampus of diabetic animals, which can subsequently promote improvements in spatial memory. PMID:27174003

  5. Short-term foreshock activity and its value for the earthquake prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanogiannaki, Katerina; Daskalaki, Elena; Minadakis, George; Papadopoulos, Gerasimos

    2014-05-01

    Seismicity often occurs in space-time clusters: swarms, short-term foreshocks, aftershocks. Swarms are space-time clusters that do not conclude with a mainshock. Earthquake statistics shows that in areas of good seismicity monitoring foreshocks precede sizeable (M5.5 or more) mainshocks at a rate of about half percent. Therefore, discrimination between foreshocks and swarms is of crucial importance with the aim to use foreshocks as a diagnostic of forthcoming strong mainshock in real-time conditions. We analyzed seismic sequences in Greece and Italy with the application of our algorithm FORMA (Foreshocks-Mainshock-Aftershocks) and discriminate between foreshocks and swarms based on the seismicity significant changes in the space-time-magnitude domains. We support that different statistical properties is a diagnostic of foreshocks (e.g. b-value drop) against swarms (b-value increase). A complementary approach is based on the development of Poisson Hidden Markov Models (PHMM's) which are introduced to model significant temporal seismicity changes. In a PHMM the unobserved sequence of states is a finite-state Markov chain and the distribution of the observation at any time is Poissonian with rate depending only on the current state of the chain. Thus, PHMM allows a region to have varying seismicity rate. PHMM is a promising diagnostic since the transition from one state to another does not only depend on the total number of events involved but also on the current state of the system. A third methodological experiment was performed based on the complex network theory. We found that the earthquake networks examined form a scale-free degree distribution. By computing their basic statistical measures, such as the Average Clustering Coefficient, Mean Path Length and Entropy, we found that they underline the strong space-time clustering of swarms, foreshocks and aftershocks but also their important differences. Therefore, network theory is an additional, promising tool to

  6. Discrimination power of short-term heart rate variability measures for CHF assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecchia, Leandro; Melillo, Paolo; Sansone, Mario; Bracale, Marcello

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the discrimination power of short-term heart rate variability (HRV) for discriminating normal subjects versus chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. We analyzed 1914.40 h of ECG of 83 patients of which 54 are normal and 29 are suffering from CHF with New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification I, II, and III, extracted by public databases. Following guidelines, we performed time and frequency analysis in order to measure HRV features. To assess the discrimination power of HRV features, we designed a classifier based on the classification and regression tree (CART) method, which is a nonparametric statistical technique, strongly effective on nonnormal medical data mining. The best subset of features for subject classification includes square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (RMSSD), total power, high-frequencies power, and the ratio between low- and high-frequencies power (LF/HF). The classifier we developed achieved sensitivity and specificity values of 79.3 % and 100 %, respectively. Moreover, we demonstrated that it is possible to achieve sensitivity and specificity of 89.7 % and 100 %, respectively, by introducing two nonstandard features ΔAVNN and ΔLF/HF, which account, respectively, for variation over the 24 h of the average of consecutive normal intervals (AVNN) and LF/HF. Our results are comparable with other similar studies, but the method we used is particularly valuable because it allows a fully human-understandable description of classification procedures, in terms of intelligible "if … then …" rules. PMID:21075731

  7. In situ lubricant degradation in Antarctic marine sediments. 1. Short-term changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Belinda A W; Davies, Noel W; Goldsworthy, Paul M; Riddle, Martin J; Snape, Ian; Stark, Jonathan S

    2006-02-01

    A large-scale, in situ experiment was set up near the Bailey Peninsula area (Casey Station, East Antarctica) to monitor the natural attenuation of synthetic lubricants in marine sediments over five years. Here, we report the short-term changes after 5 and 56 weeks. The lubricants tested were an unused and used Mobil lubricant (0W/40; Exxon Mobil, Irving, TX, USA) and a biodegradable alternative (0W/20; Fuchs Lubricants, Harvey, IL, USA). Clean sediment was collected, contaminated with the lubricants, and deployed by divers onto the seabed in a randomized block design. The sampled sediments were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame-ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selective ion monitoring. The base fluid of all lubricant treatments did not decrease significantly after 56 weeks in situ. Alkanoate esters of 1,1,1-tris(hydroxymethyl)propane in the biodegradable and unused lubricants were degraded extensively in situ; however, these esters constituted only a minor proportion of the lubricant volume. The additives, alkylated naphthalenes and substituted diphenylamines, were fairly resistant to degradation, which is of environmental concern because of their toxicity. The biodegradable lubricant did not break down to recognized biodegradable thresholds and, as such, should not be classified as biodegradable under Antarctic marine conditions. A separate experiment was conducted to determine the influence of sediment preparation and deployment on compound ratios within the lubricants, and we found that preparation and deployment of the contaminated sediments had only a minor effect on compound recovery. Further monitoring of this in situ experiment will provide much needed information about the long-term natural attenuation of lubricants. PMID:16519295

  8. Temporal stability of epigenetic markers: sequence characteristics and predictors of short-term DNA methylation variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyang-Min Byun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that has been increasingly investigated in observational human studies, particularly on blood leukocyte DNA. Characterizing the degree and determinants of DNA methylation stability can provide critical information for the design and conduction of human epigenetic studies. METHODS: We measured DNA methylation in 12 gene-promoter regions (APC, p16, p53, RASSF1A, CDH13, eNOS, ET-1, IFNγ, IL-6, TNFα, iNOS, and hTERT and 2 of non-long terminal repeat elements, i.e., L1 and Alu in blood samples obtained from 63 healthy individuals at baseline (Day 1 and after three days (Day 4. DNA methylation was measured by bisulfite-PCR-Pyrosequencing. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs to measure the within-individual stability of DNA methylation between Day 1 and 4, subtracted of pyrosequencing error and adjusted for multiple covariates. RESULTS: Methylation markers showed different temporal behaviors ranging from high (IL-6, ICC = 0.89 to low stability (APC, ICC = 0.08 between Day 1 and 4. Multiple sequence and marker characteristics were associated with the degree of variation. Density of CpG dinucleotides nearby the sequence analyzed (measured as CpG(o/e or G+C content within ±200 bp was positively associated with DNA methylation stability. The 3' proximity to repeat elements and range of DNA methylation on Day 1 were also positively associated with methylation stability. An inverted U-shaped correlation was observed between mean DNA methylation on Day 1 and stability. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of short-term DNA methylation stability is marker-dependent and associated with sequence characteristics and methylation levels.

  9. Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) metabolism, disposition, and short-term vapor inhalation toxicity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male Fischer 344 rats were given a single po dose of approximately 8.7 mmol/kg of [1-14C]propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) or exposed to 3000 ppm [1-14C]PGMEA for 6 hr. After dosing, expired air, excreta, and tissues were analyzed for 14C activity, and metabolites in urine were isolated and identified. Approximately 64% of the administered 14C activity was eliminated as 14CO2 and about 24% was excreted in urine within 48 hr after a single po dose of radiolabeled PGMEA. Similarly, 53% was eliminated as 14CO2 and 26% was excreted in urine within 48 hr after the inhalation exposure. Propylene glycol, propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), and the sulfate and glucuronide conjugates of PGME were identified as urinary metabolites after po dosing, as well as after inhalation exposure to PGMEA. The urinary metabolite profile and disposition of [14C]PGMEA were nearly identical to results previously obtained with propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), indicating that PGMEA is rapidly and extensively hydrolyzed to PGME in vivo. A short-term vapor inhalation toxicity study in which male and female Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 300, 1000, or 3000 ppm PGMEA confirmed that there were no substantial differences in the systemic effects of PGMEA as compared to PGME. However, histopathologic examination did reveal changes in the olfactory portions of the nasal mucosa of rats and mice exposed to PGMEA, which may be related to acetic acid resulting from hydrolysis of PGMEA in the nasal epithelium

  10. Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) metabolism, disposition, and short-term vapor inhalation toxicity studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.R.; Hermann, E.A.; Young, J.T.; Calhoun, L.L.; Kastl, P.E.

    1984-09-30

    Male Fischer 344 rats were given a single po dose of approximately 8.7 mmol/kg of (1-14C)propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) or exposed to 3000 ppm (1-14C)PGMEA for 6 hr. After dosing, expired air, excreta, and tissues were analyzed for 14C activity, and metabolites in urine were isolated and identified. Approximately 64% of the administered 14C activity was eliminated as 14CO2 and about 24% was excreted in urine within 48 hr after a single po dose of radiolabeled PGMEA. Similarly, 53% was eliminated as 14CO2 and 26% was excreted in urine within 48 hr after the inhalation exposure. Propylene glycol, propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), and the sulfate and glucuronide conjugates of PGME were identified as urinary metabolites after po dosing, as well as after inhalation exposure to PGMEA. The urinary metabolite profile and disposition of (14C)PGMEA were nearly identical to results previously obtained with propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), indicating that PGMEA is rapidly and extensively hydrolyzed to PGME in vivo. A short-term vapor inhalation toxicity study in which male and female Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 300, 1000, or 3000 ppm PGMEA confirmed that there were no substantial differences in the systemic effects of PGMEA as compared to PGME. However, histopathologic examination did reveal changes in the olfactory portions of the nasal mucosa of rats and mice exposed to PGMEA, which may be related to acetic acid resulting from hydrolysis of PGMEA in the nasal epithelium.

  11. Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) metabolism, disposition, and short-term vapor inhalation toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R R; Hermann, E A; Young, J T; Calhoun, L L; Kastl, P E

    1984-09-30

    Male Fischer 344 rats were given a single po dose of approximately 8.7 mmol/kg of [1-14C]propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) or exposed to 3000 ppm [1-14C]PGMEA for 6 hr. After dosing, expired air, excreta, and tissues were analyzed for 14C activity, and metabolites in urine were isolated and identified. Approximately 64% of the administered 14C activity was eliminated as 14CO2 and about 24% was excreted in urine within 48 hr after a single po dose of radiolabeled PGMEA. Similarly, 53% was eliminated as 14CO2 and 26% was excreted in urine within 48 hr after the inhalation exposure. Propylene glycol, propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), and the sulfate and glucuronide conjugates of PGME were identified as urinary metabolites after po dosing, as well as after inhalation exposure to PGMEA. The urinary metabolite profile and disposition of [14C]PGMEA were nearly identical to results previously obtained with propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), indicating that PGMEA is rapidly and extensively hydrolyzed to PGME in vivo. A short-term vapor inhalation toxicity study in which male and female Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 300, 1000, or 3000 ppm PGMEA confirmed that there were no substantial differences in the systemic effects of PGMEA as compared to PGME. However, histopathologic examination did reveal changes in the olfactory portions of the nasal mucosa of rats and mice exposed to PGMEA, which may be related to acetic acid resulting from hydrolysis of PGMEA in the nasal epithelium. PMID:6474479

  12. Grouping Influences Output Interference in Short-term Memory: A Mixture Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Suk; Oh, Byung-Il

    2016-01-01

    Output interference is a source of forgetting induced by recalling. We investigated how grouping influences output interference in short-term memory. In Experiment 1, the participants were asked to remember four colored items. Those items were grouped by temporal coincidence as well as spatial alignment: two items were presented in the first memory array and two were presented in the second, and the items in both arrays were either vertically or horizontally aligned as well. The participants then performed two recall tasks in sequence by selecting a color presented at a cued location from a color wheel. In the same-group condition, the participants reported both items from the same memory array; however, in the different-group condition, the participants reported one item from each memory array. We analyzed participant responses with a mixture model, which yielded two measures: guess rate and precision of recalled memories. The guess rate in the second recall was higher for the different-group condition than for the same-group condition; however, the memory precisions obtained for both conditions were similarly degraded in the second recall. In Experiment 2, we varied the probability of the same- and different-group conditions with a ratio of 3 to 7. We expected output interference to be higher in the same-group condition than in the different-group condition. This is because items of the other group are more likely to be probed in the second recall phase and, thus, protecting those items during the first recall phase leads to a better performance. Nevertheless, the same pattern of results was robustly reproduced, suggesting grouping shields the grouped items from output interference because of the secured accessibility. We discussed how grouping influences output interference. PMID:27199820

  13. Comparative effects of sodium channel blockers in short term rat whole embryo culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Mats F, E-mail: Mats.Nilsson@farmbio.uu.se [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University (Sweden); Sköld, Anna-Carin; Ericson, Ann-Christin; Annas, Anita; Villar, Rodrigo Palma [AstraZeneca R and D Södertälje (Sweden); Cebers, Gvido [AstraZeneca R and D, iMed, 141 Portland Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hellmold, Heike; Gustafson, Anne-Lee [AstraZeneca R and D Södertälje (Sweden); Webster, William S [Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Sydney (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect on the rat embryonic heart of two experimental drugs (AZA and AZB) which are known to block the sodium channel Nav1.5, the hERG potassium channel and the L-type calcium channel. The sodium channel blockers bupivacaine, lidocaine, and the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine were used as reference substances. The experimental model was the gestational day (GD) 13 rat embryo cultured in vitro. In this model the embryonic heart activity can be directly observed, recorded and analyzed using computer assisted image analysis as it responds to the addition of test drugs. The effect on the heart was studied for a range of concentrations and for a duration up to 3 h. The results showed that AZA and AZB caused a concentration-dependent bradycardia of the embryonic heart and at high concentrations heart block. These effects were reversible on washout. In terms of potency to cause bradycardia the compounds were ranked AZB > bupivacaine > AZA > lidocaine > nifedipine. Comparison with results from previous studies with more specific ion channel blockers suggests that the primary effect of AZA and AZB was sodium channel blockage. The study shows that the short-term rat whole embryo culture (WEC) is a suitable system to detect substances hazardous to the embryonic heart. - Highlights: • Study of the effect of sodium channel blocking drugs on embryonic heart function • We used a modified method rat whole embryo culture with image analysis. • The drugs tested caused a concentration dependent bradycardia and heart block. • The effect of drugs acting on multiple ion channels is difficult to predict. • This method may be used to detect cardiotoxicity in prenatal development.

  14. Grouping Influences Output Interference in Short-term Memory: A Mixture Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Suk; Oh, Byung-Il

    2016-01-01

    Output interference is a source of forgetting induced by recalling. We investigated how grouping influences output interference in short-term memory. In Experiment 1, the participants were asked to remember four colored items. Those items were grouped by temporal coincidence as well as spatial alignment: two items were presented in the first memory array and two were presented in the second, and the items in both arrays were either vertically or horizontally aligned as well. The participants then performed two recall tasks in sequence by selecting a color presented at a cued location from a color wheel. In the same-group condition, the participants reported both items from the same memory array; however, in the different-group condition, the participants reported one item from each memory array. We analyzed participant responses with a mixture model, which yielded two measures: guess rate and precision of recalled memories. The guess rate in the second recall was higher for the different-group condition than for the same-group condition; however, the memory precisions obtained for both conditions were similarly degraded in the second recall. In Experiment 2, we varied the probability of the same- and different-group conditions with a ratio of 3 to 7. We expected output interference to be higher in the same-group condition than in the different-group condition. This is because items of the other group are more likely to be probed in the second recall phase and, thus, protecting those items during the first recall phase leads to a better performance. Nevertheless, the same pattern of results was robustly reproduced, suggesting grouping shields the grouped items from output interference because of the secured accessibility. We discussed how grouping influences output interference. PMID:27199820

  15. Grouping influences output interference in short-term memory: a mixture modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Suk eKang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Output interference is a source of forgetting induced by recalling. We investigated how grouping influences output interference in short-term memory. In Experiment 1, the participants were asked to remember four colored items. Those items were grouped by temporal coincidence as well as spatial alignment: two items were presented in the first memory array and two were presented in the second, and the items in both arrays were either vertically or horizontally aligned as well. The participants then performed two recall tasks in sequence by selecting a color presented at a cued location from a color wheel. In the same-group condition, the participants reported both items from the same memory array; however, in the different-group condition, the participants reported one item from each memory array. We analyzed participant responses with a mixture model, which yielded two measures: guess rate and precision of recalled memories. The guess rate in the second recall was higher for the different-group condition than for the same-group condition; however, the memory precisions obtained for both conditions were similarly degraded in the second recall. In Experiment 2, we varied the probability of the same- and different-group conditions with a ratio of 3 to 7. We expected output interference to be higher in the same-group condition than in the different-group condition. This is because items of the other group are more likely to be probed in the second recall phase and, thus, protecting those items during the first recall phase leads to a better performance. Nevertheless, the same pattern of results was robustly reproduced, suggesting grouping shields the grouped items from output interference because of the secured accessibility. We discussed how grouping influences output interference.

  16. Short-term effects of long-term policies : climate policies in power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosnes, Orvika

    2007-07-01

    The contribution of my thesis is to include a technical feature previously neglected in economic models - start-up costs in thermal power plants - and to apply the new model in climate policy analyses. The point of departure is the actual policies implemented in the EU. The numerical models are calibrated with Danish data. Denmark provides an interesting and relevant example to these types of policy concerns. First, the Danish power system is currently dominated by thermal (coal and gas-fired) power plants where start-up costs are substantial. At the same time, Denmark is at the forefront of climate policy, introducing a domestic permit trading system for CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity production as early as 2001. Other support schemes have promoted wind power investment, with wind power production in Denmark covering about 20% of power demand in 2005. Further, according to the latest policy documents, a stated goal is to double wind power capacity by 2025 (TRM, 2007). Combined with other measures, this suggests that half of total electricity demand in Denmark will be met by wind power. Nevertheless, even though Denmark is at the forefront of these developments, it is not unique, with other EU countries, most notably Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom having ambitious goals of increasing their wind power capacity. The overarching feature of all of the essays in this thesis is the short-term impacts of climate policies when the start-up costs in thermal power plants are taken into account. Essay 1 analyzes how the behavior of a single producer is influenced by climate policies, by both the policies directed towards him and by the policies that influence him through the market. An important insight is that the effects on total emissions remain ambiguous when only one firm is considered. Critically, the production pattern of an individual producer is determined in interaction with other producers in the market. Therefore, the following two essays study the

  17. Short-Term Relationship between Hip Fracture and Weather Conditions in Two Spanish Health Areas with Different Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenías, José María; Estarlich, Marisa; Crespo, Eusebio; Román-Ortiz, Carmen; Arias-Arias, Angel; Ballester, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate differences in the short-term relationship between weather conditions and the incidence of hip fracture in people aged 65 and over among two regions of Spain. Methods. Hip fracture incidence was calculated for the years 2000–2008 for residents of Health Area 14 in Valencian Community (Mediterranean climate) and the “Mancha Centro” Health Area in Castilla-La Mancha (inland climate), Spain. The relationship between hip fracture incidence and weather was analyzed with a case-crossover design and explored in subgroups defined by sex, age, and fracture type. Results. In the inland area, a positive and significant tendency for hip fracture incidence was observed (annual increase: 1.5%) whereas in the Mediterranean area a seasonal increase of 9% was noted in autumn and winter with respect to spring. Weather conditions, especially wind, were significantly associated with hip fracture incidence: days with more frequent windy periods and/or a greater wind velocity were associated with an increase in hip fracture incidence of 51% in the Mediterranean area and 44% in the inland area. Conclusions. Hip fracture incidence exhibits seasonal changes that differ between the Mediterranean and inland areas. The short-term relationship with climate, although similar in both areas, may partly explain these seasonal changes. PMID:25759722

  18. Kidins220/ARMS is a novel modulator of short-term synaptic plasticity in hippocampal GABAergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Scholz-Starke

    Full Text Available Kidins220 (Kinase D interacting substrate of 220 kDa/ARMS (Ankyrin Repeat-rich Membrane Spanning is a scaffold protein highly expressed in the nervous system. Previous work on neurons with altered Kidins220/ARMS expression suggested that this protein plays multiple roles in synaptic function. In this study, we analyzed the effects of Kidins220/ARMS ablation on basal synaptic transmission and on a variety of short-term plasticity paradigms in both excitatory and inhibitory synapses using a recently described Kidins220 full knockout mouse. Hippocampal neuronal cultures prepared from embryonic Kidins220(-/- (KO and wild type (WT littermates were used for whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of spontaneous and evoked synaptic activity. Whereas glutamatergic AMPA receptor-mediated responses were not significantly affected in KO neurons, specific differences were detected in evoked GABAergic transmission. The recovery from synaptic depression of inhibitory post-synaptic currents in WT cells showed biphasic kinetics, both in response to paired-pulse and long-lasting train stimulation, while in KO cells the respective slow components were strongly reduced. We demonstrate that the slow recovery from synaptic depression in WT cells is caused by a transient reduction of the vesicle release probability, which is absent in KO neurons. These results suggest that Kidins220/ARMS is not essential for basal synaptic transmission and various forms of short-term plasticity, but instead plays a novel role in the mechanisms regulating the recovery of synaptic strength in GABAergic synapses.

  19. Short-term effects of land leveling on irrigation-related some soil properties in a clay loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztekin, Tekin

    2013-01-01

    There are few studies conducted on the short-term effects of land leveling on soil water holding capacity. The objectives of this study were to analyze the short-term effects of land leveling on the magnitudes, variances, spatial variability, and distributions of surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) soil properties of bulk density, field capacity, permanent wilting point, water holding capacity and particle size fractions. The study was conducted in a 1.2 ha field with clay loam soil located on the low terraces of Yesilirmak River, Tokat, Turkey. According to the paired t-test results, water holding capacity, and bulk density significantly increased, while permanent wilting point (P ≤ 0.001) and field capacity (P ≤ 0.05) significantly decreased for surface soil due to land leveling. The reasons for the increases in WHC values in both cut and fill areas (29%, and 12%, resp.) of surface soil are look like the much more decreases in PWP values than those of FC values and the increases in BD values. The moderate positive linear relationship between the surface soil clay contents and cut depths through cut areas (r = 0.64) was also determined in this study. PMID:23843730

  20. Short-term d13C changes in cultivated soils from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounejeva, E.; Etchevers, J.; Morales Puente, P.; Cienfuegos Alvarado, E.; Sedov, S.; Solleiro, E.; Hidalgo, C.

    2007-05-01

    The soils of the Mexican Volcanic Belt are part of ecosystems subjected to strong human impact during the last six centuries. One measurable characteristic of the soil is the stable carbon isotopic relation of the soil organic matter (SOM) or d13C. The d13C SOM parameter is a genetic characteristic of soil reflecting the relative proportion of C3 and C4 that comes from colonizing plants having different photosynthetic C pathway and is used as a high-spatial resolution tool to infer paleoenvironmental changes.The d13C mean signatures of C3 and C4 plants are -27 and -13 %o, respectively. This work focuses on short-term changes in d13C on soils subjected to controlled agricultural practices during 2002-2005 in two sites of Mexico with similar annual precipitation and temperature. The tepetate was broken up 20y ago and ameliorated with fertilizers and organic matter. In both sites three experimental treatments consisting of traditional soil management and two variations of this one were evaluated. Traditional treatment implies low fertilizer and any chemical input, sowing annual crops during the rainy season and, in general, using low energy input. The crops planted were: legumes C3, oat C3, and a mixture of maizeC4 and beanC3, and wheatC3. The Improved and Organic treatments, had higher input of N and P as chemical fertilizers, and of organic manure (manure or compost), respectively. Soil samples were collected from the plow layer in Tlaxcala and in Michoacán, before C4 maize was planted. An Andisol from a pine-oak (C3 species) forest close to the Atecuaro site was also sampled up to 40 cm. This soil was considered a reference site not recently influenced by human activity. To analyze the d13C ratios of the SOM carbonate free samples, a routine combustion method and mass spectrometry (Finnigan MAT250) were used. In both agricultural sites a general excess of C3 species over C4 was evidenced through a mass balance equation derived from experimental d13C values

  1. Short-term ecological effects of an offshore wind farm in the Dutch coastal zone. A compilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindeboom, H.J.; Brasseur, S.; Leopold, M.; Scheidat, M. [IMARES, PO Box 167, 1790 AD Den Burg (Netherlands); Kouwenhoven, H.J. [NoordzeeWind, 2e Havenstraat 5b, 1976 CE IJmuiden (Netherlands); Bergman, M.J.N.; Daan, R. [Royal NIOZ, PO Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg (Netherlands); Bouma, S.; Fijn, R.C.; Dirksen, S.; Krijgsveld, K.L. [Bureau Waardenburg, PO Box 365, 4100 AJ Culemborg (Netherlands); De Haan, D.; Van Hal, R.; Hille Ris Lambers, R.; Ter Hofstede, R. [IMARES, PO Box 68, 1970 AB IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2011-07-15

    The number of offshore wind farms is increasing rapidly, leading to questions about the environmental impact of such farms. In the Netherlands, an extensive monitoring programme is being executed at the first offshore wind farm (Offshore Windfarm Egmond aan Zee, OWEZ). This letter compiles the short-term (two years) results on a large number of faunal groups obtained so far. Impacts were expected from the new hard substratum, the moving rotor blades, possible underwater noise and the exclusion of fisheries. The results indicate no short-term effects on the benthos in the sandy area between the generators, while the new hard substratum of the monopiles and the scouring protection led to the establishment of new species and new fauna communities. Bivalve recruitment was not impacted by the OWEZ wind farm. Species composition of recruits in OWEZ and the surrounding reference areas is correlated with mud content of the sediment and water depth irrespective the presence of OWEZ. Recruit abundances in OWEZ were correlated with mud content, most likely to be attributed not to the presence of the farm but to the absence of fisheries. The fish community was highly dynamic both in time and space. So far, only minor effects upon fish assemblages especially near the monopiles have been observed. Some fish species, such as cod, seem to find shelter inside the farm. More porpoise clicks were recorded inside the farm than in the reference areas outside the farm. Several bird species seem to avoid the park while others are indifferent or are even attracted. The effects of the wind farm on a highly variable ecosystem are described. Overall, the OWEZ wind farm acts as a new type of habitat with a higher biodiversity of benthic organisms, a possibly increased use of the area by the benthos, fish, marine mammals and some bird species and a decreased use by several other bird species.

  2. Short-term ecological effects of an offshore wind farm in the Dutch coastal zone; a compilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindeboom, H J; Brasseur, S; Leopold, M; Scheidat, M [IMARES, PO Box 167, 1790 AD Den Burg (Netherlands); Kouwenhoven, H J [NoordzeeWind, 2e Havenstraat 5b, 1976 CE IJmuiden (Netherlands); Bergman, M J N; Daan, R [Royal NIOZ, PO Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg (Netherlands); Bouma, S; Fijn, R C; Dirksen, S; Krijgsveld, K L [Bureau Waardenburg, PO Box 365, 4100 AJ Culemborg (Netherlands); De Haan, D; Van Hal, R; Hille Ris Lambers, R; Ter Hofstede, R, E-mail: han.lindeboom@wur.nl [IMARES, PO Box 68, 1970 AB IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2011-07-15

    The number of offshore wind farms is increasing rapidly, leading to questions about the environmental impact of such farms. In the Netherlands, an extensive monitoring programme is being executed at the first offshore wind farm (Offshore Windfarm Egmond aan Zee, OWEZ). This letter compiles the short-term (two years) results on a large number of faunal groups obtained so far. Impacts were expected from the new hard substratum, the moving rotor blades, possible underwater noise and the exclusion of fisheries. The results indicate no short-term effects on the benthos in the sandy area between the generators, while the new hard substratum of the monopiles and the scouring protection led to the establishment of new species and new fauna communities. Bivalve recruitment was not impacted by the OWEZ wind farm. Species composition of recruits in OWEZ and the surrounding reference areas is correlated with mud content of the sediment and water depth irrespective the presence of OWEZ. Recruit abundances in OWEZ were correlated with mud content, most likely to be attributed not to the presence of the farm but to the absence of fisheries. The fish community was highly dynamic both in time and space. So far, only minor effects upon fish assemblages especially near the monopiles have been observed. Some fish species, such as cod, seem to find shelter inside the farm. More porpoise clicks were recorded inside the farm than in the reference areas outside the farm. Several bird species seem to avoid the park while others are indifferent or are even attracted. The effects of the wind farm on a highly variable ecosystem are described. Overall, the OWEZ wind farm acts as a new type of habitat with a higher biodiversity of benthic organisms, a possibly increased use of the area by the benthos, fish, marine mammals and some bird species and a decreased use by several other bird species.

  3. Short-term ecological effects of an offshore wind farm in the Dutch coastal zone. A compilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of offshore wind farms is increasing rapidly, leading to questions about the environmental impact of such farms. In the Netherlands, an extensive monitoring programme is being executed at the first offshore wind farm (Offshore Windfarm Egmond aan Zee, OWEZ). This letter compiles the short-term (two years) results on a large number of faunal groups obtained so far. Impacts were expected from the new hard substratum, the moving rotor blades, possible underwater noise and the exclusion of fisheries. The results indicate no short-term effects on the benthos in the sandy area between the generators, while the new hard substratum of the monopiles and the scouring protection led to the establishment of new species and new fauna communities. Bivalve recruitment was not impacted by the OWEZ wind farm. Species composition of recruits in OWEZ and the surrounding reference areas is correlated with mud content of the sediment and water depth irrespective the presence of OWEZ. Recruit abundances in OWEZ were correlated with mud content, most likely to be attributed not to the presence of the farm but to the absence of fisheries. The fish community was highly dynamic both in time and space. So far, only minor effects upon fish assemblages especially near the monopiles have been observed. Some fish species, such as cod, seem to find shelter inside the farm. More porpoise clicks were recorded inside the farm than in the reference areas outside the farm. Several bird species seem to avoid the park while others are indifferent or are even attracted. The effects of the wind farm on a highly variable ecosystem are described. Overall, the OWEZ wind farm acts as a new type of habitat with a higher biodiversity of benthic organisms, a possibly increased use of the area by the benthos, fish, marine mammals and some bird species and a decreased use by several other bird species.

  4. Short-term ecological effects of an offshore wind farm in the Dutch coastal zone; a compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, H. J.; Kouwenhoven, H. J.; Bergman, M. J. N.; Bouma, S.; Brasseur, S.; Daan, R.; Fijn, R. C.; de Haan, D.; Dirksen, S.; van Hal, R.; Hille Ris Lambers, R.; ter Hofstede, R.; Krijgsveld, K. L.; Leopold, M.; Scheidat, M.

    2011-07-01

    The number of offshore wind farms is increasing rapidly, leading to questions about the environmental impact of such farms. In the Netherlands, an extensive monitoring programme is being executed at the first offshore wind farm (Offshore Windfarm Egmond aan Zee, OWEZ). This letter compiles the short-term (two years) results on a large number of faunal groups obtained so far. Impacts were expected from the new hard substratum, the moving rotor blades, possible underwater noise and the exclusion of fisheries. The results indicate no short-term effects on the benthos in the sandy area between the generators, while the new hard substratum of the monopiles and the scouring protection led to the establishment of new species and new fauna communities. Bivalve recruitment was not impacted by the OWEZ wind farm. Species composition of recruits in OWEZ and the surrounding reference areas is correlated with mud content of the sediment and water depth irrespective the presence of OWEZ. Recruit abundances in OWEZ were correlated with mud content, most likely to be attributed not to the presence of the farm but to the absence of fisheries. The fish community was highly dynamic both in time and space. So far, only minor effects upon fish assemblages especially near the monopiles have been observed. Some fish species, such as cod, seem to find shelter inside the farm. More porpoise clicks were recorded inside the farm than in the reference areas outside the farm. Several bird species seem to avoid the park while others are indifferent or are even attracted. The effects of the wind farm on a highly variable ecosystem are described. Overall, the OWEZ wind farm acts as a new type of habitat with a higher biodiversity of benthic organisms, a possibly increased use of the area by the benthos, fish, marine mammals and some bird species and a decreased use by several other bird species.

  5. Congenital Amusia: A Short-Term Memory Deficit for Non-Verbal, but Not Verbal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Schulze, Katrin; Foxton, Jessica M.

    2009-01-01

    Congenital amusia refers to a lifelong disorder of music processing and is linked to pitch-processing deficits. The present study investigated congenital amusics' short-term memory for tones, musical timbres and words. Sequences of five events (tones, timbres or words) were presented in pairs and participants had to indicate whether the sequences…

  6. A Short Term Therapy Approach to Processing Trauma: Art Therapy and Bilateral Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Tally

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a dynamic, short-term art therapy approach that has been developed for the treatment of trauma related disorders. Using a modified Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) protocol with alternating tactile and auditory bilateral stimulation, associations are rapidly brought to conscious awareness and expressed in…

  7. Visual Short-Term Memory: Is Capacity Dependent on Complexity or Familiarity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Granlund, Rabia Line; Wiechmann, Maria;

    Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 objects has been found, confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez and Cavanag...

  8. Short term braking capability during power interruptions for integrated matrix converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    attractive. Sinusoidal input currents and bi-directional power flow are other advantages of the matrix converter, but it is less immune to power grid disturbances compared to a standard ASD. In hoisting applications, short-term braking capability during a power outage is needed until the mechanical brake...

  9. Short-term effects of recombinant human growth hormone and feeding on gluconeogenesis in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    After a short-term fast, lactating women have increased rates of glucose production but not gluconeogenesis (GNG) despite relative hypoinsulinemia. We explored the effects of non-insulin-dependent increase in glucose utilization and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on glucose production, glyc...

  10. Short-Term Effectiveness of Psychotherapy Treatments Delivered at a University Counselling Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Fiorella; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Ricci Bitti, Pio Enrico

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the short-term effectiveness of psychotherapy delivered at the counselling service of the University of Bologna (Italy), by means of a single group longitudinal study including a 6-months follow-up. To this end, sixty-six students completed the 6-months follow-up and filled in the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ) three times,…

  11. Short-term duloxetine administration affects neural correlates of mood-congruent memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendolkar, I.; Wingen, G.A. van; Urner, M.; Verkes, R.J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown how antidepressants reverse mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor duloxetine on

  12. Short-Term Duloxetine Administration Affects Neural Correlates of Mood-Congruent Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Tendolkar; G. van Wingen; M. Urner; R.J. Verkes; G. Fernandez

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown how antidepressants reverse mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor duloxetine on

  13. Folk music style modelling by recurrent neural networks with long short term memory units

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Bob; Santos, João Felipe; Korshunova, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate two generative models created by training a recurrent neural network (RNN) with three hidden layers of long short-term memory (LSTM) units. This extends past work in numerous directions, including training deeper models with nearly 24,000 high-level transcriptions of folk tunes. We discuss our on-going work.

  14. Role of very short-term intravenous hydrocortisone in reducing postdural puncture headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rabiul Alam

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Very short-term use of IV hydrocortisone was found effective in reducing headache following spinal anesthesia. However, its clear mechanism of action is yet to be determined. Large-scale studies are recommended to consider the steroid therapy as a standard treatment for postdural puncture headache.

  15. Short-term toxicity studies with triphenyltin compounds in rats and guinea-pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, H.G.; Kroes, R.; Vink, H.H.; Esch, G.J. van

    1966-01-01

    Short-term toxicity studies have been carried out in rats and guinea-pigs fed diets containing triphenyltin acetate (TPTA), triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH) or triethyltin hydroxide (TETH) for 90 days at levels ranging from 0 to 50 ppm. The lowest dietary levels found to retard growth in rats and guin

  16. 25 CFR 20.504 - What short-term homemaker services can Child Assistance pay for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (protective) supervision; (b) A severely handicapped or special needs child whose care places undue stress on... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What short-term homemaker services can Child Assistance... SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance How Child Assistance Funds...

  17. Metabolic Syndrome and Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaw-Wen; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Wei-Liang; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Fang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Heart rate variability (HRV) represents autonomic functioning, and reduced HRV significantly increases cardiovascular mortality. The aims of the present paper are to assess the prevalence of MetS in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), the difference in short-term HRV…

  18. A Probabilistic Clustering Theory of the Organization of Visual Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, A. Emin; Jacobs, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that the content of a memory for even a simple display encoded in visual short-term memory (VSTM) can be very complex. VSTM uses organizational processes that make the representation of an item dependent on the feature values of all displayed items as well as on these items' representations. Here, we develop a…

  19. Short-Term Memory for Order but Not for Item Information Is Impaired in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmann, Wibke M.; Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; Woumans, Evy; Duyck, Wouter; Job, Remo

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that people with dyslexia experience difficulties with the learning of serial order information during the transition from short-to long-term memory (Szmalec et al. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition" 37(5): 1270-1279, 2011). At the same time, models of short-term memory…

  20. Experimental Study of Short-Term Training in Social Cognition in Pre-Schoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssa, Marine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Jacobs, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Using an experimental approach, our study examined the differentiated effects on pre-schoolers' social cognition of two short-term social information processing (SIP) and Theory of Mind (ToM) training sessions dealing with emotions and beliefs. The links between ToM, SIP, and social adjustment or externalizing behavior were examined. 47…

  1. Effects of age, gender, and stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimi, Mitsunobu

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on age-related changes in visual short-term memory using visual stimuli that did not allow verbal encoding. Experiment 1 examined the effects of age and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. Experiment 2 examined the effects of age, gender, and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. The worst memory performance and the largest performance difference between the age groups were observed in the shortest stimulus presentation period conditions. The performance difference between the age groups became smaller as the stimulus presentation period became longer; however, it did not completely disappear. Although gender did not have a significant effect on d' regardless of the presentation period in the young group, a significant gender-based difference was observed for stimulus presentation periods of 500 ms and 1,000 ms in the older group. This study indicates that the decline in visual short-term memory observed in the older group is due to the interaction of several factors. PMID:26745456

  2. Azerbaijan - Raising Rates : Short-Term Implications of Residential Electricity Tariff Rebalancing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Tariffs are low in Azerbaijan and need to be raised to finance badly needed network maintenance and to balance supply and demand. This study presents an analysis of the short-term impacts of a 50 percent electricity tariff increase on residential consumers. The study starts by reviewing electricity tariffs, consumption levels, and expenditure patterns compared to neighboring countries. It ...

  3. Short-Term Auditory Memory of Above-Average and Below-Average Grade Three Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruk, Joan Marie

    To determine if performance on short term auditory memory tasks is influenced by reading ability or sex differences, 62 third grade reading students (16 above average boys, 16 above average girls, 16 below average boys, and 14 below average girls) were administered four memory tests--memory for consonant names, memory for words, memory for…

  4. Japanese encephalitis in a Danish short-term traveler to Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlinrud, Anne M; Christiansen, Claus B; Koch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We present a recent case of Japanese encephalitis in a Danish male traveler to Cambodia, who we believe is the second Danish case within the last 15 years. Although both this and a number of other travel-related cases occurred in short-term travelers, change in vaccination recommendations is not...

  5. Short-Term PBL Education for Learning Skills of Microcomputer System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Shunsuke; Shirai, Yuji; Yuji, Jun-Ichiro; Inoue, Isao; Moriuchi, Tsutomu; Isogai, Masashi; Fujimoto, Yoichi

    The national colleges of technology in Kyushu area have offered some short term intensive programs for advanced course students called Summer Lecture every year. In this year, we also offered a Summer Lecture entitled 'Microcomputer System Engineering for Improving Skills of System Development'. In the present paper, some educational materials developed for the lecture and a educational method of PBL are described.

  6. Time Perspective and Identity Formation: Short-Term Longitudinal Dynamics in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Lens, Willy; Smits, Ilse; Goossens, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Planning for the future and developing a personalized identity are conceived of as important developmental tasks that adolescents and emerging adults are confronted with on the pathway to adulthood. The present study set out to examine whether both tasks develop in tandem by using a short-term longitudinal dataset consisting of 371 college…

  7. Short-term mutagenicity test systems for investigating the genetic toxicity of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of short-term tests for mutagenicity/carcinogenicity as alternatives to the long-term animal feeding tests in the study of genetic toxicology of irradiated foods is discussed in this review. Results of local studies on the toxicological safety of irradiated foods are also presented. (author)

  8. Short-term impact of blue mussel dredging ( Mytilus edulis L.) on a benthic community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Kristensen, T.; Christiansen, M.L.; Petersen, M.F.; Kristensen, Per Sand; Hoffmann, Erik

    The short-term effect of mussel dredging in a brackish Danish sound was studied. A commercial dredging track was identified and an analysis of the species composition inside the track and at an adjacent control area showed that dredging changed the community structure by reducing the density of p...

  9. Short-term solar irradiance and irradiation forecasts via different time series techniques: A preliminary study

    CERN Document Server

    Join, Cédric; Fliess, Michel; Muselli, Marc; Nivet, Marie Laure; Paoli, Christophe; Chaxel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    This communication is devoted to solar irradiance and irradiation short-term forecasts, which are useful for electricity production. Several different time series approaches are employed. Our results and the corresponding numerical simulations show that techniques which do not need a large amount of historical data behave better than those which need them, especially when those data are quite noisy.

  10. Predicting the short-term risk of diabetes in HIV-positive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, Kathy; Worm, Signe Westring; Fontas, Eric; Weber, Rainer; De Wit, Stephane; Bruyand, Mathias; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Monforte, Antonella D'Arminio; Friis-Møller, Nina; Lundgren, Jens; Law, Matthew G; Pedersen, Court

    2012-01-01

    glucose-associated disorders among HIV-positive patients have been reported to range between 2 and 14%, and in an ageing HIV-positive population, the prevalence of DM is expected to continue to increase. This study aims to develop a model to predict the short-term (six-month) risk of DM in HIV...

  11. A Short-Term Grief and Loss Therapy Group: Group Members' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Paul L.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on an evaluative study of a short-term grief and loss therapy group (N=5) conducted at a university's counseling center. Examines brief group psychotherapy and grief-related factors. Student scores on a grief instrument showed mixed results, with most grief scores remaining stable or dropping. (RJM)

  12. Short-Term Memory for Time in Children and Adults: A Behavioral Study and a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Wearden, John; Delgado-Yonger, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of the short-term retention of duration on temporal discrimination in 5- and 8-year-olds, as well as in adults, by using an episodic temporal generalization task. In each age group, the participants' task was to compare two successive durations (a standard and a comparison duration) separated by a retention…

  13. Short-Term Study Abroad: Perspectives on Speaking Gains and Language Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Todd A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that study abroad has a positive effect on second language (L2) learning outcomes for students who spend at least a semester abroad. It is unclear, however, whether a short-term experience also has a measurable impact on L2 development. The present study examines the relationship between speaking proficiency gains made…

  14. Making the Most of the "New" Study Abroad: Social Capital and the Short-Term Sojourn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Martha E.; Zirger, Megan L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the role of social capital during a short-term study abroad experience in a nontraditional setting. The authors employed ethnographic methodologies to examine the impact of social capital on students traveling to a small town in a developing nation. The analysis revealed that students capitalized on abundant networks available…

  15. The Durable Effects of Short-Term Programs on Student Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, David M.; Caza, Arran

    2012-01-01

    Research involving students (N=612) at a large, research-extensive university who participated in voluntary short-term leadership programs showed an increase in leadership capacity, even when measured three months later. A popular assessment tool, the Socially Responsible Leadership Scale (SRLS), was used. Not all leadership competency scores…

  16. Socially Responsible Leadership: The Role of Participation in Short-Term Service Immersion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skendall, Kristan Cilente

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between short-term service immersion programs (STSI), such as Alternative Spring Break (ASB), and socially responsible leadership as measured by the Socially Responsible Leadership Scale (SRLS). Participation in STSI programs have been growing exponentially since 2006 (Bohn, 2009; Break…

  17. SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR, SPERM QUANTITY AND QUALITY AFTER SHORT-TERM STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED HYPERGLYCAEMIA IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of diabetes mellitus in the streptozotocin rat model suggest that sexual dysfunctions may result from diabetes-induced alterations of the neuroendocrine-reproductive tract axis. Our investigation was performed to better define the effects of short-term hyperglycemia on ra...

  18. CETA/Education Linkages: A Look at Problems of Short-Term Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lawrence J.; Baldwin, Fred D.

    This publication reports a Virginia study of the structure of local education divisions, community colleges, and other organizations capable of delivering service to Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) clients. Its purpose was to determine how short-term-funded projects can utilize facilities and personnel with minimum disruption to…

  19. Order Short-Term Memory Capacity Predicts Nonword Reading and Spelling in First and Second Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binamé, Florence; Poncelet, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories of short-term memory (STM) distinguish between item information, which reflects the temporary activation of long-term representations stored in the language system, and serial-order information, which is encoded in a specific representational system that is independent of the language network. Some studies examining the…

  20. Short-term outcomes of a back school program for chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodselmans, AP; Jaegers, SM; Goeken, LN; Göeken, L.N.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the short-term outcome of a back school program for patients suffering from chronic, nonspecific low back pain (LBP). Design: Quasi-experimental cohort study with a waiting list control group. Setting: Dutch rehabilitation department. Participants: Experimental group (n = 14) pa

  1. Shared Representations in Language Processing and Verbal Short-Term Memory: The Case of Grammatical Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweppe, Judith; Rummer, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The general idea of language-based accounts of short-term memory is that retention of linguistic materials is based on representations within the language processing system. In the present sentence recall study, we address the question whether the assumption of shared representations holds for morphosyntactic information (here: grammatical gender…

  2. Short-term photoacclimation effects on photoinhibition of phytoplankton in the Drake Passage (Southern Ocean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderkamp, Anne-Carlijn; Garcon, Veronique; de Baar, Hein J. W.; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed whether short-term photoacclimation responses of natural phytoplankton populations in the Drake Passage (Southern Ocean) were affecting protection from photodamage as cells are mixed up to the surface from depth. To this end, we measured phytoplankton fluorescence characteristics and the

  3. Visual short-term memory deficits in REM sleep behaviour disorder mirror those in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Zokaei, Nahid; Baig, Fahd; Giehl, Kathrin; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Mackay, Clare E; Husain, Masud; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder are at significantly higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Here we examined visual short-term memory deficits--long associated with Parkinson's disease--in patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder without Parkinson's disease using a novel task that measures recall precision. Visual short-term memory for sequentially presented coloured bars of different orientation was assessed in 21 patients with polysomnography-proven idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder, 26 cases with early Parkinson's disease and 26 healthy controls. Three tasks using the same stimuli controlled for attentional filtering ability, sensorimotor and temporal decay factors. Both patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease demonstrated a deficit in visual short-term memory, with recall precision significantly worse than in healthy controls with no deficit observed in any of the control tasks. Importantly, the pattern of memory deficit in both patient groups was specifically explained by an increase in random responses. These results demonstrate that it is possible to detect the signature of memory impairment associated with Parkinson's disease in individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high risk of developing Parkinson's disease. The pattern of visual short-term memory deficit potentially provides a cognitive marker of 'prodromal' Parkinson's disease that might be useful in tracking disease progression and for disease-modifying intervention trials. PMID:26582557

  4. Short Term Auditory Pacing Changes Dual Motor Task Coordination in Children with and without Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getchell, Nancy; Mackenzie, Samuel J.; Marmon, Adam R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of short-term auditory pacing practice on dual motor task performance in children with and without dyslexia. Groups included dyslexic with Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) scores greater than 15th percentile (D_HIGH, n = 18; mean age 9.89 [plus or minus] 2.0 years), dyslexic with MABC [less than or…

  5. Business Students' Choice of Short-Term or Long-Term Study Abroad Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Stacey R.; Flanagan, David J.; Wang, Xiaodan

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a proliferation of short-term study abroad opportunities. Although they are both supplementing and replacing semester-long study abroad programs, research has focused primarily on semester (long-term) programs. We draw on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explore factors that predict why students choose long-term and…

  6. Nordic Experiences: Participants' Expectations and Experiences of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahikainen, Katariina; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Finnish high school students' and teachers' perceptions of the effects of short-term Nordic study abroad programs in which they had participated. The data presented were based on a "mixed-methods strategy." The data set consisted of responses from 158 students and 92 teachers to a…

  7. The Ineluctable Modality of the Audible: Perceptual Determinants of Auditory Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, David W.; Macken, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Classical cognitive accounts of verbal short-term memory (STM) invoke an abstract, phonological level of representation which, although it may be derived differently via different modalities, is itself amodal. Key evidence for this view is that serial recall of phonologically similar verbal items (e.g., the letter sounds "b", "c", "g", and "d") is…

  8. Verbal Short-Term Memory Performance in Pupils with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhameed, Hala; Porter, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that verbal short-term memory span is shorter in individuals with Down syndrome than in typically developing individuals of equivalent mental age, but little attention has been given to variations within or across groups. Differences in the environment and in particular educational experiences may play a part in the relative…

  9. Separating multiple, short-term deleterious effects of saline solutions to the growth of cowpea seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reductions in plant growth due to salinity are of global importance in natural and agricultural landscapes. Short-term (48 h) solution culture experiments studied 404 treatments with seedlings of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) to examine the multiple deleterious effects of Ca, Mg...

  10. Drawing versus Writing: The Role of Preference in Regulating Short-Term Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jennifer E.; Hodge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    In a pilot study we investigated whether the most effective medium for regulating short-term affect depends on one's preference for drawing or writing, and also investigated the emotion regulation strategy (distraction versus expression) spontaneously chosen when drawing and writing. Eighty undergraduates indicated their preference for drawing or…

  11. The Impact of Short-Term Economic Fluctuations on Kindergarten Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    For some 5-year-olds, delayed kindergarten enrollment may result in long-term academic benefits. Although waiting an additional year allows for further development prior to the start of formal education, the economic costs of the next best alternatives can be significant. This study examines the impact of short-term economic fluctuations on a…

  12. Clinical picture and risk prediction of short-term mortality in cardiogenic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Lassus, Johan; Sionis, Alessandro;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical picture and outcome of cardiogenic shock and to develop a risk prediction score for short-term mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: The CardShock study was a multicentre, prospective, observational study conducted between 2010 and 2012. Patie...

  13. Biogeochemistry of terrestrial soils as influenced by short-term flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many upland soils in the US Midwest are temporally flooded during the spring. The effects of short-term flooding on the biogeochemical processes that occur in these soils are not fully understood and are the subject of this study. To evaluate these biogeochemical processes, we investigated the REDOX...

  14. Effects of Short-Term Training of Community-Dwelling Elderly with Modular Interactive Tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Jessen, Jari Due

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to test for the increased mobility, agility, balancing, and general fitness of community-dwelling elderly individuals as a result of short-term training involving playing with modular interactive tiles (Entertainment Robotics, Odense, Denmark) at two...

  15. Short-Term Effects of State Deregulation on the Adequacy and Equity of School Facility Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Theodore J.; Decman, John C.

    2002-01-01

    In 1995, the Indiana Legislature deregulated state controls over public-school construction projects by reducing the status of required specifications to guidelines. Also, local taxpayers were given greater authority to prevent proposed projects. This study examines the short-term effects of this policy shift. (Contains 5 tables and 16…

  16. Short-Term Effects of a Writing Intervention among Adolescents in Gaza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Nielsen, Ida Ingridsdatter; Kolltveit, Silje; Thabet, Abdel Aziz Mousa; Dyregrov, Atle; Pallesen, Stale; Johnsen, Tom Backer; Laberg, Jon Christian

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a short-term group intervention titled Writing for Recovery in Gaza. Adolescents (N = 139) aged 12-17 were randomly assigned to an intervention or to a waiting list group. Levels of distress were assessed at baseline and at posttest. A follow-up assessment was conducted 5 months after both groups had received the…

  17. Short-term consumption of probiotic lactobacilli has no effect on acid production of supragingival plaque

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marttinen, Aino; Haukioja, Anna; Karjalainen, Sára;

    2011-01-01

    group. PCR analysis of plaque revealed the presence of LGG in four and L. reuteri in six subjects after the use of the probiotic. The use of the lactobacilli did not affect the acidogenicity or MS levels of plaque. Short-term consumption of LGG and L. reuteri appeared not to influence the acidogenicity...

  18. An Experiment on the Short-Term Effects of Engagement and Representation in Program Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Seppo; Sajaniemi, Jorma

    2008-01-01

    When visualization tools utilized in computer programming education have been evaluated empirically, the results have remained controversial. To address this problem, we have developed a model of short-term effects of program animation, and used it in a series of experiments. In the current experiment, we varied visual representation of an…

  19. Short-term action intentions overrule long-term semantic knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elk, M. van; Schie, H.T. van; Bekkering, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether the preparation of an unusual action with an object (e.g. bringing a cup towards the eye) could selectively overrule long-term semantic representations. In the first experiment it was found that unusual action intentions activated short-term semantic goa

  20. Short-Term Psychological Effects of Interactive Video Game Technology Exercise on Mood and Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, William D.; Newton, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Recent interest in interactive video game technology (IVGT) has spurred the notion that exercise from this technology may have meaningful physiological and psychological benefits for children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term psychological effects of interactive video game exercise in young adults and whether…

  1. Some effects of cognitive similarity on proactive and retriactive interference in short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, A.A.; Sanders, A.F.

    1972-01-01

    An experiment is reported on the effects of cognitive similarity on proactive and retroactive interference (PI, RI) in short term memory. To avoid confounding between cognitive and acoustic similarity, the materials - i.e. words and digits - were matched with respect to vowel pattern. Effects of bot

  2. Creative Activity, Personality, Mental Illness, and Short-Term Mating Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Melanie L.; Kaufman, Scott Barry; Kaufman, James C.

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that creativity evolved, at least in part, through sexual selection to attract mates. Recent research lends support to this view and has also demonstrated a link between certain dimensions of schizotypy, creativity, and short-term mating. The current study delves deeper into these relationships by focusing on engagement in…

  3. Working Memory and Short-Term Memory Abilities in Accomplished Multilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Adriana; Szczepaniak, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The role of short-term memory and working memory in accomplished multilinguals was investigated. Twenty-eight accomplished multilinguals were compared to 36 mainstream philology students. The following instruments were used in the study: three memory subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (Digit Span, Digit-Symbol Coding, and Arithmetic,…

  4. Phonological and Sensory Short-Term Memory Are Correlates and Both Affected in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasonen, Marja; Virsu, Veijo; Oinonen, Suvi; Sandbacka, Mirja; Salakari, Anita; Service, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether poor short-term memory (STM) in developmental dyslexia affects the processing of sensory stimulus sequences in addition to phonological material. STM for brief binary non-verbal stimuli (light flashes, tone bursts, finger touches, and their crossmodal combinations) was studied in 20 Finnish adults with dyslexia and 24…

  5. Short-Term Practice Effects and Brain Hypometabolism: Preliminary Data from an FDG PET Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Kevin; Horn, Kevin P.; Foster, Norman L.; Hoffman, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Practice effects are improvements in cognitive test scores due to repeated exposure to the same tests. Typically viewed as error, short-term practice effects have been shown to provide valuable clinical information about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment outcomes in older patients with mild cognitive impairments. This study examined short-term practice effects across one week and brain hypometabolism on fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 25 older adults (15 intact, 10 Mild Cognitive Impairment). Averaged cerebral brain metabolism on FDG PET was correlated with multiple cognitive scores at baseline in those with Mild Cognitive Impairment, and short-term practice effects accounted for additional variance in these same subjects. The relationship between brain metabolism and cognition (either at baseline or practice effects) was minimal in the intact individuals. Although needing replication in larger samples, short-term practice effects on tests of executive functioning and memory may provide valuable information about biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25908614

  6. Temporal Clustering and Sequencing in Short-Term Memory and Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Simon

    2012-01-01

    A model of short-term memory and episodic memory is presented, with the core assumptions that (a) people parse their continuous experience into episodic clusters and (b) items are clustered together in memory as episodes by binding information within an episode to a common temporal context. Along with the additional assumption that information…

  7. The Impact of International Internships and Short-Term Immersion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    For students in U.S. higher education institutions, global learning through study abroad has become a powerful force in student cultural competence. This chapter explores the impact of international internships and other short-term immersion experiences in further developing student learning, especially with respect to their understanding of the…

  8. Short-term effects of glucose and sucrose on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Nieuwerth-van de Rest, O.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we determined the short-term effects of a glucose drink and a sucrose drink compared to a placebo on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people with subjective, mild memory complaints using a randomized crossover study design. In total, 43 nondiabetic older adults with self-repor

  9. The right hippocampus participates in short-term memory maintenance of object-location associations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piekema, C.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Mars, R.B.; Petersson, K.M.; Fernandez, G.

    2006-01-01

    Doubts have been cast on the strict dissociation between short- and long-term memory systems. Specifically, several neuroimaging studies have shown that the medial temporal lobe, a region almost invariably associated with long-term memory, is involved in active short-term memory maintenance. Further

  10. The Role of Attention in the Maintenance of Feature Bindings in Visual Short-term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Hollingworth, Andrew; Luck, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of attention in maintaining feature bindings in visual short-term memory. In a change-detection paradigm, participants attempted to detect changes in the colors and orientations of multiple objects; the changes consisted of new feature values in a feature-memory condition and changes in how existing feature values were…

  11. Probed Serial Recall in Williams Syndrome: Lexical Influences on Phonological Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Jan; McCormack, Teresa; Boucher, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a genetic disorder that, it has been claimed, results in an unusual pattern of linguistic strengths and weaknesses. The current study investigated the hypothesis that there is a reduced influence of lexical knowledge on phonological short-term memory in Williams syndrome. Fourteen children with Williams syndrome and 2…

  12. The influence of titanium dioxide additive on the short-term DC breakdown strength of polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, M. S; Henk, Peter O; Henriksen, Mogens

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the addition of 1% by weight of titanium dioxide fine particles to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) on the short-term DC breakdown strength of the LDPE was investigated using direct and reverse polarity voltages. The samples used were cylinders of both plain and doped materials, with...

  13. Laparoscopic and open subtotal colectomies have similar short-term results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Froukje J.; Bosker, Robbert J. I.; Groen, Henk; Meijerink, Wilhelmus J. H. J.; Lamme, Bas; Pierie, Jean Pierre E. N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic subtotal colectomy (STC) is a complex procedure. It is possible that short-term benefits for segmental resections cannot be attributed to this complex procedure. This study aims to assess differences in shortterm results for laparoscopic versus open STC during a 15year singl

  14. Chapter 13. Short-term kinetics of soil microbial respiration - a general parameter across scales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šantrůčková, Hana; Kurbatova, J.A.; Shibistova, O.B.; Šmejkalová, M.; Uhlířová, Eva

    Dordrecht : Springer, 2005, s. 229-246. ISBN 978-1-4020-3446-6 Grant ostatní: Evropská unie(XE) EVK2-2002-00555 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : short-term kinetics * soil microbial respiration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. A follow-up study on short-term treatment of agoraphobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Rijken; F. Kraaimaat; C. de Ruiter; B. Garssen

    1992-01-01

    The differential effectiveness of three treatment packages for agoraphobia was tested. Patients received one of three short-term treatments: Breathing Retraining and Cognitive Restructuring, graded Self-Exposure in vivo, or a combination of both. No differential effects were found between the treatm

  16. Fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection for management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: short-term and long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Woo; Myung, Jae Sung; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Park, Kun Woo; Yeom, Jin S. [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Kim, Ki-Jeong; Kim, Hyun-Jib [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea)

    2010-07-15

    To evaluate the short-term and long-term effects of fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection (ESI) for the management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) and to analyze outcome predictors. All patients who underwent caudal ESI in 2006 for DLSS were included in the study. Response was based on chart documentation (aggravated, no change, slightly improved, much improved, no pain). In June 2009 telephone interviews were conducted, using formatted questions including the North American Spine Society (NASS) patient satisfaction scale. For short-term and long-term effects, age difference was evaluated by the Mann-Whitney U test, and gender, duration of symptoms, level of DLSS, spondylolisthesis, and previous operations were evaluated by Fisher's exact test. Two hundred and sixteen patients (male: female = 75:141; mean age 69.2 years; range 48{proportional_to}91 years) were included in the study. Improvements (slightly improved, much improved, no pain) were seen in 185 patients (85.6%) after an initial caudal ESI and in 189 patients (87.5%) after a series of caudal ESIs. Half of the patients (89/179, 49.8%) replied positively to the NASS patient satisfaction scale (1 or 2). There were no significant outcome predictors for either the short-term or the long-term responses. Fluoroscopically guided caudal ESI was effective for the management of DLSS (especially central canal stenosis) with excellent short-term and good long-term results, without significant outcome predictors. (orig.)

  17. THE ANALYSIS OF THE INDICATORS WHICH REFLECT THE ABILITY OF COMPANIES OF FACING SHORT TERM OBLIGATIONS AND MEDIUM AND LONG TERM MATURITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LĂPĂDUŞI MIHAELA LOREDANA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The company’s solvency and liquidity are two indicators of managing the financial stability, indicators whose management is reflected in a decisive manner on the company results. These are two basic requirements in achieving the financial stability of the company. If liquidity reflects the company's ability to meet short-term obligations, solvency reflects company's ability to meet the medium and long term maturities. One of the most important premises which determine the effective development of a company refers to the action of providing liquidity and solvency. These are the key indicators of financial stability management. Ensuring the solvency is the priority objective of a company that wants to maintain a financial autonomy and the flexibility of management resulting from the balance between revenues and cash flow payments. Liquidity represents the indicator that reflects the quality of the company's financial balance on short-term and measures the ability of the company to meet short-term obligations through rapid transformation of current assets into cash. The purpose of the research includes studying and analyzing the liquidity and solvency of the company whose scope should be reflected in achieving the optimal coefficients of the two indicators. Liquidity and solvency analysis is done by the system of rates that actually reflect those indicators that highlight whether a company has availability to meet short-term maturities or if the size of debt and financial costs allows the company to meet the medium and long term maturities.

  18. Fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection for management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: short-term and long-term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the short-term and long-term effects of fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection (ESI) for the management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) and to analyze outcome predictors. All patients who underwent caudal ESI in 2006 for DLSS were included in the study. Response was based on chart documentation (aggravated, no change, slightly improved, much improved, no pain). In June 2009 telephone interviews were conducted, using formatted questions including the North American Spine Society (NASS) patient satisfaction scale. For short-term and long-term effects, age difference was evaluated by the Mann-Whitney U test, and gender, duration of symptoms, level of DLSS, spondylolisthesis, and previous operations were evaluated by Fisher's exact test. Two hundred and sixteen patients (male: female = 75:141; mean age 69.2 years; range 48∝91 years) were included in the study. Improvements (slightly improved, much improved, no pain) were seen in 185 patients (85.6%) after an initial caudal ESI and in 189 patients (87.5%) after a series of caudal ESIs. Half of the patients (89/179, 49.8%) replied positively to the NASS patient satisfaction scale (1 or 2). There were no significant outcome predictors for either the short-term or the long-term responses. Fluoroscopically guided caudal ESI was effective for the management of DLSS (especially central canal stenosis) with excellent short-term and good long-term results, without significant outcome predictors. (orig.)

  19. Short-term synaptic plasticity in the nociceptive thalamic-anterior cingulate pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt Brent A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the mechanisms of short- and long-term potentiation of nociceptive-evoked responses are well known in the spinal cord, including central sensitization, there has been a growing body of information on such events in the cerebral cortex. In view of the importance of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in chronic pain conditions, this review considers neuronal plasticities in the thalamocingulate pathway that may be the earliest changes associated with such syndromes. Results A single nociceptive electrical stimulus to the sciatic nerve induced a prominent sink current in the layer II/III of the ACC in vivo, while high frequency stimulation potentiated the response of this current. Paired-pulse facilitation by electrical stimulation of midline, mediodorsal and intralaminar thalamic nuclei (MITN suggesting that the MITN projection to ACC mediates the nociceptive short-term plasticity. The short-term synaptic plasticities were evaluated for different inputs in vitro where the medial thalamic and contralateral corpus callosum afferents were compared. Stimulation of the mediodorsal afferent evoked a stronger short-term synaptic plasticity and effectively transferred the bursting thalamic activity to cingulate cortex that was not true for contralateral stimulation. This short-term enhancement of synaptic transmission was mediated by polysynaptic pathways and NMDA receptors. Layer II/III neurons of the ACC express a short-term plasticity that involves glutamate and presynaptic calcium influx and is an important mechanism of the short-term plasticity. Conclusion The potentiation of ACC neuronal activity induced by thalamic bursting suggest that short-term synaptic plasticities enable the processing of nociceptive information from the medial thalamus and this temporal response variability is particularly important in pain because temporal maintenance of the response supports cortical integration and memory formation related to

  20. Short-term wind power prediction based on LSSVM–GSA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A hybrid model is developed for short-term wind power prediction. • The model is based on LSSVM and gravitational search algorithm. • Gravitational search algorithm is used to optimize parameters of LSSVM. • Effect of different kernel function of LSSVM on wind power prediction is discussed. • Comparative studies show that prediction accuracy of wind power is improved. - Abstract: Wind power forecasting can improve the economical and technical integration of wind energy into the existing electricity grid. Due to its intermittency and randomness, it is hard to forecast wind power accurately. For the purpose of utilizing wind power to the utmost extent, it is very important to make an accurate prediction of the output power of a wind farm under the premise of guaranteeing the security and the stability of the operation of the power system. In this paper, a hybrid model (LSSVM–GSA) based on the least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) is proposed to forecast the short-term wind power. As the kernel function and the related parameters of the LSSVM have a great influence on the performance of the prediction model, the paper establishes LSSVM model based on different kernel functions for short-term wind power prediction. And then an optimal kernel function is determined and the parameters of the LSSVM model are optimized by using GSA. Compared with the Back Propagation (BP) neural network and support vector machine (SVM) model, the simulation results show that the hybrid LSSVM–GSA model based on exponential radial basis kernel function and GSA has higher accuracy for short-term wind power prediction. Therefore, the proposed LSSVM–GSA is a better model for short-term wind power prediction

  1. Maternal haemoglobin and short-term neonatal outcome in preterm neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Savajols

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a significant association between maternal haemoglobin measured before delivery and short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates. STUDY DESIGN: We included prospectively all live births occurring from 25 to 32+6 weeks of gestation in a tertiary care centre between January 1(st 2009 and December 31(st 2011. Outborn infants and infants presenting with lethal malformations were excluded. Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 409 infants met the inclusion criteria. For each mother-infant pair a prospective record of epidemiologic data was performed and maternal haemoglobin concentration recorded within 24 hours before delivery was retrospectively researched. Maternal haemoglobin was divided into quartiles with the second and the third one regarded as reference as they were composed of normal haemoglobin values. Short-term outcome was defined as poor in case of death during hospital stay and/or grades III/IV intraventricular haemorrhage and/or periventricular leukomalacia and/or necessity of ventriculoperitoneal shunt. RESULTS: The global rate of poor short-term neonatal outcome was 11.4% and was significantly associated with low maternal haemoglobin values. This association remained significant after adjustment for antenatal corticosteroids therapy, gestational age, parity, mechanism of preterm birth, mode of delivery and birth weight (aOR = 2.97 CI 95% [1.36-6.47]. There was no relation between short-term neonatal outcome and high maternal haemoglobin concentration values. CONCLUSION: We show that low maternal haemoglobin concentration at delivery is an independent risk factor for poor short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates. This study is one of the first to show such an association within the preterm population.

  2. Variations of short-term slow slip events along the Nankai Trough to the Ryukyu Trench, southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, T.

    2013-12-01

    ETSs (Episodic Tremor and Slips) occur at a depth of 30-40 km on the plate interface of the subducting Philippine Sea plate along the Nankai trough, southwest Japan (e.g., Obara, 2010). Low-frequency tremors along the Nankai Trough suddenly disappeared southwest of the Bungo Channel between Shikoku and Kyushu, which is a junction between the southwest Honshu arc along the Nankai Trough and the Ryukyu arc along the Ryukyu Trench. Any short-term SSEs (slow slip events) have never been reported southwest of the Bungo Chanel, though Mw~7 long-term SSEs repeated in the Bungo Channel every ~6 years (e.g., Ozawa et al., 2013). Here, we apply a SSE detection method using continuous GNSS data (Nishimura et al., 2013) to find out SSEs in a region along the Nankai Trough to the Ryukyu Trench. We also compare the detected SSEs with epicenters of low-frequency tremors, very-low-frequency earthquakes (VLFEs), and regular earthquakes and discuss along-trench variations on short-term SSE characteristics. Daily coordinates of ~800 GEONET GNSS stations in southwest Japan were used to detect displacements caused by short-term SSEs. We divided a whole region into three regions for spatial filtering to reduce a noise of GNSS data. We fitted a step function with a linear trend to spatial-filtered daily coordinates to detect significant displacements in a direction opposite to the relative plate motion between the Philippine Sea plate and southwest Japan. If Akaike's information criterion expressing data fits exceeds a threshold, three-dimensional displacements were inverted to estimate a rectangular fault along the plate interface. We found more than 200 probable short-term SSEs in the region over 16 years. In western Shikoku, we detected 49 Mw ~6.0 ETSs. SSEs with a similar magnitude are found at the same depth range in northeast Kyushu without tremors although the number of detected SSEs is only 10. In the further southwest region, we found several shallow SSEs at a depth of 10-40 km

  3. Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to compare the short-term respiratory effects due to the inhalation of electronic and conventional tobacco cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols through the measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). To this purpose, twenty-five smokers were asked to smoke a conventional cigarette and to vape an electronic cigarette (with and without nicotine), and an electronic cigarette without liquid (control session). Electronic and tobacco cigarette mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of total particle number concentrations and size distributions. On the basis of the measured total particle number concentrations and size distributions, the average particle doses deposited in alveolar and tracheobronchial regions of the lungs for a single 2-s puff were also estimated considering a subject performing resting (sitting) activity. Total particle number concentrations in the mainstream resulted equal to 3.5 ± 0.4 × 109, 5.1 ± 0.1 × 109, and 3.1 ± 0.6 × 109 part. cm−3 for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively. The corresponding alveolar doses for a resting subject were estimated equal to 3.8 × 1010, 5.2 × 1010 and 2.3 × 1010 particles. The mean eNO variations measured after each smoking/vaping session were equal to 3.2 ppb, 2.7 ppb and 2.8 ppb for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively; whereas, negligible eNO changes were measured in the control session. Statistical tests performed on eNO data showed statistically significant differences between smoking/vaping sessions and the control session, thus confirming a similar effect on human airways whatever the cigarette smoked/vaped, the nicotine content, and the particle dose received. - Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes (with and without nicotine) mainstream aerosols were analyzed; • Particle number concentrations and size distributions were

  4. Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, Sara, E-mail: s.marini@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino (Italy); Buonanno, Giorgio [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino (Italy); Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Stabile, Luca; Ficco, Giorgio [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the short-term respiratory effects due to the inhalation of electronic and conventional tobacco cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols through the measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). To this purpose, twenty-five smokers were asked to smoke a conventional cigarette and to vape an electronic cigarette (with and without nicotine), and an electronic cigarette without liquid (control session). Electronic and tobacco cigarette mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of total particle number concentrations and size distributions. On the basis of the measured total particle number concentrations and size distributions, the average particle doses deposited in alveolar and tracheobronchial regions of the lungs for a single 2-s puff were also estimated considering a subject performing resting (sitting) activity. Total particle number concentrations in the mainstream resulted equal to 3.5 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 9}, 5.1 ± 0.1 × 10{sup 9}, and 3.1 ± 0.6 × 10{sup 9} part. cm{sup −3} for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively. The corresponding alveolar doses for a resting subject were estimated equal to 3.8 × 10{sup 10}, 5.2 × 10{sup 10} and 2.3 × 10{sup 10} particles. The mean eNO variations measured after each smoking/vaping session were equal to 3.2 ppb, 2.7 ppb and 2.8 ppb for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively; whereas, negligible eNO changes were measured in the control session. Statistical tests performed on eNO data showed statistically significant differences between smoking/vaping sessions and the control session, thus confirming a similar effect on human airways whatever the cigarette smoked/vaped, the nicotine content, and the particle dose received. - Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes (with and without nicotine) mainstream aerosols were analyzed; • Particle number

  5. Short-term outcomes of a program developed to inculcate research essentials in undergraduate medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, V; Ramnarayan, K; Abraham, RR; Pallath, V; Kamath, A; Kodidela, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Participation in research during undergraduate studies may increase students’ interest in research and inculcate research essentials in them. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the mentored student project (MSP) program. Settings and Design: In the MSP program, students in groups (n = 3 to 5) undertook a research project, wrote a scholarly report, and presented the work as a poster presentation with the help of a faculty mentor. To begin with, the logic model of the program was developed to identify short-term outcomes of the program on students, mentors, and the institution. A quasi-experimental design was used to measure the outcomes. Materials and Methods: A mixed method evaluation was done using a newly-developed questionnaire to assess the impact of the MSP on students’ attitude, a multiple-choice question (MCQs) test to find out the impact on students’ knowledge and grading of students’ project reports and posters along with a survey to check the impact on skills. Students’ satisfaction regarding the program and mentors’ perceptions were collected using questionnaires. Evidence for validity was collected for all the instruments used for the evaluation. Statistical Analysis: Non-parametric tests were used to analyze data. Based on the scores, project reports and posters were graded into A (>70% marks), B (60-69% marks), and C (<59% marks) categories. The number of MSPs that resulted in publications, conference presentation and departmental collaborations were taken as impact on the institution. Results: Students’ response rate was 91.5%. The students’ attitudes regarding research changed positively (P = 0.036) and score in the MCQ test improved (P < 0.001) after undertaking MSP. Majority of project reports and posters were of grade A category. The majority of the items related to skills gained and satisfaction had a median score of 4. The MSPs resulted in inter-departmental and inter

  6. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM YOGA PRACTICES ON PSYCHOLOGICA L GENERAL WELL BEING IN MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Yoga is assuming importance in improving mental healt h and quality of life and in the treatment of a number of psychiatric and psychosomatic disorder s. Medical students are foundation of the medical profession; hence they must be aware of the alternative and adjunct therapy for the betterment of their patients. One of the most benefi cial alternative therapies is Yoga therapy. Medical students must know how yoga is useful for t heir patients. Keeping this objective in mind, the present study was conducted on medical stu dents to make them aware what yoga is and to encourage them to incorporate yoga in their l ife and to use it for the benefits of their patients as an adjunct to the medicinal treatment. T he study was conducted on healthy medical students (21 males and 15 females of age group 17-2 1 years in the department of physiology, Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Medical College, and Mahara ja Yashwantrao Hospital, Indore. After obtaining an informed consent; and satisfying the i nclusion and exclusion criteria, the psychological well being of the subjects was assesse d by “Psychological General Well Being Schedule Score (Sajatovic 2003” on the first day b efore the subjects started yoga practices. The students performed the yoga practices in the morning for one hour, six days in a week, for four weeks under expert’s observation. The yoga practices consisted of Prayer, Omkar recitation, asana, and Pranayama. Psychological well being was assessed using the same schedule score on the last day of yoga programme. Data thus collected were compiled, tabulated and analyzed by using students’ ‘t’ test. There was highly signific ant improvement in psychological well being of the students as denoted by p value of <.0.001. Concl usion: There is a marked improvement in the psychological well being scores of the students after performing short-term yoga practices. By extending these results we suggest that short-te rm yoga practices can therefore

  7. Impact of short-term dietary modification on postprandial oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloomer Richard J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently reported that short-term (21-day dietary modification in accordance with a stringent vegan diet (i.e., a Daniel Fast lowers blood lipids as well as biomarkers of oxidative stress. However, this work only involved measurements obtained in a fasted state. In the present study, we determined the postprandial response to a high-fat milkshake with regards to blood triglycerides (TAG, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and hemodynamic variables before and following a 21-day Daniel Fast. Methods Twenty-two subjects (10 men and 12 women; aged 35 ± 3 years completed a 21-day Daniel Fast. To induce oxidative stress, a milkshake (fat = 0.8 g·kg-1; carbohydrate = 1.0 g·kg-1; protein = 0.25 g·kg-1 was consumed by subjects on day one and day 22 in a rested and 12-hour fasted state. Before and at 2 and 4 h after consumption of the milkshake, heart rate (HR and blood pressure were measured. Blood samples were also collected at these times and analyzed for TAG, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, nitrate/nitrite (NOx, and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC. Results A time effect was noted for HR (p = 0.006, with values higher at 2 hr post intake of the milkshake as compared to pre intake (p p = 0.02, and a trend for lower systolic blood pressure was noted (p = 0.07. Time effects were noted for TAG (p = 0.001, MDA (p 2O2 (p p p p p = 0.02, which was higher post fast as compared to pre fast. No pre/post fast × time interactions were noted (p > 0.05, with the area under the curve from pre to post fast reduced only slightly for TAG (11%, MDA (11%, H2O2 (8%, and AOPP (12%, with a 37% increase noted for NOx. Conclusion Partaking in a 21-day Daniel Fast does not result in a statistically significant reduction in postprandial oxidative stress. It is possible that a longer time course of adherence to the Daniel Fast eating plan may be needed to observe significant

  8. A score to predict short-term risk of COPD exacerbations (SCOPEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Make BJ

    2015-01-01

    properties of predictive variables. Results: The best predictors of an exacerbation in the next 6 months were more COPD maintenance medications prior to the trial, higher mean daily reliever use, more exacerbations during the previous year, lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio, and female sex. Using these risk variables, we developed a score to predict short-term (6-month risk of COPD exacerbations (SCOPEX. Budesonide/formoterol reduced future exacerbation risk more than formoterol or as-needed short-acting ß2-agonist (salbutamol. Conclusion: SCOPEX incorporates easily identifiable patient characteristics and can be readily applied in clinical practice to target therapy to reduce COPD exacerbations in patients at the highest risk. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exacerbation, model, predictor, inhaled corticosteroids, bronchodilators 

  9. Short-term outcomes of a program developed to inculcate research essentials in undergraduate medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Devi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Participation in research during undergraduate studies may increase students′ interest in research and inculcate research essentials in them. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the mentored student project (MSP program. Settings and Design: In the MSP program, students in groups (n = 3 to 5 undertook a research project, wrote a scholarly report, and presented the work as a poster presentation with the help of a faculty mentor. To begin with, the logic model of the program was developed to identify short-term outcomes of the program on students, mentors, and the institution. A quasi-experimental design was used to measure the outcomes. Materials and Methods: A mixed method evaluation was done using a newly-developed questionnaire to assess the impact of the MSP on students′ attitude, a multiple-choice question (MCQs test to find out the impact on students′ knowledge and grading of students′ project reports and posters along with a survey to check the impact on skills. Students′ satisfaction regarding the program and mentors′ perceptions were collected using questionnaires. Evidence for validity was collected for all the instruments used for the evaluation. Statistical Analysis: Non-parametric tests were used to analyze data. Based on the scores, project reports and posters were graded into A (>70% marks, B (60-69% marks, and C (<59% marks categories. The number of MSPs that resulted in publications, conference presentation and departmental collaborations were taken as impact on the institution. Results: Students′ response rate was 91.5%. The students′ attitudes regarding research changed positively (P = 0.036 and score in the MCQ test improved (P < 0.001 after undertaking MSP. Majority of project reports and posters were of grade A category. The majority of the items related to skills gained and satisfaction had a median score of 4. The MSPs resulted in inter-departmental and inter

  10. Short-term cold exposure may cause a local decrease of neuropeptide Y in the rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joong Jean; Lee, Heung Kyung; Shin, Min Woo; Kim, Sung Jin; Noh, Seung Yeon; Shin, Jin; Yu, Woo Sung

    2007-02-28

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an orexigenic and hypothermic peptide. To understand its role in hypothermic conditions, male rats were placed in a 24 degrees C or 4 degrees C air chamber for 1.5 h. The expression of c-Fos protein, and NPY mRNA and protein, was analyzed in the hypothalamus 1 h-2 h later. The cold treatment increased the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) and arcuate nucleus (ARC). At the same time it decreased the density of NPY-immunoreactive components in the PVN, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus and ARC, as well as of NPY transcripts in the PVN and ARC. No colocalization of c-Fos with NPY was detected. These results suggest that short-term cold exposure should reduce indirectly NPY production in some hypothalamic nuclei to facilitate thermogenesis without inducing feeding behavior. PMID:17464216

  11. Short-term prediction of the influent quantity time series of wastewater treatment plant based on a chaos neural network model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaodong; ZENG Guangming; HUANG Guohe; LI Jianbing; JIANG Ru

    2007-01-01

    By predicting influent quantity,a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) can be well controlled.The nonlinear dynamic characteristic of WWTP influent quantity time series was analyzed,with the assumption that the series was predictable.Based on this,a short-term forecasting chaos neural network model of WWTP influent quantity was built by phase space reconstruction.Reasonable forecasting results were achieved using this method.

  12. 'EMU equity markets' return variance and spill over effects from short-term interest rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Ai Jun

    2013-01-01

    The DCF (Discounted Cash flow) Model provides the theoretical background for the possible impact of interest rate changes on equity prices. This paper examines the spillover effects from the movement of short term interest rates to equity markets within the Euro area. The empirical study is carried......), stock returns have a negative relationship with the volatility, and the volatility process responds asymmetrically to shocks to equity returns, especially to bad news. The other regime (a bull market regime) appears to be a high mean, low variance state, within which the returns have a positive...... relationship with the volatility, and the volatility is lower and more persistent. We find also that there is a significant impact of fluctuations in the short term interest rate on the conditional variance and conditional returns in the EMU countries. Such impact is asymmetrical, and it appears to be stronger...

  13. Neuroevolution Results in Emergence of Short-Term Memory for Goal-Directed Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhman, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    Animals behave adaptively in the environment with multiply competing goals. Understanding of the mechanisms underlying such goal-directed behavior remains a challenge for neuroscience as well for adaptive system research. To address this problem we developed an evolutionary model of adaptive behavior in the multigoal stochastic environment. Proposed neuroevolutionary algorithm is based on neuron's duplication as a basic mechanism of agent's recurrent neural network development. Results of simulation demonstrate that in the course of evolution agents acquire the ability to store the short-term memory and, therefore, use it in behavioral strategies with alternative actions. We found that evolution discovered two mechanisms for short-term memory. The first mechanism is integration of sensory signals and ongoing internal neural activity, resulting in emergence of cell groups specialized on alternative actions. And the second mechanism is slow neurodynamical processes that makes possible to code the previous behav...

  14. Short-Term Forecasting of Urban Water Consumption Based on the Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An approach for short-term forecasting of municipal water consumption was presented based on the largest Lyapunov exponent of chaos theory. The chaotic characteristics of time series of urban water consumption were examined by means of the largest Lyapunov exponent and correlation dimension. By using the largest Lyapunov exponent a short-term forecasting model for urban water consumption was developed, which was compared with the artificial neural network (ANN) approach in a case study. The result indicates that the model based on the largest Lyapunov exponent has higher prediction precision and forecasting stability than the ANN method, and its forecasting mean relative error is 9.6% within its maximum predictable time scale while it is 60.6% beyond the scale.

  15. The Gaia spectrophotometric standard stars survey - III. Short-term variability monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Marinoni, S; Altavilla, G; Bellazzini, M; Galleti, S; Tessicini, G; Valentini, G; Cocozza, G; Ragaini, S; Braga, V; Bragaglia, A; Federici, L; Schuster, W J; Carrasco, J M; Castro, A; Figueras, F; Jordi, C

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the short-term constancy monitoring of candidate Gaia Spectrophotometric Standard Stars (SPSS). We obtained time series of typically 1.24 hour - with sampling periods from 1-3 min to a few hours, depending on the case - to monitor the constancy of our candidate SPSS down to 10 mmag, as required for the calibration of Gaia photometric data. We monitored 162 out of a total of 212 SPSS candidates. The observing campaign started in 2006 and finished in 2015, using 143 observing nights on nine different instruments covering both hemispheres. Using differential photometry techniques, we built light curves with a typical precision of 4 mmag, depending on the data quality. As a result of our constancy assessment, 150 SPSS candidates were validated against short term variability, and only 12 were rejected because of variability including some widely used flux standards such as BD+174708, SA 105-448, 1740346, and HD 37725.

  16. Longitudinal relationships between language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Næss, Kari-Anne B; Lervåg, Arne; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles

    2015-07-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at risk for language difficulties, the nature of which is not well understood. This study compared the longitudinal predictors of language skills in children with Down syndrome with those in typically developing control children matched for initial level of nonverbal mental ability. An age cohort of children with Down syndrome (n=43) and 57 typically developing control children was assessed on measures of vocabulary, grammar, and verbal short-term memory three times at yearly intervals. Children with Down syndrome showed slower development on all measures than the typically developing controls. Longitudinal analyses showed moderate to high stability of language and verbal short-term memory skills. Our results confirm earlier evidence of pervasive language learning difficulties in this group and suggest that early language intervention should be given high priority. PMID:25819288

  17. Clinical Evaluation of Xylazine-Butorphanol-Guaifenesin-Ketamine as Short-Term TIVA in Equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Partap Singh Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Xylazine (1.1 mg/kg, butorphanol (0.02 mg/kg, guaifenesin 5% (20 mg/kg, and ketamine (2.2 mg/kg combinations were able to induce short-term surgical anaesthesia for 23.33 ± 2.57 min in Spiti ponies with excellent to good muscle relaxation and analgesia. Urination and neighing was a constant feature during recovery period. Biphasic P wave, biphasic T wave, and depressed PR segment were common electrocardiographic findings. Biochemical attributes were within physiological limits except a significant increase in ALT values during anaesthesia. The values returned to normal during recovery ruling out any renal or hepatic toxicity. Occasionally, negative T wave, notched P wave, and sinus block were noticed. It is recommended that the anaesthetic combinations xylazine-butorphanol-guaifenesin-ketamine can be safely used for short-term total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA in equines under field conditions.

  18. Integration of real options into short-term mine planning and production scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-xing; KNIGHTS Peter

    2009-01-01

    Commodity prices have fallen sharply due to the global financial crisis. This has adversely affected the viability of some mining projects, including leading to the possibility of bankruptcy for some companies. These price falls reflect uncertainties and risks associated with mining projects. In recent years, much work has been published related to the application of real options pric-ing theory to value life-of-mine plans in response to long term financial uncertainty and risk. However, there are uncertainties and risks associated with medium/short-term mining operations. Real options theory can also be applied to tactical decisions involving uncertainties and risks. This paper will investigate the application of real options in the mining industry and present a methodology developed at University of Queensland, Australia, for integrating real options into medium/short-term mine planning and produc-tion scheduling. A case study will demonstrate the validity and usefulness of the methodology and techniques developed.

  19. Short term variations in Jupiter's synchrotron radiation derived from VLA data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, H.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Morioka, A.

    2011-12-01

    Jupiter's synchrotron radiation (JSR) is the emission from relativistic electrons in the strong magnetic field of the inner magnetosphere, and it is the most effective prove for remote sensing of Jupiter's radiation belt from the Earth. Although JSR has been thought to be stable for a long time, intensive observations for JSR have made after the collisions of comet P/SL9 to Jupiter in 1994, and these observations revealed short term variations of JSR on time scale of days to weeks. However, the mechanisms which cause the short term variations of total flux density and brightness distribution have not been revealed well. In order to reveal the mechanism of short term variations of JSR more precisely, we have made radio image analysis using the NRAO (National Radio Astronomy Observatory) archived data of the VLA [*]. Brice and McDonough [1973, Icarus] proposed a scenario for the short term variations: i.e, the solar UV/EUV heating for Jupiter's upper atmosphere drives neutral wind perturbations and then the induced dynamo electric field leads to enhancement of radial diffusion. It is also suggested that induced dynamo electric field produce dawn-dusk electric potential difference, which cause dawn-dusk asymmetry in electron spatial distribution and emission distribution. So far the following results have been indicated for the short term variations. Miyoshi et al. [1999, GRL] showed that a short term variation event at 2.3GHz is well correlate to solar UV/EUV flux variations. Tsuchiya et al. [2010, Adv. Geosci.] showed that JSR at 325MHz and 785MHz have short term variations. These JSR observations confirmed the existence of the short term variation which is caused by solar UV/EUV. However, the effect of solar UV/EUV heating on the spatial distribution of JSR has never been confirmed, so this study is the first attempt to confirm the solar UV/EUV effect on spatial distribution of JSR. We have selected the data observed from 28th Jan. to 5th Feb. 2000 at 327MHz

  20. Short-term aluminium-induced changes in barley root tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinová, Veronika; Halušková, Lubica; Huttová, Jana; Illéš, Peter; Mistrík, Igor; Valentovičová, Katarína; Tamás, Ladislav

    2011-07-01

    The short-term exposure of barley roots to low Al concentration caused significant root growth inhibition and radial swelling of roots. During Al treatment, the radial expansion of root cells occurred in root tissues representing elongation zone and meristem. Both low pH and Al treatments caused significant disruption of cell membranes in swollen roots. In contrast to Evans blue uptake callose formation was observed only at higher Al concentrations and was detected in both swollen and adjacent root areas. Similarly to Al, exogenous short-term application of indole-3-acetic acid, polar transport inhibitor triiodobenzoic acid, ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid or H(2)O(2) evoked root growth inhibition and radial cell expansion in barley root tip too. PMID:20734093