WorldWideScience

Sample records for analyzing short-term noise

  1. Analyzing Short-Term Disability Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houff, James N.; Wiatrowski, William J.

    1989-01-01

    The Bureau of Labour Statistics has combined data on sick leave and sickness and accident insurance. Results show that short-term disability benefits vary by length of service and between the private and public sectors. (Author)

  2. The effect of short-term musical training on speech perception in noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Jain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of short-term musical training on speech perception in noise. In the present study speech perception in noise was measured pre- and post- short-term musical training. The musical training involved auditory perceptual training for raga identification of two Carnatic ragas. The training was given for eight sessions. A total of 18 normal hearing adults in the age range of 18-25 years participated in the study wherein group 1 consisted of ten individuals who underwent musical training and group 2 consisted of eight individuals who did not undergo any training. Results revealed that post training, speech perception in noise improved significantly in group 1, whereas group 2 did not show any changes in speech perception scores. Thus, short-term musical training shows an enhancement of speech perception in the presence of noise. However, generalization and long-term maintenance of these benefits needs to be evaluated.

  3. Reduction of randomness in seismic noise as a short-term precursor to a volcanic eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, C. C.; Konstantinou, K. I.

    2016-11-01

    Ambient seismic noise is characterized by randomness incurred by the random position and strength of the noise sources as well as the heterogeneous properties of the medium through which it propagates. Here we use ambient noise data recorded prior to the 1996 Gjálp eruption in Iceland in order to show that a reduction of noise randomness can be a clear short-term precursor to volcanic activity. The eruption was preceded on 29 September 1996 by a Mw ~5.6 earthquake that occurred in the caldera rim of the Bárdarbunga volcano. A significant reduction of randomness started occurring 8 days before the earthquake and 10 days before the onset of the eruption. This reduction was observed even at stations more than 100 km away from the eruption site. Randomness increased to its previous levels 160 minutes after the Bárdarbunga earthquake, during which time aftershocks migrated from the Bárdarbunga caldera to a site near the Gjálp eruption fissure. We attribute this precursory reduction of randomness to the lack of higher frequencies (>1 Hz) in the noise wavefield caused by high absorption losses as hot magma ascended in the upper crust.

  4. Kinetics of fast short-term depression are matched to spike train statistics to reduce noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanbabaie, Reza; Nesse, William H; Longtin, Andre; Maler, Leonard

    2010-06-01

    Short-term depression (STD) is observed at many synapses of the CNS and is important for diverse computations. We have discovered a form of fast STD (FSTD) in the synaptic responses of pyramidal cells evoked by stimulation of their electrosensory afferent fibers (P-units). The dynamics of the FSTD are matched to the mean and variance of natural P-unit discharge. FSTD exhibits switch-like behavior in that it is immediately activated with stimulus intervals near the mean interspike interval (ISI) of P-units (approximately 5 ms) and recovers immediately after stimulation with the slightly longer intervals (>7.5 ms) that also occur during P-unit natural and evoked discharge patterns. Remarkably, the magnitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials appear to depend only on the duration of the previous ISI. Our theoretical analysis suggests that FSTD can serve as a mechanism for noise reduction. Because the kinetics of depression are as fast as the natural spike statistics, this role is distinct from previously ascribed functional roles of STD in gain modulation, synchrony detection or as a temporal filter.

  5. Analyzing The Relationship Among The GDP - Current Account Deficit and Short Term Capital Flows: The Case of Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ekrem AKBAŞ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was analyzed if there was causal relationship among the current deficit, short term capital flows and economic growth in emerging markets. Before causality test was done, CDLM tests were done in order to the fact that to be able to determine if there was cross section dependence in countries form the panel. At the end of CDLM tests cross section dependence in emerging markets form the panel was determined. Then, panel causality test developed was done. According to the result of panel causality test bidirectional causality between current account deficit and GDP, unidirectional causality from short term capital flows to current deficit and GDP were determined.

  6. Noise model based ν-support vector regression with its application to short-term wind speed forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinghua; Zhang, Shiguang; Xie, Zongxia; Mi, Jusheng; Wan, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Support vector regression (SVR) techniques are aimed at discovering a linear or nonlinear structure hidden in sample data. Most existing regression techniques take the assumption that the error distribution is Gaussian. However, it was observed that the noise in some real-world applications, such as wind power forecasting and direction of the arrival estimation problem, does not satisfy Gaussian distribution, but a beta distribution, Laplacian distribution, or other models. In these cases the current regression techniques are not optimal. According to the Bayesian approach, we derive a general loss function and develop a technique of the uniform model of ν-support vector regression for the general noise model (N-SVR). The Augmented Lagrange Multiplier method is introduced to solve N-SVR. Numerical experiments on artificial data sets, UCI data and short-term wind speed prediction are conducted. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  7. Short-term annoyance reactions to stationary and time-varying wind turbine and road traffic noise: A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffer, Beat; Schlittmeier, Sabine J; Pieren, Reto; Heutschi, Kurt; Brink, Mark; Graf, Ralf; Hellbrück, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Current literature suggests that wind turbine noise is more annoying than transportation noise. To date, however, it is not known which acoustic characteristics of wind turbines alone, i.e., without effect modifiers such as visibility, are associated with annoyance. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate and compare the short-term noise annoyance reactions to wind turbines and road traffic in controlled laboratory listening tests. A set of acoustic scenarios was created which, combined with the factorial design of the listening tests, allowed separating the individual associations of three acoustic characteristics with annoyance, namely, source type (wind turbine, road traffic), A-weighted sound pressure level, and amplitude modulation (without, periodic, random). Sixty participants rated their annoyance to the sounds. At the same A-weighted sound pressure level, wind turbine noise was found to be associated with higher annoyance than road traffic noise, particularly with amplitude modulation. The increased annoyance to amplitude modulation of wind turbines is not related to its periodicity, but seems to depend on the modulation frequency range. The study discloses a direct link of different acoustic characteristics to annoyance, yet the generalizability to long-term exposure in the field still needs to be verified.

  8. Short-Term Effects of Low-Level Heavy Metal Contamination on Soil Health Analyzed by Nematode Community Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byeong-Yong; Lee, Jae-Kook; Ro, Hee-Myong; Kim, Young Ho

    2016-08-01

    The short-term effects of low-level contamination by heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, and Pb) on the soil health were examined by analyzing soil nematode community in soils planted with tomatoes. For this, the soils were irrigated with five metal concentrations ([1, 1/4, 1/4(2), 1/4(3), and 0] × maximum concentrations [MC] detected in irrigation waters near abandoned mine sites) for 18 weeks. Heavy metal concentrations were significantly increased in soils irrigated with MC of heavy metals, among which As and Cu exceeded the maximum heavy metal residue contents of soil approved in Korea. In no heavy metal treatment controls, nematode abundances for all trophic groups (except omnivorous-predatory nematodes [OP]) and colonizer-persister (cp) values (except cp-4-5) were significantly increased, and all maturity indices (except maturity index [MI] of plant-parasitic nematodes) and structure index (SI) were significantly decreased, suggesting the soil environments might have been disturbed during 18 weeks of tomato growth. There were no concentration-dependent significant decreases in richness, abundance, or MI for most heavy metals; however, their significant decreases occurred in abundance and richness of OP and cp-4, MI2-5 (excluding cp-1) and SI, indicating disturbed soil ecosystems, at the higher concentrations (MC and MC/4) of Pb that had the most significant negative correlation coefficients for heavy metal concentrations and nematode community among the heavy metals. Therefore, the short-term effects of low-level heavy metal contamination on soil health can be analyzed by nematode community structures before the appearance of plant damages caused by the abiotic agents, heavy metals.

  9. Road and rail traffic noise induce comparable extra-aural effects as revealed during a short-term memory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Gallasch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine extraaural effects as induced by 20 min of road (ROAD and 20 min of rail (RAIL traffic noise with same loudness (75 dBA, a laboratory study was carried out. The study (N = 54 consisted of 28 high and 26 low-annoyed healthy individuals as determined by a traffic annoyance test. To control attention, all individuals performed a nonauditory short-term memory test during the noise exposures. A within-subject design, with phases of ROAD, RAIL, and CALM (memory test only, alternated by phases of rest, was defined. Heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (sBP, total peripheral resistance (TPR, as well as three autonomic variables, preejection period (PEP, 0.15–0.4 Hz high-frequency component of HR variability (HF, and salivary stress biomarker alpha amylase (sAA were measured. In relation to CALM, HR increased (RAIL +2.1%, ROAD +2.5%, sBP tended to increase against the end of noise exposure, PEP decreased (RAIL −0.7%, ROAD −0.8%, HF decreased (RAIL −3.4%, ROAD −2.9%, and sAA increased (RAIL +78%, ROAD +69%. No differences were found between RAIL and ROAD, indicating that both noise stressors induced comparable extraaural effects. Factor annoyance showed significant during CALM. Here a reduced sympathetic drive (higher PEP values combined with an increased vascular tone (higher TPR values was found at the high-annoyed subgroup.

  10. Age-Related Benefits of Digital Noise Reduction for Short-Term Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the rate of word learning for children with hearing loss (HL) in quiet and in noise compared to normal-hearing (NH) peers. The effects of digital noise reduction (DNR) were examined for children with HL. Method: Forty-one children with NH and 26 children with HL were grouped by age (8-9 years and 11-12 years). The children…

  11. The Efficacy of Short-term Gated Audiovisual Speech Training for Improving Auditory Sentence Identification in Noise in Elderly Hearing Aid Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Shahram; Wahlin, Anna; Hällgren, Mathias; Rönnberg, Jerker; Lidestam, Björn

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the efficacy and maintenance of short-term (one-session) gated audiovisual speech training for improving auditory sentence identification in noise in experienced elderly hearing-aid users. Twenty-five hearing aid users (16 men and 9 women), with an average age of 70.8 years, were randomly divided into an experimental (audiovisual training, n = 14) and a control (auditory training, n = 11) group. Participants underwent gated speech identification tasks comprising Swedish consonants and words presented at 65 dB sound pressure level with a 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio (steady-state broadband noise), in audiovisual or auditory-only training conditions. The Hearing-in-Noise Test was employed to measure participants’ auditory sentence identification in noise before the training (pre-test), promptly after training (post-test), and 1 month after training (one-month follow-up). The results showed that audiovisual training improved auditory sentence identification in noise promptly after the training (post-test vs. pre-test scores); furthermore, this improvement was maintained 1 month after the training (one-month follow-up vs. pre-test scores). Such improvement was not observed in the control group, neither promptly after the training nor at the one-month follow-up. However, no significant between-groups difference nor an interaction between groups and session was observed. Conclusion: Audiovisual training may be considered in aural rehabilitation of hearing aid users to improve listening capabilities in noisy conditions. However, the lack of a significant between-groups effect (audiovisual vs. auditory) or an interaction between group and session calls for further research. PMID:28348542

  12. Advanced bridge instrument for the measurement of the phase noise and of the short-term frequency stability of ultra-stable quartz resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Sthal, Fabrice; Salzenstein, Patrice; Galliou, Serge; Cibiel, Gilles; Rubiola, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    High-stability quartz oscillators are needed in a number of space applications. A short-term stability of parts in 10^{-14} [Allan deviation \\sigma y(\\tau) ] is sometimes required, for integration time \\tau of approximately 1-10 s. The Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the FEMTO-ST Institute (formerly LPMO and LCEP), have been collaborating for many years in this domain, aiming at measuring and at understanding the oscillator noise. The highest stability has been observed on 5 MHz and 10 MHz bulk acoustic-wave resonators. Yet this stability is still not sufficient, or the the manufacturing method is not reproducible. Recently, the analysis of a few premium-stability oscillators has demonstrated that the oscillator frequency instability is due to the fluctuation of the resonator natural frequency, rather than to the noise of the sustaining amplifier via the Leeson effect. It is therefore natural to give attention to the measurement of the resonator fluctuations.

  13. I-States-as-Objects-Analysis (ISOA): Extensions of an Approach to Studying Short-Term Developmental Processes by Analyzing Typical Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Lars R.; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; von Eye, Alexander A.

    2012-01-01

    I-states-as-objects-analysis (ISOA) is a person-oriented methodology for studying short-term developmental stability and change in patterns of variable values. ISOA is based on longitudinal data with the same set of variables measured at all measurement occasions. A key concept is the "i-state," defined as a person's pattern of variable…

  14. Does Content Matter? Analyzing the Change in Global Awareness between Business- and Nonbusiness-Focused Short-Term Study Abroad Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Stephen B.; Kurt, Mark; Olitsky, Neal H.

    2015-01-01

    Business schools have long sought to increase students' global awareness. Short-term study abroad (STSA) experiences are becoming increasingly popular ways of generating awareness. While a handful of studies have found evidence of efficacy, none have specifically tested how courses with business content differ from other STSAs. Using a…

  15. Analyzing machine noise for real time maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Yoji; Fukumoto, Yoshifumi; Kumazaki, Hiroki

    2017-02-01

    Recently, IoT technologies have been progressed and applications of maintenance area are expected. However, IoT maintenance applications are not spread in Japan yet because of one-off solution of sensing and analyzing for each case, high cost to collect sensing data and insufficient maintenance automation. This paper proposes a maintenance platform which analyzes sound data in edges, analyzes only anomaly data in cloud and orders maintenance automatically to resolve existing technology problems. We also implement a sample application and compare related work.

  16. A Short Term Analogue Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan

    1992-01-01

    A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...

  17. Sources of noise in Brillouin optical time-domain analyzers

    OpenAIRE

    Urricelqui Polvorinos, Javier; Soto, Marcelo A.; Thévenaz, Luc

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a thorough study of the different sources of noise affecting Brillouin optical time-domain analyzers (BOTDA), providing a deep insight into the understanding of the fundamental limitations of this kind of sensors. Analytical and experimental results indicate that the noise source ultimately fixing the sensor performance depends basically on the fiber length and the input pump-probe powers. Thus, while the phase-to-intensity noise conversion induced by stimulated Brillouin ...

  18. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202). The feature article for this issue is Demand, Supply and Price Outlook for Reformulated Gasoline, 1995.

  19. Short term synaptic depression improves information transfer in perceptual multistability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary P Kilpatrick

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Competitive neural networks are often used to model the dynamics of perceptual bistability. Switching between percepts can occur through fluctuations and/or a slow adaptive process. Here, we analyze switching statistics in competitive networks with short term synaptic depression and noise. We start by analyzing a ring model that yields spatially structured solutions and complement this with a study of a space-free network whose populations are coupled with mutual inhibition. Dominance times arising from depression driven switching can be approximated using a separation of timescales in the ring and space-free model. For purely noise-driven switching, we derive approximate energy functions to justify how dominance times are exponentially related to input strength. We also show that a combination of depression and noise generates realistic distributions of dominance times. Unimodal functions of dominance times are more easily told apart by sampling, so switches induced by synaptic depression induced provide more information about stimuli than noise-driven switching. Finally, we analyze a competitive network model of perceptual tristability, showing depression generates a history-dependence in dominance switching.

  20. Pediatric polytrauma : Short-term and long-term outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderSluis, CK; Kingma, J; Eisma, WH; tenDuis, HJ

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To assess the short-term and long-term outcomes of pediatric polytrauma patients and to analyze the extent to which short-term outcomes can predict long-term outcomes. Materials and Methods: Ail pediatric polytrauma patients (Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 16, less than

  1. The base-scale entropy analysis of short-term heart rate variability signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jin; NING Xinbao

    2005-01-01

    The complexity of heart rate variability (HRV) signal can reflect physiological functions and healthy status of heart system. Detecting complexity of the short-term HRV signal has an important practical meaning. We introduce the base-scale entropy method to analyze the complexity of time series. The advantages of our method are its simplicity, extremely fast calculation for very short data and anti-noise characteristic. For the well-known chaotic dynamical system―logistic map, it is shown that our complexity behaves similarly to Lyapunov exponents, and is especially effective in the presence of random Gaussian noise. This paper addresses the use of base-scale entropy method to 3 low-dimensional nonlinear deterministic systems. At last, we apply this idea to short-term HRV signal, and the result shows the method could robustly identify patterns generated from healthy and pathologic states, as well as aging. The base-scale entropy can provide convenience in practically applications.

  2. Long short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochreiter, S; Schmidhuber, J

    1997-11-15

    Learning to store information over extended time intervals by recurrent backpropagation takes a very long time, mostly because of insufficient, decaying error backflow. We briefly review Hochreiter's (1991) analysis of this problem, then address it by introducing a novel, efficient, gradient-based method called long short-term memory (LSTM). Truncating the gradient where this does not do harm, LSTM can learn to bridge minimal time lags in excess of 1000 discrete-time steps by enforcing constant error flow through constant error carousels within special units. Multiplicative gate units learn to open and close access to the constant error flow. LSTM is local in space and time; its computational complexity per time step and weight is O(1). Our experiments with artificial data involve local, distributed, real-valued, and noisy pattern representations. In comparisons with real-time recurrent learning, back propagation through time, recurrent cascade correlation, Elman nets, and neural sequence chunking, LSTM leads to many more successful runs, and learns much faster. LSTM also solves complex, artificial long-time-lag tasks that have never been solved by previous recurrent network algorithms.

  3. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  4. Short-term intercultural psychotherapy: ethnographic inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Karen M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical practice. Such approaches allow clinicians conducting short-term intercultural treatments to foreground clients' indigenous conceptions of selfhood, mind, relationship, and emotional disturbance, and thus to more fully grasp their internal, interpersonal, and external worlds. This article demonstrates the uses of clinically adapted ethnographic inquiry in three short-term intercultural cases.

  5. Short-term GNSS satellite clock stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, E.; Kursinski, E. R.; Akos, D.

    2015-08-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) clock stability is characterized via the modified Allan deviation using active hydrogen masers as the receiver frequency reference. The high stability of the maser reference allows the GNSS clock contribution to the GNSS carrier phase variance to be determined quite accurately. Satellite clock stability for four different GNSS constellations are presented, highlighting the similarities and differences between the constellations as well as satellite blocks and clock types. Impact on high-rate applications, such as GNSS radio occultation (RO), is assessed through the calculation of the maximum carrier phase error due to clock instability. White phase noise appears to dominate at subsecond time scales. However, while we derived the theoretical contribution of white phase modulation to the modified Allan deviation, our analysis of the GNSS satellite clocks was limited to 1-200 s time scales because of inconsistencies between the subsecond results from the commercial and software-defined receivers. The rubidium frequency standards on board the Global Positioning System (GPS) Block IIF, BeiDou, and Galileo satellites show improved stability results in comparison to previous GPS blocks for time scales relevant to RO. The Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) satellites are the least stable of the GNSS constellations in the short term and will need high-rate corrections to produce RO results comparable to those from the other GNSS constellations.

  6. Short-term managerial contracts facilitate cartels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows how a series of commonly observed short-term CEO employment contracts improves cartel stability compared to a long-term contract. When a manager’s short-term appointment is renewed if and only if the firm hits a certain profit target, then (a) defection from collusion results in sup

  7. Confined placental mosaicism in short term culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Bojana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding of fetal chromosomal mosaicism complicates genetic counseling, as well as pregnancy management. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of confined placental mosaicism in short term culture of chorionic villous samples. We conducted a retrospective review of karyotype analysis results obtained after chorionic villous sampling (CVS in two years period. A 420 samples of chorionic villi were taken transabdominally and obtained by a semidirect method (overnight incubating culture. All fetuses with CVS mosaicism were under the intensive perinatal care. In all cases of chromosome mosaicism the additional karyotyping was performed from fetal blood samples after 22nd gestational week in order to exclude true fetal mosaicism. After delivery newborns were examined by experienced pediatrician. From 420 analyzed samples in 11 (2,6% cases we found placental mosaicism. No anomalies were seen in genetic sonogram of this fetuses and mosaicism was confirmed only in one case. Confined placental mosaicism (CPM was found in 2,1% (9/420 of all analyzed cases, and it made 90% of all placental mosaicism. In 60% (6/10 of placental mosaicism cases we found mosaicism with single aberrant cell. Trisomy 21 mosaicism was the most frequent aberration found in 30% of cases. Finding of mosaicism in chorionic villi sample is at special importance for genetic counseling, because every case has to be reveled individually regarding the type and level of mosaicism. Anyway, in every case of placental mosaicism intensive antenatal monitoring is necessary, with additional chromosome analysis from different tissue in consideration of previous findings.

  8. Visual Short-Term Memory Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 letters has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez...

  9. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. Fourth quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-05

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.

  10. Short Term Airing by Natural Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Perino, M.

    2010-01-01

    principles is necessary. The present study analyses and presents the results of an experimental evaluation of airing performance in terms of ventilation characteristics, IAQ and thermal comfort. It includes investigations of the consequences of opening time, opening frequency, opening area and expected...... airflow rate, ventilation efficiency, thermal comfort and dynamic temperature conditions. A suitable laboratory test rig was developed to perform extensive experimental analyses of the phenomenon under controlled and repeatable conditions. The results showed that short-term window airing is very effective...... and can provide both acceptable IAQ and thermal comfort conditions in buildings....

  11. Implementation of short-term prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landberg, L.; Joensen, A.; Giebel, G. [and others

    1999-03-01

    This paper will giver a general overview of the results from a EU JOULE funded project (`Implementing short-term prediction at utilities`, JOR3-CT95-0008). Reference will be given to specialised papers where applicable. The goal of the project was to implement wind farm power output prediction systems in operational environments at a number of utilities in Europe. Two models were developed, one by Risoe and one by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Both prediction models used HIRLAM predictions from the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). (au) EFP-94; EU-JOULE. 11 refs.

  12. Auditory short-term memory activation during score reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle L Simoens

    Full Text Available Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback.

  13. Short term depression unmasks the ghost frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeerd V Olde Scheper

    Full Text Available Short Term Plasticity (STP has been shown to exist extensively in synapses throughout the brain. Its function is more or less clear in the sense that it alters the probability of synaptic transmission at short time scales. However, it is still unclear what effect STP has on the dynamics of neural networks. We show, using a novel dynamic STP model, that Short Term Depression (STD can affect the phase of frequency coded input such that small networks can perform temporal signal summation and determination with high accuracy. We show that this property of STD can readily solve the problem of the ghost frequency, the perceived pitch of a harmonic complex in absence of the base frequency. Additionally, we demonstrate that this property can explain dynamics in larger networks. By means of two models, one of chopper neurons in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus and one of a cortical microcircuit with inhibitory Martinotti neurons, it is shown that the dynamics in these microcircuits can reliably be reproduced using STP. Our model of STP gives important insights into the potential roles of STP in self-regulation of cortical activity and long-range afferent input in neuronal microcircuits.

  14. Short-term energy outlook, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  16. Visual Short-Term Memory Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 letters has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez...... and Cavanagh (2004) have raised the question that the capacity of VSTM is dependent on visual complexity rather than the number of objects. We hypothesise that VSTM capacity is dependent on both the objective and subjective complexity of visual stimuli. Contrary to Alvarez and Cavanagh, who argue for the role...... of objective complexity, it seems that subjective complexity - which is dependent on the familiarity of the stimulus - plays a more important role than the objective visual complexity of the objects stored. In two studies, we explored how familiarity influences the capacity of VSTM. 1) In children learning...

  17. A Simple Hybrid Model for Short-Term Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suseelatha Annamareddi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a simple hybrid model to forecast the electrical load data based on the wavelet transform technique and double exponential smoothing. The historical noisy load series data is decomposed into deterministic and fluctuation components using suitable wavelet coefficient thresholds and wavelet reconstruction method. The variation characteristics of the resulting series are analyzed to arrive at reasonable thresholds that yield good denoising results. The constitutive series are then forecasted using appropriate exponential adaptive smoothing models. A case study performed on California energy market data demonstrates that the proposed method can offer high forecasting precision for very short-term forecasts, considering a time horizon of two weeks.

  18. Short-term prognosis and risk factors of ventricular septal rupture following acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小莹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the short-term prognosis and risk factors of ventricular septal rupture(VSR)following acute myocardial infarction(AMI).Methods A total of 70 consecutive VSR patients following AMI hospitalized in

  19. Short-term prognosis and risk factors of ventricular septal rupture following acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小莹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the short-term prognosis and risk factors of ventricular septal rupture(VSR)following acute myocardial infarction(AMI).Methods A total of 70 consecutive VSR patients following AMI

  20. Short-term predictions of solar flares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, V. A.

    1990-02-01

    A review of present-day theoretical investigations of the problem of the accumulation and release of energy in solar flares permits advancing the opinion that only individual flare events are described by a concrete model and that a single model alone does not describe the entire diversity of flares. Consideration of the observational data does not permit claiming the existence of a single universal mechanism known today of flare events. It appears possible to treat the problem of prediction in terms of the algebra of logic (Boolean logic) and to compare the truth table with the often-used contingency table. The introduction of a number of very general assumptions permits forming a general approach to the development of predictive schemes and selection of the individual elements of the models and informative criteria. Experimental results are given on the testing of some prediction procedures. The author's procedure of routine short-term prediction of flares on the basis of the methods of instruction on pattern recognition implemented in the form of a set of programs is outlined. The results of the application of this procedure in 1986 - 1988 are presented.

  1. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  2. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  3. Continuity of Landsat observations: Short term considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulder, M.A.; White, Joanne C.; Masek, J.G.; Dwyer, J.; Roy, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    As of writing in mid-2010, both Landsat-5 and -7 continue to function, with sufficient fuel to enable data collection until the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) scheduled for December of 2012. Failure of one or both of Landsat-5 or -7 may result in a lack of Landsat data for a period of time until the 2012 launch. Although the potential risk of a component failure increases the longer the sensor's design life is exceeded, the possible gap in Landsat data acquisition is reduced with each passing day and the risk of Landsat imagery being unavailable diminishes for all except a handful of applications that are particularly data demanding. Advances in Landsat data compositing and fusion are providing opportunities to address issues associated with Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery and to mitigate a potential acquisition gap through the integration of imagery from different sensors. The latter will likely also provide short-term, regional solutions to application-specific needs for the continuity of Landsat-like observations. Our goal in this communication is not to minimize the community's concerns regarding a gap in Landsat observations, but rather to clarify how the current situation has evolved and provide an up-to-date understanding of the circumstances, implications, and mitigation options related to a potential gap in the Landsat data record. ?? 2010.

  4. Short-term energy outlook, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. Atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel resulting from short term exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, R.; Cook, D.C.; Perez, T.; Reyes, J. [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The study of corrosion products from short term atmospheric exposures of carbon steel, is very important to understand the processes that lead to corrosion of steels, and ultimately improve the performance of such steel in highly corrosive environments. Many regions along the Gulf of Mexico have extremely corrosive environments due to high mean annual temperature, humidity, time-of-wetness and every high atmospheric pollutants. The process the formation of corrosion products resulting from short term exposure of carbon steel, both as a function of environmental conditions and exposure time, has been investigated. Two sets of coupons were exposed at marine and marine locations, in Campeche, Mexico. Each set was exposed between 1 and 12 months to study the corrosion as a function of time. During the exposure periods, the relative humidity, rainfall, mean temperature, wind speed and wind direction were monitored along with the chloride and sulfur dioxide concentrations in the air. The corroded coupons were analyzed by Moessbauer, Raman, Infrared spectroscopies and X-ray diffraction in order to completely identify the oxides and map their location in the corrosion coating. Scattering and transmission Moessbauer analysis showed some layering of the oxides with lepidocrocite and akaganeite closer to the surface. The fraction of akaganeite phase increased at sites with higher chloride concentrations. A detailed analysis on the development of the oxide phases as a function of exposure time and environmental conditions will be presented. (Author)

  6. Short-term energy outlook, Annual supplement 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-25

    This supplement is published once a year as a complement to the Short- Term Energy Outlook, Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts. Chap. 2 analyzes the response of the US petroleum industry to the recent four Federal environmental rules on motor gasoline. Chap. 3 compares the EIA base or mid case energy projections for 1995 and 1996 (as published in the first quarter 1995 Outlook) with recent projections made by four other major forecasting groups. Chap. 4 evaluates the overall accuracy. Chap. 5 presents the methology used in the Short- Term Integrated Forecasting Model for oxygenate supply/demand balances. Chap. 6 reports theoretical and empirical results from a study of non-transportation energy demand by sector. The empirical analysis involves the short-run energy demand in the residential, commercial, industrial, and electrical utility sectors in US.

  7. The Domestic Market for Short-term Debt Securities

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Boge; Ian Wilson

    2011-01-01

    The market for short-term debt is dominated by the issuance of bank securities. Yields on these securities act as an important reference rate within the financial system. The turmoil in global markets during recent years has led to significant changes in the short-term debt market as the funding profiles of banks and other issuers of short-term securities has altered.

  8. Advancement and prospect of short-term numerical climate prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The defects of present methods of short-term numerical climate prediction are discussed in this paper, and four challenging problems are put forward. Considering our under developed computer conditions, we should innovate in the approcuch of numerical climate prediction on the basis of our own achievements and experiences in the field of short-term numerical climate prediction. It is possibly an effective way to settle the present defects of short-term numerical climate prediction.``

  9. Short-term facilitation may stabilize parametric working memory trace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir eItskov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Networks with continuous set of attractors are considered to be a paradigmatic model for parametric working memory, but require fine-tuning of connections and are thus structurally unstable. Here we analyzed the network with ring attractor, where connections are not perfectly tuned and the activity state therefore drifts in the absence of the stabilizing stimulus. We derive an analytical expression for the drift dynamics and conclude that the network cannot function as working memory for a period of several seconds, a typical delay time in monkey memory experiments. We propose that short-term synaptic facilitation in recurrent connections significantly improves the robustness of the model by slowing down the drift of activity bump. Extending the calculation of the drift velocity to network with synaptic facilitation, we conclude that facilitation can slow down the drift by a large factor, rendering the network suitable as a model of working memory.

  10. Short-term sleep deprivation stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis in rats following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumei Cheng

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation (SD plays a complex role in central nervous system (CNS diseases. Recent studies indicate that short-term SD can affect the extent of ischemic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether short-term SD could stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (GCIR.One hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Sham, GCIR and short-term SD groups based on different durations of SD; the short-term SD group was randomly divided into three subgroups: the GCIR+6hSD*3d-treated, GCIR+12hSD-treated and GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated groups. The GCIR rat model was induced via the bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries and hemorrhagic hypotension. The rats were sleep-deprived starting at 48 h following GCIR. A Morris water maze test was used to assess learning and memory ability; cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed via 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and neuron-specific enolase (NSE, respectively, at 14 and 28 d; the expression of hippocampal BDNF was measured after 7 d.The different durations of short-term SD designed in our experiment exhibited improvement in cognitive function as well as increased hippocampal BDNF expression. Additionally, the short-term SD groups also showed an increased number of BrdU- and BrdU/NSE-positive cells compared with the GCIR group. Of the three short-term SD groups, the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated group experienced the most substantial beneficial effects.Short-term SD, especially the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated method, stimulates neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG of rats that undergo GCIR, and BDNF may be an underlying mechanism in this process.

  11. [Short-term memory characteristics of vibration intensity tactile perception on human wrist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fei; Chen, Li-Juan; Lu, Wei; Song, Ai-Guo

    2014-12-25

    In this study, a recall experiment and a recognition experiment were designed to assess the human wrist's short-term memory characteristics of tactile perception on vibration intensity, by using a novel homemade vibrotactile display device based on the spatiotemporal combination vibration of multiple micro vibration motors as a test device. Based on the obtained experimental data, the short-term memory span, recognition accuracy and reaction time of vibration intensity were analyzed. From the experimental results, some important conclusions can be made: (1) The average short-term memory span of tactile perception on vibration intensity is 3 ± 1 items; (2) The greater difference between two adjacent discrete intensities of vibrotactile stimulation is defined, the better average short-term memory span human wrist gets; (3) There is an obvious difference of the average short-term memory span on vibration intensity between the male and female; (4) The mechanism of information extraction in short-term memory of vibrotactile display is to traverse the scanning process by comparison; (5) The recognition accuracy and reaction time performance of vibrotactile display compares unfavourably with that of visual and auditory. The results from this study are important for designing vibrotactile display coding scheme.

  12. 22 CFR 62.21 - Short-term scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short-term scholars. 62.21 Section 62.21 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Specific Program Provisions § 62.21 Short-term scholars. (a) Introduction. These regulations govern scholars...

  13. Short-term growth in asthmatic children using fluticasone propionate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, MJ; van Aalderen, WMC; Elliott, BM; Odink, RJ; Brand, PLP

    1998-01-01

    Background: Inhaled corticosteroids may reduce short-term growth velocity in asthmatic children and knemometry is the most sensitive tool to detect this short-term growth suppression. Study objective: To compare lower leg growth velocity, as measured by knemometry, in asthmatic children during and a

  14. Short-term Memory Training in Listening Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一菡

    2015-01-01

    Listening comprehension is a basic skill in English learning.Here,we will talk about the relationship between the short-term memory and listening comprehension, and try to find the way of the short-term memory training to improve the skill of the students in middle school.

  15. Short-Term Robustness of Production Management Systems : New Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Gaury, E.G.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the short-term robustness of production planning and control systems. This robustness is defined here as the systems ability to maintain short-term service probabilities (i.e., the probability that the fill rate remains within a prespecified range), in a variety of environmen

  16. The mind and brain of short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L; Nee, Derek Evan; Lustig, Cindy A; Berman, Marc G; Moore, Katherine Sledge

    2008-01-01

    The past 10 years have brought near-revolutionary changes in psychological theories about short-term memory, with similarly great advances in the neurosciences. Here, we critically examine the major psychological theories (the "mind") of short-term memory and how they relate to evidence about underlying brain mechanisms. We focus on three features that must be addressed by any satisfactory theory of short-term memory. First, we examine the evidence for the architecture of short-term memory, with special attention to questions of capacity and how--or whether--short-term memory can be separated from long-term memory. Second, we ask how the components of that architecture enact processes of encoding, maintenance, and retrieval. Third, we describe the debate over the reason about forgetting from short-term memory, whether interference or decay is the cause. We close with a conceptual model tracing the representation of a single item through a short-term memory task, describing the biological mechanisms that might support psychological processes on a moment-by-moment basis as an item is encoded, maintained over a delay with some forgetting, and ultimately retrieved.

  17. Short-term hydropower production planning by stochastic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Kristoffersen, Trine

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of multi-stage mixed-integer linear stochastic programming we develop a short-term production plan for a price-taking hydropower plant operating under uncertainty. Current production must comply with the day-ahead commitments of the previous day which makes short-term product......Within the framework of multi-stage mixed-integer linear stochastic programming we develop a short-term production plan for a price-taking hydropower plant operating under uncertainty. Current production must comply with the day-ahead commitments of the previous day which makes short...

  18. Analog VLSI Circuits for Short-Term Dynamic Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chii Liu

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Short-term dynamical synapses increase the computational power of neuronal networks. These synapses act as additional filters to the inputs of a neuron before the subsequent integration of these signals at its cell body. In this work, we describe a model of depressing and facilitating synapses derived from a hardware circuit implementation. This model is equivalent to theoretical models of short-term synaptic dynamics in network simulations. These circuits have been added to a network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. A cortical model of direction-selectivity that uses short-term dynamic synapses has been implemented with this network.

  19. Short-term incentive schemes for hospital managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Malambe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Short-term incentives, considered to be an extrinsic motivation, are commonly used to motivate performance. This study explored hospital managers’ perceptions of short term incentives in maximising performance and retention.Research purpose: The study explored the experiences, views and perceptions of private hospital managers in South Africa regarding the use of short-term incentives to maximise performance and retention, as well as the applicability of the findings to public hospitals.Motivation for the study: Whilst there is an established link between performance reward schemes and organisational performance, there is little understanding of the effects of short term incentives on the performance and retention of hospital managers within the South African context.Research design, approach, and method: The study used a qualitative research design: interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 19 hospital managers, and a thematic content analysis was performed.Main findings: Short-term incentives may not be the primary motivator for hospital managers, but they do play a critical role in sustaining motivation. Participants indicated that these schemes could also be applicable to public hospitals.Practical/managerial implications: Hospital managers are inclined to be more motivated by intrinsic than extrinsic factors. However, hospital managers (as middle managers also seem to be motivated by short-term incentives. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators should thus be used to maximise performance and retention.Contribution/value-add: Whilst the study sought to explore hospital managers’ perceptions of short-term incentives, it also found that an adequate balance between internal and external motivators is key to implementing an effective short-term incentive scheme.

  20. Encephalopathy and vestibulopathy following short-term hydrocarbon exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, M J; Furman, J; Ryan, C; Durrant, J; Kern, E

    1989-01-01

    Dizziness, headaches, and weakness occurred among three men after short-term hydrocarbon exposure during improper welding procedures in a closed container. Symptoms were related to objective evidence of vestibular and cognitive dysfunction. Symptoms and abnormal test results persisted for 6 to 18 months. Simulation of the accident failed to demonstrate likely exposures except aliphatic hydrocarbons, well within the permissible exposure levels. Short-term exposures to neurotoxins may lead to long-term central nervous system abnormalities.

  1. Short-term load forecasting using neural network for future smart grid application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zennamo, Joseph Anthony, III

    Short-term load forecasting of power system has been a classic problem for a long time. Not merely it has been researched extensively and intensively, but also a variety of forecasting methods has been raised. This thesis outlines some aspects and functions of smart meter. It also presents different policies and current statuses as well as future projects and objectives of SG development in several countries. Then the thesis compares main aspects about latest products of smart meter from different companies. Lastly, three types of prediction models are established in MATLAB to emulate the functions of smart grid in the short-term load forecasting, and then their results are compared and analyzed in terms of accuracy. For this thesis, more variables such as dew point temperature are used in the Neural Network model to achieve more accuracy for better short-term load forecasting results.

  2. Short-term statistics of waves measured off Ratnagiri, eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amrutha, M.M.; SanilKumar, V.

    coast of India have been analyzed to study the short-term statistics of waves covering full one year period. The study indicates that the values of the observed maximum wave height as a function of duration are not consistent with the theoretical...

  3. Exposing Students to Repeat Photography: Increasing Cultural Understanding on a Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmons, Kelly K.; Brannstrom, Christian; Hurd, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, repeat photography has been used to analyze land cover change. This paper describes how repeat photography may be used as a tool to enhance the short-term study abroad experience by facilitating cultural interaction and understanding. We present evidence from two cases and suggest a five-step repeat photography method for educators…

  4. Adipose gene expression response of lean and obese mice to short-term dietary restriction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, Evert M van; Keijer, Jaap; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Opperhuizen, Antoon; Brom, Charissa E van den; Kohl, Thomas; Franssen-van Hal, Nicole L W; Hoebee, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Overweight and obesity lead to higher morbidity risks, which are alleviated even by mild weight loss. To gain insight in the molecular effects of weight loss in adipose tissue, we analyzed the effects of short-term dietary restriction (DR) on mice fed a low-fat diet (lean mice) or a high-fat diet (o

  5. Adipose gene expression response of lean and obese mice to short-term dietary restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Keijer, J.; Pennings, J.L.A.; Opperhuizen, A.; Brom, van den C.E.; Kohl, T.; Franssen-Hal, van N.L.W.; Hoebee, B.

    2006-01-01

    Overweight and obesity lead to higher morbidity risks, which are alleviated even by mild weight loss. To gain insight in the molecular effects of weight loss in adipose tissue, we analyzed the effects of short-term dietary restriction (DR) on mice fed a low-fat diet (lean mice) or a high-fat diet (o

  6. Asymmetric features of short-term blood pressure variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, Przemyslaw; Piskorski, Jaroslaw; Krauze, Tomasz; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Wysocki, Henryk

    2010-11-01

    Prolongations of cardiac cycles have a significantly larger contribution to short-term heart rate variability than shortenings--this is called heart rate asymmetry. Our aim is to establish the existence of blood pressure asymmetry phenomenon, which has not been done so far. We used 30-min resting continuous recordings of finger pressure waveforms from 227 healthy young volunteers (19-31 years old; 97 female), and performed Poincaré plot analysis of systolic blood pressure (SBP) to quantify the effect. Median contribution of SBP increases (C(i)) to short-term blood pressure variability was 52.8% (inter-quartile range: 50.9-55.1%) and median number of SBP increases (N(i)) was 48.8% (inter-quartile range: 47.2-50.1%). The C(i)>50% was found in 82% (P<0.0001; binomial test) and N(i)<50% in 75% (P<0.0001) of the subjects. Although SBP increases are significantly less abundant than reductions, their contribution to short-term blood pressure variability is significantly larger, which means that short-term blood pressure variability is asymmetric. SBP increases and reductions have unequal contribution to short-term blood pressure variability at supine rest in young healthy people. As this asymmetric behavior of blood pressure variability is present in most of the healthy studied people at rest, it can be concluded that blood pressure asymmetry is a physiological phenomenon.

  7. Short term memory, physical fitness, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Rossanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity in adolescents is a major health problem and has been associated with low academic achievement. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a role in appetite suppression and memory, and its secretion is enhanced by physical activity. This neurotrophin may be associated with academic achievement in obese. Objective To compare physical fitness and serum BDNF levels to short term memory levels in obese adolescents aged 10–14 years. Methods This comparative, cross-sectional, analytic study was carried out on 40 elementary and high school students in Bandung, West Java, who were recruited by stratified random sampling. Short term memory was assessed by a psychologist using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Digit Span test (WISC-III Digit Span. Physical fitness was assessed by a clinical exercise physiologist using the Asian Committee on the Standardization of Physical Fitness Test (ACSPFT. Serum BDNF levels were measured by ELISA test in a certified laboratory. ANOVA test was used to assess for a correlation between serum BDNF concentration and short term memory, as well as between physical fitness level and short term memory. Pearson’s correlation test was used to analyze for a correlation between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels. Results The majority of subjects were in the physical fitness categories of moderate or poor. Subjects had a mean BDNF level of 44,227.8 (SD 10,359 pg/mL. There was no statistically significant difference in physical fitness with either serum BDNF or with short term memory levels (P=0.139 and P=0.383, respectively. Also, no correlation was determined between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels (r=0.222; P=0.169. Conclusion In obese adolescents, short term memory levels are not significantly different between physical fitness levels nor between serum BDNF levels.

  8. Short term memory, physical fitness, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Rossanti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity in adolescents is a major health problem and has been associated with low academic achievement. Brainderived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a role in appetite suppression and memory, and its secretion is enhanced by physical activity. This neurotrophin may be associated with academic achievement in obese. Objective To compare physical fitness and serum BDNF levels to short term memory levels in obese adolescents aged 10–14 years. Methods This comparative, cross-sectional, analytic study was carried out on 40 elementary and high school students in Bandung, West Java, who were recruited by stratified random sampling. Short term memory was assessed by a psychologist using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Digit Span test (WISC-III Digit Span. Physical fitness was assessed by a clinical exercise physiologist using the Asian Committee on the Standardization of Physical Fitness Test (ACSPFT. Serum BDNF levels were measured by ELISA test in a certified laboratory. ANOVA test was used to assess for a correlation between serum BDNF concentration and short term memory, as well as between physical fitness level and short term memory. Pearson’s correlation test was used to analyze for a correlation between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels. Results The majority of subjects were in the physical fitness categories of moderate or poor. Subjects had a mean BDNF level of 44,227.8 (SD 10,359 pg/mL. There was no statistically significant difference in physical fitness with either serum BDNF or with short term memory levels (P=0.139 and P=0.383, respectively. Also, no correlation was determined between serum BDNF and physical fitness levels (r=0.222; P=0.169. Conclusion In obese adolescents, short term memory levels are not significantly different between physical fitness levels nor between serum BDNF levels.

  9. Why do short term workers have high mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    Increased mortality is often reported among workers in short term employment. This may indicate either a health-related selection process or the presence of different lifestyle or social conditions among short term workers. The authors studied these two aspects of short term employment among 16......,404 Danish workers in the reinforced plastics industry who were hired between 1978 and 1985 and were followed to the end of 1988. Preemployment hospitalization histories for 1977-1984 were ascertained and were related to length of employment between 1978 and 1988. Workers who had been hospitalized prior...... to employment showed a 20% higher risk of early termination of employment than those never hospitalized (rate ratio (RR) = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.16-1.29), and the risk increased with number of hospitalizations. For workers with two or more preemployment hospitalizations related to alcohol abuse...

  10. The epidemiology of long- and short-term cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarlbæk, Lene; Christensen, Linda; Bruera, Eduardo;

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In this study, we present data from a population-based cohort of incident cancer patients separated in long- and short-term survivors. Our aim was to procure denominators for use in the planning of rehabilitation and palliative care programs. Material and methods. A registry......-linkage cohort study. All cancer patients, diagnosed from 1993 to 2003 from a 470 000 large population, were followed individually from diagnosis to death or until 31 December 2008. Long-term survivors lived five years or more after the time of the cancer diagnosis (TOCD). Short-term survivors died less than...... five years after TOCD. Results. The cohort comprised 24 162 incident cancer patients with 41% long-term survivors (N = 9813). Seventy percent of the cohort was 60 + years at TOCD. The 14 349 short-term survivors' median survival was 0.6 year, and 78% died less than two years after TOCD. A 12 years...

  11. Short-Termed Integrated Forecasting System: 1993 Model documentation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) and describe its basic properties. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Energy Department (DOE) developed the STIFS model to generate short-term (up to 8 quarters), monthly forecasts of US supplies, demands, imports exports, stocks, and prices of various forms of energy. The models that constitute STIFS generate forecasts for a wide range of possible scenarios, including the following ones done routinely on a quarterly basis: A base (mid) world oil price and medium economic growth. A low world oil price and high economic growth. A high world oil price and low economic growth. This report is written for persons who want to know how short-term energy markets forecasts are produced by EIA. The report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public.

  12. The pedagogy of Short-Term Study-Abroad Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Gonsalvez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on establishing guidelines on the pedagogy of short term study abroad programs. This study follows 33 students who participated in a short-term study-abroad program to India with the researcher from 2006 through 2011. The study relies heavily on the student reflections and expressions as they experienced them. It is qualitative in nature. Focus groups were the main method of data collection, where participants were invited to reflect, express, and share their experiences with one another. This provided an opportunity for the participants to come together, relive their experiences, and help provide information as to how and what type of an influence this short-term study-abroad program provided.

  13. A short-term group with drug users in prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Campo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a short term group, according to the viewpoint of group analysis theory. The experience was made in the prison of Sicily. The group was composed by prisoners in the protected area with issues of addiction. The article highlights the usefulness of a work on the Motivation to change through the device of the group. Furthermore, it underlines how much of the work in this context was to encourage participants in the transition to reflection, critical to work on yourself. We walk through fragments of sessions, those were the main themes emerged: the relationship, responsibility, guilt, punishment.Keywords: Addiction, Motivation to change, Short-term group

  14. Short-term Effects of Gamma Ray Bursts on Earth

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the potential short-term atmospheric and biospheric influence of Gamma Ray Bursts on the Earth. We focus in the ultraviolet flash at the planet's surface, which occurs as a result of the retransmission of the $\\gamma$ radiation through the atmosphere. This would be the only important short-term effect on life. We mostly consider Archean and Proterozoic eons, and for completeness we also comment on the Phanerozoic. Therefore, in our study we consider atm...

  15. AR-based Algorithms for Short Term Load Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhairi Baharudin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Short-term load forecast plays an important role in planning and operation of power systems. The accuracy of the forecast value is necessary for economically efficient operation and effective control of the plant. This study describes the methods of Autoregressive (AR Burg’s and Modified Covariance (MCOV in solving the short term load forecast. Both algorithms are tested with power load data from Malaysian grid and New South Wales, Australia. The forecast accuracy is assessed in terms of their errors. For the comparison the algorithms are tested and benchmark with the previous successful proposed methods.

  16. Algorithms for short-term production planning of cogeneration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotzauer, E.

    1998-03-01

    A cogeneration plant, feeding its output water into a district-heating network, may include several types of energy producing units. The most important being the Co-generation unit, which produces both heat and electricity. Most plants also have a Heat water storage. Finding the optimal production of both heat and electricity and the optimal use of the storage is a challenging mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem. The calculations may be divided into two sub-problems. The unit commitment problem is the problem to determine when a unit should be producing (on) or not (off). To solve the economic dispatch problem is to find the optimal production plan given which units are producing in each time interval. Together the solution of these two problems form the solution of the short-term production-planning problem. In this thesis a general approach for the mathematical modeling of a co-generation plant is presented. The model objective function is nonlinear, with nonlinear constraints. Internal plant temperatures, mass flows, storage losses, minimal up and down times and time dependent start-up costs are considered. The demand for heat, the forward temperature from the plant, the return temperature to the plant and the price of electricity are assumed to be known quantities. The net electric power produced is sold for the estimated current market price of electricity. The unit commitment problem is solved with an algorithm based on Lagrangian relaxation. The dual search direction is computed by the sub gradient method and the step length by the Polyak rule II. A heuristic method for the generation of primal feasible solutions is developed. The economic dispatch problem is solved using a combination of dynamic programming and general-purpose solvers. Algorithms to find starting values for the problem are developed. The model and the algorithms are implemented in MATLAB, illustrated with numerical examples and analyzed with numerical tests

  17. 人民币汇率的长短期影响因素对比分析和汇率波动主导因素界定%Comparatively Analyzing the Long and Short Term Factors of the RMB Exchange Rate and Defining the Factors of Exchange Rate Fluctuations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莹莹

    2015-01-01

    Adopting the monthly data from 2000 to 2013 years, optimal Markov regime Switching Model was adopted to respectively research the long-term and short-term factors that affect the real exchange rate. The empirical results show that,the short-term impacts:Chinese inflation,in-ternational market interest rate and the domestic interest rate can respectively cause exchange rate cumulative appreciation or depreciation about 0. 75,0. 35 and 0. 9 during 10 months. Long term influence factors:terms of trade,money supply and foreign exchange reserves can respec-tively cause exchange rate cumulative appreciation or appreciation about 5. 5 ,5. 5 and 16 during 30 months. Combined model zone system conversion pulse effects and movements of the real exchange rate can find the factors which mainly lead the exchange rate changes during a peri-od. The empirical results show that:exchange rate movements during May 2007 - April 2008 mainly lead by short-term factors, changes during March 2011 -January 2012 was determined mainly by the long-term factors. This phenomenon indicates that the same trend exchange rate movements in different periods may be determined by different factors.%论文采用2000-2013年间的月度数据,构建了马尔科夫区制转换模型,在此基础上研究了人民币汇率的长短期影响因素,实证结果显示,短期影响因素中国内通货膨胀、国际市场利率和国内利率的一个正向冲击在10个月的反应期内能造成人民币汇率升值或贬值的累积值分别达到约0.75、0.35和0.9。长期影响因素中贸易条件、货币供给和外汇储备的一个正向冲击在30个月的反应期内能造成了人民币汇率升值或贬值的累积值分别达到约5.5、5.5和16。然后结合模型区制间转换累积脉冲响应和模型区制时间分布可以确定我国某一时期汇率变动的主导因素。分析发现,2007年5月-2008年4月这一时期我国汇率升值变

  18. Short-term robustness of production management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Gaury, E.G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Short-term performance of a production management system for make-to-stock factories may be quantified through the service rate per shift; long-term performance through the average monthly work in process (WIP). This may yield, for example, that WIP is minimized, while the probability of the service

  19. The Role of Short-Term Memory in Operator Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Baddeley, 1966; 1984), simultaneous digit processing ( Klapp and Philipoff, 1983), simultaneous, irrelevant articulation (articulatory suppression...Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1, 153-161. Klapp , S.T. and Philipoff, A., 1983, Short term memory limits in performance. Turning the tide of

  20. Short-Term Effects of Televised Aggression on Children's Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Robert M.; Baron, Robert A.

    Recently collected data appear to warrant advancing some tentative conslusions concerning the short-term effects of violence in television on children: 1) children are exposed to a substantial amount of violent content on television, and they can remember and learn from such exposure; 2) correlational studies have disclosed a regular association…

  1. Improving creativity performance by short-term meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background One form of meditation intervention, the integrative body-mind training (IBMT) has been shown to improve attention, reduce stress and change self-reports of mood. In this paper we examine whether short-term IBMT can improve performance related to creativity and determine the role that mood may play in such improvement. Methods Forty Chinese undergraduates were randomly assigned to short-term IBMT group or a relaxation training (RT) control group. Mood and creativity performance were assessed by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) questionnaire respectively. Results As predicted, the results indicated that short-term (30 min per day for 7 days) IBMT improved creativity performance on the divergent thinking task, and yielded better emotional regulation than RT. In addition, cross-lagged analysis indicated that both positive and negative affect may influence creativity in IBMT group (not RT group). Conclusions Our results suggested that emotion-related creativity-promoting mechanism may be attributed to short-term meditation. PMID:24645871

  2. Physical approach to short-term wind power prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Offers an approach to the ultimate goal of the short-term prediction of the power output of winds farms. This book addresses scientists and engineers working in wind energy related R and D and industry, as well as graduate students and nonspecialists researchers in the fields of atmospheric physics and meteorology.

  3. Orienting attention to objects in visual short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dell'Acqua, Roberto; Sessa, Paola; Toffanin, Paolo; Luria, Roy; Joliccoeur, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    We measured electroencephalographic activity during visual search of a target object among objects available to perception or among objects held in visual short-term memory (VSTM). For perceptual search, a single shape was shown first (pre-cue) followed by a search-array and the task was to decide w

  4. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  5. SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS INDEPENDENT OF BRAIN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Hasker P.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Jones, Oliver W.

    1980-09-01

    Male Swiss albino CD-1 mice given a single injection of a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI) (1 mg/animal), 20 min prior to single trial passive avoidance training demonstrated impaired retention at tests given 3 hr, 6 hr, 1 day, and 7 days after training. Retention was not significantly different from saline controls when tests were given 0.5 or 1.5 hr after training. Prolonging inhibition of brain protein synthesis by giving either 1 or 2 additional injections of ANI 2 or 2 and 4 hr after training did not prolong short-term retention performance. The temporal development of impaired retention in ANI treated mice could not be accounted for by drug dosage, duration of protein synthesis inhibition, or nonspecific sickness at test. In contrast to the suggestion that protein synthesis inhibition prolongs short-term memory (Quinton, 1978), the results of this experiment indicate that short-term memory is not prolonged by antibiotic drugs that inhibit cerebral protein synthesis. All evidence seems consistent with the hypothesis that short-term memory is protein synthesis independent and that the establishment of long-term memory depends upon protein synthesis during or shortly after training. Evidence for a role of protein synthesis in memory maintenance is discussed.

  6. Short-Term Effects of Playing Computer Games on Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca Gul; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Uzel, Mehtap; Altunbas, Handan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term cognitive effects of computer games in children with different psychiatric disorders and normal controls. Method: One hundred one children are recruited for the study (aged between 9 and 12 years). All participants played a motor-racing game on the computer for 1 hour.…

  7. 75 FR 59865 - Short-Term Borrowings Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... registrant to provide, in a separately captioned subsection of Management's Discussion and Analysis of... the terminology contained in the proposed short-term borrowings disclosure requirement. In a companion... liquidity and capital resources in Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and...

  8. Short-term outcomes following laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, Dara O

    2011-03-01

    Laparoscopic resection for colon cancer has been proven to have a similar oncological efficacy compared to open resection. Despite this, it is performed by a minority of colorectal surgeons. The aim of our study was to evaluate the short-term clinical, oncological and survival outcomes in all patients undergoing laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

  9. 77 FR 61229 - Short-Term Investment Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... resilience of STIFs to credit and liquidity events while not unduly restricting a bank's ability to invest... liquidity or valuation stress. \\29\\ See Interagency Policy on Banks/Thrifts Providing Financial Support to... revises the requirements imposed on national banks pursuant to the OCC's short-term investment fund...

  10. 47 CFR 74.24 - Short-term operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in subparts D, E, F and H of this part, except wireless video assist devices, may be operated on a... notification provision shall not apply where an unanticipated need for immediate short-term mobile station... guidelines, which will be provided by Cornell University. In addition, the applicant shall indicate in...

  11. Relationship between short-term sexual strategies and sexual jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W

    2005-02-01

    In a classic study, Buss, Larson, Westen, and Semmelroth reported that men were more distressed by the thought of a partner's sexual infidelity (sexual jealousy) and women were more distressed by the thought of a partner's emotional infidelity (emotional jealousy). Initially, Buss and his associates explained these results by suggesting that men are concerned about uncertainty of paternity, that is, the possibility of raising another man's child while believing the child is their own. However, later they explained the results in terms of men's preference for short-term sexual strategies. The purpose of this research was to test the explanation of short-term sexual strategies. Men and women subjects were instructed to imagine themselves in a relationship which was either short-term (primarily sexual) or long-term (involving commitment) and then respond to Buss's jealousy items. It was hypothesized that, when both men and women imagined a short-term relationship, they would be more threatened by a partner's sexual infidelity, and, when they imagined a long-term relationship, they would be more threatened by a partner's emotional infidelity. Support was found for this hypothesis.

  12. Research in Residential Electricity Characteristics and Short-Term Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Feng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we make research in Residential short-term load forecasting. Different application scenes have different affecting factors of short-term load, so we should specifically analysis of factors that affect the load of the residential electricity. We use SPSS (Statistic Package for Social Science to figure out the relationship between the daily load and temperature, weather conditions and other factors, finding the main factors among the impacting factors, and analyzing residential electricity consumption habits and load characteristics. Then, the paper introduces the common prediction methods. Combining with the above analysis to choose short-term load forecasting methods for residential users, we create automatic linear regression model and artificial neural network model to predict the future electricity load, calculating the residual between the predicted values and the actual values and mean square deviation of the values, and evaluating the accuracy of the load forecasting. The results prove that automatic linear regression model is effective in residential short-term electricity load forecasting.

  13. Mechanisms of short-term plasticity at neuromuscular active zones of Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallermann, Stefan; Heckmann, Manfred; Kittel, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    During short bursts of neuronal activity, changes in the efficacy of neurotransmitter release are governed primarily by two counteracting processes: (1) Ca2+-dependent elevations of vesicle release probability and (2) depletion of synaptic vesicles. The dynamic interplay of both processes contributes to the expression of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Here, we exploited various facets of short-term plasticity at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction to dissect these two processes. This enabled us to rigorously analyze different models of synaptic vesicle pools in terms of their size and mobilization properties. Independent of the specific model, we estimate ∼300 readily releasable vesicles with an average release probability of ∼50% in 1 mM extracellular calcium (∼5% in 0.4 mM extracellular calcium) under resting conditions. The models also helped interpreting the altered short-term plasticity of the previously reported mutant of the active zone component Bruchpilot (BRP). Finally, our results were independently confirmed through fluctuation analysis. Our data reveal that the altered short-term plasticity observed in BRP mutants cannot be accounted for by delocalized Ca2+ channels alone and thus suggest an additional role of BRP in short-term plasticity. PMID:20811513

  14. Dissociating Contents of Consciousness from Contents of Short-Term Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Staugaard, Camilla Funch;

    2014-01-01

    The contents of consciousness and of short-term memory are hard to disentangle. As it seems intuitive that we represent attended objects in short-term memory and in experience, to many, it also seems intuitive to equate this content. Here we investigated memory resolution for orientation of a pro......The contents of consciousness and of short-term memory are hard to disentangle. As it seems intuitive that we represent attended objects in short-term memory and in experience, to many, it also seems intuitive to equate this content. Here we investigated memory resolution for orientation...... of a probed target in combination with a conscious evaluation of the experienced stimulus using the Perceptual Awareness Scale (PAS; Ramsøy & Overgaard, 2004). Observers were trained to report how they experienced a visual stimulus on a four-point scale representing their experience from “no experience...... in VSTM is correlated with how it is consciously perceived by an observer. However, if we analyze the data across individual PAS scores and set-sizes, a different pattern emerges; across PAS scores we find that people are still affected by set-size in a systematic fashion. Controlling for target...

  15. The temporary effect of short-term endotracheal intubation on vocal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskiene, Iveta; Lesinskas, Eugenijus; Petrulionis, Mindaugas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess and perceive the vocal and pharyngeal symptoms and acoustic changes of voice after short-term endotracheal intubation and to evaluate the relation between these changes and the endotracheal tube parameters, number of intubation attempts, duration of anaesthesia, experience of anaesthesiologist. A total of 108 patients were evaluated preoperatively, 1-2 and 24 h after extubation. The vocal and pharyngeal symptoms, voice acoustic characteristics and maximum phonation time (MPT) were evaluated to find the relationship with endotracheal tube parameters, number of intubation attempts, duration of anaesthesia, experience of anaesthesiologist. All vocal and pharyngeal symptoms increased significantly at 24 h and remained significantly increased at 24 h after general anaesthesia. The vocal acoustic parameters changed significantly at 1-2 h: decrease of MPT and increase relative average perturbation were recorded. The day after the short-term intubation: only noise to harmony ratio and habitual pitch remains significantly changed. The most important endotracheal tube parameters that affect significantly (P value intubation attempts. In relation to the anaesthesia, the changes of the acoustic parameters did not associate significantly with the anaesthesia-related parameters. No statistically significant relationship between experience of an anaesthesiologist and changes of the voice after anaesthesia was detected. Though being short-term, endotracheal anaesthesia is an invasive procedure, and its temporary influence on vocal function is important.

  16. Short term forecasting of surface layer wind speed using a continuous cascade model

    CERN Document Server

    Baile, Rachel; Poggi, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a statistical method for short-term forecasting of surface layer wind velocity amplitude relying on the notion of continuous cascades. Inspired by recent empirical findings that suggest the existence of some cascading process in the mesoscale range, we consider that wind speed can be described by a seasonal component and a fluctuating part represented by a "multifractal noise" associated with a random cascade. Performances of our model are tested on hourly wind speed series gathered at various locations in Corsica (France) and Netherlands. The obtained results show a systematic improvement of the prediction as compared to reference models like persistence or Artificial Neural Networks.

  17. Ordered Short-Term Memory Differs in Signers and Speakers: Implications for Models of Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavelier, Daphne; Newport, Elissa L.; Hall, Matt; Supalla, Ted; Boutla, Mrim

    2008-01-01

    Capacity limits in linguistic short-term memory (STM) are typically measured with forward span tasks in which participants are asked to recall lists of words in the order presented. Using such tasks, native signers of American Sign Language (ASL) exhibit smaller spans than native speakers ([Boutla, M., Supalla, T., Newport, E. L., & Bavelier, D.…

  18. The application of short-term efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niebudek-Bogusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: An objective determination of the range of vocal efficiency is rather difficult. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of application of short-term acoustic efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders. Material and Methods: The study covered 98 people (87 women and 11 men diagnosed with occupational dysphonia through videostroboscopic examination. The control group comprised 100 people (81 women and 19 men with normal voices. The short-term acoustic analysis was carried out by means of DiagnoScope software, including classical parameters (Jitter group, Shimmer group and the assessment of noise degree NHR, as well as new short-term efficiency parameters determined in a short time period during sustained phonation of the vowel “a.” The results were then compared. Results: The values of all the examined classical parameters were considerably higher in the study group of pathological voices than in the control group of normal voices (p = 0.00. The aerodynamic parameter, maximum phonation time, was significantly shorter by over 0.5 s in the study group than in the control group. The majority of the acoustic efficiency parameters were also considerably worse in the study group of subjects with occupational dysphonia than in the control group (p = 0.00. Moreover, the correlation between the efficiency parameters and most of the classical acoustic parameters in the study group implies that for the voices with occupational pathology the decreased efficiency of the vocal apparatus is reflected in the acoustic voice structure. Conclusions: Efficiency parameters determined during short-term acoustic analysis can be an objective indicator of the decreased phonatory function of the larynx, useful in diagnosing occupational vocal pathology. Med Pr 2015;66(2:225–234

  19. Effect of pullulan on the short-term and long-term retrogradation of rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Ren, Fei; Zhang, Zipei; Tong, Qunyi; Rashed, Marwan M A

    2015-01-22

    The effect of pullulan (PUL) on the retrogradation of rice starch (RS) was investigated by means of rapid visco-analyzer (RVA), rotational rheometer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). RVA results showed that addition of pullulan significantly decreased the breakdown and setback values, which meant that the short-term retrogradation of RS was inhibited. The dynamic time sweep of samples also proved the retarding effect of pullulan on the retrogradation of RS. DSC curves showed clearly that pullulan significantly reduced the retrogradation enthalpy of amylopectin, and the kinetics of retrogradation was analyzed using the Avrami model. XRD results showed that recrystallinity of RS was reduced from 11.565% to 8.841% with the addition of pullulan and this was in line with the DSC results. It could be concluded that the addition of pullulan apparently influenced not only the short-term retrogradation of amylose, but also the long-term retrogradation of amylopectin.

  20. Vitamin D endocrine system after short-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoten, William B. (Principal Investigator); Sergeev, Igor N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca(2+) metabolism, yet the cellular/molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. There is some evidence for microgravity-induced alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system, which is known to be primarily involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) metabolism. Vitamin D-dependent Ca(2+) binding proteins, or calbindins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. We used immunocytochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D(sub 28k) and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in kidneys and intestines of rats flown for 9 days aboard the Spacelab 3 mission. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats in space vs. 'grounded' animals (synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls and tail suspension controls) were compared. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant decrease in calbindin-D(sub 28k) content in kidneys and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in the intestine of flight and suspended animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in kidneys and intestine, and insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease in the distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 28k) and absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 9k) immunoreactivity in the space and suspension kidneys and intestine, as compared with matched ground controls. No consistent differences in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space, suspension and ground controls was observed. There were significant correlations between results by quantitative ICC and ELISA. Western blot analysis showed no consistent changes in the low levels of intestinal and renal vitamin D receptors. These findings suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins after a short-term

  1. Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting for Power System Operations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xinxin

    2012-04-01

    The emphasis on renewable energy and concerns about the environment have led to large-scale wind energy penetration worldwide. However, there are also significant challenges associated with the use of wind energy due to the intermittent and unstable nature of wind. High-quality short-term wind speed forecasting is critical to reliable and secure power system operations. This article begins with an overview of the current status of worldwide wind power developments and future trends. It then reviews some statistical short-term wind speed forecasting models, including traditional time series approaches and more advanced space-time statistical models. It also discusses the evaluation of forecast accuracy, in particular, the need for realistic loss functions. New challenges in wind speed forecasting regarding ramp events and offshore wind farms are also presented. © 2012 The Authors. International Statistical Review © 2012 International Statistical Institute.

  2. Short-term Effects of Gamma Ray Bursts on Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Martín, Osmel; Cárdenas, Rolando; Horváth, J E

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the potential short-term atmospheric and biospheric influence of Gamma Ray Bursts on the Earth. We focus in the ultraviolet flash at the planet's surface, which occurs as a result of the retransmission of the $\\gamma$ radiation through the atmosphere. This would be the only important short-term effect on life. We mostly consider Archean and Proterozoic eons, and for completeness we also comment on the Phanerozoic. Therefore, in our study we consider atmospheres with oxygen levels ranging from $10^{-5}$ to 1% of the present atmospheric level, representing different moments in the oxygen rise history. Ecological consequences and some strategies to estimate their importance are outlined.

  3. A new ensemble model for short term wind power prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Albu, Razvan-Daniel; Felea, Ioan;

    2012-01-01

    As the objective of this study, a non-linear ensemble system is used to develop a new model for predicting wind speed in short-term time scale. Short-term wind power prediction becomes an extremely important field of research for the energy sector. Regardless of the recent advancements in the re......-search of prediction models, it was observed that different models have different capabilities and also no single model is suitable under all situations. The idea behind EPS (ensemble prediction systems) is to take advantage of the unique features of each subsystem to detain diverse patterns that exist in the dataset....... The conferred results show that the prediction errors can be decreased, while the computation time is reduced....

  4. The psychotomimetic effects of short-term sensory deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Oliver J; Brady, Francesca

    2009-10-01

    People experiencing sensory deprivation often report perceptual disturbances such as hallucinations, especially over extended periods of time. However, there is little evidence concerning short-term sensory deprivation and whether its effects differ depending on the individual concerned, and in particular their proneness to psychosis. This study explored whether perceptual disturbances could be elicited by a brief period of complete isolation from sound and vision in both highly hallucination prone and nonhallucination prone groups. Greater psychotomimetic experiences taking the form of perceptual disturbances, paranoia, and anhedonia were found across both groups when under sensory deprivation. In addition, hallucination-prone individuals experienced more perceptual disturbances when placed in short-term sensory deprivation than nonprone individuals. This result is discussed in terms of difficulties in source monitoring as a possible mechanism involved in proneness to hallucinations.

  5. EC multicentre study on short-term effects of air pollution on health. The aphea project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Univ. of Athens (Greece). Medical School; Zmirou, D. [Grenoble Univ. (France). Faculte de Medecine; Spix, C. [GSF- Forschungszentrum Umwelt und Gesundheit (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The APHEA project is an attempt to provide quantitative estimates of the short-term health effects of air pollution, using an extensive data base from ten different European countries which represent various social, environmental and air pollution situations. Within the framework of the project, the methodology of analyzing epidemiologic time series data, as well as that of performing meta-analysis, are further developed and standardized

  6. Short-term traffic flow forecasting with A-SVARMA

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Short-term Traffic Flow Forecasting (STFF), the process of predicting future traffic conditions based on historical and real-time observations, is an essential aspect of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). The existing well-known algorithms used for STFF include time-series analysis based techniques, among which the seasonal Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) model is one of the most precise methods used in this field. The effectiveness of STFF in an urban transport netwo...

  7. Short-term effects of supernova explosions on radiocarbon production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povinec, P. (Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta)

    1980-01-01

    The short-term increase in cosmic ray intensity caused by a supernova gamma-ray burst as well as the long-term increase resulting from corpuscular particles accelerated during the supernova explosion may be investigated by cosmogenic radiocarbon. It is shown that o.alactic supernovae exploding at distances up to 1 kpc from the Earth could cause a measurable increase in radiocarbon concentration in the past. Radiocarbon measurements for the period of the Tycho de Brahe supernova showed negative results.

  8. Determinants of Short-Term Export Performance in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Osman, Ms. Amber; Habib, Sukaina

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the interdependency between independent (Increase of pricing strategy adaptation, Increase of export intensity, Firm's commitment to exporting, Export market development, Export market competition, Past Pricing Strategy Adaptation, Past Export Performance Satisfaction, Past Export Intensity, Export market distance) and dependent variables (i.e. Expected Short-Term Export Performance improvement) of export performance. The framework is tested via a survey through que...

  9. Short term teleconnections associated with an individual tropical cyclone

    OpenAIRE

    Woll, Stephen C.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The short term teleconnections associated with an individual western Pacific tropical cyclone have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model. The general strategy was to use the GCM, in combination with several tropical cyclone bogusing procedures, to isolate the effects on the global circulation of the tropical cyclone. The bogusing procedures were used to alter the tropical cyclone in the initial conditions fo...

  10. Cardioprotective Signature of Short-Term Caloric Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Noyan

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular pathways underlying the cardiac preconditioning effect of short-term caloric restriction (CR.Lifelong CR has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease through a variety of mechanisms. However, prolonged adherence to a CR life-style is difficult. Here we reveal the pathways that are modulated by short-term CR, which are associated with protection of the mouse heart from ischemia.Male 10-12 wk old C57bl/6 mice were randomly assigned to an ad libitum (AL diet with free access to regular chow, or CR, receiving 30% less food for 7 days (d, prior to myocardial infarction (MI via permanent coronary ligation. At d8, the left ventricles (LV of AL and CR mice were collected for Western blot, mRNA and microRNA (miR analyses to identify cardioprotective gene expression signatures. In separate groups, infarct size, cardiac hemodynamics and protein abundance of caspase 3 was measured at d2 post-MI.This short-term model of CR was associated with cardio-protection, as evidenced by decreased infarct size (18.5±2.4% vs. 26.6±1.7%, N=10/group; P=0.01. mRNA and miR profiles pre-MI (N=5/group identified genes modulated by short-term CR to be associated with circadian clock, oxidative stress, immune function, apoptosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM. Western blots pre-MI revealed CR-associated increases in phosphorylated Akt and GSK3ß, reduced levels of phosphorylated AMPK and mitochondrial related proteins PGC-1α, cytochrome C and cyclooxygenase (COX IV, with no differences in the levels of phosphorylated eNOS or MAPK (ERK1/2; p38. CR regimen was also associated with reduced protein abundance of cleaved caspase 3 in the infarcted heart and improved cardiac function.

  11. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  12. Short-term indicators. Intensities as a proxy for savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M.; Gerdes, J. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Faberi, S. [Institute of Studies for the Integration of Systems ISIS, Rome (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    The ODYSSEE database on energy efficiency indicators (www.odyssee-indicators.org) has been set up to enable the monitoring and evaluation of realised energy efficiency improvements and related energy savings. The database covers the 27 EU countries as well as Norway and Croatia and data are available from 1990 on. This work contributes to the growing need for quantitative monitoring and evaluation of the impacts of energy policies and measures, both at the EU and national level, e.g. due to the Energy Services Directive and the proposed Energy Efficiency Directive. Because the underlying data become available only after some time, the savings figures are not always timely available. This is especially true for the ODEX efficiency indices per sector that rely on a number of indicators. Therefore, there is a need for so-called short-term indicators that become available shortly after the year has passed for which data are needed. The short term indicators do not replace the savings indicators but function as a proxy for the savings in the most recent year. This proxy value is faster available, but will be less accurate than the saving indicators themselves. The short term indicators have to be checked regularly with the ODEX indicators in order to see whether they can function still as a proxy.

  13. Detection of mental stress due to oral academic examination via ultra-short-term HRV analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, R; Xu, W; Melillo, P; Pecchia, L; Santamaria, L; James, C

    2016-08-01

    Mental stress may cause cognitive dysfunctions, cardiovascular disorders and depression. Mental stress detection via short-term Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis has been widely explored in the last years, while ultra-short term (less than 5 minutes) HRV has been not. This study aims to detect mental stress using linear and non-linear HRV features extracted from 3 minutes ECG excerpts recorded from 42 university students, during oral examination (stress) and at rest after a vacation. HRV features were then extracted and analyzed according to the literature using validated software tools. Statistical and data mining analysis were then performed on the extracted HRV features. The best performing machine learning method was the C4.5 tree algorithm, which discriminated between stress and rest with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate of 78%, 80% and 79% respectively.

  14. Short term synaptic depression imposes a frequency dependent filter on synaptic information transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Robert; Rubin, Jonathan; Doiron, Brent

    2012-01-01

    Depletion of synaptic neurotransmitter vesicles induces a form of short term depression in synapses throughout the nervous system. This plasticity affects how synapses filter presynaptic spike trains. The filtering properties of short term depression are often studied using a deterministic synapse model that predicts the mean synaptic response to a presynaptic spike train, but ignores variability introduced by the probabilistic nature of vesicle release and stochasticity in synaptic recovery time. We show that this additional variability has important consequences for the synaptic filtering of presynaptic information. In particular, a synapse model with stochastic vesicle dynamics suppresses information encoded at lower frequencies more than information encoded at higher frequencies, while a model that ignores this stochasticity transfers information encoded at any frequency equally well. This distinction between the two models persists even when large numbers of synaptic contacts are considered. Our study provides strong evidence that the stochastic nature neurotransmitter vesicle dynamics must be considered when analyzing the information flow across a synapse.

  15. Study on Short-term Variability of Ship Responses in Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Iseki, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Short-term variability of ship responses is investigated by cross-spectrum analysis. In a steady state condition, it is well known that a certain length of sampled data is required for stable results of the spectral analysis. However, the phase lag between responses, in terms of the phase angle...... of the cross-spectra, has not been discussed in detail. Using long stationary time series, the transition of amplitudes and relative phase angles of the cross-spectra has been investigated by iterative analyzes with a few seconds of time shifting. In the results, the short-term variability of the relative...... phase angle was observed. In effect, the variability may compromise the accuracy of the wave buoy analogy....

  16. Short-term probabilistic earthquake risk assessment considering time-dependent b values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia, Laura; Tormann, Thessa; Wiemer, Stefan; Herrmann, Marcus; Seif, Stefanie

    2016-02-01

    Laboratory experiments highlight a systematic b value decrease during the stress increase period before failure, and some large natural events are known to show a precursory decrease in the b value. However, short-term forecast models currently consider only the generic probability that an event can trigger subsequent seismicity in the near field. While the probability increase over a stationary Poissonian background is substantial, selected case studies have shown through cost-benefit analysis that the absolute main shock probability remains too low to warrant significant mitigation actions. We analyze the probabilities considering both changes in the seismicity rates and temporal changes in the b value. The precursory b value decrease in the 2009 L'Aquila case results in an additional fiftyfold probability increase for a M6.3 event. Translated into time-varying hazard and risk, these changes surpass the cost-benefit threshold for short-term evacuation.

  17. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM SOFT CONTACT LENS WEAR ON HUMAN OCULAR ABERRATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jing; CHEN Yi-hui; CHEN Hui; SHENG Min-jie

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of short-term soft contact lens (SCLs) wearing on human ocular aberrations (HOA).Methods This prospective study included 50 eyes of 50 young volunteers wearing SCLs for 1month. The ocular aberrations were measured by Allegretto Wavefront Analyzer. The root-mean-square (RMS) values of the general (RMSG), higher-order (RMSH), first to sixth order (RMS1 to RMS6) and aberration coefficients were analyzed.Results There were no significant differences in the mean values of RMSG, RMSH, RMS1 to RMS6 (P>0.05) and changes of absolute values of aberration coefficients between baseline and various visits after SCLs discontinuation. However, at d1 after the discontinuation of SCLs, changes in coefficient values of the third-order aberrations (C6 to C9) were slightly higher than others, and C7 was the highest. The increase factors of RMS values were higher at 1 week and lower at the 2 week visit after SCLs discontinuation. The uniformity of dominating type in HOA and the corneal topography form was both about 60% after discontinuation of SCLs. The corneal thickness increased after SCLs wear and gradually decreased to baseline until 1month discontinuation of SCLs.Conclusion The effect of short-term SCLs wear on human ocular aberrations is slight but profound. A month or more wait should be allowed before the short-term SCLs wearers are scheduled for wavefronted-guided LASIK.

  18. Analysing the Possible Ways for Short-Term Forcing Gas Turbine Engines in Auxiliary Power Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Trotskii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a gas turbine energy unit as an example, the article discusses possible ways for forcing the short-term gas turbine engines (GTE. The introduction explains the need for forcing the air transport and marine GTE in specific driving conditions and offers the main methods. Then it analyzes the three main short-term forcing methods according to GTE power, namely: precompressor water injection, a short-term rise in temperature after the combustion chamber, and feeding an additional compressed air into combustion chamber from the reserve cylinders.The analysis of the water injection method to force a GTE presents the main provisions and calculation results of the cycle, as a function of engine power on the amount of water injected into compressor inlet. It is shown that with water injection into compressor inlet in an amount of 1% of the total airflow there is a 17% power increase in the compressor. It also lists the main implementation problems of this method and makes a comparison with the results of other studies on the water injection into compressor.Next, the article concerns the GTE short-term forcing method through the pre-turbine short-term increase in the gas temperature. The article presents the calculation results of the cycle as a function of the power and the fuel-flow rate on the gas temperature at the turbine inlet. It is shown that with increasing temperature by 80 degrees the engine power increases by 11.2% and requires 11% more fuel. In the analysis of this method arises an issue of thermal barrier coating on the blade surface. The article discusses the most common types of coatings and their main shortcomings. It lists the main challenges and some ways of their solving when using this method to implement the short-term forcing.The last method under consideration is GTE short-term forcing by feeding the compressed air into the combustion chamber from the additional reserve cylinders. It should be noted that this method is

  19. Ultra-Short-Term Heart Rate Variability is Sensitive to Training Effects in Team Sports Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Fabio Y; Flatt, Andrew A; Pereira, Lucas A; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Loturco, Irineu; Esco, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the possibility of the ultra-short-term lnRMSSD (measured in 1-min post-1-min stabilization period) to detect training induced adaptations in futsal players. Twenty-four elite futsal players underwent HRV assessments pre- and post-three or four weeks preseason training. From the 10-min HRV recording period, lnRMSSD was analyzed in the following time segments: 1) from 0-5 min (i.e., stabilization period); 2) from 0-1 min; 1-2 min; 2-3 min; 3-4 min; 4-5 min and; 3) from 5-10 min (i.e., criterion period). The lnRMSSD was almost certainly higher (100/00/00) using the magnitude-based inference in all periods at the post- moment. The correlation between changes in ultra-short-term lnRMSSD (i.e., 0-1 min; 1-2 min; 2-3 min; 3-4 min; 4-5 min) and lnRMSSDCriterion ranged between 0.45-0.75, with the highest value (p = 0.75; 90% CI: 0.55 - 0.85) found between ultra-short-term lnRMDSSD at 1-2 min and lnRMSSDCriterion. In conclusion, lnRMSSD determined in a short period of 1-min is sensitive to training induced changes in futsal players (based on the very large correlation to the criterion measure), and can be used to track cardiac autonomic adaptations. Key pointsThe ultra-short-term (1 min) natural log of the root-mean-square difference of successive normal RR intervals (lnRMSSD) is sensitive to training effects in futsal playersThe ultra-short-term lnRMSSD may simplify the assessment of the cardiac autonomic changes in the field compared to the traditional and lengthier (10 min duration) analysisCoaches are encouraged to implement the ultra-short-term heart rate variability in their routines to monitor team sports athletes.

  20. A novel crystal-analyzer phase retrieval algorithm and its noise property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yuan; Wang, Yan; Li, Panyun; Wu, Zhao; Shao, Qigang; Gao, Kun; Wang, Zhili; Ju, Zaiqiang; Zhang, Kai; Yuan, Qingxi; Huang, Wanxia; Zhu, Peiping; Wu, Ziyu

    2015-05-01

    A description of the rocking curve in diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) is presented in terms of the angular signal response function and a simple multi-information retrieval algorithm based on the cosine function fitting. A comprehensive analysis of noise properties of DEI is also given considering the noise transfer characteristic of the X-ray source. The validation has been performed with synchrotron radiation experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations based on the Geant4 toolkit combined with the refractive process of X-rays, which show good agreement with each other. Moreover, results indicate that the signal-to-noise ratios of the refraction and scattering images are about one order of magnitude better than that of the absorption image at the edges of low-Z samples. The noise penalty is drastically reduced with the increasing photon flux and visibility. Finally, this work demonstrates that the analytical method can build an interesting connection between DEI and GDPCI (grating-based differential phase contrast imaging) and is widely suitable for a variety of measurement noise in the angular signal response imaging prototype. The analysis significantly contributes to the understanding of noise characteristics of DEI images and may allow improvements to the signal-to-noise ratio in biomedical and material science imaging.

  1. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, second quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the first quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the second quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). 34 figs., 19 tabs.

  2. Short-term effects of radiation in glioblastoma spheroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg Petterson, Stine; Pind Jakobsen, Ida; Jensen, Stine Skov;

    2016-01-01

    and five days. We found a small reduction in primary spheroid size after radiation and an associated small increase in uptake of the cell death marker propidium iodide. Using immunohistochemistry, P53 expression was found to be significantly increased, whereas the Ki-67 proliferation index...... capacity. Gene expression analysis of nine stem cell- and two hypoxia-related genes did not reveal any upregulation after radiation. In conclusion, this study suggests that a major short-term effect of radiation is pronounced reduction of tumor cell proliferation. We found no upregulation of stem cell...

  3. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. Short term settlement of footing on snow foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Mahajan

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available "A constitutive theory for snow, developed by the authors, is applied to solve for the short-term settlement of footing on snow foundation. The constitutive law used is a microstructurally-based formulation which includes the effects of bond deformation and fracture. It also includes transient creep effects and strain hardening of snow. The foundation problem is solved for stress and displacement distribution, with two different loads of 0.008 MPa and 0.1 MPa distributed uniformly over a part of the top face. The stress distribution matches closely with the existing theoretical results.

  5. Improving digit span assessment of short-term verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, David L; Kishiyamaa, Mark M; Lund, E William; Herron, Timothy J; Edwards, Ben; Poliva, Oren; Hink, Robert F; Reed, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    We measured digit span (DS) in two experiments that used computerized presentation of randomized auditory digits with performance-adapted list length adjustment. A new mean span (MS) metric of DS was developed that showed reduced variance, improved test-retest reliability, and higher correlations with the results of other neuropsychological test results when compared to traditional DS measures. The MS metric also enhanced the sensitivity of forward versus backward span comparisons, enabled the development of normative performance criteria with subdigit precision, and elucidated changes in DS performance with age and education level. Computerized stimulus delivery and improved scoring metrics significantly enhance the precision of DS assessments of short-term verbal memory.

  6. MHz gravitational waves from short-term anisotropic inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro [Department of Physics, Kobe University,Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2016-04-18

    We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around 10{sup −26}∼10{sup −27} are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10 MHz∼100 MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.

  7. MHz Gravitational Waves from Short-term Anisotropic Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Asuka

    2016-01-01

    We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around $10^{-26}$ ~ $10^{-27}$ are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10MHz~100MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.

  8. Short Term Electrical Load Forecasting by Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of artificial neural networks for short-term times series electrical load forecasting. An adaptive learning algorithm is derived from system stability to ensure the convergence of training process. Historical data of hourly power load as well as hourly wind power generation are sourced from European Open Power System Platform. The simulation demonstrates that errors steadily decrease in training with the adaptive learning factor starting at different initial value and errors behave volatile with constant learning factors with different values

  9. [Short term efficacy and safety of etanercept in psoriasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulaica, A; Pérez-Pérez, L; Allegue, F

    2010-05-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic disease that occurs in episodes and which, in a certain moment of its evolution or in some patients, may affect a large portion of the body surface with serious physical and psychological repercussions. The treatment used in this type of patient is associated to many side effects and requires numerous clinical and laboratory controls. We present a clinical case of severe psoriasis that presented a rapid and complete response to etanercept. Based on this case, we performed a bibliographic review aimed at the short-term safety and efficacy aspects, less than 12 weeks of treatment, in psoriatic patients treated with this molecule.

  10. Attentional priorities and access to short-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillebert, Celine; Dyrholm, Mads; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    2012-01-01

    The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) has been implicated in selective attention as well as visual short-term memory (VSTM). To contrast mechanisms of target selection, distracter filtering, and access to VSTM, we combined behavioral testing, computational modeling and functional magnetic resonance......, thereby displaying a significant interaction between the two factors. The interaction between target and distracter set size in IPS could not be accounted for by a simple explanation in terms of number of items accessing VSTM. Instead, it led us to a model where items accessing VSTM receive differential...

  11. Predicting short-term weight loss using four leading health behavior change theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conceived to analyze how exercise and weight management psychosocial variables, derived from several health behavior change theories, predict weight change in a short-term intervention. The theories under analysis were the Social Cognitive Theory, the Transtheoretical Model, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Self-Determination Theory. Methods Subjects were 142 overweight and obese women (BMI = 30.2 ± 3.7 kg/m2; age = 38.3 ± 5.8y, participating in a 16-week University-based weight control program. Body weight and a comprehensive psychometric battery were assessed at baseline and at program's end. Results Weight decreased significantly (-3.6 ± 3.4%, p Conclusion The present models were able to predict 20–30% of variance in short-term weight loss and changes in weight management self-efficacy accounted for a large share of the predictive power. As expected from previous studies, exercise variables were only moderately associated with short-term outcomes; they are expected to play a larger explanatory role in longer-term results.

  12. Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting Using Support Vector Regression Optimized by Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhou Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an effectively intelligent model to forecast short-term wind speed series. A hybrid forecasting technique is proposed based on recurrence plot (RP and optimized support vector regression (SVR. Wind caused by the interaction of meteorological systems makes itself extremely unsteady and difficult to forecast. To understand the wind system, the wind speed series is analyzed using RP. Then, the SVR model is employed to forecast wind speed, in which the input variables are selected by RP, and two crucial parameters, including the penalties factor and gamma of the kernel function RBF, are optimized by various optimization algorithms. Those optimized algorithms are genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO, and cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA. Finally, the optimized SVR models, including COA-SVR, PSO-SVR, and GA-SVR, are evaluated based on some criteria and a hypothesis test. The experimental results show that (1 analysis of RP reveals that wind speed has short-term predictability on a short-term time scale, (2 the performance of the COA-SVR model is superior to that of the PSO-SVR and GA-SVR methods, especially for the jumping samplings, and (3 the COA-SVR method is statistically robust in multi-step-ahead prediction and can be applied to practical wind farm applications.

  13. Short-term effects of relaxation music on patients suffering from primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertelmann T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Bertelmann, Ilse Strempel Department of Ophthalmology, Philipps-University Marburg, Baldingerstraβe, Marburg, Germany Purpose: To evaluate whether additive relaxation music (RM has an adjuvant short-term effect on physiological and psychological parameters in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.Methods: Prospective, randomized clinical trial. Patients in the therapy group (TG received a 30-minute RM via headphones, whereas members of the control group (CG did not. Best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, visual field testing, short- and long-term mental states, and blood levels of different stress hormones were analyzed and compared.Results: A total of 25 (61%/16 (39% patients were assigned to the TG/CG. Best corrected visual acuity, daily intraocular pressure, and short-term mental state (KAB development were significantly better in the TG in comparison to controls. Visual field testing, long-term mental well-being (profile of mood states, and adrenalin, cortisol, and endothelin-I blood levels did not differ significantly between both groups.Conclusion: Additive RM applied on a daily basis can positively impact various physiological and psychological parameters in the short term. Keywords: primary open angle glaucoma, POAG, music therapy, intraocular pressure, IOP, mental health

  14. A method for short term electricity spot price forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koreneff, G.; Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M.; Kekkonen, V. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, E.; Haekli, J. [Vaasa Univ. (Finland); Antila, E. [ABB Transmit Oy (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In Finland, the electricity market was de-regulated in November 1995. For the electricity purchase of power companies this has caused big changes, since the old tariff based contracts of bulk power supply have been replaced by negotiated bilateral short term contracts and by power purchase from the spot market. In the spot market, in turn, there are at the present two strong actors: The electricity exchange of Finland and the Nordic power pool which is run by the Swedish and Norwegian companies. Today, the power companies in Finland have short term trade with both of the electricity exchanges. The aim of this chapter is to present methods for spot price forecasting in the electricity exchange. The main focus is given to the Finnish circumstances. In the beginning of the presentation, the practices of the electricity exchange of Finland are described, and a brief presentation is given on the different contracts, or electricity products, available in the spot market. For comparison, the practices of the Nordic electricity exchange are also outlined. A time series technique for spot price forecasting is presented. The structure of the model is presented, and its validity is tested using real case data obtained from the Finnish power market. The spot price forecasting model is a part of a computer system for distribution energy management (DEM) in a de-regulated power market

  15. Birth after previous cesarean delivery: short-term maternal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon-Rochelle, Mona T; Cahill, Alison G; Spong, Catherine Y

    2010-08-01

    An estimated 40% of the 1.3 million cesarean deliveries performed each year in the United States are repeat procedures. The appropriate clinical management approach for women with previous cesarean delivery remains challenging because options are limited. The risks and benefits of clinical management choices in the woman's health need to be quantified. Thus, we discuss the available published scientific data on (1) the short-term maternal outcomes of trial of labor after cesarean and elective repeat cesarean delivery, (2) the differences between outcomes for both, (3) the important factors that influence these outcomes, and (4) successful vs. unsuccessful vaginal birth after cesarean. For women with a previous cesarean delivery, a successful trial of labor offers several distinct, consistently reproducible advantages compared with elective repeat cesarean delivery, including fewer hysterectomies, fewer thromboembolic events, lower blood transfusion rates, and shorter hospital stay. However, when trial of labor after cesarean fails, emergency cesarean is associated with increased uterine rupture, hysterectomy, operative injury, blood transfusion, endometritis, and longer hospital stay. Care of women with a history of previous cesarean delivery involves a confluence of interactions between medical and nonmedical factors; however, the most important determinants of the short-term outcomes among these women are likely individualized counseling, accurate clinical diagnoses, and careful management during a trial of labor. We recommend a randomized controlled trial among women undergoing a TOLAC and a longitudinal cohort study among women with previous cesarean to evaluate adverse outcomes, with focused attention on both mother and the infant.

  16. Short-term cortical plasticity induced by conditioning pain modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Line Lindhardt; Buchgreitz, Line; Wang, Li;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of homotopic and heterotopic conditioning pain modulation (CPM) on short-term cortical plasticity. Glutamate (tonic pain) or isotonic saline (sham) was injected in the upper trapezius (homotopic) and in the thenar (heterotopic) muscles. Intramuscular electrical stimulat......To investigate the effects of homotopic and heterotopic conditioning pain modulation (CPM) on short-term cortical plasticity. Glutamate (tonic pain) or isotonic saline (sham) was injected in the upper trapezius (homotopic) and in the thenar (heterotopic) muscles. Intramuscular electrical......, and after homotopic and heterotopic CPM versus control. Peak latencies at N100, P200, and P300 were extracted and the location/strength of corresponding dipole current sources and multiple dipoles were estimated. Homotopic CPM caused hypoalgesia (P = 0.032, 30.6% compared to baseline) to electrical...... stimulation. No cortical changes were found for homotopic CPM. A positive correlation at P200 between electrical pain threshold after tonic pain and the z coordinate after tonic pain (P = 0.032) was found for homotopic CPM. For heterotopic CPM, no significant hypoalgesia was found and a dipole shift of the P...

  17. Robust Short-Term Memory without Synaptic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel; Marro, J.; Torres, Joaquín J.

    2013-01-01

    Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can – as a gradual modification of synaptic weights – since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds). The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings. PMID:23349664

  18. Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). The base scope has been applied to the entire complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. Findings from the implementation, commissioning, and short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach. Despite being a moderate rehab instead of a gut rehab, the Bay Ridge DER is currently projected to achieve energy savings ≥ 50% compared to pre-retrofit, and the short-term testing supports this estimate.

  19. Plant community controls on short-term ecosystem nitrogen retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D

    2016-05-01

    Retention of nitrogen (N) is a critical ecosystem function, especially in the face of widespread anthropogenic N enrichment; however, our understanding of the mechanisms involved is limited. Here, we tested under glasshouse conditions how plant community attributes, including variations in the dominance, diversity and range of plant functional traits, influence N uptake and retention in temperate grassland. We added a pulse of (15) N to grassland plant communities assembled to represent a range of community-weighted mean plant traits, trait functional diversity and divergence, and species richness, and measured plant and microbial uptake of (15) N, and leaching losses of (15) N, as a short-term test of N retention in the plant-soil system. Root biomass, herb abundance and dominant plant traits were the main determinants of N retention in the plant-soil system: greater root biomass and herb abundance, and lower root tissue density, increased plant (15) N uptake, while higher specific leaf area and root tissue density increased microbial (15) N uptake. Our results provide novel, mechanistic insight into the short-term fate of N in the plant-soil system, and show that dominant plant traits, rather than trait functional diversity, control the fate of added N in the plant-soil system.

  20. Cigarette smoking and short-term addiction treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, P T; Montoya, I D; Preston, K L; Juliano, L M; Gorelick, D A

    2011-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is common among patients in cocaine and opioid dependence treatment, and may influence treatment outcome. We addressed this issue in a secondary analysis of data from an outpatient clinical trial of buprenorphine treatment for concurrent cocaine and opioid dependence (13 weeks, N=200). The association between cigarette smoking (lifetime cigarette smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day prior to study entry) and short-term treatment outcome (% of urine samples positive for cocaine or opioids, treatment retention) was evaluated with analysis of covariance, bivariate correlations, and multivariate linear regression. Nicotine-dependent smokers (66% of participants) had a significantly higher percentage of cocaine-positive urine samples than non-smokers (12% of participants) (76% vs. 62%), but did not differ in percentage of opioid-positive urine samples or treatment retention. Number of cigarettes smoked per day at baseline was positively associated with percentage of cocaine-positive urine samples, even after controlling for baseline sociodemographic and drug use characteristics, but was not significantly associated with percentage of opioid-positive urine samples or treatment retention. These results suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with poorer short-term outcome of outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence, but perhaps not of concurrent opioid dependence, and support the importance of offering smoking cessation treatment to cocaine-dependent patients.

  1. Short-Term Effects of Hydrokinesiotherapy in Hospitalized Preterm Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welcy Cassiano de Oliveira Tobinaga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU environment, preterm newborns are subject to environmental stress and numerous painful interventions. It is known that hydrokinesiotherapy promotes comfort and reduces stress because of the physiological properties of water. Objective. To evaluate the short-term effects of hydrokinesiotherapy on reducing stress in preterm newborns admitted to the NICU. Materials and Methods. Fifteen preterm newborns underwent salivary cortisol measurement, pain evaluation using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS, and heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation measurements before and after the application of hydrokinesiotherapy. Results. The mean gestational age of the newborns was 34.2±1.66 weeks, and the mean weight was 1823.3±437.4 g. Immediately after application of hydrokinesiotherapy, a significant reduction was observed in salivary cortisol (p=0.004, heart rate (p=0.003, and respiratory rate (p=0.004 and a significant increase was observed in peripheral oxygen saturation (p=0.002. However, no significant difference was observed in the NIPS score (p>0.05. Conclusion. In the present study, neonatal hydrotherapy promoted short-term relief from feelings of stress. Neonatal hydrokinesiotherapy may be a therapeutic alternative. However, this therapy needs to be studied in randomized, crossover, and blinded trials. This trial is registered with NCT02707731.

  2. Robust short-term memory without synaptic learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Johnson

    Full Text Available Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can--as a gradual modification of synaptic weights--since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds. The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings.

  3. Short-Term Monocular Deprivation Enhances Physiological Pupillary Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Binda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term monocular deprivation alters visual perception in adult humans, increasing the dominance of the deprived eye, for example, as measured with binocular rivalry. This form of plasticity may depend upon the inhibition/excitation balance in the visual cortex. Recent work suggests that cortical excitability is reliably tracked by dilations and constrictions of the pupils of the eyes. Here, we ask whether monocular deprivation produces a systematic change of pupil behavior, as measured at rest, that is independent of the change of visual perception. During periods of minimal sensory stimulation (in the dark and task requirements (minimizing body and gaze movements, slow pupil oscillations, “hippus,” spontaneously appear. We find that hippus amplitude increases after monocular deprivation, with larger hippus changes in participants showing larger ocular dominance changes (measured by binocular rivalry. This tight correlation suggests that a single latent variable explains both the change of ocular dominance and hippus. We speculate that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine may be implicated in this phenomenon, given its important role in both plasticity and pupil control. On the practical side, our results indicate that measuring the pupil hippus (a simple and short procedure provides a sensitive index of the change of ocular dominance induced by short-term monocular deprivation, hence a proxy for plasticity.

  4. Assessing the complexity of short-term heartbeat interval series by distribution entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Liu, Chengyu; Li, Ke; Zheng, Dingchang; Liu, Changchun; Hou, Yinglong

    2015-01-01

    Complexity of heartbeat interval series is typically measured by entropy. Recent studies have found that sample entropy (SampEn) or fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn) quantifies essentially the randomness, which may not be uniformly identical to complexity. Additionally, these entropy measures are heavily dependent on the predetermined parameters and confined to data length. Aiming at improving the robustness of complexity assessment for short-term RR interval series, this study developed a novel measure--distribution entropy (DistEn). The DistEn took full advantage of the inherent information underlying the vector-to-vector distances in the state space by probability density estimation. Performances of DistEn were examined by theoretical data and experimental short-term RR interval series. Results showed that DistEn correctly ranked the complexity of simulated chaotic series and Gaussian noise series. The DistEn had relatively lower sensitivity to the predetermined parameters and showed stability even for quantifying the complexity of extremely short series. Analysis further showed that the DistEn indicated the loss of complexity in both healthy aging and heart failure patients (both p < 0.01), whereas neither the SampEn nor the FuzzyEn achieved comparable results (all p ≥ 0.05). This study suggested that the DistEn would be a promising measure for prompt clinical examination of cardiovascular function.

  5. Effective Short-term Forecasting of Wind Farms Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Bogalecka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting a specific wind farm’s (WF generation capacity within a 24 hour perspective requires both a reliable forecast of wind, as well as supporting tools. This tool is a dedicated model of wind farm power. This model should include not only general rules of wind to mechanical energy conversion, but also the farm’s specific features. There are many factors that influence a farm’s generation capacity, and any forecast of it, even with an accurate weather forecast, carries error. This paper presents analytical, statistical, and neuron models of wind farm power. The study is based on data from a real wind farm. Most attention is paid to the neuron models, due to a neuron network’s capability to restore farm-specific details. The research aims to answer the headline question: whether and to what extent a wind farm’s power can be forecast short-term?

  6. IMPLEMENTATION OF TRENDS OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING IN SHORT TERM DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupina V. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article, based on the concept of operating leverage, gives the examples of the use of quantitative measurements of the dependence costs, sales and profits, and formulated the direction of using the results in the adoption of short-term management decisions. We present recommended forms of management reporting, report on the cash flow, balance sheet management and management reports on the financial results, as well as giving some examples of division of fixed (semi-variable costs of fixed and variable parts and bringing them into the form of a linear function. The article describes several methods for solving this problem: the method of the highest and lowest points, linear regression (least squares and graphical method

  7. The role of short-term memory in semantic priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A L; Diehl, V A

    2001-07-01

    Two theories of priming were compared: spreading activation theories, in particular ACT, and compound-cue theories. Whereas ACT assumes that priming is a result of diffusing activation in long-term memory, compound-cue models suggest that priming results from a formation process of prime and target in short-term memory. Thirty-eight participants took part in a study that combined a digit span task with a double lexical decision task consisting of a prime and a target item. Digit span length (low, medium, and high) and prime type (related or unrelated word or nonword) were both within-subject variables. As expected, results showed significant priming effects. In favor of ACT, no interaction between digit span length and prime type was found. Additionally, a nonword inhibition effect (unrelated versus nonword prime) was found, which was predicted by compound-cue theories. This finding is discussed in terms of the process interference and response competition hypotheses.

  8. Short-Term Planning of Hybrid Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Goran; Baus, Zoran; Nikolovski, Srete

    2016-07-01

    In this paper short-term planning algorithm for hybrid power system consist of different types of cascade hydropower plants (run-of-the river, pumped storage, conventional), thermal power plants (coal-fired power plants, combined cycle gas-fired power plants) and wind farms is presented. The optimization process provides a joint bid of the hybrid system, and thus making the operation schedule of hydro and thermal power plants, the operation condition of pumped-storage hydropower plants with the aim of maximizing profits on day ahead market, according to expected hourly electricity prices, the expected local water inflow in certain hydropower plants, and the expected production of electrical energy from the wind farm, taking into account previously contracted bilateral agreement for electricity generation. Optimization process is formulated as hourly-discretized mixed integer linear optimization problem. Optimization model is applied on the case study in order to show general features of the developed model.

  9. Short Term Load Forecast Using Wavelet Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui Min; Rong Fei; Luo An

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a wavelet neural network (WNN) model combining wavelet transform and artificial neural networks for short term load forecast (STLF). Both historical load and temperature data having important impacts on load level were used in the proposed forecasting model. The model used the three-layer feed forward network trained by the error back-propagation algorithm. To enhance the forecasting accuracy by neural networks, wavelet multi-resolution analysis method was introduced to pre-process these data and reconstruct the predicted output. The proposed model has been evaluated with actual data of electricity load and temperature of Hunan Province. The simulation results show that the model is capable of providing a reasonable forecasting accuracy in STLF.

  10. Short-Term Test Results. Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, James [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. This report describes the Bay Ridge project, a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). Findings from the short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach.

  11. The effects of short-term hypergravity on Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Jenifer N.; Pandey, Santosh; Powell-Coffman, Jo Anne

    2016-08-01

    As we seek to recognize the opportunities of advanced aerospace technologies and spaceflight, it is increasingly important to understand the impacts of hypergravity, defined as gravitational forces greater than those present on the earth's surface. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been established as a powerful model to study the effects of altered gravity regimens and has displayed remarkable resilience to space travel. In this study, we investigate the effects of short-term and defined hypergravity exposure on C. elegans motility, brood size, pharyngeal pumping rates, and lifespan. The results from this study advance our understanding of the effects of shorter durations of exposure to increased gravitational forces on C. elegans, and also contribute to the growing body of literature on the impacts of altered gravity regimens on earth's life forms.

  12. Short-term Power Load Forecasting Based on Gray Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Herui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Power load forecasting provides the basis for the preparation of power planning, especially the accurate short-term power load forecasting. It can formulate power rationing program of area load reliably and timely, to maintain the normal production and life. This article describes the gray prediction method, and improves GM (1,1 model via processing the original data sequence smoothly, using the correction model of parameteramending parameter values​​, adding the residual model, and also applying the idea of the metabolism. It conducts an empirical analysis of the 10KV large cable of Guigang Power Supply Bureau in Nan Ping, and verifies the limitations of ordinary gray theory. The improved gray model has a higher prediction accuracy than the conventional GM (1,1 model.  

  13. Short-term cost of suicides in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopala Sarma Poduri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is experiencing increasing suicides that have much economic impact. Objective: To calculate the short-term costs of suicide in India. Materials and Methods: All the official data of suicides in India in 2014 formed the base of computation. Both direct and indirect costs were computed basing on market rates and official estimates. Perceived gains were deducted to arrive at the total cost. Results: The contribution of middle age group in the loss was high. Each suicide costs ' 2.65 L and the total cost of suicide in 2014 amounts to ' 348842.65 L in the first year. Conclusion: Much suffering and burden on individuals, family, and society can be reduced if adequate treatment facilities for psychiatry patients are made available at affordable rates everywhere. This should be complemented by much needed public education.

  14. Astronomical observation tasks short-term scheduling using PDDS algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    A concept of the ground-based optical astronomical observation efficiency is considered in this paper. We believe that a telescope efficiency can be increased by properly allocating observation tasks with respect to the current environment state and probability to obtain the data with required properties under the current conditions. An online observations scheduling is assumed to be an essential part for raising the efficiency. The short-term online scheduling is treated as the discrete optimisation problems which are stated using several abstraction levels. The optimisation problems are solved using the parallel depth-bounded discrepancy search (PDDS) algorithm by Moisan et al. (2014). Some aspects of the algorithm performance are discussed. The presented algorithm is a core of open-source chelyabinsk C++ library which is planned to be used at 2.5 m telescope of Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University.

  15. Working memory training improves visual short-term memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarb, Hillary; Nail, Jayde; Schumacher, Eric H

    2016-01-01

    Since antiquity, philosophers, theologians, and scientists have been interested in human memory. However, researchers today are still working to understand the capabilities, boundaries, and architecture. While the storage capabilities of long-term memory are seemingly unlimited (Bahrick, J Exp Psychol 113:1-2, 1984), working memory, or the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in memory, seems to have stringent capacity limits (e.g., Cowan, Behav Brain Sci 24:87-185, 2001). Individual differences, however, do exist and these differences can often predict performance on a wide variety of tasks (cf. Engle What is working-memory capacity? 297-314, 2001). Recently, researchers have promoted the enticing possibility that simple behavioral training can expand the limits of working memory which indeed may also lead to improvements on other cognitive processes as well (cf. Morrison and Chein, Psychol Bull Rev 18:46-60 2011). However, initial investigations across a wide variety of cognitive functions have produced mixed results regarding the transferability of training-related improvements. Across two experiments, the present research focuses on the benefit of working memory training on visual short-term memory capacity-a cognitive process that has received little attention in the training literature. Data reveal training-related improvement of global measures of visual short-term memory as well as of measures of the independent sub-processes that contribute to capacity (Awh et al., Psychol Sci 18(7):622-628, 2007). These results suggest that the ability to inhibit irrelevant information within and between trials is enhanced via n-back training allowing for selective improvement on untrained tasks. Additionally, we highlight a potential limitation of the standard adaptive training procedure and propose a modified design to ensure variability in the training environment.

  16. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory.

  17. Study on Carburizing Kinetics of Low-carbon Steel at High-temperature and Short-term

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Sheng; Xiao Nianxin; Zhang Hailong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the carburizing kinetics of low-carbon steel at high-temperature and short-term in liquid cast-iron were studied by metallographic microscope, chemical analysis and so on, and the microstructure of carburized layer was also analyzed. The results show that the carburizing rate of low-carbon steel at high-temperature and short-term is so fast, and the microstructure of carburized layer possess higher carbon content, and cementite, pearlite and ferrite exist in carburized layer structure simultaneously. Besides, the kinetic equations of permeating layer forming have been presented, and the carburizing mechanism was preliminary discussed also.

  18. Concrete/Febex Bentonite Interaction: Results On Short-Term Column Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escribano, A.; Turrero, M.J.; Torres, E.; Martin, P.L. [CIEMAT, Environmental Department, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Interaction between the alkaline pore fluids from the concrete engineered barriers and the bentonite at the repository conditions may generate products that can diffuse through the porous structure of the bentonite affecting their properties. A comprehensive study based on series of short term experiments is being performed to provide experimental evidences on the physical, chemical and mineralogical changes during the concrete-compacted bentonite interaction. Samples were analyzed by XRD, SEM-EDS and FTIR. Measurements of swelling capacity, specific surface area and chemical analysis for cation exchange capacity and soluble salts analyses were also performed. (authors)

  19. Impacts of Short-Term Solar Power Forecasts in System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, Eduardo; Krad, Ibrahim; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ela, Erik

    2016-05-05

    Solar generation is experiencing an exponential growth in power systems worldwide and, along with wind power, is posing new challenges to power system operations. Those challenges are characterized by an increase of system variability and uncertainty across many time scales: from days, down to hours, minutes, and seconds. Much of the research in the area has focused on the effect of solar forecasting across hours or days. This paper presents a methodology to capture the effect of short-term forecasting strategies and analyzes the economic and reliability implications of utilizing a simple, yet effective forecasting method for solar PV in intra-day operations.

  20. Using Short-Term Enrichments and Metagenomics to Obtain Genomes from uncultured Activated Sludge Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Albertsen, Mads;

    is that they depend on system-specific reference genomes in order to analyze the vast amounts of data (Albertsen et al., 2012). This limits the application of -omics to environments for which a comprehensive catalogue of reference genomes exists e.g. the human gut. Several strategies for obtaining microbial genomes...... was reduced by short-term enrichment under defined conditions favoring certain functional groups of organisms. Bioinformatic genome extraction was greatly improved by utilizing multiple metagenomes where the microorganisms were in different abundances. In this study we retrieved 15 complete genomes...

  1. DOES SHORT TERM DEBT AFFECT PROFITABILITY? EVIDENCE FROM THE ROMANIAN LISTED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILOŞ LAURA RAISA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at providing new empirical evidence on the influence of debt (both on short and long term on corporate profitability, with application to the Romanian companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. Panel data are analyzed for 50 companies belonging to different fields of activity during 2003-2014 using a fixed effect regression model. After we control for size, growth, liquidity, and tangibility of assets, the results reveal that short-term debt has a negative influence on corporate profitability.

  2. Short-term results of carotid stenting for the treatment of extracranial carotid occlusive disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Wei-guo; ZHU Ting; CHEN Bin; JIANG Jun-hao; YANG Jue; SHI Zhen-yu

    2006-01-01

    @@ Carotid artery angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has been performed with increasing frequency for the treatment of extracranial carotid occlusive diseases (ECOD) in recent years. Its feasibility and safety are supported by the Stenting and Angioplasty with Protection in Patient at High Risk for Endarterectomy (SAPPHIRE) trial,1 which revealed a lower incidence of death, stroke and myocardial infarction compared with carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in high-risk patients. However, it is a pity that up to now, initial results of this endovascular procedure have yet been infrequently documented in China. This retrospective study was to analyze the short-term results of CAS to treat ECOD in a single medical center.

  3. Heterogeneous mean field for neural networks with short-term plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Volo, Matteo; Burioni, Raffaella; Casartelli, Mario; Livi, Roberto; Vezzani, Alessandro

    2014-08-01

    We report about the main dynamical features of a model of leaky integrate-and-fire excitatory neurons with short-term plasticity defined on random massive networks. We investigate the dynamics by use of a heterogeneous mean-field formulation of the model that is able to reproduce dynamical phases characterized by the presence of quasisynchronous events. This formulation allows one to solve also the inverse problem of reconstructing the in-degree distribution for different network topologies from the knowledge of the global activity field. We study the robustness of this inversion procedure by providing numerical evidence that the in-degree distribution can be recovered also in the presence of noise and disorder in the external currents. Finally, we discuss the validity of the heterogeneous mean-field approach for sparse networks with a sufficiently large average in-degree.

  4. Short-Term International Internship Experiences for Future Teachers and Other Child Development Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kari Knutson; Gonzalez, Amber M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines outcomes associated with participation in short-term, international internship experiences. Results suggest short-term international internship experiences contribute to rich personal and professional development outcomes. Findings highlight participant challenges associated with initial internship experiences, professional…

  5. 47 CFR 1.9035 - Short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Short-term de facto transfer leasing... PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9035 Short-term de facto transfer leasing...) and a spectrum lessee may enter into a short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangement in which...

  6. Short-Term Effects of Midseason Coach Turnover on Team Performance in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduck, Anne-Line; Buelens, Marc; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term team performance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team…

  7. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the short-term full diet program under the following general criteria: (1)...

  8. Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you ... sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. More than 30 million Americans ...

  9. Leukocyte subsets and neutrophil function after short-term spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C. F.; Mehta, S. K.; Kaur, I.; Jones, M. L.; Feeback, D. L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in leukocyte subpopulations and function after spaceflight have been observed but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not well defined. This study investigated the effects of short-term spaceflight (8-15 days) on circulating leukocyte subsets, stress hormones, immunoglobulin levels, and neutrophil function. At landing, a 1.5-fold increase in neutrophils was observed compared with preflight values; lymphocytes were slightly decreased, whereas the results were variable for monocytes. No significant changes were observed in plasma levels of immunoglobulins, cortisol, or adrenocorticotropic hormone. In contrast, urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol were significantly elevated at landing. Band neutrophils were observed in 9 of 16 astronauts. Neutrophil chemotactic assays showed a 10-fold decrease in the optimal dose response after landing. Neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells was increased both before and after spaceflight. At landing, the expression of MAC-1 was significantly decreased while L-selectin was significantly increased. These functional alterations may be of clinical significance on long-duration space missions.

  10. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie-Anne Marquet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low” the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1, whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON. Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05 compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism.

  11. Short term fluctuations of wind and solar power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvari, M.; Lohmann, G.; Wächter, M.; Milan, P.; Lorenz, E.; Heinemann, D.; Rahimi Tabar, M. Reza; Peinke, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Wind and solar power are known to be highly influenced by weather events and may ramp up or down abruptly. Such events in the power production influence not only the availability of energy, but also the stability of the entire power grid. By analysing significant amounts of data from several regions around the world with resolutions of seconds to minutes, we provide strong evidence that renewable wind and solar sources exhibit multiple types of variability and nonlinearity in the time scale of seconds and characterise their stochastic properties. In contrast to previous findings, we show that only the jumpy characteristic of renewable sources decreases when increasing the spatial size over which the renewable energies are harvested. Otherwise, the strong non-Gaussian, intermittent behaviour in the cumulative power of the total field survives even for a country-wide distribution of the systems. The strong fluctuating behaviour of renewable wind and solar sources can be well characterised by Kolmogorov-like power spectra and q-exponential probability density functions. Using the estimated potential shape of power time series, we quantify the jumpy or diffusive dynamic of the power. Finally we propose a time delayed feedback technique as a control algorithm to suppress the observed short term non-Gaussian statistics in spatially strong correlated and intermittent renewable sources.

  12. Short-term spectroscopic variability of Plaskett's star

    CERN Document Server

    Palate, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    Context. Plaskett's star (HD47129) is a very massive O-star binary in a post Roche-lobe overflow stage. CoRoT observations of this system revealed photometric variability with a number of frequencies. Aims. The aim of this paper is to characterize the variations in spectroscopy and investigate their origin. Methods. To sample its short-term variability, HD47129 was intensively monitored during two spectroscopic campaigns of six nights each. The spectra were disentangled and Fourier analyses were performed to determine possible periodicities and to investigate the wavelength dependence of the phase constant and the amplitude of the periodicities. Results. Complex line profile variations are observed. Frequencies near 1.65, 0.82, and 0.37 d^-1 are detected consistently in the He i 4471, He ii 4542, and N iii 4510-4518 lines. These frequencies are consistent with those of the strongest signals detected in photometry. The possibilities that these variations stem from pulsations, a recently detected magnetic field...

  13. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  14. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Hausswirth, Christophe; Molle, Odeline; Hawley, John A.; Burke, Louise M.; Tiollier, Eve; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2016-01-01

    Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low”) the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1), whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON). Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05) compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism. PMID:27897989

  15. Audiovisual integration facilitates monkeys' short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, James; Poremba, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Many human behaviors are known to benefit from audiovisual integration, including language and communication, recognizing individuals, social decision making, and memory. Exceptionally little is known about the contributions of audiovisual integration to behavior in other primates. The current experiment investigated whether short-term memory in nonhuman primates is facilitated by the audiovisual presentation format. Three macaque monkeys that had previously learned an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task were trained to perform a similar visual task, after which they were tested with a concurrent audiovisual DMS task with equal proportions of auditory, visual, and audiovisual trials. Parallel to outcomes in human studies, accuracy was higher and response times were faster on audiovisual trials than either unisensory trial type. Unexpectedly, two subjects exhibited superior unimodal performance on auditory trials, a finding that contrasts with previous studies, but likely reflects their training history. Our results provide the first demonstration of a bimodal memory advantage in nonhuman primates, lending further validation to their use as a model for understanding audiovisual integration and memory processing in humans.

  16. Short term pumped storage scheduling using two proposed techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Salama, M.M. Elgazar, S.M. Abdelmaksoud, H.A. Henry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a genetic algorithm and constriction factor based particle swarm optimization technique are proposed for solving the short term pumped storage hydro thermal scheduling problem. The performance efficiency of the proposed techniques is demonstrated on hydrothermal test system comprising of five thermal units and one pumped storage power plant. A wide rang of thermal and hydraulic constraints are taken into consideration such as real power balance constraint, minimum and maximum limits of thermal units and pumped storage power plant, water discharge and water pumping rate limits and reservoir storage volume constraints. The simulation results obtained from the constriction factor based particle swarm optimization technique are compared with the outcomes obtained from the genetic algorithm in terms of cost saving and execution time to reveal the validity and verify the feasibility of the proposed methods. The test results show that the constriction factor based particle swarm optimization technique performs better than genetic algorithm in solving this problem in terms of cost saving and computational time.

  17. Reducing variability in short term orbital lifetime prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebschull, Christopher; Flegel, Sven Kevin; Braun, Vitali; Gelhaus, Johannes; Möckel, Marek; Wiedemann, Carsten; Vörsmann, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Within the last year three major re-entries occurred. The satellites UARS, ROSAT and Phobos-Grunt entered Earth's atmosphere with fragments reaching the surface. Due to a number of uncertainties in propagating an object's trajectory the exact place and time of a satellite's re-entry is hard to determine. Major influences when predicting the re-entry time are the changing precision of the available orbital data, the satellite's ballistic coefficient, the activity of the sun which influences the Earth's atmosphere and the underlying quality of the atmospheric model. In this paper a method is presented which can reduce the variability in short-term orbital lifetime prediction induced by fluctuating orbital data accuracies. A re-entry campaign is used as a reference for this purpose. For a window of a few weeks before the re-entry the position data of a synthetic object is disturbed considering different degrees of orbital data errors. As a result different predictions will exist for the generated position data of a given day. Using a regression algorithm on the available data an average position is obtained, which is then used for the orbital lifetime prediction. The effect of this measure is a more consistent prediction of the orbital lifetime. The paper concludes with the comparison of the generated re-entry windows in various test cases for the original and the averaged data.

  18. Short-Term Dynamical Interactions Among Extrasolar Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Gregory; Chambers, John E.; DiVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We show that short-term perturbations among massive planets in multiple planet systems can result in radial velocity variations of the central star which differ substantially from velocity variations derived assuming the planets are executing independent Keplerian motions. We discuss two alternate fitting methods which can lead to an improved dynamical description of multiple planet systems. In the first method, the osculating orbital elements are determined via a Levenberg-Marquardt minimization scheme driving an N-body integrator. The second method is an improved analytic model in which orbital elements such as the periods and longitudes of periastron are allowed to vary according to a simple model for resonant interactions between the planets. Both of these methods can potentially determine the true masses for the planets by eliminating the sin(i) degeneracy inherent in fits that assume independent Keplerian motions. As more radial velocity data is accumulated from stars such as GJ876, these methods should allow for unambiguous determination of the planetary masses and relative inclinations.

  19. Short-term stabilization of grape marc through earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Lazcano, Cristina; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-03-15

    The winery industry generates vast amounts of organic waste during the various stages of wine production. Among the possible methodological alternatives available for its treatment, vermicomposting is one of the best-known processes for the biological stabilization of solid organic wastes by transforming them into safer and more stabilized materials suitable for application to soil. In this study we carried out a mesocosm experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of the active phase of vermicomposting for the stabilization of grape marc, an enriched lignocellulosic by-product obtained after the grape crushing and pressing stages in wine production. For this we analysed the chemical, biochemical and microbiological properties of the product resulting from this phase, in comparison with those in a control treatment. Earthworm activity reduced the abundance of both bacterial and fungal PLFA biomarkers. Decreases in microbial activity and in protease and cellulase activities were also attributed to the presence of earthworms. The differences in microbial communities were accompanied by a reduction in the labile C pool and the cellulose content. These results indicate that earthworms played a key role in the stabilization of the grape marc in the short-term, via its effects on organic matter decomposition and microbial biomass and activity.

  20. Probing short-term face memory in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Punit; Gaule, Anne; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Bird, Geoffrey; Cook, Richard

    2015-03-01

    It has recently been proposed that the face recognition deficits seen in neurodevelopmental disorders may reflect impaired short-term face memory (STFM). For example, introducing a brief delay between the presentation of target and test faces seems to disproportionately impair matching or recognition performance in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The present study sought to determine whether deficits of STFM contribute to impaired face recognition seen in Developmental Prosopagnosia. To determine whether developmental prosopagnosics exhibit impaired STFM, the present study used a six-alternative-forced-choice match-to-sample procedure. Memory demand was manipulated by employing a short or long delay between the presentation of the target face, and the six test faces. Crucially, the perceptual demands were identical in both conditions, thereby allowing the independent contribution of STFM to be assessed. Prosopagnosics showed clear evidence of a category-specific impairment for face-matching in both conditions; they were both slower and less accurate than matched controls. Crucially, however, the prosopagnosics showed no evidence of disproportionate face recognition impairment in the long-interval condition. While individuals with DP may have problems with the perceptual encoding of faces, it appears that their representations are stable over short durations. These results suggest that the face recognition difficulties seen in DP and autism may be qualitatively different, attributable to deficits of perceptual encoding and perceptual maintenance, respectively.

  1. Short-term uptake of heavy metals by periphyton algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vymazal, J.

    1984-12-31

    The utilization of periphyton for the removal of heavy metals from enriched small streams has been examined. By means of short-term batch laboratory experiments the courses of metal uptake have been studied. For uptake study naturally growing periphyton community and periphytic filamentous algae Cladophora glomerata and Oedogonium rivulare have been used. Uptakes of nine heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn) have been determined during four hours exposure. In addition the influence of humic substances on heavy metals uptake has been determined. Uptake of all metals increased during four hours exposure but not in the same way. Some metals were removed continuously (Ni, Cr, Fe and Mn), other metals were removed more rapidly during the first hour or first two hours of exposure and then only slight removal continued (Cu, Pb, Cd, Co). Uptake of Zn was rather unambiguous. Results of these experiments suggest that the course of uptake for individual metals could be similar for most periphyton algae. It was established that humic substances significantly reduce heavy metals uptake. The highest decrease of uptake was observed in Cu, Cr, Co and Cd. The results of model experiments are being tested in a pilot scale with respect to the demands of engineering practice. (J.R.)

  2. Short-term stress: the case of transport and slaughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Nanni Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term stressors such as transport and slaughter include psychological and physical stimuli that might be aversive for the animals. Restraint, manipulation and sudden change lead to fear, or psychological stress, while hunger, thirst, fatigue, injury and extreme thermal conditions are considered as physical stresses. Animal responses to these stimuli include behavioural and physiological changes devoted to coping with adverse situations. If the recovery or the adaptation fails, the consequences can be extremely serious, ranging from weight loss and death to impaired carcass and meat quality. As the stress during transport and slaughter is unavoidable, only the knowledge of the physiological and behavioural needs of the animals during all procedures from pre-transport handling to stunning, together with the correct use of the facilities for handling and transportation, can minimize the intensity and the duration of stress. The final goal is to improve transport and slaughter conditions for the animal and, as a consequence, animal welfare and meat quality.

  3. Optimize Short Term load Forcasting Anomalous Based Feed Forward Backpropagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyadi, Y.; Abdullah, A. G.; Rohmah, K. A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper contains the Short-Term Load Forecasting (STLF) using artificial neural network especially feed forward back propagation algorithm which is particularly optimized in order to getting a reduced error value result. Electrical load forecasting target is a holiday that hasn’t identical pattern and different from weekday’s pattern, in other words the pattern of holiday load is an anomalous. Under these conditions, the level of forecasting accuracy will be decrease. Hence we need a method that capable to reducing error value in anomalous load forecasting. Learning process of algorithm is supervised or controlled, then some parameters are arranged before performing computation process. Momentum constant a value is set at 0.8 which serve as a reference because it has the greatest converge tendency. Learning rate selection is made up to 2 decimal digits. In addition, hidden layer and input component are tested in several variation of number also. The test result leads to the conclusion that the number of hidden layer impact on the forecasting accuracy and test duration determined by the number of iterations when performing input data until it reaches the maximum of a parameter value.

  4. An investigation of the effects of interference speech on short-term memory for verbally presented prose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodico, Dana M.; Torres, Rendell R.; Shimizu, Yasushi; Hunter, Claudia

    2004-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of interference speech and the built acoustical environment on human performance, and the possibility of designing spaces to architecturally meet the acoustical goals of office and classroom environments. The effects of room size, geometry, and acoustical parameters on human performance are studied through human subject testing. Three experiments are used to investigate the effects of distracting background speech on short-term memory for verbally presented prose under constrained laboratory conditions. Short-term memory performance is rated within four different acoustical spaces and five background noise levels, as well as a quiet condition. The presentation will cover research methods, results, and possibilities for furthering this research. [Work supported by the Program in Architectural Acoustics, School of Architecture, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

  5. Nutritional and Protein Deficiencies in the Short Term following Both Gastric Bypass and Gastric Banding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Aron-Wisnewsky

    Full Text Available The number of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery (BS has increased dramatically in recent years. Therefore, monitoring food intake and its consequences in terms of nutritional status is necessary to prevent nutritional deficiencies. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of food restriction on nutritional parameters in the short-term (≤3 months period after BS in morbid obesity.In a prospective study, we followed 22 obese women who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GBP or adjustable gastric banding (AGB at baseline (T0 and 1 (T1 and 3 (T3 months after surgery. We evaluated food intake, nutrient adequacy and serum concentrations of vitamins and minerals known to be at risk for deficiency following BS.Before surgery, we observed suboptimal food intakes, leading to a risk of micronutrient deficiencies. Serum analysis confirmed nutritional deficiencies for iron and thiamine for 27 and 23% of the patients, respectively. The drastic energy and food reduction seen in the short term led to very low probabilities of adequacy for nutrients equivalent across both surgeries. Serum analysis demonstrated a continuous decrease in prealbumin during the follow-up, indicating mild protein depletion in 21 and 57% of GBP patients and 50 and 63% of AGB patients, respectively, at T1 and T3. Regarding vitamins and minerals, systematic supplementation after GBP prevented most nutritional deficiencies. By contrast, AGB patients, for whom there is no systematic supplementation, developed such deficiencies.Our results suggest that cautious monitoring of protein intake after BS is mandatory. Furthermore, AGB patients might also benefit from systematic multivitamin and mineral supplementation at least in the short term.

  6. Ultra-Short-Term Heart Rate Variability is Sensitive to Training Effects in Team Sports Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Y. Nakamura, Andrew A. Flatt, Lucas A. Pereira, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Irineu Loturco, Michael R. Esco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the possibility of the ultra-short-term lnRMSSD (measured in 1-min post-1-min stabilization period to detect training induced adaptations in futsal players. Twenty-four elite futsal players underwent HRV assessments pre- and post-three or four weeks preseason training. From the 10-min HRV recording period, lnRMSSD was analyzed in the following time segments: 1 from 0-5 min (i.e., stabilization period; 2 from 0-1 min; 1-2 min; 2-3 min; 3-4 min; 4-5 min and; 3 from 5-10 min (i.e., criterion period. The lnRMSSD was almost certainly higher (100/00/00 using the magnitude-based inference in all periods at the post- moment. The correlation between changes in ultra-short-term lnRMSSD (i.e., 0-1 min; 1-2 min; 2-3 min; 3-4 min; 4-5 min and lnRMSSDCriterion ranged between 0.45-0.75, with the highest value (p = 0.75; 90% CI: 0.55 – 0.85 found between ultra-short-term lnRMDSSD at 1-2 min and lnRMSSDCriterion. In conclusion, lnRMSSD determined in a short period of 1-min is sensitive to training induced changes in futsal players (based on the very large correlation to the criterion measure, and can be used to track cardiac autonomic adaptations.

  7. Short-term azithromycin treatment promotes cornea allograft survival in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Wacker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Any inflammatory response following corneal transplantation may induce rejection and irreversible graft failure. The purpose of this study is to analyze the anti-inflammatory effect of azithromycin (AZM following experimental keratoplasty in rats. METHODS: Corneal transplants were performed between Fisher-donor and Lewis-recipient rats. Recipients were postoperatively treated three times daily with AZM, miglyol, ofloxacin or dexamethasone eye drops. As an additional control, AZM was applied following syngeneic keratoplasty. Furthermore, short-term treatments with AZM for seven days perioperatively or with AZM only three days prior to the transplantation were compared to appropriate controls. All transplants were monitored clinically for opacity, edema, and vascularization. Infiltrating CD45(+, CD4(+, CD8(+, CD25(+, CD161(+ and CD163(+ cells were quantified via immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: AZM significantly promoted corneal graft survival compared with miglyol or ofloxacin treatment. This effect was comparable to topical dexamethasone. No adverse AZM effect was observed. Histology confirmed a significant reduction of infiltrating leukocytes. The short-term application of AZM for three days prior to transplantation or for seven days perioperatively reduced corneal graft rejection significantly compared with the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Along with antibiotic properties, topical AZM has a strong anti-inflammatory effect. Following keratoplasty, this effect is comparable to topical dexamethasone without the risk of steroid-induced adverse effects. Short-term treatment with AZM three days prior to the transplantation was sufficient to promote graft survival in the rat keratoplasty model. We therefore suggest further assessing the anti-inflammatory function of topical AZM following keratoplasty in humans.

  8. Short-term earthquake risk assessment considering time-dependent b-values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia, Laura; Tormann, Thessa; Wiemer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Observations from laboratory experiments measuring acoustic emissions during loading cycles in pressurized rock samples have repeatedly suggested that small events in the precursory phase of an impending large event change in their relative size distribution. In particular, they highlight a systematic b-value decrease during the stress increase period before the main event. A number of large natural events, but not all of them, have been shown to have a precursory decrease in the b-value at very different time scales, from months to a few days before the subsequent mainshock. At present short term-forecast models such as STEP and ETAS consider the generic probability that an event can trigger subsequent seismicity in the near field; the rate increasing during the foreshock sequences can offer a probability gain for a significant earthquake to happen. While the probability gain of a stationary Poissonian background is substantial, selected case studies have shown through cost-benefit analysis that the absolute probability remains too low to warrant actions. This was shown for example by van Stiphout et al. (2010, GRL), for the 2009 a Mw 6.3 earthquake that hit the city of L'Aquila (Central Italy) after three months of foreshock activity. We here analyze the probability gain of a novel generation of short term forecast models which considers both the change in the seismicity rates and the temporal changes in the b-value. Changes in earthquake probability are then translated also into time-dependent hazard and risk. Preliminary results suggest that the precursory b-value decrease in the L'Aquila case results in an additional probability increase of a M6.3 event of about a factor of 30-50, which then surpasses the cost-benefit threshold for short-term evacuation in selected cases.

  9. Nutritional and Protein Deficiencies in the Short Term following Both Gastric Bypass and Gastric Banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron-Wisnewsky, Judith; Verger, Eric O; Bounaix, Carine; Dao, Maria Carlota; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Chevallier, Jean-Marc; Clément, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Background The number of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery (BS) has increased dramatically in recent years. Therefore, monitoring food intake and its consequences in terms of nutritional status is necessary to prevent nutritional deficiencies. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of food restriction on nutritional parameters in the short-term (≤3 months) period after BS in morbid obesity. Method In a prospective study, we followed 22 obese women who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GBP) or adjustable gastric banding (AGB) at baseline (T0) and 1 (T1) and 3 (T3) months after surgery. We evaluated food intake, nutrient adequacy and serum concentrations of vitamins and minerals known to be at risk for deficiency following BS. Results Before surgery, we observed suboptimal food intakes, leading to a risk of micronutrient deficiencies. Serum analysis confirmed nutritional deficiencies for iron and thiamine for 27 and 23% of the patients, respectively. The drastic energy and food reduction seen in the short term led to very low probabilities of adequacy for nutrients equivalent across both surgeries. Serum analysis demonstrated a continuous decrease in prealbumin during the follow-up, indicating mild protein depletion in 21 and 57% of GBP patients and 50 and 63% of AGB patients, respectively, at T1 and T3. Regarding vitamins and minerals, systematic supplementation after GBP prevented most nutritional deficiencies. By contrast, AGB patients, for whom there is no systematic supplementation, developed such deficiencies. Conclusions Our results suggest that cautious monitoring of protein intake after BS is mandatory. Furthermore, AGB patients might also benefit from systematic multivitamin and mineral supplementation at least in the short term. PMID:26891123

  10. Short-term rainfall: its scaling properties over Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, M. Isabel P.

    2010-05-01

    The characterization of rainfall at a variety of space- and time-scales demands usually that data from different origins and resolution are explored. Different tools and methodologies can be used for this purpose. In regions where the spatial variation of rain is marked, the study of the scaling structure of rainfall can lead to a better understanding of the type of events affecting that specific area, which is essential for many engineering applications. The relevant factors affecting rain variability, in time and space, can lead to contrasting statistics which should be carefully taken into account in design procedures and decision making processes. One such region is Mainland Portugal; the territory is located in the transitional region between the sub-tropical anticyclone and the subpolar depression zones and is characterized by strong north-south and east-west rainfall gradients. The spatial distribution and seasonal variability of rain are particularly influenced by the characteristics of the global circulation. One specific feature is the Atlantic origin of many synoptic disturbances in the context of the regional geography (e.g. latitude, orography, oceanic and continental influences). Thus, aiming at investigating the statistical signature of rain events of different origins, resulting from the large number of mechanisms and factors affecting the rainfall climate over Portugal, scale-invariant analyses of the temporal structure of rain from several locations in mainland Portugal were conducted. The study used short-term rainfall time series. Relevant scaling ranges were identified and characterized that help clarifying the small-scale behaviour and statistics of this process.

  11. Neural circuit mechanisms of short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Mark

    Memory over time scales of seconds to tens of seconds is thought to be maintained by neural activity that is triggered by a memorized stimulus and persists long after the stimulus is turned off. This presents a challenge to current models of memory-storing mechanisms, because the typical time scales associated with cellular and synaptic dynamics are two orders of magnitude smaller than this. While such long time scales can easily be achieved by bistable processes that toggle like a flip-flop between a baseline and elevated-activity state, many neuronal systems have been observed experimentally to be capable of maintaining a continuum of stable states. For example, in neural integrator networks involved in the accumulation of evidence for decision making and in motor control, individual neurons have been recorded whose activity reflects the mathematical integral of their inputs; in the absence of input, these neurons sustain activity at a level proportional to the running total of their inputs. This represents an analog form of memory whose dynamics can be conceptualized through an energy landscape with a continuum of lowest-energy states. Such continuous attractor landscapes are structurally non-robust, in seeming violation of the relative robustness of biological memory systems. In this talk, I will present and compare different biologically motivated circuit motifs for the accumulation and storage of signals in short-term memory. Challenges to generating robust memory maintenance will be highlighted and potential mechanisms for ameliorating the sensitivity of memory networks to perturbations will be discussed. Funding for this work was provided by NIH R01 MH065034, NSF IIS-1208218, Simons Foundation 324260, and a UC Davis Ophthalmology Research to Prevent Blindness Grant.

  12. Nutritional status in short-term overtraining boxers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrova Albena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet is essential to the recovery process in athletes, especially those undergoing intensive training. The continuous imbalance between loading and recovery leads to development of overtraining syndrome. The purpose of this study was to establish the changes in the nutritional status of short-term overtrained athletes. Twelve boxers from the team of National Spoils Academy Sofia, Bulgaria during their preparation for the National Championship 2016 were studied. The measurements were conducted three times.in the beginning of preparation (T1, 22 days later (2 and 10 days after (32 days after first measurement, in the beginning of the recovery period, one week prior the competition (T3.The measurements included basic anthropometric data, overtraining questionnaire RESTO-Sport and nutrition questionnaire, plasma concentration of testosterone and cortisol.On the data of dietary survey the percent proportion and the amount of daily consumed proteins, fats and carbohydrates were defined and the energy intake of the tested athletes was calculated. According to the RESTO-Sport a significant decrease in the ratio stress/recovery was observed in the period with the heaviest training load T2, and an increase was estimated in the pre­competition recovery period T3. It was found a typical for the overtraining syndrome decrease in the concentration of testosterone and the ratio of testosterone/cortisol in T3. In some respondents a reduction in carbohydrates and proteins intake was observed in T2 and especially in T3, which correlates with the hormonal changes. In this work the diet changes was discussed as a possible consequence and/or a cause of the overtraining syndrome.

  13. Frailty as a predictor of short-term adverse outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Coelho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to compare how different frailty measures (Frailty Phenotype/FP, Groningen Frailty Indicator/GFI and Tilburg Frailty Indicator/TFI predict short-term adverse outcomes. Secondarily, adopting a multidimensional approach to frailty (integral conceptual model–TFI, this study aims to compare how physical, psychological and social frailty predict the outcomes. A longitudinal study was carried out with 95 community-dwelling elderly. Participants were assessed at baseline for frailty, determinants of frailty, and adverse outcomes (healthcare utilization, quality of life, disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living/ADL and IADL. Ten months later the outcomes were assessed again. Frailty was associated with specific healthcare utilization indicators: the FP with a greater utilization of informal care; GFI with an increased contact with healthcare professionals; and TFI with a higher amount of contacts with a general practitioner. After controlling for the effect of life-course determinants, comorbidity and adverse outcome at baseline, GFI predicted IADL disability and TFI predicted quality of life. The effect of the FP on the outcomes was not significant, when compared with the other measures. However, when comparing TFI’s domains, the physical domain was the most significant predictor of the outcomes, even explaining part of the variance of ADL disability. Frailty at baseline was associated with adverse outcomes at follow-up. However, the relationship of each frailty measure (FP, GFI and TFI with the outcomes was different. In spite of the role of psychological frailty, TFI’s physical domain was the determinant factor for predicting disability and most of the quality of life.

  14. Models for short term malaria prediction in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galappaththy Gawrie NL

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in Sri Lanka is unstable and fluctuates in intensity both spatially and temporally. Although the case counts are dwindling at present, given the past history of resurgence of outbreaks despite effective control measures, the control programmes have to stay prepared. The availability of long time series of monitored/diagnosed malaria cases allows for the study of forecasting models, with an aim to developing a forecasting system which could assist in the efficient allocation of resources for malaria control. Methods Exponentially weighted moving average models, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models with seasonal components, and seasonal multiplicative autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA models were compared on monthly time series of district malaria cases for their ability to predict the number of malaria cases one to four months ahead. The addition of covariates such as the number of malaria cases in neighbouring districts or rainfall were assessed for their ability to improve prediction of selected (seasonal ARIMA models. Results The best model for forecasting and the forecasting error varied strongly among the districts. The addition of rainfall as a covariate improved prediction of selected (seasonal ARIMA models modestly in some districts but worsened prediction in other districts. Improvement by adding rainfall was more frequent at larger forecasting horizons. Conclusion Heterogeneity of patterns of malaria in Sri Lanka requires regionally specific prediction models. Prediction error was large at a minimum of 22% (for one of the districts for one month ahead predictions. The modest improvement made in short term prediction by adding rainfall as a covariate to these prediction models may not be sufficient to merit investing in a forecasting system for which rainfall data are routinely processed.

  15. Nutritional status in short-term overtraining boxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova, Albena; Petrov, Lubomir; Zaekov, Nikolay; Bozhkov, Borislav; Zsheliaskova-Koynova, Zshivka

    2017-03-01

    The diet is essential to the recovery process in athletes, especially those undergoing intensive training. The continuous imbalance between loading and recovery leads to development of overtraining syndrome. The purpose of this study was to establish the changes in the nutritional status of short-term overtrained athletes. Twelve boxers from the team of National Spoils Academy Sofia, Bulgaria during their preparation for the National Championship 2016 were studied. The measurements were conducted three times.in the beginning of preparation (T1), 22 days later (2) and 10 days after (32 days after first measurement), in the beginning of the recovery period, one week prior the competition (T3).The measurements included basic anthropometric data, overtraining questionnaire RESTO-Sport and nutrition questionnaire, plasma concentration of testosterone and cortisol.On the data of dietary survey the percent proportion and the amount of daily consumed proteins, fats and carbohydrates were defined and the energy intake of the tested athletes was calculated. According to the RESTO-Sport a significant decrease in the ratio stress/recovery was observed in the period with the heaviest training load T2, and an increase was estimated in the pre­competition recovery period T3. It was found a typical for the overtraining syndrome decrease in the concentration of testosterone and the ratio of testosterone/cortisol in T3. In some respondents a reduction in carbohydrates and proteins intake was observed in T2 and especially in T3, which correlates with the hormonal changes. In this work the diet changes was discussed as a possible consequence and/or a cause of the overtraining syndrome.

  16. Short-Term Wind Power Forecasts using Doppler Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magerman, Beth

    With a ground-based Doppler lidar on the upwind side of a wind farm in the Tehachapi Pass of California, radial wind velocity measurements were collected for repeating sector sweeps, scanning up to 10 kilometers away. This region consisted of complex terrain, with the scans made between mountains. The dataset was utilized for techniques being studied for short-term forecasting of wind power by correlating changes in energy content and of turbulence intensity by tracking spatial variance, in the wind ahead of a wind farm. A ramp event was also captured and its propagation was tracked. Orthogonal horizontal wind vectors were retrieved from the radial velocity using a sector Velocity Azimuth Display method. Streamlines were plotted to determine the potential sites for a correlation of upstream wind speed with wind speed at downstream locations near the wind farm. A "virtual wind turbine" was "placed" in locations along the streamline by using the time-series velocity data at the location as the input to a modeled wind turbine, to determine the extractable energy content at that location. The relationship between this time-dependent energy content upstream and near the wind farm was studied. By correlating the energy content with each upstream location based on a time shift estimated according to advection at the mean wind speed, several fits were evaluated. A prediction of the downstream energy content was produced by shifting the power output in time and applying the best-fit function. This method made predictions of the power near the wind farm several minutes in advance. Predictions were also made up to an hour in advance for a large ramp event. The Magnitude Absolute Error and Standard Deviation are presented for the predictions based on each selected upstream location.

  17. Short-term wind speed predictions with machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, M. A.; Khatibi, R.; FazeliFard, M. H.; Naghipour, L.; Makarynskyy, O.

    2016-02-01

    Hourly wind speed forecasting is presented by a modeling study with possible applications to practical problems including farming wind energy, aircraft safety and airport operations. Modeling techniques employed in this paper for such short-term predictions are based on the machine learning techniques of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic expression programming (GEP). Recorded values of wind speed were used, which comprised 8 years of collected data at the Kersey site, Colorado, USA. The January data over the first 7 years (2005-2011) were used for model training; and the January data for 2012 were used for model testing. A number of model structures were investigated for the validation of the robustness of these two techniques. The prediction results were compared with those of a multiple linear regression (MLR) method and with the Persistence method developed for the data. The model performances were evaluated using the correlation coefficient, root mean square error, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient and Akaike information criterion. The results indicate that forecasting wind speed is feasible using past records of wind speed alone, but the maximum lead time for the data was found to be 14 h. The results show that different techniques would lead to different results, where the choice between them is not easy. Thus, decision making has to be informed of these modeling results and decisions should be arrived at on the basis of an understanding of inherent uncertainties. The results show that both GEP and ANN are equally credible selections and even MLR should not be dismissed, as it has its uses.

  18. Short-term effect of antibiotics on human gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Panda

    Full Text Available From birth onwards, the human gut microbiota rapidly increases in diversity and reaches an adult-like stage at three years of age. After this age, the composition may fluctuate in response to external factors such as antibiotics. Previous studies have shown that resilience is not complete months after cessation of the antibiotic intake. However, little is known about the short-term effects of antibiotic intake on the gut microbial community. Here we examined the load and composition of the fecal microbiota immediately after treatment in 21 patients, who received broad-spectrum antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones and β-lactams. A fecal sample was collected from all participants before treatment and one week after for microbial load and community composition analyses by quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Fluoroquinolones and β-lactams significantly decreased microbial diversity by 25% and reduced the core phylogenetic microbiota from 29 to 12 taxa. However, at the phylum level, these antibiotics increased the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio (p = 0.0007, FDR = 0.002. At the species level, our findings unexpectedly revealed that both antibiotic types increased the proportion of several unknown taxa belonging to the Bacteroides genus, a Gram-negative group of bacteria (p = 0.0003, FDR<0.016. Furthermore, the average microbial load was affected by the treatment. Indeed, the β-lactams increased it significantly by two-fold (p = 0.04. The maintenance of or possible increase detected in microbial load and the selection of Gram-negative over Gram-positive bacteria breaks the idea generally held about the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics on gut microbiota.

  19. In vitro short-term platelet adhesion on various metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuta; Kurashima, Kazuya; Saito, Haruka; Nagai, Akiko; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Doi, Hisashi; Nomura, Naoyuki; Hanawa, Takao

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro short-term platelet adhesion on various metals, as accelerated by the addition of Ca(2+), was evaluated in this study. Metals used for medical devices [an austenitic stainless steel, a cobalt (Co)-chromium (Cr)-molybdenum (Mo) alloy, a titanium (Ti)-6 aluminum (Al)-4 vanadium (V) alloy, a Ti-6Al-7 niobium (Nb) alloy, a Tinickel (Ni) alloy, and commercially pure Ti] were immersed into a platelet-rich plasma solution for 5 or 20 min, and platelet adhesion and aggregation on the surfaces were observed using a scanning electron microscope. The platelet adhesion level on each metal after 5 min of immersion in a platelet-rich plasma solution was the smallest in this order: stainless steel alloy alloy alloy alloy = Ti. The levels after 5 min of immersion were almost the same as those after 20 min of immersion. Platelet adhesion was minimal on stainless steel and Co-Cr-Mo alloy, which have a Cr(2)O(3)-containing passive surface oxide film, but was accelerated on Ti and Ti alloys having a TiO(2)-containing film. A Cr(2)O(3)-containing oxide film has a lower relative permittivity than a TiO(2)-containing film; it thus supports a larger electrostatic force than the latter, adsorbs more albumins, which work as inhibitory proteins, and inhibits platelet aggregation. Therefore, platelet adhesion and aggregation are controlled by the composition of the surface oxide film on a metal due to the relative permittivity of the metal, which influences the amount of adsorbed proteins.

  20. Short-term intravenous interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroaki Okushin; Toru Ohnishi; Kazuhiko Morii; Koichi Uesaka; Shiro Yuasa

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of short-term, multiple daily dosing of intravenous interferon (IFN)in patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B.METHODS: IFN-β was intravenously administered at a total dose of 102 million international units (MIU) over a period of 28 d in 26 patients positive for HBeAg and HBV-DNA. IFN-beta was administered at doses of 2 MIU and 1 MIU on d 1, 3 MIU twice daily from d 2 to d 7,and 1 MIU thrice daily from d 8 to d 28. Patients were followed up for 24 wk after the end of treatment.RESULTS: Six months after the end of the treatment,loss of HBV-DNA occurred in 13 (50.0%) of the 26 patients, loss of HBeAg in 9 (34.6%), development of anti-HBe in 10 (38.5%), HBeAg seroconversion in 8 (30.8%), and normalization of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in 11 (42.0%).CONCLUSION: This 4-wk long IFN-β therapy, which was much shorter than conventional therapy lasting 12 wk or even more than 1 year, produced therapeutic effects similar to those achieved by IFN-α or pegylatedIFN-α (peg-IFN). Fewer adverse effects, greater efficacy,and a shorter treatment period led to an improvement in patients' quality of life. IFN-β is administered intravenously, whereas IFN-α is administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Because both interferons are known to bind to an identical receptor and exert antiviral effects through intracellular signal transduction, the excellent results of IFN-β found in this study may be attributed to the multiple doses allowed by the intravenous route.

  1. Validation of PC-based sound card with Biopac for digitalization of ECG recording in short-term HRV analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Maheshkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart rate variability (HRV analysis is a simple and noninvasive technique capable of assessing autonomic nervous system modulation on heart rate (HR in healthy as well as disease conditions. The aim of the present study was to compare (validate the HRV using a temporal series of electrocardiograms (ECG obtained by simple analog amplifier with PC-based sound card (audacity and Biopac MP36 module. Materials and Methods: Based on the inclusion criteria, 120 healthy participants, including 72 males and 48 females, participated in the present study. Following standard protocol, 5-min ECG was recorded after 10 min of supine rest by Portable simple analog amplifier PC-based sound card as well as by Biopac module with surface electrodes in Leads II position simultaneously. All the ECG data was visually screened and was found to be free of ectopic beats and noise. RR intervals from both ECG recordings were analyzed separately in Kubios software. Short-term HRV indexes in both time and frequency domain were used. Results: The unpaired Student′s t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient test were used for the analysis using the R statistical software. No statistically significant differences were observed when comparing the values analyzed by means of the two devices for HRV. Correlation analysis revealed perfect positive correlation (r = 0.99, P < 0.001 between the values in time and frequency domain obtained by the devices. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of the present study, we suggest that the calculation of HRV values in the time and frequency domains by RR series obtained from the PC-based sound card is probably as reliable as those obtained by the gold standard Biopac MP36.

  2. Advantages of Synthetic Noise and Machine Learning for Analyzing Radioecological Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuryak, Igor

    2017-01-01

    The ecological effects of accidental or malicious radioactive contamination are insufficiently understood because of the hazards and difficulties associated with conducting studies in radioactively-polluted areas. Data sets from severely contaminated locations can therefore be small. Moreover, many potentially important factors, such as soil concentrations of toxic chemicals, pH, and temperature, can be correlated with radiation levels and with each other. In such situations, commonly-used statistical techniques like generalized linear models (GLMs) may not be able to provide useful information about how radiation and/or these other variables affect the outcome (e.g. abundance of the studied organisms). Ensemble machine learning methods such as random forests offer powerful alternatives. We propose that analysis of small radioecological data sets by GLMs and/or machine learning can be made more informative by using the following techniques: (1) adding synthetic noise variables to provide benchmarks for distinguishing the performances of valuable predictors from irrelevant ones; (2) adding noise directly to the predictors and/or to the outcome to test the robustness of analysis results against random data fluctuations; (3) adding artificial effects to selected predictors to test the sensitivity of the analysis methods in detecting predictor effects; (4) running a selected machine learning method multiple times (with different random-number seeds) to test the robustness of the detected “signal”; (5) using several machine learning methods to test the “signal’s” sensitivity to differences in analysis techniques. Here, we applied these approaches to simulated data, and to two published examples of small radioecological data sets: (I) counts of fungal taxa in samples of soil contaminated by the Chernobyl nuclear power plan accident (Ukraine), and (II) bacterial abundance in soil samples under a ruptured nuclear waste storage tank (USA). We show that the

  3. Short term synaptic depression imposes a frequency dependent filter on synaptic information transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosenbaum

    Full Text Available Depletion of synaptic neurotransmitter vesicles induces a form of short term depression in synapses throughout the nervous system. This plasticity affects how synapses filter presynaptic spike trains. The filtering properties of short term depression are often studied using a deterministic synapse model that predicts the mean synaptic response to a presynaptic spike train, but ignores variability introduced by the probabilistic nature of vesicle release and stochasticity in synaptic recovery time. We show that this additional variability has important consequences for the synaptic filtering of presynaptic information. In particular, a synapse model with stochastic vesicle dynamics suppresses information encoded at lower frequencies more than information encoded at higher frequencies, while a model that ignores this stochasticity transfers information encoded at any frequency equally well. This distinction between the two models persists even when large numbers of synaptic contacts are considered. Our study provides strong evidence that the stochastic nature neurotransmitter vesicle dynamics must be considered when analyzing the information flow across a synapse.

  4. Impact of MELD score in predicting short-term survival after primary liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficacy of model for end-stage liver disease (MEL D) in predicting short-term outcomes in patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT). Methods: The consecutive 62 patients who had received primary LT in our hospital from November 2000 to January 2005 were retrospectively analyzed. The pretransplantation MELD and Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) scores of these patients were calculated. Concordance c-statistic was used to assess the efficacies of MELD and CTP scores in predicting the first posttransplantation 3-month survival rate. Results: Among the 62 patients receiving primary LT, 12 died during the first 3-month period and the posttransplantation 3-month survival rate was 80.65%. The 3-month survival rate predicted by using CTP score and MELD score was0.685 and 0.873, respectively. Unlike CTP calssification, MELD score indentified two subgroups of patients with CTP C with different overall survival (0.8824 vs 0.4545, χ2 = 7.00, P = 0.0081). Conclusion: Our present study shows that MELD score could offer more accurate prediction for short-term survival in patients who undergo primary LT than CTP score.

  5. Short term hydrothermal scheduling via improved honey-bee mating optimization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamed baradaran tavakoli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new approach for solving short term hydrothermal scheduling problem is suggested, to minimize the total production cost and to produce electrical energy in an optimized way, by using honey-bee mating optimization algorithm. In the proposed method, lots of the hydrothermal system constraints such as power balance, water balance, time delay between reservoirs, volume limits and the operation limits of hydro and thermal plants, are considered. Therefore, the problem of short term hydrothermal scheduling becomes a complicated and nonlinear problem. In this paper, in addition to implementing the honey-bee mating optimization on a sample system, the improved honey-bee mating optimization algorithm has also been tested and analyzed. With regard to the simulation results, it is apparent that the improved honey-bee mating optimization has far higher convergence speed and takes less time, and less total cost in comparison with honey-bee mating optimization algorithm, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm and other optimization methods.

  6. Assessment of the short-term radiometric stability between Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chander, Gyanesh; Angal, A.

    2009-01-01

    Short-term radiometric stability was evaluated using continuous ETM+ scenes within a single orbit (contact period) and the corresponding MODIS scenes for the four matching solar reflective visible and near-infrared (VNIR) band pairs between the two sensors. The near-simultaneous earth observations were limited by the smaller swath size of ETM+ (183 km) compared to MODIS (2330 km). Two sets of continuous granules for Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ were selected and mosaicked based on pixel geolocation information for noncloudy pixels over the African continent. The matching pixel pairs were resampled from a fine to a coarse pixel resolution, and the at-sensor spectral radiance values for a wide dynamic range of the sensors were compared and analyzed, covering various surface types. The following study focuses on radiometric stability analysis from the VNIR band-pairs of ETM+ and MODIS. The Libya-4 desert target was included in the path of this continuous orbit, which served as a verification point between the short-term and the long-term trending results from previous studies. MODTRAN at-sensor spectral radiance simulation is included for a representative desert surface type to evaluate the consistency of the results.

  7. Evaluating the relationship between breakfast pattern and short-term memory in junior high school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, A; Sohrabi, Z; Eftekhari, M H

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between breakfast pattern and short-term memory in guidance-school students. Memory improves for subjects who have eaten breakfast. It appears that breakfast consumption influences cognition via several mechanisms. What children eat for breakfast before going to school is very important. A total of 150 junior high school girls were taken from a subject pool in four schools in Shiraz (capital of the Fars Province in Iran). They filled out the socio-economic questionnaires as well as food frequency questionnaires for breakfast and provided two-three day breakfast records in two different seasons and their short-term memories were evaluated by Weksler test socio-economic conditions and dietary intakes were analyzed. The results of the study showed that there was no correlation between parents job, students mean age and their school grades with their memory scores. Dietary analysis demonstrated a negative correlation between local soup consumption in breakfast and memory scores. Food record analysis showed no correlation between fat, cholesterol, protein, vitamin B6, B12, calorie and iodine intake in breakfast and memory scores, but there was a positive correlation between carbohydrate, iron and vitamin B3 intake in breakfast and memory scores, similarly there was a positive correlation between B12 intake in the breakfast and students' average school grades during the year.

  8. Fundamental short-term memory of semi-artificial neuronal network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidekatsu; Kudoh, Suguru N

    2013-01-01

    Spatiotemporal pattern of neuronal network activity is a key component of brain information processing. Cultured rat hippocampal neurons on the multielectrodes array dish are suitable for analyzing and manipulating network dynamics and its developmental changes. We applied paired electrical inputs at various inter-stimulus intervals (ISi) and analyzed the spatio-temporal pattern of evoked responses. We found that the pattern of evoked electrical activity was affected by existence of a prior input in the case that ISi of paired stimuli was within 2 s. These results suggest that a semi-artificial neuronal network on a culture dish has a fundamental component of short-term memory, and the origin of this hysteresis is transition among the internal states of the network, undertaken by synaptic transmissions.

  9. Short-term outcome of patients with preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koual M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Meriem Koual, Hind Abbou, Marie Carbonnel, Olivier Picone, Jean-Marc Ayoubi Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Hôpital Foch, Suresnes, France Introduction: Preeclampsia constitutes a cause of increased mortality in mothers and fetuses. Screening for promoting factors is essential for adequate prevention in the event of any subsequent pregnancy, and for the adequate follow-up of concerned patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the short-term outcome of patients with preeclampsia and to identify possible new factors predisposing them to the disease. Methods: One hundred fifty-five patients having experienced preeclampsia between 2005 and 2010 from the Gynecology and Obstetrics Department of the Foch Hospital (Suresnes, France were included in the study. All patients had undergone close clinical and standard biological follow-up immediately postpartum and then 3 months later with a reference practitioner. In severe cases, further investigation was carried out by full etiological examination with an assessment of both autoimmune and thrombophilic status. Results: Obesity and gestational diabetes were observed to be major risk factors for preeclampsia, which were found in 46% and 15% of the cases, respectively. The etiological assessment showed abnormalities in 11% of the patients. Impaired thrombophilia was found in 3% of the patients, impaired autoimmune status in 4%, a combination of both abnormalities in only 1% of the patients, and detection of renal abnormalities in 3% of the patients were observed. In the immediate postpartum period, 66% of patients had maintained elevated blood pressure levels, and 66% had proteinuria > 0.3 g/24 hours. At the 3-month postpartum assessment, persisting arterial hypertension was found in 16% of the patients, requiring continuation of antihypertensive therapy, and 22% of the patients had proteinuria over the accepted threshold (0.15 g/24 hours. Conclusion: Patients with preeclampsia have

  10. Short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants (LPI) compared with those of term infants (TI). Methods A retrospective study conducted in a single third level Italian centre (2005–2009) to analyse the incidence and risk factors of composite respiratory morbidity (CRM), the need for adjunctive therapies (surfactant therapy, inhaled nitric oxide, pleural drainage), the highest level of respiratory support (mechanical ventilation – MV, nasal continuous positive airway pressure – N-CPAP, nasal oxygen) and the duration of pressure support (hours in N-CPAP and/or MV). Results During the study period 14,515 infants were delivered. There were 856 (5.9%) LPI and 12,948 (89.2%) TI. CRM affected 105 LPI (12.4%), and 121 TI (0.9%), with an overall rate of 1.6%. Eighty-four LPI (9.8%) and 73 TI (0.56%) received respiratory support, of which 13 LPI (1.5%) and 16 TI (0.12%) were ventilated. The adjusted OR for developing CRM significantly increased from 3.3 (95% CI 2.0-5.5) at 37 weeks to 40.8 (95% CI 19.7-84.9%) at 34 weeks. The adjusted OR for the need of MV significantly increased from 3.4 (95% CI 1.2-10) at 37 weeks to 34.4 (95% CI 6.7-180.6%) at 34 weeks. Median duration of pressure support was significantly higher at 37 weeks (66.6 h vs 40.5 h). Twin pregnancies were related to a higher risk of CRM (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.6-7.3), but not independent of gestational age (GA). Cesarean section (CS) was associated with higher risk of CRM independently of GA, but the OR was lower in CS with labour (2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.4 vs 3.0, 95% CI 2.1-4.2). Conclusions In this single third level care study late preterm births, pulmonary diseases and supportive respiratory interventions were lower than previously documented. LPI are at a higher risk of developing pulmonary disease than TI. Infants born from elective cesarean sections, late preterm twins in particular and 37 weekers too might benefit from preventive intervention. PMID:24893787

  11. Analyzing processing effort during sentence comprehension in quiet and in noise: Evidence from eye-fixations and pupil size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2014-01-01

    structures . Here, we compare both methods, i.e. p rocessing speed and pupil size , as indicator s for the required effort when processing sentences that differ in their level of syntactic complexity . Furthermore, an interaction of background noise and syntactic complexity is exanimated by analyzing...... processing effort is served by task - evoked pupillary response. For instance, Piqua rdo et al . (2010) show ed significa nt larger pupil sizes during speech comprehension for syntactically more complex object - relative sentences than for the syntactically less co mplex subject - relative sentence...

  12. Study on Enterprise Short-term Financing Product Portfolios and Strategies%企业短期筹资产品组合及战略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟俊达

    2012-01-01

    分析了我国短期负债融资的现状与市场规模,在对短期筹资战略理论和文献进行综合回顾的基础上,深入分析了短期筹资产品组合的重要性,并进一步探讨了短期筹资战略,以期为企业的短期筹资提供借鉴.%The paper analyzes the current status and size of the short-term debt financing market of China and comprehensively reviews the literatures and theories on the short-term financing strategies. At the end it studies the importance of the short-term financing product portfolios and further discusses the possible strategies for short-term fundraising.

  13. Big Five Traits Related to Short-Term Mating: From Personality to Promiscuity across 46 Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Schmitt

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, 13,243 participants from 46 nations responded to self-report measures of personality and mating behavior. Several traits showed consistent links with short-term mating. Extraversion positively correlated with interest in short-term mating, unrestricted sociosexuality, having engaged in short-term mate poaching attempts, having succumbed to short-term poaching attempts of others, and lacking relationship exclusivity. Low levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness also related to short-term mating, especially with extra-pair mating. Neuroticism and openness were associated with short-term mating as well, but these links were less consistent across sex and nation. Nation-level links between personality and sexuality replicated within-region findings, such as the strong association between national extraversion and national sociosexuality. Discussion focuses on the origins of personality-sexuality links and their implications across nations.

  14. Short-term international migration trends in England and Wales from 2004 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Simon; Loukas, Konstantinos; McGregor, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Short-term migration estimates for England and Wales are the latest addition to the Office for National Statistics (ONS) migration statistics. This article discusses definitions of short-term migration and the methodology that is used to produce the estimates. Some of the estimates and the changes in the estimates over time are then discussed. The article includes previously unpublished short-term migration statistics and therefore helps to give a more complete picture of the size and characteristics of short-term international migration for England and Wales than has previously been possible. ONS have identified a clear user requirement for short-term migration estimates at local authority (LA) level. Consequently, attention is also paid to the progress that has been made and future work that is planned to distribute England and Wales short-term migration estimates to LA level.

  15. Nonlinearity degree of short-term heart rate variability signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Chunhua; NING Xinbao

    2004-01-01

    A nonlinear autoregressive (NAR) model is built to model the heartbeat interval time series and the optimum model degree is proposed to be taken to evaluate the nonlinearity degree of heart rate variability (HRV). A group of healthy persons are studied and the results indicate that this method can effectively get nonlinear information from short (6-7 min) heartbeat series and consequently reflect the degree of heart rate variability, which supplies convenience in clinical application. Finally, a comparison with the traditional time domain method shows that the NAR model method can reflect the complexity of the whole signal and lessen the influence of noise and instability in the signal.

  16. Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, L.R.; Jones, T.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In contrast, the goal of this research is to address the problem of evaluating the utility of the short-term tests for hazard assessment using an alternative method of investigation. Chemicals were selected mostly from the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC); a few other chemicals commonly recognized as hazardous were included. Tumorigenicity and mutagenicity data on 52 chemicals were obtained from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) and were analyzed using a relative potency approach. The data were evaluated in a format which allowed for a comparison of the ranking of the mutagenic relative potencies of the compounds (as estimated using short-term data) vs. the ranking of the tumorigenic relative potencies (as estimated from the chronic bioassays). Although this was a preliminary investigation, it offers evidence that the short-term tests systems may be of utility in ranking the hazards represented by chemicals which may contribute to increased carcinogenesis in humans as a result of occupational or environmental exposures. 177 refs., 8 tabs.

  17. Effects of metoclopramide on gastric motility measured by short-term bio-impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Franco, María-Raquel; Vargas-Luna, Miguel; Capaccione, Kathleen M; Yañez-Roldán, Etna; Hernández-Ledezma, Ulises; Morales-Mata, Ismael; Córdova-Fraga, Teodoro

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the accuracy of short-term bio-impedance as a means of measuring gastric motility. METHODS: We evaluated differences in the short-term electrical bio-impedance signal from the gastric region in the following conditions: (1) fasting state, (2) after the administration of metoclopramide (a drug that induces an increase in gastric motility) and (3) after food ingestion in 23 healthy volunteers. We recorded the real component of the electrical impedance signal from the gastric region for 1000 s. We performed a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) on this data and then compared the signal among the fasting, medicated, and postprandial conditions using the median of the area under the curve, the relative area under the curve and the main peak activity. RESULTS: The median of the area under the curve of the frequency range in the region between 2-8 cycles per minute (cpm) decreased from 4.7 cpm in the fasting condition to 4.0 cpm in the medicated state (t = 3.32, P = 0.004). This concurred with the decrease seen in the relative area under the FFT curve in the region from 4 to 8 cpm from 38.3% to 26.6% (t = 2.81, P = 0.012) and the increase in area in the region from 2 to 4 cpm from 22.4% to 27.7%, respectively (t = -2.5, P = 0.022). Finally the main peak position also decreased in the region from 2 to 8 cpm. Main peak activity in the fasting state was 4.72 cpm and declined to 3.45 cpm in the medicated state (t = 2.47, P = 0.025). There was a decrease from the fasting state to the postprandial state at 3.02 cpm (t = 4.0, P = 0.0013). CONCLUSION: Short-term electrical bio-impedance can assess gastric motility changes in individuals experiencing gastric stress by analyzing the area medians and relative areas under the FFT curve. PMID:19824108

  18. DYNAMICS OF THE ANXIETY DISORDERS IN THE COURSE OF SHORT-TERM PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Hmylova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of psychotherapy modern concepts referring to the short-term forms having been taken into account, we carried out the research aimed at the study of short-term form personality-oriented psychotherapy effect on the anxiety disorder dynamics. 103 patients with neurotic disorders were examined in the neurosis and psychotherapy department of the Bekhterev Psychoneurological Research Institute. The findings revealed the situational and personal anxiety level to be objectively decreased in the short-term group psychotherapy course. The short-term group psychotherapy was proved to bean effective method in anxiety disorders treatment considering indications and limitations.

  19. LISA Pathfinder test-mass charging during galactic cosmic-ray flux short-term variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimani, C.; Fabi, M.; Lobo, A.; Mateos, I.; Telloni, D.

    2015-02-01

    Metal free-floating test masses aboard the future interferometers devoted to gravitational wave detection in space are charged by galactic and solar cosmic rays with energies \\gt 100 MeV/n. This process represents one of the main sources of noise in the lowest frequency band (\\lt 10-3 Hz) of these experiments. We study here the charging of the LISA Pathfinder (LISA-PF) gold-platinum test masses due to galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) protons and helium nuclei with the Fluka Monte Carlo toolkit. Projections of the energy spectra of GCRs during the LISA-PF operations in 2015 are considered. This work was carried out on the basis of the solar activity level and solar polarity epoch expected for LISA-PF. The effects of GCR short-term variations are evaluated here for the first time. Classical Forbush decreases, GCR variations induced by the Sun rotation, and fluctuations in the LISA-PF frequency bandwidth are discussed.

  20. A feature-segmentation model of short-term visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Koji; Inui, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    A feature-segmentation model of short-term visual memory (STVM) for contours is proposed. Memory of the First stimulus is maintained until the second stimulus is observed. Three processes interact to determine the relationship between stimulus and response: feature encoding, memory, and decision. Basic assumptions of the model are twofold: (i) the STVM system divides a contour into convex parts at regions of concavity; and (ii) the value of each convex part represented in STVM is an independent Gaussian random variable. Simulation showed that the five-parameter fits give a good account of the effects of the four experimental variables. The model provides evidence that: (i) contours are successfully encoded within 0.5 s exposure, regardless of pattern complexity; (ii) memory noise increases as a linear function of retention interval; (iii) the capacity of STVM, defined by pattern complexity (the degree that a pattern can be handled for several seconds with little loss), is about 4 convex parts; and (iv) the confusability contributing to the decision process is a primary factor in deteriorating recognition of complex figures. It is concluded that visually presented patterns can be retained in STVM with considerable precision for prolonged periods of time, though some loss of precision is inevitable.

  1. Focusing on Short-Term Achievement Gains Fails to Produce Long-Term Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissmer, David W.; Ober, David R.; Beekman, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The short-term emphasis engendered by No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has focused research predominantly on unraveling the complexities and uncertainties in assessing short-term results, rather than developing methods and assessing results over the longer term. In this paper we focus on estimating long-term gains and address questions important to…

  2. 34 CFR 390.1 - What is the Rehabilitation Short-Term Training program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... designed for the support of special seminars, institutes, workshops, and other short-term courses in... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Rehabilitation Short-Term Training program...) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION REHABILITATION...

  3. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  4. Predicting Short-Term Subway Ridership and Prioritizing Its Influential Factors Using Gradient Boosting Decision Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ding

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between short-term subway ridership and its influential factors is crucial to improving the accuracy of short-term subway ridership prediction. Although there has been a growing body of studies on short-term ridership prediction approaches, limited effort is made to investigate the short-term subway ridership prediction considering bus transfer activities and temporal features. To fill this gap, a relatively recent data mining approach called gradient boosting decision trees (GBDT is applied to short-term subway ridership prediction and used to capture the associations with the independent variables. Taking three subway stations in Beijing as the cases, the short-term subway ridership and alighting passengers from its adjacent bus stops are obtained based on transit smart card data. To optimize the model performance with different combinations of regularization parameters, a series of GBDT models are built with various learning rates and tree complexities by fitting a maximum of trees. The optimal model performance confirms that the gradient boosting approach can incorporate different types of predictors, fit complex nonlinear relationships, and automatically handle the multicollinearity effect with high accuracy. In contrast to other machine learning methods—or “black-box” procedures—the GBDT model can identify and rank the relative influences of bus transfer activities and temporal features on short-term subway ridership. These findings suggest that the GBDT model has considerable advantages in improving short-term subway ridership prediction in a multimodal public transportation system.

  5. The Role of Short Term Synaptic Plasticity in Temporal Coding of Neuronal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Short term synaptic plasticity is a phenomenon which is commonly found in the central nervous system. It could contribute to functions of signal processing namely, temporal integration and coincidence detection by modulating the input synaptic strength. This dissertation has two parts. First, we study the effects of short term synaptic plasticity…

  6. How Emotional Pictures Influence Visuospatial Binding in Short-Term Memory in Ageing and Alzheimer's Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Celine; Leroy, Nicolas; Favre, Emilie; Laurent, Bernard; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the prediction that emotion can facilitate short-term memory. Nevertheless, emotion also recruits attention to process information, thereby disrupting short-term memory when tasks involve high attentional resources. In this way, we aimed to determine whether there is a differential influence of emotional information on…

  7. Short-term and area-wide evaluation of safety measures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    1982-01-01

    A background paper for the seminar on short-term and area-wide evaluation of safety measures is presented. The seminar is restricted to safety measures, thus only countermeasures that are intended to reduce accidents are regarded. The measures should be furthermore for the short-term and area-wide.

  8. Short-Term Faculty-Led Study Abroad Programs Enhance Cultural Exchange and Self-Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaia, A. Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Though many experts argue that semester or year abroad study is the optimal path, short-term programs meet the needs of students who would not otherwise study abroad and can be effective at increasing intercultural competency. The present study describes one type of short-term program--the embedded faculty-led model--and provides evidence that…

  9. Estimating the creep strain to failure of PP at different load levels based on short term tests and Weibull characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Vas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The short and long term creep behavior is one of the most important properties of polymers used for engineering applications. In order to study this kind of behavior of PP tensile and short term creep measurements were performed and analyzed using long term creep behavior estimating method based on short term tensile and creep tests performed at room temperature, viscoelastic behavior, and variable transformations. Applying Weibull distribution based approximations for the measured curves predictions for the creep strain to failure depending on the creep load were determined and the parameters were found by fitting the measurements. The upper, mean, and lower estimations as well as the confidence interval for the means give a possibility for designers' calculations at arbitrary creep load levels.

  10. Immunotoxicity in mice induced by short-term exposure to methoxychlor, parathion, or piperonyl butoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Tomoki; Kosaka, Tadashi; Hayashi, Koichi; Miyashita, Lisa; Tajima, Yukari; Wada, Kunio; Nishino, Risako; Ueda, Hideo; Harada, Takanori

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to environmental agents can compromise numerous immunological functions. Immunotoxicology focuses on the evaluation of the potential adverse effects of xenobiotics on immune mechanisms that can lead to harmful changes in host responses such as: increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and tumorigenesis; the induction of hypersensitivity reactions; or an increased incidence of autoimmune disease. In order to assess the immunosuppressive response to short-term exposure to some commonly used pesticides, the studies here focused on the response of mice after exposures to the organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor, the organophosphorus pesticide parathion, or the agricultural insecticide synergist piperonyl butoxide. In these studies, 7-week-old mice were orally administered (by gavage) methoxychlor, parathion, or piperonyl butoxide daily for five consecutive days. On Day 2, all mice in each group were immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC), and their SRBC-specific IgM responses were subsequently assessed. In addition, levels of B-cells in the spleen of each mouse were also analyzed via surface antigen expression. The results of these studies indicated that treatments with these various pesticides induced marked decreases in the production of SRBC-specific IgM antibodies as well as in the expression of surface antigens in IgM- and germinal center-positive B-cells. Based on these outcomes, it is concluded that the short-term exposure protocol was able to detect potential immunosuppressive responses to methoxychlor, parathion, and piperonyl butoxide in situ, and, as a result, may be useful for detecting other environmental chemical-related immunotoxicities.

  11. Responses of activities, abundances and community structures of soil denitrifiers to short-term mercury stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifeng Zhou; Yuanming Zheng; Jupei Shen; Limei Zhang; Yurong Liu; Jizheng He

    2012-01-01

    The responses of activities,abundances and community structures of soil denitrifiers to mercury(Hg)stress were investigated through a short-term incubation experiment.Four soil treatments with different concentrations of Hg(CK,Hg25,Hg50,and Hgl00,denoted as 0,25,50,and 100 mg Hg/kg dry soil,respectively)were incubated for 28 days.Soil denitrification enzyme activity(DEA)was measured at day 3,7 and 28.The abundances and community structures of two denitrification concerning genes,nirS(Cd1-nitrite reductase gene)and nosZ(nitrous oxide reductase gene),were analyzed using real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE).Results showed that soil DEA was significantly stimulated in the treatments of Hg25 and Hg50 compared with others at day 7.Meanwhile,no difference in the abundances of soil nirS and nosZ was found between Hg spiked treatments and CK,except the lower abundance of nirS(P < 0.05)in the Hg added treatments compared with that in the CK at day 28.The community structures of denitrifiers based on nirS gene presented obvious change at day 7 along with the Hg additions,however,no variation was found in all treatments based on the nosZ gene.The results indicated that Hg(Hg25 and Hg50)had a strongly short-term stimulation on soil DEA,and nirS gene is more sensitive than nosZ gene to Hg stress.

  12. Mediterranean dunes on the go: Evidence from a short term study on coastal herbaceous vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisco, Irene; Stanisci, Angela; Acosta, Alicia T. R.

    2016-12-01

    Detailed monitoring studies on permanent sites are a promising tool for an accurate evaluation of short, medium or long term vegetation dynamics. This work aims to evaluate short-term changes in coastal dune herbaceous plant species and EU Habitats through a multi-temporal analysis using permanent vegetation transects. In particular, (I) we analyze changes in species richness of coastal habitats; (II) we identify changes in plant cover of selected focal plants; and (III) we relate the changes to selected climatic variables and erosion/accretion processes. We selected one of the Italian's peninsula best preserved coastal dune areas (ca. 50 km along the Adriatic sea) with a relatively homogeneous coastal zonation and low anthropic pressure but with different erosion/accretion processes. We explored changes in richness over time using generalized linear models (GLMs). We identified different ecological guilds: focal, ruderal and alien plant species and investigated temporal trends in these guilds' species richness. We also applied GLMs to determine how plant cover of the most important focal species have changed over time. Overall, in this study we observed that the influence of climatic variables was relatively small. However, we found remarkable different trends in response to erosion/accretion processes both at community and at species level. Thus, our results highlight the importance of coastal dynamics in preserving not only coastal vegetation zonation, but also species richness and focal species cover. Moreover, we identified the dune grasslands as the most sensitive habitat for detecting the influence of climatic variables throughout a short term monitoring survey. Information from this study provides useful insights for detecting changes in vegetation, for establishing habitat protection priorities and for improving conservation efforts for these fragile ecosystems.

  13. Neural processing of short-term recurrence in songbird vocal communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriël J L Beckers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many situations involving animal communication are dominated by recurring, stereotyped signals. How do receivers optimally distinguish between frequently recurring signals and novel ones? Cortical auditory systems are known to be pre-attentively sensitive to short-term delivery statistics of artificial stimuli, but it is unknown if this phenomenon extends to the level of behaviorally relevant delivery patterns, such as those used during communication. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recorded and analyzed complete auditory scenes of spontaneously communicating zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata pairs over a week-long period, and show that they can produce tens of thousands of short-range contact calls per day. Individual calls recur at time scales (median interval 1.5 s matching those at which mammalian sensory systems are sensitive to recent stimulus history. Next, we presented to anesthetized birds sequences of frequently recurring calls interspersed with rare ones, and recorded, in parallel, action and local field potential responses in the medio-caudal auditory forebrain at 32 unique sites. Variation in call recurrence rate over natural ranges leads to widespread and significant modulation in strength of neural responses. Such modulation is highly call-specific in secondary auditory areas, but not in the main thalamo-recipient, primary auditory area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support the hypothesis that pre-attentive neural sensitivity to short-term stimulus recurrence is involved in the analysis of auditory scenes at the level of delivery patterns of meaningful sounds. This may enable birds to efficiently and automatically distinguish frequently recurring vocalizations from other events in their auditory scene.

  14. Prediction of Non-Genotoxic Carcinogenicity Based on Genetic Profiles of Short Term Exposure Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Luis Orlando; González-José, Rolando; García, Pilar Peral

    2016-01-01

    Non-genotoxic carcinogens are substances that induce tumorigenesis by non-mutagenic mechanisms and long term rodent bioassays are required to identify them. Recent studies have shown that transcription profiling can be applied to develop early identifiers for long term phenotypes. In this study, we used rat liver expression profiles from the NTP (National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, USA) DrugMatrix Database to construct a gene classifier that can distinguish between non-genotoxic carcinogens and other chemicals. The model was based on short term exposure assays (3 days) and the training was limited to oxidative stressors, peroxisome proliferators and hormone modulators. Validation of the predictor was performed on independent toxicogenomic data (TG-GATEs, Toxicogenomics Project-Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation System, Osaka, Japan). To build our model we performed Random Forests together with a recursive elimination algorithm (VarSelRF). Gene set enrichment analysis was employed for functional interpretation. A total of 770 microarrays comprising 96 different compounds were analyzed and a predictor of 54 genes was built. Prediction accuracy was 0.85 in the training set, 0.87 in the test set and increased with increasing concentration in the validation set: 0.6 at low dose, 0.7 at medium doses and 0.81 at high doses. Pathway analysis revealed gene prominence of cellular respiration, energy production and lipoprotein metabolism. The biggest target of toxicogenomics is accurately predict the toxicity of unknown drugs. In this analysis, we presented a classifier that can predict non-genotoxic carcinogenicity by using short term exposure assays. In this approach, dose level is critical when evaluating chemicals at early time points. PMID:27818731

  15. Short Term Survival after Admission for Heart Failure in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghith, Nermin; Wagner, Philippe; Frølich, Anne

    2016-01-01

    heterogeneity around averages, which is of fundamental relevance for a correct evaluation. Therefore, we apply an innovative methodology based on measures of components of variance and discriminatory accuracy to analyze 30-day mortality after hospital discharge with a diagnosis of Heart Failure (HF) in Sweden...

  16. Short-term treatment with nitrate is not sufficient to induce in vivo antithrombotic effects in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramkowski, K; Leszczynska, A; Przyborowski, K; Proniewski, B; Marcinczyk, N; Rykaczewska, U; Jarmoc, D; Chabielska, E; Chlopicki, S

    2017-01-01

    In humans, short-term supplementation with nitrate is hypotensive and inhibits platelet aggregation via an nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism. In the present work, we analyzed whether short-term treatment with nitrate induces antithrombotic effects in rats and mice. Arterial thrombosis was evoked electrically in a rat model in which renovascular hypertension was induced by partial ligation of the left renal artery. In mice expressing green fluorescent protein, laser-induced thrombosis was analyzed intravitally by using confocal microscope. Sodium nitrate (NaNO3) or sodium nitrite (NaNO2) was administered orally at a dose of 0.17 mmol/kg, twice per day for 3 days. Short-term nitrate treatment did not modify thrombus formation in either rats or mice, while nitrite administration led to pronounced antithrombotic activity. In hypertensive rats, nitrite treatment resulted in a significant decrease in thrombus weight (0.50 ± 0.08 mg vs. VEH 0.96 ± 0.09 mg; p nitrate did not affect ex vivo platelet aggregation or prothrombin time and led to only slightly elevated nitrite plasma concentration. In mice, nitrate was also ineffective, while nitrite led to decreased platelet accumulation in the area of laser-induced endothelial injury. In conclusion, although nitrite induced profound NO-dependent antithrombotic effects in vivo, conversion of nitrates to nitrite in rats and mice over short-term 3-day treatment was not sufficient to elicit NO-dependent antiplatelet or antithrombotic effects.

  17. Noise suppression by noise

    OpenAIRE

    Vilar, J. M. G.; Rubí Capaceti, José Miguel

    2001-01-01

    We have analyzed the interplay between an externally added noise and the intrinsic noise of systems that relax fast towards a stationary state, and found that increasing the intensity of the external noise can reduce the total noise of the system. We have established a general criterion for the appearance of this phenomenon and discussed two examples in detail.

  18. Short-term Mechanical Properties of Glass Ionomer Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Sanbao; XU Dongxuan

    2009-01-01

    The setting reaction of glass ionomer cement was studied by analyzing and comparing the short-tem mechanical properties of set cement stored in silicone oil,air and distilled water respectively at different temperatures.For the set cement stored at 37℃,the strength of the sample in the air reached the maximum value after 24 h,then decreased to about 210 MPa and kept steady.The strength of the sample in water increased continuously and slowly,however,the increasing rate of sample stored in silicone oil was higher than that in the water.At 20℃,the increasing rate of compressive strength for sample in air was higher than those in silicone oil and water.The diffusion speed and maintenance of water has significant effects on the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements.

  19. Short term outcomes of revision total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, James D; Fields, Adam C; Moucha, Calin S

    2014-11-01

    Few studies have assessed postoperative complications in revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA). The aim of this study was to assess which preoperative factors are associated with postoperative complications in rTKA. Using the National Surgical Quality Improvement (NSQIP) database, we identified patients undergoing rTKA from 2010 to 2012. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and complications within thirty days of surgery were analyzed. A total of 3421 patients underwent rTKA. After adjusted analysis, dialysis (P = 0.016) was associated with minor complications. Male gender (P = 0.03), older age (P = 0.029), ASA class >2 (P = 0.017), wound class >2 (P < 0.0001), emergency operation (P = 0.038), and pulmonary comorbidity (P = 0.047) were associated with major complications.

  20. Short-term pharmacological suppression of the hyperprolactinemia of infertile hCG-overproducing female mice persistently restores their fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Laura D; Gonzalez, Betina; Ahtiainen, Petteri; Di Giorgio, Noelia P; Poutanen, Matti; Calandra, Ricardo S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Rulli, Susana B

    2012-12-01

    Female infertility is often associated with deregulation of hormonal networks, and hyperprolactinemia is one of the most common endocrine disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis affecting the reproductive functions. We have shown previously that transgenic female mice overexpressing human chorionic gonadotropin β-subunit (hCGβ+ mice), and producing elevated levels of bioactive LH/hCG, exhibit increased production of testosterone and progesterone, are overweight and infertile, and develop hyperprolactinemia associated with pituitary lactotrope adenomas in adult age. In the present study, we analyzed the influence of the hyperprolactinemia of hCGβ+ females on their reproductive phenotype by treating them with the dopamine agonists, bromocriptine and cabergoline. Long-term bromocriptine treatment of adult mice was effective in the control of obesity, pituitary growth, and disturbances in the hormone profile, demonstrating that hyperprolactinemia was the main cause of the hCGβ+ female phenotype. Interestingly, short-term treatment (1 wk) with cabergoline applied on 5-wk-old mice corrected hyperprolactinemia, hyperandrogenism, and hyperprogesteronemia, prevented pituitary overgrowth, normalized gonadal function, and recovered fertility of adult hCGβ+ females after hormone-induced and natural ovulation. The same cabergoline treatment in the short term applied on 3-month-old hCGβ+ females failed to recover their reproductive function. Hence, we demonstrated that the short-term cabergoline treatment applied at a critical early stage of the phenotype progression effectively prevented the hyperprolactinemia-associated reproductive dysfunction of hCG-overproducing females.

  1. Efficacy of acute caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Roberson, Daniel W

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used drug in the world, commonly ingested in coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks. Its ability to enhance muscular work has been apparent since the early 1900s. Caffeine typically increases endurance performance; however, efficacy of caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise is equivocal, which may be explained by discrepancies in exercise protocols, dosing, and subjects' training status and habitual caffeine intake found across studies. The primary aim of this review is to critically examine studies that have tested caffeine's ability to augment performance during exercise dependent on nonoxidative metabolism such as sprinting, team sports, and resistance training. A review of the literature revealed 29 studies that measured alterations in short-term performance after caffeine ingestion. Each study was critically analyzed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The mean PEDro score was 7.76 +/- 0.87. Eleven of 17 studies revealed significant improvements in team sports exercise and power-based sports with caffeine ingestion, yet these effects were more common in elite athletes who do not regularly ingest caffeine. Six of 11 studies revealed significant benefits of caffeine for resistance training. Some studies show decreased performance with caffeine ingestion when repeated bouts are completed. The exact mechanism explaining the ergogenic effect of caffeine for short-term exercise is unknown.

  2. Short-term air pollution exposure aggravates Parkinson’s disease in a population-based cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyewon; Myung, Woojae; Kim, Doh Kwan; Kim, Satbyul Estella; Kim, Clara Tammy; Kim, Ho

    2017-01-01

    Increasing experimental evidence has suggested air pollution as new risk factor for neurological disease. Although long-term exposure is reportedly related to neurological disease, information on association with short-term exposure is scarce. We examined the association of short-term exposure to particles Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort, Korea during 2002–2013. PD aggravation cases were defined as emergency hospital admissions for primarily diagnosed PD and analyzed with a case-crossover analysis, designed for rare acute outcomes. Pollutants concentrations on case and control days were compared and effect modifications were explored. A unit increase in 8-day moving average of concentrations was significantly associated with PD aggravation. The association was consistent for PM2.5 (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.61 [1.14–2.29] per 10 μg/m3), NO2 (2.35 [1.39–3.97] per 10 ppb), SO2 (1.54 [1.11–2.14] per 1 ppb), and CO (1.46 [1.05–2.04] per 0.1 ppm). The associations were stronger in women, patients aged 65–74 years, and cold season, but not significant. In conclusion, short-term air pollution exposure increased risk of PD aggravation, and may cause neurological disease progression in humans. PMID:28300224

  3. Oral contraceptives after myomectomy: a short term trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisi, Stefano; Ciani, Valentina; Gabbanini, Massimo; Sollazzi, Sofia; Torricelli, Michela; Calonaci, Francesco; Petraglia, Felice

    2009-01-01

    Following myomectomy the rate of fertility is restored and pregnancy may be attempted with a good outcome. In the present study a 3 month treatment with OCs in a group of women after a myomectomy was evaluated. The drug compliance and side effects, the benefits of OC in order to reduce symptoms, to increase post-surgical hemoglobin levels and to avoid an early pregnancy after myomectomy were analyzed. A group of women (n = 55) each with myoma >/=5 cm was recruited: they presented menorrhagia, pelvic pain, dyspareunia and dysmenorrhae. After laparotomic myomectomy the women were divided into 3 groups. Group 1: women (n = 16) treated with pill A (15 mcg of ethynilestradiol + 60 mcg of gestodene); group 2: women (n = 23) treated with pill B (20 mcg of ethynilestradiol + 100 mcg of levonorgestrel); group 3: women (n = 16) treated with a placebo (oral calcium). After three months from myomectomy and treatment patients in each group reported a reduced menorrhagia, dismenorrhea and pelvic pain. Serum haemoglobin levels increased in all women (P < .05). No pregnancy occurred in any group and the compliance was good. A post surgery treatment by using oral contraceptives guarentees pregnancy prevention, associated with reduction of pain, and improvement of haematologic conditions.

  4. Attention Problems, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Visuospatial Short-Term Memory: Differential Effects on Near- and Long-Term Scholastic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, Dustin E.; Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Scanlan, Sean W.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Altro, Thomas A.; Bolden, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined individual differences in children's phonological and visuospatial short-term memory as potential mediators of the relationship among attention problems and near- and long-term scholastic achievement. Nested structural equation models revealed that teacher-reported attention problems were associated negatively with…

  5. Daily prediction of short-term trends of crude oil prices using neural networks exploiting multimarket dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heping PAN; Imad HAIDAR; Siddhivinayak KULKARNI

    2009-01-01

    This paper documents a systematic investigation on the predictability of short-term trends of crude oil prices on a daily basis. In stark contrast with longer-term predic-tions of crude oil prices, short-term prediction with time horizons of 1-3 days posits an important problem that is quite different from what has been studied in the litera-ture. The problem of such short-term predicability is tackled through two aspects. The first is to examine the existence of linear or nonlinear dynamic processes in crude oil prices.This sub-problem is addressed with statistical analysis in-volving the Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman test for nonlinearity.The second aspect is to test the capability of artificial neu-ral networks (ANN) for modeling the implicit nonlinearity for prediction. Four experimental models are designed and tested with historical data: (1) using only the lagged returns of filtered crude oil prices as input to predict the returns of the next days; this is used as the benchmark, (2) using only the information set of filtered crude oil futures price as in-put, (3) combining the inputs from the benchmark and sec-ond models, and (4) combing the inputs from the benchmark model and the intermarket information. In order to filter out the noise in the original price data, the moving averages of prices are used for all the experiments. The results provided sufficient evidence to the predictability of crude oil prices using ANN with an out-of-sample hit rate of 80%, 70%, and 61% for each of the next three days' trends.

  6. Short-term improvement of masticatory function after implant restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dental implants present several advantages over other tooth replacement options. However, there has been little research on masticatory function in relation to implant treatment. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the improvement of masticatory function two weeks after implant restoration. Methods Masticatory ability was evaluated with the subjective food intake ability (FIA) and objective mixing ability index (MAI) methods. Fifty-four subjects with first and second missing molars completed the study. The subjects were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire about 30 different food items, and to chew wax samples 10 times both before and two weeks after implant restoration. A total of 108 waxes were analyzed with an image analysis program. Results Dental implant restoration for lost molar teeth on one side increased the FIA score by 9.0% (P<0.0001). The MAI score also increased, by 14.3% after implant restoration (P<0.0001). Comparison between the good and poor mastication groups, which were subdivided based on the median MAI score before implant restoration, showed that the FIA score of the poor group was enhanced 1.1-fold while its MAI score was enhanced 2.0-fold two weeks after an implant surgery. Conclusions Using the FIA and MAI assessment methods, this study showed that masticatory function was improved two weeks after implant restoration. In particular, the enhancement of masticatory function by implant restoration was greater in patients with relatively poor initial mastication than in those with good initial mastication. PMID:26734490

  7. Short-Term Side Effects after Radioiodine Treatment in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. I-131 therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC could induce adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to report and analyze symptoms after I-131 treatment within the hospitalization and present relevant medical intervention. Methods. I-131 doses ranging from 3.7 to 9.25 GBq (100–250 mCi were administrated for thyroid remnant ablation or treating DTC metastases. 117 patients with DTC for I-131 therapy were monitored through the video and intercommunicating with standardized questionnaire at different time points after I-131 oral administration. Adverse effects were recorded and relevant clinical factors were analyzed. Results. Among all the 117 patients, 55 cases complained of neck’s pain or swelling and 79 cases presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. Pain or swelling of salivary gland occurred in 15 patients, headache and vertigo in 10, insomnia in 9, vocal cord paralysis in 6, fatigue or general malaise in 6, and foreign body sensation in 5. Body numbness and urinary symptoms were observed in only 1 case, respectively. Those side effects were related with sex, pre-I-131 treatment TSH levels, frequency of I-131 therapy, and lymph node metastases. Conclusions. Short-term side effects after I-131 therapy for DTC patients varied individually; severe symptoms were not uncommon but generally did not need emergent medical intervention.

  8. Genetic deletion of melanin-concentrating hormone neurons impairs hippocampal short-term synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Barillier, Léa; Léger, Lucienne; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice; Malleret, Gaël; Salin, Paul-Antoine

    2015-11-01

    The cognitive role of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons, a neuronal population located in the mammalian postero-lateral hypothalamus sending projections to all cortical areas, remains poorly understood. Mainly activated during paradoxical sleep (PS), MCH neurons have been implicated in sleep regulation. The genetic deletion of the only known MCH receptor in rodent leads to an impairment of hippocampal dependent forms of memory and to an alteration of hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity. By using MCH/ataxin3 mice, a genetic model characterized by a selective deletion of MCH neurons in the adult, we investigated the role of MCH neurons in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of memory. MCH/ataxin3 mice exhibited a deficit in the early part of both long-term potentiation and depression in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) was diminished while synaptic depression induced by repetitive stimulation was enhanced suggesting an alteration of pre-synaptic forms of short-term plasticity in these mice. Behaviorally, MCH/ataxin3 mice spent more time and showed a higher level of hesitation as compared to their controls in performing a short-term memory T-maze task, displayed retardation in acquiring a reference memory task in a Morris water maze, and showed a habituation deficit in an open field task. Deletion of MCH neurons could thus alter spatial short-term memory by impairing short-term plasticity in the hippocampus. Altogether, these findings could provide a cellular mechanism by which PS may facilitate memory encoding. Via MCH neuron activation, PS could prepare the day's learning by increasing and modulating short-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.

  9. Effects of metoclopramide on gastric motility measured by short-term bio-impedance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    María-Raquel Huerta-Franco; Miguel Vargas-Luna; Kathleen M Capaccione; Etna Ya(n)ez-Roldán; Ulises Hernández-Ledezma; Ismael Morales-Mata; Teodoro Córdova-Fraga

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the accuracy of short-term bio-impedance as a means of measuring gastric motility.METHODS: We evaluated differences in the shortterm electrical bio-impedance signal from the gastric region in the following conditions: (1) fasting state,(2) after the administration of metoclopramide (a drug that induces an increase in gastric motility) and (3) after food ingestion in 23 healthy volunteers. We recorded the real component of the electrical impedance signal from the gastric region for 1000 s. We performed a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) on this data and then compared the signal among the fasting, medicated, and postprandial conditions using the median of the area under the curve, the relative area under the curve and the main peak activity. RESULTS: The median of the area under the curve of the frequency range in the region between 2-8 cycles per minute (cpm) decreased from 4.7 cpm in the fasting condition to 4.0 cpm in the medicated state ( t = 3.32, P = 0.004). This concurred with the decrease seen in the relative area under the FFT curve in the region from 4 to 8 cpm from 38.3% to 26.6% ( t = 2.81, P = 0.012) and the increase in area in the region from 2to 4 cpm from 22.4% to 27.7%, respectively ( t = -2.5,P = 0.022). Finally the main peak position also decreased in the region from 2 to 8 cpm. Main peak activity in the fasting state was 4.72 cpm and declined to 3.45 cpmin the medicated state ( t = 2.47, P = 0.025). There was a decrease from the fasting state to the postprandial state at 3.02 cpm ( t = 4.0, P = 0.0013).CONCLUSION: Short-term electrical bio-impedance can assess gastric motility changes in individuals experiencing gastric stress by analyzing the area medians and relative areas under the FFT curve.

  10. Radiology, histology and short-term outcome of asymptomatic congenital thoracic malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Thomas; Buchvald, Frederik; Brenøe, Jørn;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and short-term outcome of our management of asymptomatic children with antenatally diagnosed congenital thoracic malformations (CTM), compared with recommendations from a recent review and meta-analysis....

  11. A Master Equation Approach to Modeling Short-term Behaviors of the Stock Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Conan; Yang, Xiaoxiang; Mazilu, Irina

    2015-03-01

    Short term fluctuations in stock prices are highly random, due to the multitude of external factors acting on the price determination process. While long-term economic factors such as inflation and revenue growth rate affect short-term price fluctuation, it is difficult to obtain the complete set of information and uncertainties associated with a given period of time. Instead, we propose a simpler short-term model based on only prior price averages and extrema. In this paper, we take a master equation under the random walk hypothesis and fit parameters based on AAPL stock price data over the past ten years. We report results for small system sizes and for the short term average price. These results may lead to a general closed-form solution to this particular master equation.

  12. Audiovisual classification of vocal outbursts in human conversation using long-short-term memory networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyben, Florian; Petridis, Stavros; Schuller, Björn; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2011-01-01

    We investigate classification of non-linguistic vocalisations with a novel audiovisual approach and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks as highly successful dynamic sequence classifiers. As database of evaluation serves this year's Paralinguistic Challenge's Audiovisual Interest

  13. Stochastic Optimal Wind Power Bidding Strategy in Short-Term Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    minimization problem for trading wind power in the short-term electricity market is described, to help the wind power owners optimize their bidding strategy. Stochastic optimization and a Monte Carlo method are adopted to find the optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the short-term electricity...... market in order to deal with the uncertainty of the regulation price, the activated regulation of the power system and the forecasted wind power generation. The Danish short-term electricity market and a wind farm in western Denmark are chosen as study cases due to the high wind power penetration here....... Simulation results show that the stochastic optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the Danish short-term electricity market is an effective measure to maximize the revenue of the wind power owners....

  14. Stochastic Optimal Wind Power Bidding Strategy in Short-Term Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    minimization problem for trading wind power in the short-term electricity market is described, to help the wind power owners optimize their bidding strategy. Stochastic optimization and a Monte Carlo method are adopted to find the optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the short-term electricity....... Simulation results show that the stochastic optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the Danish short-term electricity market is an effective measure to maximize the revenue of the wind power owners.......Due to the fluctuating nature and non-perfect forecast of the wind power, the wind power owners are penalized for the imbalance costs of the regulation, when they trade wind power in the short-term liberalized electricity market. Therefore, in this paper a formulation of an imbalance cost...

  15. Asymmetric information hiding and noise-free recovery based on rotating analyzer ellipsometry and quick-response code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju; Wang, Zhisong

    2014-08-01

    We report an asymmetric optical information hiding method based on a rotating analyzer ellipsometry technique. This asymmetric hiding architecture not only avoids the interception of keys during transmission or distribution but also makes the cyphertext more inconspicuous for attackers. A new kind of one-way optical trapdoor function is constructed based on the fact that the state of polarization (SOP) of elliptical polarized light cannot be recovered with only the knowledge of intensity captured after passing through a linear polarizer. Meanwhile, the SOP of a polarization ellipse could be calculated by rotating the polarizer to record two scenes of intensity after it. Introduction of a quick response code as a container leads to noise-free recovery for original information and enhances practicality of the proposed cryptosystem with versatile key sensitivity and fault tolerance capability. Numerical simulation results that support theoretical analysis are presented. Analysis on the relationship between hiding effect or quality of decryption and parameters of the algorithm also is provided.

  16. A Hybrid Short-Term Traffic Flow Prediction Model Based on Singular Spectrum Analysis and Kernel Extreme Learning Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qiang; Lin, Ciyun; Yang, Zhaosheng; Bing, Qichun; Zhou, Xiyang

    2016-01-01

    Short-term traffic flow prediction is one of the most important issues in the field of intelligent transport system (ITS). Because of the uncertainty and nonlinearity, short-term traffic flow prediction is a challenging task. In order to improve the accuracy of short-time traffic flow prediction, a hybrid model (SSA-KELM) is proposed based on singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and kernel extreme learning machine (KELM). SSA is used to filter out the noise of traffic flow time series. Then, the filtered traffic flow data is used to train KELM model, the optimal input form of the proposed model is determined by phase space reconstruction, and parameters of the model are optimized by gravitational search algorithm (GSA). Finally, case validation is carried out using the measured data of an expressway in Xiamen, China. And the SSA-KELM model is compared with several well-known prediction models, including support vector machine, extreme learning machine, and single KLEM model. The experimental results demonstrate that performance of the proposed model is superior to that of the comparison models. Apart from accuracy improvement, the proposed model is more robust.

  17. Renovating? Take a look at the new short-term paths to financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, M

    1984-02-01

    A hospital's renovation project can be financed through a diversity of financing techniques. Although the traditional vehicle for hospital capital financing is long-term, fixed-rate debt, there are a growing number of short-term financing alternatives that can provide greater flexibility and generate debt service savings. The author describes some of the new short-term financing techniques, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of short- versus long-term financing.

  18. The Portuguese economy in the 1980s: structural change and short-term upheavals

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Bela Nunes

    2015-01-01

    The performance of the Portuguese economy during the 1980s was conditioned by two main factors: structural changes imposed by the decision to join the European Economic Community and external shocks and short-term fluctuations in the world economy. The first half of the 1980s Portugal’s economic performance was dominated by short-term macroeconomic problems, while international economic recovery after 1985 created a positive background for Portuguese economic growth and a convergence path tha...

  19. Short-term HRV Biofeedback: Perspectives in Environmental Physiology and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya V. Poskotinova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This review demonstrates the effectiveness of short-term HRV biofeedback sessions in an evaluation of human adaptation to uncomfortable environments. A single HRV biofeedback session can be used as a test for the effectiveness of cortical-visceral connections in patients with cardiovascular disease. In addition, this method can be used as short-term assistance in adaptation to social stressful factors.

  20. Short-term fasting alters cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Laureen A; Achterbergh, Roos; de Vries, Emmely M; van Nierop, F Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R; Boelen, Anita; Romijn, Johannes A; Mathôt, Ron A A

    2015-06-01

    Experimental studies indicate that short-term fasting alters drug metabolism. However, the effects of short-term fasting on drug metabolism in humans need further investigation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term fasting (36 h) on P450-mediated drug metabolism. In a randomized crossover study design, nine healthy subjects ingested a cocktail consisting of five P450-specific probe drugs [caffeine (CYP1A2), S-warfarin (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), metoprolol (CYP2D6), and midazolam (CYP3A4)] on two occasions (control study after an overnight fast and after 36 h of fasting). Blood samples were drawn for pharmacokinetic analysis using nonlinear mixed effects modeling. In addition, we studied in Wistar rats the effects of short-term fasting on hepatic mRNA expression of P450 isoforms corresponding with the five studied P450 enzymes in humans. In the healthy subjects, short-term fasting increased oral caffeine clearance by 20% (P = 0.03) and decreased oral S-warfarin clearance by 25% (P fasting increased mRNA expression of the orthologs of human CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 (P fasting alters cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in a nonuniform pattern. Therefore, short-term fasting is another factor affecting cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in humans.

  1. 宏观经济学中的长期与短期%Long-term and Short-term of Macroeconomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范小仲

    2013-01-01

    The long-term and short-term factors in macroeconomics are intertwined and interacting. Modern macroeconomics theory is mainly based on the wage and price adjustment speed to define long-term and short-term, study macroeconomics variable decisions in long-term and short-term, using different model analyze long-term and short-term problem, study the ef-fects of macroeconomics policy on long-term and short-term perspective, and attempts through a combination of long and short approach to compatible main macroeconomics theoretical divergences.%宏观经济中的长期和短期因素交织在一起并且相互作用。现代宏观经济学主要依据工资和价格调整速度来界定长期和短期,研究宏观经济变量的长期和短期决定,运用不同模型分析长期问题和短期问题,从长期和短期视角考察宏观经济政策效应,并试图通过长期和短期相结合的方法兼容宏观经济学主要流派的理论分歧。

  2. Intrinsic noise analyzer: a software package for the exploration of stochastic biochemical kinetics using the system size expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Thomas

    Full Text Available The accepted stochastic descriptions of biochemical dynamics under well-mixed conditions are given by the Chemical Master Equation and the Stochastic Simulation Algorithm, which are equivalent. The latter is a Monte-Carlo method, which, despite enjoying broad availability in a large number of existing software packages, is computationally expensive due to the huge amounts of ensemble averaging required for obtaining accurate statistical information. The former is a set of coupled differential-difference equations for the probability of the system being in any one of the possible mesoscopic states; these equations are typically computationally intractable because of the inherently large state space. Here we introduce the software package intrinsic Noise Analyzer (iNA, which allows for systematic analysis of stochastic biochemical kinetics by means of van Kampen's system size expansion of the Chemical Master Equation. iNA is platform independent and supports the popular SBML format natively. The present implementation is the first to adopt a complementary approach that combines state-of-the-art analysis tools using the computer algebra system Ginac with traditional methods of stochastic simulation. iNA integrates two approximation methods based on the system size expansion, the Linear Noise Approximation and effective mesoscopic rate equations, which to-date have not been available to non-expert users, into an easy-to-use graphical user interface. In particular, the present methods allow for quick approximate analysis of time-dependent mean concentrations, variances, covariances and correlations coefficients, which typically outperforms stochastic simulations. These analytical tools are complemented by automated multi-core stochastic simulations with direct statistical evaluation and visualization. We showcase iNA's performance by using it to explore the stochastic properties of cooperative and non-cooperative enzyme kinetics and a gene network

  3. Performance of Diversity System Output Signal in Mobile Cellular System in the Presence of α-μ Short Term Fading and Gamma Long Term Fading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Krstic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, wireless mobile communication system with macrodiversity reception is considered. Macrodiversity system is consisting of macrodiversity selection combining (SC receiver and three microdiversity SC receivers. Propagation channel suffers α-μ short term fading and Gamma long term fading resulting in system performance degradation. Analytical closed form expression for average level crossing rate (LCR of macrodiversity SC receiver output signal envelope is obtained. Mathematical results are analyzed, presenting the influence of long term fading parameters and short term fading parameters on average level crossing rate. Obtained results can be used in the process of simulation and design of real-world environments mobile cellular telecommunication systems.

  4. Preoperative predictors of short-term survival after hepatectomy for multinodular hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Chao Zhao; Hai-Bin Zhang; Ning Yang; Yong Fu; Wei Qian; Ben-Dong Chen; Lu-Feng Fan

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate preoperative factors associated with poor short-term outcome after resection for multinodular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to assess the contraindication of patients for surgery.METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed 162 multinodular HCC patients with Child-Pugh A liver function who underwent surgical resection.The prognostic significance of preoperative factors was investigated by univariate analysis using the log-rank test and by multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model.Each independent risk factor was then assigned points to construct a scoring model to evaluate the indication for surgical intervention.A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was constructed to assess the predictive ability of this system.RESULTS:The median overall survival was 38.3 mo (range:3-80 mo),while the median disease-free survival was 18.6 mo (range:1-79 mo).The 1-year mortality was 14%.Independent prognostic risk factors of 1-year death included prealbumin < 170 mg/L [hazard ratio (HR):5.531,P < 0.001],alkaline phosphatase >129 U/L (HR:3.252,P =0.005),α fetoprotein > 20 μg/L (HR:7.477,P =0.011),total tumor size > 8 cm (HR:10.543; P < 0.001),platelet count < 100 × 109/L(HR:9.937,P < 0.001),and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase > 64 U/L (HR:3.791,P < 0.001).The scoring model had a strong ability to predict 1-year survival (area under ROC:0.925,P < 0.001).Patients with a score ≥ 5 had significantly poorer short-term outcome than those with a score < 5 (1-year mortality:62% vs 5%,P < 0.001; 1-year recurrence rate:86% vs 33%,P <0.001).Patients with score ≥ 5 had greater possibility of microvascular invasion (P < 0.001),poor tumor differentiation (P =0.003),liver cirrhosis with small nodules (P < 0.001),and intraoperative blood transfusion (P =0.010).CONCLUSION:A composite preoperative scoring model can be used as an indication of prognosis of HCC patients after surgical resection.Resection should

  5. Impact of short-term liquid storage on human CD133(+) stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Cornelia A; Mark, Peter; Klopsch, Christian; Laupheimer, Michael; Tu-Rapp, Hoang; Li, Wenzhong; Ma, Nan; Steinhoff, Gustav; David, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is a viable strategy for regenerative medicine. However, it is inevitable to have cells undergo storage for several hours or days due to processing and transportation. Therefore, it is crucial to have rigidly controlled conditions ensuring the therapeutic benefit of isolated stem cells. In the present study, we investigated the impact of short-term storage on human CD133(+) cells. CD133(+) cells were isolated from human bone marrow and kept at standardized nonfreezing storage conditions for up to 72 h. Cell viability (apoptosis/necrosis) and expression of CD133 and CXCR4 were analyzed by flow cytometry. Metabolic activity was determined using an MTT assay; colony-forming ability, as well as endothelial-like differentiation, was further evaluated. A qRT-PCR array was employed to investigate the expression of stemness genes. CD133 and CXCR4 expressions were preserved at all time points. After 30 h, cell number and metabolic activity decreased, although no significant changes were detected in cell viability and proliferation as well as endothelial-like differentiation. Cell viability and proliferation decreased significantly only after 72 h of storage. Our results indicate that storage of isolated human CD133(+) bone marrow stem cells in liquid allows for high viability and functionality. However, storage time should be limited in order to avoid cell loss.

  6. Sensitivity Analysis of Wavelet Neural Network Model for Short-Term Traffic Volume Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a more accurate and robust traffic volume prediction model, the sensitivity of wavelet neural network model (WNNM is analyzed in this study. Based on real loop detector data which is provided by traffic police detachment of Maanshan, WNNM is discussed with different numbers of input neurons, different number of hidden neurons, and traffic volume for different time intervals. The test results show that the performance of WNNM depends heavily on network parameters and time interval of traffic volume. In addition, the WNNM with 4 input neurons and 6 hidden neurons is the optimal predictor with more accuracy, stability, and adaptability. At the same time, a much better prediction record will be achieved with the time interval of traffic volume are 15 minutes. In addition, the optimized WNNM is compared with the widely used back-propagation neural network (BPNN. The comparison results indicated that WNNM produce much lower values of MAE, MAPE, and VAPE than BPNN, which proves that WNNM performs better on short-term traffic volume prediction.

  7. Weather factors in the short-term forecasting of daily ambulance calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ho-Ting; Lai, Poh-Chin

    2014-07-01

    The daily ambulance demand for Hong Kong is rising, and it has been shown that weather factors (temperature and humidity) play a role in the demand for ambulance services. This study aimed at developing short-term forecasting models of daily ambulance calls using the 7-day weather forecast data as predictors. We employed the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) method to analyze over 1.3 million cases of emergency attendance in May 2006 through April 2009 and the 7-day weather forecast data for the same period. Our results showed that the ARIMA model could offer reasonably accurate forecasts of daily ambulance calls at 1-7 days ahead of time and with improved accuracy by including weather factors. Specifically, the inclusion of average temperature alone in our ARIMA model improved the predictability of the 1-day forecast when compared to that of a simple ARIMA model (8.8% decrease in the root mean square error, RMSE=53 vs 58). The improvement in the 7-day forecast with average temperature as a predictor was more pronounced, with a 10% drop in prediction error (RMSE=62 vs 69). These findings suggested that weather forecast data can improve the 1- to 7-day forecasts of daily ambulance demand. As weather forecast data are readily accessible from Hong Kong Observatory's official website, there is virtually no cost to including them in the ARIMA models, which yield better prediction for forward planning and deployment of ambulance manpower.

  8. Clinical outcome of surgical periodontal therapy: a short-term retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Hiroki; Fujinami, Koushu; Ida, Atsushi; Furusawa, Masahiro; Nikaido, Masahiko; Yamashita, Shuichiro; Saito, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate retrospectively the outcome of surgical periodontal therapy. Periodontal surgeries implemented at General Dentistry, Tokyo Dental College Suidobashi Hospital during the period of April 2010 through March 2012 were subjected to data analysis. After initial periodontal therapy, 17 clinicians performed a total of 138 periodontal surgeries in 80 patients with moderate to advanced periodontitis (31 men and 49 women; mean age 54). Cases (sites) operated were as follows: open flap debridement=102, periodontal regenerative therapy=29 (17 for intrabony defects, 12 for furcation involvements) and periodontal plastic surgery=7. Enamel matrix derivative or bone graft was used for regenerative therapy. Clinical data were analyzed focusing on the comparison between open flap debridement and regenerative therapy. At 5 months after open flap debridement, mean reduction in probing depth (PD) and gain in clinical attachment level (CAL) was 3.9 mm (range -1.0-9.0) and 2.3 mm (range -1.0-9.0), respectively. The corresponding values with regenerative therapy were 4.0 mm (range 0-8.0) and 2.8 mm (-1.0-6.0), respectively. At sites with initial PD≥8 mm, a significantly greater gain in CAL was obtained with the regenerative therapy than with flap surgery (mean CAL gain 4.3 mm vs. 2.9 mm, pPeriodontal surgery performed in our clinical setting demonstrated a favorable short-term outcome. Our data suggest the efficacy of regenerative therapy, in particular for the treatment of deep pockets.

  9. Language Identification in Short Utterances Using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM Recurrent Neural Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Zazo

    Full Text Available Long Short Term Memory (LSTM Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs have recently outperformed other state-of-the-art approaches, such as i-vector and Deep Neural Networks (DNNs, in automatic Language Identification (LID, particularly when dealing with very short utterances (∼3s. In this contribution we present an open-source, end-to-end, LSTM RNN system running on limited computational resources (a single GPU that outperforms a reference i-vector system on a subset of the NIST Language Recognition Evaluation (8 target languages, 3s task by up to a 26%. This result is in line with previously published research using proprietary LSTM implementations and huge computational resources, which made these former results hardly reproducible. Further, we extend those previous experiments modeling unseen languages (out of set, OOS, modeling, which is crucial in real applications. Results show that a LSTM RNN with OOS modeling is able to detect these languages and generalizes robustly to unseen OOS languages. Finally, we also analyze the effect of even more limited test data (from 2.25s to 0.1s proving that with as little as 0.5s an accuracy of over 50% can be achieved.

  10. Language Identification in Short Utterances Using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazo, Ruben; Lozano-Diez, Alicia; Gonzalez-Dominguez, Javier; Toledano, Doroteo T; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) have recently outperformed other state-of-the-art approaches, such as i-vector and Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), in automatic Language Identification (LID), particularly when dealing with very short utterances (∼3s). In this contribution we present an open-source, end-to-end, LSTM RNN system running on limited computational resources (a single GPU) that outperforms a reference i-vector system on a subset of the NIST Language Recognition Evaluation (8 target languages, 3s task) by up to a 26%. This result is in line with previously published research using proprietary LSTM implementations and huge computational resources, which made these former results hardly reproducible. Further, we extend those previous experiments modeling unseen languages (out of set, OOS, modeling), which is crucial in real applications. Results show that a LSTM RNN with OOS modeling is able to detect these languages and generalizes robustly to unseen OOS languages. Finally, we also analyze the effect of even more limited test data (from 2.25s to 0.1s) proving that with as little as 0.5s an accuracy of over 50% can be achieved.

  11. Effect of Short Term Pranayama and Meditation on Respiratory Parameters in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankad Roopa B.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pranayama is a technique of controlling and modulating breath and meditation, a process through which one attains a state of deep rest yet active state of mind. Recent studies on long-term yogic practices have shown improvements in respiratory functions.Aim: The present study was done to evaluate the effects of pranayama and meditation on respiratory parameters.Settings and Design: The present study was a comparative prospective study consisting of 50 (24 male and 26 female healthy subjects of 20-60 years age.Methods and Material: Participants fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria underwent two hours daily yoga program for 15 days taught by yoga teacher. Pre and post yoga respiratory functions were assessed by measuring chest expansion, breath holding time and peak expiratory flow rate. The parameters were analyzed by Student t test.Results: There was significant increase in chest expansion, breath holding time and peak expiratory flow rate compared to pre yoga practice. The response was similar in both genders, both age groups 40yrs and both groups of BMI 25 kg/m2.Conclusions: This study showed beneficial effects of short term (15 days regular pranayama and meditation practice on respiratory functions irrespective of age, gender and BMI in normal healthy individuals.

  12. Daily/Hourly Hydrosystem Operation : How the Columbia River System Responds to Short-Term Needs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1994-02-01

    The System Operation Review, being conducted by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers, and the US Bureau of Reclamation, is analyzing current and potential future operations of the Columbia River System. One goal of the System Operations Review is to develop a new System Operation Strategy. The strategy will be designed to balance the many regionally and nationally important uses of the Columbia River system. Short-term operations address the dynamics that affect the Northwest hydro system and its multiple uses. Demands for electrical power and natural streamflows change constantly and thus are not precisely predictable. Other uses of the hydro system have constantly changing needs, too, many of which can interfere with other uses. Project operators must address various river needs, physical limitations, weather, and streamflow conditions while maintaining the stability of the electric system and keeping your lights on. It takes staffing around the clock to manage the hour-to-hour changes that occur and the challenges that face project operators all the time.

  13. Short-term follow-up of patients after aneurysmectomy of the left ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Wilson Luiz da

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Left ventricular aneurysm is a complication of myocardial infarction that can best be treated by reconstructive surgeries that can restore ventricular geometry. We analyzed immediate results in a group of consecutive patients who underwent surgical correction of left ventricular aneurysms. METHODS: From January '90 to August '99, 94 patients - mean age 58.4 (ranging from 36 to 73 years, 65 (69.1% males and 9 ( 30.8% females - were operated upon. Pre-operative ejection fraction ranged from 0.22 to 0.58 (mean = 0.52, and the aneurysm was located in the antero-lateral area in 90.4% of the cases. Functional class III and IV (NYHA was present in 82 (87.2% patients, and 12 (12.7% were in functional class I and II. Congestive heart failure was the most frequent cause (77.6%, occurring in isolation in 24.4% or associated with coronary artery diseases in 53.2%. RESULTS: Short-term follow-up showed a 7.4% mortality, and low cardiac output was the main cause of death. Coming off pump was uneventful in 73 patients (77.6%, with a 3.2% mortality and with the use of inotropics in 20 (21.3%. One patient (1% did not come off the pump. CONCLUSION: Surgical correction was adequate in the immediate follow-up of operated patients, and mortality was higher in patients with higher functional class.

  14. Short-Term Health Impact Assessment of Urban PM10 in Bejaia City (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Benaissa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used Health Impact Assessment (HIA to analyze the impact on a given population’s health outcomes in terms of all-causes mortality and respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations attributable to short-term exposure to particulate matter less than 10 μm diameter (PM10 in Bejaia city, for which health effects of air pollution have never been investigated. Two scenarios of PM10 reduction were considered: first, a scenario where the PM10 annual mean is decreased by 5 µg/m3, and then a scenario where this PM10 mean is decreased to 20 µg/m3 (World Health Organization annual air quality guideline (WHO-AQG. Annual mean level of PM10 (81.7 µg/m3 was calculated from objective measurements assessed in situ. Each year, about 4 and 55 deaths could be postponed with the first and the second scenarios successfully. Furthermore, decreasing PM10 annual mean by 5 µg/m3 would avoid 5 and 3 respiratory and cardiac hospitalizations, respectively, and not exceeding the PM10 WHO-AQG (20 µg/m3 would result in a potential gain of 36 and 23 per 100000 respiratory and cardiac hospitalizations, respectively. Lowering in current levels of PM10 has a nonnegligible impact in terms of public health that it is expected to be higher in the case of long-term effects.

  15. Method for analyzing electromagnetic-force-induced vibration and noise analysis; Denjiryoku reiki ni yoru dendoki no shindo hoshaon kaisekiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiohata, K.; Nemoto, K.; Nagawa, Y.; Sakamoto, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Ito, M.; Koharagi, H. [Hitachi, Ltd, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    In this analysis method, electromagnetic force calculated by 2-dimensional analysis is transformed into external force for 3-dimensional structural-vibration analysis. And a modeling procedure for a vibrating structure is developed. Further, a space-modal-resonance criteria which relates electromagnetic force to structural-vibration or noise is introduced. In the structural-vibration analysis, the finite element method is used; and in the noise analysis, the boundary element method is used. Finally, vibration and noise of an induction motor are calculated using this criteria. Consequently, high-accuracy modeling is achieved and noise the calculated by the simulation almost coincides with that obtained by experiments. And it is clarified that the-space-modal resonance criteria is effective in numerical simulation. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Short-term Mobility and Increased Partnership Concurrency among Men in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Cassels

    Full Text Available Migration has long been understood as an underlying factor for HIV transmission, and sexual partner concurrency has been increasingly studied as an important component of HIV transmission dynamics. However, less work has examined the role of short-term mobility in sexual partner concurrency using a network approach. Short-term mobility may be a risk for HIV for the migrant's partner as well either through the partner's risk behaviors while the migrant is away, such as the partner having additional partners, or via exposure to the return migrant.Using data from the 2010-11 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey, weighted generalized linear regression models were used to investigate the associations between short-term mobility and partnership concurrency at the individual and partnership levels.At the individual level, we find strong evidence of an association between short-term mobility and concurrency. Men who traveled were more likely to have concurrent partnerships compared to men who did not travel and the relationship was non-linear: each trip was associated with a 2% higher probability of concurrency, with a diminishing risk at 60 trips (p<0.001. At the partnership level, short-term mobility by the male only or both partners was associated with male concurrency. Couples in which the female only traveled exhibited less male concurrency.Short-term mobility has the ability to impact population-level transmission dynamics by facilitating partnership concurrency and thus onward HIV transmission. Short-term migrants may be an important population to target for HIV testing, treatment, or social and behavioral interventions to prevent the spread of HIV.

  17. Deciphering the record of short-term base-level changes in Gilbert-type deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobo, Katarina; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Nemec, Wojciech

    2016-04-01

    -front accommodation driven by short-term base-level changes, with some accompanying inevitable 'noise' in the facies record due to the system autogenic variability and regional climatic fluctuations. Comparison of delta coeval foreset and toeset/bottomset deposits in a delta shows further a reverse pattern of reciprocal changes in facies assemblages, with the TFA assemblage of foreset deposits passing downdip into a DFA assemblage of delta-foot deposits, and the DFA assemblage of foreset deposits passing downdip into a TFA assemblage. This reverse reciprocal alternation of TFA and DFA facies assemblages is attributed to the delta-slope own morphodynamics. When the delta slope is dominated by deposition of debrisflows, only the most diluted turbulent flows and chute bypassing turbidity currents are reaching the delta-foot zone. When the delta slope is dominated by turbiditic sedimentation, larger chutes and gullies form - triggering and conveying debrisflows to the foot zone. These case studies as a whole shed a new light on the varying pattern of subaqueous sediment dispersal processes in an evolving Gilbert-type deltaic system and point to an the attractive possibility of the recognition of a 'hidden' record of base-level changes on the basis of detailed facies analysis.

  18. Effect of a participatory organizational-level occupational health intervention on short-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Framke, Elisabeth; Sørensen, Ole Henning; Pedersen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine whether employees in pre-schools that implemented a participatory organizational-level intervention focusing on the core task at work had a lower incidence of short-term sickness absence compared to employees in the control group. Methods: The clus......Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine whether employees in pre-schools that implemented a participatory organizational-level intervention focusing on the core task at work had a lower incidence of short-term sickness absence compared to employees in the control group. Methods......, workshops, and workplace-directed intervention activities focusing on the core task at work. Using Poisson regression, we tested differences in incidence rates in short-term sickness absence between the intervention and control groups during a 29-months follow-up. Results: Estimated short-term sickness...... analysis and 0.89 (95% CI 0.83–0.96) when adjusting for age, sex, job group, type and size of workplace, and workplace average level of previous short-term sickness absence. A supplementary analysis showed that the intervention also was associated with a reduced risk of long-term sickness absence...

  19. Forecasting the Short-Term Passenger Flow on High-Speed Railway with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Quan Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term passenger flow forecasting is an important component of transportation systems. The forecasting result can be applied to support transportation system operation and management such as operation planning and revenue management. In this paper, a divide-and-conquer method based on neural network and origin-destination (OD matrix estimation is developed to forecast the short-term passenger flow in high-speed railway system. There are three steps in the forecasting method. Firstly, the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station are obtained from historical passenger flow data, which are OD matrices in this paper. Secondly, short-term passenger flow forecasting of the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station based on neural network is realized. At last, the OD matrices in short-term time are obtained with an OD matrix estimation method. The experimental results indicate that the proposed divide-and-conquer method performs well in forecasting the short-term passenger flow on high-speed railway.

  20. Semantic and phonological contributions to short-term repetition and long-term cued sentence recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Jed A; Rose, Nathan S; Deschamps, Tiffany; Leigh, Rosie C; Panamsky, Lilia; Silberberg, Alexandra; Madani, Noushin; Links, Kira A

    2016-02-01

    The function of verbal short-term memory is supported not only by the phonological loop, but also by semantic resources that may operate on both short and long time scales. Elucidation of the neural underpinnings of these mechanisms requires effective behavioral manipulations that can selectively engage them. We developed a novel cued sentence recall paradigm to assess the effects of two factors on sentence recall accuracy at short-term and long-term stages. Participants initially repeated auditory sentences immediately following a 14-s retention period. After this task was complete, long-term memory for each sentence was probed by a two-word recall cue. The sentences were either concrete (high imageability) or abstract (low imageability), and the initial 14-s retention period was filled with either an undemanding finger-tapping task or a more engaging articulatory suppression task (Exp. 1, counting backward by threes; Exp. 2, repeating a four-syllable nonword). Recall was always better for the concrete sentences. Articulatory suppression reduced accuracy in short-term recall, especially for abstract sentences, but the sentences initially recalled following articulatory suppression were retained better at the subsequent cued-recall test, suggesting that the engagement of semantic mechanisms for short-term retention promoted encoding of the sentence meaning into long-term memory. These results provide a basis for using sentence imageability and subsequent memory performance as probes of semantic engagement in short-term memory for sentences.

  1. Short-term memory in the service of executive control functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Alizadeh Mansouri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory is a crucial cognitive function for supporting on-going and upcoming behaviours, allowing storage of information across delay periods. The content of this memory may typically include tangible information about features such as the shape, colour or texture of an object, its location and motion relative to the body, or phonological information. The neural correlate of these short-term memories has been found in different brain areas involved in organizing perceptual or motor functions. In particular, neuronal activity in different prefrontal areas encodes task-related information corresponding to short-term memory across delay periods, and lesions in the prefrontal cortex severely affect the ability to hold this type of memory. Recent studies have further expanded the scope and possible role of short-term memory by showing that information of abstract entities such as a behaviour-guiding rule, or the occurrence of a conflict in information processing; can also be maintained in short-term memory and used for adjusting the allocation of executive control in dynamic environments. It has also been shown that neuronal activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices encodes information about such abstract entities. These findings suggest that the prefrontal cortex plays crucial roles in organizing goal-directed behaviour by supporting various mnemonic processes that maintain a wide range of information in the service of executive control of on-going or upcoming behaviour.

  2. Short-term regulation of hydro powerplants. Studies on the environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisalmi, T. [ed.; Forsius, J.; Muotka, J.; Soimakallio, H. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Riihimaeki, J. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Vehanen, T. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Inst. (Finland); Yrjaenae, T. [North Ostrobothnia Regional Environmental Centre, Oulu (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The publication is a final report on a project studying effects of short-term regulation of hydro power plants. The project consists of two parts: (1) examining and developing methods for evaluation, (2) applying methods in a case study at the Oulujoki River. The economic value of short-term regulation was studied with a model consisting of an optimization model and a river simulation model. Constraints on water level or discharge variations could be given to the power plants and their economical influence could be studied. Effects on shoreline recreation use due to water level fluctuation were studied with a model where various effects are made commensurable and expressed in monetary terms. A literature survey and field experiments were used to study the methods for assessing effects of short-term regulation on river habitats. The state and development needs of fish stocks and fisheries in large regulated rivers were studied and an environmental classification was made. Remedial measures for the short-term regulated rivers were studied with a literature survey and enquiries. A comprehensive picture of the various effects of short-term regulation was gained in the case study in Oulujoki River (110 km long, 7 power plants). Harmful effects can be reduced with the given recommendations of remedial measures on environment and the usage of the hydro power plants. (orig.) 52 refs.

  3. Forecasting the short-term passenger flow on high-speed railway with neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mei-Quan; Li, Xia-Miao; Zhou, Wen-Liang; Fu, Yan-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Short-term passenger flow forecasting is an important component of transportation systems. The forecasting result can be applied to support transportation system operation and management such as operation planning and revenue management. In this paper, a divide-and-conquer method based on neural network and origin-destination (OD) matrix estimation is developed to forecast the short-term passenger flow in high-speed railway system. There are three steps in the forecasting method. Firstly, the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station are obtained from historical passenger flow data, which are OD matrices in this paper. Secondly, short-term passenger flow forecasting of the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station based on neural network is realized. At last, the OD matrices in short-term time are obtained with an OD matrix estimation method. The experimental results indicate that the proposed divide-and-conquer method performs well in forecasting the short-term passenger flow on high-speed railway.

  4. Did we do good? NGOs, conflicts of interest and the evaluation of short-term medical missions in Sololá, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Nicole S

    2014-11-01

    This article focuses on current trends in scholarly literature concerning the evaluation of short-term medical missions. The paucity of information on short-term medical missions in general has contributed to the lack of sufficient frameworks for evaluating them. While examples in the scholarly literature are sparse, in those rare cases where missions are evaluated, they tend to (1) produce their own criteria for evaluation, and (2) evaluate themselves based on metrics that emphasize their perceptions of accomplishments. I draw on interviews (n=31) as well as participant-observation regarding medical missions, to critique these trends. The data analyzed derive from an on-going ethnographic study began in Sololá, Guatemala in 1999, which since 2011 has been directly focused on short-term medical missions. More specifically, my data suggest potential conflict of interest inherent to both volunteering and hosting a short-term medical mission. NGO hosts, who maintain long-term residence in Sololá, may differ from short-term volunteers in both how they understand volunteer obligations as well what they consider helpful volunteer activity. These same organizations may remain financially tied to volunteer labour, limiting their own perceptions of what missions can or should do. I argue that these conflicts of interest have created an evaluation environment where critical questions are not asked. Unless these hard questions are addressed, short-term medical mission providers cannot be certain that their own activities are consonant with the moral imperatives that purportedly drive this particular humanitarian effort. This study demonstrates how ethnographic methods can be instrumental in attempts to evaluate humanitarian endeavours.

  5. A short-term extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure increases circulating leukocyte numbers and affects HPA-axis signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kleijn, Stan; Ferwerda, Gerben; Wiese, Michelle; Trentelman, Jos; Cuppen, Jan; Kozicz, Tamas; de Jager, Linda; Hermans, Peter W M; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M Lidy

    2016-10-01

    There is still uncertainty whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) can induce health effects like immunomodulation. Despite evidence obtained in vitro, an unambiguous association has not yet been established in vivo. Here, mice were exposed to ELF-EMF for 1, 4, and 24 h/day in a short-term (1 week) and long-term (15 weeks) set-up to investigate whole body effects on the level of stress regulation and immune response. ELF-EMF signal contained multiple frequencies (20-5000 Hz) and a magnetic flux density of 10 μT. After exposure, blood was analyzed for leukocyte numbers (short-term and long-term) and adrenocorticotropic hormone concentration (short-term only). Furthermore, in the short-term experiment, stress-related parameters, corticotropin-releasing hormone, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and CYP11A1 gene-expression, respectively, were determined in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, pituitary, and adrenal glands. In the short-term but not long-term experiment, leukocyte counts were significantly higher in the 24 h-exposed group compared with controls, mainly represented by increased neutrophils and CD4 ± lymphocytes. POMC expression and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone were significantly lower compared with unexposed control mice. In conclusion, short-term ELF-EMF exposure may affect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation in mice. Changes in stress hormone release may explain changes in circulating leukocyte numbers and composition. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:433-443, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Bioelectromagnetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Category Specific Knowledge Modulate Capacity Limitations of Visual Short-Term Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jonas Olsen; Watanabe, Katsumi; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    2016-01-01

    We explore whether expertise can modulate the capacity of visual short-term memory, as some seem to argue that training affects capacity of short-term memory [13] while others are not able to find this modulation [12]. We extend on a previous study [3] demonstrating expertise effects......), and expert observers (Japanese university students). For both the picture and the letter condition we find no performance difference in memory capacity, however, in the critical hiragana condition we demonstrate a systematic difference relating expertise differences between the groups. These results...... are in line with the theoretical interpretation that visual short-term memory reflects the sum of the reverberating feedback loops to representations in long-term memory....

  7. Study on the Method of Short-Term Synthetic Earthquake Prediction in the North China Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Jianjun; Zhang Yongxian; Zhang Qingrong; Liu Suying; Chen Jianguo; Huang Wanfa; Mi Xuemei

    2004-01-01

    Based on the extraction and calculation of the short-term seismic precursory information magnitude from the 114 major precursory observations in the North China region, and together with consideration of factors such as geological structure, seismicity, crustal thickness, and in particular, the current geodynamics of the region, the authors studied the time-space evolution characteristics of the short-term earthquake precursory information magnitude and its relationship with earthquakes and proposed the index and method for the short-term synthetic prediction of earthquakes with Ms ≥ 5.0 in the North China region. The inspection through Rvalue shows that the method is effective to a certain extent for earthquake prediction.

  8. A Postsynaptic Role for Short-Term Neuronal Facilitation in Dendritic Spines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sunggu; Santos, Mariton D.; Tang, Cha-Min; Kim, Jae Geun; Yang, Sungchil

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is a fundamental component of information processing in the brain. Presynaptic facilitation in response to repetitive stimuli, often referred to as paired-pulse facilitation (PPF), is a dominant form of short-term synaptic plasticity. Recently, an additional cellular mechanism for short-term facilitation, short-term postsynaptic plasticity (STPP), has been proposed. While a dendritic mechanism was described in hippocampus, its expression has not yet been demonstrated at the levels of the spine. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the mechanism can be expressed in other brain regions, such as sensory cortex. Here, we demonstrated that a postsynaptic response can be facilitated by prior spine excitation in both hippocampal and cortical neurons, using 3D digital holography and two-photon calcium imaging. The coordinated action of pre- and post-synaptic plasticity may provide a more thorough account of information processing in the brain.

  9. Obese patients have similar short-term outcomes to nonobese in laparoscopic colorectal surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manish; Chand; Henry; D; De’Ath; Muhammed; Siddiqui; Chetanya; Mehta; Shahnawaz; Rasheed; James; Bromilow; Tahseen; Qureshi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether obese patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery within an enhanced recovery program had worse short-term outcomes.METHODS: A prospective study of consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal resection was carried out between 2008 and 2011 in a single institution. Patients were divided in groups based on body mass index(BMI). Short-term outcomes including operative data, length of stay, complications and readmission rates were recorded and compared between the groups. Continuous data were analysed using t-test or oneway Analysis of Variance. χ2 test was used to compare categorical data.RESULTS: Two hundred and fifty four patients were included over the study period. The majority of individuals(41.7%) recruited were of a healthy weight(BMI 25) does not lead to worse short-term outcomes in laparoscopic colorectal surgery and therefore such patients should not be precluded from laparoscopic surgery.

  10. Short term integrative meditation improves resting alpha activity and stroop performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yaxin; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Tang, Rongxiang; Posner, Michael I

    2014-12-01

    Our previous research showed that short term meditation training reduces the time to resolve conflict in the flanker task. Studies also show that resting alpha increases with long term meditation practice. The aim of this study is to determine whether short term meditation training both increases resting alpha activity and reduces the time to resolve conflict in the Stroop task and whether these two effects are related. Forty-three Chinese undergraduates were randomly assigned an experiment group given 5 days meditation training using integrative body-mind training (IBMT) and a relaxation training control. After training, only the IBMT group showed decreased conflict reaction time (RT), and increased resting mean alpha power. Moreover, the higher the enhancement of resting alpha power, the stronger the improvement of conflict RT. The results indicate that short term meditation diffusely enhances alpha and improves the ability to deal with conflict and moreover these two effects are positively related.

  11. The impact of cognitive impairment at admission on short-term functional outcome of elderly hip fracture patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubljanin-Raspopović Emilija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The number of patents with dementia increases among hip fracture patients. Cognitive dysfunction is defined as a premorbid state which is potentionally negatively related to short-term functional outcome. Objective To assess the relationship between cognitive status on admission and functional gain during an early rehabilitation period in elderly hip fracture patients. Methods Forty-five elderly patients with surgically treated hip fracture were examined. Cognitive status was assessed by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE at admission; functional status was assessed by the motor subscale of Functional Independence Measure (FIM at admission and before discharge, while absolute functional gain was determined by the motor FIM gain (FIM discharge - FIM admission. Absolute functional gain was analyzed in respect to cognitive status. Results Both cognitively impaired and cognitively intact hip fracture patients exhibited overall FIM motor improvements, as well as functional gains in specific FIM motor areas (p<0.01. Absolute functional gain, however, was higher in 1 cognitively intact compared to cognitively impaired patients (p<0.01, and 2 cognitively moderately impaired patients compared to severely cognitively impaired patients (p<0.01. No difference in functional gain was detected between the patients with moderately cognitively impaired compared to the cognitive intact patients (p>0.05. Conclusion The systematic use of MMSE identifies cognitively impaired hip fracture patients, and effectively predicts their short-term functional outcome. A higher admission cognitive status is related to a more favorable short term rehabilitation outcome. In spite of cognitive impairment, elderly patients with hip fracture can benefit from participation in rehabilitation programmes. The systematic identification of cognitively impaired hip fracture patients at admission facilitates optimal treatment and rehabilitation, and thus enables the best

  12. Neural mechanisms of semantic interference and false recognition in short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Alexandra S; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A

    2011-06-01

    Decades of research using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm have demonstrated that episodic memory is vulnerable to semantic distortion, and neuroimaging investigations of this phenomenon have shown dissociations between the neural mechanisms subserving true and false retrieval from long-term memory. Recently, false short-term memories have also been demonstrated, with false recognition of items related in meaning to memoranda encoded less than 5s earlier. Semantic interference is also evident in short-term memory, such that correct rejection of related lures is slowed relative to correct rejection of unrelated lures. The present research constitutes the first fMRI investigation of false recognition and semantic interference in short-term memory using a short-term DRM paradigm in which participants retained 4 semantic associates over a short 4-s filled retention interval. Results showed increased activation in the left mid-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (BA45) associated with semantic interference, and significant correlations between these increases and behavioral measures of interference across subjects. Furthermore, increases in dorsolateral PFC occurred when related lures were correctly rejected versus falsely remembered. Compared with false recognition, true recognition was associated with increases in left fusiform gyrus, a finding consistent with the notion that increased perceptual processing may distinguish true from false recognition over both short and long retention intervals. Findings are discussed in relation to current models of interference resolution in short-term memory, and suggest that false short-term recognition occurs as a consequence of the failure of frontally mediated cognitive control processes which adjudicate semantic familiarity in support of accurate mnemonic retrieval.

  13. Some risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazighi, Ahmed El Hachemi

    2004-07-01

    Traditionally guided by long-term contracts, the international natural gas trade is experiencing new methods of operating, based on the short term and more flexibility. Today, indeed, the existence of uncommitted quantities of natural gas, combined with gas price discrepancies among different regions of the world, gives room for the expansion of the spot-trading of gas. The main objective of this paper is to discuss three fundamental risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas: volume risk, price risk and infrastructure risk. The defenders of globalisation argue that the transition from the long-term to the short-term trading of natural gas is mainly a question of access to gas reserves, decreasing costs of gas liquefaction, the building of liquefied natural gas (LNG) fleets and regasification facilities and third-party access to the infrastructure. This process needs to be as short as possible, so that the risks related to the transition process will disappear rapidly. On the other hand, the detractors of globalisation put the emphasis on the complexity of the gas value chain and on the fact that eliminating long-term contracts increases the risks inherent to the international natural gas business. In this paper, we try to untangle and assess the risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas. Our main conclusions are: the short-term trading of gas is far from riskless; volume risk requires stock-building in both consuming and producing countries; price risk, through the high volatility for gas, induces an increase in options prices; there is no evidence to suggest that money-lenders' appetite for financing gas infrastructure projects will continue in a short-term trading system. This would be a threat to consumers' security of supply. (Author)

  14. A Comparison of Different Short-Term Macroeconomic Forecasting Models: Evidence from Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poghosyan Karen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the forecasting performance of four competing models for short-term macroeconomic forecasting: the traditional VAR, small scale Bayesian VAR, Factor Augmented VAR and Bayesian Factor Augmented VAR models. Using Armenian quarterly actual macroeconomic time series from 1996Q1 – 2014Q4, we estimate parameters of four competing models. Based on the out-of-sample recursive forecast evaluations and using root mean squared error (RMSE criterion we conclude that small scale Bayesian VAR and Bayesian Factor Augmented VAR models are more suitable for short-term forecasting than traditional unrestricted VAR model.

  15. Wavelet time series MPARIMA modeling for power system short term load forecasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉启文; 单永正; 王建赜; 王骐

    2003-01-01

    The wavelet power system short term load forecasting(STLF) uses a mulriple periodical autoregressive integrated moving average(MPARIMA) model to model the mulriple near-periodicity, nonstationarity and nonlinearity existed in power system short term quarter-hour load time series, and can therefore accurately forecast the quarter-hour loads of weekdays and weekends, and provide more accurate results than the conventional techniques, such as artificial neural networks and autoregressive moving average(ARMA) models test results. Obtained with a power system networks in a city in Northeastern part of China confirm the validity of the approach proposed.

  16. Incidence and severity of short-term complications after breast augmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Trine F; Hölmich, Lisbet R; Fryzek, Jon P;

    2003-01-01

    . Forty percent of the adverse effects occurred within 3 months of implantation; 79%, within 6 months. Capsular contracture grade II-IV was observed among 4.1% of women in the 2-year follow-up period. Overall, 97 (29%) of the 344 adverse effects among 55 (6%) of the 971 women required surgical...... intervention. A higher incidence of adverse effects typically occurred after subsequent implantations. According to the DPB experience, we conclude that most short-term postoperative adverse effects following cosmetic implantation are clinically insignificant and do not require treatment and that short......-term complications requiring adjuvant treatment are rare....

  17. Short-term load forecasting study of wind power based on Elman neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xinran; Yu, Jing; Long, Teng; Liu, Jicheng

    2017-01-01

    Since wind power has intermittent, irregular and volatility nature, improving load forecasting accuracy of wind power has significant influence on controlling wind system and guarantees stable operation of power grids. This paper constructed the wind farm loading forecasting in short-term based on Elman neural network, and made a numerical example analysis. . Examples show that, using input delayed of feedback Elman neural network, can reflect the inherent laws of wind load operation better, so as to present a new idea for short-term load forecasting of wind power.

  18. Improved hepatic lipid composition following short-term exercise in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas; Kelly, Karen R

    2013-01-01

    . Design and Participants: Obese individuals (N = 17, 34.3 ± 1.0 kg/m2) with clinically confirmed NAFLD were enrolled in a short-term aerobic exercise program that consisted of 7 consecutive days of treadmill walking at ∼85% of maximal heart rate for 60 minutes per day. Preintervention and postintervention......Hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, inflammation, low levels of polyunsaturated lipids, and adiponectin are implicated in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Objective: We examined the effects of short-term aerobic exercise on these metabolic risk factors...

  19. Short-term effects of Gamma Ray Bursts on oceanic photosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Penate, Liuba; Cardenas, Rolando; Agusti, Susana

    2010-01-01

    We continue our previous work on the potential short-term influence of a gamma ray bursts on Earth's biosphere, focusing on the only important short-term effect on life: the ultraviolet flash which occurs as a result of the retransmission of the {\\gamma} radiation through the atmosphere. Thus, in this work we calculate the ultraviolet irradiances penetrating the first hundred meters of the water column, for Jerlov's ocean water types I, II and III. Then we estimate the UV flash potential for photosynthesis inhibition, showing that it can be important in a considerable part of the water column with light enough for photosynthesis to be done, the so called photic zone.

  20. Characterizing short-term stability for Boolean networks over any distribution of transfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadhri, C.; Smith, Andrew M.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Mayo, Jackson R.; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2016-07-01

    We present a characterization of short-term stability of Kauffman's N K (random) Boolean networks under arbitrary distributions of transfer functions. Given such a Boolean network where each transfer function is drawn from the same distribution, we present a formula that determines whether short-term chaos (damage spreading) will happen. Our main technical tool which enables the formal proof of this formula is the Fourier analysis of Boolean functions, which describes such functions as multilinear polynomials over the inputs. Numerical simulations on mixtures of threshold functions and nested canalyzing functions demonstrate the formula's correctness.

  1. Using eye movements for analyzing the influence of linguistic complexity, noise, and hearing loss on sentence processing time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Müller, Jana; Kollmeier, Birger;

    2015-01-01

    and compares the ET method to electrooculography (EOG). The processing time of sentences with different linguistic complexity was measured in quiet and in modulated noise using ET and EOG simultaneously. Eleven participants with hearing impairment and five participants with normal hearing participated...

  2. Proteomic changes in rat hippocampus and adrenals following short-term sleep deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luxen Andre

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify the biochemical changes induced by sleep deprivation at a proteomic level, we compared the hippocampal proteome of rats either after 4 hours of sleep or sleep deprivation obtained by gentle handling. Because sleep deprivation might induce some stress, we also analyzed proteomic changes in rat adrenals in the same conditions. After sleep deprivation, proteins from both tissues were extracted and subjected to 2D-DIGE analysis followed by protein identification through mass spectrometry and database search. Results In the hippocampus, 87 spots showed significant variation between sleep and sleep deprivation, with more proteins showing higher abundance in the latter case. Of these, 16 proteins were present in sufficient amount for a sequencing attempt and among the 12 identified proteins, inferred affected cellular functions include cell metabolism, energy pathways, transport and vesicle trafficking, cytoskeleton and protein processing. Although we did not observe classical, macroscopic effect of stress in sleep-deprived rats, 47 protein spots showed significant variation in adrenal tissue between sleep and sleep deprivation, with more proteins showing higher abundance following sleep. Of these, 16 proteins were also present in sufficient amount for a sequencing attempt and among the 13 identified proteins, the most relevant cellular function that was affected was cell metabolism. Conclusion At a proteomic level, short term sleep deprivation is characterized by a higher expression of some proteins in the hippocampus and a lower abundance of other proteins in the adrenals (compared to normal sleep control. Altogether, this could indicate a general activation of a number of cellular mechanisms involved in the maintenance of wakefulness and in increased energy expenditure during sleep deprivation. These findings are relevant to suggested functions of sleep like energy repletion and the restoration of molecular stocks or

  3. Nonlinear short-term heart rate variability prediction of spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG JianJun; NING XinBao; DU SiDan; WANG ZhenZhou; HUO ChengYu; YANG Xi; FAN AiHua

    2008-01-01

    As malign ventricular tachyarrhythmias triggering sudden cardiac death (SCD),both ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) are major causes of mortality.The most efficient ther-apy for SCD prevention is implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD).The ICD can accurately and ef-fectively identify the forthcoming of fatal ventricular tachyarrhythmias and deliver a shock in order to restore patients' normal sinus rhythm.In this study,two nonlinear complexity measures based on en-tropy:approximate entropy (ApEn) and sample entropy (SampEn) as well as two time linear indices:the mean RR interval (the average of time intervals between consecutive R-waves) and the standard devia-tion of RR intervals were used for short-term forecasting of VT-VF occurrence.The last small sections of interbeat intervals preceding 135 VT-VF episodes from 78 patients stored by the ICD were analyzed and compared with individually acquired control time series (CON series) from the same patients,which are normally intrinsic sinus rhythms.The results demonstrate that in addition to an obvious in-crease in heart rates of the patients,the values of two entropy measures are significantly smaller for VT-VF episodes than those for CON series.Conclusions can be drawn that when a ventricular tach-yarrhythmia approaches,the sympathetic tone of the patients is increased,and the complexity of their RR intervals immediately before the onset of VT-VF events is obviously lower than that of RR Intervals recorded during sinus rhythms.For a better separation,the optimal range of threshold r is determined for two algorithms.ApEn and SampEn measures might be the suitable nonlinear parameters for shod-term prediction of life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias in the application of the cardioversion and defibrillation.

  4. Temporal stability of epigenetic markers: sequence characteristics and predictors of short-term DNA methylation variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyang-Min Byun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that has been increasingly investigated in observational human studies, particularly on blood leukocyte DNA. Characterizing the degree and determinants of DNA methylation stability can provide critical information for the design and conduction of human epigenetic studies. METHODS: We measured DNA methylation in 12 gene-promoter regions (APC, p16, p53, RASSF1A, CDH13, eNOS, ET-1, IFNγ, IL-6, TNFα, iNOS, and hTERT and 2 of non-long terminal repeat elements, i.e., L1 and Alu in blood samples obtained from 63 healthy individuals at baseline (Day 1 and after three days (Day 4. DNA methylation was measured by bisulfite-PCR-Pyrosequencing. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs to measure the within-individual stability of DNA methylation between Day 1 and 4, subtracted of pyrosequencing error and adjusted for multiple covariates. RESULTS: Methylation markers showed different temporal behaviors ranging from high (IL-6, ICC = 0.89 to low stability (APC, ICC = 0.08 between Day 1 and 4. Multiple sequence and marker characteristics were associated with the degree of variation. Density of CpG dinucleotides nearby the sequence analyzed (measured as CpG(o/e or G+C content within ±200 bp was positively associated with DNA methylation stability. The 3' proximity to repeat elements and range of DNA methylation on Day 1 were also positively associated with methylation stability. An inverted U-shaped correlation was observed between mean DNA methylation on Day 1 and stability. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of short-term DNA methylation stability is marker-dependent and associated with sequence characteristics and methylation levels.

  5. Reported geomagnetic and ionospheric precursors to earthquakes: Summary, reanalysis, and implications for short-term prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. N.; Masci, F.; Love, J. J.; Johnston, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Earthquakes are one of the most devastating natural phenomena on earth, causing high deaths tolls and large financial losses each year. If precursory signals could be regularly and reliably identified, then the hazardous effects of earthquakes might be mitigated. Unfortunately, it is not at all clear that short-term earthquake prediction is either possible or practical, and the entire subject remains controversial. Still, many claims of successful earthquake precursor observations have been published, and among these are reports of geomagnetic and ionospheric anomalies prior to earthquake occurrence. Given the importance of earthquake prediction, reports of earthquake precursors need to be analyzed and checked for reliability and reproducibility. We have done this for numerous such reports, including the Loma Prieta, Guam, Hector Mine, Tohoku, and L'Aquila earthquakes. We have found that these reported earthquake precursors: 1) often lack time series observations from long before and long after the earthquakes and near and far from the earthquakes, 2) are not statistically correlated with the earthquakes and do not relate to the earthquake source mechanisms, 3) are not followed by similar, but much larger, signals during the subsequent earthquake when the primary energy release occurs, 4) are nonuniform in that they occur at different spatial and temporal regimes relative to the earthquakes and with different magnitudes and frequencies, and 5) can often be explained by other non-earthquake related mechanisms or normal geomagnetic activity. Thus we conclude that these reported precursors could not be used to predict the time or location of the earthquakes. Based on our findings, we suggest a protocol for examining precursory reports, something that will help guide future research in this area.

  6. Autonomic Function Predicts Fitness Response to Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, A M; Tulppo, M P; Eskelinen, J J; Savolainen, A M; Kapanen, J; Heinonen, I H A; Hautala, A J; Hannukainen, J C; Kalliokoski, K K

    2015-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that baseline cardiac autonomic function and its acute response to all-out interval exercise explains individual fitness responses to high-intensity interval training (HIT). Healthy middle-aged sedentary men performed HIT (n=12, 4-6×30 s of all-out cycling efforts with 4-min recovery) or aerobic training (AET, n=9, 40-60 min at 60% of peak workload in exercise test [Loadpeak]), comprising 6 sessions within 2 weeks. Low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power of R-R interval oscillation were analyzed from data recorded at supine and standing position (5+5 min) every morning during the intervention. A significant training effect (ptraining*group interaction, was observed in Loadpeak and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Pre-training supine LF/HF ratio, an estimate of sympathovagal balance, correlated with training outcome in Loadpeak (Spearman's rho [rs]=-0.74, p=0.006) and VO2peak (rs=- 0.59, p=0.042) in the HIT but not the AET group. Also, the mean change in the standing LF/HF ratio in the morning after an acute HIT exercise during the 1(st) week of intervention correlated with training response in Loadpeak (rs=- 0.68, p=0.014) and VO2peak (rs=-0.60, p=0.039) with HIT but not with AET. In conclusion, pre-training cardiac sympathovagal balance and its initial alterations in response to acute HIT exercise were related to fitness responses to short-term HIT.

  7. Effects of Short-term Renovascular Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes on Cardiac Functions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Nekooeian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cardiac effects simultaneously occurring during experimental hypertension and diabetes have rarely been investigated. This study aimed at examining the effects of short-term renovascular hypertension and type 2 diabetes on cardiac functions. Methods: Five groups (7 each of male Sprague-Dawley rats, including a control group, a diabetes (induced by Streptozocin and Nicotinamide group, a renovascular hypertensive (induced by placing Plexiglas clips on the left renal arteries group, a sham group, and a simultaneously hypertensive-diabetic group, were used. The animals’ hearts were used for isolated heart studies, and the indices of cardiac functions and coronary effluent creatine kinase MB were measured. The results were analyzed using One-way Analysis of Variance, followed by the Duncan Multiple Range test. Results: The diabetic group had a significantly lower rate of rise (-29.5% and decrease (-36.18% in ventricular pressure, left ventricular developed pressure (-28.8%, and rate pressure product (-35%, and significantly higher creatine kinase MB (+166% and infarct size (+36.2% than those of the control group. The hypertensive group had a significantly higher rate of rise (+12.17% and decrease (+16.2% in ventricular pressure, left ventricular developed pressure (+16%, and rate pressure product (+24%, and significantly lower creatine kinase MB (-30% and infarct size (-27% than those of the sham group. Simultaneously, the diabetic and hypertensive rats had a significantly higher rate of rise (+32% and decrease (+30.2% in ventricular pressure, left ventricular developed pressure (+17.2%, and rate pressure product (+22.2%, and significantly lower creatine kinase MB (-24% and infarct size (-16.2% than those of the diabetic group. Conclusion: The findings indicated that the simultaneity of hypertension with type 2 diabetes attenuated diabetes-induced cardiac impairment.

  8. Comparative effects of sodium channel blockers in short term rat whole embryo culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Mats F, E-mail: Mats.Nilsson@farmbio.uu.se [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University (Sweden); Sköld, Anna-Carin; Ericson, Ann-Christin; Annas, Anita; Villar, Rodrigo Palma [AstraZeneca R and D Södertälje (Sweden); Cebers, Gvido [AstraZeneca R and D, iMed, 141 Portland Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hellmold, Heike; Gustafson, Anne-Lee [AstraZeneca R and D Södertälje (Sweden); Webster, William S [Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Sydney (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect on the rat embryonic heart of two experimental drugs (AZA and AZB) which are known to block the sodium channel Nav1.5, the hERG potassium channel and the L-type calcium channel. The sodium channel blockers bupivacaine, lidocaine, and the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine were used as reference substances. The experimental model was the gestational day (GD) 13 rat embryo cultured in vitro. In this model the embryonic heart activity can be directly observed, recorded and analyzed using computer assisted image analysis as it responds to the addition of test drugs. The effect on the heart was studied for a range of concentrations and for a duration up to 3 h. The results showed that AZA and AZB caused a concentration-dependent bradycardia of the embryonic heart and at high concentrations heart block. These effects were reversible on washout. In terms of potency to cause bradycardia the compounds were ranked AZB > bupivacaine > AZA > lidocaine > nifedipine. Comparison with results from previous studies with more specific ion channel blockers suggests that the primary effect of AZA and AZB was sodium channel blockage. The study shows that the short-term rat whole embryo culture (WEC) is a suitable system to detect substances hazardous to the embryonic heart. - Highlights: • Study of the effect of sodium channel blocking drugs on embryonic heart function • We used a modified method rat whole embryo culture with image analysis. • The drugs tested caused a concentration dependent bradycardia and heart block. • The effect of drugs acting on multiple ion channels is difficult to predict. • This method may be used to detect cardiotoxicity in prenatal development.

  9. Short-term ecological effects of an offshore wind farm in the Dutch coastal zone; a compilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindeboom, H J; Brasseur, S; Leopold, M; Scheidat, M [IMARES, PO Box 167, 1790 AD Den Burg (Netherlands); Kouwenhoven, H J [NoordzeeWind, 2e Havenstraat 5b, 1976 CE IJmuiden (Netherlands); Bergman, M J N; Daan, R [Royal NIOZ, PO Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg (Netherlands); Bouma, S; Fijn, R C; Dirksen, S; Krijgsveld, K L [Bureau Waardenburg, PO Box 365, 4100 AJ Culemborg (Netherlands); De Haan, D; Van Hal, R; Hille Ris Lambers, R; Ter Hofstede, R, E-mail: han.lindeboom@wur.nl [IMARES, PO Box 68, 1970 AB IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2011-07-15

    The number of offshore wind farms is increasing rapidly, leading to questions about the environmental impact of such farms. In the Netherlands, an extensive monitoring programme is being executed at the first offshore wind farm (Offshore Windfarm Egmond aan Zee, OWEZ). This letter compiles the short-term (two years) results on a large number of faunal groups obtained so far. Impacts were expected from the new hard substratum, the moving rotor blades, possible underwater noise and the exclusion of fisheries. The results indicate no short-term effects on the benthos in the sandy area between the generators, while the new hard substratum of the monopiles and the scouring protection led to the establishment of new species and new fauna communities. Bivalve recruitment was not impacted by the OWEZ wind farm. Species composition of recruits in OWEZ and the surrounding reference areas is correlated with mud content of the sediment and water depth irrespective the presence of OWEZ. Recruit abundances in OWEZ were correlated with mud content, most likely to be attributed not to the presence of the farm but to the absence of fisheries. The fish community was highly dynamic both in time and space. So far, only minor effects upon fish assemblages especially near the monopiles have been observed. Some fish species, such as cod, seem to find shelter inside the farm. More porpoise clicks were recorded inside the farm than in the reference areas outside the farm. Several bird species seem to avoid the park while others are indifferent or are even attracted. The effects of the wind farm on a highly variable ecosystem are described. Overall, the OWEZ wind farm acts as a new type of habitat with a higher biodiversity of benthic organisms, a possibly increased use of the area by the benthos, fish, marine mammals and some bird species and a decreased use by several other bird species.

  10. Short-term ecological effects of an offshore wind farm in the Dutch coastal zone; a compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, H. J.; Kouwenhoven, H. J.; Bergman, M. J. N.; Bouma, S.; Brasseur, S.; Daan, R.; Fijn, R. C.; de Haan, D.; Dirksen, S.; van Hal, R.; Hille Ris Lambers, R.; ter Hofstede, R.; Krijgsveld, K. L.; Leopold, M.; Scheidat, M.

    2011-07-01

    The number of offshore wind farms is increasing rapidly, leading to questions about the environmental impact of such farms. In the Netherlands, an extensive monitoring programme is being executed at the first offshore wind farm (Offshore Windfarm Egmond aan Zee, OWEZ). This letter compiles the short-term (two years) results on a large number of faunal groups obtained so far. Impacts were expected from the new hard substratum, the moving rotor blades, possible underwater noise and the exclusion of fisheries. The results indicate no short-term effects on the benthos in the sandy area between the generators, while the new hard substratum of the monopiles and the scouring protection led to the establishment of new species and new fauna communities. Bivalve recruitment was not impacted by the OWEZ wind farm. Species composition of recruits in OWEZ and the surrounding reference areas is correlated with mud content of the sediment and water depth irrespective the presence of OWEZ. Recruit abundances in OWEZ were correlated with mud content, most likely to be attributed not to the presence of the farm but to the absence of fisheries. The fish community was highly dynamic both in time and space. So far, only minor effects upon fish assemblages especially near the monopiles have been observed. Some fish species, such as cod, seem to find shelter inside the farm. More porpoise clicks were recorded inside the farm than in the reference areas outside the farm. Several bird species seem to avoid the park while others are indifferent or are even attracted. The effects of the wind farm on a highly variable ecosystem are described. Overall, the OWEZ wind farm acts as a new type of habitat with a higher biodiversity of benthic organisms, a possibly increased use of the area by the benthos, fish, marine mammals and some bird species and a decreased use by several other bird species.

  11. Short-term ecological effects of an offshore wind farm in the Dutch coastal zone. A compilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindeboom, H.J.; Brasseur, S.; Leopold, M.; Scheidat, M. [IMARES, PO Box 167, 1790 AD Den Burg (Netherlands); Kouwenhoven, H.J. [NoordzeeWind, 2e Havenstraat 5b, 1976 CE IJmuiden (Netherlands); Bergman, M.J.N.; Daan, R. [Royal NIOZ, PO Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg (Netherlands); Bouma, S.; Fijn, R.C.; Dirksen, S.; Krijgsveld, K.L. [Bureau Waardenburg, PO Box 365, 4100 AJ Culemborg (Netherlands); De Haan, D.; Van Hal, R.; Hille Ris Lambers, R.; Ter Hofstede, R. [IMARES, PO Box 68, 1970 AB IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2011-07-15

    The number of offshore wind farms is increasing rapidly, leading to questions about the environmental impact of such farms. In the Netherlands, an extensive monitoring programme is being executed at the first offshore wind farm (Offshore Windfarm Egmond aan Zee, OWEZ). This letter compiles the short-term (two years) results on a large number of faunal groups obtained so far. Impacts were expected from the new hard substratum, the moving rotor blades, possible underwater noise and the exclusion of fisheries. The results indicate no short-term effects on the benthos in the sandy area between the generators, while the new hard substratum of the monopiles and the scouring protection led to the establishment of new species and new fauna communities. Bivalve recruitment was not impacted by the OWEZ wind farm. Species composition of recruits in OWEZ and the surrounding reference areas is correlated with mud content of the sediment and water depth irrespective the presence of OWEZ. Recruit abundances in OWEZ were correlated with mud content, most likely to be attributed not to the presence of the farm but to the absence of fisheries. The fish community was highly dynamic both in time and space. So far, only minor effects upon fish assemblages especially near the monopiles have been observed. Some fish species, such as cod, seem to find shelter inside the farm. More porpoise clicks were recorded inside the farm than in the reference areas outside the farm. Several bird species seem to avoid the park while others are indifferent or are even attracted. The effects of the wind farm on a highly variable ecosystem are described. Overall, the OWEZ wind farm acts as a new type of habitat with a higher biodiversity of benthic organisms, a possibly increased use of the area by the benthos, fish, marine mammals and some bird species and a decreased use by several other bird species.

  12. Dopaminergic modulation of short-term synaptic plasticity in fast-spiking interneurons of primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Burgos, G; Kroener, S; Seamans, J K; Lewis, D A; Barrionuevo, G

    2005-12-01

    Dopaminergic regulation of primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity is essential for cognitive functions such as working memory. However, the cellular mechanisms of dopamine neuromodulation in PFC are not well understood. We have studied the effects of dopamine receptor activation during persistent stimulation of excitatory inputs onto fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons in monkey PFC. Stimulation at 20 Hz induced short-term excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) depression. The D1 receptor agonist SKF81297 (5 microM) significantly reduced the amplitude of the first EPSP but not of subsequent responses in EPSP trains, which still displayed significant depression. Dopamine (DA; 10 microM) effects were similar to those of SKF81297 and were abolished by the D1 antagonist SCH23390 (5 microM), indicating a D1 receptor-mediated effect. DA did not alter miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, suggesting that its effects were activity dependent and presynaptic action potential dependent. In contrast to previous findings in pyramidal neurons, in fast-spiking cells, contribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors to EPSPs at subthreshold potentials was not significant and fast-spiking cell depolarization decreased EPSP duration. In addition, DA had no significant effects on temporal summation. The selective decrease in the amplitude of the first EPSP in trains delivered every 10 s suggests that in fast-spiking neurons, DA reduces the amplitude of EPSPs evoked at low frequency but not of EPSPs evoked by repetitive stimulation. DA may therefore improve detection of EPSP bursts above background synaptic activity. EPSP bursts displaying short-term depression may transmit spike-timing-dependent temporal codes contained in presynaptic spike trains. Thus DA neuromodulation may increase the signal-to-noise ratio at fast-spiking cell inputs.

  13. Short-term and continuing stresses differentially interplay with multiple hormones to regulate plant survival and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cangjing; Liu, Jingjing; Dong, Xinran; Cai, Zhenying; Tian, Weidong; Wang, Xuelu

    2014-05-01

    The stress phytohormone, abscisic acid (ABA), plays important roles in facilitating plants to survive and grow well under a wide range of stress conditions. Previous gene expression studies mainly focused on plant responses to short-term ABA treatment, but the effect of sustained ABA treatment and their difference are poorly studied. Here, we treated plants with ABA for 1 h or 9 d, and our genome-wide analysis indicated the differentially regulated genes under the two conditions were tremendously different. We analyzed other hormones' signaling changes by using their whole sets of known responsive genes as reporters and integrating feedback regulation of their biosynthesis. We found that, under short-term ABA treatment, signaling outputs of growth-promoting hormones, brassinosteroids and gibberellins, and a biotic stress-responsive hormone, jasmonic acid, were significantly inhibited, while auxin and ethylene signaling outputs were promoted. However, sustained ABA treatment repressed cytokinin and gibberellin signaling, but stimulated auxin signaling. Using several sets of hormone-related mutants, we found candidates in corresponding hormonal signaling pathways, including receptors or transcription regulators, are essential in responding to ABA. Our findings indicate interactions of ABA-dependent stress signals with hormones at different levels are involved in plants to survive under transient stress and to adapt to continuing stressful environments.

  14. Earthquake catalogs for the 2017 Central and Eastern U.S. short-term seismic hazard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles S.

    2017-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) makes long-term seismic hazard forecasts that are used in building codes. The hazard models usually consider only natural seismicity; non-tectonic (man-made) earthquakes are excluded because they are transitory or too small. In the past decade, however, thousands of earthquakes related to underground fluid injection have occurred in the central and eastern U.S. (CEUS), and some have caused damage.  In response, the USGS is now also making short-term forecasts that account for the hazard from these induced earthquakes. Seismicity statistics are analyzed to develop recurrence models, accounting for catalog completeness. In the USGS hazard modeling methodology, earthquakes are counted on a map grid, recurrence models are applied to estimate the rates of future earthquakes in each grid cell, and these rates are combined with maximum-magnitude models and ground-motion models to compute the hazard The USGS published a forecast for the years 2016 and 2017.Here, we document the development of the seismicity catalogs for the 2017 CEUS short-term hazard model.  A uniform earthquake catalog is assembled by combining and winnowing pre-existing source catalogs. The initial, final, and supporting earthquake catalogs are made available here.

  15. Botulinum toxin type A in simple motor tics: short-term and long-term treatment-effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Judith J G; Tavy, Dénes L J; Wertenbroek, Agnes A A C M; van Woerkom, Theodoor C A M; de Bruijn, Sebastiaan F T M

    2010-08-01

    To determine the short-term and long-term treatment-effects of botulinum toxin type A in simple motor tics, we analyzed 15 consecutive patients (18 tics) with simple motor tics that were treated every 3 months with injections of BTX-A. Efficacy (rated on a 4-level scale) and duration of effect of the first 2 and last 2 (if treated 5 times or more) treatments were recorded, as well as latency of response, changes of premonitory urges (PMUs) and possible side effects. Total number of treatments for each tic varied from 2 to 50 (mean 11, median 6). In 16 of 18 tics (89%) short-term efficacy was reported successful (good or moderate). Long-term efficacy was reported in 12 tics of which 11 showed similar or even increased beneficial effects. Premonitory urge (PMU) was reported in 8 patients (53%). PMU, if present, lessened or disappeared after treatment with BTX-A. A permanent remission of the treated tic was seen in 3 patients with a maximum follow-up of 10 years. BTX-A appears a safe and effective treatment for simple motor tics and retains its efficacy after long-term treatment. BTX may also induce permanent remission of the treated tics and effects of BTX are not restricted to merely motor behaviour.

  16. Short-Term Relationship between Hip Fracture and Weather Conditions in Two Spanish Health Areas with Different Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Tenías

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate differences in the short-term relationship between weather conditions and the incidence of hip fracture in people aged 65 and over among two regions of Spain. Methods. Hip fracture incidence was calculated for the years 2000–2008 for residents of Health Area 14 in Valencian Community (Mediterranean climate and the “Mancha Centro” Health Area in Castilla-La Mancha (inland climate, Spain. The relationship between hip fracture incidence and weather was analyzed with a case-crossover design and explored in subgroups defined by sex, age, and fracture type. Results. In the inland area, a positive and significant tendency for hip fracture incidence was observed (annual increase: 1.5% whereas in the Mediterranean area a seasonal increase of 9% was noted in autumn and winter with respect to spring. Weather conditions, especially wind, were significantly associated with hip fracture incidence: days with more frequent windy periods and/or a greater wind velocity were associated with an increase in hip fracture incidence of 51% in the Mediterranean area and 44% in the inland area. Conclusions. Hip fracture incidence exhibits seasonal changes that differ between the Mediterranean and inland areas. The short-term relationship with climate, although similar in both areas, may partly explain these seasonal changes.

  17. Short-term curative effect of endovascular stent-graft treatment for aortic diseases in China: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwen Wang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We analyzed the short-term efficacy of endovascular treatment for aortic diseases by summarizing all available published data on endovascular stent-graft treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA, thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA, type A aortic dissection (type A AD and type B aortic dissection (type B AD in China. METHODS: We performed a systematic analysis of 935 published series on retrograde endovascular treatment for aortic diseases in China from January 1996 to November 2010. Based on the inclusion criteria, 159 studies, involving a total of 5531 patients, were included. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in procedural success among the studies (P>0.05. The rates of overall neurologic complications and stroke were significantly different in all two-group comparisons (P0.05. A significant difference was noted between the 30-day mortality rate of the type A AD patients and the AAA or type B AD patients (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Endovascular stent-graft is a feasible and safe treatment for aortic diseases, with high procedural success and low incidences of post-procedural complications and short-term mortality. Endovascular treatment for AAA and type B AD is more efficient than for type A AD and TAA.

  18. Short-term d13C changes in cultivated soils from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounejeva, E.; Etchevers, J.; Morales Puente, P.; Cienfuegos Alvarado, E.; Sedov, S.; Solleiro, E.; Hidalgo, C.

    2007-05-01

    The soils of the Mexican Volcanic Belt are part of ecosystems subjected to strong human impact during the last six centuries. One measurable characteristic of the soil is the stable carbon isotopic relation of the soil organic matter (SOM) or d13C. The d13C SOM parameter is a genetic characteristic of soil reflecting the relative proportion of C3 and C4 that comes from colonizing plants having different photosynthetic C pathway and is used as a high-spatial resolution tool to infer paleoenvironmental changes.The d13C mean signatures of C3 and C4 plants are -27 and -13 %o, respectively. This work focuses on short-term changes in d13C on soils subjected to controlled agricultural practices during 2002-2005 in two sites of Mexico with similar annual precipitation and temperature. The tepetate was broken up 20y ago and ameliorated with fertilizers and organic matter. In both sites three experimental treatments consisting of traditional soil management and two variations of this one were evaluated. Traditional treatment implies low fertilizer and any chemical input, sowing annual crops during the rainy season and, in general, using low energy input. The crops planted were: legumes C3, oat C3, and a mixture of maizeC4 and beanC3, and wheatC3. The Improved and Organic treatments, had higher input of N and P as chemical fertilizers, and of organic manure (manure or compost), respectively. Soil samples were collected from the plow layer in Tlaxcala and in Michoacán, before C4 maize was planted. An Andisol from a pine-oak (C3 species) forest close to the Atecuaro site was also sampled up to 40 cm. This soil was considered a reference site not recently influenced by human activity. To analyze the d13C ratios of the SOM carbonate free samples, a routine combustion method and mass spectrometry (Finnigan MAT250) were used. In both agricultural sites a general excess of C3 species over C4 was evidenced through a mass balance equation derived from experimental d13C values

  19. Short-term photoacclimation effects on photoinhibition of phytoplankton in the Drake Passage (Southern Ocean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderkamp, Anne-Carlijn; Garcon, Veronique; de Baar, Hein J. W.; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed whether short-term photoacclimation responses of natural phytoplankton populations in the Drake Passage (Southern Ocean) were affecting protection from photodamage as cells are mixed up to the surface from depth. To this end, we measured phytoplankton fluorescence characteristics and the

  20. Short-term tests of estrogenic potential of plant stanols and plant stanol esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnbull, D.; Frankos, V.H.; Leeman, W.R.; Jonker, D.

    1999-01-01

    To test for potential estrogenic activity of plant stanols and plant stanol esters, two short-term tests were performed. These were the E-screen test, which measures a substance's ability to induce proliferation of estrogen-responsive human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells in culture, and an in v

  1. Toxicity of selected plant volatiles in microbial and mammalian short-term assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stammati, A.; Bonsi, P.; Zucco, F.; Moezelaar, R.; Alakomi, H.L.; von Wright, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, several short-term microbial and mammalian in vitro assays were used to evaluate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of four plant volatiles showing antifungal activity: cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol and S(+)-carvone. All inhibited viability and proliferation of Hep-2 cells in a dose-de

  2. Analysts forecast error : A robust prediction model and its short term trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudt, Kris; de Goeij, Peter; Thewissen, James; Van Campenhout, Geert

    2015-01-01

    We examine the profitability of implementing a short term trading strategy based on predicting the error in analysts' earnings per share forecasts using publicly available information. Since large earnings surprises may lead to extreme values in the forecast error series that disrupt their smooth au

  3. Short-term outcomes of the prospective multicentre 'Prostate Cancer Research International : Active Surveillance' study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Roderick C. N.; Vasarainen, Hanna; van der Poel, Henk G.; Vis-Maters, Jenneke J.; Rietbergen, John B.; Pickles, Tom; Cornel, Erik B.; Valdagni, Riccardo; Jaspars, Joris J.; van der Hoeven, John; Staerman, Frederic; Oomens, Eric H. G. M.; Rannikko, Antti; Roemeling, Stijn; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Roobol, Monique J.; Schroder, Fritz H.; Bangma, Chris H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the short-term outcomes of the prospective international Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance ('PRIAS') study (Dutch Trial Register NTR1718), as active surveillance (AS) for early prostate cancer might provide a partial solution to the current overtreatme

  4. Postscript: More Problems with Botvinick and Plaut's (2006) PDP Model of Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Damian, Markus F.; Davis, Colin J.

    2009-01-01

    Presents a postscript to the current authors' comment on the original article, "Short-term memory for serial order: A recurrent neural network model," by M. M. Botvinick and D. C. Plaut. In their commentary, the current authors demonstrated that Botvinick and Plaut's (2006) model of immediate serial recall catastrophically fails when familiar…

  5. Short-Term Memory for Serial Order: A Recurrent Neural Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvinick, Matthew M.; Plaut, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite a century of research, the mechanisms underlying short-term or working memory for serial order remain uncertain. Recent theoretical models have converged on a particular account, based on transient associations between independent item and context representations. In the present article, the authors present an alternative model, according…

  6. Metabolic Syndrome and Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaw-Wen; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Wei-Liang; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Fang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Heart rate variability (HRV) represents autonomic functioning, and reduced HRV significantly increases cardiovascular mortality. The aims of the present paper are to assess the prevalence of MetS in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), the difference in short-term HRV…

  7. Short-term effects of recombinant human growth hormone and feeding on gluconeogenesis in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    After a short-term fast, lactating women have increased rates of glucose production but not gluconeogenesis (GNG) despite relative hypoinsulinemia. We explored the effects of non-insulin-dependent increase in glucose utilization and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on glucose production, glyc...

  8. Short-term isolation increases social interactions of male rats: A parametric analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesink, R.J.M.; Ree, J.M. van

    1982-01-01

    Frequencies of social interactions were higher in pairs of short-term individually housed male Wistar rats as compared to group-housed animals. This was most pronounced when an individually housed rat and a group-housed conspecific were tested together in the morning under red light conditions. Then

  9. Visual Short-Term Memory: Is Capacity Dependent on Complexity or Familiarity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Granlund, Rabia Line; Wiechmann, Maria;

    Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 objects has been found, confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez and Cavanag...

  10. Short-term Storage Capacity for Visual Objects depends on Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) has traditionally been thought to have a very limited capacity of around 3–4 objects. However, recently several researchers have argued that VSTM may be limited in the amount of information retained rather than by a specific number of objects. Here we present a study...

  11. The Ineluctable Modality of the Audible: Perceptual Determinants of Auditory Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, David W.; Macken, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Classical cognitive accounts of verbal short-term memory (STM) invoke an abstract, phonological level of representation which, although it may be derived differently via different modalities, is itself amodal. Key evidence for this view is that serial recall of phonologically similar verbal items (e.g., the letter sounds "b", "c", "g", and "d") is…

  12. Short term memory and working memory in blind versus sighted children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, A.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Vervloed, M.P.J.; Knoors, H.; Verhoeven, L.

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that blind people may strengthen their memory skills to compensate for absence of vision. However, which aspects of memory are involved is open to debate and a developmental perspective is generally lacking. In the present study, we compared the short term memory (STM) and working

  13. Business Students' Choice of Short-Term or Long-Term Study Abroad Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Stacey R.; Flanagan, David J.; Wang, Xiaodan

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a proliferation of short-term study abroad opportunities. Although they are both supplementing and replacing semester-long study abroad programs, research has focused primarily on semester (long-term) programs. We draw on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explore factors that predict why students choose long-term and…

  14. Short-term outcomes of a back school program for chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodselmans, AP; Jaegers, SM; Goeken, LN; Göeken, L.N.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the short-term outcome of a back school program for patients suffering from chronic, nonspecific low back pain (LBP). Design: Quasi-experimental cohort study with a waiting list control group. Setting: Dutch rehabilitation department. Participants: Experimental group (n = 14) pa

  15. The Cultural Adaptation Process during a Short-Term Study Abroad Experience in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Nathan W.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2015-01-01

    Globalization continuously shapes our world and influences post-secondary education. This study explored the cultural adaptation process of participants during a short-term study abroad program. Participants experienced stages which included initial feelings, cultural uncertainty, cultural barriers, cultural negativity, academic and career growth,…

  16. Short-term solar irradiance and irradiation forecasts via different time series techniques: A preliminary study

    CERN Document Server

    Join, Cédric; Fliess, Michel; Muselli, Marc; Nivet, Marie Laure; Paoli, Christophe; Chaxel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    This communication is devoted to solar irradiance and irradiation short-term forecasts, which are useful for electricity production. Several different time series approaches are employed. Our results and the corresponding numerical simulations show that techniques which do not need a large amount of historical data behave better than those which need them, especially when those data are quite noisy.

  17. Antenatal corticosteroid therapy : short-term effects on fetal behaviour and haemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, E. J. H.; de Heus, R.; Visser, G. H. A.

    2009-01-01

    Antenatal corticosteroid therapy to enhance fetal lung maturity in threatened preterm delivery has a number of non-pulmonary side-effects, both beneficial and undesirable. This review focuses on the short-term (transient) effects of betamethasone and dexamethasone on aspects of fetal circulation and

  18. Experimentation Using Short-Term Spectral Features for Secure Mobile Internet Voting Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a secure mobile Internet voting architecture based on the Sensus reference architecture and report the experiments carried out using short-term spectral features for realizing the voice biometric based authentication module of the architecture being proposed. The short-term spectral features investigated are Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs, Mel-Frequency Discrete Wavelet Coefficients (MFDWC, Linear Predictive Cepstral Coefficients (LPCC, and Spectral Histogram of Oriented Gradients (SHOGs. The MFCC, MFDWC, and LPCC usually have higher dimensions that oftentimes lead to high computational complexity of the pattern matching algorithms in automatic speaker recognition systems. In this study, higher dimensions of each of the short-term features were reduced to an 81-element feature vector per Speaker using Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG algorithm while neural network ensemble was utilized as the pattern matching algorithm. Out of the four short-term spectral features investigated, the LPCC-HOG gave the best statistical results with R statistic of 0.9127 and mean square error of 0.0407. These compact LPCC-HOG features are highly promising for implementing the authentication module of the secure mobile Internet voting architecture we are proposing in this paper.

  19. Splitting Attention across the Two Visual Fields in Visual Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvenne, Jean-Francois; Holt, Jessica L.

    2012-01-01

    Humans have the ability to attentionally select the most relevant visual information from their extrapersonal world and to retain it in a temporary buffer, known as visual short-term memory (VSTM). Research suggests that at least two non-contiguous items can be selected simultaneously when they are distributed across the two visual hemifields. In…

  20. Short-Term Practice Effects and Brain Hypometabolism: Preliminary Data from an FDG PET Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Kevin; Horn, Kevin P.; Foster, Norman L.; Hoffman, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Practice effects are improvements in cognitive test scores due to repeated exposure to the same tests. Typically viewed as error, short-term practice effects have been shown to provide valuable clinical information about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment outcomes in older patients with mild cognitive impairments. This study examined short-term practice effects across one week and brain hypometabolism on fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 25 older adults (15 intact, 10 Mild Cognitive Impairment). Averaged cerebral brain metabolism on FDG PET was correlated with multiple cognitive scores at baseline in those with Mild Cognitive Impairment, and short-term practice effects accounted for additional variance in these same subjects. The relationship between brain metabolism and cognition (either at baseline or practice effects) was minimal in the intact individuals. Although needing replication in larger samples, short-term practice effects on tests of executive functioning and memory may provide valuable information about biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25908614

  1. The Impact of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs on L2 Listening Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, Jorge H.; Chieffo, Lisa; Fan, Chunbo

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of a five-week intermediate Spanish course on the listening comprehension ability of 48 participants in short-term study abroad programs, and compares these groups with 92 peers enrolled in a similar course on the home campus. While both on-campus and study abroad groups experienced similar gains in listening…

  2. Short-term toxicity studies with triphenyltin compounds in rats and guinea-pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, H.G.; Kroes, R.; Vink, H.H.; Esch, G.J. van

    1966-01-01

    Short-term toxicity studies have been carried out in rats and guinea-pigs fed diets containing triphenyltin acetate (TPTA), triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH) or triethyltin hydroxide (TETH) for 90 days at levels ranging from 0 to 50 ppm. The lowest dietary levels found to retard growth in rats and guin

  3. Verbal Short-Term Memory Performance in Pupils with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhameed, Hala; Porter, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that verbal short-term memory span is shorter in individuals with Down syndrome than in typically developing individuals of equivalent mental age, but little attention has been given to variations within or across groups. Differences in the environment and in particular educational experiences may play a part in the relative…

  4. Areas of Left Perisylvian Cortex Mediate Auditory-Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigs, Michael; Acheson, Daniel J.; Barbey, Aron K.; Solomon, Jeffrey; Postle, Bradley R.; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    A contentious issue in memory research is whether verbal short-term memory (STM) depends on a neural system specifically dedicated to the temporary maintenance of information, or instead relies on the same brain areas subserving the comprehension and production of language. In this study, we examined a large sample of adults with acquired brain…

  5. Short-term synaptic depression and stochastic vesicle dynamics reduce and shape neuronal correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Robert; Rubin, Jonathan E; Doiron, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Correlated neuronal activity is an important feature in many neural codes, a neural correlate of a variety of cognitive states, as well as a signature of several disease states in the nervous system. The cellular and circuit mechanics of neural correlations is a vibrant area of research. Synapses throughout the cortex exhibit a form of short-term depression where increased presynaptic firing rates deplete neurotransmitter vesicles, which transiently reduces synaptic efficacy. The release and recovery of these vesicles are inherently stochastic, and this stochasticity introduces variability into the conductance elicited by depressing synapses. The impact of spiking and subthreshold membrane dynamics on the transfer of neuronal correlations has been studied intensively, but an investigation of the impact of short-term synaptic depression and stochastic vesicle dynamics on correlation transfer is lacking. We find that short-term synaptic depression and stochastic vesicle dynamics can substantially reduce correlations, shape the timescale over which these correlations occur, and alter the dependence of spiking correlations on firing rate. Our results show that short-term depression and stochastic vesicle dynamics need to be taken into account when modeling correlations in neuronal populations.

  6. Japanese encephalitis in a Danish short-term traveler to Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlinrud, Anne M; Christiansen, Claus B; Koch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We present a recent case of Japanese encephalitis in a Danish male traveler to Cambodia, who we believe is the second Danish case within the last 15 years. Although both this and a number of other travel-related cases occurred in short-term travelers, change in vaccination recommendations...

  7. Congenital Amusia: A Short-Term Memory Deficit for Non-Verbal, but Not Verbal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Schulze, Katrin; Foxton, Jessica M.

    2009-01-01

    Congenital amusia refers to a lifelong disorder of music processing and is linked to pitch-processing deficits. The present study investigated congenital amusics' short-term memory for tones, musical timbres and words. Sequences of five events (tones, timbres or words) were presented in pairs and participants had to indicate whether the sequences…

  8. Short-Term Psychological Effects of Interactive Video Game Technology Exercise on Mood and Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, William D.; Newton, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Recent interest in interactive video game technology (IVGT) has spurred the notion that exercise from this technology may have meaningful physiological and psychological benefits for children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term psychological effects of interactive video game exercise in young adults and whether…

  9. Short Term Intervention Model for Enhancing Divergent Thinking among School Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Creative ability can be developed and improved through intervention and training. This study presents a unique and innovative intervention program for enhancing creative thinking among children, focusing on divergent thinking skills. The program was designed as a short-term (10 weeks) training and conducted with 150 school students ranging in age…

  10. Short-Term Memory for Order but Not for Item Information Is Impaired in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmann, Wibke M.; Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; Woumans, Evy; Duyck, Wouter; Job, Remo

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that people with dyslexia experience difficulties with the learning of serial order information during the transition from short-to long-term memory (Szmalec et al. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition" 37(5): 1270-1279, 2011). At the same time, models of short-term memory…

  11. Prosodic Similarity Effects in Short-Term Memory in Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Usha; Barnes, Lisa; Mead, Natasha; Power, Alan James; Leong, Victoria

    2016-11-01

    Children with developmental dyslexia are characterized by phonological difficulties across languages. Classically, this 'phonological deficit' in dyslexia has been investigated with tasks using single-syllable words. Recently, however, several studies have demonstrated difficulties in prosodic awareness in dyslexia. Potential prosodic effects in short-term memory have not yet been investigated. Here we create a new instrument based on three-syllable words that vary in stress patterns, to investigate whether prosodic similarity (the same prosodic pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables) exerts systematic effects on short-term memory. We study participants with dyslexia and age-matched and younger reading-level-matched typically developing controls. We find that all participants, including dyslexic participants, show prosodic similarity effects in short-term memory. All participants exhibited better retention of words that differed in prosodic structure, although participants with dyslexia recalled fewer words accurately overall compared to age-matched controls. Individual differences in prosodic memory were predicted by earlier vocabulary abilities, by earlier sensitivity to syllable stress and by earlier phonological awareness. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of prosodic similarity effects in short-term memory. The implications of a prosodic similarity effect for theories of lexical representation and of dyslexia are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Gender Inequality in Biology Classes in China and Its Effects on Students' Short-Term Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated gender inequality in biology lessons and analysed the effects of the observed inequality on students' short-term knowledge achievement, situational interest and students' evaluation of teaching (SET). Twenty-two biology teachers and 803 7th-grade students from rural and urban classrooms in China participated in the study.…

  13. Short-term antioxidative responses of 15 microalgae exposed to excessive irradiance including ultraviolet radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janknegt, Paul J.; De Graaff, C. Marco; Van De Poll, Willem H.; Visser, Ronald J. W.; Rijstenbil, Jan W.; Buma, Anita G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Short-term photosensitivity and oxidative stress responses were compared for three groups of marine microalgae: Antarctic microalgae, temperate diatoms and temperate flagellates. In total, 15 low-light-acclimated species were exposed to simulated surface irradiance including ultraviolet radiation (S

  14. Impact of Auditory Selective Attention on Verbal Short-Term Memory and Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Heiligenstein, Lucie; Gautherot, Nathalie; Poncelet, Martine; Van der Linden, Martial

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the role of auditory selective attention capacities as a possible mediator of the well-established association between verbal short-term memory (STM) and vocabulary development. A total of 47 6- and 7-year-olds were administered verbal immediate serial recall and auditory attention tasks. Both task types probed processing…

  15. Order Short-Term Memory Capacity Predicts Nonword Reading and Spelling in First and Second Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binamé, Florence; Poncelet, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories of short-term memory (STM) distinguish between item information, which reflects the temporary activation of long-term representations stored in the language system, and serial-order information, which is encoded in a specific representational system that is independent of the language network. Some studies examining the…

  16. Short-term effects of carbon monoxide on mortality : An analysis within the APHEA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samoli, Evangelia; Touloumi, Giota; Schwartz, Joel; Anderson, Hugh Ross; Schindler, Christian; Forsberg, Bertil; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Vonk, Judith; Kosnik, Mitja; Skorkovsky, Jiri; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the short-term effects of carbon monoxide on total and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cities participating in the APHEA-2 (Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach) project. METHODS: We examined the association using hierarchical models implemented in two st

  17. Binding among Select Episodic Elements Is Altered via Active Short-Term Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Donna J.; Voss, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    Of the many elements that comprise an episode, are any disproportionately bound to the others? We tested whether active short-term retrieval selectively increases binding. Individual objects from multiobject displays were retrieved after brief delays. Memory was later tested for the other objects. Cueing with actively retrieved objects facilitated…

  18. Language and Short-Term Memory: The Role of Perceptual-Motor Affordance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, Bill; Taylor, John C.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2014-01-01

    The advantage for real words over nonwords in serial recall--the "lexicality effect"--is typically attributed to support for item-level phonology, either via redintegration, whereby partially degraded short-term traces are "cleaned up" via support from long-term representations of the phonological material or via the more…

  19. Cognitive Backward Masking: A Window Into the Formation of a Short-Term Memory Trace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenstein, Mark; Wyble, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Working memory consolidation denotes the process that enables sensory information to be stored in short-term memory. What is currently unclear is how long this process takes and whether it continues after a stimulus has been masked. Here, we address these matters by examining whether the consolidati

  20. Recent onmiddellijk geheugenonderzoek bij zwakzinnigen [Investigation of short term memory in mentally retarded subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this literature review is to get a preliminary answer to the problem of the type of information processing deficit of undifferentiated retardates (with an IQ of about 70). Taking the topic of verbal short-term memory as a framework, it appears that children or adults of a subnormal intell

  1. Do Children with Phonological Delay Have Phonological Short-Term and Phonological Working Memory Deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Rebecca; Eadie, Patricia; Liow, Susan Rickard; Dodd, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    While little is known about why children make speech errors, it has been hypothesized that cognitive-linguistic factors may underlie phonological speech sound disorders. This study compared the phonological short-term and phonological working memory abilities (using immediate memory tasks) and receptive vocabulary size of 14 monolingual preschool…

  2. The Impact of Pointing on the Short-Term Memory (STM) of Heterophonic Homographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered; Miller, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study entailed two short-term memory (STM) experiments investigating the importance of vowel diacritics for the temporary retention of three distinct Hebrew word list types: heterophonic homographs, non-homographs and homophonic homographs. Eighty university students participated in each experiment, with half of them tested with word lists…

  3. Relations among Acute and Chronic Nicotine Administration, Short-Term Memory, and Tactics of Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that nicotine may enhance short-term memory. Some of this evidence comes from nonhuman primate research using a procedure called delayed matching-to-sample, wherein the monkey is trained to select a comparison stimulus that matches some physical property of a previously presented sample stimulus. Delays between sample…

  4. Predicting Changes in Cultural Sensitivity among Students of Spanish during Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Short-term study abroad programs of less than a semester are becoming increasingly popular among undergraduate students in the United States. However, little research has examined the changes in students' cultural sensitivity through their participation in such programs or what factors may predict growth and improvement in such areas. This study…

  5. Monkeys Rely on Recency of Stimulus Repetition When Solving Short-Term Memory Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, John H., Jr.; Richmond, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Seven monkeys performed variants of two short-term memory tasks that others have used to differentiate between selective and nonselective memory mechanisms. The first task was to view a list of sequentially presented images and identify whether a test matched any image from the list, but not a distractor from a preceding list. Performance was best…

  6. Metabolic Responses of Chick Embryos to Short-Term Temperature Fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, A.; Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study embryonic metabolic responses to short-term temperature fluctuations in order to explore the possibilities of using embryonic metabolic responses as a tool to control the incubation process. In the first experiment, eggshell temperature (ET) in the control g

  7. Delft Cluster Railway transition zones & Switches: Factual report short-term measurement 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hölscher, P.; Hartman, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    For the Delft Cluster 'Railway transition zones and switches' project, extensive measurements are made. The measurements are divided into three types. The short-term measurement of may 2009 is the subject of this report. The long-term and soil investigation measurements are described in other report

  8. A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Short-Term Sleep Deprivation on Cognitive Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Julian; Dinges, David F.

    2010-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has been conducted in an effort to understand the impact of short-term (less than 48 hr) total sleep deprivation (SD) on outcomes in various cognitive domains. Despite this wealth of information, there has been disagreement on how these data should be interpreted, arising in part because the relative magnitude of…

  9. Urine collection in the freely moving rat : Reliability for measurement of short-term renal effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, M; Kluppel, A.C A; Moolenaar, Frits; Meijer, D.K F; de Jong, P.E; de Zeeuw, D

    1997-01-01

    Studies on short-term renal responses to (pharmacological) intervention require accurate and multiple collection of urine samples. Several invasive techniques have been described for frequent urine collection of the conscious rat, each having their own limitations. No data are available about the fe

  10. Language-Learning Motivation during Short-Term Study Abroad: An Activity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Heather Willis

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the development of language-learning motivation during short-term study abroad (SA) for six intermediate-level students of French. Taking an activity theory perspective, findings demonstrated that one of two orientations motivated participants to study or continue studying French at the college level: linguistic motives or…

  11. Short-term effects of glucose and sucrose on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Rest, O. van de; Kessels, R.P.C.; Groot, C.P.G.M. de

    2014-01-01

    In this study we determined the short-term effects of a glucose drink and a sucrose drink compared to a placebo on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people with subjective, mild memory complaints using a randomized crossover study design. In total, 43 nondiabetic older adults with self-repor

  12. Effectiveness of short-term psychodynamic group therapy in a public outpatient psychotherapy unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short-term psychodynamic group therapy in heterogeneous patient groups is common in the public Danish psychiatric system but is in need of evaluation. AIM: To investigate improvement in 39-session psychodynamic group therapy using three criteria: 1) effect size (Cohen's d), 2) statist...

  13. Teaching Critical Reflexivity in Short-Term International Field Courses: Practices and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    This study critiques the use of critical reflexivity in short-term international field courses. Critical reflexivity's benefits include preparing students for professional research, deepening their learning, and giving the chance to see how student perspectives on fieldwork sites are influenced by their own identity and positionality. I use an…

  14. Creative Activity, Personality, Mental Illness, and Short-Term Mating Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Melanie L.; Kaufman, Scott Barry; Kaufman, James C.

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that creativity evolved, at least in part, through sexual selection to attract mates. Recent research lends support to this view and has also demonstrated a link between certain dimensions of schizotypy, creativity, and short-term mating. The current study delves deeper into these relationships by focusing on engagement in…

  15. Clinical picture and risk prediction of short-term mortality in cardiogenic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Lassus, Johan; Sionis, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical picture and outcome of cardiogenic shock and to develop a risk prediction score for short-term mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: The CardShock study was a multicentre, prospective, observational study conducted between 2010 and 2012. Patie...

  16. Conceptual short-term memory (CSTM) supports core claims of Christiansen and Chater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of words or pictured scenes provides evidence for a large-capacity conceptual short-term memory (CSTM) that momentarily provides rich associated material from long-term memory, permitting rapid chunking (Potter 1993; 2009; 2012). In perception of scenes as well as language comprehension, we make use of knowledge that briefly exceeds the supposed limits of working memory.

  17. Temporal Clustering and Sequencing in Short-Term Memory and Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Simon

    2012-01-01

    A model of short-term memory and episodic memory is presented, with the core assumptions that (a) people parse their continuous experience into episodic clusters and (b) items are clustered together in memory as episodes by binding information within an episode to a common temporal context. Along with the additional assumption that information…

  18. Short-Term Memory Stages in Sign vs. Speech: The Source of the Serial Span Discrepancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew L.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    Speakers generally outperform signers when asked to recall a list of unrelated verbal items. This phenomenon is well established, but its source has remained unclear. In this study, we evaluate the relative contribution of the three main processing stages of short-term memory--perception, encoding, and recall--in this effect. The present study…

  19. A Short Term Therapy Approach to Processing Trauma: Art Therapy and Bilateral Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Tally

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a dynamic, short-term art therapy approach that has been developed for the treatment of trauma related disorders. Using a modified Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) protocol with alternating tactile and auditory bilateral stimulation, associations are rapidly brought to conscious awareness and expressed in…

  20. Pearls and pitfalls in short-term mechanical circulatory assist: how to avoid and manage complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohite, Prashant N; Maunz, Olaf; Simon, Andre R

    2014-10-01

    In today's era, given the worsening risk profiles of patients undergoing cardiac surgery, the increasing number of complex cardiac surgeries, and the increasing number of patients undergoing thoracic organ transplantation, short-term mechanical circulatory assist (MCA) devices are indispensable. MCA devices are capable of supporting heart and lung function and have emerged as potentially lifesaving instruments, but may prove to be as hazardous as helpful due to their inherent tendency toward hemolysis, thromboembolism, and hemorrhage. Although MCA devices are being used regularly at some specialized centers, surgeries involving MCA are not as common as other routine cardiac surgeries, and even though professionals implanting and maintaining short-term MCAs are well acquainted with operating such devices, it is not uncommon to come across complications as a result of minor mistakes committed while dealing with them. Avoiding simple mistakes and taking proper precautions while implanting and maintaining these devices can prevent major catastrophes. We discuss commonly encountered problems and complications during the implantation and maintenance of short-term MCAs and offer reasonable and practical solutions. In addition, crucial issues such as anticoagulation, replacement of the device circuit, and management of the distal perfusion cannula are discussed. Continuous and efficient monitoring of the MCA device and the patient supported on MCA, together with anticipation and avoidance of complications, is key for successful short-term MCA support.

  1. Short-Term Duloxetine Administration Affects Neural Correlates of Mood-Congruent Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Tendolkar; G. van Wingen; M. Urner; R.J. Verkes; G. Fernandez

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown how antidepressants reverse mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor duloxetine on

  2. Short-term duloxetine administration affects neural correlates of mood-congruent memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendolkar, I.; Wingen, G.A. van; Urner, M.; Verkes, R.J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown how antidepressants reverse mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor duloxetine on

  3. Explaining Semantic Short-Term Memory Deficits: Evidence for the Critical Role of Semantic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought…

  4. Economic efficiency of short-term versus long-term water rights buyouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of the decline of the Ogallala Aquifer, water districts, regional water managers, and state water officers are becoming increasingly interested in conservation policies. This study evaluates both short-term and long-term water rights buyout policies. This research develops dynamic production...

  5. Short-term visual deprivation, tactile acuity, and haptic solid shape discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Charles E; Norman, J Farley

    2014-01-01

    Previous psychophysical studies have reported conflicting results concerning the effects of short-term visual deprivation upon tactile acuity. Some studies have found that 45 to 90 minutes of total light deprivation produce significant improvements in participants' tactile acuity as measured with a grating orientation discrimination task. In contrast, a single 2011 study found no such improvement while attempting to replicate these earlier findings. A primary goal of the current experiment was to resolve this discrepancy in the literature by evaluating the effects of a 90-minute period of total light deprivation upon tactile grating orientation discrimination. We also evaluated the potential effect of short-term deprivation upon haptic 3-D shape discrimination using a set of naturally-shaped solid objects. According to previous research, short-term deprivation enhances performance in a tactile 2-D shape discrimination task - perhaps a similar improvement also occurs for haptic 3-D shape discrimination. The results of the current investigation demonstrate that not only does short-term visual deprivation not enhance tactile acuity, it additionally has no effect upon haptic 3-D shape discrimination. While visual deprivation had no effect in our study, there was a significant effect of experience and learning for the grating orientation task - the participants' tactile acuity improved over time, independent of whether they had, or had not, experienced visual deprivation.

  6. Astroglial calcium signaling displays short-term plasticity and adjusts synaptic efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremie eSibille

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are dynamic signaling brain elements able to sense neuronal inputs and to respond by complex calcium signals, which are thought to represent their excitability. Such signaling has been proposed to modulate, or not, neuronal activities ranging from basal synaptic transmission to epileptiform discharges. However, whether calcium signaling in astrocytes exhibits activity-dependent changes and acutely modulates short-term synaptic plasticity is currently unclear. We here show, using dual recordings of astroglial calcium signals and synaptic transmission, that calcium signaling in astrocytes displays, concomitantly to excitatory synapses, short-term plasticity in response to prolonged repetitive and tetanic stimulations of Schaffer collaterals. We also found that acute inhibition of calcium signaling in astrocytes by intracellular calcium chelation rapidly potentiates excitatory synaptic transmission and short-term plasticity of Shaffer collateral CA1 synapses, i.e. paired-pulse facilitation and responses to tetanic and prolonged repetitive stimulation. These data reveal that calcium signaling of astrocytes is plastic and down-regulates basal transmission and short-term plasticity of hippocampal CA1 glutamatergic synapses.

  7. The influence of titanium dioxide additive on the short-term DC breakdown strength of polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, M. S; Henk, Peter O; Henriksen, Mogens

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the addition of 1% by weight of titanium dioxide fine particles to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) on the short-term DC breakdown strength of the LDPE was investigated using direct and reverse polarity voltages. The samples used were cylinders of both plain and doped materials...

  8. Incorporating Short Term Dynamic Psychotherapy Principles into Career Counseling: A Theoretical and Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Ofra; Wiseman, Hadas

    2002-01-01

    The Developmental Career Counseling model incorporates the following principles of Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy: life-span approach, limited time, working alliance, rapid and early assessment, central focus, active and directive counselor participation, therapeutic flexibility, and termination issues. The model enables career and personal…

  9. A fully adaptive forecasting model for short-term drinking water demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Schagen, van K.M.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    For the optimal control of a water supply system, a short-term water demand forecast is necessary. We developed a model that forecasts the water demand for the next 48 h with 15-min time steps. The model uses measured water demands and static calendar data as single input. Based on this input, the m

  10. Short-term variability of mineral dust, metals and carbon emission from road dust resuspension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amato, F.; Schaap, M.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Pandolfi, M.; Alastuey, A.; Keuken, M.; Querol, X.

    2013-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution in cities has severe impact on morbidity and mortality of their population. In these cities, road dust resuspension contributes largely to PM and airborne heavy metals concentrations. However, the short-term variation of emission through resuspension is not well des

  11. Effects of ageing on single muscle fibre contractile function following short-term immobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Ortenblad, Niels; Aagaard, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Very little attention has been given to the combined effects of healthy ageing and short-term disuse on the contractile function of human single muscle fibres. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of 2 weeks of lower limb cast immobilisation (i.e. disuse) on selected contractile...

  12. Short-Term Study Abroad: Culture and the Path of Least Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmons, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    American universities are decreasing the length of study abroad programs in an effort to send more students abroad. Recent publications find that "short-term" programs struggle to increase participants' cultural understanding. However, these research findings fail to offer an explanation as to why shorter programs are falling short. This…

  13. Navigating a Path Toward Operational, Short-term, Ensemble Based, Probablistic Streamflow Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, R. K.; Schaake, J.

    2004-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) has federal responsibility for issuing public flood warnings in the United States. Additionally, the NWS has been engaged in longer range water resources forecasts for many years, particularly in the Western U.S. In the past twenty years, longer range forecasts have increasingly incorporated ensemble techniques. Ensemble techniques are attractive because they allow a great deal of flexibility, both temporally and in content. This technique also provides for the influence of additional forcings (i.e. ENSO), through either pre or post processing techniques. More recently, attention has turned to the use of ensemble techniques in the short-term streamflow forecasting process. While considerably more difficult, the development of reliable short-term probabilistic streamflow forecasts has clear application and value for many NWS customers and partners. During flood episodes, expensive mitigation actions are initialed or withheld and critical reservoir management decisions are made in the absence of uncertainty and risk information. Limited emergency services resources and the optimal use of water resources facilities necessitates the development of a risk-based decision making process. The development of reliable short-term probabilistic streamflow forecasts are an essential ingredient in the decision making process. This paper addresses the utility of short-term ensemble streamflow forecasts and the considerations that must be addressed as techniques and operational capabilities are developed. Verification and validation information are discussed from both a scientific and customer perspective. Education and training related to the interpretation and use of ensemble products are also addressed.

  14. Separating multiple, short-term deleterious effects of saline solutions to the growth of cowpea seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reductions in plant growth due to salinity are of global importance in natural and agricultural landscapes. Short-term (48 h) solution culture experiments studied 404 treatments with seedlings of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) to examine the multiple deleterious effects of Ca, Mg...

  15. State Dependence and Trait Stability of Perfectionism: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Aldea, Mirela A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined state dependency on depression, trait stability, and state-trait characteristics of perfectionism in a short-term longitudinal study of university students. Relative stability of perfectionism was assessed with test-retest correlations across 3 time points, and results showed higher rank order and relative stability for…

  16. Study on Short-term Variability of Ship Responses in Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iseki, Toshio; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2014-01-01

    Short-term variability of ship responses is investigated from the view point of cross-spectrum analysis. In a steady state condition, it is well known that a certain length of sampled data are required for stable spectral analysis. However, the phase angle of the cross-spectra has not been discus...

  17. The Effect of Short-Term Educational Travel Programs on Environmental Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Michael; Lyons, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Short-term study abroad is the fastest growing area of international education and there is increasing interest in the role of modified applications of this form (e.g. faculty-led, field/environmental, and/or educational travel) in influencing global citizenship. Using an empirical database of over 650 students registered for a study abroad course…

  18. Dialogue Journals in Short-Term Study Abroad: "Today I Wrote My Mind"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Roswita; Tweedie, M. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Short-term study abroad programs are growing in popularity, and educators and researchers are exploring effective tools to enhance the learning and cultural experiences of students in these programs. Dialogue journals, writing journals in which students respond to instructor prompts and in turn initiate topics for further written discussion, are a…

  19. Visual short-term memory deficits in REM sleep behaviour disorder mirror those in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Zokaei, Nahid; Baig, Fahd; Giehl, Kathrin; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Mackay, Clare E; Husain, Masud; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder are at significantly higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Here we examined visual short-term memory deficits--long associated with Parkinson's disease--in patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder without Parkinson's disease using a novel task that measures recall precision. Visual short-term memory for sequentially presented coloured bars of different orientation was assessed in 21 patients with polysomnography-proven idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder, 26 cases with early Parkinson's disease and 26 healthy controls. Three tasks using the same stimuli controlled for attentional filtering ability, sensorimotor and temporal decay factors. Both patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease demonstrated a deficit in visual short-term memory, with recall precision significantly worse than in healthy controls with no deficit observed in any of the control tasks. Importantly, the pattern of memory deficit in both patient groups was specifically explained by an increase in random responses. These results demonstrate that it is possible to detect the signature of memory impairment associated with Parkinson's disease in individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high risk of developing Parkinson's disease. The pattern of visual short-term memory deficit potentially provides a cognitive marker of 'prodromal' Parkinson's disease that might be useful in tracking disease progression and for disease-modifying intervention trials.

  20. Effects of Short-Term Training of Community-Dwelling Elderly with Modular Interactive Tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Jessen, Jari Due

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to test for the increased mobility, agility, balancing, and general fitness of community-dwelling elderly individuals as a result of short-term training involving playing with modular interactive tiles (Entertainment Robotics, Odense, Denmark) at two comm...

  1. Short-Term Projects: The Standards Fund and Collaboration between Speech and Language Therapists and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jannet A.; Kersner, Myra

    2004-01-01

    As a strategy in education, short termism has been much criticised. In this article Jannet Wright and Myra Kersner consider the effects of short-term projects in relation to their own area of expertise in speech and language therapy. While they find such projects encourage creativity they also identify some serious limitations.

  2. Statistical properties of short term price trends in high frequency stock market data

    CERN Document Server

    Sieczka, P; Sieczka, Pawe{\\l}; Ho{\\l}yst, Janusz A.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated distributions of short term price trends for high frequency stock market data. A number of trends as a function of their lengths was measured. We found that such a distribution does not fit to results following from an uncorrelated stochastic process. We proposed a simple model with a memory that gives a qualitative agreement with real data.

  3. Oestrus synchronization with short-term and long-term progestagen treatments in goats: the use of GnRH prior to short-term progestagen treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cafer Tayyar Ateş

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of the synchronization of oestrus using short- and long-term progestagen treatments in Hair goats at the onset of the breeding season, and to evaluate the effect of the exogenous GnRH administration immediately prior to short-term progestagen treatment on the reproductive performance. A total of 75 Hair goats, aged 2.5-5 years-old were used in this experiment. Goats were divided equally into three groups (n=25 per group. Animals in LT-FGA (long-term progestagen treatment, ST-FGA (short-term progestagen treatment and Gn-ST-FGA (GnRH-short-term progestagen treatment groups received an intravaginal sponge (day 0 containing 30 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA for 14, 8 and 8 days, respectively, plus 75 μg cloprostenol i.m. 24 h before sponge removal and 400 I.U. equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG i.m. at the time of sponge removal. In addition, the goats in the Gn-ST-FGA group received 10.5 μg busereline acetate i.m. at the time of sponge insertion (day 0. Oestrus response for all treatment groups was 100%. The mean interval from sponge removal and the onset of oestrus for the LT-FGA, ST-FGA and Gn-ST-FGA groups was 28.0±1.0 h, 28.83±1.1 h and 33.1±2.0 h, respectively. No significant difference in onset of oestrus among groups was recorded. The pregnancy rate, kidding rate, multiple kidding rates and litter size were 72.0, 61.1, 45.5% and 1.6 in the LT-FGA, 70.8, 76.5, 69.2% and 1.8 in the ST-FGA and 58.3, 78.6, 63.6% and 1.6 in the Gn-ST-FGA groups, respectively. The pregnancy rates were similar in the LT-FGA (72.0% and ST-FGA (70.8%. However, the kidding rate, multiple kidding rates and litter size were numerically higher in the ST-FGA (76.5%, 69.2% and 1.8, respectively group than in the LT-FGA (61.1%, 45.5% and 1.6, respectively group. Although not statistically different, pregnancy rate and litter size was lower in the Gn-ST-FGA group (58.3% and 1.6, respectively compared with the ST

  4. Acupuncture Decreases Blood Pressure Related to Hypothalamus Functional Connectivity with Frontal Lobe, Cerebellum, and Insula: A Study of Instantaneous and Short-Term Acupuncture Treatment in Essential Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effects of acupuncture in decreasing blood pressure are ambiguous and underlying acupuncture in hypertension treatment has not been investigated. Our objective was to observe the change of quality of life and compare the differences in brain functional connectivity by investigating instantaneous and short-term acupuncture treatment in essential hypertension patients. A total of 30 patients were randomly divided into the LR3 group and sham acupoint group. Subjects received resting-state fMRI among preacupuncture, postinstantaneous, and short-term acupuncture treatment in two groups. Hypothalamus was selected as the seed point to analyze the changes in connectivity. We found three kinds of results: (1 There was statistical difference in systolic blood pressure in LR3 group after the short-term treatment and before acupuncture. (2 Compared with sham acupoint, acupuncture at LR3 instantaneous effects in the functional connectivity with seed points was more concentrated in the frontal lobe. (3 Compared with instantaneous effects, acupuncture LR3 short-term effects in the functional connectivity with seed points had more regions in frontal lobe, cerebellum, and insula. These brain areas constituted a neural network structure with specific functions that could explain the mechanism of therapy in hypertension patients by LR3 acupoint.

  5. Fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection for management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: short-term and long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Woo; Myung, Jae Sung; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Park, Kun Woo; Yeom, Jin S. [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Kim, Ki-Jeong; Kim, Hyun-Jib [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Seong Nam, Gyeongi-do (Korea)

    2010-07-15

    To evaluate the short-term and long-term effects of fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural steroid injection (ESI) for the management of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) and to analyze outcome predictors. All patients who underwent caudal ESI in 2006 for DLSS were included in the study. Response was based on chart documentation (aggravated, no change, slightly improved, much improved, no pain). In June 2009 telephone interviews were conducted, using formatted questions including the North American Spine Society (NASS) patient satisfaction scale. For short-term and long-term effects, age difference was evaluated by the Mann-Whitney U test, and gender, duration of symptoms, level of DLSS, spondylolisthesis, and previous operations were evaluated by Fisher's exact test. Two hundred and sixteen patients (male: female = 75:141; mean age 69.2 years; range 48{proportional_to}91 years) were included in the study. Improvements (slightly improved, much improved, no pain) were seen in 185 patients (85.6%) after an initial caudal ESI and in 189 patients (87.5%) after a series of caudal ESIs. Half of the patients (89/179, 49.8%) replied positively to the NASS patient satisfaction scale (1 or 2). There were no significant outcome predictors for either the short-term or the long-term responses. Fluoroscopically guided caudal ESI was effective for the management of DLSS (especially central canal stenosis) with excellent short-term and good long-term results, without significant outcome predictors. (orig.)

  6. THE ANALYSIS OF THE INDICATORS WHICH REFLECT THE ABILITY OF COMPANIES OF FACING SHORT TERM OBLIGATIONS AND MEDIUM AND LONG TERM MATURITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LĂPĂDUŞI MIHAELA LOREDANA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The company’s solvency and liquidity are two indicators of managing the financial stability, indicators whose management is reflected in a decisive manner on the company results. These are two basic requirements in achieving the financial stability of the company. If liquidity reflects the company's ability to meet short-term obligations, solvency reflects company's ability to meet the medium and long term maturities. One of the most important premises which determine the effective development of a company refers to the action of providing liquidity and solvency. These are the key indicators of financial stability management. Ensuring the solvency is the priority objective of a company that wants to maintain a financial autonomy and the flexibility of management resulting from the balance between revenues and cash flow payments. Liquidity represents the indicator that reflects the quality of the company's financial balance on short-term and measures the ability of the company to meet short-term obligations through rapid transformation of current assets into cash. The purpose of the research includes studying and analyzing the liquidity and solvency of the company whose scope should be reflected in achieving the optimal coefficients of the two indicators. Liquidity and solvency analysis is done by the system of rates that actually reflect those indicators that highlight whether a company has availability to meet short-term maturities or if the size of debt and financial costs allows the company to meet the medium and long term maturities.

  7. Maternal haemoglobin and short-term neonatal outcome in preterm neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Savajols

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a significant association between maternal haemoglobin measured before delivery and short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates. STUDY DESIGN: We included prospectively all live births occurring from 25 to 32+6 weeks of gestation in a tertiary care centre between January 1(st 2009 and December 31(st 2011. Outborn infants and infants presenting with lethal malformations were excluded. Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 409 infants met the inclusion criteria. For each mother-infant pair a prospective record of epidemiologic data was performed and maternal haemoglobin concentration recorded within 24 hours before delivery was retrospectively researched. Maternal haemoglobin was divided into quartiles with the second and the third one regarded as reference as they were composed of normal haemoglobin values. Short-term outcome was defined as poor in case of death during hospital stay and/or grades III/IV intraventricular haemorrhage and/or periventricular leukomalacia and/or necessity of ventriculoperitoneal shunt. RESULTS: The global rate of poor short-term neonatal outcome was 11.4% and was significantly associated with low maternal haemoglobin values. This association remained significant after adjustment for antenatal corticosteroids therapy, gestational age, parity, mechanism of preterm birth, mode of delivery and birth weight (aOR = 2.97 CI 95% [1.36-6.47]. There was no relation between short-term neonatal outcome and high maternal haemoglobin concentration values. CONCLUSION: We show that low maternal haemoglobin concentration at delivery is an independent risk factor for poor short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates. This study is one of the first to show such an association within the preterm population.

  8. False memory for face in short-term memory and neural activity in human amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya; Harada, Tokiko; Sadato, Norihiro

    2014-12-03

    Human memory is often inaccurate. Similar to words and figures, new faces are often recognized as seen or studied items in long- and short-term memory tests; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this false memory remain elusive. In a previous fMRI study using morphed faces and a standard false memory paradigm, we found that there was a U-shaped response curve of the amygdala to old, new, and lure items. This indicates that the amygdala is more active in response to items that are salient (hit and correct rejection) compared to items that are less salient (false alarm), in terms of memory retrieval. In the present fMRI study, we determined whether the false memory for faces occurs within the short-term memory range (a few seconds), and assessed which neural correlates are involved in veridical and illusory memories. Nineteen healthy participants were scanned by 3T MRI during a short-term memory task using morphed faces. The behavioral results indicated that the occurrence of false memories was within the short-term range. We found that the amygdala displayed a U-shaped response curve to memory items, similar to those observed in our previous study. These results suggest that the amygdala plays a common role in both long- and short-term false memory for faces. We made the following conclusions: First, the amygdala is involved in detecting the saliency of items, in addition to fear, and supports goal-oriented behavior by modulating memory. Second, amygdala activity and response time might be related with a subject's response criterion for similar faces.

  9. Health-state valuations for pertussis: methods for valuing short-term health states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeBaron Charles W

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of reported adolescent and adult pertussis continues to rise in the United States. Acellular pertussis vaccines for adolescents and adults have been developed and may be available soon for use in the U.S. Our objectives were: (1 to describe patient valuations of pertussis disease and vaccination; and (2 to compare valuations for short-term and long-term health states associated with pertussis. Methods We conducted telephone surveys with 515 adult patients and parents of adolescent patients with pertussis in Massachusetts to determine valuations of pertussis-related health states for disease and vaccination using time trade-off (TTO and contingent valuation (CV techniques. Respondents were randomized to complete either a short-term or long-term TTO exercise. Discrimination between health states for each valuation technique was assessed using Tukey's method, and valuations for short-term vs. long-term health states were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results Three hundred three (59% and 309 (60% respondents completed and understood the TTO and CV exercises, respectively. Overall, respondents gave lower valuations (lower TTO and higher CV values to avoid a given state for adolescent/adult disease compared to vaccine adverse events. Infant complications due to pertussis were considered worse than adolescent/adult disease, regardless of the method of valuation. The short-term TTO resulted in lower mean valuations and larger mean differences between health states than the long-term TTO exercise. Conclusion Pertussis was considered worse than adverse events due to vaccination. Short-term health-state valuation is better able to discriminate among health states, which is useful for cost-utility analysis.

  10. Influence of short-term glucocorticoid therapy on regulatory T cells in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Sbiera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pre- and early clinical studies on patients with autoimmune diseases suggested that induction of regulatory T(T(reg cells may contribute to the immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids (GCs. OBJECTIVE: We readdressed the influence of GC therapy on T(reg cells in immunocompetent human subjects and naïve mice. METHODS: Mice were treated with increasing doses of intravenous dexamethasone followed by oral taper, and T(reg cells in spleen and blood were analyzed by FACS. Sixteen patients with sudden hearing loss but without an inflammatory disease received high-dose intravenous prednisolone followed by stepwise dose reduction to low oral prednisolone. Peripheral blood T(reg cells were analyzed prior and after a 14 day GC therapy based on different markers. RESULTS: Repeated GC administration to mice for three days dose-dependently decreased the absolute numbers of T(reg cells in blood (100 mg dexamethasone/kg body weight: 2.8±1.8×10(4 cells/ml vs. 33±11×10(4 in control mice and spleen (dexamethasone: 2.8±1.9×10(5/spleen vs. 95±22×10(5/spleen in control mice, which slowly recovered after 14 days taper in spleen but not in blood. The relative frequency of FOXP3(+ T(reg cells amongst the CD4(+ T cells also decreased in a dose dependent manner with the effect being more pronounced in blood than in spleen. The suppressive capacity of T(reg cells was unaltered by GC treatment in vitro. In immunocompetent humans, GCs induced mild T cell lymphocytosis. However, it did not change the relative frequency of circulating T(reg cells in a relevant manner, although there was some variation depending on the definition of the T(reg cells (FOXP3(+: 4.0±1.5% vs 3.4±1.5%*; AITR(+: 0.6±0.4 vs 0.5±0.3%, CD127(low: 4.0±1.3 vs 5.0±3.0%* and CTLA4+: 13.8±11.5 vs 15.6±12.5%; * p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Short-term GC therapy does not induce the hitherto supposed increase in circulating T(reg cell frequency, neither in immunocompetent humans nor in

  11. Evolution of extreme temperature events in short term climate projection for Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alfredo; Tarquis, Ana M.; Sanchez, Enrique; Dosio, Alessandro; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita

    2014-05-01

    Extreme events of maximum and minimum temperatures are a main hazard for agricultural production in Iberian Peninsula. For this purpose, in this study we analyze projections of their evolution that could be valid for the next decade, represented in this study by the 30-year period 2004-2034 (target period). For this purpose two kinds of data were used in this study: 1) observations from the station network of AEMET (Spanish National Meteorological Agency) for five Spanish locations, and 2) simulated data at a resolution of 50 ×50 km horizontal grid derived from the outputs of twelve Regional Climate Models (RCMs) taken from project ENSEMBLES (van der Linden and Mitchell, 2009), with a bias correction (Dosio and Paruolo, 2011; Dosio et al., 2012) regarding the observational dataset Spain02 (Herrera et al., 2012). To validate the simulated climate, the available period of observations was compared to a baseline period (1964-1994) of simulated climate for all locations. Then, to analyze the changes for the present/very next future, probability of extreme temperature events for 2004-2034 were compared to that of the baseline period. Although only minor changes are expected, small variations in variability may have a significant impact in crop performance. The objective of the work is to evaluate the utility of these short term projections for potential users, as for instance insurance companies. References Dosio A. and Paruolo P., 2011. Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high-resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: Evaluation on the present climate. Journal of Geophysical Research, VOL. 116,D16106, doi:10.1029/2011JD015934 Dosio A., Paruolo P. and Rojas R., 2012. Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: Analysis of the climate change signal. Journal of Geophysical Research,Volume 117, D17, doi: 0.1029/2012JD017968 Herrera et. al. (2012) Development and Analysis of a 50 year high

  12. The effects of long- and short-term interdisciplinary treatment approaches in women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saral, Ilknur; Sindel, Dilsad; Esmaeilzadeh, Sina; Sertel-Berk, Hanife Ozlem; Oral, Aydan

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the effects of long- and short-term interdisciplinary treatment approaches for reducing symptoms and improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical functions of patients with fibromyalgia and compared the effects of two different interdisciplinary treatment approaches. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial involving 66 women with fibromyalgia eligible for the study at a university hospital setting. The patients were randomized into three groups (allocation ratio 1:1:1) using a computer-generated random numbers: a long-term interdisciplinary treatment group (LG, n = 22) that participated in 10 sessions (3-h once-weekly session for 10 weeks) of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) together with exercise training and other fibromyalgia related educational programs (two full days); a short-term interdisciplinary treatment group (SG, n = 22) that received two full days of educational, exercise, and CBT programs; and a control group (CG, n = 22). The patients were evaluated at baseline and 6 months after treatment using the visual analog scale (pain, fatigue, and sleep), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Short Form-36, tender point numbers, and pressure algometry as primary outcomes. The statistical analysis was confined to the 'per-protocol' set. No blinding was performed. The number of patients analyzed was 21 in the LG, 19 in the SG, and 19 in the CG. The intensity of pain (p fatigue (p = 0.048), number of tender points (p = 0.002), and pressure pain threshold (p = 0.012) decreased significantly in both the LG and SG groups compared with controls. Moreover, physical functions (p = 0.017) and physical components of the HRQoL (p = 0.036) improved significantly in the intervention groups compared with the controls. However, there was no significant difference between intervention groups and the control group at the end of study in terms of quality of sleep (p = 0

  13. Modelling of stochastic fat-tailed auto-correlated processes: an application to short-term rates

    OpenAIRE

    Yashkir, Olga; Yashkir, Yuriy

    2003-01-01

    Many financial products sensitive to daily rate changes dictate the importance of adequate modelling of short-term rates. Their intrinsic properties are investigated based on historical market data. A new short-term rate model with the non-Gaussian random driver and auto-correlation factors is introduced. Special calibration procedures for the model are presented.Short-term rate stochastic dynamics are investigated in several numerical experiments.

  14. Effect of Exercise Testing on Short-term Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Hui-Yan; Zhang, Dai-Fu; Liang, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of exercise testing on short term heart rate variability in patients with CHD.Methods In 12 patients with CHD and 12 age-and sex-matched healthy controls, short-term frequency domain analysis was performed at respective stage before, during and after ET.Results It sh......Objective To study the effect of exercise testing on short term heart rate variability in patients with CHD.Methods In 12 patients with CHD and 12 age-and sex-matched healthy controls, short-term frequency domain analysis was performed at respective stage before, during and after ET...

  15. A score to predict short-term risk of COPD exacerbations (SCOPEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Make BJ

    2015-01-01

    properties of predictive variables. Results: The best predictors of an exacerbation in the next 6 months were more COPD maintenance medications prior to the trial, higher mean daily reliever use, more exacerbations during the previous year, lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio, and female sex. Using these risk variables, we developed a score to predict short-term (6-month risk of COPD exacerbations (SCOPEX. Budesonide/formoterol reduced future exacerbation risk more than formoterol or as-needed short-acting ß2-agonist (salbutamol. Conclusion: SCOPEX incorporates easily identifiable patient characteristics and can be readily applied in clinical practice to target therapy to reduce COPD exacerbations in patients at the highest risk. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exacerbation, model, predictor, inhaled corticosteroids, bronchodilators 

  16. Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, Sara, E-mail: s.marini@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino (Italy); Buonanno, Giorgio [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino (Italy); Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Stabile, Luca; Ficco, Giorgio [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the short-term respiratory effects due to the inhalation of electronic and conventional tobacco cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols through the measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). To this purpose, twenty-five smokers were asked to smoke a conventional cigarette and to vape an electronic cigarette (with and without nicotine), and an electronic cigarette without liquid (control session). Electronic and tobacco cigarette mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of total particle number concentrations and size distributions. On the basis of the measured total particle number concentrations and size distributions, the average particle doses deposited in alveolar and tracheobronchial regions of the lungs for a single 2-s puff were also estimated considering a subject performing resting (sitting) activity. Total particle number concentrations in the mainstream resulted equal to 3.5 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 9}, 5.1 ± 0.1 × 10{sup 9}, and 3.1 ± 0.6 × 10{sup 9} part. cm{sup −3} for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively. The corresponding alveolar doses for a resting subject were estimated equal to 3.8 × 10{sup 10}, 5.2 × 10{sup 10} and 2.3 × 10{sup 10} particles. The mean eNO variations measured after each smoking/vaping session were equal to 3.2 ppb, 2.7 ppb and 2.8 ppb for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively; whereas, negligible eNO changes were measured in the control session. Statistical tests performed on eNO data showed statistically significant differences between smoking/vaping sessions and the control session, thus confirming a similar effect on human airways whatever the cigarette smoked/vaped, the nicotine content, and the particle dose received. - Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes (with and without nicotine) mainstream aerosols were analyzed; • Particle number

  17. Numerical Analysis of a Short-Term Tracer Experiment in Fractured Sandstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Sheng Liou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A short-term, pulse injection tracer experiment conducted in fractured quartzitic sandstone at Kukuan, Taiwan was analyzed. Tracer transport at the test site was dominated by advection but a specific attenuation mechanism leading to breakthrough curve (BTC tailing also seemed to exist. Matrix diffusion was hypothesized as the transport mechanism that results in the tailing. This hypothesis was proved by comparing the field BTC with numerical simulation results obtained by the general-purpose flow/transport simulator, TOUGH2, based on a single-fracture conceptual model. Due to the lack of accuracy of estimating the interporosity flux by the conventional double porosity model (DPM, TOUGH2 was incorporated with the multiple interacting continua (MINC scheme to simulate the transient characteristics of the interporosity flux. In MINC, rock matrix is discretized as a series of continua according to the perpendicular distance from the fracture that adjoins the matrix. The closer the rock matrix is to the fracture, the finer the rock matrix is discretized. This concept is fundamentally different from DPM in that rock matrix is no longer treated as a single continuum. Simulation results by TOUGH2-MINC have successfully reproduced the observed BTC tailing even under the dominating advection effect. Sensitivity studies showed that TOUGH2-MINC is sensitive to parameters including fracture aperture (2b, matrix porosity (nm and effective molecular diffusion coefficient in matrix (Dm. If 2b, nm , Dm , are respectively 200 _?¿m, 2%, 10-11 m2 s -1, and if hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient (D is 1.69 ¡__n10-6 m2 s -1, TOUGH2-MINC result can well fit the field BTC. Furthermore, the importance of matrix diffusion was verified by fitting the field BTC with analytical solutions that either neglect matrix diffusion or consider the mass exchange between mobile and immobile zones within the fracture as the attenuation transport mechanism. It was found that the BTC

  18. Spatiotemporal distribution and short-term trends of particulate matter concentration over China, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ling; Lu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Air quality problems caused by atmospheric particulate have drawn broad public concern in the global scope. In the paper, the spatiotemporal distributions of fine particle (PM2.5) and inhalable particle (PM10) concentrations estimated with the artificial neural network (ANN) over China during 2006 to 2010 have been discussed. Most high PM10 concentration appears in Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Hubei, and parts of Inner Mongolia. The distribution of PM2.5 concentration is consistent with China's three gradient terrains. The seasonal variations of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations both indicate that they are higher in north China in spring and winter, lowest in summer. In autumn, most provinces in south China appear high value. In particular, high PM2.5 concentration appears in the southeast coastal cities while high PM10 concentration prefers the central regions in south China. On this basis, seasonal Mann-Kendall test method is utilized to analyze the short-term trends. The results also show significant changes of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations of China in the past 5 years, and most provinces present the tendency of reduction (3-5 μg/m(3) for PM2.5 and 10-20 μg/m(3) for PM10 per year) while a fraction of provinces appear the increasing trend of 8-16 μg/m(3) (PM2.5) and 16-30 μg/m(3) (PM10). Simultaneously, PM2.5 population exposure is discussed with the combination of population density-gridded data. Municipalities get much higher exposure level than other provinces. Shanghai suffers the highest population exposure to PM2.5, followed by Beijing and then Tianjin, Jiangsu province. Most provincial capitals, such as Guangzhou, Nanjing, Chengdu, and Wuhan, face much higher exposure level than other regions of their province. Moreover, the PM2.5 exposure situation is more serious in southeast than northwest regions for Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Also, per capita PM2.5 concentration and population-weighted PM2.5 concentration are calculated. The former shows that

  19. Short-term variability of a sample of 29 trans-Neptunian objects and Centaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirouin, A.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Aceituno, F. J.; Morales, N.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: We attempt to increase the number of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) whose short-term variability has been studied and compile a high quality database with the least possible biases, which may be used to perform statistical analyses. Methods: We performed broadband CCD photometric observations using several telescopes (the 1.5 m telescope at Sierra Nevada Observatory, the 2.2 m Calar Alto telescope and the 2.5 m INT on La Palma). Results: We present the results of 6 years of observations, reduced and analyzed with the same tools in a systematic way. We report completely new data on 15 objects, for 5 objects we present a new analysis of previously published results plus additional data and for 9 objects we present a new analysis of data already published. Lightcurves, possible rotation periods, and photometric amplitudes are reported for all of them. The photometric variability is smaller than previously thought: the mean amplitude of our sample is 0.1 mag and only around 15% of our sample has a larger variability than 0.15 mag. The smaller variability seems to be caused by a bias of previous observations. We find a very weak trend of faster spinning objects towards smaller sizes, which appears to be consistent with the smaller objects being more collisionally evolved, but may also be a specific feature of the Centaurs, the smallest objects in our sample. We also find that the smaller the objects, the larger their amplitude, which is also consistent with the idea that small objects are more collisionally evolved and thus more deformed. Average rotation rates from our work are 7.5 h for the whole sample, 7.6 h for the TNOs alone and 7.3 h for the Centaurs. Maxwellian fits to the period distribution yield similar results. Table 1 and Appendix are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTable 3 is available in electronic form in the Center of astronomical Data of Strasbourg cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb

  20. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM YOGA PRACTICES ON PSYCHOLOGICA L GENERAL WELL BEING IN MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Yoga is assuming importance in improving mental healt h and quality of life and in the treatment of a number of psychiatric and psychosomatic disorder s. Medical students are foundation of the medical profession; hence they must be aware of the alternative and adjunct therapy for the betterment of their patients. One of the most benefi cial alternative therapies is Yoga therapy. Medical students must know how yoga is useful for t heir patients. Keeping this objective in mind, the present study was conducted on medical stu dents to make them aware what yoga is and to encourage them to incorporate yoga in their l ife and to use it for the benefits of their patients as an adjunct to the medicinal treatment. T he study was conducted on healthy medical students (21 males and 15 females of age group 17-2 1 years in the department of physiology, Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Medical College, and Mahara ja Yashwantrao Hospital, Indore. After obtaining an informed consent; and satisfying the i nclusion and exclusion criteria, the psychological well being of the subjects was assesse d by “Psychological General Well Being Schedule Score (Sajatovic 2003” on the first day b efore the subjects started yoga practices. The students performed the yoga practices in the morning for one hour, six days in a week, for four weeks under expert’s observation. The yoga practices consisted of Prayer, Omkar recitation, asana, and Pranayama. Psychological well being was assessed using the same schedule score on the last day of yoga programme. Data thus collected were compiled, tabulated and analyzed by using students’ ‘t’ test. There was highly signific ant improvement in psychological well being of the students as denoted by p value of <.0.001. Concl usion: There is a marked improvement in the psychological well being scores of the students after performing short-term yoga practices. By extending these results we suggest that short-te rm yoga practices can therefore

  1. Impact of short-term dietary modification on postprandial oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloomer Richard J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently reported that short-term (21-day dietary modification in accordance with a stringent vegan diet (i.e., a Daniel Fast lowers blood lipids as well as biomarkers of oxidative stress. However, this work only involved measurements obtained in a fasted state. In the present study, we determined the postprandial response to a high-fat milkshake with regards to blood triglycerides (TAG, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and hemodynamic variables before and following a 21-day Daniel Fast. Methods Twenty-two subjects (10 men and 12 women; aged 35 ± 3 years completed a 21-day Daniel Fast. To induce oxidative stress, a milkshake (fat = 0.8 g·kg-1; carbohydrate = 1.0 g·kg-1; protein = 0.25 g·kg-1 was consumed by subjects on day one and day 22 in a rested and 12-hour fasted state. Before and at 2 and 4 h after consumption of the milkshake, heart rate (HR and blood pressure were measured. Blood samples were also collected at these times and analyzed for TAG, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, nitrate/nitrite (NOx, and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC. Results A time effect was noted for HR (p = 0.006, with values higher at 2 hr post intake of the milkshake as compared to pre intake (p p = 0.02, and a trend for lower systolic blood pressure was noted (p = 0.07. Time effects were noted for TAG (p = 0.001, MDA (p 2O2 (p p p p p = 0.02, which was higher post fast as compared to pre fast. No pre/post fast × time interactions were noted (p > 0.05, with the area under the curve from pre to post fast reduced only slightly for TAG (11%, MDA (11%, H2O2 (8%, and AOPP (12%, with a 37% increase noted for NOx. Conclusion Partaking in a 21-day Daniel Fast does not result in a statistically significant reduction in postprandial oxidative stress. It is possible that a longer time course of adherence to the Daniel Fast eating plan may be needed to observe significant

  2. Short-term outcomes of a program developed to inculcate research essentials in undergraduate medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, V; Ramnarayan, K; Abraham, RR; Pallath, V; Kamath, A; Kodidela, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Participation in research during undergraduate studies may increase students’ interest in research and inculcate research essentials in them. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the mentored student project (MSP) program. Settings and Design: In the MSP program, students in groups (n = 3 to 5) undertook a research project, wrote a scholarly report, and presented the work as a poster presentation with the help of a faculty mentor. To begin with, the logic model of the program was developed to identify short-term outcomes of the program on students, mentors, and the institution. A quasi-experimental design was used to measure the outcomes. Materials and Methods: A mixed method evaluation was done using a newly-developed questionnaire to assess the impact of the MSP on students’ attitude, a multiple-choice question (MCQs) test to find out the impact on students’ knowledge and grading of students’ project reports and posters along with a survey to check the impact on skills. Students’ satisfaction regarding the program and mentors’ perceptions were collected using questionnaires. Evidence for validity was collected for all the instruments used for the evaluation. Statistical Analysis: Non-parametric tests were used to analyze data. Based on the scores, project reports and posters were graded into A (>70% marks), B (60-69% marks), and C (<59% marks) categories. The number of MSPs that resulted in publications, conference presentation and departmental collaborations were taken as impact on the institution. Results: Students’ response rate was 91.5%. The students’ attitudes regarding research changed positively (P = 0.036) and score in the MCQ test improved (P < 0.001) after undertaking MSP. Majority of project reports and posters were of grade A category. The majority of the items related to skills gained and satisfaction had a median score of 4. The MSPs resulted in inter-departmental and inter

  3. Short-term spasmodic switching of volcanic tremor source activation in a conduit of the 2011 Kirishima eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, S.; Shimizu, H.; Matsushima, T.; Uehira, K.; Yamashita, Y.; Nakamoto, M.; Miyazaki, M.; Chikura, H.

    2012-04-01

    Volcanic tremors are seismic indicators providing clues for magma behavior, which is related to volcanic eruptions and activity. Detection of spatial and temporal variations of volcanic tremors is important for understanding the mechanism of volcanic eruptions. However, temporal variations of tremor activity in short-term than a minute have not been previously detected by seismological observations around volcanoes. Here, we show that volcanic tremor sources were activated at the top of the conduit (i.e. the crater) and at its lower end by analyzing seismograms from a dense seismic array during the 2011 Kirishima eruption. We observed spasmodic switching in the seismic ray direction during a volcanic tremor sequence. Such fine volcanic tremor structure suggests an interaction between tremor sources located in both deep and shallow depths. Our result suggests that seismic array observations can monitor the magma behavior and contribute to the evaluation of the activity's transition.

  4. Heart rate and blood pressure response to short-term head-down bed rest: a nonlinear approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balocchi, R; Di Garbo, A; Michelassi, C; Chillemi, S; Varanini, M; Barbi, M; Legramante, J M; Raimondi, G; Zbilut, J P

    2000-06-01

    Although it is well-known that prolonged exposure to microgravity environment such as in space travel results in derangements of orthostasis, recent evidence suggests that even short-term exposure may have similar effects and parallels such common examples as prolonged bed rest. Whereas spectral analysis of heart rate and systolic blood pressure have been unable to detect changes, we hypothesized that nonlinear indexes may be better able to uncover such perturbations. Eighteen healthy subjects were exposed to 4-hour head-down tilt, and of these, 4 exhibited fainting. Two nonlinear indexes, mutual information and recurrence quantification were used to analyze the data. Only recurrence quantification was able to detect a "decoupling" of heart rate and systolic blood pressure at rest using discriminant analysis (p < 0.05). These results suggest that orthostatic intolerance may be due to a decoupling of heart rate from systolic blood pressure reflexive activity occurring at rest.

  5. Associations between symptoms, clinical findings and the short-term prognosis among children with otitis media: A cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryborg, Christina Trankjær; Søndergaard, Jens; Lous, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    -related factors influence the course of OM. The aim of this study was to analyze to what extent symptoms at the time of initial diagnosis are associated with the short-term course of otitis media. Methods: Cohort study in general practice comprising 747 children between 0 and 7 years with a new ear symptom....... At the first consultation the GPs registered symptoms, results of otoscopy and tympanometry, together with diagnosis and treatment. The children were followed up four weeks later. Results: Sleep problems at inclusion are statistically significant associated with having one or more symptom after four weeks...... and 7 years with a flat curve is 8.94 (CI: 4.18–19.11) when compared to children without a flat curve. Conclusion: Sleep problems at inclusion were the only symptom statistically significant associated with having one or more symptoms after four weeks in children between 0 and 2 years....

  6. Performance- and stimulus-dependent oscillations in monkey prefrontal cortex during short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Pipa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory requires the coordination of sub-processes like encoding, retention, retrieval and comparison of stored material to subsequent input. Neuronal oscillations have an inherent time structure, can effectively coordinate synaptic integration of large neuron populations and could therefore organize and integrate distributed sub-processes in time and space. We observed field potential oscillations (14-95Hz in ventral prefrontal cortex of monkeys performing a visual memory task. Stimulus-selective and performance-dependent oscillations occurred simultaneously at 65-95Hz and 14-50Hz, the latter being phase-locked throughout memory maintenance. We propose that prefrontal oscillatory activity may be instrumental for the dynamical integration of local and global neuronal processes underlying short-term memory.

  7. How can a Theory of Change framework be applied to short-term international volunteering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Bethina; Benedict, Darren; Sibbald, Rebekah; Raman, Salem A; Loh, Lawrence C; Dimaras, Helen

    2016-09-01

    Short-term international volunteering has become enormously popular among individuals from high-income countries who travel to low-income countries to offer support on initiatives often related to health and development. However, their impact on global development is questionable, particularly when volunteer skills are not matched to local needs, or when teams operate outside the local health system. Furthermore, the impact of these volunteer programs is rarely evaluated. Theory of Change is a framework for program design meant to facilitate measurable social change. We propose that a Theory of Change framework, appropriately deployed in the design and conduct of short-term international volunteerism, could help improve volunteer efforts by identifying problems and clearly defining goals, designing and implementing effective strategies, and evaluating the real impacts these have on identified concerns.

  8. Representations of temporal information in short-term memory: Are they modality-specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratzke, Daniel; Quinn, Katrina R; Ulrich, Rolf; Bausenhart, Karin M

    2016-10-01

    Rattat and Picard (2012) reported that the coding of temporal information in short-term memory is modality-specific, that is, temporal information received via the visual (auditory) modality is stored as a visual (auditory) code. This conclusion was supported by modality-specific interference effects on visual and auditory duration discrimination, which were induced by secondary tasks (visual tracking or articulatory suppression), presented during a retention interval. The present study assessed the stability of these modality-specific interference effects. Our study did not replicate the selective interference pattern but rather indicated that articulatory suppression not only impairs short-term memory for auditory but also for visual durations. This result pattern supports a crossmodal or an abstract view of temporal encoding.

  9. Application of autocorrelation method on ionospheric short-term forecasting in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ruiyuan; LIU Shunlin; XU Zhonghua; WU Jian; WANG Xianyi; ZHANG Beichen; HU Hongqiao

    2006-01-01

    Adopting the autocorrelation method in the ionospheric short-term forecasting, we put forward a simple and practical forecasting method―the sectional autocorrelation method, that is, for predictions of one hour to four hours ahead the autocorrelation coefficient of RDF with the "iteration" method is selected, for prediction of more than four hours ahead, the autocorrelation coefficient of f0F2 with the "at once" method is used. The prediction precisions have been quantitatively estimated based on the data from Chongqing and Guangzhou Ionosonde Stations. It is shown that the method is much improved for the predictions of one hour to four hours ahead. For the predictions of more than four hours ahead the prediction error reaches a saturation value, which is still lower than that of the "median" method. This new method could also be applied to the short-term forecasting of other ionospheric parameters.

  10. Short-Term Forecasting of Urban Water Consumption Based on the Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An approach for short-term forecasting of municipal water consumption was presented based on the largest Lyapunov exponent of chaos theory. The chaotic characteristics of time series of urban water consumption were examined by means of the largest Lyapunov exponent and correlation dimension. By using the largest Lyapunov exponent a short-term forecasting model for urban water consumption was developed, which was compared with the artificial neural network (ANN) approach in a case study. The result indicates that the model based on the largest Lyapunov exponent has higher prediction precision and forecasting stability than the ANN method, and its forecasting mean relative error is 9.6% within its maximum predictable time scale while it is 60.6% beyond the scale.

  11. Long- and short-term indoor radon survey in the Ardea municipality, south Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franci, Daniele; Aureli, Tommaso

    2014-12-01

    The indoor radon concentration was measured in 16 schools and 6 public departments in the Ardea municipality, using both active and passive detectors. The annual concentration of radon has been determined as the mean of two consecutive 6-month periods of sampling from January 2012 to January 2013. The indoor radon level measured in the monitored buildings ranged from 17 to 918 Bq·m(-3), with a mean value of 154 Bq·m(-3). In addition, the correlation between short-term and long-term measurements was studied. Experimental data demonstrate that the deviation of short-term measurements with respect to polyallyl diglycol carbonate data does not exceed ±40 % in a very extended range of radon concentrations.

  12. Longitudinal relationships between language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Næss, Kari-Anne B; Lervåg, Arne; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles

    2015-07-01

    Children with Down syndrome are at risk for language difficulties, the nature of which is not well understood. This study compared the longitudinal predictors of language skills in children with Down syndrome with those in typically developing control children matched for initial level of nonverbal mental ability. An age cohort of children with Down syndrome (n=43) and 57 typically developing control children was assessed on measures of vocabulary, grammar, and verbal short-term memory three times at yearly intervals. Children with Down syndrome showed slower development on all measures than the typically developing controls. Longitudinal analyses showed moderate to high stability of language and verbal short-term memory skills. Our results confirm earlier evidence of pervasive language learning difficulties in this group and suggest that early language intervention should be given high priority.

  13. Short-term outcome of Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis for bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayan Basu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the short-term functional and anatomical outcome of Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis (Boston Kpro implantation for bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency (LCSD. Retrospective analysis was done on eight eyes of eight patients who underwent Boston Kpro implantation between July 2009 and October 2009. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and slit-lamp biomicroscopy findings were assessed at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. All eight eyes retained the prosthesis. BCVA of 20/40 or better was achieved in 8, 6, and 5 eyes at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively, postoperatively. One patient each developed epithelial defect, sterile stromal melt and fungal keratitis in the late postoperative period associated with antecedent loss of the soft contact lens from the eye. Boston Kpro has good short-term visual and anatomical outcome in patients with bilateral LSCD, provided compliance with postoperative care can be ensured.

  14. Spatial short-term memory in children with nonverbal learning disabilities: impairment in encoding spatial configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimoto, Tadamasa; Matsuura, Naomi; Takezawa, Tomohiro; Mitsuhashi, Yoshinori; Hiratani, Michio

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated whether impaired spatial short-term memory exhibited by children with nonverbal learning disabilities is due to a problem in the encoding process. Children with or without nonverbal learning disabilities performed a simple spatial test that required them to remember 3, 5, or 7 spatial items presented simultaneously in random positions (i.e., spatial configuration) and to decide if a target item was changed or all items including the target were in the same position. The results showed that, even when the spatial positions in the encoding and probe phases were similar, the mean proportion correct of children with nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.58 while that of children without nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.84. The authors argue with the results that children with nonverbal learning disabilities have difficulty encoding relational information between spatial items, and that this difficulty is responsible for their impaired spatial short-term memory.

  15. Improved Spatio-Temporal Linear Models for Very Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansu Filik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the spatio-temporal (multi-channel linear models, which use temporal and the neighbouring wind speed measurements around the target location, for the best short-term wind speed forecasting are investigated. Multi-channel autoregressive moving average (MARMA models are formulated in matrix form and efficient linear prediction coefficient estimation techniques are first used and revised. It is shown in detail how to apply these MARMA models to the spatially distributed wind speed measurements. The proposed MARMA models are tested using real wind speed measurements which are collected from the five stations around Canakkale region of Turkey. According to the test results, considerable improvements are observed over the well known persistence, autoregressive (AR and multi-channel/vector autoregressive (VAR models. It is also shown that the model can predict wind speed very fast (in milliseconds which is suitable for the immediate short-term forecasting.

  16. Least squares support vector machine for short-term prediction of meteorological time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellit, A.; Pavan, A. Massi; Benghanem, M.

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of meteorological time series plays very important role in several fields. In this paper, an application of least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) for short-term prediction of meteorological time series (e.g. solar irradiation, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and pressure) is presented. In order to check the generalization capability of the LS-SVM approach, a K-fold cross-validation and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test have been carried out. A comparison between LS-SVM and different artificial neural network (ANN) architectures (recurrent neural network, multi-layered perceptron, radial basis function and probabilistic neural network) is presented and discussed. The comparison showed that the LS-SVM produced significantly better results than ANN architectures. It also indicates that LS-SVM provides promising results for short-term prediction of meteorological data.

  17. Short-Term Load Forecasting Using Adaptive Annealing Learning Algorithm Based Reinforcement Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ming Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A reinforcement learning algorithm is proposed to improve the accuracy of short-term load forecasting (STLF in this article. The proposed model integrates radial basis function neural network (RBFNN, support vector regression (SVR, and adaptive annealing learning algorithm (AALA. In the proposed methodology, firstly, the initial structure of RBFNN is determined by using an SVR. Then, an AALA with time-varying learning rates is used to optimize the initial parameters of SVR-RBFNN (AALA-SVR-RBFNN. In order to overcome the stagnation for searching optimal RBFNN, a particle swarm optimization (PSO is applied to simultaneously find promising learning rates in AALA. Finally, the short-term load demands are predicted by using the optimal RBFNN. The performance of the proposed methodology is verified on the actual load dataset from the Taiwan Power Company (TPC. Simulation results reveal that the proposed AALA-SVR-RBFNN can achieve a better load forecasting precision compared to various RBFNNs.

  18. Predicting Time Series from Short-Term High-Dimensional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huanfei; Zhou, Tianshou; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Chen, Luonan

    The prediction of future values of time series is a challenging task in many fields. In particular, making prediction based on short-term data is believed to be difficult. Here, we propose a method to predict systems' low-dimensional dynamics from high-dimensional but short-term data. Intuitively, it can be considered as a transformation from the inter-variable information of the observed high-dimensional data into the corresponding low-dimensional but long-term data, thereby equivalent to prediction of time series data. Technically, this method can be viewed as an inverse implementation of delayed embedding reconstruction. Both methods and algorithms are developed. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical result, benchmark examples and real-world problems from various fields are studied.

  19. Limitless capacity: a dynamic object-oriented approach to short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, Bill; Taylor, John; Jones, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    The notion of capacity-limited processing systems is a core element of cognitive accounts of limited and variable performance, enshrined within the short-term memory construct. We begin with a detailed critical analysis of the conceptual bases of this view and argue that there are fundamental problems - ones that go to the heart of cognitivism more generally - that render it untenable. In place of limited capacity systems, we propose a framework for explaining performance that focuses on the dynamic interplay of three aspects of any given setting: the particular task that must be accomplished, the nature and form of the material upon which the task must be performed, and the repertoire of skills and perceptual-motor functions possessed by the participant. We provide empirical examples of the applications of this framework in areas of performance typically accounted for by reference to capacity-limited short-term memory processes.

  20. Limitless capacity: A dynamic object-oriented approach to short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill eMacken

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The notion of capacity-limited processing systems is a core element of cognitive accounts of limited and variable performance, enshrined within the short-term memory construct. We begin with a detailed critical analysis of the conceptual bases of this view and argue that there are fundamental problems – ones that go to the heart of cognitivism more generally – that render it untenable. In place of limited capacity systems, we propose a framework for explaining performance that focuses on the dynamic interplay of three aspects of any given setting: the particular task that must be accomplished, the nature and form of the material upon which the task must be performed, and the repertoire of skills and perceptual-motor functions possessed by the participant. We provide empirical examples of the applications of this framework in areas of performance typically accounted for by reference to capacity-limited short-term memory processes.

  1. Space station short-term mission planning using ontology modelling and time iteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijiao Bu; Jin Zhang; Yazhong Luo

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of the space station short-term mission planning, which aims to alocate the exe-cuting time of missions effectively, schedule the correspon- ding resources reasonably and arrange the time of the as-tronauts properly. A domain model is developed by using the ontology theory to describe the concepts, constraints and relations of the planning domain formaly, abstractly and normatively. A method based on time iteration is adopted to solve the short-term planning problem. Meanwhile, the re-solving strategies are proposed to resolve different kinds of conflicts induced by the constraints of power, heat, resource, astronaut and relationship. The proposed approach is evalu-ated in a test case with fifteen missions, thirteen resources and three astronauts. The results show that the developed domain ontology model is reasonable, and the time iteration method using the proposed resolving strategies can suc-cessfuly obtain the plan satisfying al considered constraints.

  2. Interaction of short-term depression and firing dynamics in shaping single neuron encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh eMohan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how the two properties short-term synaptic depression of afferent input and postsynaptic firing dynamics combine to determine the operating mode of a neuron. While several computational roles have been ascribed to either, their interaction has not been studied. We considered two types of short-term synaptic dynamics (release-dependent and release-independent depression and two classes of firing dynamics (regular firing and firing with spike-frequency adaptation. The input-output transformation of the four possible combinations of pre- and postsynaptic dynamics was characterized. Adapting neurons receiving input from release-dependent synapses functioned largely as coincidence detectors. The other three configurations showed properties consistent with integrators, each with distinct features. These results suggest that the operating mode of a neuron is determined by both the pre- and postsynaptic dynamics and that studying them together is necessary to understand emergent properties and their implications for neuronal coding.

  3. Short-Term Effects of Screening for Cardiovascular Risk in the Deaf Community: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on the risk of cardiovascular disease amongst the Deaf community. Given that the access of Deaf people to mainstream health promotion is likely to be hindered by language barriers, we were interested to assess the short-term impact of cardiovascular health promotion within this group. Using a pilot study we investigated changes in cardiovascular risk factors amongst Deaf people identified to be at high cardiovascular risk, who received standard health promotion by a medical team specializing in cardiovascular health promotion. The short-term impact of cardiovascular health promotion in this group did not reduce estimates of cardiovascular risk. The reasons for this are likely to relate to the design and delivery of health promotion to Deaf people, which deserves further study.

  4. Neuroevolution Results in Emergence of Short-Term Memory for Goal-Directed Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhman, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    Animals behave adaptively in the environment with multiply competing goals. Understanding of the mechanisms underlying such goal-directed behavior remains a challenge for neuroscience as well for adaptive system research. To address this problem we developed an evolutionary model of adaptive behavior in the multigoal stochastic environment. Proposed neuroevolutionary algorithm is based on neuron's duplication as a basic mechanism of agent's recurrent neural network development. Results of simulation demonstrate that in the course of evolution agents acquire the ability to store the short-term memory and, therefore, use it in behavioral strategies with alternative actions. We found that evolution discovered two mechanisms for short-term memory. The first mechanism is integration of sensory signals and ongoing internal neural activity, resulting in emergence of cell groups specialized on alternative actions. And the second mechanism is slow neurodynamical processes that makes possible to code the previous behav...

  5. 'EMU equity markets' return variance and spill over effects from short-term interest rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Ai Jun

    2013-01-01

    The DCF (Discounted Cash flow) Model provides the theoretical background for the possible impact of interest rate changes on equity prices. This paper examines the spillover effects from the movement of short term interest rates to equity markets within the Euro area. The empirical study is carried......), stock returns have a negative relationship with the volatility, and the volatility process responds asymmetrically to shocks to equity returns, especially to bad news. The other regime (a bull market regime) appears to be a high mean, low variance state, within which the returns have a positive...... relationship with the volatility, and the volatility is lower and more persistent. We find also that there is a significant impact of fluctuations in the short term interest rate on the conditional variance and conditional returns in the EMU countries. Such impact is asymmetrical, and it appears to be stronger...

  6. Mercury simulations within GMOS: Analysis of short-term observational episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travnikov O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of contemporary chemical transport models for mercury are applied within the framework of the EU GMOS project to study principal processes of mercury transport and transformations in the atmosphere. Each model is involved in simulation of short-term episodes corresponding to particular Hg measurement campaigns in Europe and other regions. In order to evaluate different physical and chemical mechanisms the models perform sensitivity runs with various parameterizations and/or combinations of considered processes. The modeling results are compared to detailed measurements of Hg species (Hg0/TGM, RGM, HgP with high temporal resolution (hours aiming at reproduction of short-term temporal variability of Hg air concentration.

  7. Temperature propagation in prismatic lithium-ion-cells after short term thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Pamina; Liebig, Gerd; Komsiyska, Lidiya; Wittstock, Gunther

    2016-05-01

    In this paper a 3D model based on the thermal material characteristics of an automotive prismatic Li-NiMnCoO2 (NMC) cell was created in COMSOL Multiphysics® in order to simulate the temperature propagation in the cell during short term thermal stress. The thermal characteristics of the battery components were experimentally determined via laser flash analysis (LFA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and used as an input parameter for the models. In order to validate the modelling approach, an experimental setup was built to measure the temperature propagation during thermal stresses within a dummy cell, equipped with temperature sensors. After validating, the model is used to describe the temperature propagation after a short-term temperature stress on automotive prismatic lithium-ion cells, simulating welding of the contact leads.

  8. Statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions EEG eigenfunctions of short-term memory

    CERN Document Server

    Ingber, L

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on how bottom-up neocortical models can be developed into eigenfunction expansions of probability distributions appropriate to describe short-term memory in the context of scalp EEG. The mathematics of eigenfunctions are similar to the top-down eigenfunctions developed by Nunez, albeit they have different physical manifestations. The bottom-up eigenfunctions are at the local mesocolumnar scale, whereas the top-down eigenfunctions are at the global regional scale. However, as described in several joint papers, our approaches have regions of substantial overlap, and future studies may expand top-down eigenfunctions into the bottom-up eigenfunctions, yielding a model of scalp EEG that is ultimately expressed in terms of columnar states of neocortical processing of attention and short-term memory.

  9. Short-Term Load Forecasting: The Similar Shape Functional Time Series Predictor

    CERN Document Server

    Paparoditis, Efstathios

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel functional time series methodology for short-term load forecasting. The prediction is performed by means of a weighted average of past daily load segments, the shape of which is similar to the expected shape of the load segment to be predicted. The past load segments are identified from the available history of the observed load segments by means of their closeness to a so-called reference load segment, the later being selected in a manner that captures the expected qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the load segment to be predicted. Weak consistency of the suggested functional similar shape predictor is established. As an illustration, we apply the suggested functional time series forecasting methodology to historical daily load data in Cyprus and compare its performance to that of a recently proposed alternative functional time series methodology for short-term load forecasting.

  10. Instrumented Indentation of Lung Reveals Significant Short Term Alteration in Mechanical Behavior with 100% Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricris R. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In critical care, trauma, or other situations involving reduced lung function, oxygen is given to avoid hypoxia. It is known that under certain conditions and long time (several hours exposure, oxygen is toxic to the lungs, the possible mechanisms being direct cellular damage or surfactant dysfunction. Our key objective was to investigate possible changes in lung function when exposed to 100% oxygen in the short term (several tidal volumes. We performed mechanical tests on lobar surfaces of excised mammalian lungs inflated with air or 100% oxygen, examining (i stiffness, (ii non-linear mechanical response and (iii induced alveolar deformation. Our results showed that within five tidal volumes of breathing 100% oxygen, lung mechanics are significantly altered. In addition, after five tidal volumes of laboratory air, lung mechanical behavior begins to return to pre-oxygen levels, indicating some reversibility. These significant and short-term mechanical effects of oxygen could be linked to oxygen toxicity.

  11. Analysis of the short-term overproduction capability of variable speed wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis in this article is on variable speed wind turbines (VSWTs) capability to provide short-term overproduction and better understanding of VSWTs’ mechanical and electrical limits to deliver such support. VSWTs’ short-term overproduction capability is of primary concern for the transmission...... system operators (TSOs) in the process of restoring critical situations during large frequency excursions in power systems with high wind power penetration. This study is conducted on a simplified generic model for VSWTs with full scale power converter (Type IV), which includes several adjustments...... and extensions of the Type IV standard wind turbine model proposed by the IEC Committee in IEC 61400-27-1. This modified standard model is able to account for dynamic features relevant for integrating active power ancillary services in wind power plants, such as frequency support capabilities. The performance...

  12. Short-Term Forecasting of Railway Passenger Flow Based on Clustering of Booking Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minshu Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For railway companies, the benefits from revenue management activities, like inventory control, dynamic pricing, and so forth, rely heavily on the accuracy of the short-term forecasting of the passenger flow. In this paper, based on the analysis of the relevance between final booking amounts and shapes of the booking curves, a novel short-term forecasting approach, which employs a specifically designed clustering algorithm and the data of both historical booking records and the bookings on hand, is proposed. The empirical study with real data sets from Chinese railway shows that the proposed approach outperforms the advanced pickup model (one of the most popular models in practice during the early and middle stages of booking horizon when bookings are not concentrated in the final days before departure.

  13. The Gaia spectrophotometric standard stars survey - III. Short-term variability monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Marinoni, S; Altavilla, G; Bellazzini, M; Galleti, S; Tessicini, G; Valentini, G; Cocozza, G; Ragaini, S; Braga, V; Bragaglia, A; Federici, L; Schuster, W J; Carrasco, J M; Castro, A; Figueras, F; Jordi, C

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the short-term constancy monitoring of candidate Gaia Spectrophotometric Standard Stars (SPSS). We obtained time series of typically 1.24 hour - with sampling periods from 1-3 min to a few hours, depending on the case - to monitor the constancy of our candidate SPSS down to 10 mmag, as required for the calibration of Gaia photometric data. We monitored 162 out of a total of 212 SPSS candidates. The observing campaign started in 2006 and finished in 2015, using 143 observing nights on nine different instruments covering both hemispheres. Using differential photometry techniques, we built light curves with a typical precision of 4 mmag, depending on the data quality. As a result of our constancy assessment, 150 SPSS candidates were validated against short term variability, and only 12 were rejected because of variability including some widely used flux standards such as BD+174708, SA 105-448, 1740346, and HD 37725.

  14. The Gaia spectrophotometric standard stars survey - III. Short-term variability monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoni, S.; Pancino, E.; Altavilla, G.; Bellazzini, M.; Galleti, S.; Tessicini, G.; Valentini, G.; Cocozza, G.; Ragaini, S.; Braga, V.; Bragaglia, A.; Federici, L.; Schuster, W. J.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castro, A.; Figueras, F.; Jordi, C.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of the short-term constancy monitoring of candidate Gaia Spectrophotometric Standard Stars (SPSS). We obtained time series of typically 1.24 h - with sampling periods from 1-3 min to a few hours, depending on the case - to monitor the constancy of our candidate SPSS down to 10 mmag, as required for the calibration of Gaia photometric data. We monitored 162 out of a total of 212 SPSS candidates. The observing campaign started in 2006 and finished in 2015, using 143 observing nights on nine different instruments covering both hemispheres. Using differential photometry techniques, we built light curves with a typical precision of 4 mmag, depending on the data quality. As a result of our constancy assessment, 150 SPSS candidates were validated against short-term variability, and only 12 were rejected because of variability including some widely used flux standards such as BD+174708, SA 105-448, 1740346, and HD 37725.

  15. Dissociating Measures of Consciousness from Measures of Short-Term Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Staugaard, Camilla Funch

    Often, the contents of consciousness are equated with the contents of short-term memory (or working memory), sometimes to a point where they are treated as identical entities. In the present study we aimed to investigate whether they may be modulated independently and thus dissociated from each...... conscious experience of the stimulus in every trial (Ramsøy & Overgaard, 2004; Overgaard & Sørensen, 2004). We trained observers to report their experience of a visual target stimulus on the four-point PAS scale; ranging from “no experience” to “clear experience”. To measure short-term memory we used...... a traditional object based post cue variation of the partial-report paradigm (Sperling, 1960) in experiment 1. Whereas we used the more novel feature based resolution paradigm (Wilken & Ma, 2004) in experiment 2, in which observers had to report the orientation of a cued Landolt C ring. Not surprisingly, we...

  16. Short-Term Effect of Prosthesis Transforming Sensory Modalities on Walking in Stroke Patients with Hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Owaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory impairments caused by neurological or physical disorders hamper kinesthesia, making rehabilitation difficult. In order to overcome this problem, we proposed and developed a novel biofeedback prosthesis called Auditory Foot for transforming sensory modalities, in which the sensor prosthesis transforms plantar sensations to auditory feedback signals. This study investigated the short-term effect of the auditory feedback prosthesis on walking in stroke patients with hemiparesis. To evaluate the effect, we compared four conditions of auditory feedback from plantar sensors at the heel and fifth metatarsal. We found significant differences in the maximum hip extension angle and ankle plantar flexor moment on the affected side during the stance phase, between conditions with and without auditory feedback signals. These results indicate that our sensory prosthesis could enhance walking performance in stroke patients with hemiparesis, resulting in effective short-term rehabilitation.

  17. Integration of real options into short-term mine planning and production scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-xing; KNIGHTS Peter

    2009-01-01

    Commodity prices have fallen sharply due to the global financial crisis. This has adversely affected the viability of some mining projects, including leading to the possibility of bankruptcy for some companies. These price falls reflect uncertainties and risks associated with mining projects. In recent years, much work has been published related to the application of real options pric-ing theory to value life-of-mine plans in response to long term financial uncertainty and risk. However, there are uncertainties and risks associated with medium/short-term mining operations. Real options theory can also be applied to tactical decisions involving uncertainties and risks. This paper will investigate the application of real options in the mining industry and present a methodology developed at University of Queensland, Australia, for integrating real options into medium/short-term mine planning and produc-tion scheduling. A case study will demonstrate the validity and usefulness of the methodology and techniques developed.

  18. From probabilistic forecasts to statistical scenarios of short-term wind power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Papaefthymiou, George; Klockl, Bernd;

    2009-01-01

    Short-term (up to 2-3 days ahead) probabilistic forecasts of wind power provide forecast users with highly valuable information on the uncertainty of expected wind generation. Whatever the type of these probabilistic forecasts, they are produced on a per horizon basis, and hence do not inform....... This issue is addressed here by describing a method that permits the generation of statistical scenarios of short-term wind generation that accounts for both the interdependence structure of prediction errors and the predictive distributions of wind power production. The method is based on the conversion...... of series of prediction errors to a multivariate Gaussian random variable, the interdependence structure of which can then be summarized by a unique covariance matrix. Such matrix is recursively estimated in order to accommodate long-term variations in the prediction error characteristics. The quality...

  19. How high is visual short-term memory capacity for object layout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanocki, Thomas; Sellers, Eric; Mittelstadt, Jeff; Sulman, Noah

    2010-05-01

    Previous research measuring visual short-term memory (VSTM) suggests that the capacity for representing the layout of objects is fairly high. In four experiments, we further explored the capacity of VSTM for layout of objects, using the change detection method. In Experiment 1, participants retained most of the elements in displays of 4 to 8 elements. In Experiments 2 and 3, with up to 20 elements, participants retained many of them, reaching a capacity of 13.4 stimulus elements. In Experiment 4, participants retained much of a complex naturalistic scene. In most cases, increasing display size caused only modest reductions in performance, consistent with the idea of configural, variable-resolution grouping. The results indicate that participants can retain a substantial amount of scene layout information (objects and locations) in short-term memory. We propose that this is a case of remote visual understanding, where observers' ability to integrate information from a scene is paramount.

  20. Evaluating the quality of scenarios of short-term wind power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Girard, R.

    2012-01-01

    Scenarios of short-term wind power generation are becoming increasingly popular as input to multi-stage decision-making problems e.g. multivariate stochastic optimization and stochastic programming. The quality of these scenarios is intuitively expected to substantially impact the benets from...... their use in decision-making. So far however, their verication is almost always focused on their marginal distributions for each individual lead time only, thus overlooking their temporal interdependence structure. The shortcomings of such an approach are discussed. Multivariate verication tools, as well...... as diagnostic approaches based on event-based verication are then presented. Their application to the evaluation of various sets of scenarios of short-term wind power generation demonstrates them as valuable discrimination tools....

  1. Short-term prediction of the influent quantity time series of wastewater treatment plant based on a chaos neural network model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaodong; ZENG Guangming; HUANG Guohe; LI Jianbing; JIANG Ru

    2007-01-01

    By predicting influent quantity,a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) can be well controlled.The nonlinear dynamic characteristic of WWTP influent quantity time series was analyzed,with the assumption that the series was predictable.Based on this,a short-term forecasting chaos neural network model of WWTP influent quantity was built by phase space reconstruction.Reasonable forecasting results were achieved using this method.

  2. Short-Term Effect of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on Pediatric Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Shenzhen, China

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Hualiang; Zou, Hong; Wang, Qinzhou; Liu, Chunxiao; Lang, Lingling; Hou, Xuexin; Li, Zhenjun

    2013-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) was an emerging viral infectious disease in recent years in Shenzhen. The underlying risk factors have not yet been systematically examined. This study analyzed the short-term effect of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on pediatric HFMD in Shenzhen, China. Daily count of HFMD among children aged below 15 years old, Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), and weather variables were collected to construct the time series. A distributed lag non-linear model was applied ...

  3. Short-Term EEG Spectral Pattern as a Single Event in EEG Phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Fingelkurts, Al. A; Fingelkurts, An. A

    2010-01-01

    Spectral decomposition, to this day, still remains the main analytical paradigm for the analysis of EEG oscillations. However, conventional spectral analysis assesses the mean characteristics of the EEG power spectra averaged out over extended periods of time and/or broad frequency bands, thus resulting in a “static” picture which cannot reflect adequately the underlying neurodynamic. A relatively new promising area in the study of EEG is based on reducing the signal to elementary short-term ...

  4. Short-term versus long-term approaches to the development of tourism-related policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Tourism policy development is an increasingly complex activity involving multiple public sector agencies, industry and community stakeholders and non-government organisations at different scales. This discussion paper examines the implications for tourism of governments adopting short- term versus long-term approaches to the development of tourism related policies and identifies policy considerations to maximize the growth potential of tourism. The key issue is to understand how governments c...

  5. The short-term effects of plantar vibration on balance disorder after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Soofia Naghdi; Maede Khalifeloo; Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari; Mohammad Akbari; Shohreh Jalaie; Davood Jannat

    2013-01-01

    Background: Balance disorders are common in patients following stroke. There are a number of physiotherapy modalities to treat balance impairments, one of which is vibration. The effects of vibration on balance disorders after stroke have not been investigated. This case report demonstrates the short-term effects of plantar vibration on the balance impairment of a patient with stroke. Case presentation: A 72-years-old man with right hemiplegia resulted from stroke was admitted for vibration t...

  6. Constructing Long Short-Term Memory based Deep Recurrent Neural Networks for Large Vocabulary Speech Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiangang; Wu, Xihong

    2014-01-01

    Long short-term memory (LSTM) based acoustic modeling methods have recently been shown to give state-of-the-art performance on some speech recognition tasks. To achieve a further performance improvement, in this research, deep extensions on LSTM are investigated considering that deep hierarchical model has turned out to be more efficient than a shallow one. Motivated by previous research on constructing deep recurrent neural networks (RNNs), alternative deep LSTM architectures are proposed an...

  7. Predicting the outcome of sciatica at short-term follow-up.

    OpenAIRE

    Vroomen, Patrick C. A. J.; de Krom, M C T F M; Knottnerus, J A

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of the clinical findings elicited in the patient presenting with sciatica is unknown. AIM: To investigate whether history and physical examination findings can predict outcome. DESIGN OF STUDY: Prospective study of prognostic factors. SETTING: A sample of primary care patients with sciatica. METHOD: Short-term favourable outcome was registered as improvement perceived by the patient after two weeks. Long-term failure was defined as eventual surgery or lack of ...

  8. Short-term Graduate Student Research Exchange Programs for Teaching and Learning Foreign Languages

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The authors developed and put into action a program which aims to explore effective foreign language teaching approaches through the joint effort of a short-term exchange program between graduate students of AUE (Aichi University of Education, Japan) and those of NCUE (National Changhua University of Education, Taiwan), with the goals of promoting graduate level research exchange, attaining a higher level of teaching research, and forging a research partnership. This program is supported by a...

  9. The Structure and Content of Long-Term and Short-Term Mate Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Jonason, Peter K.; Webster, Gregory D.; Amanda N. Gesselman

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses two limitations in the mate preferences literature. First, research all-too-often relies on single-item assessments of mate preferences precluding more advanced statistical techniques like factor analysis. Second, when factor analysis could be done, it exclusively has done for long-term mate preferences, at the exclusion of short-term mate preferences. In this study (N = 401), we subjected 20 items designed to measure short- and long-term mate preferences to both principl...

  10. Short term control of the cardiovascular system: Assessment with the isometric handgrip exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Médigue, Claire; Papelier, Yves; Bise, Sylvain; Sorine, Michel

    2004-01-01

    This study aims at assessing the short term control of the Cardio Vascular system (CV), through a physiological test which involves strictly autonomic response: the handgrip isometric exercise, under vagal influence during the first minute. CVS parameters are extracted from RR and the arterial blood pressure (ABP) signals, respectively giving frequency and amplitude information on the CVS. Mean time series, spectral values and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), seen as the spectral controller gain...

  11. Short-term load forecasting based on a multi-model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, C. [ETH, Zurich (Switzerland). Faculty of Electrical Engineering; Dvorakova, R.; Horacek, P. [Czech Technical University (Czech Republic). Faculty of Electrical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    Two algorithms for short-term electricity demand forecasting in the regional electricity distribution network are presented. Several approaches - feedforward neural network, adaptive modelling and fuzzy modelling - are applied to the forecast. Two different models are designed. A one hour forecasting is based on the General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) model and Principle Component Analysis. The multi-model with adaptive features and fuzzy reasoning is used for a longer-term forecast. (author)

  12. Hyperdense basilar artery sign diagnoses acute posterior circulation stroke and predicts short-term outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Xiaoping [Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University at Shenyang, Department of Neurology, Shengjing Hospital, Shenyang (China); Guo, Yang [Shengjing Hospital, Department of Neurology, Shenyang (China)

    2010-12-15

    It is well established that the hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign is a specific marker for early ischemia in anterior circulation. However, little is known about the hyperdense basilar artery sign (HDBA) in posterior circulation. Our aim was to determine whether the HDBA sign has utility in early diagnosis of acute posterior circulation stroke and prediction of short-term outcome. Three-blinded readers examined unenhanced computed tomography scans for the HDBA sign, and materials were classified into two groups according to this sign. Vascular risk factors, admission and discharge National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores, short-term outcome, and radiological findings between the two groups were compared. One hundred and twenty-six cases of acute posterior circulation stroke (PCS) were included in the study. No statistically significant differences were found in risk factors of ischemic stroke, except atrial fibrillation (P = 0.025). Admission and discharge NIHSS scores for the positive HDBA group were significantly higher than scores for the negative HDBA group (P = 0.001, 0.002, respectively). The infarction territory for the positive HDBA group was mainly multi-region in nature (51.6%, P < 0.001), while the negative HDBA group showed mainly middle territory infarction. Significant independent predictors of short-term outcome included the HDBA sign (P < 0.001) and admission NIHSS scores (P < 0.001). Approximately half of the HDBA patients showed multi-region infarction and a serious neurological symptom. Based on our results, this sign might not only be helpful in early diagnosis of acute PCS but also be able to correlate with a poor short-term outcome. (orig.)

  13. The Discretization Bias for Processes of the Short-Term Interest Rate : An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares difference continuous-time specifications for the short-term interest rate dynamics on five European markets. We propose a general specification which encompasses nine well-known processes of the financial literature. A classical estimation of the parameters leads us to the choice of simple models like the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process of Vasicek (1977) or the “Square Root” process of Cox, Ingersoll and Ross (1985). Then we focus on the discretization bias and a methodology t...

  14. Acute and Short-Term Inhalation Toxicity Study of FT Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    than JP-8 in equivalent tests . In addition, micronucleus induction was tested ; FT jet fuel does not induce micronuclei, indicating that the fuel is...OECD, 1981). A separate group of rats were used as controls for assessment of micronucleus induction in order to complete the genotoxicity testing of...toxicity study in F344 rats was investigated in a short-term mutagenicity assay, the mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus (MN) test . Animals were exposed

  15. Improved Semantic Representations From Tree-Structured Long Short-Term Memory Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Kai Sheng; Socher, Richard; Manning, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    Because of their superior ability to preserve sequence information over time, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks, a type of recurrent neural network with a more complex computational unit, have obtained strong results on a variety of sequence modeling tasks. The only underlying LSTM structure that has been explored so far is a linear chain. However, natural language exhibits syntactic properties that would naturally combine words to phrases. We introduce the Tree-LSTM, a generalization of...

  16. Post larval, short-term, colonization patterns: The effect of substratum complexity across subtidal, adjacent, habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sanz, Sara; Tuya, Fernando; Navarro, Pablo G.; Angulo-Preckler, Carlos; Haroun, Ricardo J.

    2012-10-01

    Benthic habitats are colonized by organisms from the water column and adjacent habitats. There are, however, variations in the 'acceptability' of any habitat to potential colonists. We assessed whether the structural complexity of artificial substrata affected patterns of short-term colonization of post larval faunal assemblages across subtidal habitats within a coastal landscape. Specifically, we tested whether short-term colonization patterns on 3 types of artificial substrata encompassing a range of complexities, including a leaf-like unit, a cushion-shaped leaf-like unit and a cushion-shaped unit, were consistent across 4 adjacent habitats: macroalgal-dominated bottoms, urchin-grazed barrens, seagrass meadows and sandy patches, at Gran Canaria (eastern Atlantic). A total of 16,174 organisms were collected after 4 weeks and 4 taxonomic groups (Crustacea, Chordata, Echinodermata and Mollusca) dominated the assemblage. Despite considerable among-taxa variability being observed in response to habitat effects, the total abundance of colonizers, as well as the abundance of Arthropoda, Chordata and Echinodermata, was affected by the habitat where collectors were deployed, but did not differ among types of collectors. Similarly, the assemblage structure of colonizers was mainly affected by the habitat, but not by the type of collector; habitat contributed to explain most variation in the assemblage structure of the four dominant taxonomic groups (from ca. 5.44-19.23%), and obscured, in all cases, variation explained by the type of collector. As a result, the variation in short-term colonization patterns of faunal assemblages into artificial collectors was mostly affected by variation associated with habitats rather than by differences in the structural complexity of collectors. The largest abundances of colonizers, particularly Echinodermata, were found on sandy patches relative to other habitats, suggesting that the 'availability', rather than any particular attribute

  17. Very-short-term wind power probabilistic forecasts by sparse vector autoregression.

    OpenAIRE

    Dowell, Jethro; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    A spatio-temporal method for producing very-shortterm parametric probabilistic wind power forecasts at a large number of locations is presented. Smart grids containing tens, or hundreds, of wind generators require skilled very-short-term forecasts to operate effectively, and spatial information is highly desirable. In addition, probabilistic forecasts are widely regarded as necessary for optimal power system management as they quantify the uncertainty associated with point forecasts. Here we ...

  18. Revolutionary interdisciplinary cooperation. Effects of short- term regulation studied in a river environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saimakallio, H.; Virsu, R.

    1996-11-01

    A three-year study on how short-term regulation affects the river environment provides power plant builders with new capabilities to meet the needs of the riverside population, recreational users and power plants. The study also opens up new perspectives to researchers. Interdisciplinary cooperation between experts on the living environment, vegetation, fish, recreational use and energy has been revolutionary even on the international scale. (orig.)

  19. FUNCTIONAL SHORT TERM RECOVERY FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH STROKE A RETROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL COHORT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Corrado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The potential for early functional recovery in stroke patients is the basis for treatment choices and drives the rehabilitation. In this study we aimed to determine the predictive factors for short-term functional recovery in stroke patients admitted in a rehabilitation clinic. Methods: We conducted an analytical, observational, retrospective cohort study on 108 stroke patients at Campolongo Hospital for Rehabilitation. The short-term functional recovery of stroke patients has been studied by the Motricity Index (MI and the Trunk Control Test (TCT in respect of motor recovery, and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM scale about disability. The influence of predictors on short-term functional recovery has been studied by Chi square test. Results: All patients showed a good functional recovery at discharge. Statistically significant correlations have been found between patient’s age and the lack of trunk control at discharge (p = 0.0305, between patient’s age and the value of the Motricity Index at discharge (p = 0.0093, between the presence of aphasia and the severity of motor deficit at discharge (p = 0.0397, between the presence of neglect and the severity of motor deficit at both entry and discharge (p = 0.0051 and p = 0.0031. Conclusion: Our experience suggests that a predictive model of the short-term functional prognosis in early stroke patients allows for the optimization of the treatment and the rehabilitation taking charge. The final result will be an improvement of the patient’s satisfaction and a rationalization in the use of available resources.

  20. Long and Short-Term Memory Processes in Cortically Damaged Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Atkinson , J. R., and Shiffrin , R. M1. (1968) Human Memory : A proposed system and its control processes. In K. W. Spence and J. T. Spence (Eds.), Advances...rehearse and thus penalized the initial region of the curve. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) further elaborated upon the dual storage system. In...Psychology 5 - Shallice, T., and Warrington, E. (1977) Auditory-verbal short- term memory and conduction aphasia. Brain and Language 4, 479-491. Shiffrin , R

  1. Short Term Retention of Temporal Sequence, Spatial Location, and Item Magnitude Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    temporal-spatial pattern coding described in Healy (1975b). References Atkinson , R. C. & Shiffrin , R. M. (1968). Human Memory : A proposed system and it’s...retention intervals, particularly concerning the role of phonetic coding in the retention of temporal information ,(see, e.g., Atkinson and Shiffrin ...size) information are each retained in short-term memory through specific visual and acoustic coding strategies is evaluated. Ninety-six undergraduate

  2. Colour anomia resulting from weakened short-term colour memory. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, J B; Ostergaard, A L

    1984-06-01

    A patient exhibited marked colour anomia without object anomia, but was able to point to named colours. Five experiments were conducted to investigate his immediate colour memory. It was concluded that his colour anomia was the result of an impaired short-term memory deficit specific to colour. Temporary activation of specific entries in the colour lexicon enabled pointing and even naming to take place. A general model incorporating all forms of colour anomia is presented.

  3. ZBF-DMTD SYNTHETICAL METHOD FOR SHORT-TERM FREQUENCY STABILITY MEASUREMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包志华; 曹培培

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a zero beat frequency double mixer time difference (ZBF-DMTD) synthetical method for measuring short-term.frequency stability Allen variance σy2(τ) of frequency sourse. The new method has a high measurement preclsion and is easy to realize and spread in engineering. The paper dlscribes the structure and design of the ZBFDMTD automatic measurement system,and gives the contrast measurement results.

  4. Spatiotemporal discrimination in neural networks with short-term synaptic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlaer, Benjamin; Miller, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Cells in recurrently connected neural networks exhibit bistability, which allows for stimulus information to persist in a circuit even after stimulus offset, i.e. short-term memory. However, such a system does not have enough hysteresis to encode temporal information about the stimuli. The biophysically described phenomenon of synaptic depression decreases synaptic transmission strengths due to increased presynaptic activity. This short-term reduction in synaptic strengths can destabilize attractor states in excitatory recurrent neural networks, causing the network to move along stimulus dependent dynamical trajectories. Such a network can successfully separate amplitudes and durations of stimuli from the number of successive stimuli. Stimulus number, duration and intensity encoding in randomly connected attractor networks with synaptic depression. Front. Comput. Neurosci. 7:59., and so provides a strong candidate network for the encoding of spatiotemporal information. Here we explicitly demonstrate the capability of a recurrent neural network with short-term synaptic depression to discriminate between the temporal sequences in which spatial stimuli are presented.

  5. Persistent spatial information in the frontal eye field during object-based short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kelsey L; Noudoost, Behrad; Moore, Tirin

    2012-08-08

    Spatial attention is known to gate entry into visual short-term memory, and some evidence suggests that spatial signals may also play a role in binding features or protecting object representations during memory maintenance. To examine the persistence of spatial signals during object short-term memory, the activity of neurons in the frontal eye field (FEF) of macaque monkeys was recorded during an object-based delayed match-to-sample task. In this task, monkeys were trained to remember an object image over a brief delay, regardless of the locations of the sample or target presentation. FEF neurons exhibited visual, delay, and target period activity, including selectivity for sample location and target location. Delay period activity represented the sample location throughout the delay, despite the irrelevance of spatial information for successful task completion. Furthermore, neurons continued to encode sample position in a variant of the task in which the matching stimulus never appeared in their response field, confirming that FEF maintains sample location independent of subsequent behavioral relevance. FEF neurons also exhibited target-position-dependent anticipatory activity immediately before target onset, suggesting that monkeys predicted target position within blocks. These results show that FEF neurons maintain spatial information during short-term memory, even when that information is irrelevant for task performance.

  6. MONITORING SHORT-TERM COSMIC-RAY SPECTRAL VARIATIONS USING NEUTRON MONITOR TIME-DELAY MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffolo, D.; Sáiz, A.; Mangeard, P.-S.; Kamyan, N.; Muangha, P. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Nutaro, T.; Rujiwarodom, M.; Tooprakai, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, CHE, Ministry of Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Sumran, S.; Chaiwattana, C.; Gasiprong, N.; Channok, C.; Wuttiya, C. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani 34190 (Thailand); Asavapibhop, B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P. [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Munakata, K., E-mail: david.ruf@mahidol.ac.th [Physics Department, Shinshu University, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)

    2016-01-20

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based detectors of cosmic-ray showers that are widely used for high-precision monitoring of changes in the Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) flux due to solar storms and solar wind variations. In the present work, we show that a single neutron monitor station can also monitor short-term changes in the GCR spectrum, avoiding the systematic uncertainties in comparing data from different stations, by means of NM time-delay histograms. Using data for 2007–2014 from the Princess Sirindhorn Neutron Monitor, a station at Doi Inthanon, Thailand, with the world’s highest vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidity of 16.8 GV, we have developed an analysis of time-delay histograms that removes the chance coincidences that can dominate conventional measures of multiplicity. We infer the “leader fraction” L of neutron counts that do not follow a previous neutron count in the same counter from the same atmospheric secondary, which is inversely related to the actual multiplicity and increases for increasing GCR spectral index. After correction for atmospheric pressure and water vapor, we find that L indicates substantial short-term GCR spectral hardening during some but not all Forbush decreases in GCR flux due to solar storms. Such spectral data from Doi Inthanon provide information about cosmic-ray energies beyond the Earth’s maximum geomagnetic cutoff, extending the reach of the worldwide NM network and opening a new avenue in the study of short-term GCR decreases.

  7. Dendritic hold and read: a gated mechanism for short term information storage and retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariton D Santos

    Full Text Available Two contrasting theories have been proposed to explain the mechanistic basis of short term memory. One theory posits that short term memory is represented by persistent neural activity supported by reverberating feedback networks. An alternate, more recent theory posits that short term memory can be supported by feedforward networks. While feedback driven memory can be implemented by well described mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, little is known of possible molecular and cellular mechanisms that can implement feedforward driven memory. Here we report such a mechanism in which the memory trace exists in the form of glutamate-bound but Mg(2+-blocked NMDA receptors on the thin terminal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Because glutamate dissociates from subsets of NMDA receptors very slowly, excitatory synaptic transmission can leave a silent residual trace that outlasts the electrical activity by hundreds of milliseconds. Read-out of the memory trace is possible if a critical level of these bound-but-blocked receptors accumulates on a dendritic branch that will allow these quasi-stable receptors to sustain a regenerative depolarization when triggered by an independent gating signal. This process is referred to here as dendritic hold and read (DHR. Because the read-out of the input is not dependent on repetition of the input and information flows in a single-pass manner, DHR can potentially support a feedforward memory architecture.

  8. Representation of Instantaneous and Short-term Loudness in the Human Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eThwaites

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic signals pass through numerous transforms in the auditory system before perceptual attributes such as loudness and pitch are derived. However, relatively little is known as to exactly when these transformations happen, and where, cortically or sub-cortically, they occur. In an effort to examine this, we investigated the latencies and locations of cortical entrainment to two transforms predicted by a model of loudness perception for time-varying sounds: the transforms were instantaneous loudness and short-term loudness, where the latter is hypothesized to be derived from the former and therefore should occur later in time. Entrainment of cortical activity was estimated by electro- and magneto-encephalographic (EMEG activity, recorded while healthy subjects listened to continuous speech. There was entrainment to instantaneous loudness bilaterally at 45 ms, 100 ms and 165 ms, in Heschl’s gyrus, dorsal lateral sulcus and Heschl’s gyrus respectively. Entrainment to short-term loudness was found in both the dorsal lateral sulcus and superior temporal sulcus at 275 ms. These results suggest that short-term loudness is derived from instantaneous loudness, and that this derivation occurs after processing in sub-cortical structures.

  9. Intensive video gaming improves encoding speed to visual short-term memory in young male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Inge L; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of action video gaming on central elements of visual attention using Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention. To examine the cognitive impact of action video gaming, we tested basic functions of visual attention in 42 young male adults. Participants were divided into three groups depending on the amount of time spent playing action video games: non-players (15h/month, N=20). All participants were tested in three tasks which tap central functions of visual attention and short-term memory: a test based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), an enumeration test and finally the Attentional Network Test (ANT). The results show that action video gaming does not seem to impact the capacity of visual short-term memory. However, playing action video games does seem to improve the encoding speed of visual information into visual short-term memory and the improvement does seem to depend on the time devoted to gaming. This suggests that intense action video gaming improves basic attentional functioning and that this improvement generalizes into other activities. The implications of these findings for cognitive rehabilitation training are discussed.

  10. Research on short-term curative effect of VATS-assisted NUSS procedure in treating PE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Hui Rao; Yun-Han Liu; Jin-Song Liang; Gang Chen; Jian Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the short-term curative effect and the occurrence of postoperative complications of VATS-assisted NUSS procedure in treating congenital pectus excavatum (PE). Methods: 96 patients with congenital PE admitted into our hospital from March, 2008 to June, 2014 were chosen and divided into the study group and the control group randomly. Patients in the study group received VATS-assisted NUSS procedure while patients in the control group were treated with traditional NUSS procedure. Blood pressure, heart rate, operating time, blood loss, the length of hospital stay and ICU stay of all the patients during perioperative period were recorded. And a three-month follow-up was performed to record the short-term curative effects and the occurrence of postoperative complications.Results: The operating time, blood loss, length of hospital stay of the study group were remarkably less than those of the control group (P0.05). The excellent and good rate of curative effect and the total score of M-SSQ of the study group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.05), while the occurrence of postoperative complications of the study group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions: With better short-term curative effect and less postoperative complications, VATS-assisted NUSS procedure could be regarded as a reliable and effective therapy for congenital PE.

  11. Short-Term Wind Power Interval Forecasting Based on an EEMD-RT-RVM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixiang Zang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate short-term wind power forecasting is important for improving the security and economic success of power grids. Existing wind power forecasting methods are mostly types of deterministic point forecasting. Deterministic point forecasting is vulnerable to forecasting errors and cannot effectively deal with the random nature of wind power. In order to solve the above problems, we propose a short-term wind power interval forecasting model based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD, runs test (RT, and relevance vector machine (RVM. First, in order to reduce the complexity of data, the original wind power sequence is decomposed into a plurality of intrinsic mode function (IMF components and residual (RES component by using EEMD. Next, we use the RT method to reconstruct the components and obtain three new components characterized by the fine-to-coarse order. Finally, we obtain the overall forecasting results (with preestablished confidence levels by superimposing the forecasting results of each new component. Our results show that, compared with existing methods, our proposed short-term interval forecasting method has less forecasting errors, narrower interval widths, and larger interval coverage percentages. Ultimately, our forecasting model is more suitable for engineering applications and other forecasting methods for new energy.

  12. Ramp Forecasting Performance from Improved Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.; Freedman, J.

    2014-05-01

    The variable and uncertain nature of wind generation presents a new concern to power system operators. One of the biggest concerns associated with integrating a large amount of wind power into the grid is the ability to handle large ramps in wind power output. Large ramps can significantly influence system economics and reliability, on which power system operators place primary emphasis. The Wind Forecasting Improvement Project (WFIP) was performed to improve wind power forecasts and determine the value of these improvements to grid operators. This paper evaluates the performance of improved short-term wind power ramp forecasting. The study is performed for the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) by comparing the experimental WFIP forecast to the current short-term wind power forecast (STWPF). Four types of significant wind power ramps are employed in the study; these are based on the power change magnitude, direction, and duration. The swinging door algorithm is adopted to extract ramp events from actual and forecasted wind power time series. The results show that the experimental short-term wind power forecasts improve the accuracy of the wind power ramp forecasting, especially during the summer.

  13. Prediction of short-term distributions of load extremes of offshore wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-guang

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a new methodology to select an optimal threshold level to be used in the peak over threshold (POT) method for the prediction of short-term distributions of load extremes of offshore wind turbines. Such an optimal threshold level is found based on the estimation of the variance-to-mean ratio for the occurrence of peak values, which characterizes the Poisson assumption. A generalized Pareto distribution is then fitted to the extracted peaks over the optimal threshold level and the distribution parameters are estimated by the method of the maximum spacing estimation. This methodology is applied to estimate the short-term distributions of load extremes of the blade bending moment and the tower base bending moment at the mudline of a monopile-supported 5MW offshore wind turbine as an example. The accuracy of the POT method using the optimal threshold level is shown to be better, in terms of the distribution fitting, than that of the POT methods using empirical threshold levels. The comparisons among the short-term extreme response values predicted by using the POT method with the optimal threshold levels and with the empirical threshold levels and by using direct simulation results further substantiate the validity of the proposed new methodology.

  14. Prediction of short-term distributions of load extremes of offshore wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-guang

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a new methodology to select an optimal threshold level to be used in the peak over threshold (POT) method for the prediction of short-term distributions of load extremes of offshore wind turbines. Such an optimal threshold level is found based on the estimation of the variance-to-mean ratio for the occurrence of peak values, which characterizes the Poisson assumption. A generalized Pareto distribution is then fitted to the extracted peaks over the optimal threshold level and the distribution parameters are estimated by the method of the maximum spacing estimation. This methodology is applied to estimate the short-term distributions of load extremes of the blade bending moment and the tower base bending moment at the mudline of a monopile-supported 5MW offshore wind turbine as an example. The accuracy of the POT method using the optimal threshold level is shown to be better, in terms of the distribution fitting, than that of the POT methods using empirical threshold levels. The comparisons among the short-term extreme response values predicted by using the POT method with the optimal threshold levels and with the empirical threshold levels and by using direct simulation results further substantiate the validity of the proposed new methodology.

  15. Conversion of short-term to long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shannon J; Deshpande, Kaivalya; Stinnett, Gwen S; Seasholtz, Audrey F; Murphy, Geoffrey G

    2013-10-01

    It is well-known that stress can significantly impact learning; however, whether this effect facilitates or impairs the resultant memory depends on the characteristics of the stressor. Investigation of these dynamics can be confounded by the role of the stressor in motivating performance in a task. Positing a cohesive model of the effect of stress on learning and memory necessitates elucidating the consequences of stressful stimuli independently from task-specific functions. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating a task-independent stressor (elevated light level) on short-term and long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm. Short-term memory was elicited in both low light and high light conditions, but long-term memory specifically required high light conditions during the acquisition phase (familiarization trial) and was independent of the light level during retrieval (test trial). Additionally, long-term memory appeared to be independent of stress-mediated glucocorticoid release, as both low and high light produced similar levels of plasma corticosterone, which further did not correlate with subsequent memory performance. Finally, both short-term and long-term memory showed no savings between repeated experiments suggesting that this novel object recognition paradigm may be useful for longitudinal studies, particularly when investigating treatments to stabilize or enhance weak memories in neurodegenerative diseases or during age-related cognitive decline.

  16. Improvements over time in short-term mortality following myocardial infarction in the D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatleberg, Camilla Ingrid; Nielsen, Lene Ryom; El-Sadr, Wafaa;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Few studies have described mortality and clinical outcomes after myocardial infarction (MI) in the HIV-positive population. This study evaluated changes in short-term mortality after MI in HIV-positive individuals in the D:A:D Study, and investigated possible reasons for any changes se...... in short-term survival after MI appear to be largely driven by improved medical management of CVD risk in HIV-positive individuals after MI. Efforts are still needed to treat CVD risk factors and increase access to CVD-related interventions.......OBJECTIVE: Few studies have described mortality and clinical outcomes after myocardial infarction (MI) in the HIV-positive population. This study evaluated changes in short-term mortality after MI in HIV-positive individuals in the D:A:D Study, and investigated possible reasons for any changes seen...... in the first month after MI were identified using logistic regression with adjustment for confounders, including interventions received in the first month after MI. RESULTS: 1008 HIV-positive individuals experiencing an MI over the period 1999-2014 were included. The absolute number of MIs decreased from 214...

  17. Short-term use of antiepileptic drugs is neurotoxic to the immature brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the long-term use of antiepileptic drugs can cause nervous system damage. However, short-term antiepileptic drug treatment is frequently given to infants, especially neonates, to control seizure. Whether the short-term use of antiepileptic drugs is neurotoxic remains unclear. In the present study, immature rats, 3-21 days of age, were intraperitoneally injected with phenobarbital and/or topiramate for 3 consecutive days. Hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining revealed that phenobarbital and topiramate, individually or in combination, were cytotoxic to hippocampal CA1 neurons and inhibited the expression of GluR1 and NR2B, excitatory glutamate receptor subunits. Furthermore, the combination of the two drugs caused greater damage than either drug alone. The results demonstrate that the short-term use of antiepileptic drugs damages neurons in the immature brain and that the combined use of antiepileptic drugs exacerbates damage. Our findings suggest that clinicians should consider the potential neurotoxic risk associated with the combined use of antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of seizure.

  18. Monitoring Short-term Cosmic-ray Spectral Variations Using Neutron Monitor Time-delay Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffolo, D.; Sáiz, A.; Mangeard, P.-S.; Kamyan, N.; Muangha, P.; Nutaro, T.; Sumran, S.; Chaiwattana, C.; Gasiprong, N.; Channok, C.; Wuttiya, C.; Rujiwarodom, M.; Tooprakai, P.; Asavapibhop, B.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Munakata, K.

    2016-01-01

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based detectors of cosmic-ray showers that are widely used for high-precision monitoring of changes in the Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) flux due to solar storms and solar wind variations. In the present work, we show that a single neutron monitor station can also monitor short-term changes in the GCR spectrum, avoiding the systematic uncertainties in comparing data from different stations, by means of NM time-delay histograms. Using data for 2007-2014 from the Princess Sirindhorn Neutron Monitor, a station at Doi Inthanon, Thailand, with the world’s highest vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidity of 16.8 GV, we have developed an analysis of time-delay histograms that removes the chance coincidences that can dominate conventional measures of multiplicity. We infer the “leader fraction” L of neutron counts that do not follow a previous neutron count in the same counter from the same atmospheric secondary, which is inversely related to the actual multiplicity and increases for increasing GCR spectral index. After correction for atmospheric pressure and water vapor, we find that L indicates substantial short-term GCR spectral hardening during some but not all Forbush decreases in GCR flux due to solar storms. Such spectral data from Doi Inthanon provide information about cosmic-ray energies beyond the Earth’s maximum geomagnetic cutoff, extending the reach of the worldwide NM network and opening a new avenue in the study of short-term GCR decreases.

  19. Short-term compassion training increases prosocial behavior in a newly developed prosocial game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Leiberg

    Full Text Available Compassion has been suggested to be a strong motivator for prosocial behavior. While research has demonstrated that compassion training has positive effects on mood and health, we do not know whether it also leads to increases in prosocial behavior. We addressed this question in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we introduce a new prosocial game, the Zurich Prosocial Game (ZPG, which allows for repeated, ecologically valid assessment of prosocial behavior and is sensitive to the influence of reciprocity, helping cost, and distress cues on helping behavior. Experiment 2 shows that helping behavior in the ZPG increased in participants who had received short-term compassion training, but not in participants who had received short-term memory training. Interindividual differences in practice duration were specifically related to changes in the amount of helping under no-reciprocity conditions. Our results provide first evidence for the positive impact of short-term compassion training on prosocial behavior towards strangers in a training-unrelated task.

  20. Short-term and long-term earthquake occurrence models for Italy: ETES, ERS and LTST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Murru

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study describes three earthquake occurrence models as applied to the whole Italian territory, to assess the occurrence probabilities of future (M ≥5.0 earthquakes: two as short-term (24 hour models, and one as long-term (5 and 10 years. The first model for short-term forecasts is a purely stochastic epidemic type earthquake sequence (ETES model. The second short-term model is an epidemic rate-state (ERS forecast based on a model that is physically constrained by the application to the earthquake clustering of the Dieterich rate-state constitutive law. The third forecast is based on a long-term stress transfer (LTST model that considers the perturbations of earthquake probability for interacting faults by static Coulomb stress changes. These models have been submitted to the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP for forecast testing for Italy (ETH-Zurich, and they were locked down to test their validity on real data in a future setting starting from August 1, 2009.