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Sample records for analyzing hormon testosterone

  1. KAJIAN TERAPI AKUPUNKTUR TERHADAP KADAR HORMON TESTOSTERON PRIA USIA LANJUT

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    Bambang Wasito Tjipto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testosterone was the most important androgen secreted into the blood in males. It was responsible for development of secondary male sex characteristics and its measurements are helpful in evaluating the hypogonadal states. Decreasing of testosterone in males started in middle age, about 45–59 years old. It is responsible of decreasing muscle mass and strength, increasing of body fat especially abdominal fat and gynecomastia, less of libido and sexual intercourse frequency, increase of erectile dysfunction. Objective: The objective of this study was conducted stimulation on acupuncture reproduction point to increase testosterone hormone level in elder’s men. Methods: The study used non randomized experiment pre- post test without control group design, the samples was 40 older men, about 50 – more than 70 years old. The stimulation on acupuncture point CV-4, Sp-6, LV-3, and ST-36, on older men were given five times per week, for ten treatments, before treatment each patient was determined the concentration of testosterone hormone and after ten times acupuncture treatment. Results: 15 old men, have increased testosterone level, 20 old men have decreased testosterone level, and 16 old men have no changes in libido after ten times acupuncture treatment. Not all responder after therapy acupuncture ten times at reproduction point have increased of hormone testosterone. Most of 50–69 year men have increased testosterone level. Men above 70 year have no changes testosterone level. There were 24 old men have changes in libido without increased testosterone level. Conclusion: acupuncture may used as alternative therapy to increased testosterone level and libido for elderly men. Key words: Acupuncture, testosterone hormone, old men

  2. Shaped and Balanced by Hormones : cortisol, testosterone and the psychoneuroendocrinology of human socio-emotional behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormones testosterone and cortisol can be considered hormones for environmental challenges; they are involved in adaptive neural and behavioral responses towards emotional stimuli. A key challenge of human psychoneuroendocrinology is to unravel the neural mechanisms by which testosterone

  3. Testosterone supports hormone-dependent aggression in female rats.

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    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L; Petrovic, D M

    1989-08-01

    Female hooded rats were ovariectomized and implanted with a single testosterone-filled Silastic tube or an empty tube. The tube size was one which allowed a release of testosterone at the high end of the mean normal serum testosterone concentration for intact females. Following a 7-day recovery period, all rats were placed on a 23-hr food-deprivation schedule and adapted to a highly palatable liquid food over a 5-day period. Each animal with a testosterone implant was then housed with an animal of similar weight but an empty implant. The pairs were subjected to a series of 3 restricted-access competition tests (1/day) followed 4 days later by a series of 3 free-access competition tests. The animals were then separated, adapted to a bland liquid food, and paired with new partners. They were then subjected to the restricted- and free-access food-competition tests but with bland food as the incentive. During the first 6 competition tests there were no significant differences between groups in aggression or in time spent licking at the food spout. During the second series of tests, females with testosterone implants were more aggressive and more successful at maintaining access to the food than were their competitors with empty implants. The difference between groups occurred during the free- as well as the restricted-access tests. The effectiveness of physiological levels of testosterone in supporting aggression is attributed to the use of a test situation that activates as well as elicits hormone-dependent aggression. These results suggest that testosterone may be the hormonal substrate for hormone-dependent aggression in female rats.

  4. "PRELIMINARY SCREENING FOR THE LEVELS OF TESTOSTERONE HORMONE IN THE MARKET MEAT IN TEHRAN "

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    M. R. Oveisi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Many xenobiotic and natural compounds such as testosterone have been used and sometime misused to improve the growth of cattle and other livestock animals. In order to control the testosterone hormone residues in meat and to ensure the safety of Iranian consumers, a monitoring system must be put in place to address the concerns. The present study was undertaken to detect and quantify the levels of testosterone residue in the market meat. Cattle meat samples were collected randomly from the market in Tehran. A total of 120 samples of cattle meat were analyzed for the level of testosterone by Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA method. The average experimental value of testosterone in cattle meat was 810.9 ng/kg. The average value of cattle meat testosterone was significantly upper than FDA (Food and Drug Administration allowable level but was in agreement with the values proposed by JESFA (Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. So it seems that the present status of this anabolic hormone in market meat is not at risk but there is need to routinely monitor this chemical as a food quality control measure.

  5. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone induces thyroxine release together with testosterone in the neotenic axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum.

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    Jacobs, G F; Kühn, E R

    1988-09-01

    In male neotenic axolotls Ambystoma mexicanum plasma concentrations of thyroxine (T4) and testosterone were increased following intravenous injection of 10 micrograms luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. A dose of 50 micrograms influenced only plasma T4 levels. This observation suggests for the first time that a hypothalamic hormone is capable of stimulating the thyroidal axis in the neotenic axolotl.

  6. Hormonal replacement therapy and aging: Asian practical recommendations on testosterone supplementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YoungChanKim

    2003-01-01

    Profound and diffuse alterations in the production of gonadal and adrenal androgens as well as growth hormone are associated with aging. To convey this concept more appropriately, partial endocrine deficiency in the aging male (PEDAM) was introduced as a term for the phenomenon of hormonal alterations in the aging male.Hormones responsible for some of the manifestations associated with male aging are testosterone, growth hormone,dehydroepiansdrosterone (DHEA), melatonin, thyroid hormones and leptin. Of these, testosterone has been widely investigated and its beneficial and adverse effects on male bodily systems are relatively well established. However, a serious body of confusion and misunderstandings surrounding the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of men suspected of having androgen deficiency has been raised. Therefore, it is timely to provide practical criteria for diagnosis and treatment to avoid misconception about the use of testosterone in the aging male. To provide an understanding and information of the issues, the following headings are summarized: (1) Important clinical consideration on testosterone supplementation in the aging male; (2) Asian practical recommendations on testosterone supplementation in the aging male.

  7. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle.

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    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel; Brzezinska, Zofia; Klapcinska, Barbara; Galbo, Henrik; Gorski, Jan

    2010-09-01

    Fatty acids, which are the major cardiac fuel, are derived from lipid droplets stored in cardiomyocytes, among other sources. The heart expresses hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which regulates triglycerides (TG) breakdown, and the enzyme is under hormonal control. Evidence obtained from adipose tissue suggests that testosterone regulates HSL activity. To test whether this is also true in the heart, we measured HSL activity in the left ventricle of sedentary male rats that had been treated with testosterone supplementation or orchidectomy with or without testosterone substitution. Left ventricle HSL activity against TG was significantly elevated in intact rats supplemented with testosterone. HSL activity against both TG and diacylglyceride was reduced by orchidectomy, whereas testosterone replacement fully reversed this effect. Moreover, testosterone increased left ventricle free fatty acid levels, caused an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate metabolism in the heart, and elevated left ventricular phosphocreatine and ATP levels as compared to control rats. These data indicate that testosterone is involved in cardiac HSL activity regulation which, in turn, may affect cardiac lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.

  8. Female hyperandrogenemia and normal serum levels of testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin

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    Karina Danilowicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the reference values usually employed for endocrine biochemical measurements are those suggested by the suppliers of commercial kits despite their advice that each laboratory should set its own reference values. Our objectives were to (i determine reference ranges for serum testosterone (T and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG appropriate to our laboratory and population, and (ii to analyze their influence on evaluating hyperandrogenemia. SHBG and T were measured, and free and bioavailable testosterone calculated, in (a 30 selected non-hyperandrogenic women, (b 87 non-selected healthy female blood donors, (c 53 women with hyperandrogenism, and (d 38 women with hyperandrogenic disorders but without biochemical hyperandrogenemia according to normal ranges suggested by the kit manufacturer. Mean serum SHBG concentrations were significantly different among all four groups. SHBG levels were significantly higher in selected normal women (group a. Using our results for this selected control group as new reference values, 12 out of 38 (31.6% women with hyperandrogenic disorders without apparent hyperandrogenemia (group d were recategorized as hyperandrogenemic. Similarly, 4 out of 63 (6.4% non-selected, normal weight, women (group b, were recategorized as hyperandrogenic. Therefore, the diagnosis of hyperandrogenemia would improve accuracy by using customized reference SHBG values instead of those suggested by the suppliers.

  9. Developmental programming: deficits in reproductive hormone dynamics and ovulatory outcomes in prenatal, testosterone-treated sheep.

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    Veiga-Lopez, A; Ye, W; Phillips, D J; Herkimer, C; Knight, P G; Padmanabhan, V

    2008-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess leads to neuroendocrine, ovarian, and metabolic disruptions, culminating in reproductive phenotypes mimicking that of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective of this study was to determine the consequences of prenatal testosterone treatment on periovulatory hormonal dynamics and ovulatory outcomes. To generate prenatal testosterone-treated females, pregnant sheep were injected intramuscularly (days 30-90 of gestation, term=147 days) with 100 mg of testosterone-propionate in cottonseed oil semi-weekly. Female offspring born to untreated control females and prenatal testosterone-treated females were then studied during their first two breeding seasons. Sheep were given two injections of prostaglandin F2alpha 11 days apart, and blood samples were collected at 2-h intervals for 120 h, 10-min intervals for 8 h during the luteal phase (first breeding season only), and daily for an additional 15 days to characterize changes in reproductive hormonal dynamics. During the first breeding season, prenatal testosterone-treated females manifested disruptions in the timing and magnitude of primary gonadotropin surges, luteal defects, and reduced responsiveness to progesterone negative feedback. Disruptions in the periovulatory sequence of events during the second breeding season included: 1) delayed but increased preovulatory estradiol rise, 2) delayed and severely reduced primary gonadotropin surge in prenatal testosterone-treated females having an LH surge, 3) tendency for an amplified secondary FSH surge and a shift in the relative balance of FSH regulatory proteins, and 4) luteal responses that ranged from normal to anovulatory. These outcomes are likely to be of relevance to developmental origin of infertility disorders and suggest that differences in fetal exposure or fetal susceptibility to testosterone may account for the variability in reproductive phenotypes.

  10. Hormone-dependent aggression in female rats: testosterone implants attenuate the decline in aggression following ovariectomy.

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    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1990-04-01

    Female rats were individually housed with a sterile male for a 4- to 5-week period. Each female was then tested for aggression toward an unfamiliar female intruder at weekly intervals. Those females that displayed a high level of aggression on each of three weekly tests were ovariectomized and given subcutaneous implants of testosterone-filled tubes, ovariectomized and given subcutaneous implants of empty tubes, or sham-ovariectomized and implanted with empty tubes. These implants should produce a serum testosterone concentration of about 0.6 ng/ml, compared to 0.17 ng/ml in intact females. Beginning 1 week postoperatively, the aggression of each female was tested weekly for 4 weeks. Ovariectomized females with testosterone implants displayed a level of aggression significantly higher than that of ovariectomized females with empty implants on 3 of 4 weekly tests. The level of aggression by females with testosterone implants was not significantly different from that of sham-ovariectomized females on the first postoperative test. Additional observations showed that testosterone implants did not produce an increase in aggression in females whose preoperative level of aggression was low. Further, Silastic implants containing estrogen (1 to 2 mm long) sufficient to maintain a serum estrogen level of 20 to 30 pg/ml also attenuated the decline of aggression following ovariectomy. These results suggest that testosterone and estrogen may both contribute to the biological substrate of hormone-dependent aggression in female rats.

  11. Resistance exercise order does not determine postexercise delivery of testosterone, growth hormone, and IGF-1 to skeletal muscle.

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    West, Daniel W D; Cotie, Lisa M; Mitchell, Cameron J; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; MacDonald, Maureen J; Phillips, Stuart M

    2013-02-01

    Does resistance exercise order affect hormone availability? Participants performed arm exercise before and after leg exercise. Hormone delivery was estimated by multiplying brachial artery blood flow and hormone concentrations. Blood flow increased after arm (276%) and leg (193%; both p Testosterone, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 showed with distinct delivery patterns between conditions; however (interactions all p < 0.001), net exposure was similar. The anabolic potential of postexercise hormones was not affected by exercise order.

  12. Interaction of estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone in the modulation of hormone-dependent aggression in the female rat.

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    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1992-10-01

    Female rats that had become aggressive as a result of cohabiting with a sterile male were ovariectomized and implanted with Silastic tubes of estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone, estradiol and testosterone alone, or with empty tubes. The implants were designed to model serum concentrations present during the last week of pregnancy (estradiol, 0.06 ng/ml; testosterone, 2.6 ng/ml; progesterone, 70 ng/ml). Following a test of aggression 1 week postoperatively, estradiol and testosterone implants were replaced with ones designed to maintain the lower hormone levels present following parturition (0.02 ng/ml; 0.6 ng/ml, respectively). Progesterone was not replaced. At the first aggression test, females with estradiol and testosterone alone displayed significantly more aggression than females with these hormones plus progesterone. Both groups were more aggressive than females without hormone replacement. Following the exchange of large implants for small ones, females that previously had progesterone increased in aggression while females that previously had only estradiol and testosterone decreased in aggression. Both groups continued to be more aggressive than the group without hormone replacement. High serum progesterone present near the end of pregnancy appears to moderate the expression of aggression supported by estradiol and testosterone. Conversely, progesterone's decline at parturition appears to produce a rebound facilitation of aggression even though serum estradiol and testosterone simultaneously decline.

  13. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel;

    2010-01-01

    levels, caused an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate metabolism in the heart, and elevated left ventricular phosphocreatine and ATP levels as compared to control rats. These data indicate that testosterone is involved in cardiac HSL activity regulation which, in turn, may affect cardiac lipid......Fatty acids, which are the major cardiac fuel, are derived from lipid droplets stored in cardiomyocytes, among other sources. The heart expresses hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which regulates triglycerides (TG) breakdown, and the enzyme is under hormonal control. Evidence obtained from adipose...... and carbohydrate metabolism....

  14. Characteristics associated with suppression of spermatogenesis in a male hormonal contraceptive trial using testosterone and Nestorone(®) gels.

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    Roth, M Y; Ilani, N; Wang, C; Page, S T; Bremner, W J; Swerdloff, R S; Dart, C; Sitruk-Ware, R; Kumar, N; Blithe, D; Amory, J K

    2013-11-01

    Development of a male hormonal contraceptive has been challenging ascribable to the failure to adequately suppress spermatogenesis in 5-10% of men. Methods to identify incomplete suppressors early in treatment might identify men most responsive to male hormonal contraceptives. We hypothesized that serum hormone and gonadotropin concentrations after 4 weeks of transdermal treatment with testosterone and Nestorone in a contraceptive trial would be associated with suppression of sperm concentrations to male hormonal contraceptive trials.

  15. Testosterone Replacement Therapy Prevents Alterations of Coronary Vascular Reactivity Caused by Hormone Deficiency Induced by Castration.

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    Rouver, Wender Nascimento; Delgado, Nathalie Tristão Banhos; Menezes, Jussara Bezerra; Santos, Roger Lyrio; Moyses, Margareth Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effects of chronic treatment with different doses of testosterone on endothelium-dependent coronary vascular reactivity in male rats. Adult male rats were divided into four experimental groups: control (SHAM), castrated (CAST), castrated and immediately treated subcutaneously with a physiological dose (0.5 mg/kg/day, PHYSIO group) or supraphysiological dose (2.5 mg/kg/day, SUPRA group) of testosterone for 15 days. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was assessed at the end of treatment through tail plethysmography. After euthanasia, the heart was removed and coronary vascular reactivity was assessed using the Langendorff retrograde perfusion technique. A dose-response curve for bradykinin (BK) was constructed, followed by inhibition with 100 μM L-NAME, 2.8 μM indomethacin (INDO), L-NAME + INDO, or L-NAME + INDO + 0.75 μM clotrimazole (CLOT). We observed significant endothelium-dependent, BK-induced coronary vasodilation, which was abolished in the castrated group and restored in the PHYSIO and SUPRA groups. Furthermore, castration modulated the lipid and hormonal profiles and decreased body weight, and testosterone therapy restored all of these parameters. Our results revealed an increase in SBP in the SUPRA group. In addition, our data led us to conclude that physiological concentrations of testosterone may play a beneficial role in the cardiovascular system by maintaining an environment that is favourable for the activity of an endothelium-dependent vasodilator without increasing SBP.

  16. Testosterone Replacement Therapy Prevents Alterations of Coronary Vascular Reactivity Caused by Hormone Deficiency Induced by Castration.

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    Wender Nascimento Rouver

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the effects of chronic treatment with different doses of testosterone on endothelium-dependent coronary vascular reactivity in male rats. Adult male rats were divided into four experimental groups: control (SHAM, castrated (CAST, castrated and immediately treated subcutaneously with a physiological dose (0.5 mg/kg/day, PHYSIO group or supraphysiological dose (2.5 mg/kg/day, SUPRA group of testosterone for 15 days. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was assessed at the end of treatment through tail plethysmography. After euthanasia, the heart was removed and coronary vascular reactivity was assessed using the Langendorff retrograde perfusion technique. A dose-response curve for bradykinin (BK was constructed, followed by inhibition with 100 μM L-NAME, 2.8 μM indomethacin (INDO, L-NAME + INDO, or L-NAME + INDO + 0.75 μM clotrimazole (CLOT. We observed significant endothelium-dependent, BK-induced coronary vasodilation, which was abolished in the castrated group and restored in the PHYSIO and SUPRA groups. Furthermore, castration modulated the lipid and hormonal profiles and decreased body weight, and testosterone therapy restored all of these parameters. Our results revealed an increase in SBP in the SUPRA group. In addition, our data led us to conclude that physiological concentrations of testosterone may play a beneficial role in the cardiovascular system by maintaining an environment that is favourable for the activity of an endothelium-dependent vasodilator without increasing SBP.

  17. Anabolic processes in human skeletal muscle: restoring the identities of growth hormone and testosterone.

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    West, Daniel W D; Phillips, Stuart M

    2010-10-01

    Testosterone supplementation acts via numerous mechanisms as a highly potent anabolic agent to skeletal muscle. Although growth hormone (GH) strongly affects collagen synthesis and lipolysis, as well as increasing lean body mass, it is not anabolic toward the contractile (ie, myofibrillar) muscle tissue in healthy individuals. However, there is a persistent belief (both in scientific literature and among recreational weightlifters) that exercise-induced release of GH and testosterone underpins muscular hypertrophy with resistance training. This is a premature assumption because although pharmacological GH supplementation can increase muscle strength or size in individuals with clinical GH deficiency, there is no evidence that transient exercise-induced changes in GH have the same effects in individuals with normal GH levels. Exercise paradigms are designed based on the assumption (not necessarily evidenced-based mechanisms) that GH and testosterone facilitate anabolic processes that lead to skeletal muscle protein accretion and hypertrophy. Our recent work disputes this assumption. Instead, our data indicate that exercise-induced hormonal elevations do not enhance intracellular markers of anabolic signaling or the acute postexercise elevation of myofibrillar protein synthesis. Furthermore, data from our training study demonstrate that exercise-induced increases in GH and testosterone availability are not necessary for and do not enhance strength and hypertrophy adaptations. Instead, our data lead us to conclude that local mechanisms that are intrinsic to the skeletal muscle tissue performing the resistive contractions (ie, weightlifting) are predominant in stimulating anabolism. The purpose of this article is 1) to provide a brief overview of the mechanisms of action of testosterone and GH; 2) to discuss the inability of physiological exercise-induced elevations in these hormones to have a measurable impact on skeletal muscle anabolism; and 3) to describe factors

  18. Hormone-dependent aggression in male rats is proportional to serum testosterone concentration but sexual behavior is not.

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    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Watson, N V; Gorzalka, B B; Walsh, M L

    1990-09-01

    Male hooded rats were castrated and implanted with Silastic capsules (1.57 mm i.d.; 3.18 mm o.d.) having a testosterone-filled space 0, 7, 22, 60, or 90 mm long. All animals were returned to their original group cages for a three-week period to allow hormone concentrations and behavioral tendencies to stabilize. Each male was then housed with an intact female in a large cage. Aggression by the male toward an unfamiliar male was tested at weekly intervals for three weeks. Sexual behavior with an estrogen/progesterone-primed ovariectomized female was tested on each of the subsequent two weeks. Serum testosterone was measured during the following week. The frequency of aggression was correlated with serum testosterone concentration up to the normal level and did not increase with higher serum testosterone concentrations. In contrast, sexual behavior was virtually absent in animals with no testosterone replacement and normal in all other groups. These results demonstrate a clear dissociation in the dependence of hormone-dependent aggression and sexual behavior on serum testosterone concentration. In a male cohabiting with a female, sexual experience activates hormone-dependent aggression toward an unfamiliar male but the level of aggression that develops depends on the serum testosterone concentration in the resident male.

  19. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields of Cellular Phone on Cortisol and Testosterone Hormones Rate in Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus

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    A.R. Karami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of exposure to a 950MHz electromagnetic field (EMF emitted from cellular phones on serum testosterone and cortisol hormones rate of adult male Syrian Hamster were evaluated. Seventy two male Hamster in 3 groups include: group 1 or control group, group 2 or expose for 10 days and under 950 MHz EMF (emitted from Cellular Phone for 1 h daily group 3 or expose for 50 days and under 950 MHz EMF for 1 h daily. In final, blood samples collected for determine of the testosterone and cortisol concentration in the serum. Results showed that in long term exposure EMF (group 3 testosterone and cortisol levels were increased (p<0.01, but both of cortisol and testosterone hormones in short term EMF exposure (group 2 did not significantly change. In conclusion, long-term exposure of cellular phones EMF may affect the reproductive activity and impair endocrine homeostasis and it may cause peripheral effects.

  20. The growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor axis during testosterone replacement therapy in GH-treated hypopituitary males

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    Fisker, Sidse; Nørrelund, Helene; Juul, A;

    2001-01-01

    -independent effect on IGF-I and related parameters. Eight adult hypopituitary men (39.9 +/- 5.7 years) receiving growth hormone (GH) and testosterone replacement therapy (250 mg testosterone enantate every fourth week) participated in this prospective study. Frequent blood samples were drawn over a 5 week period...... (ANOVA, P = 0.08). Prostate-specific antigen tended slightly to increase after each testosterone injection (ANOVA, P = 0.08, post hoc, NS). We conclude that major changes in total IGF-I are not induced during conventional intramuscular testosterone replacement in GH-treated hypopituitary males......Several studies suggest a direct effect of sex steroids on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) production. Oestrogen has been hypothesized directly to inhibit hepatic IGF-I production, but the role of androgens is not clarified. We aimed to investigate whether testosterone exerts a pituitary...

  1. Osteocalcin induces growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 system by promoting testosterone synthesis in male mice.

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    Li, Y; Li, K

    2014-10-01

    Osteocalcin has been shown to enhance testosterone production in men. In the present study, we investigated the effects of osteocalcin on testosterone and on induction of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis. Osteocalcin injection stimulated growth, which could be inhibited by castration. In addition, osteocalcin induced testosterone secretion in testes both in vivo and in vitro. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, we showed that growth hormone expression was significantly increased in the pituitary after osteocalcin injection (pGrowth hormone expression in CLU401 mouse pituitary cells was also significantly stimulated (pgrowth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 (pgrowth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 expression in NCTC1469 cells. These results suggest that the growth-stimulating activities of osteocalcin are mediated by testicular testosterone secretion, and thus provide valuable information regarding the regulatory effects of osteocalcin expression on the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis via reproductive activities.

  2. The influence of the training of resistance and the aerobic training on the hormonal concentrations of testosterone and cortisol

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    M.R. Araújo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to review the influence of aerobic training and resistance in the acute and chronic concentrations of hormones testosterone and cortisol. In addition, it looks at other important factors, such as age, feeding and circadian rhythm which can modify the concentration of testosterone and cortisol acutely thus making it difficult the understanding of the hormonal answers unchained by the training. Although the diverse controversies found in the present study, the periodical and high intensity activitiesseem to stimulate bigger releases of testosterone and little release of cortisol, contributing , consequently, to the levels of force and muscular hypertrophy. However, new studies need to be carried out with adjusted delineations respecting the diverse interactions (feeding, age, sex, level of experience with the physical training, etc. that involve the physical training.

  3. Aggression by ovariectomized female rats: combined testosterone/estrogen implants support the development of hormone-dependent aggression.

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    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1990-05-01

    Female hooded rats were ovariectomized and implanted with a single estrogen-filled and a single testosterone-filled Silastic tube. Control animals were ovariectomized and implanted with empty tubes. The implants produced an estrogen concentration of 30 pg/ml and a testosterone concentration of 0.25 ng/ml, levels close to those found in intact females. Two weeks following surgery, all animals were housed in individual cages, placed on a 23-hr food-deprivation schedule, and adapted to a liquid food. They were then housed in hormone-implant/empty-implant pairs and given a series of 3 restricted-access competition tests and 3 free-access competition tests (1/day). The animals were then paired with new partners and given a second series of restricted-access and free-access competition tests. Ovariectomized females with hormone implants were more successful at maintaining access to the liquid food and more aggressive than their competitors without hormone replacement. The aggression was used to maintain access to food during free-access as well as restricted-access competition. Following the competition tests, animals with hormone implants were significantly more aggressive toward an unfamiliar conspecific than were their cagemates with empty implants. The level of success and aggression by females with testosterone + estrogen implants appears greater than that which occurs with either hormone alone and comparable to that observed in intact females.

  4. Quantitative and qualitative changes in serum luteinizing hormone after injectable testosterone undecanoate treatment in hypogonadal men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-QunGU; Zheng-YanGE; Gui-YuanZHANG; WilliamJ.Bremner

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To clarify the immuno-active LH (i-LH) and bioactive LH (b-LH) responses and qualitative changes in the circulating LH to testosterone undecanoate (TU) injection. Methods: Eight men with Klinefelter's syndrome were recruited for the study. They received crossover injections of TU at doses of 500 and 1000 mg. Serum i-LH and b-LH levels before and at various time intervals after TU injection were measured and the serum i-LH, b-LH, b-LH/i-LH (B/I) and testosterone/sex hormone-binding globulin (T/SHBG) ratio in LH-responders and LH non-responders were compared. Results: A parallel suppression of serum i-LH and b-LH was consistent with their overall high correlation between each other (r = 0.84, P < 0. 001). Mean serum i-FSH levels were decreased by TU injection at both doses without dose-response effects. LH-responders had lower baseline serum i-LH and b-LH, and higher E2 levels and T/SHBG ratio. There was a quantitative change in serum LH as induced by TU without qualitative change within LH-responders os LH-non-responders. Conclusion: A high loading dose (1000 mg) of TU is important for the initial suppression of LH. With the lower dose (500 mg), repeated injections will be required to attain such LH suppression for the purpose of fertility regulation. The lower baseline serum i-LH level may be an intrinsic characteristic of LH-responders. ( Asian J Androl 2000 ; 2 : 65 - 71 )

  5. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral testosterone enanthate plus dutasteride for 4 weeks in normal men: implications for male hormonal contraception.

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    Amory, John K; Kalhorn, Thomas F; Page, Stephanie T

    2008-01-01

    Oral administration of testosterone enanthate (TE) and dutasteride increases serum testosterone and might be useful for male hormonal contraception. To ascertain the contraceptive potential of oral TE and dutasteride by determining the degree of gonadotropin suppression mediated by 4 weeks of oral TE plus dutasteride, 20 healthy young men were randomly assigned to 4 weeks of either 400 mg oral TE twice daily or 800 mg oral TE once daily in a double-blinded, controlled fashion at a single site. All men received 0.5 mg dutasteride daily. Blood for measurement of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, dihydrotesterone (DHT), and estradiol was obtained prior to treatment, weekly during treatment, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 13, 14, 16, 20, and 24 hours after the morning dose on the last day of treatment. FSH was significantly suppressed throughout treatment with 800 mg TE once daily and after 4 weeks of treatment with 400 mg TE twice daily. LH was significantly suppressed after 2 weeks of treatment with 800 mg TE, but not with 400 mg TE. Serum DHT was suppressed and serum estradiol increased during treatment in both groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was suppresed during treatment, but liver function tests, hematocrit, creatinine, mood, and sexual function were unaffected. The administration of 800 mg oral TE daily combined with dutasteride for 28 days significantly suppresses gonadotropins without untoward side effects and might have utility as part of a male hormonal contraceptive regimen.

  6. Hormone-dependent aggression in the female rat: testosterone plus estradiol implants prevent the decline in aggression following ovariectomy.

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    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1991-04-01

    Female rats were individually housed with a sterile male for the duration of the experiment. Beginning 7 to 10 weeks after the start of cohabitation, each female was tested for aggression toward an unfamiliar female at weekly intervals for 3 weeks. Females that displayed consistent and substantial aggression were given one of the following treatments: ovariectomy followed by both testosterone and estradiol implants, ovariectomy followed by 2 empty implants, or sham ovariectomy followed by 2 empty implants. The implants were subcutaneously placed hormone-filled Silastic capsules. They were expected to produce a serum testosterone concentration of 0.5 ng/ml and an estradiol concentration of 15 pg/ml. Postoperatively, the aggression of each female continued to be assessed on a weekly basis for 3 weeks. Ovariectomized females with hormone implants displayed a level of aggression postoperatively similar to that of sham-ovariectomized females and significantly greater than that of ovariectomized females with empty implants. These results, together with others, suggest that estradiol and testosterone act together to form the hormonal foundation of hormone-dependent aggression by females cohabiting with a sterile male.

  7. Women's intercollegiate athletic competition: cortisol, testosterone, and the dual-hormone hypothesis as it relates to status among teammates.

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    Edwards, David A; Casto, Kathleen V

    2013-06-01

    Recent research suggests that testosterone and cortisol jointly regulate dominance motivation and, perhaps, the status relationships that are affected by it. For this article, the results of six different studies of women's intercollegiate athletic competition were combined to give a sample size of almost ninety women for whom we had before- and after-competition values for salivary cortisol and testosterone for at least one and sometimes two competitions. For many of these women, we had surveys that allowed us to assess their status with teammates. In no matter what sport (soccer, softball, volleyball, and tennis) levels of salivary cortisol and testosterone increased when women participated in athletic competition. Salivary levels of C and T appear to rise in parallel during competition and increases in levels of one hormone are significantly related to increases in the other. Salivary levels of these hormones typically decreased for teammates who did not play but watched the competition from the sidelines. For women who played in two competitions, individual differences in the positive effect of competition on cortisol and testosterone were conserved from one competition to the next, affirming the personal consistency of endocrine responses to competition. Status with teammates was positively related to before-competition levels of testosterone, but only for women with relatively low before-competition levels of cortisol. This result provides novel support for the "dual-hormone hypothesis" as it relates to predicting social status in women's athletic teams - natural social groups of individuals who know each other and whose social hierarchy has evolved over the course of practice and play for at least one and, in some cases, several years of intercollegiate athletic competition.

  8. Genome-wide association study of circulating estradiol, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Prescott

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have successfully identified common genetic variants that contribute to breast cancer risk. Discovering additional variants has become difficult, as power to detect variants of weaker effect with present sample sizes is limited. An alternative approach is to look for variants associated with quantitative traits that in turn affect disease risk. As exposure to high circulating estradiol and testosterone, and low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG levels is implicated in breast cancer etiology, we conducted GWAS analyses of plasma estradiol, testosterone, and SHBG to identify new susceptibility alleles. Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS data from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, and Sisters in Breast Cancer Screening data were used to carry out primary meta-analyses among ~1600 postmenopausal women who were not taking postmenopausal hormones at blood draw. We observed a genome-wide significant association between SHBG levels and rs727428 (joint β = -0.126; joint P = 2.09 × 10(-16, downstream of the SHBG gene. No genome-wide significant associations were observed with estradiol or testosterone levels. Among variants that were suggestively associated with estradiol (P<10(-5, several were located at the CYP19A1 gene locus. Overall results were similar in secondary meta-analyses that included ~900 NHS current postmenopausal hormone users. No variant associated with estradiol, testosterone, or SHBG at P<10(-5 was associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk among CGEMS participants. Our results suggest that the small magnitude of difference in hormone levels associated with common genetic variants is likely insufficient to detectably contribute to breast cancer risk.

  9. Effects of growth hormone and testosterone therapy on aerobic and anaerobic fitness , body composition and lipoprotein profile in middle-aged men

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    Adam Zając

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Andropause and aging are associated with neuroendocrine dysfunctions. Growth hormone and testosterone play a significant role in several processes affecting adaptation and thereby also everyday functioning. The aim of this research project was to evaluate the effects of recombinant human growth hormone and testosterone enanthate injections on body mass and body composition, aerobic and anaerobic fitness and lipid profile in middle-aged men. Materials and method. The research group was comprised of 14 men aged 45 – 60 years. Two series of laboratory analyses were performed. Independent tests were carried out at baseline and after 12 weeks of the experiment. The data were analyzed using Statistica 9.1 software. Results. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a statistically significant effect of the intervention programme on fat-free mass (η2=0.34, total body fat (η2=0.79, total cholesterol (η2=0.30, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (η2=0.31, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (η2=0.42, triglyceride (η2=0.28, testosterone (η2=0.52, insulin-like growth factor 1 (η2=0.47 and growth hormone (η2=0.63. Furthermore, ANOVA revealed a statistically significant effect of the rhGH and T treatment on maximal oxygen uptake (η2=0.63, anaerobic threshold (η2=0.61 and maximal work rate (η2=0.53. Conclusion. It should be emphasized that the lipid profile was affected not only by rhGH+T replacement therapy, but also by the prescribed physical activity programme. The strength and endurance fitness programme alone did not cause significant changes in body mass and composition, nor the anaerobic and aerobic capacity. On the other hand, the rhGH=T treatment stimulated these changes significantly.

  10. Primary testicular failure in Klinefelter's syndrome: the use of bivariate luteinizing hormone-testosterone reference charts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels;

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of androgen deficiency is based on clinical features and confirmatory low serum testosterone levels. In early primary testicular failure, a rise in serum LH levels suggests inadequate androgen action for the individual's physiological requirements despite a serum testosterone level ...

  11. [Testosterone therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, T; Hauptmann, A; Wagenlehner, F M E

    2016-04-01

    Hormone replacement therapy with testosterone has become well-established over the course of time. The initial substantial concerns with respect to complications and potential adverse events, particularly in older patients, were proven to be unfounded over time. Testosterone therapy has therefore gradually become a regular treatment modality in urological practice. It has also been shown to represent a valuable tool as supportive treatment for patients with erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism. A variety of testosterone preparations are available for treatment. Recent pharmaceutical developments have greatly improved the practicability and ease of administration for patients. Several guidelines have been developed that provide clearly formulated standards and instructions for indications, contraindications, application, risk factors and monitoring of testosterone therapy. Adverse events affecting the cardiovascular system and especially diseases of the prostate gland are of great importance, thus making the urologist the primary partner in the treatment of patients with testosterone deficiency.

  12. Towards more physiological manipulations of hormones in field studies: comparing the release dynamics of three kinds of testosterone implants, silastic tubing, time-release pellets and beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Rene; Trappschuh, Monika; Gahr, Manfred; Goymann, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    Hormone manipulations are of increasing interest in the areas of physiological ecology and evolution, because hormones are mediators of complex phenotypic changes. Often, however, hormone manipulations in field settings follow the approaches that have been used in classical endocrinology, potentially using supra-physiological doses. To answer ecological and evolutionary questions, it may be important to manipulate hormones within their physiological range. We compare the release dynamics of three kinds of implants, silastic tubing, time-release pellets, and beeswax pellets, each containing 3mg of testosterone. These implants were placed into female Japanese quail, and plasma levels of testosterone measured over a period of 30 days. Testosterone in silastic tubing led to supraphysiological levels. Also, testosterone concentrations were highly variable between individuals. Time-release pellets led to levels of testosterone that were slightly supraphysiological during the first days. Over the period of 30 days, however, testosterone concentrations were more consistent. Beeswax implants led to a physiological increase in testosterone and a relatively constant release. The study demonstrated that hormone implants in 10mm silastic tubing led to a supraphysiological peak in female quail. Thus, the use of similar-sized or even larger silastic implants in males or in other smaller vertebrates needs careful assessment. Time-release pellets and beeswax implants provide a more controlled release and degrade within the body. Thus, it is not necessary to recapture the animal to remove the implant. We propose beeswax implants as an appropriate procedure to manipulate testosterone levels within the physiological range. Hence, such implants may be an effective alternative for field studies.

  13. Hormonal contraception in Chinese men:variations in suppression of spermatogenesis with injectable testosterone undecanoate and levonorgestrel implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-TianLiu; You-LunOui; Cui-HongLin; Chang-HalHe

    2004-01-01

    Aim:To explore the causes of the difference in spermatogenic suppression between responders and non-responders in Chinese men treated with levonorgestrel (LNG) implants plus testosterone undecanoate (TU) injectable.Methods:The 16 Chinese volunteers treated were divided into two groups in regard to the sperm count during the treatment period,7 men in the responder group (Group R),including 6 azoospermia and one severe oligozoospermia,and the remaining 9 in the non-responder group (Group N),including 4 oligozoospermia and 5 with sperm counts greater than 20×106/mL.The differences in serum profiles of FSH,LH,T,LNG and T/LH ratio were compared between the two groups and the correlation between the seminal fluid parameters and serum reproductive hormones was analyzed.Results:The serum FSH level was lower in Group R than that in Group N (P<0.05),while the serum LH and LNG levels were higher in Group R than those in Group N (P<0.05).The sperm density (P<0.01,r=0.235),motility (P<0.01,r=0.326) and vitality (P<0.01,r=0.219) showed significantly positive correlation with the serum FSH level.Conclusion:The blood LNG and T levels,the degree of FSH inhibition and/or the sensitivity of the pituitary-testis axis to exogenous steroids,as well as the individual spermatogenetic potential and the functional status of the Leydig cells may be factors bringing about individual differences in spermatogenic suppression in Chinese men treated with LNG and TU.(Asian J Androl 2004 Mar;6:41-46)

  14. Changes in Testosterone Levels and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Levels in Extremely Obese Men after Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laichuthai, Nitchakarn; Suwannasrisuk, Preaw; Houngngam, Natnicha; Udomsawaengsup, Suthep; Snabboon, Thiti

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Obesity is a risk factor for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in men. Weight loss has been shown to improve hypogonadism in obese men. This study evaluated the early changes in sex hormones profile after bariatric surgery. Methods. This is a prospective study including 29 morbidly obese men. Main outcomes were changes in serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (cFT), SHBG, estradiol, adiponectin, and leptin at 1 and 6 months after surgery. Results. The mean age of patients was 31 ± 8 years and the mean BMI was 56.8 ± 11.7 kg/m2. Fifteen patients underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 14 patients underwent sleeve gastrectomy. At baseline, 22 patients (75.9%) had either low TT levels (<10.4 nmol/L) or low cFT levels (<225 pmol/L). Total testosterone and SHBG levels increased significantly at 1 month after surgery (p ≤ 0.001). At 6 months after surgery, TT and cFT increased significantly (p ≤ 0.001) and 22 patients (75.9%) had normalized TT and cFT levels. There were no changes in estradiol levels at either 1 month or 6 months after surgery. Conclusions. Increases in TT and SHBG levels occurred early at 1 month after bariatric surgery while improvements in cFT levels were observed at 6 months after bariatric surgery.

  15. The Daily Profiles of Circulating AMH and INSL3 in Men are Distinct from the Other Testicular Hormones, Inhibin B and Testosterone.

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    Yih Harng Chong

    Full Text Available The testes secrete four hormones (anti-Müllerian hormone, insulin-like peptide 3, Inhibin B and testosterone from two endocrine cell types. It is unknown whether anti-Müllerian hormone and insulin-like peptide 3 levels have a diurnal variation, and if so, whether they covary during the day with testosterone and InhB. Sera were obtained from 13 men at 00:00, 06:00, 09:00, 12:00, 14:00, 17:00 and 19:00 hours and the levels of their testicular hormones measured by ELISA. A second cohort of 20 men was similarly examined with blood drawn at 19:00 and the following 06:00. Anti-Müllerian hormone levels exhibited a subtle diurnal pattern with a 19:00 peak that was 4.9% higher on average than the 06:00 nadir (p = 0.004. The decrease in anti-Müllerian hormone coincided with a rise in testosterone and InhB, but there was no association between the person-to-person variation in the diurnal patterns of anti-Müllerian hormone and testosterone or Inhibin B. Insulin-like peptide 3 had no diurnal pattern, with only minor sporadic variation between time points being observed in some men. In conclusion, the diurnal and sporadic variation of each testicular hormone is distinct, indicating that the major regulation is at the level of the hormone rather than at the endocrine cell type. Consequently, the balance of the hormones being released by the testes has complex variation during the day. The physiological significance of this will vary depending on which combinations of testicular hormones that the target cells respond to.

  16. The Influence of Physical Training on Blood Levels of Human Growth Hormone, Testosterone and Procollagen in Young Rowers

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    Kaloupsis Socratis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle strength and skeletal age in trained and untrained pubertal boys and its relationship to the levels of Testosterone (T, Growth Hormone (GH and Procollagen (PICP. Methods: Both the exercise and control groups consisted of 24 (mean 12.91, sd = 0.63 and 17 (mean 12.91, sd = 0.48 year old boys, respectively. The exercise group (EG, in addition to school activities, participated in a rowing training program for six months (rowing technique, strength & aerobic exercises, 60 min/day, three days/week. The control group (CG only participated in the school physical education program, two to three times/week. Hormonal concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay techniques. Venus blood samples were taken at rest from both groups. Results: Testosterone was increased in both groups (p<0.001. Significant differences were found within groups in T before training (p<0.01 There was an increase of PICP in EG after training (p<0.01. Differences on GH were observed before the training period in both groups (p<0.01. Both groups significantly differed in upper and lower limbs strengths. Significant correlation was found between PICP and skeletal age in both (p<0.05 and p<0.02, respectively Conclusions: The gains in muscle strength in both groups may partly be explained by the increase in the concentrations of hormone levels and the changes in body size. Key words: skeletal age, muscle strength, anabolic hormones, rowing

  17. Testosterone and growth hormone improve body composition and muscle performance in older men

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONTEXT: Impairments in the pituitary-gonadal axis with aging are associated with loss of muscle mass and function and accumulation of upper body fat. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that physiological supplementation with testosterone and GH together improves body composition and muscle perfor...

  18. Testosterone, Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and the Metabolic Syndrome in Men : An Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Judith S.; Rovers, Maroeska M.; Yeap, Bu B.; Schneider, Harald J.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Haring, Robin; Corona, Giovanni; Onat, Altan; Maggio, Marcello; Bouchard, Claude; Tong, Peter C. Y.; Chen, Richard Y. T.; Akishita, Masahiro; Gietema, Jourik A.; Gannage-Yared, Marie-Helene; Unden, Anna-Lena; Hautanen, Aarno; Goncharov, Nicolai P.; Kumanov, Philip; Chubb, S. A. Paul; Almeida, Osvaldo P.; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Klotsche, Jens; Wallaschofski, Henri; Voelzke, Henry; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T.; Ferrucci, Luigi; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations have been associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in men, but the reported strength of association varies considerably. Objectives: We aimed to investigate whether associations differ across specific

  19. Changes in some blood parameters and production performance of old laying hens due to growth hormone and testosterone injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, H; Ansari-Pirsaraei, Z

    2014-06-01

    The experiment was designed to study the changes in some blood parameters and production performance of old laying hens after injection of different doses of growth hormone (GH) and testosterone (Ts). A total of 160 old laying hens (HyLine W-36) at 73 weeks of age were weighed individually and randomly allocated to four treatments with four replicates and 10 birds in each replicate in a completely randomized design. Growth hormone and Ts hormones were injected subcutaneously. Treatment groups were as follows: treatment 1: injection of 100 μl distiled water (control group), treatment 2: injection of 500 μg Ts/kg live-weight + 50 μgGH/kg live-weight, treatment 3: injection of 500 μgTs/kg live-weight + 100 μgGH/kg live-weight and treatment 4: injection of 500 μgTs/kg live-weight + 150 μgGH/kg live-weight. Plasma levels of oestradiol, T4 , LDL, HDL and cholesterol significantly increased in treatment 3 in relation to the control group. All injected hens showed significantly higher levels of glucose in relation to control group. The results showed the positive effects of GH and Ts administration on production performance and blood parameters which are associated with egg production potentiality and in turn may improve reproductivity (egg production) in old laying hens. The positive results of the study may be useful in animal selection and breeding programmes.

  20. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel;

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acids, which are the major cardiac fuel, are derived from lipid droplets stored in cardiomyocytes, among other sources. The heart expresses hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which regulates triglycerides (TG) breakdown, and the enzyme is under hormonal control. Evidence obtained from adipose...

  1. Gradual reduction of testosterone using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccination delays castration resistance in a prostate cancer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, Jesús A. Junco; Millar, Robert P.; Fuentes, Franklin; Bover, Eddy; Pimentel, Eulogio; Basulto, Roberto; Calzada, Lesvia; Morán, Rolando; Rodríguez, Ayni; Garay, Hilda; Reyes, Osvaldo; Castro, Maria D.; Bringas, Ricardo; Arteaga, Niurka; Toudurí, Henio; Rabassa, Mauricio; Fernández, Yairis; Serradelo, Andrés; Hernández, Eduardo; Guillén, Gerardo E.

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study aimed to design a novel prostate cancer vaccine, the authors of the present study demonstrated the advantage of combining the adjuvants Montanide ISA 51 with very small size proteoliposomes (VSSP) to promote a significant humoral immune response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in healthy animals. The present study compared the efficacy of this vaccine formulation versus the standard treatment currently available in terms of preventing the development of tumors in DD/S mice injected with Shionogi carcinoma (SC) 115 cells. The results demonstrated that 5 non-vaccinated control mice exhibited a fast tumor growth, and succumbed to the disease within 19–31 days. Mice immunized with the GnRH/Montanide ISA 51/VSSP vaccine exhibited a moderate decline in testosterone levels that was associated with a decrease in anti-GnRH antibody titers, which lead to a sustained tumor growth inhibition. In total, 2 mice in the immunized group exhibited complete remission of the tumor for the duration of the present study. In addition, castrated mice, which were used as a control for standard hormonal therapy, exhibited an accelerated decrease in tumor size. However, tumor relapse was observed between days 50 and 54, and between days 65 and 85, following the injection of SC 155 cells. Therefore, these mice were sacrificed at day 90. The present study concludes that the slow and moderate reduction of testosterone levels observed using the GnRH-based vaccine may delay the appearance of castration resistance in a Shionogi prostate cancer model. These findings suggest that this vaccine may be used to delay castration resistance in patients with prostate cancer. PMID:27446378

  2. Testosterone affects neural gene expression differently in male and female juncos: a role for hormones in mediating sexual dimorphism and conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Peterson

    Full Text Available Despite sharing much of their genomes, males and females are often highly dimorphic, reflecting at least in part the resolution of sexual conflict in response to sexually antagonistic selection. Sexual dimorphism arises owing to sex differences in gene expression, and steroid hormones are often invoked as a proximate cause of sexual dimorphism. Experimental elevation of androgens can modify behavior, physiology, and gene expression, but knowledge of the role of hormones remains incomplete, including how the sexes differ in gene expression in response to hormones. We addressed these questions in a bird species with a long history of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis, using a custom microarray. Focusing on two brain regions involved in sexually dimorphic behavior and regulation of hormone secretion, we identified 651 genes that differed in expression by sex in medial amygdala and 611 in hypothalamus. Additionally, we treated individuals of each sex with testosterone implants and identified many genes that may be related to previously identified phenotypic effects of testosterone treatment. Some of these genes relate to previously identified effects of testosterone-treatment and suggest that the multiple effects of testosterone may be mediated by modifying the expression of a small number of genes. Notably, testosterone-treatment tended to alter expression of different genes in each sex: only 4 of the 527 genes identified as significant in one sex or the other were significantly differentially expressed in both sexes. Hormonally regulated gene expression is a key mechanism underlying sexual dimorphism, and our study identifies specific genes that may mediate some of these processes.

  3. Evaluation Of Gonadotropin And Testosterone Hormons In Adult Male Cholestatic Rats

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    Nasiri E

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive cholestasis is associated with overproduction of endogenous opioids (EOP, nitric oxide (NO, and cytokins in the blood streams. Therefore we investigated the relationship between obstructive cholestasis and function of germ cells in adult male rats."nMaterial and Methods: To study this, we used three groups of animals: No-surgery, Sham-surgery, and surgical ligation of the bile duct. After 3 weeks all animal were killed by ether, serum concentrations of FSH, LH and testosterone were determined by Radioimmunoassay, apoptosis was evaluated by DNA fragmentation detected by in situ terminal deoxynucloetidyl Transfrase-mediated dUTP nike end labeling (TUNEL."nResults: The mean of FSH level in cholestatic, control and sham groups were 13.22+ 1.038, 18.14+ 1.276, and 16.92+ 1.072 ng/ml, respectively. The mean of LH level in cholestatic, control and sham groups were 0.83 + 0.21, 2.058 ± 0.26, and 1.84 + 0.17 ng/ml, respectively. In addition, the mean of testosterone level in cholestatic, control and sham groups were 1.52 ± 0.16, 2.41 ± 0.18, and 2.31 + 0.14 ng/ml, respectively. The results of this study were indicated that serum FSH, LH and testosterone were significantly lower in cholestatic than control and sham groups (p=0.0195, P= 0.0029, and P=0.0023, respectively. However there was no significant difference in apoptotic index between all of groups (P=0.195. The apoptotic index in cholestatic, control and sham rats were 9.897± 1.374, 7.086 + 0.91, and 7.729 + 1.101, respectively. "nConclusion: These findings have been shown which as obstructive cholestasis was decreased the levels of serum gonadotropins and testosterone but it has no significant effector testicular germinal cells apoptosis."n"n"n"n 

  4. Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakiyama, R.; Pardridge, W.M.; Musto, N.A.

    1988-07-01

    The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of (/sup 3/H)testosterone or (/sup 3/H)estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of (/sup 3/H)TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane (73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively) was significantly greater than extraction of (/sup 3/H)albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane.

  5. Control of luteinizing hormone and testosterone secretion in a flexibly breeding male passerine, the Rufous-winged Sparrow, Aimophila carpalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviche, Pierre; Small, Thomas; Sharp, Peter; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2006-12-01

    Rufous-winged Sparrows, Aimophila carpalis, reside in the Sonoran desert and although testicular development is initiated in the spring under the influence of increasing day length, breeding occurs opportunistically in summer in association with heavy rainfall or "monsoon". The aim of this study in free-living male Rufous-winged Sparrows was to establish the relationship between concentrations of plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T), and breeding associated with heavy rainfall, and to investigate whether breeding is mediated by changes in pituitary gland sensitivity to gonadotropin releasing hormone-I (GnRH) and the recently discovered avian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). Concentrations of plasma LH and T were relatively low until mid-summer, but increased rapidly and transiently immediately prior to the monsoon which occurred after the summer solstice, when day lengths were decreasing. At this time the birds came into full breeding condition. An injection of chicken GnRH (10 ng) increased plasma LH within 2 min when given before or during the monsoon. An injection of GnIH (1 microg) did not affect plasma LH within 2 min during the monsoon and did not decrease GnRH-elicited LH secretion before or during the monsoon. No experimental treatment affected plasma T concentrations. The data suggest in male Rufous-winged Sparrows that the seasonal increase in plasma LH associated with summer monsoon results from increased stimulation of the pituitary gland by GnRH, rather than from a change in the responsiveness of the gland to GnRH, and that GnIH does not play an acute role in this mechanism. However, a possible chronic role for GnIH in the seasonal control of LH synthesis and secretion through an inhibitory effect on the hypothalamic GnRH system remains to be investigated.

  6. Modulation of catechol estrogen synthesis by rat liver microsomes: effects of treatment with growth hormone or testosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quail, J.A.; Jellinck, P.H.

    1987-09-01

    The ability of GH from various mammalian species, administered to normal mature male rats by constant infusion, to decrease the hepatic 2-hydroxylation of estradiol (E2) to female levels, as measured by the release of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O from (2-3H)E2, was determined. Rat and human GH (hGH) showed the highest activity while ovine GH was inactive. PRL (0.6 IU/h X kg) administered together with hGH (0.02 IU/h X kg) did not antagonize the feminizing action of GH. Infusion of hGH into male rats decreased the affinity of estradiol 2-hydroxylase for its steroid substrate and altered the linear Lineweaver-Burk plot towards a nonlinear hyperbolic plot characteristic of the female. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) for the reaction was 1.69 microM for males and 2.75 microM for testosterone-treated ovariectomized females. An equal mixture of liver microsomes from male and female rats gave kinetic values similar to those observed with males alone. Neonatal imprinting with androgen did not alter the magnitude of the response of female rats to treatment with testosterone and/or GH at maturity and the androgen effect could only be shown in ovariectomized animals. The results with rats of different endocrine status were corroborated by the kinetic data and by the pattern of metabolites obtained with (4-/sup 14/C)E2 when examined by TLC and autoradiography. The hormonal control of estradiol 2-hydroxylase, the key enzyme in catechol estrogen formation, and the contribution of sex-specific multiple forms of the enzyme to this reaction are discussed.

  7. Changes of plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors-I, thyroid hormones, and testosterone concentrations in embryos and broiler chickens incubated under monochromatic green light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that monochromatic green light stimuli during embryogenesis accelerated posthatch body weight and pectoral muscle growth of broilers. In this experiment, we further investigated whether the regulation of broiler embryonic or posthatch growth by green light stimulus during incubation is associated with the changes of some important hormones at different ages of embryos and broiler chickens. Fertile broiler eggs (Arbor Acres, n=880 were pre-weighed and randomly assigned 1 of 2 incubation treatment groups: i dark condition (control group, and ii monochromatic green light group (560 nm. The monochromatic lighting systems sourced from light-emitting diode lamps were equalised at the intensity of 15 lux (lx at eggshell level. The dark condition was set as a commercial control from day one until hatching. After hatch, 120 day-old male chicks from each group were housed under white light with an intensity of 30 lx at bird-head level. Compared with the dark condition, chicks incubated under the green light showed significantly higher growth hormone (GH levels from 19 d of embryogenesis (E19 to 5 d of posthatch (H5, and higher plasma insulinlike growth factor (IGF-I levels from both E17 to E19 and H3 to H35. No significant differences were found in plasma thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and testosterone in embryos or hatched birds between the 2 groups. These results indicate that somatotropic axis hormones (GH and IGF-I may be the most important contributor to chicken growth promoted by green light stimuli during embryogenesis.

  8. The acute testosterone, growth hormone, cortisol and interleukin-6 response to 164-km road cycling in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingren, Jakob L; Budnar, Ronald G; McKenzie, Amy L; Duplanty, Anthony A; Luk, Hui-Ying; Levitt, Danielle E; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the acute endocrine responses to a 164-km road cycling event in a hot environment. Thirty-four male experienced cyclists (49.1 ± 8.3 years, 86.8 ± 12.5 kg, 178.1 ± 5.1 cm) participating in a 164-km road cycling event were recruited. Blood samples were collected within 0.3-2.0 h before the start (PRE: ~0500-0700 h) and immediately following the ride (POST). Samples were analysed for testosterone, growth hormone (GH), cortisol and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The temperature and humidity during the event were 35.3 ± 4.9°C and 47.2 ± 14.0%, respectively. Based on the finishing time, results for the fastest (FAST, 305 ± 10 min) and the slowest (SLOW, 467 ± 31 min) quartiles were compared. At POST, testosterone concentration was significantly (P cortisol (PRE, 661 ± 165; POST, 1073 ± 260 nmol · L(-1)) and IL-6 (PRE, 4.0 ± 3.4; POST, 22.4 ± 15.2 pg · mL(-1)) concentrations were significantly higher than those at PRE. At POST, GH and cortisol were significantly higher for the FAST group than for the SLOW group (GH, 3.6 ± 2.0 and 1.0 ± 0.8 µg · L(-1); cortisol, 1187 ± 209 and 867 ± 215 nmol · L(-1)). Participation in an ultra-endurance road cycling event in a hot environment induced significant acute changes in concentrations of circulating hormones, with a greater augmentation of GH and cortisol in those completing the ride fastest.

  9. Heavy Resistance Training and Supplementation With the Alleged Testosterone Booster Nmda has No Effect on Body Composition, Muscle Performance, and Serum Hormones Associated With the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Resistance-Trained Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryn S. Willoughby

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 28 days of heavy resistance training while ingesting the alleged testosterone-boosting supplement, NMDA, were determined on body composition, muscle strength, serum cortisol, prolactin, and hormones associated with the hypothalamo-pituitary- gonadal (HPG axis. Twenty resistance-trained males engaged in 28 days of resistance training 4 times/wk while orally ingesting daily either 1.78 g of placebo (PLAC or NMDA. Data were analyzed with separate 2 x 2 ANOVA (p 0.05 or supplementation (p > 0.05. In regard to total body mass and fat-free mass, however, each was significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training (p 0.05. In both groups, lower-body muscle strength was significantly increased in response to resistance training (p 0.05. All serum hormones (total and free testosterone, LH, GnRH, estradiol, cortisol, prolactin were unaffected by resistance training (p > 0.05 or supplementation (p > 0.05. The gonadal hormones and cortisol and prolactin were unaffected by 28 days of NMDA supplementation and not associated with the observed increases in muscle strength and mass. At the dose provided, NMDA had no effect on HPG axis activity or ergogenic effects in skeletal muscle.

  10. Effect of plant extract of Tribulus terrestris and probiotics on the reproductive performance, total cholesterol and testosterone hormone levels of rams

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare between the effects of tribulus terrestris extract and probiotics on scrotal circumference, testicular volume, reaction time, semen characteristics, serum total cholesterol and testosterone hormone levels of rams. The study was carried out from February to July 2013 on eight sexually mature Rahmani rams. The eight rams were used as control group for one month before treatment (weekly assessment for all the parameters). Rams were divided into two...

  11. Value of measuring muscle performance to assess changes in lean mass with testosterone and growth hormone supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, E Todd; He, Jiaxiu; Yarasheski, Kevin E; Binder, Ellen F; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen; Bhasin, Shalender; Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Kawakubo, Miwa; Roubenoff, Ronenn; Azen, Stanley P; Sattler, Fred R

    2012-03-01

    We hypothesized that treatment with testosterone (T) and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) would increase lean mass (LM) and muscle strength proportionally and an in a linear manner over 16 weeks. This was a multicenter, randomized, controlled, double-masked investigation of T and rhGH supplementation in older (71 ± 4 years) community-dwelling men. Participants received transdermal T at either 5 or 10 g/day as well as rhGH at 0, 3.0 or 5.0 μg/kg/day for 16 weeks. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and muscle performance by composite one-repetition maximum (1-RM) strength and strength per unit of lean mass (muscle quality, MQ) for five major muscle groups (upper and lower body) at baseline, week 8 and 17. The average change in total LM at study week 8 compared with baseline was 1.50 ± 1.54 kg (P muscle performance did not show substantive improvements at this time point.

  12. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... I should know? How is it used? The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test may be used ...

  13. Order effects of combined strength and endurance training on testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, and IGF-1 binding protein 3 in concurrently trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Claudio; Vilaça-Alves, José; Fernandes, Helder M; Saavedra, Francisco J; Pinto, Ronei S; dos Reis, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent training (CT) has been widely used in fitness centers to simultaneously optimize cardiovascular and neuromuscular fitness, and induce a high-energy expenditure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of 2 different orders of CT on hormonal responses in concurrently trained men. Fourteen men (mean ± SD: 24.7 ± 5.1 years) were randomly divided into 2 groups: endurance training followed by strength (ES, n = 7) and strength training followed by endurance (SE, n = 7). Serum concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, and IGF-1 binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) were measured before and after both training orders. A significant interaction between exercise order and time was only found in the IGFBP-3 levels (p = 0.022). The testosterone and IGFBP-3 concentrations significantly increased in the ES group after the exercise trainings (57.7 ± 35.1%, p = 0.013 and 17.0 ± 15.5%, p = 0.032, respectively) but did not change significantly in the SE group (15.5 ± 36.6%, p = 0.527 and -4.2 ± 13.9%, p = 0.421, respectively). Conversely, cortisol and growth hormone concentrations significantly increased in both ES (169.2 ± 191.0%, p = 0.021 and 13,296.8 ± 13,009.5%, p = 0.013, respectively) and SE (92.2 ± 81.5%, p = 0.017 and 12,346.2 ± 9714.1%, p = 0.001, respectively) groups compared with baseline values. No significant correlations were found between the changes in the hormonal concentrations. In conclusion, these results suggest that immediately postexercise testosterone and IGFPB-3 responses are significantly increased only after the ES order. Therefore, an ES training order should be prescribed if the main focus of the training intervention is to induce an acute postexercise anabolic environment.

  14. Testosterone and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Kartalcı

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Androgens have various effects on human body and mood. Testosterone, a hormone mainly secreted from testes and adrenals, is one of the most potent androgens. Multiple studies have found that testosterone plays a role in regulating sexual activity, libido, social behaviors, aggression, cognitive functions, sleep control and well-being in men and women. Testosterone deficiency in hypogonadic or elderly men leads to neuropsychiatric problems, such as fatigue, loss of libido, irritability, insomnia and depressive mood. Testosterone replacement therapy consistently reverses these sequel in men. On the other hand, hyperandrogenic states in women are related to aggression and antisocial behavior, which might lead to depressive mood. Low testosterone levels may also result in depression among oophorectomized women. Because of such effects, a relationship between testosterone and depression has long been an issue of speculation, but yet very few studies have addressed this relation. Along with clinical studies, experimental and epidemiological studies show that testosterone is related to depression in men and women. But studies of testosterone concentrations in depression have yielded inconsistent results reporting low as well as high testosterone levels associated with depression. In this article, the physiological and psychological effects of testosterone and evidence regarding its relationship to depressive disorders and possible gender differences have been reviewed.

  15. Analyzing Cell Wall Elasticity After Hormone Treatment: An Example Using Tobacco BY-2 Cells and Auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braybrook, Siobhan A

    2017-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy, and related nano-indentation techniques, is a valuable tool for analyzing the elastic properties of plant cell walls as they relate to changes in cell wall chemistry, changes in development, and response to hormones. Within this chapter I will describe a method for analyzing the effect of the phytohormone auxin on the cell wall elasticity of tobacco BY-2 cells. This general method may be easily altered for different experimental systems and hormones of interest.

  16. Heavy Resistance Training and Supplementation With the Alleged Testosterone Booster Nmda has No Effect on Body Composition, Muscle Performance, and Serum Hormones Associated With the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Resistance-Trained Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Darryn S; Spillane, Mike; Schwarz, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The effects of 28 days of heavy resistance training while ingesting the alleged testosterone-boosting supplement, NMDA, were determined on body composition, muscle strength, serum cortisol, prolactin, and hormones associated with the hypothalamo-pituitary- gonadal (HPG) axis. Twenty resistance-trained males engaged in 28 days of resistance training 4 times/wk while orally ingesting daily either 1.78 g of placebo (PLAC) or NMDA. Data were analyzed with separate 2 x 2 ANOVA (p supplementation. No changes were noted for total body water and fat mass in response to resistance training (p > 0.05) or supplementation (p > 0.05). In regard to total body mass and fat-free mass, however, each was significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training (p supplementation (p > 0.05). In both groups, lower-body muscle strength was significantly increased in response to resistance training (p supplementation had no effect (p > 0.05). All serum hormones (total and free testosterone, LH, GnRH, estradiol, cortisol, prolactin) were unaffected by resistance training (p > 0.05) or supplementation (p > 0.05). The gonadal hormones and cortisol and prolactin were unaffected by 28 days of NMDA supplementation and not associated with the observed increases in muscle strength and mass. At the dose provided, NMDA had no effect on HPG axis activity or ergogenic effects in skeletal muscle. Key PointsIn response to 28 days of heavy resistance training and NMDA supplementation, similar increases in muscle mass and strength in both groups occurred; however, the increases were not different between supplement groups.The supplementation of NMDA had no preferential effect on augmenting testosterone or decreasing estrogen, cortisol, and prolactin.While resistance training was effective in increasing muscle mass and strength, it was not preferentially due to NMDA supplementation.At the dose provided, NMDA supplementation for 28 days combined with resistance training does not

  17. Associations of sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone with diabetes among men and women (the Saku Diabetes study: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goto Atsushi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG levels and sex hormones have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. As fatty liver has been suggested to be a major determinant of SHBG levels, we examined whether the associations of SHBG and testosterone with diabetes were independent of fatty liver. Methods We conducted a case–control study that included 300 diabetes cases (215 men and 85 women and 300 matched controls from the Saku cohort study. Diabetes was defined by either fasting plasma glucose levels ≥126 mg/dL, 2-h post-load glucose levels ≥200 mg/dL after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, or diabetes diagnosed by physicians. We fitted conditional logistic regression models to examine the associations between SHBG and total testosterone levels with diabetes by sex. To evaluate the impact of fatty liver, we used the fatty liver index (FLI, a validated measure derived from serum triglyceride levels, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and γ-glutamyltransferase levels. Results After adjusting for age, family history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity, BMI, and FLI, SHBG levels were inversely associated with diabetes among women (odds ratio [OR] comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles, 0.13 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.02–0.96], but not among men. Similar patterns were observed in a subgroup analysis restricted to postmenopausal women"(OR, 0.12 [95% CI, 0.01–1.17]. In contrast, testosterone levels were inversely associated with diabetes among men (OR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.23–0.89], but not among women. Conclusions Our findings suggest that SHBG in women and testosterone in men may be inversely associated with diabetes.

  18. A comparison of methods for analyzing time series of pulsatile hormone data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, N E; Horton, K W; Grunwald, G K

    2013-11-20

    Many endocrine systems are regulated by pulsatile hormones - hormones that are secreted intermittently in boluses rather than continuously over time. To study pulsatile secretion, blood is drawn every few minutes for an extended period. The result is a time series of hormone concentrations for each individual. The goal is to estimate pulsatile hormone secretion features such as frequency, location, duration, and amount of pulsatile and non-pulsatile secretion and compare these features between groups. Various statistical approaches to analyzing these data have been proposed, but validation has generally focused on one hormone. Thus, we lack a broad understanding of each method's performance. By using simulated data with features seen in reproductive and stress hormones, we investigated the performance of three recently developed statistical approaches for analyzing pulsatile hormone data and compared them to a frequently used deconvolution approach. We found that methods incorporating a changing baseline modeled both constant and changing baseline shapes well; however, the added model flexibility resulted in a slight increase in bias in other model parameters. When pulses were well defined and baseline constant, Bayesian approaches performed similar to the existing deconvolution method. The increase in computation time of Bayesian approaches offered improved estimation and more accurate quantification of estimation variation in situations where pulse locations were not clearly identifiable. Within the class of deconvolution models for fitting pulsatile hormone data, the Bayesian approach with a changing baseline offered adequate results over the widest range of data.

  19. 精神分裂症患者攻击行为与甲状腺激素、睾酮的相关性%Correlation between aggressive behavior and thyroid hormone and testosterone in schizophrenic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴磊; 陈巧灵

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlation between aggressive behavior and thyroid hormone and testosterone in schizophrenic patients. Method: According to the past violence history and modified overt aggression scale (MOAS) scores,80 schizophrenic patients were divided into aggressive group (n =40)and non-aggressive group ( n = 40 ) . Serum thyroid hormones [ thyroid-stimulaing hormone (TSH ) ; free triiodothyronine ( FT3 ) 、thyroxine( FT4 ) ;total three iodine thyroid original ammonia( TT3 ) 、 total four iodine thyroid original ammonia ( TT4 ) ] and serum testosterone were compared between two groups. And correlation of the hyroid hormones and testosterone levels with MOAS was analyzed. Results: TSH、 FT3、TT3 and male testosterone level of aggressive group were higher than those of non-aggressive group ( P < 0. 05 or P < 0. 01) . TT4 level was lower than those of non-aggressive group ( P < 0. 01) . TSH and male testosterone level of aggressive group was positively correlated with MOAS aggression towords others ( P < 0. 05). FT3 level of the aggressive group was positively correlated with MOAS auto-aggression symptoms ( P < 0. 05 ) . TT4 level of the aggressive group was negatively correlated with verbal aggression(P <0.05). Conclusion: Aggressive behaviour may be positively correlated with TSH and FT3 level and may be negatively correlated with TT4 in schizophrenic patients. Aggressive behaviour may be positively correlated with Serum testosterone level in male schizophrenic patients.%目的:探讨血清甲状腺激素和血清睾酮与精神分裂症患者攻击行为的相关性. 方法:依据既往暴力史及外显攻击行为量表(MOAS)评分区分攻击组40例和非攻击组40例.比较两组促甲状腺激素(TSH)、血清游离三碘甲状腺原氨酸(FT3)、血清游离甲状腺素(FT4)、总三碘甲状腺原氨酸(TT3)、总甲状腺激素(TT4)及血清睾酮(Testo)水平.攻击组MOAS总分及各因子分与血清TSH、FT3、FT4、TT3、TT4及

  20. A single dose of the potent gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist acyline suppresses gonadotropins and testosterone for 2 weeks in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Karen L; Coviello, Andrea D; Page, Stephanie; Amory, John K; Anawalt, Bradley D; Bremner, William J

    2004-12-01

    Acyline is a novel GnRH antagonist that reliably inhibits gonadotropins and testosterone (T) levels in men for 48 h after a single dose up to 75 microg/kg. In this study we examined gonadotropin and T levels in 28 healthy young men administered acyline as single doses of 150 or 300 microg/kg or serial injections of 75 microg/kg. A single 300 microg/kg dose of acyline suppressed gonadotropins and T to castrate levels for 15 d (baseline, 21.1 +/- 3.1; nadir, 1.95 +/- 0.4 nmol/liter; mean +/- sem; P gonadotropins for more than 20 d (nadir T, 1.06 +/- 0.17 nmol/liter; P hormonal male contraceptive or for treatment of hormonally dependent disease.

  1. Antimüllerian hormone levels decrease in female-to-male transsexuals using testosterone as cross-sex therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caanen, Mirte R.; Soleman, Remi S.; Kuijper, Esther A. M.; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C.; De Roo, Chloe; Tilleman, Kelly; De Sutter, Petra; van Trotsenburg, Mick A. A.; Broekmans, Frank J.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of hormonal androgenic treatment on antimullerian hormone (AMH) serum levels in female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with elevated AMH levels. Some hypothesize that the high AMH level is a consequence of androgen-induc

  2. Testosterone Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are producing testosterone Use of androgens (also called anabolic steroids) Early puberty of unknown cause in boys Congenital ... levels. Drugs, including androgens other than testosterone and steroids, can also decrease ... cancer responds to androgens, so many men with advanced ...

  3. Genetic Polymorphisms Related to Testosterone Metabolism in Intellectually Gifted Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celec, Peter; Tretinárová, Denisa; Minárik, Gabriel; Ficek, Andrej; Szemes, Tomáš; Lakatošová, Silvia; Schmidtová, Eva; Turňa, Ján; Kádaši, Ľudevít; Ostatníková, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Prepubertal testosterone levels are lower in intellectually gifted boys. The aim of this pilot study was to analyze potential genetic factors related to testosterone metabolism in control and gifted boys. Intellectually gifted (IQ>130; n = 95) and control (n = 67) boys were genotyped. Polymorphisms of interests were chosen in genes including androgen and estrogen receptors, 5-alpha reductase, aromatase and sex hormone binding globulin. Significant differences between control and gifted boys in genotype distributions were found for ESR2 (rs928554) and SHBG (rs1799941). A significantly lower number of CAG repeats in the AR gene were found in gifted boys. Our results support the role of genetic factors related to testosterone metabolism in intellectual giftedness. Increased androgen signaling might explain previous results of lower testosterone levels in intellectually gifted boys and add to the understanding of variability in cognitive abilities. PMID:23382957

  4. Genetic polymorphisms related to testosterone metabolism in intellectually gifted boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celec, Peter; Tretinárová, Denisa; Minárik, Gabriel; Ficek, Andrej; Szemes, Tomáš; Lakatošová, Silvia; Schmidtová, Eva; Turňa, Ján; Kádaši, Ľudevít; Ostatníková, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Prepubertal testosterone levels are lower in intellectually gifted boys. The aim of this pilot study was to analyze potential genetic factors related to testosterone metabolism in control and gifted boys. Intellectually gifted (IQ>130; n = 95) and control (n = 67) boys were genotyped. Polymorphisms of interests were chosen in genes including androgen and estrogen receptors, 5-alpha reductase, aromatase and sex hormone binding globulin. Significant differences between control and gifted boys in genotype distributions were found for ESR2 (rs928554) and SHBG (rs1799941). A significantly lower number of CAG repeats in the AR gene were found in gifted boys. Our results support the role of genetic factors related to testosterone metabolism in intellectual giftedness. Increased androgen signaling might explain previous results of lower testosterone levels in intellectually gifted boys and add to the understanding of variability in cognitive abilities.

  5. The many faces of testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerald Bain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jerald BainDepartment of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Testosterone is more than a “male sex hormone”. It is an important contributor to the robust metabolic functioning of multiple bodily systems. The abuse of anabolic steroids by athletes over the years has been one of the major detractors from the investigation and treatment of clinical states that could be caused by or related to male hypogonadism. The unwarranted fear that testosterone therapy would induce prostate cancer has also deterred physicians form pursuing more aggressively the possibility of hypogonadism in symptomatic male patients. In addition to these two mythologies, many physicians believe that testosterone is bad for the male heart. The classical anabolic agents, 17-alkylated steroids, are, indeed, potentially harmful to the liver, to insulin action to lipid metabolism. These substances, however, are not testosterone, which has none of these adverse effects. The current evidence, in fact, strongly suggests that testosterone may be cardioprotective. There is virtually no evidence to implicate testosterone as a cause of prostate cancer. It may exacerbate an existing prostate cancer, although the evidence is flimsy, but it does not likely cause the cancer in the first place. Testosterone has stimulatory effects on bones, muscles, erythropoietin, libido, mood and cognition centres in the brain, penile erection. It is reduced in metabolic syndrome and diabetes and therapy with testosterone in these conditions may provide amelioration by lowering LDL cholesterol, blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin and insulin resistance. The best measure is bio-available testosterone which is the fraction of testosterone not bound to sex hormone binding globulin. Several forms of testosterone administration are available making compliance

  6. A time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in saliva: Monitoring of testosterone replacement therapy with testosterone buciclate

    OpenAIRE

    Tschöp, Matthias; Behre, Hermann M.; Nieschlag, Eberhard; Dressendorfer, Regina A.; Strasburger, Christian J.

    1998-01-01

    Monitoring of testosterone replacement therapy requires a reliable method for testosterone measurement. Determination of salivary testosterone, which reflects the hormone's biologically active plasma fraction, is a superior technique for this purpose. The aim of the present study was to establish a new sensitive time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for the accurate measurement of testosterone levels in saliva and to validate it by monitoring testosterone replacement therapy in eight hypogon...

  7. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and dependence of testosterone and other AAS.The Anabolic Steroids Control Act of 1990 placed AAS, including testosterone, ... Lantus, Novolin, others); medications for diabetes; and oral steroids such ... doctor if you have breast cancer or have or may have prostate cancer. Also ...

  8. Testosterone Buccal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and dependence of testosterone and other AAS.The Anabolic Steroids Control Act of 1990 placed AAS, including testosterone, ... insulin (Apridra, Humalog, Humulin, Lantus, Novolin, others), oral steroids ... doctor if you have breast cancer or have or may have prostate cancer. Your ...

  9. Testosterone Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and dependence of testosterone and other AAS.The Anabolic Steroids Control Act of 1990 placed AAS, including testosterone, ... Apridra, Humalog, Humulin, Lantus, Novolin, others); and oral steroids ... doctor if you have breast cancer or have or may have prostate cancer. Your ...

  10. Effects of Five-Year Treatment with Testosterone Undecanoate on Metabolic and Hormonal Parameters in Ageing Men with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Francomano

    2014-01-01

    served as controls. Primary endpoints were variations from baseline of metabolic and hormonal parameters. In T-group, significant reductions in waist circumference (−9.6±3.8 cm, P<0.0001, body weight (−15±2.8 Kg, P<0.0001, and glycosylated hemoglobin (−1.6 ± 0.5%, P<0.0001 occurred, along with improvements in insulin sensitivity (HOMA-I; −2.8 ± 0.6, P<0.0001, lipid profile (total/HDL-cholesterol ratio −2.9±1.5, P<0.0001, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (−23±10 and −16±8 mm Hg, P<0.0001, resp., and neck and lumbar T-scores (+0.5±0.15 gr/cm2, P<0.0001; +0.7±0.8, P<0.0001, resp.. Also, serum vitamin D (+14.0±1.3 ng/mL, P<0.01, TSH (− 0.9±0.3 mUI/mL, P<0.01, GH (0.74±0.2 ng/mL, P<0.0001, and IGF1 (105±11 ng/mL, P<0.01 levels changed in T-group but not in controls. Normalization of T levels in men with MS improved obesity, glycemic control, blood pressure, lipid profile, and bone mineral density compared with controls. Amelioration in hormonal parameters, that is, vitamin D, growth hormone, and thyrotropin plasma levels, were reported.

  11. Regulation of luteinizing hormone (LH) subunit biosynthesis in cultured male anterior pituitary cells: effects of GnRH and testosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummen, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct effects of testosterone (T) on LH subunit apoprotein synthesis, glycosylation and release by the male pituitary. Cells from 1 wk castrate rats were cultured for 48 h in steroid-free medium followed by 48h in media /+-/10nM T. The cells were then incubated for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 12h in media containing (/sup 35/S)-methionine (/sup 35/S-Met) or (/sup 3/H)-glucosamine (/sup 3/H-Gln), /+-/1nM GnRH (exp 1) or in media containing precursors /+-/ 10nM T and/or 1nM GnRH (exp 2). Radiolabeled precursor incorporation into LH subunits was determined by immunoprecipitation followed by SDS-PAGE. In experiment 1, precursor incorporation into total protein (TP) and LH subunits increased linearly with time for at least 8h. GnRH did not effect precursor incorporation in to TP or /sup 35/S-Met labeling of LH subunits, but stimulated a linear, time-dependent accumulation of /sup 3/H-Gln into total LH subunits and the release of RIA-LH and radiolabeled subunits into media. Based on these results, the effects of T on LH subunit biosynthesis were studied during an 8h incubation. In experiment 2, GnRH enhanced the total /sup 3/H-Gln incorporation (but not /sup 35/S-Met incorporation) into both LH subunits. GnRH stimulated the release of /sup 35/S-Met LH..cap alpha.. and /sup 3/H-Gln LH subunits into media and increased the relative glycosylation of secreted LH subunits without altering the relative glycosylation of intracellular LH subunits. T inhibited RIA-LH release and incorporation of both precursors into total and secreted LH subunits (/+-/GnRH). However, only the relative glycosylation of secreted LH..cap alpha.. was reduced by T (/+-/GnRh).

  12. Serum Testosterone Level, Testosterone Replacement Treatment, and Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Atan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the number of individuals seeking testosterone (T replacement treatment (TRT due to a decrease in their blood T levels. Prostate cancer (PCa is also an important issue in the same age group. However, we, urologists, are anxious about PCa development after T treatment. This is because it has been assumed that T may cause PCa or exacerbate insidious PCa which is already present. In this paper, recent developments regarding the relationship between serum levels of sex hormone and prostate tissue, the causal relationship between T and development of PCa, the effect of TRT on the group of patients who are at high risk of developing PCa, the suitability of TRT for patients who have already been diagnosed with PCa, and the effect of TRT on serum prostate-specific antigen level are analyzed.

  13. Pyrethroid insecticide exposure and reproductive hormone levels in healthy Japanese male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshinaga, J; Imai, K; Shiraishi, H

    2014-01-01

    The associations between serum levels of reproductive hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, inhibin B and calculated free testosterone) and urinary metabolite concentration of pyrethroid insecticides [3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA)...

  14. Testosterone and Men's Marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Dabbs, James M., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Among 4,462 former servicemen surveyed, testosterone levels were positively related to not marrying and marital instability, and negatively related to every aspect of marital quality examined. Findings are analyzed in relation to three sociological theories of marital success based on socioeconomic status (educational attainment, income, and…

  15. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  16. Delivering enhanced testosterone replacement therapy through nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrati, Silvia; Nicolov, Eugenia; Bansal, Shyam; Zabre, Erika; Geninatti, Thomas; Ziemys, Arturas; Hudson, Lee; Ferrari, Mauro; Goodall, Randal; Khera, Mohit; Palapattu, Ganesh; Grattoni, Alessandro

    2015-02-18

    Primary or secondary hypogonadism results in a range of signs and symptoms that compromise quality of life and requires life-long testosterone replacement therapy. In this study, an implantable nanochannel system is investigated as an alternative delivery strategy for the long-term sustained and constant release of testosterone. In vitro release tests are performed using a dissolution set up, with testosterone and testosterone:2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (TES:HPCD) 1:1 and 1:2 molar ratio complexes release from the implantable nanochannel system and quantify by HPLC. 1:2 TES:HPCD complex stably achieve 10-15 times higher testosterone solubility with 25-30 times higher in vitro release. Bioactivity of delivered testosterone is verified by LNCaP/LUC cell luminescence. In vivo evaluation of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and multiplex assay is performed in castrated Sprague-Dawley rats over 30 d. Animals are treated with the nanochannel implants or degradable testosterone pellets. The 1:2 TES:HPCD nanochannel implant exhibits sustained and clinically relevant in vivo release kinetics and attains physiologically stable plasma levels of testosterone, LH, and FSH. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that by providing long-term steady release 1:2 TES:HPCD nanochannel implants may represent a major breakthrough for the treatment of male hypogonadism.

  17. Experiment K-7-22: Growth Hormone Regulation Synthesis and Secretion in Microgravity. Part 3; Plasma Analysis Hormone Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Popova, I. A.; Grossman, E.; Rudolph, I.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma from space flight and tail suspended rats was analyzed for a number of constituents in order to evaluate their metabolic status and endocrine function. The data presented here cover plasma hormone measurements. Corticosterone, thyroxine, and testosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Prolactin and growth hormone were measured by double antibody immunoassays using hormones and antisera prepared in house. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance.

  18. Testosterone Therapy and Mortality Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michael L.; Li, Shufeng; Herder, Danielle; Lamb, Dolores J.; Lipshultz, Larry I.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Recent data suggests and increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in men on testosterone therapy (TT). To date there are no long term, prospective studies to determine safety. In such cases, retrospective observational studies can be helpful. We examined our patient database to determine if TT altered a man’s risk of all cause mortality. METHODS We queried our hormone database for all men with a serum testosterone level and then examined charts to determine testosterone status. In all, 509 men had charts available for review. We linked our patient records to the National Death Index to determine morality. RESULTS Of the 509 men who met inclusion criteria, 284 were on testosterone therapy and 225 did not use testosterone. Age (mean 54 years) and follow up time (mean 10 years) were similar for both groups. In all, 19 men died—10 (4.4%) of the men not on TT and 9 (3.2%) of the men on TT. After adjusting for age and year of evaluation, there was no significant difference in the risk of death based on TT (HR 1.0, 95% CI 0.39 – 2.57, p=1.0). CONCLUSIONS There appears to be no change in mortality risk overall for men utilizing long-term testosterone therapy. PMID:25078049

  19. Serum testosterone as a biomarker for second prostatic biopsy in men with negative first biopsy for prostatic cancer and PSA>4ng/mL, or with PIN biopsy result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiamegos, Alexandros; Varkarakis, John; Kontraros, Michael; Karagiannis, Andreas; Chrisofos, Michael; Barbalias, Dimitrios; Deliveliotis, Charalampos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Data from animal, clinical and prevention studies support the role of androgens in prostate cancer growth, proliferation and progression. Results of serum based epidemiologic studies in humans, however, have been inconclusive. The present study aims to define whether serum testosterone can be used as a predictor of a positive second biopsy in males considered for re-biopsy. Material and Methods: The study included 320 men who underwent a prostatic biopsy in our department from October 2011 until June 2012. Total testosterone, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and prostate pathology were evaluated in all cases. Patients undergoing a second biopsy were identified and biopsy results were statistically analyzed. Results: Forty men (12.5%) were assessed with a second biopsy. The diagnosis of the second biopsy was High Grade Intraepithelial Neoplasia in 14 patients (35%) and Prostate Cancer in 12 patients (30%). The comparison of prostatic volume, total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and albumin showed that patients with cancer of the prostate had significantly greater levels of free testosterone (p=0.043) and bioavailable T (p=0.049). Conclusion: In our study, higher free testosterone and bioavailable testosterone levels were associated with a cancer diagnosis at re-biopsy. Our results indicate a possible role for free and bioavailable testosterone in predicting the presence of prostate cancer in patients considered for re-biopsy. PMID:27532110

  20. Transport of manure-borne testosterone in soils affected by artificial rainfall events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yong; Zhang, Tian C

    2016-04-15

    Information is very limited on fate and transport of steroidal hormones in soils. In this study, the rainfall simulation tests were conducted with a soil slab reactor to investigate the transport of manure-borne testosterone in a silty-clay loam soil under six controllable operation conditions (i.e., three rainfall intensities and two tillage practices). The properties [e.g., rainwater volume, particle size distribution (PSD)] of the slurry samples collected in runoff and leachate at different time intervals were measured; their correlation with the distribution of testosterone among runoff, leachate and soil matrix was analyzed. The results indicated that more than 88% of the testosterone was held by the applied manure and/or soil matrix even under the rainfall intensity of 100-year return frequency. The runoff facilitated testosterone transport through both dissolved and particle-associated phases, with the corresponding mass ratio being ∼7 to 3. Soil particles collected through runoff were mainly silt-sized aggregates (STA) and clays, indicating the necessity of using partially-dispersed soil particles as testing materials to conduct batch tests (e.g., sorption/desorption). No testosterone was detected at the soil depth >20 cm or in the leachate samples, indicating that transport of testosterone through the soil is very slow when there is no preferential flow. Tillage practice could impede the transport of testosterone in runoff. For the first time, results and the methodologies of this study allow one to quantify the hormone distribution among runoff, leachate and soil matrix at the same time and to obtain a comprehensive picture of the F/T of manure-borne testosterone in soil-water environments.

  1. Association between plasma testosterone and work-related neck and shoulder disorders among female workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaergaard, A; Hansen, Åse Marie; Rasmussen, K;

    2000-01-01

    The aims were to study the association between anabolic hormone testosterone in plasma and the presence of musculoskeletal disorders among female workers and to study the association between changes in testosterone and changes in musculoskeletal complaints....

  2. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    Controversies surround the usefulness of identifying patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Many of the components are accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although the MetS as defined includes many men with insulin resistance, insulin resistance is not universal. The low total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels in these men are best explained by the hyperinsulinism and increased inflammatory cytokines that accompany obesity and increased waist circumference. It is informative that low SHBG levels predict future development of the MetS. Evidence is strong relating low TT levels to CVD in men with and without the MetS; however, the relationship may not be causal. The recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation for managing the MetS include cardiovascular risk assessment, lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, weight reduction and treatment of individual components of the MetS. Unfortunately, it is uncommon to see patients with the MetS lose and maintain a 10% weight loss. Recent reports showing testosterone treatment induced dramatic changes in weight, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c levels and improvements in each of the components of the MetS are intriguing. While some observational studies have reported that testosterone replacement therapy increases cardiovascular events, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States has reviewed these reports and found them to be seriously flawed. Large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more definitive data regarding the efficacy and safety of this treatment in middle and older men with the MetS and low TT levels.

  3. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn R Cunningham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Controversies surround the usefulness of identifying patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS. Many of the components are accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although the MetS as defined includes many men with insulin resistance, insulin resistance is not universal. The low total testosterone (TT and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG levels in these men are best explained by the hyperinsulinism and increased inflammatory cytokines that accompany obesity and increased waist circumference. It is informative that low SHBG levels predict future development of the MetS. Evidence is strong relating low TT levels to CVD in men with and without the MetS; however, the relationship may not be causal. The recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation for managing the MetS include cardiovascular risk assessment, lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, weight reduction and treatment of individual components of the MetS. Unfortunately, it is uncommon to see patients with the MetS lose and maintain a 10% weight loss. Recent reports showing testosterone treatment induced dramatic changes in weight, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c levels and improvements in each of the components of the MetS are intriguing. While some observational studies have reported that testosterone replacement therapy increases cardiovascular events, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States has reviewed these reports and found them to be seriously flawed. Large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more definitive data regarding the efficacy and safety of this treatment in middle and older men with the MetS and low TT levels.

  4. Free and total testosterone levels in field males of Octodon degus (Rodentia, Octodontidae: accuracy of the hormonal regulation of behavior Niveles de testosterona libre y totales en machos silvestres de Octodon degus (Rodentia, Octodontidae: exactitud de la regulación hormonal del comportamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO SOTO- GAMBOA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Animals exhibit continuous seasonal changes in physiological, morphological and behavioral traits associated to their natural annual cycles. One of the most important changes in the organism occurs at the initiation of breeding season. In males these changes include activation of spermatogenesis, enhance of sexual secondary characters and an increase of aggressiveness. All of theses changes are basically regulated by testosterone, but the physiological basis of this testosterone regulation and the effective hormone proportion that acts in target tissues are unknown. In this work I evaluated the relationship between total testosterone, free testosterone associated to aggressive behavior in wild males of Octodon degus. I compared hormonal levels and aggressive behavior during pre, middle and post breeding periods. Results showed that behavioral aggressiveness was correlated with both total and free testosterone in June, during the beginning of breeding season, but not at other times. Results also indicated a lack of relationship between free and total testosterone in most of breeding period. I discuss the importance of this behavior-hormonal regulation (determined by free testosterone and the physiological importance of this mechanism to the organismLos animales presentan variaciones estacionales continuas que incluyen cambios fisiológicos, morfológicos y conductuales, asociados al ciclo anual. Estos cambios generalmente están activados por factores endógenos o exógenos, pero son regulados por el sistema endocrino de organismo. Uno de los cambios más importantes ocurre en el inicio del periodo reproductivo. Durante este periodo los machos presentan cambios asociados a la producción de esperatozoides, exacerbación de caracteres sexuales secundarios y un aumento de la agresividad. Todos estos cambios son regulados en parte por los niveles de testosterona, sin embargo, los mecanismos fisiológicos de esta regulación son desconocidos. En este

  5. Two emerging concepts for elite athletes: the short-term effects of testosterone and cortisol on the neuromuscular system and the dose-response training role of these endogenous hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian; Cardinale, Marco; Weatherby, Robert P; Lowe, Tim

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this review is to highlight two emerging concepts for the elite athlete using the resistance-training model: (i) the short-term effects of testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) on the neuromuscular system; and (ii) the dose-response training role of these endogenous hormones. Exogenous evidence confirms that T and C can regulate long-term changes in muscle growth and performance, especially with resistance training. This evidence also confirms that changes in T or C concentrations can moderate or support neuromuscular performance through various short-term mechanisms (e.g. second messengers, lipid/protein pathways, neuronal activity, behaviour, cognition, motor-system function, muscle properties and energy metabolism). The possibility of dual T and C effects on the neuromuscular system offers a new paradigm for understanding resistance-training performance and adaptations. Endogenous evidence supports the short-term T and C effects on human performance. Several factors (e.g. workout design, nutrition, genetics, training status and type) can acutely modify T and/or C concentrations and thereby potentially influence resistance-training performance and the adaptive outcomes. This novel short-term pathway appears to be more prominent in athletes (vs non-athletes), possibly due to the training of the neuromuscular and endocrine systems. However, the exact contribution of these endogenous hormones to the training process is still unclear. Research also confirms a dose-response training role for basal changes in endogenous T and C, again, especially for elite athletes. Although full proof within the physiological range is lacking, this athlete model reconciles a proposed permissive role for endogenous hormones in untrained individuals. It is also clear that the steroid receptors (cell bound) mediate target tissue effects by adapting to exercise and training, but the response patterns of the membrane-bound receptors remain highly speculative. This information

  6. Serum cortisol and testosterone levels in idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy

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    Zakir Shaik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : The preferential occurrence of idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (ICSC in males with a typical Type A personality and behavior and a relative absence in females is a possible indicator towards the role of serum cortisol and /or the male sex hormone testosterone. Aims : To study levels of cortisol and testosterone in ICSC. Settings and Design : Case-control study in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods : The study was conducted on 23 cases of ICSC. Twelve patients with unilateral sudden painless loss of vision of less than one month duration served as controls. Serum cortisol and testosterone levels at 8.00 a.m. were estimated by radioimmunoassay in both groups. Statistical analysis used : Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 13.0 software. Independent Sample t-test was applied to analyze statistical significance between the two groups. Results : Mean age of patients with ICSC was 37.1 ± 9.7 years and 96% of the patients were males. Mean serum cortisol levels were significantly higher (P=0.002 in patients with ICSC i.e., 495.02 ± 169.47 nano moles/liter (nmol/L as compared to controls i.e., 362.25 ± 51.54 nmol/L. Mean serum testosterone levels were 3.85 ± 1.81 nano grams/ml (ngm/ml and 4.23 ± 1.89 ngm/ml in cases and controls respectively and the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.58. Conclusions : ICSC is associated with elevated 8.00 a.m. serum cortisol levels. However, mean serum testosterone levels in both patients of ICSC and controls were within normal range.

  7. Testosterone ethosomes for enhanced transdermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainbinder, Denize; Touitou, Elka

    2005-01-01

    Physiological decrease in testosterone levels in men with age causes various changes with clinical significance. Recent testosterone replacement therapy is based mainly on transdermal nonpatch delivery systems. These products have the drawback of application on extremely large areas to achieve required hormone blood levels. The objective of the present study was to design and test a testosterone nonpatch formulation using ethosomes for enhanced transdermal absorption. The ethosomal formulation was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering for structure and size distribution and by ultracentrifugation for entrapment capacity. To evaluate the feasibility of this delivery system to enhance testosterone permeation through the skin, first the systemic absorption in rats was compared with a currently used gel (AndroGel). Further, theoretical estimation of testosterone blood concentration following ethosomal application in men was made. For this purpose, in vitro permeation experiments through human skin were performed to establish testosterone skin permeation values. In the design of these experiments, testosterone solubility in various solutions was measured and the effect of the receiver medium on the skin barrier function was assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Theoretical estimation shows that testosterone human plasma concentration value in the upper part of the physiological range could be achieved by application of the ethosomal formulation on an area of 40 cm(2). This area is about 10 times smaller than required with current nonpatch formulations. Our work shows that the ethosomal formulation could enhance testosterone systemic absorption and also be used for designing new products that could solve the weaknesses of the current testosterone replacement therapies.

  8. Alternatives to testosterone replacement: testosterone restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The European Male Aging Study has demonstrated that the hypogonadism of male aging is predominantly secondary. Theoretically with appropriate stimulation from the pituitary, the aging testis should be able to produce eugonadal levels of testosterone. The strategies for the treatment of late onset hypogonadism (LOH) have focused on replacement with exogenous testosterone versus restoration of endogenous production. The purpose of this article is to review existing peer-reviewed literature supporting the concept of restoration of endogenous testosterone in the treatment of LOH.

  9. Testosterone and cardiovascular disease in men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul D Morris; Kevin S Channer

    2012-01-01

    Despite regional variations in the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD),men are consistently more at risk of developing and dying from CAD than women,and the gender-specific effects of sex hormones are implicated in this inequality.This 'Perspectives' article reviews the current evidence regarding the cardiovascular effects of testosterone in men including an examination of the age-related decline in testosterone,the relationship between testosterone levels and coronary disease,coronary risk factors and mortality.We also review the vaso-active effects of testosterone,and discuss how these have been used in men with heart failure and angina.We discuss the 'cause' versus 'effect' controversy,regarding low testosterone levels in men with coronary heart disease,as well as concerns over the use of testosterone replacement therapy in middle aged and elderly men.The article concludes with a discussion regarding the future direction for work in this interesting area,including the relative merits of screening for,and treating hypogonadism with testosterone replacement therapy in men with heart disease.

  10. Testosterone inhibits trust but promotes reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boksem, Maarten A S; Mehta, Pranjal H; Van den Bergh, Bram; van Son, Veerle; Trautmann, Stefan T; Roelofs, Karin; Smidts, Ale; Sanfey, Alan G

    2013-11-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone has been associated with behavior intended to obtain or maintain high social status. Although such behavior is typically characterized as aggressive and competitive, it is clear that high social status is achieved and maintained not only through antisocial behavior but also through prosocial behavior. In the present experiment, we investigated the impact of testosterone administration on trust and reciprocity using a double-blind randomized control design. We found that a single dose of 0.5 mg of testosterone decreased trust but increased generosity when repaying trust. These findings suggest that testosterone may mediate different types of status-seeking behavior. It may increase competitive, potentially aggressive, and antisocial behavior when social challenges and threats (i.e., abuse of trust and betrayal) need to be considered; however, it may promote prosocial behavior in the absence of these threats, when high status and good reputation may be best served by prosocial behavior.

  11. Use of localized human growth hormone and testosterone injections in addition to manual therapy and exercise for lower back pain: a case series with 12-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubick MN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marc N Dubick,1 Thomas H Ravin,2 Yvonne Michel,3 David C Morrisette4 1Interventional Pain Management, Division of Anesthesiology, Bon Secours St Francis Hospital, Charleston, SC, USA; 2Musculoskeletal Medicine, Val d'Isere Health Clinic, Denver, CO, USA; 3Statistical Consultant, Private Practice, Daniel Island, SC, USA; 4Division of Physical Therapy, Medical University of South Carolina, SC, USA Objective: The objective of this case series was to investigate the feasibility and safety of a novel method for the management of chronic lower back pain. Injections of recombinant human growth hormone and testosterone to the painful and dysfunctional areas in individuals with chronic lower back pain were used. In addition, the participants received manual therapies and exercise addressing physical impairments such as motor control, strength, endurance, pain, and loss of movement. Pain ratings and self-rated functional outcomes were assessed.Study design: This is a case series involving consecutive patients with chronic lower back pain who received the intervention of injections of recombinant human growth hormone and testosterone, and attended chiropractic and/or physical therapy. Outcomes were measured at 12 months from the time of injection.Setting: A community based hospital affiliated office, and a private practice block suite.Participants: A total of 60 consecutive patients attending a pain management practice for chronic lower back pain were recruited for the experimental treatment. Most participants were private pay.Interventions: Participants who provided informed consent and were determined not to have radicular pain received diagnostic blocks. Those who responded favorably to the diagnostic blocks received injections of recombinant human growth hormone and testosterone in the areas treated with the blocks. Participants also received manipulation- and impairment-based exercises.Outcome measures: Outcomes were assessed at 12 months through pain

  12. Metabolic syndrome, circulating RBP4, testosterone, and SHBG predict weight regain at 6 months after weight loss in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Menheere, Paul P C A; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    , adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), luteinizing hormone, prolactin, progesterone, total and free testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured at baseline, after 8-week low-calorie diet-induced active weight loss, and after a subsequent 26-week ad libitum weight maintenance...... diet, and analyzed together with anthropometrical and physiological parameters. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obese men with MetS at baseline had higher risk to regain weight (odds ratio=2.8, P=0.015). High baseline RBP4, and low total testosterone and low SHBG are predictors of weight loss......OBJECTIVE: Weight loss helps reduce the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the obese, but weight regain after active weight loss is common. We investigated the changes and predictive role of circulating adipokines and sex hormones for weight regain in men during dietary intervention...

  13. Testosterone-estradiol-binding globulin in patients with Turner's syndrome: effects of estrogens and acute growth hormone administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergink, E.W.; Wolf, D.L.; Wittliff, J.L.; Bruining, G.J.; Bryson, M.F.; Forbes, G.B.

    1976-06-01

    The TeBG activity of plasma from patients with Turner's syndrome was measured quantitatively using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Human growth hormone administration did not significantly change the plasma TeBG levels. However, oral replacement therapy with estrogens elevated plasma TeBG within 3 days; after 9 days these levels reached a maximum of three- to four-fold greater than that observed at a time prior to therapy.

  14. Melatonin and its correlation with testosterone in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Priyanka; Jain, Madhu; Haldar, Chandana; Singh, Tej Ball; Jain, Shuchi

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is considered to be the most common endocrine disorder affecting women. Melatonin, a small lipophilic indoleamine, and reproductive hormones may be interrelated. Melatonin influences sex steroid production at different stages of ovarian follicular maturation as melatonin receptors have been demonstrated at multiple sites in ovary and in intrafollicular fluid. It plays role as an antioxidant and free radical scavanger which protects follicles from oxidative stress, rescuing them from atresia, leading to complete follicular maturation and ovulation. AIMS: To study the role of melatonin in PCOS and to investigate its correlation with testosterone in patients suffering from PCOS. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A total of 50 women with PCOS (Rotterdam criteria, 2003) and 50 age and weight matched healthy controls were selected and serum melatonin estimation was done in both the groups and correlated with serum total testosterone levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a case-control study, detailed history, clinical examination and hormonal evaluation [basal levels of leutinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, insulin, total testosterone, progesterone and melatonin] were carried out in all the participants including both cases and controls. For melatonin estimation, blood samples were collected between 12:00 am and 04:00 am on day 2nd of menstrual cycle and analyzed by using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Student's t-test was used to compare the significant difference in mean values between cases and control groups. Chi-square test was used to test the significant association between the qualitative variables. Linear correlation coefficient and regression analysis were done to see the amount and direction of relationship between quantitative variables. RESULTS: The mean melatonin level was observed to be significantly increased in patients (63

  15. Melatonin and its correlation with testosterone in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is considered to be the most common endocrine disorder affecting women. Melatonin, a small lipophilic indoleamine, and reproductive hormones may be interrelated. Melatonin influences sex steroid production at different stages of ovarian follicular maturation as melatonin receptors have been demonstrated at multiple sites in ovary and in intrafollicular fluid. It plays role as an antioxidant and free radical scavanger which protects follicles from oxidative stress, rescuing them from atresia, leading to complete follicular maturation and ovulation. Aims: To study the role of melatonin in PCOS and to investigate its correlation with testosterone in patients suffering from PCOS. Settings and Design: A total of 50 women with PCOS (Rotterdam criteria, 2003 and 50 age and weight matched healthy controls were selected and serum melatonin estimation was done in both the groups and correlated with serum total testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, detailed history, clinical examination and hormonal evaluation [basal levels of leutinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, insulin, total testosterone, progesterone and melatonin] were carried out in all the participants including both cases and controls. For melatonin estimation, blood samples were collected between 12:00 am and 04:00 am on day 2 nd of menstrual cycle and analyzed by using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Statistical Analysis: Student′s t-test was used to compare the significant difference in mean values between cases and control groups. Chi-square test was used to test the significant association between the qualitative variables. Linear correlation coefficient and regression analysis were done to see the amount and direction of relationship between quantitative variables. Results: The mean melatonin level was observed to be significantly

  16. Seasonal variations of melatonin in ram seminal plasma are correlated to those of testosterone and antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muiño-Blanco Teresa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some breeds of sheep are highly seasonal in terms of reproductive capability, and these changes are regulated by photoperiod and melatonin secretion. These changes affect the reproductive performance of rams, impairing semen quality and modifying hormonal profiles. Also, the antioxidant defence systems seem to be modulated by melatonin secretion, and shows seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma and their variations between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlations between these hormones and the antioxidant enzyme defence system activity. Methods Seminal plasma from nine Rasa Aragonesa rams were collected for one year, and their levels of melatonin, testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GRD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and catalase (CAT were measured. Results All samples presented measurable quantities of hormones and antioxidant enzymes. Both hormones showed monthly variations, with a decrease after the winter solstice and a rise after the summer solstice that reached the maximum levels in October-November, and a marked seasonal variation (P Conclusions These results show the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma, and that both hormones have seasonal variations, and support the idea that seasonal variations of fertility in the ram involve interplay between melatonin and the antioxidant defence system.

  17. Effects of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) on androgen bioactivity in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurent, Michael R.; Helsen, Christine; Antonio, Leen; Schollaert, Dieter; Joniau, Steven; Vos, Michel J.; Decallonne, Brigitte; Hammond, Geoffrey L.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Claessens, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Biochemical assessments of androgen status (hyper- or hypoandrogenism) are usually based on serum testosterone concentrations. According to the free hormone hypothesis, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) determines free and bioavailable testosterone concentrations. Previous studies have suggested t

  18. Genetic determinants of serum testosterone concentrations in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone concentrations in men are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, osteoporosis, and mortality and are affected by age, smoking, and obesity. Because of serum testosterone's high heritability, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 8,938 men from seven cohorts and followed up the genome-wide significant findings in one in silico (n = 871 and two de novo replication cohorts (n = 4,620 to identify genetic loci significantly associated with serum testosterone concentration in men. All these loci were also associated with low serum testosterone concentration defined as <300 ng/dl. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG locus (17p13-p12 were identified as independently associated with serum testosterone concentration (rs12150660, p = 1.2×10(-41 and rs6258, p = 2.3×10(-22. Subjects with ≥ 3 risk alleles of these variants had 6.5-fold higher risk of having low serum testosterone than subjects with no risk allele. The rs5934505 polymorphism near FAM9B on the X chromosome was also associated with testosterone concentrations (p = 5.6×10(-16. The rs6258 polymorphism in exon 4 of SHBG affected SHBG's affinity for binding testosterone and the measured free testosterone fraction (p<0.01. Genetic variants in the SHBG locus and on the X chromosome are associated with a substantial variation in testosterone concentrations and increased risk of low testosterone. rs6258 is the first reported SHBG polymorphism, which affects testosterone binding to SHBG and the free testosterone fraction and could therefore influence the calculation of free testosterone using law-of-mass-action equation.

  19. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research.

  20. Alternatives to testosterone replacement: testosterone restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McCullough

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Male Aging Study has demonstrated that the hypogonadism of male aging is predominantly secondary. Theoretically with appropriate stimulation from the pituitary, the aging testis should be able to produce eugonadal levels of testosterone. The strategies for the treatment of late onset hypogonadism (LOH have focused on replacement with exogenous testosterone versus restoration of endogenous production. The purpose of this article is to review existing peer-reviewed literature supporting the concept of restoration of endogenous testosterone in the treatment of LOH.

  1. The testosterone mimetic properties of icariin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Bao Zhang; Qing-Tao Yang

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the testosterone mimetic properties of icariin. Methods: Forty-eight healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats at the age of 15 months were randomly divided into four groups with 12 rats each: the control group (C), the model group (M), the icariin group (ICA) and the testosterone group (T). The reproductive system was damaged by cyclogroup for 7 consecutive days, respectively. The levels of serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), serum bone Gla-protein (BGP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in serum (StrACP) were determined. The histological changes of the testis and the penis were observed by microscope with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP-X nick end labeling (TUNEL),respectively. Results: (1) Icariin improved the condition of reproductive organs and increased the circulating levels of testosterone. (2) Icariin treatment also improved the steady-state serum BGP and might have promoted bone formation. At the same time, it decreased the serum levels of StrACP and might have reduced the bone resorption. (3)Icarrin suppressed the extent of apoptosis of penile cavernosal smooth muscle cells. Conclusion: Icariin has testosterone mimetic properties and has therapeutic potential in the management of hypoandrogenism.

  2. Testosterone during Pregnancy and Gender Role Behavior of Preschool Children: A Longitudinal, Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Golombok, Susan; Rust, John; Johnston, Katie J.; Golding, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Related blood levels of testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in pregnant women to gender role behavior among 342 male and 337 female offspring at 3.5 years. Found that testosterone levels related linearly to girls' gender role behavior. Neither hormone related to boys' gender role behavior. Other factors, including older brothers or…

  3. The relationship between sleep disorders and testosterone in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Wittert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasma testosterone levels display circadian variation, peaking during sleep, and reaching a nadir in the late afternoon, with a superimposed ultradian rhythm with pulses every 90 min reflecting the underlying rhythm of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH secretion. The increase in testosterone is sleep, rather than circadian rhythm, dependent and requires at least 3 h of sleep with a normal architecture. Various disorders of sleep including abnormalities of sleep quality, duration, circadian rhythm disruption, and sleep-disordered breathing may result in a reduction in testosterone levels. The evidence, to support a direct effect of sleep restriction or circadian rhythm disruption on testosterone independent of an effect on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, or the presence of comorbid conditions, is equivocal and on balance seems tenuous. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA appears to have no direct effect on testosterone, after adjusting for age and obesity. However, a possible indirect causal process may exist mediated by the effect of OSA on obesity. Treatment of moderate to severe OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP does not reliably increase testosterone levels in most studies. In contrast, a reduction in weight does so predictably and linearly in proportion to the amount of weight lost. Apart from a very transient deleterious effect, testosterone treatment does not adversely affect OSA. The data on the effect of sleep quality on testosterone may depend on whether testosterone is given as replacement, in supratherapeutic doses, or in the context abuse. Experimental data suggest that testosterone may modulate individual vulnerability to subjective symptoms of sleep restriction. Low testosterone may affect overall sleep quality which is improved by replacement doses. Large doses of exogenous testosterone and anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse are associated with abnormalities of sleep duration and architecture.

  4. Effect of estrogen and testosterone replacement therapy on cognitive fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Marika Christina; Rådestad, Angelique Flöter; von Schoultz, Bo; Bartfai, Aniko

    2013-02-01

    Both estrogen and testosterone insufficiency has been associated with reduced psychological well-being including fatigue. However, hormonal replacement studies on fatigue are rare. Therefore, we wanted to study the effect of testosterone and estrogen replacement therapy on cognitive fatigue and the relation between sex hormone levels and cognitive fatigue in oophorectomized women. Fifty women with surgically induced menopause (mean age: 54.0 ± 2.9 years) were randomly assigned to treatment with estradiol valerate in combination with testosterone undecanoate or placebo for 24 weeks in a double-blind cross-over study. Neuropsychological tests and questionnaires were used to assess cognitive fatigue and psychological well-being. Cognitive fatigue was significantly associated to poor self-rated health and higher body mass index but not to general psychological well-being or sex hormone levels. Treatment with testosterone + estrogen had no significant effect on cognitive fatigue but the results indicated a curvilinear relation for hormonal levels. The estrogen/testosterone ratio was more related to functions rather than high or low hormone levels per se. We found that cognitive fatigue is frequent in oophorectomized women and negatively associated to self-perceived health and positively associated to BMI. A well-balanced ratio between estrogen and testosterone levels may be important for cognitive fatigue.

  5. Does breastfeeding influence future sperm quality and reproductive hormones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, J M; Jensen, M S; Thulstrup, Ane Marie;

    2011-01-01

    was not statistically significantly associated with sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility or morphology, oligozoospermia, follicle-stimulating hormone, inhibin B, luteinizing hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), the calculated level of free testosterone, free oestradiol, the free testosterone...... testosterone nor free oestradiol was different between the two groups. This study shows no association between breastfeeding and sperm quality or reproductive hormones and a strong association is unlikely. A larger study would be needed to detect more subtle effects....

  6. Single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs1799941 in the Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) gene, related to both serum testosterone and SHBG levels and the risk of myocardial infarction, type 2 diabetes, cancer and mortality in men: the Tromsø Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svartberg, J; Schirmer, H; Wilsgaard, T; Mathiesen, E B; Njølstad, I; Løchen, M-L; Jorde, R

    2014-03-01

    Low testosterone levels are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factor, and have been shown to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), myocardial infarction (MI) and all-cause mortality. It is not known if these associations are causal or not. Recently, it has been shown that the serum testosterone levels are associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and we therefore studied the associations between one of these SNPs, rs1799941 on the Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) gene, and MI, T2DM, cancer and death. DNA was prepared from men who participated in the fourth survey of the Tromsø Study in 1994-1995 and who were registered with the endpoints MI, T2DM, cancer or death and a randomly selected control group. For mortality, the observation time was set from 1994, and for the other endpoints from birth. The endpoint data were completed up to 2010-2013. Genetic analyses were successfully performed in 5309 men, of whom 1454 were registered with MI, 638 with T2DM, 1534 with cancer and in 2226 who had died. Men with the minor homozygote genotype had significantly higher levels of total testosterone (14.7%) and SHBG (24.7%) compared with men with the major homozygote genotype, whereas free testosterone levels did not differ significantly between the genotypes. The SNP rs1799941 was not significantly associated with MI, T2DM, cancer or mortality. Thus, our result does not support a causal relationship between total testosterone and SHBG and MI, T2DM, cancer or mortality, suggesting that low testosterone more likely is a marker of poor health.

  7. Alternatives to testosterone replacement: testosterone restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew McCullough

    2014-01-01

    The European Male Aging Study has demonstrated that the hypogonadism of male aging is predominantly secondary. Theoretically with appropriate stimulation from the pituitary, the aging testis should be able to produce eugonadal levels of testosterone. The strategies for the treatment of late onset hypogonadism (LOH) have focused on replacement with exogenous testosterone versus restoration of endogenous production. The purpose of this article is to review existing peer-reviewed literature supp...

  8. Testosterone in tropical birds: effects of environmental and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Moore, Ignacio T; Scheuerlein, Alexander; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Grafen, Alan; Wingfield, John C

    2004-09-01

    Previous investigations suggest that male tropical birds have lower plasma testosterone concentrations than northern latitude species. To test whether this generalization is valid, we analyzed all currently available plasma testosterone data of tropical birds. We focused on peak breeding testosterone levels using phylogenetic and conventional statistics. Explanatory variables considered were social mating system, type of territoriality, breeding season length, and altitude. On average, tropical birds had lower mean peak testosterone levels than northern temperate birds. However, in several tropical species, testosterone levels were well within the range of northern latitude birds. Without controlling for phylogeny, breeding season length, type of territoriality, and altitude explained a significant proportion of the variance in testosterone levels. The shorter the breeding season, the higher the testosterone levels. Tropical birds that defend a breeding season territory had higher testosterone levels than birds that were year-round territorial or colonial, and testosterone levels were positively correlated with altitude. When controlling for phylogeny, only breeding season length predicted testosterone levels. In conclusion, we propose to refine previous notions of low plasma testosterone levels in tropical birds: short breeding seasons and perhaps environmental conditions at high altitudes precipitate conditions under which high testosterone levels are beneficial in the tropics.

  9. Antipsychotic-Induced Hyperprolactinemia and Testosterone Levels in Boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Tenback, Diederik E.; de Rijke, Yolanda B.; Boot, Annemieke M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This cross-sectional study investigates the effect of antipsychotic (AP)-induced hyperprolactinemia on testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), inhibin B, and puberty in boys with mainly autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: One hundred and four physically

  10. Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia and testosterone levels in boys.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Y.; Harten, P.N. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Tenback, D.E.; Rijke, Y.B. de; Boot, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: This cross-sectional study investigates the effect of antipsychotic (AP)-induced hyperprolactinemia on testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), inhibin B, and puberty in boys with mainly autism spectrum disorders (ASD). METHOD: One hundred and four physically

  11. Serum measurements of testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in the diagnosis of prostate cancer among Korean men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Kyu Hong; Byung Kyu Han; Jae Seung Jeong; Seong Jin Jeong; Ki Hyuk Moon; Seok Soo Byun; Sang Eun Lee

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationships of serum testosterone, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein(IGFBP)-3 levels with prostate cancer risk and also with known prognostic parameters of prostate cancer in Korean men who received radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) for clinically-localized prostate cancer. Methods: Serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were determined in 592 patients who subsequently received prostate biopsy. Results were compared between patients who eventually received RRP for prostate cancer (n = 159) and those who were not diagnosed with prostate cancer from biopsy (control group, n = 433). Among the prostate cancer only patients, serum hormonal levels obtained were analyzed in relation to serum prostate specific antigen (PSA),pathological T stage and pathological Gleason score. Results: Prostate cancer patients and the control group demon-strated no significant differences regarding serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 across the different age groups. Among the cancer only patients, no significant associations were observed for serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels with pathological T stage, pathological Gleason score and preoperative PSA. Conclusion: Our data indicate that simple quantifications of serum testosterone and IGF-1 along with IGFBP-3 levels might not provide useful clinical information in the diagnosis of clinically localized prostate cancer in Korean men. Also, our results suggest that serum levels of testosterone, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 might not be significantly associated with known prognostic factors of clinically localized prostate cancer in Korean men.

  12. Validity of Serum Testosterone, Free Androgen Index, and Calculated Free Testosterone in Women with Suspected Hyperandrogenism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal K. Al Kindi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There are technical limitations for the currently available methods of measuring serum total and free testosteronein females. The study objectives were to evaluate the usefulness of serum total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, free androgen index (FAI, and calculated free testosterone (CFT in the assessment of androgen status in women investigated for suspected hyperandrogenism.Methods: This is a case control study that was conducted during the period from 1st May 2011 to 31st October 2011 on 122 patients aged (18-45 years whom were referred to the Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory from the Endocrinology and Gynecology Clinics, Royal Hospital, Oman. Women with no clinical feature or laboratory data indicative of hormonal dysfunction and with midluteal progesterone >30 nmol/L were selected as controls (group 1; n=18. The patients were divided into subgroups based on the clinical/laboratory diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS [group 2; n=19, hirsutism (group 3; n=18, menstrual disturbances (irregularities or infertility (group 4; n=49, as well as combination of PCOS or hirsutism and menstrual disturbances or infertility (group 5;n=18. Serum total testosterone and SHBG were measured, FAI was calculated as percentage ratio of total testosterone to SHBG values, and CFT was calculated according to Vermeulen equation.Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the mean levels of testosterone, FAI and CFT in each patient group compared with the control group. For diagnosing hyperandrogenism, each indicator was selected at the recommended cut-off: testosterone >3.0 nmol/L, SHBG 5%, and CFT >32 pmol/L. In group 2, 89.5% and 94.7% of the patients had increased FAI and CFT, respectively; compared with 36.4% for increased testosterone. In group 3, 88.9% and 88.9% of the patients had similarly increased FAI and CFT, respectively; compared with 66.7% for testosterone. In group 4, patients had 63.3% and 73

  13. DDT increases hepatic testosterone metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Hernández, Manuel; Albores, Arnulfo; Cebrián, Mariano E

    2005-01-01

    DDT and its metabolites are considered as endocrine disruptors able to promote hormone-dependent pathologies. We studied the effects of technical-grade DDT on hepatic testosterone metabolism and testosterone hydroxylase activity ratios in the rat. Male and female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with a single dose of technical-grade DDT (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body weight) and killed 24 h later. Hepatic microsomes were incubated with [4-14C]-testosterone and the metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantified by radio scanning. DDT increased testosterone biotransformation and modified the profile of metabolites produced in a sex-dependent manner. Males treated with a representative dose (10 mg/kg) produced relatively less androstenedione (AD), 2alpha-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), and 16alpha-OHT but higher 6beta-OHT whereas treated females produced less 7alpha-OHT and AD but higher 6beta-OHT and 6alpha-OHT than their respective controls. In both sexes DDT decreased the relative proportion of AD and increased that of 6beta-OHT suggesting that the androgen-saving pathway was affected. The testosterone 6alpha-/15alpha-OHT ratio, a proposed indicator of demasculinization, was increased in treated males. This effect was in agreement with the demasculinizing ability proposed for DDT. The effects on 6alpha-/16alpha-OHT and 6-dehydrotestosterone/16alpha-OHT ratios followed a similar tendency, with the ratio 6alpha-/16alpha-OHT being the most sensitive marker. Interestingly, these ratios were reduced in treated females suggesting that technical-grade DDT shifted testosterone hydroxylations toward a more masculine pattern. Thus, technical-grade DDT altered the hepatic sexual dimorphism in testosterone metabolism and decreased the metabolic differences between male and female rats.

  14. DDT increases hepatic testosterone metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Albores, Arnulfo; Cebrian, Mariano E. [Cinvestav-IPN, Seccion de Toxicologia, Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez, Manuel [Cinvestav-IPN, Departamento de Biologia Celular (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    DDT and its metabolites are considered as endocrine disruptors able to promote hormone-dependent pathologies. We studied the effects of technical-grade DDT on hepatic testosterone metabolism and testosterone hydroxylase activity ratios in the rat. Male and female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with a single dose of technical-grade DDT (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body weight) and killed 24 h later. Hepatic microsomes were incubated with [4-{sup 14}C]-testosterone and the metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantified by radio scanning. DDT increased testosterone biotransformation and modified the profile of metabolites produced in a sex-dependent manner. Males treated with a representative dose (10 mg/kg) produced relatively less androstenedione (AD), 2{alpha}-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), and 16{alpha}-OHT but higher 6{beta}-OHT whereas treated females produced less 7{alpha}-OHT and AD but higher 6{beta}-OHT and 6{alpha}-OHT than their respective controls. In both sexes DDT decreased the relative proportion of AD and increased that of 6{beta}-OHT suggesting that the androgen-saving pathway was affected. The testosterone 6{alpha}-/15{alpha}-OHT ratio, a proposed indicator of demasculinization, was increased in treated males. This effect was in agreement with the demasculinizing ability proposed for DDT. The effects on 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT and 6-dehydrotestosterone/16{alpha}-OHT ratios followed a similar tendency, with the ratio 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT being the most sensitive marker. Interestingly, these ratios were reduced in treated females suggesting that technical-grade DDT shifted testosterone hydroxylations toward a more masculine pattern. Thus, technical-grade DDT altered the hepatic sexual dimorphism in testosterone metabolism and decreased the metabolic differences between male and female rats. (orig.)

  15. Menaquinone-4 enhances testosterone production in rats and testis-derived tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohsaki Yusuke

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin K is essential for the posttranslational modification of various Gla proteins. Although it is widespread in several organs, including the testis, the function of vitamin K in these organs is not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the function of vitamin K in the testis and analyzed its role in steroidogenesis. Methods Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were fed a diet supplemented with menaquinone-4 (MK-4, 75 mg/kg diet, one of the predominant K2 vitamins present in the testis, for 5 weeks. In vivo testosterone levels of the rats' plasma and testes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and in vitro testosterone levels of testis-derived tumor cells (I-10 cells maintained in Ham's F-10 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum were measured following treatment with MK-4 (0 to 100 μM at several time points. Testosterone and cellular protein levels were analyzed with respect to their effects on steroidogenesis. Results Testosterone levels in the plasma and testes of MK-4-fed rats were significantly increased compared to those of control rats, with no obvious differences in plasma luteinizing hormone levels. Secreted testosterone levels from I-10 cells were elevated by MK-4, but not by vitamin K1, in a dose-dependent manner independent of cAMP treatment. Western blot analysis revealed that expression of CYP11A, the rate-limiting enzyme in steroidogenesis, and phosphorylation levels of protein kinase A (PKA and the cAMP response element-binding protein were all stimulated by the presence of MK-4. Enhancement of testosterone production was inhibited by H89, a specific inhibitor of PKA, but not by warfarin, an inhibitor of γ-glutamylcarboxylation. Conclusions MK-4 stimulates testosterone production in rats and testis-derived tumor cells via activation of PKA. MK-4 may be involved in steroidogenesis in the testis, and its supplementation could reverse the downregulation of testosterone production in

  16. The endocrine pharmacology of testosterone therapy in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettel, Michael

    The review starts off by outlining the history of the discovery of the male sex hormone testosterone and the historical background to the various, often dubious, approaches to the treatment of age-related endocrine disorders in older men. A discussion of congenital androgen deficiency in young men is followed by methods of diagnosing hypogonadism in older men. Among therapeutic options, the alternatives to direct testosterone replacement are discussed, although none of them have proved to be particularly successful in clinical practice. For testosterone replacement itself, various routes of administration and pharmaceutical formulations are now available, facilitating good monitoring and individualized therapy.

  17. [Testosterone therapy in female hypoactive sexual desire disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Patrick

    2016-03-16

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is a deficiency of sexual desire that causes marked personal or interpersonal distress. It occurs in approximately 1 in 10 adult women. A number of potential contributory factors (hormonal, neurobiological and psychosocial) have been identified. Testosterone plays an excitatory role in sexual desire but the mechanism is not yet well understood. Treatment with testosterone has been shown to improve sexual desire in menopausal women with HSDD. However, there are limited data concerning premenopausal women and long-term safety. At present, physiological testosterone preparations for use in women are not available in Switzerland.

  18. Biomedical Evaluation of Cortisol, Cortisone, and Corticosterone along with Testosterone and Epitestosterone Applying Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Bączek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The validated micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC was proposed for the determination of five steroid hormones in human urine samples. That technique allowed for the separation and quantification of cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, testosterone, and epitestosterone and was sensitive enough to detect low concentrations of these searched steroids in urine samples at the range of 2–300 ng/mL. The proposed MEKC technique with solid-phase extraction (SPE procedure was simple, rapid, and has been successfully applied as a routine procedure to analyze steroids in human urine samples. The MEKC method offered a potential in clinical routine practice because of the short analysis time (8 min, low costs, and simultaneous analysis of five endogenous hormones. Due to its simplicity, speed, accuracy, and high recovery, the proposed method could offer a tool to determine steroid hormones as potential biomarkers in biomedical investigations, what was additionally revealed with healthy volunteers.

  19. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. (Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  20. Sex hormones, sex hormone binding globulin, and vertebral fractures in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Schousboe, John T; Harrison, Stephanie L; Ensrud, Kristine E; Black, Dennis; Cauley, Jane A; Cummings, Steven R; LeBlanc, Erin S; Laughlin, Gail A; Nielson, Carrie M; Broughton, Augusta; Kado, Deborah M; Hoffman, Andrew R; Jamal, Sophie A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Orwoll, Eric S

    2016-03-01

    The association between sex hormones and sex hormone binding globin (SHBG) with vertebral fractures in men is not well studied. In these analyses, we determined whether sex hormones and SHBG were associated with greater likelihood of vertebral fractures in a prospective cohort study of community dwelling older men. We included data from participants in MrOS who had been randomly selected for hormone measurement (N=1463, including 1054 with follow-up data 4.6years later). Major outcomes included prevalent vertebral fracture (semi-quantitative grade≥2, N=140, 9.6%) and new or worsening vertebral fracture (change in SQ grade≥1, N=55, 5.2%). Odds ratios per SD decrease in sex hormones and per SD increase in SHBG were estimated with logistic regression adjusted for potentially confounding factors, including age, bone mineral density, and other sex hormones. Higher SHBG was associated with a greater likelihood of prevalent vertebral fractures (OR: 1.38 per SD increase, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.72). Total estradiol analyzed as a continuous variable was not associated with prevalent vertebral fractures (OR per SD decrease: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.68 to 1.10). Men with total estradiol values ≤17pg/ml had a borderline higher likelihood of prevalent fracture than men with higher values (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.99, 2.16). There was no association between total testosterone and prevalent fracture. In longitudinal analyses, SHBG (OR: 1.42 per SD increase, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.95) was associated with new or worsening vertebral fracture, but there was no association with total estradiol or total testosterone. In conclusion, higher SHBG (but not testosterone or estradiol) is an independent risk factor for vertebral fractures in older men.

  1. The Effect of Low- Intensity Resistance Training with Blood Flow Restriction on Serum Cortisol and Testosterone Levels in Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Based on the research evidence, the efficiency of resistance exercises depends on the changes in the hormones level to improve the muscle strength and mass. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effect of a short course blood flow restricted resistance training on serum cortisol and testosterone levels in young men. Patients and Methods A total of 30 healthy young men (aged 19 - 24 years were volunteered for this study. Subjects were randomly assigned into three groups: low-intensity blood flow restricted (LIBFR (n = 15 resistance exercise group (3 sets of 15 repetitions at 20% of 1RM (one repetition maximum, traditional high-intensity without blood flow restriction (HIWBFR (n = 12 resistance exercise group (3 sets of 10 repetitions at 80% of 1RM, and a control group (n = 13. Both LIBFR and HIWBFR groups trained for front leg and squat exercises 3 days per week for 3 weeks. Fasting growth hormone cortisol and testosterone levels were measured in the morning before and after exercise sessions. Data were analyzed with paired t-test and One-way ANOVA at the significant level of P < 0.05. Results Serum cortisol level significantly increased after the exercise for both protocols compared to baseline (P < 0.05. After 3 weeks, serum cortisol level increased significantly in LIBFR and HIWBFR groups compared to control group (P < 0.001. At the end of the exercise protocols, serum testosterone level was higher in LIBFR group compared to HIWBFR group; however, this difference was not significant (P ˃ 0.49. Conclusions Short term blood flow restriction (BFR exercise stimulates cortisol hormones production in young men. However, this program seems too short to express any difference in testosterone change. Generally, it can be concluded that low-intensity resistance training can increase short-term BFR catabolic-anabolic hormones in young men.

  2. Testosterone, thrombophilia, and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Charles J; Richardson-Royer, Caitlin; Schultz, Reiker; Burger, Tim; Labitue, Fanta; Riaz, Muhammad K; Padda, Jagjit; Bowe, Dedrick; Goldenberg, Naila; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    We describe thrombosis, deep venous thrombosis (DVT) pulmonary embolism (PE; n = 9) and hip-knee osteonecrosis (n = 5) that developed after testosterone therapy (median 11 months) in 14 previously healthy patients (13 men and 1 woman; 13 Caucasian and 1 African American), with no antecedent thrombosis and previously undiagnosed thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis. Of the 14 patients, 3 were found to be factor V Leiden heterozygotes, 3 had high factor VIII, 3 had plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 4G4G homozygosity, 2 had high factor XI, 2 had high homocysteine, 1 had low antithrombin III, 1 had the lupus anticoagulant, 1 had high anticardiolipin antibody Immunoglobulin G, and 1 had no clotting abnormalities. In 4 men with thrombophilia, DVT-PE recurred when testosterone was continued despite therapeutic international normalized ratio on warfarin. In 60 men on testosterone, 20 (33%) had high estradiol (E2 >42.6 pg/mL). When exogenous testosterone is aromatized to E2, and E2-induced thrombophilia is superimposed on thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis, thrombosis occurs. The DVT-PE and osteonecrosis after starting testosterone are associated with previously undiagnosed thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis. Thrombophilia should be ruled out before administration of exogenous testosterone.

  3. Clinical Trials in Male Hormonal Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieschlag E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has established the principle of hormonal male contraception based on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis. All hormonal male contraceptives use testosterone, but only in East Asian men can testosterone alone suppress spermatogenesis to a level compatible with contraceptive protection. In Caucasians, additional agents are required of which progestins are favored. Clinical trials concentrate on testosterone combined with norethisterone, desogestrel, etonogestrel or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate. The first randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed by the pharmaceutical industry demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of testosterone undecanoate and etonogestrel in suppressing spermatogenesis in volunteers.

  4. Variation in circulating testosterone during mating predicts reproductive success in a wild songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Apfelbeck

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone is an important sex hormone and mediates reproduction in male vertebrates. There is ample evidence that testosterone coordinates the expression of physiological, morphological and behavioural traits during reproduction and many of these traits are under sexual selection. However, only few studies so far have examined if individual variation in testosterone is correlated with reproductive success. Because socially monogamous bird species pass through different phases within a breeding cycle and each of these phases requires the expression of different behaviours, the relation between testosterone and reproductive success could vary with breeding stage. Here we investigate the link between reproductive success and testosterone in European stonechats – a socially monogamous songbird with biparental care. Previous studies found that territorial aggression in breeding stonechats depends on testosterone and that testosterone levels peak during the mating phase. Thus, high testosterone levels during mating may influence reproductive success by promoting territorial aggression and mate guarding. We found that males with two breeding attempts produced a similar number of fledglings as males with three breeding attempts. However, males with two breeding attempts expressed higher levels of testosterone than males with just one or those with three breeding attempts, regardless of whether testosterone was measured during the mating or the parental phase of the first brood. Furthermore, testosterone levels during mating, but not during parenting correlated with the total annual number of fledglings. Thus, individual variation in levels of plasma testosterone predicted reproductive success in stonechats.

  5. Testosterone Protects Mitochondrial Function and Regulates Neuroglobin Expression in Astrocytic Cells Exposed to Glucose Deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Toro-Urrego, Nicolas; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Echeverria, Valentina; Barreto, George E.

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone is a hormone that has been shown to confer neuroprotection from different insults affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Testosterone induces this protection by different mechanisms that include the activation of anti-apoptotic pathways that are directly implicated in neuronal survival. However, little attention has been devoted to its actions on glial cells. In the present study, we have assessed whether testosterone exerts protection in a human astrocyte cell model, the T9...

  6. Prediction of Long-term Post-operative Testosterone Replacement Requirement Based on the Pre-operative Tumor Volume and Testosterone Level in Pituitary Macroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Chung-Ming; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Pai, Ping-Ching; Toh, Cheng-Hong; Chuang, Chi-Cheng

    2015-11-05

    Non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFPAs) are the most prevalent pituitary macroadenomas. One common symptom of NFPA is hypogonadism, which may require long-term hormone replacement. This study was designed to clarify the association between the pre-operative tumor volume, pre-operative testosterone level, intraoperative resection status and the need of long-term post-operative testosterone replacement. Between 2004 and 2012, 45 male patients with NFPAs were enrolled in this prospective study. All patients underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Hypogonadism was defined as total serum testosterone levels of testosterone to patients with defined hypogonadism or clinical symptoms of hypogonadism. Hormone replacement for longer than 1 year was considered as long-term therapy. The need for long-term post-operative testosterone replacement was significantly associated with larger pre-operative tumor volume (p = 0.0067), and lower pre-operative testosterone level (p = 0.0101). There was no significant difference between the gross total tumor resection and subtotal resection groups (p = 0.1059). The pre-operative tumor volume and testosterone level impact post-operative hypogonadism. By measuring the tumor volume and the testosterone level and by performing adequate tumor resection, surgeons will be able to predict post-operative hypogonadism and the need for long-term hormone replacement.

  7. Postnatal Testosterone Concentrations and Male Social Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerianne M Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Converging evidence from over 40 years of behavioral research indicates that higher testicular androgens in prenatal life and at puberty contribute to the masculinization of human behavior. However, the behavioral significance of the transient activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis in early postnatal life remains largely unknown. Although early research on nonhuman primates indicated suppression of the postnatal surge in testicular androgens had no measurable effects on the later expression of the male behavioral phenotype, recent research from our laboratory suggests that postnatal testosterone concentrations influence male infant preferences for larger social groups and temperament characteristics associated with the later development of aggression. In later assessment of gender-linked behavior in the second year of life, concentrations of testosterone at 3-4 months of age were unrelated to toy choices and activity levels during toy play. However, higher concentrations of testosterone predicted less vocalization in toddlers and higher parental ratings on an established screening measure for autism spectrum disorder. These findings suggest a role of the transient activation of the HPG axis in the development of typical and atypical male social relations and suggest that it may be useful in future research on the exaggerated rise in testosterone secretion in preterm infants or exposure to hormone disruptors in early postnatal life to include assessment of gender-relevant behavioral outcomes, including childhood disorders with sex-biased prevalence rates.

  8. Androgen receptors and serum testosterone levels identify different subsets of postmenopausal breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secreto Giorgio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen receptors (AR are frequently expressed in breast cancers, but their implication in cancer growth is still controversial. In the present study, we further investigated the role of the androgen/AR pathway in breast cancer development. Methods AR expression was evaluated by immunochemistry in a cohort of 528 postmenopausal breast cancer patients previously examined for the association of serum testosterone levels with patient and tumor characteristics. AR expression was classified according to the percentage of stained cells: AR-absent (0% and AR-poorly (1%-30%, AR-moderately (>30%-60%, and AR-highly (>60% positive. Results Statistical analysis was performed in 451 patients who experienced natural menopause. AR-high expression was significantly related with low histologic grade and estrogen receptor (ER- and progesterone receptor (PR-positive status (P trendP=0.022, although a trend across the AR expression categories was not present. When women defined by ER status were analyzed separately, regression analysis in the ER-positive group showed a significant association of high testosterone levels with AR-highly-positive expression (OR 1.86; 95% CI, 1.10-3.16, but the association was essentially due to patients greater than or equal to 65 years (OR 2.42; 95% CI, 1.22-4.82. In ER-positive group, elevated testosterone levels appeared also associated with AR-absent expression, although the small number of patients in this category limited the appearance of significant effects (OR 1.92; 95% CI, 0.73–5.02: the association was present in both age groups ( Conclusions The findings in the present study confirm that testosterone levels are a marker of hormone-dependent breast cancer and suggest that the contemporary evaluation of ER status, AR expression, and circulating testosterone levels may identify different subsets of cancers whose growth may be influenced by androgens.

  9. Alterations in gonado somatic index, seminogram and testosterone profiles in rats treated with hexaconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ravi Kumar,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hexaconazole, a triazole fungicide is widely used in crop protection. The ability of the triazoles to inhibit cytochromes P450 dependent enzymes that play an important role in steroid hormone synthesis has been reported earlier. Hence, the possible effect of hexaconazole on male accessory sex organs, seminogram and serum testosterone level was studied in male rats. A total of eighty wistar rats aged 10-12 weeks, were randomly assigned to four groups, each with twenty rats. Group I served as control and received corn oil per os @ 1ml/kg body weight. Groups II, III and IV were given hexaconazole suspension in corn oil daily @ 22.5 55.0 and 110.0mg/kg, per os , orally. Ten rats in each group were sacrificed on 30th day, while the remaining ten rats were sacrificed on 60th day. Weights of testis, prostate gland and seminal vesicles were recorded in all the rats and epididymal sperm reserve was analyzed for seminogram. Testosterone levels were also studied in the serum of treated rats. Results indicated that hexaconazole significantly decreased the weights of testis, prostate and seminal glands, indicating a decrease in gonado somatic index. The seminogram was found adversely affected in terms of decreased total epididymal sperm count and motility and increased dead sperm percent and abnormal sperm percent. Serum testosterone levels were found significantly lowered by hexaconazole both after 30 days and 60 days treatments. Decreased gonado somatic index was attributed to decreased circulating testosterone levels. Adverse affects on seminogram might have occurred from lowered testosterone levels as well as alterations in epididymal milieu due to possible presence of hexaconazole and/or its metabolites.

  10. In ovo testosterone treatment reduces long-term survival of female pigeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matson, K.D.; Riedstra, B.; Tieleman, B.I.

    2016-01-01

    Early exposure to steroid hormones, as in the case of an avian embryo exposed yolk testosterone, can impact the biology of an individual in different ways over the course of its life. While many early-life effects of yolk testosterone have been documented, later-life effects remain poorly studied

  11. Testosterone and other anabolic steroids as cardiovascular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, J; Christiana, J; Frishman, W H

    1999-05-01

    There has been much interest in the effect of sex hormones on cardiovascular risk factors and as a therapeutic modality in both men and women. In this article, testosterone is considered as a possible therapy for cardiovascular disease. It has been shown that the level of serum testosterone decreases in men as they age. Healthy men with low testosterone levels have increased cardiovascular risk factors, including high fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and apo A-I lipoprotein. Injections of testosterone to raise the levels to midnormal range have been shown to decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, while increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Testosterone affects the clotting system by increasing thromboxane A (2) receptor activity and platelet aggregability. Testosterone has also been shown to augment the fibrinolytic system and antithrombin III activity. In men, testosterone has been shown to have antianginal effects, and endogenous levels have an inverse relationship to systolic blood pressure. Testosterone can be given in oral, injectable, pellet, and transdermal patch forms. There may be a role in administering testosterone to return men to normal physiologic range who have low serum levels. This treatment increases the risk of prostatic cancer, benign prostatism, erythrocytosis, and edema. No long-term studies of the effects of long-term testosterone replacement have been undertaken, so it is difficult to recommend this treatment as yet, but it is being considered as a therapy for augmenting skeletal muscle strength in patients with congestive heart failure.

  12. Compounded Testosterone Troches TO OPTIMIZE HEALTH AND THE TESTOSTERONE CONTROVERSY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Michael A S

    2015-01-01

    As men age, testosterone levels progressively fall and inflammatory biomarkers increase. The gradual decline in testosterone production with aging, known as andropause, is common and may have deleterious effects on men including decreased overall well-being, increased sarcopenia, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, reduced sexual function, and bone loss. Therefore, it comes as no surprise that an increasing number of men worldwide have begun requesting testosterone replacement therapy from their physicians. Occasionally, physicians discourage male patients from getting testosterone replacement therapy based on a few recent studies indicating the therapy causes cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarctions. Yet, an extensive review of the testosterone replacement therapy literature reveals that the majority of clinical studies show that properly administered testosterone replacement therapy, in which estradiol and dihydrotestosterone levels are also controlled, has no adverse effects on myocardial infarction risk. The current state-of-the-art in testosterone replacement therapy comprises compounded testosterone troches; an aromatase inhibitor, such as generic Anastrazole, to control estradiol levels; and a 5α-reductase inhibitor, such as beneric Dutasteride or Finasteride, to control dihydrotestosterone. Compounded testosterone troches easily raise serum testosterone levels to the optimal range, are highly cost effective at $82 for a 180-day supply, and provide affordable access to testosterone replacement therapy to millions of men requesting it. Yet, the Blue Cross Blue Shield-associated firms have largely denied requests for coverage of compounded medications, including testosterone troches. Despite data demonstrating strong links between testosterone deficiency and significant comorbid conditions (including Type 2 diabetes and other metabolic syndrome diseases) as well as the health benefits of testosterone replacement therapy, some physian have

  13. Testosterone physiology in resistance exercise and training: the up-stream regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingren, Jakob L; Kraemer, William J; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M

    2010-12-01

    Testosterone is one of the most potent naturally secreted androgenic-anabolic hormones, and its biological effects include promotion of muscle growth. In muscle, testosterone stimulates protein synthesis (anabolic effect) and inhibits protein degradation (anti-catabolic effect); combined, these effects account for the promotion of muscle hypertrophy by testosterone. These physiological signals from testosterone are modulated through the interaction of testosterone with the intracellular androgen receptor (AR). Testosterone is important for the desired adaptations to resistance exercise and training; in fact, testosterone is considered the major promoter of muscle growth and subsequent increase in muscle strength in response to resistance training in men. The acute endocrine response to a bout of heavy resistance exercise generally includes increased secretion of various catabolic (breakdown-related) and anabolic (growth-related) hormones including testosterone. The response of testosterone and AR to resistance exercise is largely determined by upper regulatory elements including the acute exercise programme variable domains, sex and age. In general, testosterone concentration is elevated directly following heavy resistance exercise in men. Findings on the testosterone response in women are equivocal with both increases and no changes observed in response to a bout of heavy resistance exercise. Age also significantly affects circulating testosterone concentrations. Until puberty, children do not experience an acute increase in testosterone from a bout of resistance exercise; after puberty some acute increases in testosterone from resistance exercise can be found in boys but not in girls. Aging beyond 35-40 years is associated with a 1-3% decline per year in circulating testosterone concentration in men; this decline eventually results in the condition known as andropause. Similarly, aging results in a reduced acute testosterone response to resistance exercise in men

  14. Analyses of plasma for metabolic and hormonal changes in rats flown aboard Cosmos 2044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Alfred H., Jr.; Wang, Elaine; Mullins, Richard E.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Popova, Irina A.

    1992-01-01

    Plasmas samples from rats flown aboard Cosmos 2044 were analyzed for the levels of key metabolites, electrolytes, enzymes, and hormones. The major differences between the flight group and the synchronous control were elevations in glucose, cholesterol, phosphate, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase and decreased levels of thyroxine. Most of these differences were not mimicked by tail suspension of ground-based rats; however, both flight and suspended rats exhibited inhibited testosterone secretion. Corticosterone, immunoreactive growth hormone, and prolactin showed inconsistent differences from the various control groups, suggesting that the levels of these hormones were not due to actual or simulated microgravity.

  15. Hormonal contraception for human males: prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.R.K.Reddy

    2000-01-01

    Development of an ideal hormonal contraceptive for man has been the goal of several research workers during the past few decades. Suppression of pituitary gonadotropic hormones, which in turn would inhibit spermatogenesis while maintaining normal libido and potentia has been the approach for a contraceptive agent. Intramuscularly administered and orally active testosterone or testosterone in combination with progesterone have been shown to cause inhibition of spermatogenesis resulting in azoospermia in normal men. Similarly testosterone has been used in combination with gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonists and agonists to inhibit pituitary gonadotropic hormone release. Immunological approach to neutralize the circulating levels of follicle stimulating hormone has also been shown to cause inhibition of spermatogenesis. The available literature shows that testosterone causes reversible azoospermia without any significant side effects in Asian population effectively and appears to be a promising chemical for control of fertility in man.( Asian J Androl 2000 ; 2 : 46 - 50 )

  16. "Low Testosterone Levels in Body Fluids Are Associated With Chronic Periodontitis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellesarian, Sergio Varela; Malmstrom, Hans; Abduljabbar, Tariq; Vohra, Fahim; Kellesarian, Tammy Varela; Javed, Fawad; Romanos, Georgios E

    2017-03-01

    There is a debate over the association between low testosterone levels in body fluids and the occurrence of chronic periodontitis (CP). The aim of the present systematic review was to assess whether low testosterone levels in body fluids reflect CP. In order to identify studies relevant to the focus question: "Is there a relationship between low testosterone levels in body fluids and CP?" an electronic search without time or language restrictions was conducted up to June 2016 in indexed databases using different keywords: periodontitis, chronic periodontitis, periodontal diseases, testosterone, and gonadal steroid hormones. A total of eight studies were included in the present systematic review. The number of study participants ranged from 24 to 1,838 male individuals with ages ranging from 15 to 95 years. Seven studies measured testosterone levels in serum, two studies in saliva, and one study in gingiva. Four studies reported a negative association between serum testosterone levels and CP. Two studies reported a positive association between decreased testosterone levels in serum and CP. Increased levels of salivary testosterone among patients with CP were reported in one study; whereas one study reported no significant difference in the concentration of salivary testosterone between patients with and without CP. One study identified significant increase in the metabolism of testosterone in the gingiva of patients with CP. Within the limits of the evidence available, the relationship between low testosterone levels and CP remains debatable and further longitudinal studies and control trials are needed.

  17. Oxytocin, testosterone, and human social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard J

    2016-05-01

    I describe an integrative social-evolutionary model for the adaptive significance of the human oxytocinergic system. The model is based on a role for this hormone in the generation and maintenance of social familiarity and affiliation across five homologous, functionally similar, and sequentially co-opted contexts: mothers with offspring, female and male mates, kin groups, individuals with reciprocity partners, and individuals within cooperating and competing social groups defined by culture. In each situation, oxytocin motivates, mediates and rewards the cognitive and behavioural processes that underlie the formation and dynamics of a more or less stable social group, and promotes a relationship between two or more individuals. Such relationships may be positive (eliciting neurological reward, reducing anxiety and thus indicating fitness-enhancing effects), or negative (increasing anxiety and distress, and thus motivating attempts to alleviate a problematic, fitness-reducing social situation). I also present evidence that testosterone exhibits opposite effects from oxytocin on diverse aspects of cognition and behaviour, most generally by favouring self-oriented, asocial and antisocial behaviours. I apply this model for effects of oxytocin and testosterone to understanding human psychological disorders centrally involving social behaviour. Reduced oxytocin and higher testosterone levels have been associated with under-developed social cognition, especially in autism. By contrast, some combination of oxytocin increased above normal levels, and lower testosterone, has been reported in a notable number of studies of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, and, in some cases, higher oxytocin involves maladaptively 'hyper-developed' social cognition in these conditions. This pattern of findings suggests that human social cognition and behaviour are structured, in part, by joint and opposing effects of oxytocin and testosterone, and that extremes of such joint

  18. Plasma testosterone in the general population, cancer prognosis and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orsted, D D; Nordestgaard, B G; Bojesen, S E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Testosterone is an important anabolic hormone in humans and in vitro testosterone stimulates growth of lung and colon cancer cells. We tested the hypothesis that plasma testosterone associate with increased risk of cancer and with increased risk of early death after cancer. MATERIALS...... AND METHODS: Plasma testosterone was measured in 8771 20- to 94-year-old men and women who participated in a prospective study of the general population. Participants were included in 1981-1983 and followed for a median of 22 years (range: 0-30 years). RESULTS: During follow-up, 1140 men and 809 women...

  19. Testosterone deficiency and quality of life in Australasian testicular cancer survivors: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carrigan, B; Fournier, M; Olver, I N; Stockler, M R; Whitford, H; Toner, G C; Thomson, D B; Davis, I D; Hanning, F; Singhal, N; Underhill, C; Clingan, P; McDonald, A; Boland, A; Grimison, P

    2014-08-01

    This is the first prospective study in a contemporary Australian/New Zealand population to determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency in testicular cancer survivors at 12 months from treatment, and any association with poorer quality of life. Hormone assays from 54 evaluable patients in a prospective cohort study revealed biochemical hypogonadism in 18 patients (33%) and low-normal testosterone in 13 patients (24%). We found no association between testosterone levels and quality of life (all P > 0.05). Hypogonadal patients should be considered for testosterone replacement to prevent long-term morbidity.

  20. Effect of 12 months of testosterone replacement therapy on metabolic syndrome components in hypogonadal men: data from the Testim Registry in the US (TRiUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushner Harvey

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that there may be a bidirectional, physiological link between hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome (MetS, and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT has been shown to improve some symptoms of MetS in small patient populations. We examined the effect of 12 months of TRT on MetS components in a large cohort of hypogonadal men. Methods Data were obtained from TRiUS (Testim® Registry in the United States, a 12-month, multicenter, prospective observational registry (N = 849 of hypogonadal men prescribed Testim 1% testosterone gel (5-10 g/day. Data analyzed included age, total testosterone (TT, free testosterone (FT, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, and MetS components: waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, plasma triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol. Results Of evaluable patients (581/849 at baseline, 37% were MetS+ (n = 213 and 63% were MetS- (n = 368. MetS+ patients had significantly lower TT (p Conclusion Hypogonadal MetS+ patients were more likely than their MetS- counterparts to have lower baseline TT levels and present with more comorbid conditions. MetS+ patients and those in the lowest TT quartile showed improvement in some metabolic syndrome components after 12 months of TRT. While it is currently unclear if further cardiometabolic benefit can be seen with longer TRT use in this population, testing for low testosterone may be warranted in MetS+ men with hypogonadal symptoms.

  1. Testosterone Therapy in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hair, reduced muscle size and strength, brittle bones (osteoporosis), and smaller testicles. How is low testosterone diagnosed? The expert group recommended that a diagnosis of AD in adult men should be made only when there are (1) symptoms and signs that ...

  2. Testosterone Nasal Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or any of the ingredients in testosterone nasal gel. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking. Be sure to mention ...

  3. Effect of testosterone on intermediate memory in day-old chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, M E; Ng, K T; Andrew, R J

    1986-10-01

    Day-old chicks trained on a single trial passive avoidance discrimination task show three well-defined behavioural stages in memory formation: short-term, intermediate and long-term memory. Testosterone (2 mg), given subcutaneously, yielded results which may be tentatively interpreted as an extension of the time of availability of recall from the intermediate stage by between 20 and 50 min, provided the hormone is administered no earlier than 90 min before learning. A higher dose (12.5 mg) of testosterone administered 30 min before learning had a similar effect. The findings with testosterone are comparable to those reported for pituitary-adrenal hormones.

  4. The Effects of Testosterone on Oxidative Stress Markers in Mice with Spinal Cord Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Choobineh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI causes infertility in male patients through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction, semen and hormone abnormalities. Oxidative stress (OS is involved in poor semen quality and subsequent infertility in males with SCI. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of SCI on the level of testosterone hormone. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we evaluated the effects of exogenous testosterone on the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonylation (PCO, as markers of OS, in 10 groups of SCI mice. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC was determined using the 2,29-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical cation assay. Results: Exogenous testosterone administration in mice with SCI significantly reduced SOD and GPx enzyme activities and MDA level. There was no significant decrease in PCO content. In addition, TAC remarkably increased in the sham and SCI groups not treated with testosterone but remained unchanged in all other experimental groups. Exogenous testosterone also reduced serum testosterone levels in all groups except the positive control group. Conclusion: Our cumulative data indicated that SCI could cause sterility by disturbing the plasmatic testosterone balance. The normal level of endogenous testosterone was not completely restored by exogenous testosterone administration.

  5. Testosterone levels in healthy men are related to amygdala reactivity and memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Sandra; Spalek, Klara; Rasch, Björn; Gschwind, Leo; Coynel, David; Fastenrath, Matthias; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2012-09-01

    Testosterone is a steroid hormone thought to influence both emotional and cognitive functions. It is unknown, however, if testosterone also affects the interaction between these two domains, such as the emotional arousal-induced enhancement of memory. Healthy subjects (N=234) encoded pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and underwent a free recall test 10 min after memory encoding. We show that higher endogenous testosterone levels at encoding were associated with higher arousal ratings of neutral pictures in men. fMRI analysis revealed that higher testosterone levels were related to increased brain activation in the amygdala during encoding of neutral pictures. Moreover, endogenous testosterone levels were positively correlated with the number of freely recalled neutral pictures. No such relations were found in women. These findings point to a male-specific role for testosterone in enhancing memory by increasing the biological salience of incoming information.

  6. Nocturnal hyperthermia induced by social stress in male tree shrews: relation to low testosterone and effects of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhause, Susan; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Schlumbohm, Christina; Fuchs, Eberhard; Flügge, Gabriele

    2011-10-24

    Stress is known to elevate core body temperature (CBT). We recorded CBT in a diurnal animal, the male tree shrew, during a one-week control period and a one-week period of social stress using a telemetric system. During the stress period, when animals were confronted with a dominant male for about 1h daily, CBT was increased throughout the day. We analyzed CBT during the night when animals were left undisturbed and displayed no locomotor activity. To determine whether nocturnal hyperthermia may be related to stress-induced changes in hormonal status, we measured testosterone, noradrenalin and cortisol in the animals' morning urine. The daily social stress increased the mean nocturnal temperature by 0.37 °C. Urinary testosterone was reduced during the stress period, and there was a significant negative correlation between testosterone and the area under the curve (AUC) of the nocturnal CBT. This means that stress-induced hyperthermia was strongest in the animals with the lowest testosterone concentrations. As expected, urinary noradrenalin was elevated during the stress week but a positive correlation with the AUC data was only found for animals younger than 12 months. Cortisol was also increased during the stress week but there were no correlations with nocturnal hyperthermia. However, the stress-induced increases in noradrenalin and cortisol correlated with each other. Furthermore, there were no correlations between the stress-induced increase in nocturnal CBT and body weight reduction or locomotor activity during the light phase. Interestingly, the extent of nocturnal hyperthermia depended on the animals' ages: In animals younger than 12 months, stress increased the AUC by 48%, in animals aged between 12 and 24 months, stress increased the AUC by 36%, and older animals showed only a 7% increase. However, testosterone was not significantly reduced in the older animals. The present data reveal an interrelation between the extent of stress-induced nocturnal

  7. Perisurgical and intra-rehabilitative salivary steroid hormone profiles in bicompartmental arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, S; Grasso, D; Bodini, B D; Cavaiani, F; De Santis, C; Ursino, N; Pelosi, C; Banfi, G; Lombardi, G

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones play a role in pain perception, a key variable in evaluating the progression and treatment of osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between salivary concentrations of four steroid hormones and functional/clinical outcomes after hip and knee arthroplasty. Saliva samples were collected from 24 otherwise healthy patients with osteoarthritis before surgery, on admission to rehabilitation, and at hospital discharge. Salivary concentrations of testosterone, 17β-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and cortisol were immunoassayed. Changes in hormone levels were compared with clinical outcomes, as assessed by functional independence measure (FIM®), Barthel Index (BI), and visual analog scale for pain (VAS) scores. Changes in testosterone levels were significantly inversely correlated with VAS (r= -0.53, p=0.043) and FIM® and BI scores in all patients (r= -0.30, p= 0.043, and r= -0.35, p=0.031, respectively). The testosterone to cortisol ratio was inversely correlated with BI scores in all patients (r= -0.30, p=0.040), and in the men (r= -0.55, p=0.005) and the women (r= -0.28, p=0.042) when analyzed separately. Changes in salivary testosterone concentrations closely correlated with clinical outcome measurements for total hip and knee arthroplasty. Clinical outcome after arthroplasty was generally better among the men.

  8. Aggression by ovariectomized female rats with testosterone implants: competitive experience activates aggression toward unfamiliar females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1990-04-01

    Female hooded rats (250 to 325 g) were ovariectomized and bilaterally implanted with testosterone-filled or empty Silastic tubes. The testosterone-filled space in each tube was 10 mm long and this should produce a serum testosterone concentration 4 to 5 times that of an intact female, but well below that of a male. Three weeks following surgery, half of the animals with testosterone implants were housed with an animal with an empty implant and left for 6 weeks. The remaining animals were placed on a 23-hr food deprivation schedule, housed in testosterone implant/empty implant pairs, and then subjected to a series of food competition tests. Following the competition tests, all animals were individually tested in their living cage for aggression toward an unfamiliar female. In food competition, females with testosterone implants were more successful and more aggressive than their cagemates with empty implants. When tested for aggression toward an unfamiliar intruder, females with testosterone implants given competitive experience were more aggressive toward an intruder than were their cagemates with empty implants or females with testosterone implants not given the competitive experience. Females with testosterone implants but without competitive experience were not more aggressive toward an unfamiliar female than were their cagemates with empty implants. These results suggest that, in ovariectomized females with testosterone implants, hormone-dependent aggression fostered by a competitive situation is displayed toward unfamiliar females.

  9. Green tea polyphenols inhibit testosterone production in rat Leydig cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marina S.Figueiroa; Juliany S.B.Cesar Vieira; Disleide S.Leite; Ruben C.O.Andrade Filho; Fabiano Ferreira; Patricia S.Gouveia; Daniel P.Udrisar; Maria I.Wanderley

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of green tea extract (GTE) and its polyphenol constituents, (-)-epigal-locatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin (EC), on basal and stimulated testosterone production by rat Leydig cells in vitro. Leydig cells purified in a Percoll gradient were incubated for 3 h with GTE, EGCG or EC and the testosterone precursor androstenedione, in the presence or absence of either protein kinase A (PKA) or protein kinase C (PKC) activators. The reversibility of the effect was studied by pretreating cells for 15 min with GTE or EGCG, allowing them to recover for 1 h and challenging them for 2 h with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol or androstenedione. GTE and EGCG, but not EC, inhibited both basal and kinase-stimulated testosterone production. Under the pretreatment conditions, the inhibitory effect of the higher concentration of GTE/EGCG on hCG/LHRH-stimulated or 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol-induced testosterone production was maintained, whereas androstenedione-supported testosterone production returned to control levels. At the lower concentration of GTE/EGCG, the inhibitory effect of these polyphenols on 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol-supported testosterone production was reversed. The inhibitory effects of GTE may be explained by the action of its principal component, EGCG, and the presence of a gallate group in its structure seems important for its high efficacy in inhibiting testosterone production. The mechanisms underlying the effects of GTE and EGCG involve the inhibition of the PKA/PKC signalling pathways, as well as the inhibition of P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase function.

  10. How to use and interpret hormone ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollberger, Silja; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Hormone ratios have become increasingly popular throughout the neuroendocrine literature since they offer a straightforward way to simultaneously analyze the effects of two interdependent hormones. However, the analysis of ratios is associated with statistical and interpretational concerns which have not been sufficiently considered in the context of endocrine research. The aim of this article, therefore, is to demonstrate and discuss these issues, and to suggest suitable ways to address them. In a first step, we use exemplary testosterone and cortisol data to illustrate that one major concern of ratios lies in their distribution and inherent asymmetry. As a consequence, results of parametric statistical analyses are affected by the ultimately arbitrary decision of which way around the ratio is computed (i.e., A/B or B/A). We suggest the use of non-parametric methods as well as the log-transformation of hormone ratios as appropriate methods to deal with these statistical problems. However, in a second step, we also discuss the complicated interpretation of ratios, and propose moderation analysis as an alternative and oftentimes more insightful approach to ratio analysis. In conclusion, we suggest that researchers carefully consider which statistical approach is best suited to investigate reciprocal hormone effects. With regard to the hormone ratio method, further research is needed to specify what exactly this index reflects on the biological level and in which cases it is a meaningful variable to analyze.

  11. Controversies in testosterone replacement therapy: testosterone and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kathleen; Miner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The role of testosterone in the cardiovascular (CV) health of men is controversial. Data suggest that both the condition and treatment of clinical hypogonadism is associated with decreased CV mortality; however, two recent studies suggest that hypogonadal subjects treated with testosterone replacement therapy have a higher incidence of new CV events. There has been increased media attention concerning the risk of CV disease in men treated with testosterone. Until date, there are no long-term prospective studies to determine safety. Literature spanning over the past 30 years has suggested that not only is there a possible increased CV risk in men with low levels of testosterone, but the benefits from testosterone therapy may even lower this risk. We review here the recent studies that have garnered such intense scrutiny. This article is intended as a thorough review of testosterone levels and CV risk, providing the clinician with the facts needed to make informed clinical decisions in managing patients with clinical hypogonadism.

  12. The multiple actions of testosterone in men: nature knows best

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Funder

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In male hormone replacement therapy Finkelstein et al. show that testosterone rather than synthetic "pure" androgens should be prescribed. Testosterone is converted to the superactive androgen dihydrotestosterone and to estradiol, and thus has actions via androgen receptors and both estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ. Although muscle strength is androgen dependent, estradiol has major physiologic effects in men-on bone, cartilage, and together with androgens, on sexual functioning. Neither dihydrotestosterone nor 'pure' synthetic androgens can be converted to estradiol; those so treated thus risk missing out on the beneficial (and necessary effects of estrogens in men.

  13. Mechanism of testosterone deficiency in the transgenic sickle cell mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicki, Biljana; Zhang, Yuxi; Chen, Haolin; Brown, Terry R; Zirkin, Barry R; Burnett, Arthur L

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency is associated with sickle cell disease (SCD), but its underlying mechanism is not known. We investigated the possible occurrence and mechanism of testosterone deficiency in a mouse model of human SCD. Transgenic sickle male mice (Sickle) exhibited decreased serum and intratesticular testosterone and increased luteinizing hormone (LH) levels compared with wild type (WT) mice, indicating primary hypogonadism in Sickle mice. LH-, dbcAMP-, and pregnenolone- (but not 22-hydroxycholesterol)- stimulated testosterone production by Leydig cells isolated from the Sickle mouse testis was decreased compared to that of WT mice, implying defective Leydig cell steroidogenesis. There also was reduced protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), but not cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in the Sickle mouse testis. These data suggest that the capacity of P450scc to support testosterone production may be limited by the supply of cholesterol to the mitochondria in Sickle mice. The sickle mouse testis exhibited upregulated NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox and increased oxidative stress, measured as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and unchanged protein expression of an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase-1. Mice heterozygous for the human sickle globin (Hemi) exhibited intermediate hypogonadal changes between those of WT and Sickle mice. These results demonstrate that testosterone deficiency occurs in Sickle mice, mimicking the human condition. The defects in the Leydig cell steroidogenic pathway in Sickle mice, mainly due to reduced availability of cholesterol for testosterone production, may be related to NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that targeting testicular oxidative stress or steroidogenesis mechanisms in SCD offers a potential treatment for improving phenotypic changes associated with testosterone deficiency in this disease.

  14. Mechanism of testosterone deficiency in the transgenic sickle cell mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Musicki

    Full Text Available Testosterone deficiency is associated with sickle cell disease (SCD, but its underlying mechanism is not known. We investigated the possible occurrence and mechanism of testosterone deficiency in a mouse model of human SCD. Transgenic sickle male mice (Sickle exhibited decreased serum and intratesticular testosterone and increased luteinizing hormone (LH levels compared with wild type (WT mice, indicating primary hypogonadism in Sickle mice. LH-, dbcAMP-, and pregnenolone- (but not 22-hydroxycholesterol- stimulated testosterone production by Leydig cells isolated from the Sickle mouse testis was decreased compared to that of WT mice, implying defective Leydig cell steroidogenesis. There also was reduced protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR, but not cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, in the Sickle mouse testis. These data suggest that the capacity of P450scc to support testosterone production may be limited by the supply of cholesterol to the mitochondria in Sickle mice. The sickle mouse testis exhibited upregulated NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox and increased oxidative stress, measured as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and unchanged protein expression of an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase-1. Mice heterozygous for the human sickle globin (Hemi exhibited intermediate hypogonadal changes between those of WT and Sickle mice. These results demonstrate that testosterone deficiency occurs in Sickle mice, mimicking the human condition. The defects in the Leydig cell steroidogenic pathway in Sickle mice, mainly due to reduced availability of cholesterol for testosterone production, may be related to NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that targeting testicular oxidative stress or steroidogenesis mechanisms in SCD offers a potential treatment for improving phenotypic changes associated with testosterone deficiency in this disease.

  15. Controversies in testosterone replacement therapy: testosterone and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen Hwang; Martin Miner

    2015-01-01

    The role of testosterone in the cardiovascular (CV) health of men is controversial. Data suggest that both the condition and treatment of clinical hypogonadism is associated with decreased CV mortality; however, two recent studies suggest that hypogonadal subjects treated with testosterone replacement therapy have a higher incidence of new CV events. There has been increased media attention concerning the risk of CV disease in men treated with testosterone. Until date, there are no long-term ...

  16. Development of a men's Preference for Testosterone Replacement Therapy (P-TRT instrument

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    Szeinbach SL

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sheryl L Szeinbach,1 Enrique Seoane-Vazquez,2 Kent H Summers31Ohio State University, College of Pharmacy, Columbus, OH, USA; 2International Center for Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Boston, MA, 3Endo Health Solutions, Chadds Ford, PA, USABackground: This study used a standard research approach to create a final conceptual model and the Preference for the Testosterone Replacement Therapy (P-TRT instrument.Methods: A discussion guide was developed from a literature review and expert opinion to direct one-on-one interviews with participants who used testosterone replacement therapy and consented to participate in the study. Data from telephone interviews were transcribed for theme analysis using NVivo 9 qualitative analysis software, analyzed descriptively from a saturation grid, and used to evaluate men's P-TRT. Data from cognitive debriefing for five participants were used to evaluate the final conceptual model and validate the initial P-TRT instrument.Results: Item saturation and theme exhaustion was achieved by 58 male participants of mean age 55.0 ± 10.0 (22–69 years who had used testosterone replacement therapy for a mean of 175.0 ± 299.2 days. The conceptual model was developed from items and themes obtained from the participant interviews and saturation grid. Items comprising eight dimensions were used for instrument development, ie, ease of use, effect on libido, product characteristics, physiological impact, psychological impact, side effects, treatment experience, and preference. Results from the testosterone replacement therapy preference evaluation provide a detailed insight into why most men preferred a topical gel product over an injection or patch.Conclusion: Items and themes relating to use of testosterone replacement therapy were in concordance with the final conceptual model and 29-item P-TRT instrument. The standard research approach used in this study produced the

  17. Men report stronger attraction to femininity in women's faces when their testosterone levels are high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Lisa L M; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Smith, Finlay G; Feinberg, David R; Little, Anthony C; Al-Dujaili, Emad A S

    2008-11-01

    Many studies have shown that women's judgments of men's attractiveness are affected by changes in levels of sex hormones. However, no studies have tested for associations between changes in levels of sex hormones and men's judgments of women's attractiveness. To investigate this issue, we compared men's attractiveness judgments of feminized and masculinized women's and men's faces in test sessions where salivary testosterone was high and test sessions where salivary testosterone was relatively low. Men reported stronger attraction to femininity in women's faces in test sessions where salivary testosterone was high than in test sessions where salivary testosterone was low. This effect was found to be specific to judgments of opposite-sex faces. The strength of men's reported attraction to femininity in men's faces did not differ between high and low testosterone test sessions, suggesting that the effect of testosterone that we observed for judgments of women's faces was not due to a general response bias. Collectively, these findings suggest that changes in testosterone levels contribute to the strength of men's reported attraction to femininity in women's faces and complement previous findings showing that testosterone modulates men's interest in sexual stimuli.

  18. The hidden dimensions of the competition effect: basal cortisol and basal testosterone jointly predict changes in salivary testosterone after social victory in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilioli, Samuele; Watson, Neil V

    2012-11-01

    Dominance struggles appear to affect hormone concentrations in many mammalian species, such that higher concentrations of testosterone are seen in winners of competitions, compared to losers. This so-called, "competition effect" has received inconsistent empirical support, suggesting that additional psychological (e.g., mood), situational (i.e., nature of the competition) and physiological (e.g., cortisol) variables might intervene in modulating testosterone fluctuations after social contests. We investigated possible interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis in predicting transient changes in testosterone after social victory or defeat on a familiar competitive task. In particular, the present study examined the dual-hormone hypothesis - proposing that baseline cortisol potently modulates the competition effect (Mehta and Josephs, 2010) - in a sample of healthy young men engaged in head-to-head competition on a widely played commercial videogame, Tetris. We found a significant interaction between HPG and HPA axes status and the competition effect on testosterone in the randomly assigned videogame winners, such that winners with a pre-competition combination of high baseline testosterone and low baseline cortisol exhibited significantly greater post-competition testosterone concentrations. The randomly assigned videogame losers showed significantly decreased post-competition levels of testosterone. Possible biological and evolutionary mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are discussed.

  19. In ovo testosterone treatment reduces long-term survival of female pigeons : a preliminary analysis after nine years of monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matson, K D; Riedstra, B; Tieleman, B I

    2016-01-01

    Early exposure to steroid hormones, as in the case of an avian embryo exposed yolk testosterone, can impact the biology of an individual in different ways over the course of its life. While many early-life effects of yolk testosterone have been documented, later-life effects remain poorly studied. W

  20. Effect of testosterone on antler growth in yearling male reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ryg

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available 1. The effect of exogenous testosterone on ander growth in yearling male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus was tested. 2. Testosterone (33 mg/kg inhibited antler growth, and in one animal induced cleaning and subsequent casting of the antlers. This animal grew a new set of antlers, which were cleaned at the normal time. 3. During treatment, there was an inverse relationship between peak testosterone levels and antler growth rate. 4. There was no effect of treatment on body weight or food intake. 5. It is concluded that the effects of testosterone on antler growth are qualitatively the same in reindeer as in other deer. However, because high testosterone doses were necessary to produce effects, it is questionable whether this hormone normally is responsible for the cessation of antler growth in reindeer.Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ettårige reinbukker.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: 1. Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ett-årige reinbukker (Rangifer tarandus tarandus ble undersøkt. 2. Testosteron (33 mg/kg hemmet gevirveksten, og hos ett dyr førte behandlingen til at geviret ble feiet og deretter felt. Deretter vokste det ut ett nytt gevir, som ble feiet til vanlig tid. 3. Det var en negativ korrelasjon mellom maksimale testosteronnivåer og gevirvekst under behandlingen. 4. Det var ingen effekt på forinntak eller vektutvikling. 5. Det blir konkludert med at virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst er kvalitativt den samme hos rein som hos andre hjortedyr. Det er likevel tvilsomt om testosteron normalt er ansvarlig for avslutningen av gevirvekst hos rein, fordi store testosterondoser måtte til for å få noen virkning.Testosteronin vaikutus vuodenikåisten urosporojen sarvien kasvuun.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä: 1. Tutkimuksessa seurattiin ruiskeena annetun testosteronin vaikutusta vuodenikåisten urosporojen (Rangifer tarandus tarandus sarvien kasvuun. 2. Testosteron! (33 mg/kg hidasti sarvien

  1. Inverse relationship between bioavailable testosterone and subclinical coronary artery calcification in non-obese Korean men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byoung-Jin Park; Jae-Yong Shim; Yong-Jae Lee; Jung-Hyun Lee; Hye-Ree Lee

    2012-01-01

    Although low testosterone levels in men have been associated with high risk for cardiovascular disease,little is known about the association between male sex hormones and subclinical coronary disease in men with apparently low cardiometabolic risk.This study was performed to investigate the association between male sex hormones and subclinical coronary artery calcification measured as coronary calcium score in non-obese Korean men.We examined the relationship of total testosterone,sex hormone-binding globulin,bioavai lable testosterone and free testosterone with coronary calcium score in 291 non-obese Korean men (mean age:52.8±9.3 years)not having a history of cardiovascular disease.Using multiple linear regression,we evaluated associations between log (sex hormone)levels and log (coronary calcium score) after adjusting for confounding variables in 105 men with some degree of coronary calcification defined as coronary calcium score ≥ 1.In multiple linear regression analysis,bioavailable testosterone was inversely associated with coronary calcium score (P=0.046) after adjusting for age,body mass index,smoking status,alcohol consumption,regular exercise,mean blood pressure,resting heart rate,C-reactive protein,fasting plasma glucose,total cholesterol,triglyceride,high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol,hypertension medication and hyperlipidemia medication,whereas total testosterone,sex hormone-binding globulin and free testosterone were not (P=0.674,P=0.121 and P=0.102,respectively).Our findings indicate that bioavailable testosterone is inversely associated with the degree of subclinical coronary artery calcification in non-obese men.

  2. The association of testosterone, sleep, and sexual function in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Monica L; Alvarenga, Tathiana F; Mazaro-Costa, Renata; Hachul, Helena C; Tufik, Sergio

    2011-10-06

    Testosterone has been the focus of several investigations and review studies in males, but few have addressed its effects on sleep and sexual function, despite evidence of its androgenic effects on circadian activity in both sexes. Studies have been conducted to understand how sleeping increases (and how waking decreases) testosterone levels and how this rhythm can be related to sexual function. This review addresses the inter-relationships among testosterone, sexual function and sleep, including sleep-disordered breathing in both sexes, specifically its effects related to sleep deprivation. In addition, hormonal changes in testosterone that occur in the gonadal and adrenal axis with obstructive sleep apnea and other conditions of chronic sleep deprivation, and which consequently affect sexual life, have also been explored. Nevertheless, hormone-associated sleep disruptions occur across a lifetime, particularly in women. The association between endogenous testosterone and sex, sleep and sleep disturbances is discussed, including the results of clinical trials as well as animal model studies. Evidence of possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this relationship is also described. Unraveling the associations of sex steroid hormone concentrations with sleep and sexual function may have clinical implications, as sleep loss reduces testosterone levels in males, and low sex steroid hormone concentrations have been associated with sexual dysfunction.

  3. Single dose testosterone administration alleviates gaze avoidance in women with Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enter, Dorien; Terburg, David; Harrewijn, Anita; Spinhoven, Philip; Roelofs, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Gaze avoidance is one of the most characteristic and persistent social features in people with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). It signals social submissiveness and hampers adequate social interactions. Patients with SAD typically show reduced testosterone levels, a hormone that facilitates socially dominant gaze behavior. Therefore we tested as a proof of principle whether single dose testosterone administration can reduce gaze avoidance in SAD. In a double-blind, within-subject design, 18 medication-free female participants with SAD and 19 female healthy control participants received a single dose of 0.5mg testosterone and a matched placebo, at two separate days. On each day, their spontaneous gaze behavior was recorded using eye-tracking, while they looked at angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions. Testosterone enhanced the percentage of first fixations to the eye-region in participants with SAD compared to healthy controls. In addition, SAD patients' initial gaze avoidance in the placebo condition was associated with more severe social anxiety symptoms and this relation was no longer present after testosterone administration. These findings indicate that single dose testosterone administration can alleviate gaze avoidance in SAD. They support theories on the dominance enhancing effects of testosterone and extend those by showing that effects are particularly strong in individuals featured by socially submissive behavior. The finding that this core characteristic of SAD can be directly influenced by single dose testosterone administration calls for future inquiry into the clinical utility of testosterone in the treatment of SAD.

  4. A sex-specific dose-response curve for testosterone: could excessive testosterone limit sexual interaction in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapf, Jill M; Simon, James A

    2017-04-01

    Testosterone treatment increases sexual desire and well-being in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder; however, many studies have shown only modest benefits limited to moderate doses. Unlike men, available data indicate women show a bell-shaped dose-response curve for testosterone, wherein a threshold dosage of testosterone leads to desirable sexual function effects, but exceeding this threshold results in a lack of further positive sexual effects or may have a negative impact. Emotional and physical side-effects of excess testosterone, including aggression and virilization, may counteract the modest benefits on sexual interaction, providing a possible explanation for a threshold dose of testosterone in women. In this commentary, we will review and critically analyze data supporting a curvilinear dose-response relationship between testosterone treatment and sexual activity in women with low libido, and also explore possible explanations for this observed relationship. Understanding optimal dosing of testosterone unique to women may bring us one step closer to overcoming regulatory barriers in treating female sexual dysfunction.

  5. A longitudinal analysis of women's salivary testosterone and intrasexual competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; Cobey, Kelly D; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2016-02-01

    Research on within-subject changes in women's intrasexual competitiveness has generally focused on possible relationships between women's intrasexual competitiveness and estimates of their fertility. While this approach is useful for testing hypotheses about the adaptive function of changes in women's intrasexual competitiveness, it offers little insight into the proximate mechanisms through which such changes might occur. To investigate this issue, we carried out a longitudinal study of the hormonal correlates of changes in intrasexual competitiveness in a large sample of heterosexual women (N=136). Each woman provided saliva samples and completed an intrasexual competitiveness questionnaire in five weekly test sessions. Multilevel modeling of these data revealed a significant, positive within-subject effect of testosterone on intrasexual competitiveness, indicating that women reported greater intrasexual competitiveness when testosterone was high. By contrast, there were no significant effects of estradiol, progesterone, estradiol-to-progesterone ratio, or cortisol and no significant effects of any hormones on reported relationship jealousy. This is the first study to demonstrate correlated changes in measured testosterone levels and women's reported intrasexual competitiveness, implicating testosterone in the regulation of women's intrasexual competitiveness.

  6. Does testosterone prevent early postoperative complications after gastrointestinal surgery?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Birendra Kumar Sah; Ming-Min Chen; Yi-Bing Peng; Xiao-Jing Feng; Min Yan; Bing-Ya Liu; Qi-Shi Fan; Zheng-Gang Zhu

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of sex hormones in the early postoperative complications of gastrointestinal diseases.METHODS: A total of 65 patients who underwent operations for gastric and colorectal diseases (mainly malignant diseases) were included in the study.Peripheral venous blood samples were collected at different times for analysis of estradiol, testosterone and progesterone. The only study endpoint was analysis of postoperative complications.RESULTS: Patients of both sexes were uniform but postoperative complication rate was significantly higher in female patients ( P = 0.027). There was no significant association of estradiol and progesterone with postoperative complications. Testosterone levels in complicated patients were significantly lower than in uncomplicated patients ( P < 0.05). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve showed that a lower value of testosterone was a predictor for higher complication rate ( P < 0.05), and a lower value of testosterone at later times after surgery was a better predictor of complications.CONCLUSION: Patients with low testosterone level were prone to higher postoperative complications, which was evident in both sexes. However, further studies are necessary to support this result.

  7. Testosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma in a peripubertal girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamilaris, T.C.; DeBold, C.R.; Manolas, K.J.; Hoursanidis, A.; Panageas, S.; Yiannatos, J.

    1987-11-13

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea and virilization had an adrenocortical adenoma that secreted predominantly testosterone. To the authors' knowledge, she is the first peripubertal and second youngest patient with a testosterone-secreting adrenal tumor described. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid an 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels were normal. A tumor was located by a computed tomographic (CT) scan and by uptake of 6-..beta..-(/sup 75/Se) selenomethylnorcholesterol. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed typical features of an adrenocortical adenoma with no histologic features characteristic of Leydig cells. Postoperatively, her hirsutism regressed, she rapidly went through puberty, and regular monthly menstruation started four months later. Finding the source of testosterone in a virilized patient can be difficult. Eleven of the 14 previously described patients with testosterone-secreting adrenal tumors initially underwent misdirected surgery on the ovaries. Review of these cases revealed that results of hormone stimulation and suppression tests are unreliable and that these tumors are usually large. Therefore, CT scanning of the adrenal glands is recommended in all patients suspected of having a testosterone-secreting tumor.

  8. Central and peripheral testosterone effects in men with heart failure: An approach for cardiovascular research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ?eljko; Bu?i?; Viktor; ?uli?

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure(HF) is a syndrome recognized as a health problem worldwide. Despite advances in treatment, patients with HF still have increased morbidity and mortality. Testosterone is one of the most researched hormones in the course of HF. Growing interest regarding the effect of testosterone, on a variety of body systems, has increased the knowledge about its mechanisms of action. The terms central and peripheral effects are used to distinguish the effects of testosterone on cardiac and extracardiac structures. Central effects include influences on cardiomyocytes and electrophysiology. Peripheral effects include influences on blood vessels, baroreceptor reactivity, skeletal muscles and erythropoesis. Current knowledge about peripheral effects of testosterone may explain much about beneficiary effects in the pathophysiology of HF syndrome. However, central, i.e., cardiac effects of testosterone are to be further explored.

  9. Heritability and cross-sex genetic correlations of early-life circulating testosterone levels in a wild mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavitt, Alyson T; Walling, Craig A; Pemberton, Josephine M; Kruuk, Loeske E B

    2014-11-01

    Testosterone is an important hormone that has been shown to have sex-specific links to fitness in numerous species. Although testosterone concentrations vary substantially between individuals in a population, little is known about its heritable genetic basis or between-sex genetic correlations that determine its evolutionary potential. We found circulating neonatal testosterone levels to be both heritable (0.160 ± 0.064 s.e.) and correlated between the sexes (0.942 ± 0.648 s.e.) in wild red deer calves (Cervus elaphus). This may have important evolutionary implications if, as in adults, the sexes have divergent optima for circulating testosterone levels.

  10. Association of plasma hormones, nutritional status, and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Śmiarowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationships between plasma hormones, body weight parameters and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa (AN. Material and Methods: 72 females in the active phase of AN were evaluated. 52 healthy women constituted the control group. RIA kits were used to measure plasma hormone levels. Results: The concentrations of leptin, insulin, IGF-1, triiodothyronine, LH, FSH, estradiol, and testosterone were significantly lower and those of cortisol and growth hormone significantly higher in the AN than the control group. No hormonal differences between restrictive and binge-purging AN subtypes were found. Leptin, IGF-1, gonadotropins, and sex steroids correlated significantly negatively and growth hormone positively with total reduction of body weight or the degree of undernutrition. Associations were also found between lower insulin concentration and family violence, lower cortisol and psychiatric diseases in the family, higher testosterone and patient’s alcohol or drug abuse. Discussion: The changed activity of the somatotropin-somatomedin, gonadal, and corticotrophin axes corresponds to the clinical stage of AN. Plasma IGF-1 seems to be the most sensitive and useful independent hormonal marker of cachexia.

  11. Testosterone correlates with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koterski James

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we briefly report testosterone and cytokine responses to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV in macaques which were used as part of a larger study conducted by the Department of Defense to better characterize pathological responses to aerosolized VEEV in non-human primates. Serial samples were collected and analyzed for testosterone and cytokines prior to and during infection in 8 captive male macaques. Infected animals exhibited a febrile response with few significant changes in cytokine levels. Baseline testosterone levels were positively associated with viremia following exposure and were significantly higher than levels obtained during infection. Such findings suggest that disease-induced androgen suppression is a reasonable area for future study. Decreased androgen levels during physiological perturbations may function, in part, to prevent immunosuppression by high testosterone levels and to prevent the use of energetic resources for metabolically-expensive anabolic functions.

  12. Testosterone is essential for skeletal muscle growth in aged mice in a heterochronic parabiosis model

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    As humans age, they lose both muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia). Testosterone, a circulating hormone, progressively declines in aging and is associated with loss of muscle mass and strength. Joining of a young and old mouse (heterochronic parabiosis) activates Notch signaling and restores muscle regenerative potential in aged mice. We hypothesize that testosterone is at least one of the factor required for the improvement seen in muscles in old mice in heterochronic parabiosis with young ...

  13. Resistance training and testosterone levels in male patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels' associations with muscle fibre size and resistance training in male dialysis patients.METHODS: Male patients were included in a 16-week control period followed by 16 weeks of resistance training thrice weekly. Blood samples were obtained to analyse testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), IGF-1, and IGF-binding protein 3. Muscle fibres' size was analysed in biopsies from m. vastus lateralis.RESULTS:...

  14. Salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to high-intensity cycling before and after an 11-day intensified training period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, John; Corney, Robert; Kouris, Antonios; Gleeson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examined salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to two, different high-intensity, ∼30-min cycles separated by 2 h rest before and after an 11-day intensified training period. Twelve recreationally active, healthy males completed the study. Saliva samples were collected before, immediately after and 30 min after both bouts with salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations assessed. Compared with pre-training blunted exercise-induced salivary cortisol, testosterone and cortisol/testosterone responses to both bouts post-training were observed (P 0.05). Fatigue and Burnout scores were higher post- compared with pre-training (P < 0.05). These high-intensity exercise bouts can detect altered hormonal responses following intensified training. This test could assess an athlete's current hormonal status, reductions in salivary cortisol and testosterone responses suggestive of increased fatigue.

  15. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R. Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N.; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders’ financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways. PMID:26135946

  16. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-07-02

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders' financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways.

  17. Paternal behavior and testosterone plasma levels in the Volcano Mouse Neotomodon alstoni (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Juana; Ramírez, Lorena; Carmona, Agustín; Ortiz, Guadalupe; Delgado, Jesús; Cárdenas, René

    2009-01-01

    Paternal behavior and testosterone plasma levels in the Volcano Mouse Neotomodon alstoni (Rodentia: Muridae). Although initially it was thought that testosterone inhibited the display of paternal behavior in males of rodents, it has been shown that in some species high testosterone levels are needed for exhibition of paternal care. In captivity, males of Volcano Mouse (Neotomodon alstoni) provide pups the same care provided by the mother, with the exception of suckling. Here we measured plasmatic testosterone concentrations 10 days after mating, five and 20 days postpartum, and 10 days after males were isolated from their families in order to determine possible changes in this hormone, associated to the presence and age of pups. Males of Volcano Mouse exhibited paternal behavior when their testosterone levels were relatively high. Although levels of this hormone did not change with the presence or pups age, males that invested more time in huddling showed higher testosterone levels. It is possible that in the Volcano Mouse testosterone modulates paternal behavior indirectly, as in the California mouse.

  18. Predictors for partial suppression of spermatogenesis of hormonal male contraception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Wen Li; Yi-Qun Gu

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To analyze factors influencing the efficacy of hormonal suppression of spermatogenesis for male contraception. Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted, involving 43 subjects, who did not achieve azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia when given monthly injections of 500 mg testosterone undecanoate (TU), defined as partial suppressors compared with 855 subjects who had suppressed spermatogenesis (complete suppressors). Sperm density, serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations at the baseline and the suppression phase were compared between partial and complete suppressors. Polymorphisms of androgen receptor (AR) and three single nucleotide variants and their haplotypes of FSH receptor (FSHR) genes determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing technique were compared between 29 partial and 34 complete suppressors. Results: Baseline serum LH level was higher and serum LH as well as FSH level during the suppression phase was less suppressed in partial suppressors. Additionally, in a logistic regression analysis larger testis volume, higher serum FSH concentrations alone, or interaction of serum LH, FSH, testosterone and sperm concentrations were associated with degree of suppression. The distribution of polymorphisms of AR or FSH receptor genes did not differ between partial and complete suppressors. In cases with incomplete FSH suppression (FSH > 0.2 IU/L), the chances of reaching azoospermia were 1.5 times higher in the subjects with more than 22 CAG triplet repeats. Conclusion: Partial suppression of spermatogenesis induced by 500 mg TU monthly injections is weakly influenced by hormonal and clinical features but not polymorphism in AR and FSHR genes.

  19. The Effect of Apium graveolens hydroalcoholic Seed Extract on Sperm Parameters and Serum Testosterone Concentration in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kerishchi Khiabani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & aim: apium graveolens contains antioxidant activity and high level of polyphenolics. The purpose of this study was to determaine the effect of Apium graveolens seeds extract on semen parameters and serum testosterone level in mice. Methods: In the present experimental study, sixty male mice were divided into three experimental groups and a control group. The hydroalcoholic seed extract of Apium graveolenas L. was administered intraperitoneally at the doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg for 14 days. A week after the final injection, blood samples were collected for hormonal assay. Then, the testes weight, sperm count and cauda epididymal sperm motility was assessed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: The results were compared with the control group indicating a significant increase in the total number of sperm at dose 400 mg.kg and increase sperm motility was seen in groups receiving 200 and 400 mg.kg respectively (P<0.001. Increased testosterone levels in the group receiving 400 mg.kg compared with the control group was observed (P<0.01. A significant increase was seen in testes weight compared with the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Apium graveolens seed extract appeared to be effective in improving semen parameters and serum total testosterones were dose dependent.

  20. Associations between urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and reproductive hormones in fertile men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, J; Jørgensen, N; Andersson, A-M

    2010-01-01

    metabolites were measured in urine and serum samples were analysed for reproductive hormones, including follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, inhibin B and oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Pearson correlations and parametric tests were used for unadjusted analyses...... inversely correlated with the urinary concentrations of four DEHP metabolites. After adjustment by appropriate covariates, there was no longer an association between urinary DEHP metabolite concentrations and total testosterone levels; however, FAI was significantly associated with the urinary...

  1. Associations between urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and reproductive hormones in fertile men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, J; Jørgensen, N; Andersson, A-M

    2011-01-01

    metabolites were measured in urine and serum samples were analysed for reproductive hormones, including follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, inhibin B and oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Pearson correlations and parametric tests were used for unadjusted analyses...... inversely correlated with the urinary concentrations of four DEHP metabolites. After adjustment by appropriate covariates, there was no longer an association between urinary DEHP metabolite concentrations and total testosterone levels; however, FAI was significantly associated with the urinary...

  2. Controversies in testosterone replacement therapy: testosterone and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hwang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of testosterone in the cardiovascular (CV health of men is controversial. Data suggest that both the condition and treatment of clinical hypogonadism is associated with decreased CV mortality; however, two recent studies suggest that hypogonadal subjects treated with testosterone replacement therapy have a higher incidence of new CV events. There has been increased media attention concerning the risk of CV disease in men treated with testosterone. Until date, there are no long-term prospective studies to determine safety. Literature spanning over the past 30 years has suggested that not only is there a possible increased CV risk in men with low levels of testosterone, but the benefits from testosterone therapy may even lower this risk. We review here the recent studies that have garnered such intense scrutiny. This article is intended as a thorough review of testosterone levels and CV risk, providing the clinician with the facts needed to make informed clinical decisions in managing patients with clinical hypogonadism.

  3. Effects of eight weeks of an alleged aromatase inhibiting nutritional supplement 6-OXO (androst-4-ene-3,6,17-trione on serum hormone profiles and clinical safety markers in resistance-trained, eugonadal males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreider Richard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 6-OXO, a purported nutritional aromatase inhibitor, in a dose dependent manner on body composition, serum hormone levels, and clinical safety markers in resistance trained males. Sixteen males were supplemented with either 300 mg or 600 mg of 6-OXO in a double-blind manner for eight weeks. Blood and urine samples were obtained at weeks 0, 1, 3, 8, and 11 (after a 3-week washout period. Blood samples were analyzed for total testosterone (TT, free testosterone (FT, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, estradiol, estriol, estrone, SHBG, leutinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, growth hormone (GH, cortisol, FT/estradiol (T/E. Blood and urine were also analyzed for clinical chemistry markers. Data were analyzed with two-way MANOVA. For all of the serum hormones, there were no significant differences between groups (p > 0.05. Compared to baseline, free testosterone underwent overall increases of 90% for 300 mg 6-OXO and 84% for 600 mg, respectively (p 0.05 and clinical safety markers were not adversely affected with ingestion of either supplement dose (p > 0.05. While neither of the 6-OXO dosages appears to have any negative effects on clinical chemistry markers, supplementation at a daily dosage of 300 mg and 600 mg for eight weeks did not completely inhibit aromatase activity, yet significantly increased FT, DHT, and T/E.

  4. A clinical update on female androgen insufficiency--testosterone testing and treatment in women presenting with low sexual desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Henry G; Papalia, Mary-Anne

    2006-05-01

    The diagnosis of female androgen deficiency syndrome is suggested by complaints of a diminished sense of well being, persistent unexplained fatigue and decreased sexual desire, sexual receptivity and pleasure in a woman who is oestrogen-replete and in whom no other significant contributing factors can be identified. The diagnosis is supported by the finding of low circulating concentrations of free testosterone. Barriers to its recognition include the non-specificity of the symptoms and methodological problems due to insensitive testosterone assays. Barriers to its treatment include the unavailability of satisfactory forms of testosterone for administration to women and lack of data regarding long-term safety. Although several conditions lead to clear-cut androgen deficiency, such as hypopituitarism, adrenal and ovarian insufficiency, glucocorticoid therapy and use of oral contraceptives and oral oestrogens, it is important for clinicians to recognise that in normal women, androgen levels decline by 50% from the early 20s to the mid 40s, and hence age-related androgen insufficiency may occur in women in their late 30s and 40s, as well as postmenopausally. Satisfactory measurements of free testosterone requires a sensitive and reliable assay for total testosterone, and quantitation of sex hormone binding globulin, from which free testosterone is readily calculated. Adverse effects of testosterone treatment are few if replacement is monitored to achieve physiological circulating testosterone concentrations. Currently, available methods include testosterone implants and testosterone creams, and transdermal patches and sprays are in development.

  5. Testosterone production and spermatogenic damage induced by organophosphorate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, H R; Paredes, V; Urquieta, B; Del Valle, L; Bustos-Obregón, E

    2006-12-01

    Parathion is an organophosphorate pesticide amply used in agriculture. Many alterations induced by organophosphorate pesticides have been described, such as: cytogenetic alterations in germinal cells, oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia in the mouse. The effect of Parathion, both pure (PP) and commercial (PC), on mouse interstitial cell testosterone production was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Male mice were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of 1/3 LD50 of Parathion, both PP and PC. The animals were sacrificed at 1, 8 and 40 days post injection to evaluate the impact of disrupting testosterone production on spermatogonia, spermatocytes and elongated spermatids. The plasma testosterone was assayed by standard radioimmunoanalysis. The same method was used to assay testosterone in the culture medium of interstitial cells obtained from the control and Parathion treated animals at the same time intervals. Sperm count, sperm teratozoospermia and tubular blockage were analyzed for an appraisal of spermatogenesis. Increase in the teratozoospermia and tubular blockage was detected in the PP and PC group at 8 and 40 days post injection. Plasma testosterone levels drop significantly at 8 days and recovered slowly at 40 days only in PP animals as detected in vivo, implying interference of testicular steroidogenesis due to the toxicant. Recuperation of normality occurs at long time intervals. In conclusion, Parathion disturbs the synthesis of testosterone in mice affecting qualitatively the spermatogenesis

  6. Could you have low testosterone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male menopause; Andropause; Testosterone deficiency; Androgen deficiency of the aging male; Late-onset hypogonadism ... erection Low sperm count Sleep problems such as insomnia Decrease in muscle size and strength Bone loss ...

  7. Controversies in testosterone supplementation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Khera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone has now become one of the most widely used medications throughout the world. The rapid growth of the testosterone market in the past 10 years is due to many factors. We currently have a worldwide aging population. In the US, the number of men 65 years old or older is increasing 2-3 times faster than the number of men younger than 65 years. In addition, poor general health and certain medical conditions such as diabetes/metabolic syndrome (MetS, cardiovascular disease (CVD, and osteoporosis have been associated with low serum testosterone levels. [1],[2],[3] There are now fewer concerns regarding the development of prostate cancer (PCa after testosterone therapy, making it a more attractive treatment option. Finally, the introduction of different forms of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST with increased promotion, marketing, and direct-to-consumer advertising is also driving market growth. As the demand for TST continues to grow, it is becoming more important for clinicians to understand how to diagnose and treat patients with low testosterone.

  8. Influence of paradoxical sleep deprivation and sleep recovery on testosterone level in rats of different ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mi Mi Oh; Jin Wook Kim; Myeong Heon Jin; Je Jong Kim; Du Geon Moon

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to assess serurm testosterone alterations induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and to verify their attenuation during sleep recovery (SR) based on different durations and ages.Wistar male rats aged 12 weeks for the younger group and 20 weeks for the elder group were randomly distributed into one of the following groups:a control group (cage and platform),3-day SD,5-day SD,7-day SD,1-day SR,3-day SR and 5-day SR groups.For PSD,the modified multiple platform method was used to specifically limit rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.Differences in the testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels between the younger group and the elder group according to duration of PSD and SR recovery were analysed.Testosterone continued to fall during the sleep deprivation period in a time-dependent manner in both the younger (P=-0.001,correlation coefficient r=-0.651) and elder groups (P=0.001,correlation coefficient r=-0.840).The elder group showed a significantly lower level of testosterone compared with the younger group after PSD.Upon SR after 3 days of PSD,the testosterone level continued to rise for 5 days after sleep recovery in the younger group (P=0.013),whereas testosterone concentrations failed to recover until day 5 in the elder group.PSD caused a more detrimental effect on serum testosterone in the elder group compared to the younger group with respect to decreases in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels.The replenishment of serum testosterone level was prohibited in the elder group suggesting that the effects of SD/SR may be age-dependent.The mechanism by which SD affects serum testosterone and how age may modify the process are still unclear.

  9. Gonadal hormone regulation of the emotion circuitry in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingen, G.A. van; Ossewaarde, L.; Backstrom, T.; Hermans, E.J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2011-01-01

    Gonadal hormones are known to influence the regulation of emotional responses and affective states. Whereas fluctuations in progesterone and estradiol are associated with increased vulnerability for mood disorders, testosterone is mainly associated with social dominance, aggressive, and antisocial b

  10. Pharmacologic development of male hormonal contraceptive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, M Y; Amory, J K

    2011-01-01

    The world population continues to increase dramatically despite the existence of contraceptive technology. The use of male hormonal contraception may help in preventing un intended pregnancies and managing future population growth. Male hormonal contraception relies on the administration of exogenous hormones to suppress spermatogenesis. Clinical trials have tested several regimens using testosterone, alone or in combination with a progestin. These regimens were shown to be >90% effective in preventing conception and were not associated with serious adverse events.

  11. Hormonal treatment may harm the germ cells in 1 to 3-year-old boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Visfeldt, J

    2000-01-01

    Hormonal treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) or gonadotropin releasing hormone may be given initially for cryptorchidism. We evaluated whether hormonal treatment is safe for the germ cells in boys with cryptorchidism 1 to 3 years old in whom follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing...... hormone and testosterone values are normally low....

  12. Inverse correlation between testosterone and ventricle ejection fraction, hemodynamics and exercise capacity in heart failure patients with erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimar A. Bocchi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurohormonal activation and abnormalities in growth hormone and testosterone concentrations have been reported in heart failure (HF. Erectile dysfunction(ED is common in these patients and contributes to a low quality of life. No data are known regarding the correlation between testosterone and hemodynamics, exercise capacity and cardiac function in HF patients with ED, a marker of endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to correlate testosterone levels with cardiac function, hemodynamic and exercise capacity in HF patients with ED. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen HF patients underwent a six-minute treadmill cardiopulmonary walking test (6'CWT and, ten minutes later, a maximum cardiopulmonary exercise test. Also, testosterone and other hormones were determined at rest. RESULTS: Among hemodynamic variables only diastolic blood pressure on 6'CWT was correlated with testosterone levels(r =- 0.66, p = 0.007. The variables on exercise tests, VE/VCO2 slope and oxygen consumption did not show any correlation, except the distance at 6'CWT (r = 0.50, p = 0,047. Right and left ventricle ejection fraction showed inverse correlation with testosterone (r =- 0.55, p = 0.03 and r =- 0.69, p = 0.004 respectively. CONCLUSION: Testosterone levels correlated directly with distance at six-minute cardiopulmonary walk test and inversely with diastolic blood pressure, right and left ventricle ejection fraction in heart failure patients with erectile dysfunction. Further elucidation of mechanisms as regards testosterone action in these patients is warranted.

  13. Low testosterone correlates with delayed development in male orangutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Emery Thompson

    Full Text Available Male orangutans (Pongo spp. display an unusual characteristic for mammals in that some adult males advance quickly to full secondary sexual development while others can remain in an adolescent-like form for a decade or more past the age of sexual maturity. Remarkably little is understood about how and why differences in developmental timing occur. While fully-developed males are known to produce higher androgen levels than arrested males, the longer-term role of steroid hormones in male life history variation has not been examined. We examined variation in testosterone and cortisol production among 18 fully-developed ("flanged" male orangutans in U.S. captive facilities. Our study revealed that while testosterone levels did not vary significantly according to current age, housing condition, and species origin, males that had undergone precocious development had higher testosterone levels than males that had experienced developmental arrest. While androgen variation had previously been viewed as a state-dependent characteristic of male developmental status, our study reveals that differences in the physiology of early and late developing males are detectable long past the developmental transition and may instead be trait-level characteristics associated with a male's life history strategy. Further studies are needed to determine how early in life differences in testosterone levels emerge and what consequences this variation may have for male behavioral strategies.

  14. LHRH agonists in prostate cancer : frequency of treatment, serum testosterone measurement and castrate level: consensus opinion from a roundtable discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Igle Jan; Eaton, Alan; Bladou, Franck

    2007-01-01

    Background: Options for lowering testosterone in patients with prostate cancer include bilateral orchiectomy, oestrogens and luteinising hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists. LHRH agonists have become widely used in the treatment of prostate cancer. Roundtable assembly: In May 2006, a team of e

  15. Is there an effect of prenatal testosterone on aggression and other behavioral traits? A study comparing same-sex and opposite-sex twin girls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Bendahan, C.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Goozen, S.H. van; Orlebeke, J.F.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2005-01-01

    Men and women differ in temperament and personality traits, such as aggression and sensation seeking. The sex hormone testosterone could play a role in the origin of these differences, but it remains unclear how and when testosterone could have these effects. One way to investigate the prenatal expo

  16. Testosterone induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Francisco; Oyarce, César; Silva, Patricio; Toyos, Marcela; Wilson, Carlos; Lavandero, Sergio; Uhlén, Per; Estrada, Manuel

    2009-08-01

    Elevated testosterone concentrations induce cardiac hypertrophy but the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Anabolic properties of testosterone involve an increase in protein synthesis. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is a major regulator of cell growth, but the relationship between testosterone action and mTORC1 in cardiac cells remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether the hypertrophic effects of testosterone are mediated by mTORC1 signaling in cultured cardiomyocytes. Testosterone increases the phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream targets 40S ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1; also known as RPS6KB1) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). The S6K1 phosphorylation induced by testosterone was blocked by rapamycin and small interfering RNA to mTOR. Moreover, the hormone increased both extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation. ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 blocked the testosterone-induced S6K1 phosphorylation, whereas Akt inhibition (Akt-inhibitor-X) had no effect. Testosterone-induced ERK1/2 and S6K1 phosphorylation increases were blocked by either 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethylester or by inhibitors of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) pathway: U-73122 and 2-aminoethyl diphenylborate. Finally, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was evaluated by, the expression of beta-myosin heavy chain, alpha-skeletal actin, cell size, and amino acid incorporation. Testosterone increased all four parameters and the increase being blocked by mTOR inhibition. Our findings suggest that testosterone activates the mTORC1/S6K1 axis through IP(3)/Ca(2+) and MEK/ERK1/2 to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

  17. Testosterone concentrations in female athletes and ballet dancers with menstrual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łagowska, Karolina; Kapczuk, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Menstrual disorders are common among female athletes and ballet dancers. Endocrine changes, such as high testosterone (HT) levels and high luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratios, may suggest functional ovarian hyperandrogenism which may induce such dysfunction. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate endocrine status in female athletes and ballet dancers with menstrual disorders. Their nutritional status and dietary habits were analysed in relation to the testosterone levels. In a cross-sectional approach, 31 female athletes (18.1 ± 2.6 years) and 21 ballerinas (17.1 ± 0.9) with menstrual disorders participated in the study. The levels of serum LH, FSH, progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), thyroid-stimulating hormone, testosterone (T) and sex hormone-binding globulinwere measured to assess hormonal status. In addition, the free androgen index (FAI) was calculated. Nutritional status, total daily energy expenditure and nutritional habits were evaluated. Girls were assigned to one of the following groups: low testosterone (LT) level, normal testosterone level or HT level. There were significant differences between ballerinas and other female athletes in terms of testosterone levels, FAI, age at the beginning of training, length of training period and age at menarche. The PRL level was lowest in the LT group while the FAI index was highest in the HT group. Daily energy and carbohydrate intakes were significantly lower in the HT group. T levels in the study subjects were found to be associated with nutritional factors, energy availability, age at the beginning of training and frequency of training. This is the first report of HT levels being associated with the status of a female ballet dancer, the age of menarche and the length of the training history. Further research is necessary to confirm the results in a larger study group.

  18. Testosterone, thrombophilia, thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Joel; Glueck, Charles J; Prince, Marloe; Riaz, Rashid; Wang, Ping

    2015-05-01

    We screened previously undiagnosed thrombophilia (V Leiden-prothrombin mutations, Factors VIII and XI, homocysteine, and antiphospholipid antibody [APL] syndrome) in 15 men and 2 women with venous thromboembolism (VTE) or osteonecrosis 7 months (median) after starting testosterone therapy (TT), gel (30-50 mg/d), intramuscular (100-400 mg/wk), or human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) (6000 IU/wk). Thrombophilia was studied in 2 healthy control groups without thrombosis (97 normal controls, 31 subjects on TT) and in a third control group (n = 22) with VTE, not on TT. Of the 17 cases, 76% had ≥1 thrombophilia vs 19% of 97 normal controls (P 150%) (24% vs 7%, P = 0.058), by high homocysteine (29% vs 5%, P = 0.007), and from both normal and TT controls for APL syndrome (18% vs 2%, P = 0.023, vs 0%, P = 0.04). Despite adequate anticoagulation with TT continued after the first deep venous thrombosis-pulmonary embolus (DVT-PE), 1 man sustained 3 DVT-PEs 5, 8, and 11 months later and a second man had 2 DVT-PEs 1 and 2 months later. Of the 10 cases with serum T measured on TT, 6 (60%) had supranormal T (>800 ng/dL) and of 9 with estradiol measured on TT, 7 (78%) had supranormal levels (>42.6 pg/mL). TT interacts with thrombophilia leading to thrombosis. TT continuation in thrombophilic men is contraindicated because of recurrent thrombi despite anticoagulation. Screening for thrombophilia before starting TT should identify subjects at high risk for VTE with an adverse the risk to benefit ratio for TT.

  19. Variation in testosterone and corticosterone in amphibians and reptiles: relationships with latitude, elevation, and breeding season length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenaar, Cas; Husak, Jerry; Escallón, Camilo; Moore, Ignacio T

    2012-11-01

    Latitudinal variation in life-history traits has been the focus of numerous investigations, but underlying hormonal mechanisms have received much less attention. Steroid hormones play a central role in vertebrate reproduction and may be associated with life-history trade-offs. Consequently, circulating concentrations of these hormones vary tremendously across vertebrates, yet interspecific geographic variation in male hormone concentrations has been studied in detail only in birds. We here report on such variation in amphibians and reptiles, confirming patterns observed in birds. Using phylogenetic comparative analyses, we found that in amphibians, but not in reptiles, testosterone and baseline corticosterone were positively related to latitude. Baseline corticosterone was negatively related to elevation in amphibians but not in reptiles. For both groups, testosterone concentrations were negatively related to breeding-season length. In addition, testosterone concentrations were positively correlated with baseline corticosterone in both groups. Our findings may best be explained by the hypothesis that shorter breeding seasons increase male-male competition, which may favor increased testosterone concentrations that modulate secondary sexual traits. Elevated energetic demands resulting from greater reproductive intensity may require higher baseline corticosterone. Thus, the positive relationship between testosterone and corticosterone in both groups suggests an energetic demand for testosterone-regulated behavior that is met with increased baseline glucocorticoid concentrations.

  20. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Nieschlag

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the 'vital principle' as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889, which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17α-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by

  1. Testosterone and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Jarvis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of testosterone to treat the symptoms of late-onset hypogonadal men has increased recently due to patient and physician awareness. However, concerns regarding the effect of testosterone on the prostate, in particular any possible effect on the risk of prostate cancer have prompted further research in this regard. Surprisingly, numerous retrospective or small, randomized trials have pointed to a possible improvement in male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in patients treated with testosterone. The exact mechanism of this improvement is still debated but may have a close relationship to metabolic syndrome. For the clinician, the results of these studies are promising but do not constitute high levels of evidence. A thorough clinical examination (including history, examination and laboratory testing of testosterone should be undertaken before considering the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism or instigating treatment for it. Warnings still remain on the testosterone supplement product labels regarding the risk of urinary retention and worsening LUTS, and these should be explained to patients.

  2. Serum levels of INSL3, AMH, Inhibin B and Testosterone during pubertal transition in healthy boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Mouritsen, Annette;

    2014-01-01

    to luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, inhibin B, and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) during puberty in healthy boys.MethodsTen boys were included from the longitudinal part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. Pubertal evaluation, including testicular volume, was performed......IntroductionInsulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) is a promising marker of Leydig cell function with potentially high clinical relevance. Limited data of INSL3 levels in relation to other reproductive hormones in healthy pubertal boys exist.AimTo evaluate longitudinal serum changes in INSL3 compared...

  3. Generation of Small Single Domain Nanobody Binders for Sensitive Detection of Testosterone by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Zhu, Min; Ma, Lu; Yan, Junrong; Lu, Xiaoling; Shen, Yanfei; Wan, Yakun

    2016-06-01

    A phage display library of variable domain of the heavy chain only antibody or nanobody (Nb) was constructed after immunizing a bactrian camel with testosterone. With the smaller molecular size (15 kDa), improved solubility, good stability, high affinity, specificity, and lower immunogenicity, Nbs are a promising tool in the next generation of diagnosis and medical applications. Testosterone is a reproductive hormone, playing an important role in normal cardiac function and being the highly predictive marker for many diseases. Herein, a simple and sensitive immunosensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Nbs was successfully developed for the determination of testosterone. We successfully isolated the antitestosterone Nbs from an immune phage display library. Moreover, one of the Nbs was biotinylated according to in vivo BirA system, which showed the highest production yield and the most stable case. Further, the EIS immunosensor was set up for testosterone detection by applying the biotinylated antitestosterone Nb. As a result, the biosensor exhibited a linear working range from 0.05 to 5 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.045 ng mL(-1). In addition, the proposed immunosensor was successfully applied in determining testosterone in serum samples. In conclusion, the proposed immunosensor revealed high specificity of testosterone detection and showed as a potential approach for sensitive and accurate diagnosis of testosterone.

  4. [Testosterone replacement therapy and prostate cancer: the downfall of a paradigm?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Octavio A; López-Fontana, Gastón; Vidal-Mora, Ivar; López Laur, José Daniel

    2015-04-06

    For six decades, it has been a part of the conventional medical wisdom that higher levels of testosterone increase the risk of prostate cancer. This belief is mostly derived from the well-documented regression of prostate cancer after surgical or pharmacological castration. However, there is an absence of scientific data supporting the concept that higher testosterone levels are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Moreover, men with hypogonadism have substantial rates of prostate cancer in prostatic biopsies, suggesting that low testosterone has no protective effect against the development of prostate cancer. Moreover, prostate cancer rate is higher in elderly patients when hormonal levels are low. These results argue against an increased risk of prostate cancer with testosterone replacement therapy.

  5. Plasma cortisol and testosterone following 19-km and 42-km kayak races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutoslawska, G; Obminski, Z; Krogulski, A; Sendecki, W

    1991-12-01

    Plasma cortisol and testosterone levels were examined in five, elite, male kayakers before and after 19-km and 42-km kayak races. Both races resulted in significant elevation in plasma cortisol and observed increase is likely to depend on race duration, being much more pronounced after 42-km race compared to 19-km. It should be stressed that observed elevation in cortisol level after 42-km race was higher than reported previously after a marathon run. This finding is in line with reports on hormonal changes in response to arms exercise. Both contests caused a decrease in plasma testosterone level, but the difference between races was not significant. Testosterone/cortisol ratio dropped significantly immediately after the races and the observed decrease was more dominant after the 42-km distance. On the next day, 18 h after the races plasma cortisol, testosterone levels and T/C ratio returned to basal level indicating recuperation from post exercise changes.

  6. Resistance training and testosterone levels in male patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Andersen, Jesper L.; Eidemak, Inge;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels' associations with muscle fibre size and resistance training in male dialysis patients. METHODS: Male patients were included in a 16-week control period followed by 16 weeks of resistance training thrice...... weekly. Blood samples were obtained to analyse testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), IGF-1, and IGF-binding protein 3. Muscle fibres' size was analysed in biopsies from m. vastus lateralis. RESULTS: The patients' testosterone levels were within the normal range at baseline (n = 20) (19.5 (8......-9370) ng/mL versus 3244 (3020-3983), P muscle fibre size (n = 12) remained stable throughout the study. Age-adjusted IGF-1 was associated with type 1 and 2 fibre sizes (P testosterone values were normal due to markedly increased...

  7. The Interplay between Magnesium and Testosterone in Modulating Physical Function in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maggio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of nutritional status as key factor of successful aging is very well recognized. Among the different mechanisms by which nutrients may exert their beneficial effects is the modulation of the hormonal anabolic milieu, which is significantly reduced with aging. Undernutrition and anabolic hormonal deficiency frequently coexist in older individuals determining an increased risk of mobility impairment and other adverse outcomes. Mineral assessment has received attention as an important determinant of physical performance. In particular, there is evidence that magnesium exerts a positive influence on anabolic hormonal status, including Testosterone, in men. In this review we summarize data from observational and intervention studies about the role of magnesium in Testosterone bioactivity and the potential underlying mechanisms of this relationship in male subjects. If larger studies will confirm these pivotal data, the combination of hormonal and mineral replacements might be adopted to prevent or delay the onset of disability in the elderly.

  8. Testosterone for Poor Ovarian Responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Davis, Susan R; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    ovarian stimulation with a duration varying from 5 to 21 days. Nevertheless, the key question to be asked is whether, based on ovarian physiology and testosterone pharmacokinetics, a short course of testosterone administration of more than 10 mg could be expected to have any beneficial effect...... on reproductive outcome. The rationale for asking this question lies in the existing scientific evidence derived from basic research and animal studies regarding the action of androgens during folliculogenesis, showing that their main effect in follicular development is defined during the earlier developmental...... stages. In addition, extreme testosterone excess is not only likely to induce adverse events but has also the potential to be ineffective and even detrimental. Thus, evidence from clinical studies is not enough to either "reopen" or "close" the "androgen chapter" in poor responders, mainly because...

  9. Free testosterone drives cancer aggressiveness: evidence from US population studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Shahabi

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence and mortality are higher in males than in females, suggesting that some gender-related factors are behind such a difference. To analyze this phenomenon the most recent Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER database served to access cancer survival data for the US population. Patients with gender-specific cancer and with limited information were excluded and this fact limited the sample size to 1,194,490 patients. NHANES III provided the distribution of physiologic variables in US population (n = 29,314. Cox model and Kaplan-Meier method were used to test the impact of gender on survival across age, and to calculate the gender-specific hazard ratio of dying from cancer five years following diagnosis. The distribution of the hazard ratio across age was then compared with the distribution of 65 physiological variables assessed in NHANES III. Spearman and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test assessed the homology. Cancer survival was lower in males than in females in the age range 17 to 61 years. The risk of death from cancer in males was about 30% higher than that of females of the same age. This effect was present only in sarcomas and epithelial solid tumors with distant disease and the effect was more prominent in African-Americans than Caucasians. When compared to the variables assessed in the NHANES III study, the hazard ratio almost exactly matched the distribution of free testosterone in males; none of the other analyzed variables exhibited a similar homology. Our findings suggest that male sex hormones give rise to cancer aggressiveness in patients younger than 61 years.

  10. Life history trade-offs and behavioral sensitivity to testosterone: an experimental test when female aggression and maternal care co-occur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A Rosvall

    Full Text Available Research on male animals suggests that the hormone testosterone plays a central role in mediating the trade-off between mating effort and parental effort. However, the direct links between testosterone, intrasexual aggression and parental care are remarkably mixed across species. Previous attempts to reconcile these patterns suggest that selection favors behavioral insensitivity to testosterone when paternal care is essential to reproductive success and when breeding seasons are especially short. Females also secrete testosterone, though the degree to which similar testosterone-mediated trade-offs occur in females is much less clear. Here, I ask whether testosterone mediates trade-offs between aggression and incubation in females, and whether patterns of female sensitivity to testosterone relate to female life history, as is often the case in males. I experimentally elevated testosterone in free-living, incubating female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor, a songbird with a short breeding season during which female incubation and intrasexual aggression are both essential to female reproductive success. Testosterone-treated females showed significantly elevated aggression, reduced incubation temperatures, and reduced hatching success, relative to controls. Thus, prolonged testosterone elevation during incubation was detrimental to reproductive success, but females nonetheless showed behavioral sensitivity to testosterone. These findings suggest that the relative importance of both mating effort and parental effort may be central to understanding patterns of behavioral sensitivity in both sexes.

  11. Resistance training and testosterone levels in male patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Andersen, Jesper L.; Eidemak, Inge;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels' associations with muscle fibre size and resistance training in male dialysis patients. METHODS: Male patients were included in a 16-week control period followed by 16 weeks of resistance training thrice...... weekly. Blood samples were obtained to analyse testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), IGF-1, and IGF-binding protein 3. Muscle fibres' size was analysed in biopsies from m. vastus lateralis. RESULTS: The patients' testosterone levels were within the normal range at baseline (n = 20) (19.5 (8......-9370) ng/mL versus 3244 (3020-3983), P hormone levels and muscle fibre size (n = 12) remained stable throughout the study. Age-adjusted IGF-1 was associated with type 1 and 2 fibre sizes (P

  12. Subcutaneous pellet testosterone replacement therapy: the "first steps" in treating men with spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kendra M; Derosa, Angela

    2013-12-01

    The authors describe the case of a 36-year-old man who presented with hormone level concerns 6 months after a rock climbing accident that resulted in paraplegia. Hypogonadism was diagnosed, and the patient received subcutaneous pellet testosterone replacement therapy. Within 6 months, the patient had substantial improvement in muscle function and was able to take several steps with the assistance of crutches or a walker. This case highlights the potential improvement in quality of life and overall prognosis resulting from the subcutaneous pellet form of testosterone when used as part of the overall treatment plan in such patients. Considering the overwhelming preponderance of hypogonadism in men with spinal cord injuries, the standard of care for such patients should include screening, laboratory hormone evaluation, and prompt treatment for testosterone deficiency.

  13. Raised salivary testosterone in women is associated with increased attraction to masculine faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, L L M; Jones, B C; DeBruine, L M; Conway, C A; Law Smith, M J; Little, A C; Feinberg, D R; Sharp, M A; Al-Dujaili, E A S

    2007-08-01

    Women's preferences for masculinity in men's faces, voices and behavioral displays change during the menstrual cycle and are strongest around ovulation. While previous findings suggest that change in progesterone level is an important hormonal mechanism for such variation, it is likely that changes in the levels of other hormones will also contribute to cyclic variation in masculinity preferences. Here we compared women's preferences for masculine faces at two points in the menstrual cycle where women differed in salivary testosterone, but not in salivary progesterone or estrogen. Preferences for masculinity were strongest when women's testosterone levels were relatively high. Our findings complement those from previous studies that show systematic variation in masculinity preferences during the menstrual cycle and suggest that change in testosterone level may play an important role in cyclic shifts in women's preferences for masculine traits.

  14. Testosterone replacement therapy and prostate health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polackwich, A Scott; Ostrowski, Kevin A; Hedges, Jason C

    2012-12-01

    There is an emerging evolution in the understanding of the relationship between the prostate and testosterone. It has long been generally believed that with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), increasing serum testosterone levels led to prostatic growth and worsening of voiding dysfunction and associated complications. A new theory, the Saturation Model of Testosterone and its effect on the Prostate has gained attention. This theory suggests that the prostate's response to increasing levels of serum testosterone reaches a limit beyond which there is minimal effect. This model predicts that testosterone replacement therapy occurs above this saturation point, and replacing testosterone to eugonadal levels should not worsen prostate related benign disease. We evaluated the recent published data, with an emphasis on clinical studies done within the last 3 years, for the effects of testosterone supplementation on benign prostatic disease.

  15. Hormones and female sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelica Artur L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional

  16. The Role of Testosterone in the Etiology and Treatment of Obesity, the Metabolic Syndrome, and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Saad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a major health problem. Testosterone plays a significant role in obesity, glucose homeostasis, and lipid metabolism. The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of risk factors predisposing to diabetes mellitus type 2, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The main components of the syndrome are visceral obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, raised blood pressure and dyslipidemia (elevated triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and a proinflammatory and thrombogenic state. Cross-sectional epidemiological studies have reported a direct correlation between plasma testosterone and insulin sensitivity, and low testosterone levels are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, dramatically illustrated by androgen deprivation in men with prostate carcinoma. Lower total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG predict a higher incidence of the metabolic syndrome. Administration of testosterone to hypogonadal men reverses part of the unfavorable risk profile for the development of diabetes and atherosclerosis.

  17. Tropical field endocrinology: ecology and evolution of testosterone concentrations in male birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Michaela; Gill, Sharon A; Goymann, Wolfgang

    2008-07-01

    Comparative research on natural populations of vertebrates, in particular avian species, has been instrumental in documenting the existence of interspecific variation in the hormonal regulation of behavior. Studies on tropical birds, which tend to experience ecological conditions that diverge from those of higher latitude birds, have been invaluable in showcasing such variation. Here we review recent advances in tropical avian field endocrinology, focusing on male circulating testosterone concentrations during the breeding season. We summarize the evidence for a decrease in male circulating testosterone concentrations from high towards low latitudes. We revisit both established and recently proposed ecological hypotheses that attempt to explain the existence of this pattern, as well as the variation in testosterone concentrations and dynamics within tropical populations of birds. We highlight additional social and life history variables that may need to be considered if we aim at gaining an integrated understanding of the ultimate factors that influence the relationship between hormonal signals and behavioral traits in natural populations. Understanding the ecological factors that influence circulating hormone concentrations will be an important first step in our understanding of the evolutionary processes that are at the basis of variations in hormone-behavior connections. Such findings should be supplemented by studies on functional aspects of the testosterone signal at the organismal and cellular level.

  18. Effects of exogenous testosterone on the ventral striatal BOLD response during reward anticipation in healthy women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, E.J.; Bos, P.A.; Ossewaarde, L.; Ramsey, N.F.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Honk, J. van

    2010-01-01

    Correlational evidence in humans shows that levels of the androgen hormone testosterone are positively related to reinforcement sensitivity and competitive drive. Structurally similar anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are moreover widely abused, and animal studies show that rodents self-administer

  19. Serum testosterone concentrations in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C

    1987-01-01

    in patients compared to normal control values. A number of background variables were analyzed with reference to serum testosterone concentrations by means of multiple regression techniques after having divided the patients into groups (A, B, C) with decreasing liver function by a modification of the Child-Turcotte...

  20. Androgenic hormone profile of adult women with acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Marisa Gonzaga; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Machado, Carlos D Aparecida S

    2013-01-01

    Acne in adult women is a hard-to-manage frequent disease with many relapse cases. It mostly interferes with quality of life and causes major social and metabolic losses for patients. This is a transversal retrospective study and the aim was to standardize the research on circulating androgenic hormone levels and to detect hyperandrogenic states early, showing the frequency and the pattern of the altered hormones, useful resources to correctly evaluate each patient. In this study 835 women above 15 years of age, with acne or aggravation cases, were analyzed. The aim was to verify the percentage of androgen examinations with levels above normal. The levels of the hormones dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydrotestosterone, androstenedione and total testosterone were measured in all patients. The evaluation of the hormone profile showed that 54.56% of the patients had hyperandrogenism, and the levels of DHEA were most frequently elevated. Therefore, in the face of the importance of hyperandrogenism in the pathogenesis of acne, standardizing the research of the hormone profile is paramount for the treatment and control of relapses in case of a surge of acne breakouts during a woman's adult life.

  1. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated in four weeks resistance training. Before and after the test period fasting blood samples were obtained to determine anabolic (the growth hormone and testosterone and catabolic (cortisol hormones, and fat mass, lean body mass (LBM and muscular strength were measured. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze data.Results:After the training period, there were no significant differen-ces between the groups with respect to fat mass, LBM and anabolic-catabolic hormones. HMB supplementation resulted in a significantly greater strength gain (p≤0.05.Conclusion:Greater increase in strength for HMB group was not accompanied by body composition and basal circulating anabolic-catabolic hormonal changes. It seems that HMB supplementation may have beneficial effects on neurological adaptations of strength gain.

  2. Impact of season and social challenge on testosterone and corticosterone levels in a year-round territorial bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landys, Meta M; Goymann, Wolfgang; Schwabl, Ingrid; Trapschuh, Monika; Slagsvold, Tore

    2010-07-01

    Plasma testosterone increases during breeding in many male vertebrates and has long been implicated in the promotion of aggressive behaviors relating to territory and mate defense. Males of some species also defend territories outside of the breeding period. For example, the European nuthatch (Sitta europaea) defends an all-purpose territory throughout the year. To contribute to the growing literature regarding the hormonal correlates of non-breeding territoriality, we investigated the seasonal testosterone and corticosterone profile of male (and female) nuthatches and determined how observed hormone patterns relate to expression of territorial aggression. Given that non-breeding territoriality in the nuthatch relates to the reproductive context (i.e., defense of a future breeding site), we predicted that males would exhibit surges in plasma testosterone throughout the year. However, we found that males showed elevated testosterone levels only during breeding. Thus, testosterone of gonadal origin does not appear to be involved in the expression of non-breeding territoriality. Interestingly, territorial behaviors of male nuthatches were stronger in spring than in autumn, suggesting that in year-round territorial species, breeding-related testosterone elevations may upregulate male-male aggression above non-breeding levels. In females, plasma testosterone was largely undetectable. We also examined effects of simulated territorial intrusions (STIs) on testosterone and corticosterone levels of breeding males. We found that STIs did not elicit a testosterone response, but caused a dramatic increase in plasma corticosterone. These data support the hypothesis that corticosterone rather than testosterone may play a role in the support of behavior and/or physiology during acute territorial encounters in single-brooded species.

  3. An in vitro model for evaluating peripheral regulation of growth in fish: effects of 17β-estradiol and testosterone on the expression of growth hormone receptors, insulin-like growth factors, and insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptors in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbeck, Lindsey A; Sheridan, Mark A

    2011-09-01

    A central component of growth coordination in vertebrates is the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) system. To date, most studies on the control of vertebrate growth have focused on regulation of pituitary GH production and release. In this study, we used liver, muscle, and gill tissue from sexually immature rainbow trout incubated in vitro to evaluate the extrapituitary effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) on mRNA and functional expression of growth hormone receptors (GHR), insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2), and type 1 IGF receptors (IGFR1). E2 significantly decreased steady-state levels of GHR1, GHR2, and IGF-1 mRNAs in liver as well as of GHR1 and GHR2 mRNAs in muscle and of IGF-1 and IGF-2 mRNAs in gill in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. E2 had no effect on levels of IGFR1 mRNAs in muscle or on GHR and IGFR1 mRNAs in gill. Functional expression of GHRs as assessed by (125)I-GH binding capacity was reduced by E2 in liver and muscle; however, E2 did not affect (125)I-IGF-1 binding capacity in muscle or (125)I-GH and (125)I-IGF-1 binding capacity in gill. By contrast, T increased steady-state levels of GHR1, GHR2, IGF-1, and IGF-2 mRNAs in liver, of GHR1, GHR2, IGFR1A, and IGFR1B in muscle, and of GHR1, GHR2, IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFR1A, and IGFR1B mRNAs in gill in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Binding capacity of (125)I-GH in liver and of (125)I-GH and (125)I-IGF-1 in both muscle and gill also was increased by T. These data indicate that E2 and T directly affect peripheral aspects of the GH-IGF system, and suggest, at least in immature rainbow trout, that E2 reduces hepatic sensitivity to GH as well as reduces peripheral production of IGFs and that T increases peripheral sensitivity to GH and IGF as well as increases peripheral production of IGFs.

  4. Hormone therapy for transgender patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Many transgender men and women seek hormone therapy as part of the transition process. Exogenous testosterone is used in transgender men to induce virilization and suppress feminizing characteristics. In transgender women, exogenous estrogen is used to help feminize patients, and anti-androgens are used as adjuncts to help suppress masculinizing features. Guidelines exist to help providers choose appropriate candidates for hormone therapy, and act as a framework for choosing treatment regimens and managing surveillance in these patients. Cross-sex hormone therapy has been shown to have positive physical and psychological effects on the transitioning individual and is considered a mainstay treatment for many patients. Bone and cardiovascular health are important considerations in transgender patients on long-term hormones, and care should be taken to monitor certain metabolic indices while patients are on cross-sex hormone therapy. PMID:28078219

  5. Testosterone sorption and desorption: Effects of soil particle size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yong, E-mail: yqi01@unomaha.edu [Civil Engineering Dept., University of Nebraska-Lincoln at Omaha Campus, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Zhang, Tian C. [Civil Engineering Dept., University of Nebraska-Lincoln at Omaha Campus, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Ren, Yongzheng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Smaller soil particles have higher sorption and lower desorption rates. • The sorption capacity ranks as clay > silt > sand. • Small particles like clays have less potential for desorption. • Colloids (clays) have high potential to facilitate the transport of hormones in soil–water environments. - Abstract: Soils contain a wide range of particles of different diameters with different mobility during rainfall events. Effects of soil particles on sorption and desorption behaviors of steroid hormones have not been investigated. In this study, wet sieve washing and repeated sedimentation methods were used to fractionate the soils into five ranges. The sorption and desorption properties and related mechanisms of testosterone in batch reactors filled with fractionated soil particles were evaluated. Results of sorption and desorption kinetics indicate that small soil particles have higher sorption and lower desorption rates than that of big ones. Thermodynamic results show the sorption processes are spontaneous and exothermal. The sorption capacity ranks as clay > silt > sand, depending mainly on specific surface area and surface functional groups. The urea control test shows that hydrogen bonding contributes to testosterone sorption onto clay and silt but not on sand. Desorption tests indicate sorption is 36–65% irreversible from clay to sand. Clays have highest desorption hysteresis among these five soil fractions, indicating small particles like clays have less potential for desorption. The results provide indirect evidence on the colloid (clay)-facilitated transport of hormones (micro-pollutants) in soil environments.

  6. SPECIFIC FEATURE OF HORMONAL PROFILE IN PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY AND RECURRENT BREAST CANCER AND THEIR ROLE IN THE EFFICIENCY OF CHEMOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kozlova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The hormonal background was studied in 32 menopausal patients who had primary breast cancer (Stage III or its recurrence in the postoperative scar. The patients with the primary process, unlike those with a recurrence, were found to have increased adrenocortical cortisol-forming activity and changed thyroid homeostasis. In both types of the neoplastic process, the blood concentrations of estradi- ol, testosterone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones were disturbed in a substantial number of cases; the distinc- tive feature of the primary process and its recurrence lies in the opposite direction. An association of individual differences in the con- centrations of estradiol and testosterone with the efficiency of neoadjuvant chemotherapy was analyzed in patients with recurrent can- cer.

  7. Levels of endocrine hormones and lipids in male patients with carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Uzkeser

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between endocrine hormones, lipid levels and clinical parameters in male patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS.Materials and methods: Fifteen male patients with CTS and 16 healthy controls were included in the study. Serum free T3, free T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were analyzed. Symptom severity and hand function were assessed using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire in clinical examination.Results: Serum free T3, free T4, TSH, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were similar between CTS patients and controls (p> 0.05. Also, there was no statistically significant correlation between laboratory parameters and clinical characteristics in patients with CTS (p> 0.05.Conclusion: The serum free T3, free T4, TSH, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels seem within normal range in male CTS patients. Further studies are needed to investigate association endocrine factors, lipid levels such as triglyceride and total cholesterol with CTS in male and female patients.

  8. Persistent organic contaminants and steroid hormones levels in Morelet's crocodiles from the Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Jauregui, Mauricio; Valdespino, Carolina; Salame-Méndez, Arturo; Aguirre-León, Gustavo; Rendón-Vonosten, Jaime

    2012-04-01

    Effects of endocrine disruptors on reproductive variables of top predators, such as alligators and crocodiles, have long been cited. Due to their long life span, these predators provide us with historic contaminant annals. In this study we tried to test whether lifestyle (free-ranging vs. farm animals) and reproductive age of Morelet's crocodiles in Campeche, Mexico, affect the bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Subsequently, we tested to see whether their concentration was related to steroid hormones (testosterone and estradiol-17β) levels once normal cyclic hormone variation and reproductive age had been taken into account. From the group of contaminants considered (analyzed as families), only frequency of hexachlorocyclohexanes (∑HCH) and ∑PCB permitted analyses. Whereas there was a greater concentration of ∑HCH bioaccumulated by free-ranging crocodiles, ∑PCB was found in equal quantities in free-ranging and farm animals. No difference was observed in relation to reproductive age for any of the contaminants. However, ∑PCB concentrations were related to testosterone levels among female crocodiles. This androgenic effect of ∑PCB has not been reported previously. Because testosterone promotes aggressive behavior in vertebrates, excessive aggression during the estrous season, or when female crocodiles should be caring for their young, could result in reproductive failure in Morelet's crocodiles and potential long-term decline of the population.

  9. Testosterone in women-the clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Susan R; Jacobsen, Sarah Wåhlin

    2015-01-01

    action and the effects of testosterone deficiency and replacement in women are scarce. The primary indication for the prescription of testosterone for women is loss of sexual desire, which causes affected women substantial concern. That no formulation has been approved for this purpose has not impeded...... the widespread use of testosterone by women-either off-label or as compounded therapy. Observational studies indicate that testosterone has favourable cardiovascular effects measured by surrogate outcomes; however, associations between endogenous testosterone and the risk of cardiovascular disease and total...... mortality, particularly in older women, are yet to be established. Adverse cardiovascular effects have not been seen in studies of transdermal testosterone therapy in women. Clinical trials suggest that exogenous testosterone enhances cognitive performance and improves musculoskeletal health...

  10. Effects on steroid hormones secretion resulting from the acute stimulation of sectioning the superior ovarian nerve to pre-pubertal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Ledesma Leticia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the adult rat, neural signals arriving to the ovary via the superior ovarian nerve (SON modulate progesterone (P4, testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 secretion. The aims of the present study were to analyze if the SON in the pre-pubertal rat also modulates ovarian hormone secretion and the release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing (LH hormone. P4, T, E2, FSH and LH serum levels were measured 30 or 60 minutes after sectioning the SON of pre-pubertal female rats. Our results indicate that the effects on hormone levels resulting from unilaterally or bilaterally sectioning the SON depends on the analyzed hormone, and the time lapse between surgery and autopsy, and that the treatment yielded asymmetric results. The results also suggest that in the pre-pubertal rat the neural signals arriving to the ovaries via the SON regulate the enzymes participating in P4, T and E2 synthesis in a non-parallel way, indicating that the mechanisms regulating the synthesis of each hormone are not regulated by the same signals. Also, that the changes in the steroids hormones are not explained exclusively by the modifications in gonadotropins secretion. The observed differences in hormone levels between rats sacrificed 30 and 60 min after surgery reflect the onset of the compensatory systems regulating hormones secretion.

  11. Testosterone dynamics and psychopathic personality traits independently predict antagonistic behavior towards the perceived loser of a competitive interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniole, Shawn N; Busseri, Michael A; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2013-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the influence of changes in testosterone on subsequent competitive, antagonistic behavior in humans. Further, little is known about the extent to which such effects are moderated by personality traits. Here, we collected salivary measures of testosterone before and after a rigged competition. After the competition, participants were given the opportunity to act antagonistically against the competitor (allocate a low honorarium). We hypothesized that changes in testosterone throughout the competition would predict antagonistic behavior such that greater increases would be associated with the allocation of lower honorariums. Further, we investigated the extent to which personality traits related to psychopathy (fearless dominance, FD; self-centered impulsivity, SCI; and coldheartedness) moderated this relationship. In men (n=104), greater increases in testosterone and greater FD were associated with more antagonistic behavior, but testosterone concentrations did not interact with personality measures. In women (n=97), greater FD and SCI predicted greater antagonistic behavior, but there were no significant endocrine predictors or interactions with personality measures. In a secondary set of analyses, we found no support for the dual-hormone hypothesis that the relationship between baseline testosterone concentrations and behavior is moderated by cortisol concentrations. Thus, results are consistent with previous findings that in men, situation-specific testosterone reactivity rather than baseline endocrine function is a better predictor of future antagonistic behavior. The results are discussed with respect to the Challenge Hypothesis and the Biosocial Model of Status, and the possible mechanisms underlying the independent relations of testosterone and personality factors with antagonistic behavior.

  12. Testosterone Depletion Induces Demethylation of Murine Reelin Promoter CpG Dinucleotides: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Augusto Moraes da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ is a debilitating mental disorder characterized by psychotic events, abnormal social behavior, false beliefs, and auditory hallucinations. Hypermethylation of the promoter region of reelin (RELN, a gene involved in regulation of neuronal positioning during telencephalic development, is strongly associated with low protein expression in several cortical structures and promoter hypermethylation in brain from postmortem SZ subjects. Recent experimental data suggests that testosterone is able to promote RELN demethylation, although no direct evidence of hormonal influence on reelin promoter methylation was obtained. We investigated if reduced levels of plasma testosterone in adult male mice lead to Reln promoter demethylation. Animals were administered with flutamide, an antiandrogenic compound, and reelin promoter methylation was assessed using methylationspecific PCR using bisulfite DNA from cerebellum. We found that flutamide was able to significantly lower plasma testosterone when compared to control mice, and treatment did not influence animal survival and body weight. We also show that low plasma testosterone was associated with demethylation of a cytosine residue located at −860 in reelin promoter region. These preliminary data suggest that androgenic hormones can influence cerebral reelin demethylation. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental approach directly linking testosterone depletion and RELN promoter methylation.

  13. Sex playing with the mind: effects of oestrogen and testosterone on moon and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALMEIDA OSVALDO P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Women now spend more than 1/3 of their lives in a state of oestrogen deprivation as a result of increased life expectancy. A similar, but milder, hypogonadal state has been described for elderly men. This paper aims to review the available literature on the effects of both oestrogen and testosterone on mood and cognition. Oestrogen replacement therapy of postmenopausal women is associated with improvements in measures of well being and decline in depression scores. In addition, oestrogen seems to augment the response of postmenopausal women with major depression to antidepressant treatment. Most studies designed to investigate the impact of oestrogen on cognition indicate that replacement therapy is associated with better performance on neuropsychological tests, particularly in measures of verbal memory and fluency. The data also supports claims that oestrogen replacement therapy reduces the risk of Alzheimer's disease in later life and improves response of patients to anticholinesterase treatment. Data on the effects of testosterone is sparser. Preliminary findings suggest that testosterone therapy may improve mood when used in isolation or in association with oestrogen. The effects of testosterone on cognitive functioning are less clear - some studies indicate that the administration of testosterone to non-demented subjects is associated with better visuospatial functioning and deterioration of verbal skills. In summary, gonadal hormones seem to modulate various aspects of mental functioning. If future studies prove this to be true, hormone replacement therapy should have a major impact on the physical and mental health of older people in the years to come.

  14. Hippocampal testosterone relates to reference memory performance and synaptic plasticity in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eSchulz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Steroids are important neuromodulators influencing cognitive performance and synaptic plasticity. While the majority of literature concerns adrenal- and gonadectomized animals, very little is known about the natural endogenous release of hormones during learning. Therefore, we measured blood and brain (hippocampus, prefrontal cortex testosterone, estradiol, and corticosterone concentrations of intact male rats undergoing a spatial learning paradigm which is known to reinforce hippocampal plasticity. We found significant modulations of all investigated hormones over the training course. Corticosterone and testosterone were correlated manifold with behaviour, while estradiol expressed fewer correlations. In the recall session, testosterone was tightly coupled to reference memory performance, which is crucial for reinforcement of synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Intriguingly, prefrontal cortex and hippocampal levels related differentially to reference memory performance. Correlations of testosterone and corticosterone switched from unspecific activity to specific cognitive functions over training. Correspondingly, exogenous application of testosterone revealed different effects on synaptic and neuronal plasticity in trained versus untrained animals. While hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP of the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP was prolonged in untrained rats, both the fEPSP- and the population spike amplitude-LTP was impaired in trained rats. Behavioural performance was unaffected, but correlations of hippocampal field potentials with behaviour were decoupled in treated rats. The data provide important evidence that besides adrenal, also gonadal steroids play a mechanistic role in linking synaptic plasticity to cognitive performance.

  15. The link between testosterone and amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex connectivity in adolescent alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sabine; Jolles, Dietsje J; Van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Crone, Eveline A; Peper, Jiska S

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol consumption is one of the most problematic and widespread forms of risk taking in adolescence. It has been hypothesized that sex hormones such as testosterone play an important role in risk taking by influencing the development of brain networks involved in emotion and motivation, particularly the amygdala and its functional connections. Connectivity between the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) may be specifically related to alcohol use, given the association of this tract with top-down control over behavioral approach tendencies. In line with this, prior studies in adults indicate a link between alcohol use and functional connectivity between the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), as well as between testosterone and amygdala-OFC connectivity. We consolidated these research lines by investigating the association between alcohol use, testosterone and resting state functional brain connectivity within one large-scale adolescent sample (n=173, aged 12-25 years). Mediation analyses demonstrated an indirect effect of testosterone levels on alcohol use through amygdala-OFC intrinsic functional connectivity, but only in boys. That is, increased testosterone in boys was associated with reduced amygdala-OFC connectivity, which in turn was associated with increased alcohol intake. This study is the first to demonstrate the interplay between adolescent alcohol use, sex hormones and brain mechanisms, thus taking an important step to increase our understanding of the mechanisms behind this form of adolescent risk-taking.

  16. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia...... and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss...

  17. Serum Testosterone Level, Testosterone Replacement Treatment, and Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Atan; Altug Tuncel; Suleyman Yesil; Derya Balbay

    2013-01-01

    There has been an increase in the number of individuals seeking testosterone (T) replacement treatment (TRT) due to a decrease in their blood T levels. Prostate cancer (PCa) is also an important issue in the same age group. However, we, urologists, are anxious about PCa development after T treatment. This is because it has been assumed that T may cause PCa or exacerbate insidious PCa which is already present. In this paper, recent developments regarding the relationship between serum levels o...

  18. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Coviello (Andrea); R. Haring (Robin); M. Wellons (Melissa); D. Vaidya (Dhananjay); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); S. Keildson (Sarah); K.L. Lunetta (Kathryn); C. He (Chunyan); M. Fornage (Myriam); V. Lagou (Vasiliki); M. Mangino (Massimo); N.C. Onland-Moret (Charlotte); B. Chen (Benjamin); J. Eriksson (Joel); M. Garcia (Melissa); Y. Liu (Yongmei); A. Koster (Annemarie); K. Lohman (Kurt); L.-P. Lyytikäinen; A.K. Petersen; C.A.J. Prescott; L. Stolk (Lisette); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); A.R. Wood (Andrew); W.V. Zhuang; A. Ruokonen (Aimo); A.L. Hartikainen; A. Pouta (Anneli); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); R. Biffar (Reiner); G. Brabant (Georg); D.G. Cox (David); S. Cummings; L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M.J. Gunter (Marc J.); S.E. Hankinson (Susan); H. Martikainen (Hannu); A. Hofman (Albert); G. Homuth (Georg); T. Illig (Thomas); J.O. Jansson; A.D. Johnson (Andrew); D. Karasik (David); M. Karlsson (Magnus); J. Kettunen (Johannes); D.P. Kiel (Douglas); P. Kraft (Peter); O.̈. Ljunggren; M. Lorentzon (Mattias); M. Maggio (Marcello); M.R.P. Markus (Marcello R. P.); D. Mellström (Dan); I. Miljkovic (Iva); D. Mirel (Daniel); S. Nelson (Sarah); L. Morin Papunen (Laure); P.H.M. Peeters; I. Prokopenko (Inga); L.J. Raffel (Leslie); M. Reincke (Martin); A.P. Reiner (Alex); K. Rexrode (Kathryn); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); D.S. Siscovick (David); N. Soranzo (Nicole); D. Stöckl (Doris); S. Tworoger (Shelley); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); C.H. van Gils (Carla); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); G. Zhai (Guangju); S. Bhasin (Shalender); M. Bidlingmaier; S.J. Chanock (Stephen); I. de Vivo (Immaculata); T.B. Harris (Tamara); D. Hunter (David); M. Kähönen (Mika); P. Ouyang (Pamela); T.D. Spector (Timothy); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); J. Viikari (Jorma); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey); S. Franks (Steve); M.R. Jarvelin; F.A. de Jong (Floris); O. Raitakari (Olli); A. Teumer (Alexander); C. Ohlsson (Claes); J. Murabito (Joanne); J.R.B. Perry (John)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers s

  19. Testicular radiation dose after multimodal curative therapy for locally advanced rectal cancer. Influence on hormone levels, quality of life, and sexual functioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennies, S.; Wolff, H.A.; Rave-Fraenk, M.; Hess, C.F. [University Medicine Goettingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Jung, K. [University Medicine Goettingen (Germany). Dept. of Medical Statistics; Gaedcke, J.; Ghadimi, M.; Becker, H. [University Medicine Goettingen (Germany). Dept. of General Surgery; Hermann, R.M. [University Medicine Goettingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Aerztehaus an der Ammerlandklinik, Westerstede (Germany). Radiotherapy; Christiansen, H. [University Medicine Goettingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Hannover Medical School (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the current work was to prospectively measure the influence of testicular radiation dose on hormone levels, quality of life (QoL), and sexual functioning following multimodal therapy (neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy) for rectal cancer. Patients and methods: From November 2007 to November 2009, 83 male patients were treated at the University of Goettingen with radiochemotherapy (RCT) for locally advanced rectal cancer [total dose 50.4 Gy, concomitant chemotherapy with two cycles of 5-fluorouracil (FU) or 5-FU and oxaliplatin]. Testicular radiation doses were analyzed and correlated with hormone levels [luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), total testosterone and free androgen index (FAI) serum levels], QoL, and sexual functioning, which were determined before and up to 1 year after RCT. Results: Mean dose at the testes was 3.9 Gy (range 0.28-11.98 Gy). It was higher for tumors located < 6 cm from the anocutaneous line (p < 0.05). One year after therapy, testosterone, the testosterone/LH ratio, and the FAI/LH ratio were significantly decreased (3.5-3.0 {mu}g/l, 0.9-0.4, 7.9-4.5, respectively) while LH and FSH (4.2-8.5 IU/l, 6.0-21.9 IU/l) were increased. QoL and sexual functioning were significantly impaired. However, there was no statistical correlation between testicular radiation dose and changes in hormone levels, QoL, or sexual functioning. Conclusion: Multimodal treatment for rectal cancer including RCT leads to hormone level changes and to impaired QoL and sexual functioning. However, because there was no apparent correlation between the analyzed parameters, QoL is probably also influenced by other factors, e.g., psychosocial aspects. (orig.)

  20. Hormone-dependent aggression in male and female rats: experiential, hormonal, and neural foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1992-01-01

    Hormone-dependent aggression in both male and female rats includes the distinctive behavioral characteristics of piloerection and lateral attack. In males the aggression is dependent on testicular testosterone and is commonly known as intermale aggression. In females, the aggression is most commonly observed as maternal aggression and is dependent on hormones whose identity is only beginning to emerge. The present review examines the experiential events which activate hormone-dependent aggression, the relation of the aggression to gonadal hormones, and the neural structures that participate in its modulation. In males and females, the aggression is activated by cohabitation with a conspecific of the opposite sex, by competitive experience, and by repeated exposure to unfamiliar conspecifics. In the female, the presence of pups also activates aggression. In both males and females, hormones are necessary for the full manifestation of the aggression. The essential hormone appears to be testosterone in males and a combination of testosterone and estradiol in females. The information available suggests the neural control systems for hormone-dependent aggression may be similar in males and females. It is argued that hormone-dependent aggression is behaviorally and biologically homologous in male and female rats.

  1. Testosterone Protects Mitochondrial Function and Regulates Neuroglobin Expression in Astrocytic Cells Exposed to Glucose Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Urrego, Nicolas; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Echeverria, Valentina; Barreto, George E.

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone is a hormone that has been shown to confer neuroprotection from different insults affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Testosterone induces this protection by different mechanisms that include the activation of anti-apoptotic pathways that are directly implicated in neuronal survival. However, little attention has been devoted to its actions on glial cells. In the present study, we have assessed whether testosterone exerts protection in a human astrocyte cell model, the T98G cells. Our results indicate that testosterone improves cell survival and mitochondrial membrane potential and reduces nuclear fragmentation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. These effects were accompanied by a positive regulation of neuroglobin, an oxygen-binding and sensor protein, which may serve as a regulator of ROS and nitrogen reactive species (NOS), and these protective effects of testosterone may be at least in part mediated by estradiol and DHT. In conclusion, these findings suggest that astroglia may mediate some of the protective actions of testosterone in the brain upon pathological conditions. PMID:27445795

  2. Resistance training and testosterone levels in male patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Andersen, Jesper L; Eidemak, Inge;

    2014-01-01

    Background. We investigated serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels' associations with muscle fibre size and resistance training in male dialysis patients. Methods. Male patients were included in a 16-week control period followed by 16 weeks of resistance training thric...... LH values, which suggest a compensated primary insufficiency of the testosterone producing Leydig cell. Even though testosterone values were normal, resistance training was not associated with muscle hypertrophy. This trial is registered with ISRCTN72099857.......Background. We investigated serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels' associations with muscle fibre size and resistance training in male dialysis patients. Methods. Male patients were included in a 16-week control period followed by 16 weeks of resistance training thrice...... weekly. Blood samples were obtained to analyse testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), IGF-1, and IGF-binding protein 3. Muscle fibres' size was analysed in biopsies from m. vastus lateralis. Results. The patients' testosterone levels were within the normal range at baseline (n = 20) (19.5 (8...

  3. Testosterone is essential for skeletal muscle growth in aged mice in a heterochronic parabiosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Indranil; Sinha-Hikim, Amiya P; Wagers, Amy J; Sinha-Hikim, Indrani

    2014-09-01

    As humans age, they lose both muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia). Testosterone, a circulating hormone, progressively declines in aging and is associated with loss of muscle mass and strength. The surgical joining of a young and old mouse (heterochronic parabiosis) activates Notch signaling and restores muscle regenerative potential in aged mice. We hypothesize that testosterone is at least one of the factors required for the improvement seen in muscles in old mice in heterochronic parabiosis with young mice. To test this hypothesis, we established the following heterochronic parabioses between young (Y; 5 months old) and old (O; 22-23 months old) C57BL6 male mice: (1) Y:O; (2) castrated Y:O (ØY:O); (3) castrated + testosterone-treated Y:O (ØY + T:O). A group of normal young mice received empty implants, and old mice were used as controls. Parabiotic pairings were maintained for 4 weeks prior to analysis. Serum testosterone levels were three-fold higher in young than in old mice. The ØY + T:O pairing demonstrated significantly elevated levels of serum testosterone and an improvement in gastrocnemius muscle weight, muscle ultrastructure, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, and Notch-1 expression in old mice. These changes were not present in aged mice in the ØY:O pairing. These data indicate that testosterone has a critical role in mediating the improved muscle mass and ultrastructure seen in an experimental model of heterochronic parabiosis.

  4. Treatment of pain in fibromyalgia patients with testosterone gel: Pharmacokinetics and clinical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Hillary D; Brown, Lin A J; Gyurik, Robert J; Manganiello, Paul D; Robinson, Thomas D; Hallock, Linda S; Lewis, Lionel D; Yeo, Kiang-Teck J

    2015-08-01

    To test our hypothesis that testosterone deficiency plays an important role in chronic pain, a Phase I/II pilot study was initiated with 12 fibromyalgia patients to verify that a daily dose for 28days with transdermal testosterone gel would 1) significantly and safely increase mean serum testosterone concentrations from low baseline levels to mid/high-normal levels, and 2) effectively treat the pain and fatigue symptoms of fibromyalgia. Pharmacokinetic data confirmed that serum free testosterone concentrations were raised significantly above baseline levels, by assessment of maximum hormone concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC) parameters: free testosterone Cmax was significantly raised from a mean of 2.64pg/mL to 3.91pg/mL (pfibromyalgia by patient questionnaire and tender point exam demonstrated significant change in: decreased muscle pain, stiffness, and fatigue, and increased libido during study treatment. These results are consistent with the hypothesized ability of testosterone to relieve the symptoms of fibromyalgia. Symptoms not tightly related to fibromyalgia were not improved.

  5. Morphological changes induced by testosterone in the mammary glands of female Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambô-Filho A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased levels of androgens in postmenopausal women are considered to be a risk factor for breast cancer. Testosterone, alone or in combination with estrogen, induces epithelial dysplasia and mammary tumors in Noble rats. Since this model of hormone-induced neoplasia has not been reported in other rat strains, we studied the effect of testosterone on the mammary gland morphology of female Wistar rats. Sixty adult, non-castrated, female Wistar rats were implanted in the dorsum midline with a silicone tube containing 50 mg testosterone (testosterone propionate in 30 animals and non-esterified testosterone in the remaining 30 animals and 20 additional animals were implanted with empty tubes and used as control. Five animals per group were killed 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days after implantation, and the mammary glands were dissected, fixed and embedded in paraffin. Histological sections were then stained with hematoxylin and eosin and picrosyrius red for collagen visualization. Morphological and morphometric analysis demonstrated ductal proliferation and acinotubular differentiation with secretory activity in all treated animals, peaking at 90 days of androgen exposure. After 90 days the proliferation of acinar epithelial cells was evident, but there was a progressive reduction of secretory differentiation and an increase in intralobular collagen fibers. There was no morphological evidence of dysplastic changes or other pre-neoplastic lesions. Testosterone treatment applied to adult, non-castrated female Wistar rats induced a mammary gland hyperplasia resembling the lactating differentiation, with progressive reduction in secretory differentiation.

  6. MONITORING OF REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE LEVELS AFTER TESTIS TRANSPLANTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNXuc-Dong; XIAWen-Jia; WUXi-Rui

    1989-01-01

    The reproductive hormones in blood were measured by radioirnmunoassay (RIA) including FSH, interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH or LH) and testosterone (T) in 6 patients (average age 24.0±3.4, ranged 20-30 years old) before testis

  7. Testosterone and coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Monica D; Frishman, William H

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in most of the developed world despite advances in both prevention and treatment. At the same time, the incidence rates of cardiovascular disease differ greatly between the genders, with men more likely than women to manifest ischemic heart disease. This observation has prompted new research initiatives to explain the discrepancy in heart disease prevalence and incidence between the sexes. Whether androgens affect cardiovascular disease adversely remains a contentious issue, with some data pointing to a deleterious effect of androgens on lipid profiles, and other studies revealing androgens' possible benefits on cardiovascular function. This review will examine the relationship between the endogenous production of androgen as well as the exogenous replacement of testosterone in men and the possible links to cardiovascular disease. The role of testosterone in male cardiovascular health is not completely understood, and additional studies are needed to explain its effect on atherosclerosis and its complications.

  8. Late-onset hypogonadism: beyond testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Foresta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Late-onset hypogonadism is defined as a combination of low testosterone (T levels and typical symptoms and signs. A major area of uncertainty is whether T concentrations are always really sufficient to fully reflect Leydig cell (dysfunction. Mild testicular alteration could be diagnosed only by additional biochemical markers, such as luteinizing hormone (LH and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. These markers help in identifying the so-called "subclinical" hypogonadism (normal T, high LH levels. Patients with hypogonadism have frequently low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D due to impairment of the hydroxylating enzyme CYP2R1 in the testis. However, no data have been published dealing with the best treatment option (cholecalciferol - the Vitamin D precursor, or calcidiol - 25-hydroxylated form of Vitamin D in these patients. We studied 66 patients with classic hypogonadism (total T [TT] <12 nmol l−1 , LH ≥ 8 IU l−1 (n = 26 and subclinical hypogonadism (TT ≥ 12 nmol l−1 , LH ≥ 8 IU l−1 (n = 40 and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (<50 nmol l−1 . Subjects received cholecalciferol (5000 IU per week (n = 20 or calcidiol (4000 IU per week (n = 46, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH were evaluated after 3 months of therapy. Supplementation with calcidiol significantly increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D and significantly decreased PTH levels in both groups of men with hypogonadism (primary, n = 16 and subclinical, n = 30, whereas supplementation with cholecalciferol did not modify their levels. This study shows for the first time that the administration of the 25-hydroxylated form of Vitamin D (calcidiol, and not the administration of the precursor cholecalciferol, restores 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in subjects with hypogonadism.

  9. Annual cycle of plasma luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons between 'wild'and 'game farm' mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were made to assess the differences in the temporal changes of plasma hormones. Seasonal variation in the levels of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, 5 -dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone, estradiol-17i?? and progesterone were measured in male and female mallards. In all birds there was a vernal increase in the concentrations of LH and testosterone in plasma which were correlated with the development of the testes and ovaries prior to and during the nesting season. The concentrations of estrogens in the plasma of the females were, in general, slightly higher during the nesting season but were much lower than the levels of testosterone. The highest levels of LH and testosterone in the females coincided precisely with the period of egg laying which occurred approximately one month earlier in game farm females than in wild females. The concentrations of LH and testosterone in the plasma of females decreased rapidly during incubation. In wild males, the decline in levels of these hormones temporally coincided with that of females. In contrast, plasma levels of LH and testosterone of males of the game farm stock remained elevated after the beginning of incubation in females to which they were paired. On the basis of these results and an examination of the literature, it appears that domestication results in: 1) increased reproductive potential through earlier initiation of nesting and by delay of the termination of reproduction until later in the summer; and 2) a decrease in the synchronization of the hormonal events supporting reproduction between the male and female of a pair. Testicular weights and plasma levels of testosterone become higher in game farm and domestic males than in the wild stock but levels of LH are similar.

  10. Detection of testosterone esters in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsdahl, Guro; Erceg, Damir; Geisendorfer, Thomas; Turkalj, Mirjana; Plavec, Davor; Thevis, Mario; Tretzel, Laura; Gmeiner, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Injections of synthetic esters of testosterone are among the most common forms of testosterone application. In doping control, the detection of an intact ester of testosterone in blood gives unequivocal proof of the administration of exogenous testosterone. The aim of the current project was to investigate the detection window for injected testosterone esters as a mixed substance preparation and as a single substance preparation in serum and plasma. Furthermore, the suitability of different types of blood collection devices was evaluated. Collection tubes with stabilizing additives, as well as non-stabilized serum separation tubes, were tested. A clinical study with six participants was carried out, comprising a single intramuscular injection of either 1000 mg testosterone undecanoate (Nebido(®)) or a mixture of 30 mg testosterone propionate, 60 mg testosterone phenylpropionate, 60 mg testosterone isocaproate, and 100 mg testosterone decanoate (Sustanon(®)). Blood was collected throughout a testing period of 60 days. The applied analytical method for blood analysis included liquid-liquid extraction and preparation of oxime derivatives, prior to TLX-sample clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection. All investigated testosterone esters could be detected in post-administration blood samples. The detection time depended on the type of ester administered. Furthermore, results from the study show that measured blood concentrations of especially short-chained testosterone esters are influenced by the type of blood collection device applied. The testosterone ester detection window, however, was comparable.

  11. Seasonal and population variation in male testosterone levels in breeding orange-crowned warblers (Vermivora celata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Brent M; Yoon, Jongmin; Ghalambor, Cameron K; Moore, Ignacio T; Scott Sillett, T

    2010-09-15

    Comparative hormone studies can reveal how physiology underlies life history variation. Here, we examined seasonal variation in plasma testosterone concentration between populations of male orange-crowned warblers (Vermivora celata) breeding in Fairbanks, Alaska (V. c. celata) and on Santa Catalina Island, California (V. c. sordida). These populations face different ecological constraints and exhibit different life histories. Alaska birds have a short breeding season, low annual adult survival, and high reproductive rates. In contrast, Catalina Island birds exhibit high adult survival and low reproductive rates despite having a long breeding season. We examined seasonal variation in male testosterone concentrations as a potential mechanism underlying differences in male reproductive strategies between populations. From 2006 to 2008, we sampled males during the pre-incubation, incubation, and nestling stages. Alaska males exhibited a seasonal testosterone pattern typical of northern passerines: testosterone levels were high during pre-incubation and declined during incubation to low levels during nestling provisioning. Testosterone concentrations in Catalina Island males, however, did not vary consistently with breeding stage, remained elevated throughout the breeding season, and were higher than in Alaska males during the nestling stage. We hypothesize that in Alaska, where short seasons and high adult mortality limit breeding opportunities, the seasonal testosterone pattern facilitates high mating effort prior to incubation, but high parental investment during the nestling stage. On Catalina Island, elevated testosterone levels may reflect the extended mating opportunities and high population density facing males in this population. Our results suggest that population variation in seasonal testosterone patterns in orange-crowned warblers may be a function of differences in life history strategy and the social environment.

  12. Relationships among musical aptitude, digit ratio and testosterone in men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy C Borniger

    Full Text Available Circulating adult testosterone levels, digit ratio (length of the second finger relative to the fourth finger, and directional asymmetry in digit ratio are considered sexually dimorphic traits in humans. These have been related to spatial abilities in men and women, and because similar brain structures appear to be involved in both spatial and musical abilities, neuroendocrine function may be related to musical as well as spatial cognition. To evaluate relationships among testosterone and musical ability in men and women, saliva samples were collected, testosterone concentrations assessed, and digit ratios calculated using standardized protocols in a sample of university students (N = 61, including both music and non-music majors. Results of Spearman correlations suggest that digit ratio and testosterone levels are statistically related to musical aptitude and performance only within the female sample: A those females with greater self-reported history of exposure to music (p = 0.016 and instrument proficiency (p = 0.040 scored higher on the Advanced Measures of Music Audiation test, B those females with higher left hand digit ratio (and perhaps lower fetal testosterone levels were more highly ranked (p = 0.007 in the orchestra, C female music students exhibited a trend (p = 0.082 towards higher testosterone levels compared to female non-music students, and D female music students with higher rank in the orchestra/band had higher testosterone levels (p = 0.003 than lower ranked students. None of these relationships were significant in the male sample, although a lack of statistical power may be one cause. The effects of testosterone are likely a small part of a poorly understood system of biological and environmental stimuli that contribute to musical aptitude. Hormones may play some role in modulating the phenotype of musical ability, and this may be the case for females more so than males.

  13. Relationships among musical aptitude, digit ratio and testosterone in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Chaudhry, Adeel; Muehlenbein, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Circulating adult testosterone levels, digit ratio (length of the second finger relative to the fourth finger), and directional asymmetry in digit ratio are considered sexually dimorphic traits in humans. These have been related to spatial abilities in men and women, and because similar brain structures appear to be involved in both spatial and musical abilities, neuroendocrine function may be related to musical as well as spatial cognition. To evaluate relationships among testosterone and musical ability in men and women, saliva samples were collected, testosterone concentrations assessed, and digit ratios calculated using standardized protocols in a sample of university students (N = 61), including both music and non-music majors. Results of Spearman correlations suggest that digit ratio and testosterone levels are statistically related to musical aptitude and performance only within the female sample: A) those females with greater self-reported history of exposure to music (p = 0.016) and instrument proficiency (p = 0.040) scored higher on the Advanced Measures of Music Audiation test, B) those females with higher left hand digit ratio (and perhaps lower fetal testosterone levels) were more highly ranked (p = 0.007) in the orchestra, C) female music students exhibited a trend (p = 0.082) towards higher testosterone levels compared to female non-music students, and D) female music students with higher rank in the orchestra/band had higher testosterone levels (p = 0.003) than lower ranked students. None of these relationships were significant in the male sample, although a lack of statistical power may be one cause. The effects of testosterone are likely a small part of a poorly understood system of biological and environmental stimuli that contribute to musical aptitude. Hormones may play some role in modulating the phenotype of musical ability, and this may be the case for females more so than males.

  14. Salivary Immuno Factors, Cortisol and Testosterone Responses in Athletes of a Competitive 5,000 m Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Yang; Hsu, Gi-Sheng; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Fang, Shih-Hua

    2015-08-31

    The exercise-stress model can be a model of temporary immunosuppression that occurs after severe physical and psychological stress. It also allows for the study of interactions between the endocrine and the immune systems. This study examined changes in salivary hormonal and immune factors in athletes in response to physical and psychological stress in a 5,000 m running competition. Eighteen endurance-trained runners (9 males and 9 females) participated in this study. All participants completed a competitive 5,000 m race. Saliva samples were collected 10 min before (PRE) and 10 min after (POST) the competition. Saliva was analyzed for α-amylase activity, concentrations of salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA), lactoferrin, cortisol, testosterone and total protein. Although the concentrations of salivary TP, SIgA, lactoferrin, cortisol and α-amylase activity were significantly increased immediately after a competitive 5,000 m race, the secretion rates of these factors were not significantly altered in both male and female groups. Additionally, basal levels of SIgA and α-amylase activity were significantly higher in female runners than in male runners. This gender difference still existed after the race. The secretion rates of testosterone decreased significantly after the race in the male, but not in the female group. Moreover, testosterone-to-cortisol (T/C) ratios were significantly lower post-competition compared to pre-competition in both male and female athletes. The T/C ratio had been used as a performance index for athletes. Whether there are correlations between these changes of their physiological characteristics and better running performance need further investigations.

  15. Luteinizing hormone and androstendione are independent predictors of ovulation after laparoscopic ovarian drilling: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayerhofer Klaus

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to investigate luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, and androstenedione as predicitve markers for ovulation after laparoscopic ovarian drilling. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 100 clompihen-resistant patients with the polycystic ovary syndrome who underwent laparoscopic ovarian drilling at our department. The main outcome measure was spontaneous postoperative ovulation within three months after laparoscopic ovarian drilling. In order to predict spontaneous ovulation, we tested the following parameters by use of a univariate followed by a multivariate regression model: Preoperative serum levels of LH, FSH, testosterone, and androstenedione as well as patients' age and body mass index. In addition, we focused on pregnancy and life birth rates. Results Spontaneous ovulation was documented in 71/100 patients (71.0%. In a univariate and multivariate analysis, luteinizing hormone (OR 1.58, 95%CI: 1.30-1.92 and androstenedione (OR 3.03, 95%CI: 1.20-7.67, but not follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone were independent predictors of ovulation. Using a cut-off for luteinizing hormone and androstenedione of 12.1 IU/l and 3.26 ng/ml, respectively, spontaneous ovulation was observed in 63/70 (90.0% and 36/42 patients (85.7% with elevated and in 8/30 (26.7% and 35/58 (60.3% patients with low luteinizing hormone and androstenedione levels, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negatvie predictive values for luteinizing hormone and androstendione as predictors of spontaneous ovulation after ovarian drilling were 88.7% (95%CI: 79.0-95.0%, 75.9% (95%CI: 56.5-89.7%, 90.0% (95%CI: 80.5-95.8%, and 73.3% (95%CI: 54.1-87.7% for luteinizing hormone, and 50.7% (95%CI: 38.6-62.8%, 79.3% (95%CI: 60.3-92.0%, 85.7% (95%CI: 71.5-94.6%, and 39.7% (95%CI: 27.0-53.4% for androstenedione, respectively. Complete one-year follow-up was available for 74/100 patients (74%. We observed a

  16. High serum testosterone levels are associated with excessive erythrocytosis of chronic mountain sickness in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gasco, Manuel; Tapia, Vilma; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2009-06-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (EE) secondary to hypoventilation. Erythropoietin (Epo) and testosterone regulate erythrocyte production. Low thyroid hormone levels are also associated to hypoventilation. Hence, these hormones can play a role in etiopathogeny of EE. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of sexual and thyroid hormones and Epo in residents from Lima (150 m) and Cerro de Pasco (4,340 m), Peru, and the response to human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation (hCG). Three groups, one at low altitude and two at high altitude [1 with hemoglobin values >16-21 g/dl and the second with Hb >or=21 g/dl (EE)], were studied. hCG was administered intramuscularly in a single dose (1,000 IU), and blood samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after injection. High-altitude natives present similar levels of gonadotropins and thyroid hormones but lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels (P < 0.01) and greater Epo (P < 0.01), 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (P < 0.01), and testosterone levels (P < 0.01) than those at 150 m. Serum testosterone levels (524.13 +/- 55.91 microg/dl vs. 328.14 +/- 53.23 ng/dl, means +/- SE; P < 0.05) and testosterone/DHEAS ratios are higher (7.98 +/- 1.1 vs. 3.65 +/- 1.1; P < 0.01) and DHEAS levels lower in the EE group (83.85 +/- 14.60 microg/dl vs. 148.95 +/- 19.11 ug/dl; P < 0.05), whereas Epo was not further affected. Testosterone levels were highest and DHEAS levels lowest in the EE group at all times after hCG stimulation. In conclusion, high androgen activity could be involved in the etiopathogeny of CMS. This evidence provides an opportunity to develop new therapeutic strategies.

  17. Update on the male hormonal contraceptive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Melanie; Anderson, Richard A

    2004-09-01

    There remains a need for new acceptable and effective male contraceptives to increase the choice for couples throughout the world. There have been no recent advances in available male contraceptive methods although a number of promising approaches have been identified, of which the hormonal approach is currently undergoing clinical investigation. In recent years the pace of research in this area has quickened significantly with increasing interest and now investment by the pharmaceutical industry. This is vital if the work undertaken so far by the public sector is to be transformed into a commercial reality. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of pituitary gonadotropin secretion resulting in a reversible reduction in spermatogenesis with azoospermia in all men being the ultimate aim. Without stimulation by luteinising hormone from the pituitary, testicular testosterone production also ceases. Therefore, androgen administration to restore physiological levels is an essential component of all male hormonal contraceptive regimes. Male hormonal contraceptives can consist of testosterone alone, or either a progestogen or gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist with 'add-back' testosterone. This article reviews the current state of progress in this field.

  18. Testosterone metabolism: a possible biological underpinning of non-verbal IQ in intellectually gifted girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdiaková, Jaroslava; Celec, Peter; Laznibatová, Jolana; Minárik, Gabriel; Ostatníková, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The extraordinary giftedness is apparently a unique manifestation of a mutual interconnection between genes and environment. One of the possible etiological factors of intellectual giftedness is testosterone which is believed to affect the brain organization and function. The aim of our study was to analyze associations between 2D:4D digit ratio (a proxy of prenatal testosterone) and/or salivary testosterone levels with non-verbal IQ in intellectually gifted girls. Fifty-one girls with an age range of 10 to18 years and IQ scores higher than 130 were tested. Saliva samples were collected to obtain levels of salivary testosterone. 2D:4D digit ratio was measured on both hands as an indicator of prenatal testosterone. IQ parameters were assessed employing standardized set of tests. The CAG repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene was analyzed to assess the sensitivity of androgen receptor. Testing of between-subjects effects proved significant interactions between right and left 2D:4D ratio, genetic variability in androgen receptor, and also salivary testosterone level with non-verbal IQ in gifted girls. Our results point out that the variability in parameters of androgenicity contributes to the variability of nonverbal IQ in gifted girls. However, the exact molecular mechanism of how testosterone acts on the brain and affects this cognitive domain remains still unclear.

  19. Testosterone and the Male Skeleton: A Dual Mode of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Sinnesael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone is an important hormone for both bone gain and maintenance in men. Hypogonadal men have accelerated bone turnover and increased fracture risk. In these men, administration of testosterone inhibits bone resorption and maintains bone mass. Testosterone, however, is converted into estradiol via aromatization in many tissues including male bone. The importance of estrogen receptor alpha activation as well of aromatization of androgens into estrogens was highlighted by a number of cases of men suffering from an inactivating mutation in the estrogen receptor alpha or in the aromatase enzyme. All these men typically had low bone mass, high bone turnover and open epiphyses. In line with these findings, cohort studies have confirmed that estradiol contributes to the maintenance of bone mass after reaching peak bone mass, with an association between estradiol and fractures in elderly men. Recent studies in knock-out mice have increased our understanding of the role of androgens and estrogens in different bone compartments. Estrogen receptor activation, but not androgen receptor activation, is involved in the regulation of male longitudinal appendicular skeletal growth in mice. Both the androgen and the estrogen receptor can independently mediate the cancellous bone-sparing effects of sex steroids in male mice. Selective KO studies of the androgen receptor in osteoblasts in male mice suggest that the osteoblast in the target cell for androgen receptor mediated maintenance of trabecular bone volume and coordination of bone matrix synthesis and mineralization. Taken together, both human and animal studies suggest that testosterone has a dual mode of action on different bone surfaces with involvement of both the androgen and estrogen receptor.

  20. Testosterone Deficiency, Cardiac Health, and Older Men

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    G. Hackett

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of testosterone are manifested by erectile dysfunction, reduced sexual desire, and loss of morning erections with increasing numbers of men are being diagnosed and require treatment. The prevalence rates of testosterone deficiency vary according to different studies but may be as high as 40% in populations of patients with type 2 diabetes. There is increasing evidence that testosterone deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Screening for low testosterone is recommended in a number of high risk groups including those with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. There are recent data to suggest that testosterone replacement therapy may reduce cardiovascular mortality as well as improving multiple surrogate markers for cardiovascular events. Specific clinical trials of testosterone replacement therapy are needed in selected populations but in the meantime we must treat patients based on the best current evidence.

  1. Does last week's alcohol intake affect semen quality or reproductive hormones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, A M; Bonde, Jens Peter;

    2012-01-01

    The association between last 5 days of alcohol intake, semen quality and reproductive hormones was estimated in this cross-sectional study among 347 men. Conventional semen characteristics, DNA fragmentation index and reproductive hormones (testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin...

  2. Serum gonadotropins after gonadotropin-releasing hormone injection in bulls subjected to spacial restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwazdauskas, F C; Bindas, E M; Anderson, G W; McGilliard, M L

    1984-12-01

    Response patterns of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and testosterone after injection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone were investigated in bulls grouped by weight (250 to 459 kg body weight) and confined five per pen in 9.2 or 6.4 m2 space per bull in two replicates. Blood samples were collected for 1 h prior to injection of 100 micrograms gonadotropin releasing hormone and 5 h after injection at 15-min intervals. Overall mean luteinizing hormone concentrations were not affected by spacial restriction or replicate. Interaction of treatment by time revealed that luteinizing hormone response curves were not similar. Restricted bulls had a higher response of luteinizing hormone to gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Follicle-stimulating hormone increased in all groups within 15 min and peaked at 219.4 ng/ml at 45 min. Both gonadotropin responses returned to preinjection concentrations by 4 h. Testosterone was affected by treatment, replicate, and time of sampling. Testosterone was higher in restricted bulls and higher in replicate 2. Mean testosterone peak following gonadotropin-releasing hormone was 3.86 ng/ml and occurred between 105 and 120 min which was approximately 90 min after the gonadotropin peaks. It appears that hormone responses to gonadotropin-releasing hormone were not depressed by spacial restriction, and additional spacial restriction of young bulls could be used commercially.

  3. Testosterone replacement therapy for older men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E Borst

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Stephen E Borst, Thomas MulliganGeriatrics Research, Education, and Clinical Center, North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Despite intensive research on testosterone therapy for older men, important questions remain unanswered. The evidence clearly indicates that many older men display a partial androgen deficiency. In older men, low circulating testosterone is correlated with low muscle strength, with high adiposity, with insulin resistance and with poor cognitive performance. Testosterone replacement in older men has produced benefits, but not consistently so. The inconsistency may arise from differences in the dose and duration of testosterone treatment, as well as selection of the target population. Generally, studies reporting anabolic responses to testosterone have employed higher doses of testosterone for longer treatment periods and have targeted older men whose baseline circulating bioavailable testosterone levels were low. Most studies of testosterone replacement have reported anabolic that are modest compared to what can be achieved with resistance exercise training. However, several strategies currently under evaluation have the potential to produce greater anabolic effects and to do so in a safe manner. At this time, testosterone therapy can not be recommended for the general population of older men. Older men who are hypogonadal are at greater risk for the catabolic effects associated with a number of acute and chronic medical conditions. Future research is likely to reveal benefits of testosterone therapy for some of these special populations. Testosterone therapy produces a number of adverse effects, including worsening of sleep apnea, gynecomastia, polycythemia and elevation of PSA. Efficacy and adverse effects should be assessed frequently throughout the course of therapy.Keywords: aging, testosterone, hypogonadism, physical function

  4. Fate of endogenous steroid hormones in steer feedlots under simulated rainfall-induced runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, D Scott; Bryson, Reid J; Harter, Thomas; Webster, Jackson P; Kolodziej, Edward P; Sedlak, David L

    2011-10-15

    Steroid hormones pose potential risks to fish and other aquatic organisms at extremely low concentrations. To assess the factors affecting the release of endogenous estrogenic and androgenic steroids from feedlots during rainfall, runoff, and soil samples were collected after simulated rainfall on a 14-steer feedlot under different rainfall rates and aging periods and analyzed for six steroid hormones. While only 17α-estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone were detected in fresh manure, 17β-estradiol, estrone, and androstenedione were present in the surficial soil after two weeks. In the feedlot surficial soil, concentrations of 17α-estradiol decreased by approximately 25% accompanied by an equivalent increase in estrone and 17β-estradiol. Aging of the feedlot soils for an additional 7 days had no effect on estrogen and testosterone concentrations, but androstenedione concentrations decreased substantially, and progesterone concentrations increased. Androstenedione and progesterone concentrations in the surficial soil were much higher than could be accounted for by excretion or conversion from testosterone, suggesting that other potential precursors, such as sterols, were converted after excretion. The concentration of androgens and progesterone in the soil were approximately 85% lower after simulated rainfall, but the estrogen concentrations remained approximately constant. The decreased masses could not be accounted for by runoff, suggesting the possibility of rapid microbial transformation upon wetting. All six steroids in the runoff, with the exception of 17β-estradiol, were detected in both the filtered and particle-associated phases at concentrations well above thresholds for biological responses. Runoff from the aged plots contained less 17α-estradiol and testosterone, but more estrone, androstenedione, and progesterone relative to the runoff from the unaged plots, and most of the steroids had a lower particle-associated fraction.

  5. Serum and seminal plasma hormonal profiles of infertile Nigerian male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinloye, O; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Abbiyesuku, F M; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, B

    2006-12-01

    Male infertility constitutes a worldwide problem, especially in Nigeria where most men do not readily accept that they may contribute to the couple's infertility. In order to assess hormonal disturbances in the male infertility we compared male reproductive hormonal levels in human serum and seminal plasma and evaluated the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular-axis in infertile Nigerian males. The biophysical semen parameters were assessed by W.H.O. standard manual method. Serum and seminal plasma male reproductive hormones (Leutinizing hormones, Follicular stimulating hormone, Prolactin and Testosterone) were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) technique of W.H.O. in sixty (60) infertile adult male Nigerians (Oligospermic; n = 40 and azoopermic; n = 20) and forty controls of proven fertility (Normospermic subjects; n = 40). The results show that the serum concentrations of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) were significantly higher (Pinfertile subjects than controls. Patterns of serum prolactin levels were similar. The values of gonadotropins in serum were significantly higher (Pseminal plasma. Seminal plasma testosterone in infertile subjects was significantly higher (Phormonal level and seminal plasma hormonal level in all the groups (Pinfertility in Nigerians is characterized by hyperprolactinaemia, raised serum gonadotropins (LH, FSH), and raised seminal plasma testosterone. Hormonal profiles in serum and seminal plasma were not significantly correlated, and hence cannot be used as exclusive alternative in male infertility investigations. The observed spermogram in spite of significant elevation of seminal plasma testosterone in infertile males investigated suggests Sertoli cells malfunction.

  6. Effect of oral testosterone treatment on serum concentrations of sex steroids gonadotrophins and prolactin in alcoholic cirrhotic men. Copenhagen Study Group for Liver Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Svenstrup, Bo

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones in a randomly selected group of alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled study on the efficacy of oral testosterone treatment on the liver. Before treatment......, patients (n = 25) had median serum concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol, non-protein bound oestradiol, non-sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) bound oestradiol and oestrone sulphate which did not differ significantly from those of healthy controls (n = 16), but the patients had significantly (P less...... than 0.01) higher median serum concentrations of oestrone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin. The patients were randomized to treatment with either oral micronized testosterone (200 mg t.d.s.) or placebo for a median duration of 1 year. In the placebo group (n...

  7. Male patients with terminal renal failure exhibit low serum levels of antimüllerian hormone

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    Dag Eckersten

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Male reproductive function is impaired during end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Disturbance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and therefore the regulation of sex hormones, is one of the major causes. Our focus was to include antimüllerian hormone (AMH and inhibin B concentrations. Twenty male patients on hemodialysis, median age 40 (26-48 years, were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, prolactin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, testosterone, estradiol, AMH and inhibin B levels. We used 144 proven fertile men, median age 32 (19-44 years as a control group and analyzed differences using multiple linear regression. Males with ESRD demonstrated higher mean values for prolactin, 742 versus normal 210 mIE l−1 (95% confidence interval (CI: 60.3, 729, LH, 8.87 versus normal 4.5 IE l−1 (95% CI: 2.75, 6.14, and estradiol 89.7 versus normal 79.0 pmol l−1 (95% CI: −1.31, −0.15. Mean value for AMH was lower, 19.5 versus normal 47.3 pmol l−1 (95% CI: −37.6, −11.6. There were no differences found for FSH, SHBG, inhibin B and testosterone. The most important difference was found for AMH, a marker of Sertoli cell function in the testes, which decreased by close to 60% when compared with controls. Combined with an increase in LH, these findings may indicate a dysfunction of Sertoli cells and an effect on Leydig cells contributing to a potential mechanism of reproductive dysfunction in men with ESRD.

  8. Comparing Betamethasone and Dexamethasone Effects on Concentration of Male Reproductive Hormones in Mice

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    Jalalaldin Gooyande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of chemical drugs have side effects on various parts of body. It is necessary to identify these effects to better use of drugs. Betamethasone and Dexamethasone are two of the most usual drugs in human and animal medication. The effect of these drugs on concentration of male reproductive hormones of mice was the goal of this study. Eighteen matured male mice were divided into eight groups including control, placebo and six treatment groups. Placebo group was received physiological serum only and treatments were Betamethasone (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg and Dexamethasone (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg which were injected in peritoneum every other day and for twenty days. After 20 days, blood samples were taken and FSH, LH and testosterone levels were measured using Eliza test method. Obtained data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance and mean comparison was done using Duncan's multiple ranges test and SPSS program. Results showed that 0.5 mg/kg of Betamethasone and all levels of dexamethasone caused significant increase in FSH concentration. For LH hormone, 1 mg/kg of Betamethasone and 0.1 mg/kg of Dexamethasone caused significant decrease whereas 1 mg/kg of Dexamethasone increased it significantly. Testosterone was increased significantly by 1 mg/kg of Dexamethasone. So, mentioned drugs are effective on hormone action of reproductive system dose dependently and probable effect of them must be considered in time of using.

  9. Comparison of the efficacy on serum androgenic hormone levels between isotretinoin, cyproterone acetate/ethynil estradiol and combination therapies in females with acne vulgaris

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    Hilal Gökalp

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acne vulgaris is one of the most common skin disorders, and is a multifactorial disease characterized by androgenic stimulation of sebaceous glands. This study aimed to further understand the antiandrogenic effects of isotretinoin by using isotretinoin, cyproterone acetate/ethynil estradiol (CTA/EE and isotretinoin+CTA/EE combination treatments with analyzing their effects on serum androgenic hormon levels. Materials and methods: 60 females that were clinically evaluated as grade 4-8 on Allen-Smith scale were selected from our patient population for whom isotretinoin, CTA/EE and isotretinoin+CTA/EE combination treatment was planned. Fasting androgenic hormone levels (androstenedion, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, dehidroepiandrosteron sulfate (DHEAS, free and total testosterone were detected in venous blood before treatment and on the third and the sixth month of study. Results: The statistical analysis showed that similar to the CTA/EE treatment; the decrease of the serum androstenedion and free testosterone levels with isotretinoin treatment in females with acne vulgaris were found to be statistically significant (p0,0056. There is no statistically significant change in LH/FSH ratio in isotretinoin monotherapy, so as in CTA/EE treatment (p>0,0056. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates isotretinoin monotherapy made us to think that antiandrogenic effect may be one of the pathways of antiacne effect of isotretinoin. No statistically significant correlation was found between the severity of acne vulgaris and the androgenic hormone levels.

  10. Metabolic effects of testosterone in the chequered water-snake, Natrix piscator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapliyal, J P; Gupta, S C; Garg, R K

    1975-06-01

    In the water-snake, Natrix piscator, the following are depressed by orchidectomy and restored to normal by testosterone treatment: glucose, free and esterified fatty acids and triglycerides in plasma, hepatic triglycerides, and total esterified fatty acids. The increase in hepatic free fatty acids and muscle glycogen was also reduced to the level found in intact snakes. Moreover, although castration had no effect, testosterone caused a significant increase in liver weight and plasma protein, and a significant decrease in free plasma cholesterol. Except for an increase in triglyceride content by high doses of the hormone, neither castration nor the administration of 5 mg testosterone had any significant effect on the free fatty acid and triglyceride content of the adipose tissue of the snakes.

  11. Preliminary Study of Testosterone and Empathy in Determining Recidivism and Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Samuel J; Laan, Jacob M; Molden, Raymond K; Ritchie, James C; Stowe, Zachary N

    2017-02-15

    Recidivism, repeated criminal behavior after conviction and correction of prior offenses, is a costly problem across the nation. However, the contribution of empathy in determining the risk of recidivism has received limited attention, although lack of empathy has been related to antisocial personality disorder in various studies. Studies linked testosterone to aggression, antisocial behavior, and criminality, and evidence support hormonal connections between empathy and aggression. Adult male prison inmates convicted of violent or nonviolent offenses were included in a cross-sectional study of empathy, antisocial behavior, salivary testosterone, and recidivism. Subjects underwent criminal history, Empathy Quotient, Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and salivary testosterone assays. Bivariate analyses indicated multiple correlations between variables. Multivariate modeling analyses found a significant relationship between self-reported conviction number and psychopathy scale score (p = 0.013). These preliminary results suggest avenues of investigation of factors contributing to recidivism risk.

  12. Hormone Treatment Restores Bone Density for Young Women with Menopause-Like Condition (Primary Ovarian Insufficiency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to produce statistically valid results as to whether testosterone replacement could benefit women with POI, Dr. Nelson said. “While hormone replacement therapy’s effect on bone mineral density has been studied ...

  13. Resistance Training and Testosterone Levels in Male Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Undergoing Dialysis

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    Stig Molsted

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 levels’ associations with muscle fibre size and resistance training in male dialysis patients. Methods. Male patients were included in a 16-week control period followed by 16 weeks of resistance training thrice weekly. Blood samples were obtained to analyse testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH, IGF-1, and IGF-binding protein 3. Muscle fibres’ size was analysed in biopsies from m. vastus lateralis. Results. The patients’ testosterone levels were within the normal range at baseline (n=20 (19.5 (8.2–52.1 nmol/L versus 17.6 (16.1–18.0, resp. whereas LH levels were higher (13.0 (5.5–82.8 U/L versus 4.3 (3.3–4.6, P<0.001, resp.. IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein 3 levels were higher in the patients compared with reference values (203 (59–590 ng/mL versus 151 (128–276, P=0.014, and 5045 (3370–9370 ng/mL versus 3244 (3020–3983, P<0.001, resp.. All hormone levels and muscle fibre size (n=12 remained stable throughout the study. Age-adjusted IGF-1 was associated with type 1 and 2 fibre sizes (P<0.05. Conclusion. Patients’ total testosterone values were normal due to markedly increased LH values, which suggest a compensated primary insufficiency of the testosterone producing Leydig cell. Even though testosterone values were normal, resistance training was not associated with muscle hypertrophy. This trial is registered with ISRCTN72099857.

  14. Winners, losers, and posers: The effect of power poses on testosterone and risk-taking following competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristopher M; Apicella, Coren L

    2016-11-10

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. The effect of postural power displays (i.e. power poses) on hormone levels and decision-making has recently been challenged. While Carney et al. (2010) found that holding brief postural displays of power leads to increased testosterone, decreased cortisol and greater economic risk taking, this failed to replicate in a recent high-powered study (Ranehill et al. 2015). It has been put forward that subtle differences in social context may account for the differences in results. Power displays naturally occur within the context of competitions, as do changes in hormones, and researchers have yet to examine the effects of poses within this ecologically relevant context. Using a large sample of 247 male participants, natural winners and losers of a physical competition were randomly assigned to hold a low, neutral or high-power postural display. We found no main effect of pose type on testosterone, cortisol, risk or feelings of power. Winners assigned to a high-power pose had a relative, albeit small, rise in testosterone compared to winners who held neutral or low-power poses. For losers, we found little evidence that high-power poses lead to increased testosterone relative to those holding neutral or low-powered poses. If anything, the reverse was observed - losers had a reduction in testosterone after holding high-power poses. To the extent that changes in testosterone modulate social behaviors adaptively, it is possible that the relative reduction in testosterone observed in losers taking high-powered poses is designed to inhibit further "winner-like" behavior that could result in continued defeat and harm. Still, effects were small, multiple comparisons were made, and the results ran counter to our predictions. We thus treat these conclusions as preliminary.

  15. EPIGENETIC EFFECT OF TESTOSTERONE IN THE BEHAVIOR OF C. ELEGANS. A CLUE TO EXPLAIN ANDROGEN-DEPENDENT AUTISTIC TRAITS?

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    M Mar eGámez-del-Estal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Current research indicates that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. To date, several works have associated ASDs with mutations in genes that encode proteins involved in neuronal synapses; however other factors and the way they can interact with the development of the nervous system remain largely unknown. Some studies have established a direct relationship between risk for ASDs and the exposure of the fetus to high testosterone levels during the prenatal stage. In this work, in order to explain possible mechanisms by which this androgenic hormone may interact with the nervous system, C. elegans was used as an experimental model. We observed that testosterone was able to alter the behavioral pattern of the worm, including the gentle touch response and the pharyngeal pumping rate. This impairment of the behavior was abolished using specific RNAi against genes orthologous to the human androgen receptor gene. The effect of testosterone was eliminated in the nhr-69 (ok1926 deficient mutant, a putative ortholog of human AR gene, suggesting that this gene encodes a receptor able to interact with the hormone. On the other hand the testosterone effect remained in the gentle touch response during four generations in the absence of the hormone, indicating that some epigenetic mechanisms could be involved. Sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, was able to abolish the effect of testosterone. In addition, the lasting effect of testosterone was eliminated after the dauer stage. These results suggest that testosterone may impair the nervous system function generating transgenerational epigenetic marks in the genome. This work may provide new paradigms for understanding biological mechanisms involved in ASDs.

  16. The comparison of free androgen index and serum free testosterone levels in women with hirsutism or polycystic ovary syndrome

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    M. Metin Yıldırımkaya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In many laboratories free testosterone can not be measured, so that free androgen index is suggested instead. The aim of this study was to compare free androgen index and serum free testosterone levels measured by radioimmunoassay in women with hirsutism or polycystic ovary syndrome.Materials and methods: Totally 94 women referred to the polyclinics of Ankara Numune Hospital were retrospectively included. Three patient groups were composed; 55 of hirsutism, 20 of polycystic ovary syndrome and 19 of both hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome. Total testosterone and sex hormone binding globuline levels were measured by chemiluminescence method and free testosterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Free androgen index was calculated from total testosterone and sex hormone binding globuline.Results: There was a significant positive correlation between free testosterone and free androgen index in patients with hirsutism, in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, in patients with hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome, and in total patient group [r(hirsutism=0,597, r(PCOS=0,617, r(hirsutism and PCOS=0,779, r(total patient group=0,649, P<0,01].Receiver operating characteristics curves were drawn to assess the diagnostic power of parameters for all patient groups [For hirsutism (n=55 auROC (FT=0,431 auROC (FAI=0,485] [For PCOS (n=20 auROC (FT=0,431 auROC (FAI=0,359] [For hirsutism and PCOS (n=19 auROC (FT=0,676 auROC (FAI=0,669]. In our study, free testosterone and free androgen index were found useful to diagnose ‘hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome’ but not others.Conclusion: Free androgen index can be used instead of free testosterone in hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome for diagnosis. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:152-6

  17. Men Smelling Women: Null Effects of Exposure to Ovulatory Sweat on Men's Testosterone

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    James R. Roney

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Males of many species, humans included, exhibit rapid testosterone increases after exposure to conspecific females. Female chemical stimuli are sufficient to trigger these responses in many nonhuman species, which raises the possibility of similar effects in humans. Recently, Miller and Maner (2010 reported that smelling T-shirts worn by women near ovulation can trigger testosterone responses in men; however, men were aware that they were smelling women's scents, and thus mental imagery associated with that knowledge may have contributed to the hormone responses. Here, we collected axillary sweat samples from women on days near ovulation. In a crossover design, men who were not explicitly aware of the specific stimuli smelled the sweat samples in one session and water samples in a second session. There were no differences in testosterone responses across the experimental conditions. Our null findings suggest that the relevant chemical signal is not found in axillary sweat, and/or that knowledge of the stimulus source is necessary for hormone responses. These results thus suggest boundary conditions for the effects reported in Miller and Maner (2010, and recommend further research to define the precise circumstances under which men's testosterone may respond to chemosensory cues from women.

  18. DHEA and testosterone therapies in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats are associated with thymic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipin, Marina Del Vecchio; Caetano, Leony Cristina; Brazão, Vânia; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Toldo, Míriam Paula Alonso; do Prado, José Clóvis

    2010-08-01

    The ability of the gonadal hormones to influence diverse immunological functions during the course of several infections has been extensively studied in the latest decades. Testosterone has a suppressive effect on immune response of vertebrates and increases susceptibility toward numerous parasitic diseases. Dehydroepiandrosterone is an abundant steroid hormone secreted by the human adrenal cortex and it is considered potent immune-activator. In this paper, it was examined the effects of DHEA and testosterone supplementation in the thymic atrophy in rats infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, by comparing blood parasitism, thymocyte proliferation, TNF-alpha and IL-12 levels. Our data point in the direction that DHEA treatment triggered enhanced thymocyte proliferation as compared to its infected counterparts and reduced production of TNF-alpha during the acute phase of infection. Oppositely, the lowest values for cells proliferation and IL-12 concentrations were reached in testosterone-supplied animals. The combined treatment testosterone and DHEA improves the effectiveness of the host's immune response, reducing blood parasites and the immunosuppressive effects of male androgens besides increasing IL-12 concentrations and decreasing TNF-alpha levels.

  19. Salivary concentrations of cortisol and testosterone and prediction of performance in a professional triathlon competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Cláudio Heitor; Garcia, Marcia Carvalho; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina Celia

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations in professional male athletes during a short triathlon competition using non-invasive methods, and to determine whether these hormone concentrations could be accurate predictors of performance. Eight adult male athletes (age, mean ± SEM: 27.8 ± 3.2 years; body mass index: 21.66 ± 0.42) in a professional triathlon team volunteered to participate in this study. Saliva samples were taken on the competition day and 7 days after competition on a rest day. The performance of the athletes was assessed by their rank order in the competition. Salivary cortisol concentrations were greater on the competition day than on the rest day in the early morning, immediately after waking up, 30 min later, immediately before the start of the competition, and later in the evening. Testosterone concentrations were greater on the competition day in the morning and in the evening. The diurnal rhythm of both cortisol and testosterone concentrations was maintained on both days and the testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C ratio) was similar between days. The performance of the athletes was positively correlated with salivary cortisol concentration in the early morning of the competition day, but was not correlated with testosterone concentrations at any of the time points. In conclusion, early morning salivary cortisol concentration, but not T/C ratio, could be used to predict performance in athletes during a professional triathlon competition.

  20. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Sahar

    2016-04-01

    As testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has emerged as a commonly prescribed therapy for symptomatic low testosterone, conflicting data have been reported in terms of both its efficacy and potential adverse outcomes. One of the most controversial associations has been that of TRT and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review briefly provides background on the history of TRT, the indications for TRT, and the data behind TRT for symptomatic low testosterone. It then specifically delves into the rather limited data for cardiovascular outcomes of those with low endogenous testosterone and those who receive TRT. The available body of literature strongly suggests that more work, by way of clinical trials, needs to be done to better understand the impact of testosterone and TRT on the cardiovascular system.

  1. Relationship between ovarian production of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione and the ovarian degree of stromal hyperplasia in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijmer, AV; Heineman, MJ; Koudstaal, J; Theunissen, PHMH; de Jong, FH; Evers, JLH

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between ovarian production of estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and androstenedione (A) and the ovarian degree of stromal hyperplasia in postmenopausal women. Design: In 18 postmenopausal women, the ovarian vein hormone levels of E1, E2, T, and A we

  2. European Association of Urology Position Statement on the Role of the Urologist in the Management of Male Hypogonadism and Testosterone Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirone, Vincenzo; Debruyne, Frans; Dohle, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Testosterone is a crucial sex hormone important for the health and development of men of all ages. It plays a role in the integrity and maintaining the function of several systems and organs. Testosterone deficiency is linked to a number of signs and symptoms potentially affecting every man in hi...... complexity and masculinity, and is therefore of strong urological interest. For this reason, urologists should attach importance to the need for knowledge, vocational education, and training in this specific area....

  3. Coordination of the cortisol and testosterone responses: A dual axis approach to understanding the response to social status threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Bulent; Tackett, Jennifer L; Lechtreck, Maria T; Browning, Wesley R

    2015-12-01

    For many people, competitions, status challenges, and being evaluated by others result in increases in cortisol as well as testosterone. It is argued that physiological processes work in a coordinated fashion when facing social evaluative-competitive situations. Such a coordinated response may be part of an evolved system, monitoring and responding to threats to one's social status. In two studies, using within-person multi-level analyses, we tested the hypothesis that adult men, pre/early pubertal boys, and pre/early pubertal girls show a coordinated response in cortisol and testosterone (i.e., coupling of cortisol and testosterone responses) during a social evaluative situation. In Study 1, 85 men delivered speeches and performed difficult arithmetic tasks in front of critical evaluators, prepared for a competition, and provided multiple saliva samples throughout the procedure for cortisol and testosterone assays. In Study 2, 79 boys and 74 girls underwent similar procedures as in Study 1. Within-person analyses suggested that cortisol and testosterone responses were indeed positively associated for all three groups (men, boys, and girls). That is, on average a participant's cortisol and testosterone levels tended to rise and fall together throughout the procedure, suggesting that cortisol and testosterone show coordinated activation and deactivation (coupling) during social status threats. Furthermore, men with higher anxiety during the stressor tasks (Study 1; coded by raters from video recordings) and both boys and girls with higher parent reported trait negative affectivity (Study 2) had stronger coupling. Men (Study 1) higher in self-reported trait dominance and verbal dominance (coded by raters from video recordings during the stressor), and lower in basal testosterone had weaker coupling. A coordinated hormone response may have important adaptive functions when dealing with status threats; cortisol can mobilize energy resources and testosterone can

  4. Stress hormones and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Hormone secretion during physical activity of specific duration and intensity is part of the stress response. In a study to investigate the secretion of ß-endorphin, leucine enkephalin and other recognised stress hormones during physical exercise, blood samples were taken from fourteen (14 healthy, male athletes who competed in a 21 km roadrace. Blood samples were collected before and after completion of the race. This study shows that ß-endorphin/ß-lipotropin, leucine enkephalin, prolactin, and melatonin may be classified as stress hormones in physical activity of duration 80 to 120 minutes and intensity exceeding 75%-V0₂max. Widespread intra-individual variation in serum cortisol concentrations prevent definite conclusion. The un­expected increase in serum testosterone levels warrants further research.

  5. Use of parenteral testosterone in hypospadias cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Satav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the effect of parenteral testosterone on penile length, preputial hood, vascularity of dartos pedicle in patients with hypospadias. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 patients with hypospadias were included in this study. Injection aquaviron (oily solution each ml containing testosterone propionate 25 mg was given deep intramuscularly in three doses with an interval of 3 weeks before reconstructive surgery at the dose of 2 mg/kg body weight. Preoperatively penile length, transverse preputial width and diameter at the base of the penis were measured. Basal testosterone levels were obtained before the institution of therapy and on the day of operation. Results: Following parenteral testosterone administration, the mean increase in penile length, transverse preputial width and diameter at the base of penis was 1.01 ± 0.25 cm (P < 0.001, 1.250 ± 0.52 cm and 0.61 ± 0.35 cm, respectively, (P < 0.001. Serum testosterone level after injection was well within normal range for that age. Conclusion: Parenteral testosterone increased phallus size, diameter and prepuce hypertrophy without any adverse effects. However, due to lack of a control group we cannot make any inferences. Controlled studies are required to establish the benefits of parenteral testosterone.

  6. Changes in testosterone concentration in the fetal rabbit testis after removal of the hypothalamus (encephalectomy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proshlyakova, E.V.; Rumyantseva, O.N.; Mitskevich, M.S.

    1986-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to obtain direct data on the role of the hypothalamus in regulation of the adrogen function of the testes in rabbit fetuses. Testosterone was determined by radioimmunoassay. Changes in testostereone concentration in rabbit fetal testis after encephalectomy and after injection of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) into encephalectomized fetuses is shown. Results obtained are evidence that the hypothalamus, pituitary and testes in the rabbit aged 23-25 days of prenatal development constitute a single functional system. It is concluded that in both rabbit and hog fetuses, the hypothalamus begins to regulate pituitary gonadotrophic activity after LHRH can be detected in the hypothalamus itself.

  7. Male patients with terminal renal failure exhibit low serum levels of antimüllerian hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dag Eckersten; Aleksander Giwercman; Anders Christensson

    2015-01-01

    Male reproductive function is impaired during end‑stage renal disease (ESRD). Disturbance of the hypothalamic‑pituitary‑gonadal axis, and therefore the regulation of sex hormones, is one of the major causes. Our focus was to include antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin B concentrations. Twenty male patients on hemodialysis, median age 40 (26–48) years, were analyzed for follicle‑stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, sex hormone‑binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, estradiol, AMH and inhibin B levels. We used 144 proven fertile men, median age 32 (19–44) years as a control group and analyzed differences using multiple linear regression. Males with ESRD demonstrated higher mean values for prolactin, 742 versus normal 210 mIE l−1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 60.3, 729), LH, 8.87 versus normal 4.5 IE l−1 (95% CI: 2.75, 6.14), and estradiol 89.7 versus normal 79.0 pmol l−1 (95% CI: −1.31, −0.15). Mean value for AMH was lower, 19.5 versus normal 47.3 pmol l−1 (95% CI: −37.6,−11.6). There were no differences found for FSH, SHBG, inhibin B and testosterone. The most important difference was found for AMH, a marker of Sertoli cell function in the testes, which decreased by close to 60% when compared with controls. Combined with an increase in LH, these findings may indicate a dysfunction of Sertoli cells and an effect on Leydig cells contributing to a potential mechanism of reproductive dysfunction in men with ESRD.

  8. Hormonal, Physiological, and Physical Performance During Simulated Kickboxing Combat: Differences Between Winners and Losers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouergui, Ibrahim; Davis, Philip; Houcine, Nizar; Marzouki, Hamza; Zaouali, Monia; Franchini, Emerson; Gmada, Nabil; Bouhlel, Ezzedine

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the hormonal, physiological, and physical responses of simulated kickboxing competition and evaluate if there was a difference between winners and losers. Twenty athletes of regional and national level participated in the study (mean ± SD age 21.3 ± 2.7 y, height 170.0 ± 5.0 cm). Hormone (cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone), blood lactate [La], and glucose concentrations, as well as upper-body Wingate test and countermovement-jump (CMJ) performances, were measured before and after combats. Heart rate (HR) was measured throughout rounds 1, 2, and 3 and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was taken after each round. All combats were recorded and analyzed to determine the length of different activity phases (high-intensity, low-intensity, and referee pause) and the frequency of techniques. Hormones, glucose, [La], HR, and RPE increased (all P .05). However, winners executed more jab cross, total punches, roundhouse kicks, total kicks, and total attacking techniques (all P Kickboxing is an intermittent physically demanding sport that induces changes in the stress-related hormones soliciting the anaerobic lactic system. Training should be oriented to enhance kickboxers' anaerobic lactic fitness and their ability to strike at a sufficient rate. Further investigation is needed to identify possible differences in tactical and mental abilities that offer some insight into what makes winners winners.

  9. The salivary testosterone and cortisol response to three loading schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair; Cronin, John; Keogh, Justin; Cook, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This aim of this study was to examine the free hormone (in saliva) responses to squat workouts performed by recreationally weight-trained males, using either a power (8 sets of 6 reps, 45% 1 repetition maximum [1RM], 3-minute rest periods, ballistic movements), hypertrophy (10 sets of 10 reps, 75% 1RM, 2-minute rest periods, controlled movements), or maximal strength scheme (6 sets of 4 reps, 88% 1RM, 4-minute rest periods, explosive intent). To determine the relative importance of the different training variables, these schemes were equated by workout duration with the power and strength schemes also equated by load volume. Salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) both increased following the hypertrophy scheme (P hormonal change across the power and maximal strength schemes (P > 0.05). In general, the postexercise T and C responses to the hypertrophy scheme exceeded the other two schemes (P workout duration may explain the endocrine differences observed. The similar T and C responses to the power and maximal strength schemes (of equal volume) support such a view and suggest that differences in load intensity, rest periods, and technique are secondary to volume. Because the acute hormonal responses to resistance exercise contribute to protein metabolism, then load volume may be the most important workout variable activating the endocrine system and stimulating muscle growth.

  10. Influence of combined estradiol and testosterone implants on the aggressiveness of nonaggressive female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1993-04-01

    Female rats that had been cohabiting with a sterile male or with another female for 6 weeks were tested for aggression toward an unfamiliar female once each week for 3 weeks. Females that were not aggressive as a result of cohabitation with a sterile male were ovariectomized. Half were implanted with a Silastic tube containing estradiol (1 mm long hormone-filled space) and a tube containing testosterone (5 mm long hormone-filled space). The other half were implanted with empty tubes. All females that had been cohabiting with another female were ovariectomized and implanted with an estradiol- and a testosterone-filled tube. Three additional weekly tests of aggression were given beginning 1 week postoperatively. Females given hormone replacement displayed only a slight increase in aggression postoperatively. Females not given hormone replacement declined in aggressiveness. These results indicate that hormone replacement levels sufficient to maintain aggression in highly aggressive females following ovariectomy are not sufficient to produce a high level of aggression in females that have not become aggressive following cohabitation with a sterile male or that have been cohabiting with another female.

  11. [Acne and hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Michel

    2002-04-15

    Androgens stimulate sebum production which is necessary for the development of acne. Acne in women may thus be considered as a manifestation of cutaneous androgenization. Most of acnes may be related to an idiopathic skin hyperandrogenism due to in situ enzyme activity and androgen receptor hypersensitivity, as also noted in idiopathic hirsutism. Some acne may correspond to elevated ovarian or adrenal androgen secretion. The presence of acne in women may lead to a diagnosis of functional hyperandrogenism, either polycysticovary syndrome or nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Plasma level assays for testosterone, delta 4 androstenedione and 17-OH progesterone and ovarian echography are necessary to determine the possibility for an ovarian or adrenal hyperandrogenism, but not to better treat acne. The goal of hormonal therapy in acne is to oppose the effects of androgens on the sebaceous gland. Hormones may be used in female acne in the absence of endocrine abnormalities. Antiandrogens (cyproterone acetate or aldactone) may be useful in severe acne, hormonal contraceptives with cyproterone acetate or non androgenic progestins in mild or common acne often in association with other anti-acneic drugs. Glucocorticoids have to be administered in acne fulminans and other forms of acute, severe, inflammatory acne, for their anti-inflammatory properties.

  12. Testosterone therapy has positive effects on anthropometric measures, metabolic syndrome components (obesity, lipid profile, Diabetes Mellitus control), blood indices, liver enzymes, and prostate health indicators in elderly hypogonadal men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canguven, O; Talib, R A; El Ansari, W; Yassin, D-J; Salman, M; Al-Ansari, A

    2017-03-10

    To alleviate late-onset hypogonadism, testosterone treatment is offered to suitable patients. Although testosterone treatment is commonly given to late-onset hypogonadism patients, there remains uncertainty about the metabolic effects during follow-ups. We assessed the associations between testosterone treatment and wide range of characteristics that included hormonal, anthropometric, biochemical features. Patients received intramuscular 1,000 mg testosterone undecanoate for 1 year. Patient anthropometric measurements were undertaken at baseline and at each visit, and blood samples were drawn at each visit, prior to the next testosterone undecanoate. Eighty-eight patients (51.1 ± 13.0 years) completed the follow-up period. Testosterone treatment was associated with significant increase in serum testosterone levels and significant stepladder decrease in body mass index, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glycated haemoglobin from baseline values among all patients. There was no significant increase in liver enzymes. There was an increase in haemoglobin and haematocrit, as well as in prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume, but no prostate biopsy intervention was needed for study patients during 1-year testosterone treatment follow-up. Testosterone treatment with long-acting testosterone undecanoate improved the constituents of metabolic syndrome and improved glycated haemoglobin in a stepladder fashion, with no adverse effects.

  13. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas [Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Lidfeldt, Jonas [Department of Community Health, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö (Sweden); Samsioe, Göran [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Halldin, Krister [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Åkesson, Agneta, E-mail: agneta.akesson@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-10-15

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.

  14. Neonatal testosterone suppresses a neuroendocrine pulse generator required for reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Jean-Marc; Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Le Masson, Gwendal; Oliet, Stéphane H.; Ciofi, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    The pituitary gland releases hormones in a pulsatile fashion guaranteeing signalling efficiency. The determinants of pulsatility are poorly circumscribed. Here we show in magnocellular hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal oxytocin (OT) neurons that the bursting activity underlying the neurohormonal pulses necessary for parturition and the milk-ejection reflex is entirely driven by a female-specific central pattern generator (CPG). Surprisingly, this CPG is active in both male and female neonates, but is inactivated in males after the first week of life. CPG activity can be restored in males by orchidectomy or silenced in females by exogenous testosterone. This steroid effect is aromatase and caspase dependent, and is mediated via oestrogen receptor-α. This indicates the apoptosis of the CPG network during hypothalamic sexual differentiation, explaining why OT neurons do not burst in adult males. This supports the view that stereotypic neuroendocrine pulsatility is governed by CPGs, some of which are subjected to gender-specific perinatal programming.

  15. Testosterone treatment fails to accelerate disease in a transgenic mouse model of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica S. Chevalier-Larsen

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from multiple animal models demonstrates that testosterone plays a crucial role in the progression of symptoms in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA, a condition that results in neurodegeneration and muscle atrophy in affected men. Mice bearing a transgene encoding a human androgen receptor (AR that contains a stretch of 112 glutamines (expanded polyglutamine tract; AR112Q mice reproduce several aspects of the human disease. We treated transgenic male AR112Q mice with testosterone for 6 months. Surprisingly, testosterone treatment of AR112Q males did not exacerbate the disease. Although transgenic AR112Q males exhibited functional deficits when compared with non-transgenics, long-term testosterone treatment had no effect on motor function. Testosterone treatment also failed to affect cellular markers of disease, including inclusion formation (the accumulation of large nuclear aggregates of mutant AR protein and levels of unphosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain. These data suggest that the mechanism of disease in SBMA saturates at close to endogenous hormone levels and that individuals with SBMA who take, or have taken, testosterone for its putative therapeutic properties are unlikely to suffer adverse effects.

  16. Relationship between midweek training measures of testosterone and cortisol concentrations and game outcome in professional rugby union matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviglio, Christopher M; Cook, Christian J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the response of salivary-free testosterone and cortisol concentrations across selected midweek skill-based training sessions and their association with subsequent match outcome 3 days later. Twenty-two rugby union players were assessed for salivary-free testosterone and cortisol concentrations before and after a midweek training session over 6 consecutive weeks. The relative percentage change (response) in the testosterone and cortisol concentration and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio was also determined. Game-day analysis consisted of prematch testosterone concentrations and match outcome. Data were pooled across the winning (n = 3) and losing (n = 3) outcomes. The midweek pretraining T/C ratio was significantly lower (p 0.01). Significant relationships were also demonstrated between game-day pre-testosterone concentrations and the midweek cortisol response (r = -0.90, p = 0.01) and midweek T/C ratio response (r = 0.90, p = 0.01). In conclusion, a midweek measurement of the T/C ratio against a skill-based training session seems to show some potential as an early indicator of subsequent successfully executed performances in competitive rugby union. If this work is subsequently validated, further monitoring of midweek hormone concentrations in response to a mixed psychological-physical training session may assist with assessing competitive readiness leading up to competition.

  17. Circulating microRNA-122 as Potential Biomarker for Detection of Testosterone Abuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Salamin

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and thus influence many cellular and physiological processes. miRNAs are also present in cell-free body fluids such as plasma or serum, and these circulating miRNAs are very stable, sensitive, and specific biomarkers of pathophysiological states. In this study, we investigated whether circulating miRNAs could serve as biomarkers of exogenous testosterone administration. Misuse of testosterone as a performance-enhancing drug is thought to be widespread in sports. Detection of testosterone through the urinary steroid profile of the Athlete Biological Passport faces several obstacles, indicating that new biomarkers are required. To this end, we analyzed plasma miRNA levels by high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR. Plasma samples were obtained before and at several time points after transdermal and oral testosterone administration. Screening identified three potential candidate miRNAs that were altered by both routes of testosterone administration. Longitudinal monitoring of these candidates revealed that variation in two of them (miR-150 and miR-342, relative to the corresponding levels in control samples, was testosterone-independent. However, levels of the liver-specific miR-122 increased 3.5-fold 1 day after drug intake. Given that testosterone is metabolized by the liver, this observation suggests that miR-122 in cell-free fluids may be used as a sensitive biomarker of testosterone misuse via multiple dosing routes and could therefore be integrated into a blood-based multiparametric follow-up.

  18. A Review of Testosterone Pellets in the Treatment of Hypogonadism

    OpenAIRE

    McCullough, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the most popular form of testosterone replacement is the topical gels that require daily applications and incur a risk of transfer of testosterone to partners and family. One of the problems with testosterone replacement is the short half-life of testosterone. A long-acting formulation is appealing to patients and physicians. In 1972, fused crystalline testosterone pellets were approved in the USA by the FDA but they were not marketed until 2008. Pharmacokinetics studies were avail...

  19. Serum Testosterone Levels in Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnani, Prem D.; Dwyer, Margretta

    1986-01-01

    Reports that with the increase in diagnosis of offenders across the nation, physicians and psychiatric personnel need to be aware of low testosterone as a possible indicator of hypo-sexuality and possible concurrent offending behavior. (Author/ABB)

  20. Sex steroid hormones in barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) populations at a dioxin contaminated site in northeast Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study compares the gonadal sex steroid hormone levels (i.e., estradiol, total estrogen, and testosterone) in Louisiana barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) that were...

  1. Intranasal delivery of Natesto® testosterone gel and its effects on doping markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geoffrey D; Nair, Vinod; Morrison, M Scott; Summers, Maggie; Willick, Stuart E; Eichner, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    The laboratory profile of intranasal testosterone gel has not been previously reported from an anti-doping perspective. Because intranasal testosterone gel is newly available as a commercial product, we sought to examine the laboratory parameters following administration of this formulation, with particular attention to anti-doping guidelines. Five healthy and active male subjects were administered testosterone intranasal gel three times daily for four weeks, using a pattern of five consecutive days on, two days off. Urine was collected after each five-day round of drug administration and analyzed using a full steroid screen and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Windows of detection for elevated testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) and other steroid ratios, World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) athlete biological passport (ABP) findings, and IRMS results were analyzed in this study. In the 0-24 h window post-administration, 70% of samples were flagged with a suspicious steroid profile and 85% were flagged as atypical passport findings according to the WADA ABP steroid module. In the 24-48 h window, 0% of samples displayed suspicious steroid profiles while 40% resulted in atypical passport findings. IRMS testing confirmed the presence of exogenous testosterone in 90% and 40% of samples in the 0-24 h and 24-48 h windows post-administration, respectively. Additionally, IRMS data were analyzed to determine commonalities in the population changes in δ(13) C values of testosterone, androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5αAdiol, and 5βAdiol. Though no discernible metabolic trend of the route of administration was identified, we discovered that intranasal gel testosterone is detectable using conventional anti-doping tests. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Testosterone replacement therapy for older men

    OpenAIRE

    Borst, S E

    2008-01-01

    Stephen E Borst, Thomas MulliganGeriatrics Research, Education, and Clinical Center, North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Despite intensive research on testosterone therapy for older men, important questions remain unanswered. The evidence clearly indicates that many older men display a partial androgen deficiency. In older men, low circulating testosterone is correlated with low muscle strength, with high adiposity, with insulin resistance and wit...

  3. Testosterone replacement therapy for older men

    OpenAIRE

    Borst, Stephen E.; Thomas Mulligan

    2007-01-01

    Stephen E Borst, Thomas MulliganGeriatrics Research, Education, and Clinical Center, North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Despite intensive research on testosterone therapy for older men, important questions remain unanswered. The evidence clearly indicates that many older men display a partial androgen deficiency. In older men, low circulating testosterone is correlated with low muscle strength, with high adiposity, with insulin resistance and wit...

  4. Serum testosterone levels of HbSS (sickle cell disease male subjects in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adediran Adewumi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility is a major problem in sickle cell disease patients, especially in males. In addition to low serum testosterone, other abnormalities involving the accessory sex organs, such as the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland, as well as marked decrease in ejaculate volume may be observed in male HbSS patients. Hence, the need to study the role of sex hormones as a cause of infertility in male HbSS patients. Methods An unmatched case-control study was performed using seventy-five consenting subjects from Lagos University Teaching Hospital. These included 47 patients with haemoglobin phenotype SS from the Sickle cell clinic and 28 volunteered medical students and members of staff with haemoglobin phenotype AA. Demographic data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 5 mls of blood was collected from each subject between 9.00 am & 11.am, and assayed for serum testosterone concentration. Results The concentrations of serum testosterone in HbSS patients ranged from 0.2 to 4.3 ng/ml with a mean of 1.28 ± 0.72 ng/ml whilst the values in HbAA controls ranged from 1.2 to 6.9 ng/ml with a mean of 2.63 ± 1.04 ng/ml. Seven (25.0% of the 28 controls had serum testosterone concentration lower than the quoted reference (normal range whereas 44 (93.6% of the 47 HbSS subjects had serum testosterone concentration lower than the reference range. Conclusion Overall, subjects with HbSS have significantly lower mean serum testosterone than HbAA controls.

  5. Effects of competition outcome on testosterone concentrations in humans: An updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniole, Shawn N; Bird, Brian M; Ruddick, Erika L; Carré, Justin M

    2016-10-06

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. Since Archer's (2006) influential meta-analysis, there has been a major increase in the number of studies investigating the effect of competition outcome on testosterone reactivity patterns in humans. Despite this increased research output, there remains debate as to whether competition outcome modulates testosterone concentrations. The present paper examines this question using a meta-analytic approach including papers published over the last 35years. Moreover, it provides the first meta-analytic estimate of the effect of competition outcome on testosterone concentrations in women. Results from a meta-analysis involving 60 effect sizes and >2500 participants indicated that winners of a competition demonstrated a larger increase in testosterone concentrations relative to losers (D=0.20)-an effect that was highly heterogeneous. This 'winner-loser' effect was most robust in studies conducted outside the lab (e.g., in sport venues) (D=0.43); for studies conducted in the lab, the effect of competition outcome on testosterone reactivity patterns was relatively weak (D=0.08), and only found in studies of men (D=0.15; in women: D=-0.04). Further, the 'winner-loser' effect was stronger among studies in which pre-competition testosterone was sampled earlier than (D=0.38, after trim and fill correction) rather than within (D=0.09) 10min of the start of the competition. Therefore, these results also provide important insight regarding study design and methodology, and will be a valuable resource for researchers conducting subsequent studies on the 'winner loser' effect.

  6. Testicular and serum testosterone variations in squirrel monkeys during seasonal cyclicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, T; Colillas, O; Rivarola, M A

    1986-01-01

    The seasonal testicular maturation of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) was used as a model of maturational hormonal regulation of the testis. Testicular testosterone and serum testosterone concentrations were determined during the circannual variations of body weight and testicular volume. These data have been correlated with changes in the germinal epithelium. According to individual weight curves and time of the year, the monkeys were divided into five groups: group A1, maximal weight, April-May; A2, July; A3, November; A4, minimal weight, February-March; and A5, March-April. Variations in testicular volume followed very closely variations in body weight. Sexual activity started at A1 and persisted in A2. A marked drop in the mean width of the germinal epithelium and the diameters of the seminiferous tubules was observed in A3, followed by a recovery during A4 and A5. Testicular testosterone showed two annual elevations. The first peak, 3.91 +/- 0.31 micrograms/g (mean +/- SE), coincided with the serum testosterone peak when body weight and testicular volume were high and the trophic response of the germinal epithelium was complete. The second peak reached levels of 5.21 +/- 1.48 micrograms/g and was observed before the reinitiation of spermatogenesis. This was accompanied by a moderate increase in serum testosterone. The second peak of testicular testosterone, which has been reported to occur in the rat and in humans, might represent a local androgen need for initiation of spermatogenesis, while the first peak might represent the androgen need for full stimulation of spermatogenesis.

  7. Serum testosterone and progesterone levels and ovarian activity as indicators for seasonal breeding in dromedary camels in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiker, E. A,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work was done to investigate the effect of season on level of testosterone, progesterone hormone and ovarian activity in Arabian dromedary camels. Over a period of one year (July 2009–June 2010, jugular blood samples were collected monthly from 7 mature male camels and 12 females at late pregnancy to detect the levels of testosterone and progesterone hormones. A total of 900 ovarian follicles were measured in the slaughterhouses of Tamboul and Um-Elgura to define the effect of season on ovarian activity. The obtained results showed that plasma testosterone levels greatly varied among months of the year. It increased during July and August and decreased during the period from September to February. The level started to increase again during March and remained high until the end of the study in June. Plasma progesterone level was high during July, while it dropped at parturition during August. The level of progesterone remained low during the period from September to February, before it started to rise again in March and remained high until the end of the study in June. The rise of progesterone level in females coincided with the rise of testosterone in males. Ovarian activity was observed throughout the different seasons with a maximum activity during autumn. According to the hormonal findings and ovarian activity, there is a clear breeding season in Arabian dromedary camel in the Butana area, northeast of Sudan extending throughout summer (March – June and autumn (July–October.

  8. Teeth, sex, and testosterone: aging in the world's smallest primate.

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    Sarah Zohdy

    Full Text Available Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp. are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus from 2003-2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1-8, mean = 2.59 ± 1.63 SE, three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus. Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can

  9. Testosterone deficiency and cardiovascular mortality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abraham Morgentaler

    2015-01-01

    New concerns have been raised regarding cardiovascular (CV) risks with testosterone (T) therapy (TTh). These concerns are based primarily on two widely reported retrospective studies. However, methodological flaws and data errors invalidate both studies as credible evidence of risk. One showed reduced adverse events by half in T‑treated men but reversed this result using an unproven statistical approach. The authors subsequently acknowledged serious data errors including nearly 10% contamination of the dataset by women. The second study mistakenly used the rate of T prescriptions written by healthcare providers to men with recent myocardial infarction (MI) as a proxy for the naturally occurring rate of MI. Numerous studies suggest T is beneficial, including decreased mortality in association with TTh, reduced MI rate with TTh in men with the greatest MI risk prognosis, and reduced CV and overall mortality with higher serum levels of endogenous T. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated benefits of TTh in men with coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. Improvement in CV risk factors such as fat mass and glycemic control have been repeatedly demonstrated in T‑deficient men treated with T. The current evidence does not support the belief that TTh is associated with increased CV risk or CV mortality. On the contrary, a wealth of evidence accumulated over several decades suggests that low serum T levels are associated with increased risk and that higher endogenous T, as well as TTh itself, appear to be beneficial for CV mortality and risk.

  10. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to acute psychosocial stress: Effects of biological sex and circulating sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mary Ann C; Mahon, Pamela B; McCaul, Mary E; Wand, Gary S

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences the risk for developing stress-related disorders. Sex-dependent differences in the HPA axis stress response are believed to contribute to the different prevalence rates of stress-related disorders found in men and women. However, studies examining the HPA axis stress response have shown mixed support for sex differences, and the role of endogenous sex hormones on HPA axis response has not been adequately examined in humans. This study utilized the largest sample size to date to analyze the effects of biological sex and sex hormones on HPA axis social stress responses. Healthy, 18- to 30- year-old community volunteers (N=282) completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a widely used and well-validated stress-induction laboratory procedure. All women (n=135) were tested during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (when progesterone levels are most similar to men). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measures were collected at multiple points throughout pre- and post-TSST. Testosterone and progesterone (in men) and progesterone and estradiol (in women) were determined pre-TSST. Following the TSST, men had greater ACTH and cortisol levels than women. Men had steeper baseline-to-peak and peak-to-end ACTH and cortisol response slopes than women; there was a trend for more cortisol responders among men than women. Testosterone negatively correlated with salivary cortisol response in men, while progesterone negatively correlated with ACTH and cortisol responses in women. These data confirm that men show more robust activation of the HPA axis response to the TSST than do women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Testosterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in men. Progesterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in women. Future work is needed to explain why men mount a greater ACTH and cortisol response to the

  11. Serum levels of eleven steroid hormones following motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalla, G K; Doerr, H G; Bidlingmaier, F; Sippel, W G; von Restorff, W

    1985-10-01

    In order to grade motion sickness objectively, the following 11 adrenal hormones were investigated in subjects with different motion sickness susceptibility: Aldosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, progesterone, 17-OH-progesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, cortisone, testosterone, androstendione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Motion sickness was induced by the coriolis effect on a rotary chair. Both severe kinetosis after short rotation time and mild motion sickness after 30 min of rotation occurred together with small hormonal changes. Androstendione and 11-deoxycortisol appear to be sensitive indicators of motion sickness if the rotation time is taken into consideration. A significant increase of all hormones except progesterone, cortisone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was observed when pronounced malaise had come after a long rotation stress (24.6 min). The changes in plasma aldosterone concentration appeared to correlate with time only. The present study demonstrates that hormonal analysis can be helpful in estimating the degree of motion sickness.

  12. Organon OD 14 (tibolone) and menopausal dynamic hormone profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, H I; Hart, D M; Lindsay, R; Beastall, G H

    1986-03-01

    Hormonal profiles were studied in 15 post-menopausal women, 7 of whom had been treated with Organon OD 14 (Tibolone) and 8 with placebo tablets for 3 yr. In the Tibolone-treated group, the sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were significantly lower, while the estimated free testosterone levels, the testosterone/SHBG ratio and the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) response to thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) were significantly higher than in the placebo group. Prolactin and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were lower in the actively treated group, although the differences were not statistically significant. No significant differences were observed with respect to thyroxine (T4), TSH, basal cortisol or cortisol response to synacthen.

  13. The effects of testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 on motor system form and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Kentaro; Law, Timothy D; Loucks, Anne B; Clark, Brian C

    2015-04-01

    In this perspective article, we review the effects of selected anabolic hormones on the motoric system and speculate on the role these hormones may have on influencing muscle and physical function via their impact on the nervous system. Both muscle strength and anabolic hormone levels decline around middle age into old age over a similar time period, and several animal and human studies indicate that exogenously increasing anabolic hormones (e.g., testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)) in aged subjects is positively associated with improved muscle strength. While most studies in humans have focused on the effects of anabolic hormones on muscle growth, few have considered the impact these hormones have on the motoric system. However, data from animals demonstrate that administering either testosterone or IGF-1 to cells of the central and peripheral motor system can increase cell excitability, attenuate atrophic changes, and improve regenerative capacity of motor neurons. While these studies do not directly indicate that changes in anabolic hormones contribute to reduced human performance in the elderly (e.g., muscle weakness and physical limitations), they do suggest that additional research is warranted along these lines.

  14. Honey and Vitamin E Restore the Plasma Level of Gonadal Hormones and Improve the Fertilization Capacity in Noise-Stressed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajabzadeh Asghar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Noise as a natural teratogenic factor affects the body systems including the reproductive organ to reduce the fertility rate and fetus health. Honey and vitamin E as natural antioxidants protects the sperm released from the reproductive system. This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of honey and vitamin E on fertilization capacity in noise-exposed rats by assessing plasma sexual hormones levels i.e., follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, and testosterone, altered in relation with noise stress. Materials and Methods: This study was targeted the 24 male rats that randomly were divided into four equal groups including one control group (unexposed to noise stress and three experimental groups pre-induced with noise stress for 50 days and then divided as: no treated, honey and vitamin E treated groups, respectively. Then, the blood samples of experimental and control groups were taken, and the serum level of the sexual hormones was analyzed. Finally, to investigate the fertility capacity of rats, the male rats of all groups were coupled with the female ones. Results: Our results showed that FSH and LH level in noise stressed male rats raised, and the testosterone secretion decreased compared to the control group. Moreover, noise stress injury could reduce weight and the survival rate of the fetus. However, the honey and vitamin E improved the testosterone concentration, declined the plasma FSH and LH level in noise - exposed rats and enhanced the fertility rate. Conclusion: These findings may also spell out a natural curative approach rather than pharmaceutical drugs to optimize of neuroendocrine gonadal axis and testicular integrity induced by pathogenesis stress, i.e., noise and enhance the male fertility capacity.

  15. Preparation and in vitro characterization of slow release testosterone nanocapsules in alginates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Benoy Brata; Sa, Biswanath; Mukherjee, Arup

    2006-12-01

    Slow release testosterone-loaded nanocapsules in alginate, biodegradable hydropolymer, were prepared by in situ nanoemulsion-polymer crosslinking approach. Different formulations varying in the drug loading solvent phase were prepared. Four different drug-loading solvents were assayed and the food grade hexane provided nanocapsules testosterone load of 30%. Testosterone loading was confirmed by FT-IR, DSC and quantitated by HPLC. Prepared nanocapsules appeared spherical with a dense drug core in transmission electron microscopy studies. Hydrodynamic diameter of nanocapsules was 34.5 +/- 1.7 nm, with a Gaussian distribution and the zeta potential -5.0 meV. Sustained diffusive drug release was observed in vitro, following zero order kinetics releasing the drug payload over a period of 48 hours. Embedding testosterone in alginate provided sustained release. Different drug loading solvents have distinct influence on drug loading and nanocapsules size distribution. The nanocapsulation technique developed can be a good choice for the development of different sustained steroid hormonal drug carriers.

  16. Pengaruh Tepung Teripang Pasir (Holothuria Scabra Terhadap Perilaku Seksual dan Kadar Testosteron Darah Mencit (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarifah Nurjanah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber is generally believed as a natural material that can be used as a tonic food to increase man vitality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sandfish powder on sexual behavior and blood testosterone level of male mice. Method applied in the study was laboratory experimental method. Mature male mice were treated with administration of sandfish powder with three dosage rate of steroid content (10, 30 and 50 ìg/100 g body weight during 12 days, whereas for control treatment were without hormone administration and with the metil testosterone administration. Parameters that were investigated were kissing vagina and mounting for sexual behavior and the blood testosterone level of male mice. It was found that administration of sandfish powder significantly give effect on the number of kissing vagina and mounting compared to control. Administration of 10 ìg/100 g body weight on male mice showed the highest sexual behavior with 25 kissing vagina for and 6 mounting for 30 minutes. Moreover, administration of sandfish powder increased the testosterone level in the male mice blood. This may due to the steroid contained in sandfish powder and nutrition value that increase mice libido. The study proved that the sandfish powder has a potential as a nature aphrodisiac.

  17. The hormonal control of begging and early aggressive behavior : Experiments in black-headed gull chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, TGG; Ros, AFH; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    The hormonal control of begging and sibling competition is largely unknown, but recent evidence suggests a role for steroid hormones. We tested the influence of the aromatizable androgen testosterone (T), the non-aromatizable androgen 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and 17 beta-estradiol (E) on b

  18. FATE OF SEX HORMONES IN TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS: CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate of seven sex hormones (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone) was determined in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment plants operated under conventional loading conditions. The levels of hormon...

  19. Validation of an enzyme-immunoassay for the non-invasive monitoring of faecal testosterone metabolites in male cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribbenow, Susanne; Wachter, Bettina; Ludwig, Carsten; Weigold, Annika; Dehnhard, Martin

    2016-03-01

    In mammals, the sex hormone testosterone is the major endocrine variable to objectify testicular activity and thus reproductive function in males. Testosterone is involved in the development and function of male reproductive physiology and sex-related behaviour. The development of a reliable androgen enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) to monitor faecal testosterone metabolites (fTM) is a powerful tool to non-invasively assess the gonadal status of males. We validated an epiandrosterone EIA for male cheetahs by performing a testosterone radiometabolism study followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses and excluding possible cross-reactivities with androgenic metabolites not derived from testosterone metabolism. The physiological and biological relevance of the epiandrosterone EIA was validated by demonstrating (1) a significant increase in fTM concentrations within one day in response to a testosterone injection, (2) a significant increase in fTM concentrations within one day in response to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injection, which failed following a placebo injection, and (3) significant differences in fTM concentrations between adult male and adult female cheetahs and between adult and juvenile male cheetahs of a free-ranging population. Finally, we demonstrated stability of fTM concentrations measured in faecal samples exposed to ambient temperatures up to 72h. Our results clearly demonstrate that the epiandrosterone EIA is a reliable non-invasive method to monitor testicular activity in male cheetahs.

  20. Determination of SHBG-bound sex hormones by selective ammonium sulphate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, T; Monaco, E M; Hähnel, R

    1981-03-05

    This paper describes a direct method for determining sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG)-bound sex hormones in human plasma after separation of SHBG-bound and unbound hormone fractions by selective precipitation with ammonium sulphate. In normal women variations in SHBG-bound and -free hormone generally paralleled fluctuations in total hormone. Changes in SHBG-free estradiol did not have any marked effect on plasma SHBG and sHBG-free testosterone. Our results suggest a buffer role for SHBG through which the biological response to sudden changes in sex hormone concentration is moderated.

  1. Effect of sodium arsenite on spermatogenesis,plasma gonadotrophins and testosterone in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MahitoshSarkar; GargiRayChaudhuri; AlokeChattopadhyay; NarendraMohanBiswas

    2003-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effect of arsenic on spermatogenesis.Methods:Mature(4 months old)Wistar rats were intraperitoneally administered sodium arsenite at doses of 4,5 or 6mg·kg-1·day-1 for 26 days.Different varieties of germ cells at stage Ⅶ seminiferous epithelium cycle,namely,type A spermatogonia(ASg),preleptotene spermatocytes(pLSc),midpachytene spermatocytes(mPSc) and step 7 spermatids(7Sd) were quantitatively evaluated, along with radioimmunoassay of plasma follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH),lutuneizing hormone(LH),testosterone and assessment of the epididymal sperm count.Results:In the 5 and 6 mg/kg groups,there were significant dosedependent decreases in the accessory sex organ weights,epididymal sperm count and plasma concentrations of LH,FSH and testosterone with massive degeneration of all the germ cells at stage Ⅶ,The changes were insignificant in the 4 mg/kg group.Conclusion:Arsenite has a suppressive influence on spermatogenesis and gonadotrophin and testosterone release in rats.

  2. Serum testosterone and gonadotropins levels in patients with premature ejaculation: A comparison with normal men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Mohammad G.; Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Alizadeh, Farshid; Rangzan, Nazir

    2014-01-01

    Background: To investigate the role of testosterone (T) in the pathogenesis of ejaculatory symptoms, particularly premature ejaculation (PE). Materials and Methods: A total of 41 male patients with PE as well as 41 controls with no sexual dysfunction were recruited in this cross-sectional study. We used the stopwatch measurement to monitor the intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Patients with mean IELT values lower than 60 s were considered to have PE. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were measured in patients as well as controls. Patients with thyroid dysfunction, hypogonadism, hypertension and dyslipidemia were excluded from the study. Results: The serum levels of FT and FSH were significantly higher in cases (P = 0.036 and 0.003, respectively). There was no significant difference between TT, LH and PRL levels of the two groups. Conclusion: Patients with PE have higher FT and FSH levels compared with normal men. The causative relationship between these entities and also the clinical importance of this finding has to be determined by more comprehensive studies. PMID:24592360

  3. Developmental programming: contribution of prenatal androgen and estrogen to estradiol feedback systems and periovulatory hormonal dynamics in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Astapova, Olga I; Aizenberg, Esther F; Lee, James S; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2009-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess leads to neuroendocrine and periovulatory disruptions in the offspring culminating in progressive loss of cyclicity. It is unknown whether the mediary of these disruptions is androgen or estrogen, because testosterone can be aromatized to estrogen. Taking a reproductive life span approach of studying control, prenatal testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone-treated offspring, this study tested the hypothesis that disruptions in estradiol-negative but not -positive feedback effects are programmed by androgenic actions of testosterone and that these disruptions in turn will have an impact on the periovulatory hormonal dynamics. The approach was to test estradiol-negative and -positive feedback responses of all three groups of ovary-intact females during prepubertal age and then compare the periovulatory dynamics of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during the first breeding season. The findings show that estradiol-negative but not estradiol-positive feedback disruptions in prenatal testosterone-treated females are programmed by androgenic actions of prenatal testosterone excess and that follicular phase estradiol and gonadotropins surge disruptions during reproductive life are consistent with estrogenic programming. Additional studies carried out testing estradiol-positive feedback response over time found progressive deterioration of estradiol-positive feedback in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep until the time of puberty. Together, these findings provide insight into the mechanisms by which prenatal testosterone disrupts the reproductive axis. The findings may be of translational relevance since daughters of mothers with hyperandrogenism are at risk of increased exposure to androgens.

  4. High serum testosterone levels are associated with excessive erythrocytosis of chronic mountain sickness in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Gasco, Manuel; Tapia, Vilma; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (EE) secondary to hypoventilation. Erythropoietin (Epo) and testosterone regulate erythrocyte production. Low thyroid hormone levels are also associated to hypoventilation. Hence, these hormones can play a role in etiopathogeny of EE. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of sexual and thyroid hormones and Epo in residents from Lima (150 m) and Cerro de Pasco (4,340 m), Peru, and the response to human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation (hCG). Three groups, one at low altitude and two at high altitude [1 with hemoglobin values >16–21 g/dl and the second with Hb ≥21 g/dl (EE)], were studied. hCG was administered intramuscularly in a single dose (1,000 IU), and blood samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after injection. High-altitude natives present similar levels of gonadotropins and thyroid hormones but lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels (P < 0.01) and greater Epo (P < 0.01), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (P < 0.01), and testosterone levels (P < 0.01) than those at 150 m. Serum testosterone levels (524.13 ± 55.91 μg/dl vs. 328.14 ± 53.23 ng/dl, means ± SE; P < 0.05) and testosterone/DHEAS ratios are higher (7.98 ± 1.1 vs. 3.65 ± 1.1; P < 0.01) and DHEAS levels lower in the EE group (83.85 ± 14.60 μg/dl vs. 148.95 ± 19.11 ug/dl; P < 0.05), whereas Epo was not further affected. Testosterone levels were highest and DHEAS levels lowest in the EE group at all times after hCG stimulation. In conclusion, high androgen activity could be involved in the etiopathogeny of CMS. This evidence provides an opportunity to develop new therapeutic strategies. PMID:19318512

  5. Transdermal testosterone replacement therapy in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullah MI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available M Iftekhar Ullah,1 Daniel M Riche,1,2 Christian A Koch1,31Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, The University of Mississippi, 3GV (Sonny Montgomery VA Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USAAbstract: Androgen deficiency syndrome in men is a frequently diagnosed condition associated with clinical symptoms including fatigue, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Serum testosterone concentrations decline steadily with age. The prevalence of androgen deficiency syndrome in men varies depending on the age group, known and unknown comorbidities, and the respective study group. Reported prevalence rates may be underestimated, as not every man with symptoms of androgen deficiency seeks treatment. Additionally, men reporting symptoms of androgen deficiency may not be correctly diagnosed due to the vagueness of the symptom quality. The treatment of androgen deficiency syndrome or male hypogonadism may sometimes be difficult due to various reasons. There is no consensus as to when to start treating a respective man or with regards to the best treatment option for an individual patient. There is also lack of familiarity with treatment options among general practitioners. The formulations currently available on the market are generally expensive and dose adjustment protocols for each differ. All these factors add to the complexity of testosterone replacement therapy. In this article we will discuss the general indications of transdermal testosterone replacement therapy, available formulations, dosage, application sites, and recommended titration schedule.Keywords: hypogonadism, transdermal, testosterone, sexual function, testosterone replacement therapy, estradiol

  6. Testosterone replacement therapy in obese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewa, Tomasz; Olszewska-Słonina, Dorota; Chlosta, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Controversy surrounds testosterone replacement therapy in obese ageing due to no generally accepted lower limits of normal testosterone level and high prevalence of hypogonadal symptoms in the ageing male population and the non-specific nature of these symptoms. Late onset hypogonadism is a clinical and biochemical syndrome associated with advancing age, often coexisting with obesity and metabolic syndrome. High fat and carbohydrates (fructose) consumption is responsible for development of obesity and metabolic syndrome which is one of risk factors for hypogonadism in older men. High fructose intake has been shown to cause dyslipidemia and to impair hepatic insulin sensitivity. Obesity and lack of physical activity negatively influence testosterone level. Low testosterone level should be regarded as an effect of obesity, but reverse relationship has not been proved yet. The management of late-onset hypogonadism symptoms has to be treated by a change of a life style and prevented with healthy nutrition and physical activity. The question related to rational indications for testosterone replacement therapy in obese males seems to be still actual.

  7. Prenatal Testosterone and Preschool Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bethan A; Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposure to testosterone measured indirectly via right 2D:4D finger-length ratios. The study sample consisted of 109 preschool-age children between ages 3 and 6 (64% males;72% with DBD) and their primary caregivers. Primary caregivers completed a semi-structured interview (i.e., Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule), as well as symptom questionnaires (i.e., Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, Peer Conflict Scale); teachers and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires and children provided measures of prenatal testosterone exposure, measured indirectly via finger-length ratios (i.e., right 2D:4D). Study results indicated a significant association of high prenatal testosterone (i.e., smaller right 2D:4D) with high hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms in girls but not boys, suggesting that the effect may be driven by, or might only exist in, girls. The present study suggests that prenatal exposure to testosterone may increase risk for early ADHD, particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity, in preschool girls.

  8. Testosterone treatment increases androgen receptor and aromatase gene expression in myotubes from patients with PCOS and controls, but does not induce insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Mette Brandt; Glintborg, Dorte; Nielsen, Michael Friberg Bruun; Jakobsen, Marianne Antonius; Brusgaard, Klaus; Tan, Qihua; Gaster, Michael

    2014-09-05

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle is the major site of insulin mediated glucose disposal and the skeletal muscle tissue is capable to synthesize, convert and degrade androgens. Insulin sensitivity is conserved in cultured myotubes (in vitro) from patients with PCOS, but the effect of testosterone on this insulin sensitivity is unknown. We investigated the effect of 7days testosterone treatment (100nmol/l) on glucose transport and gene expression levels of hormone receptors and enzymes involved in the synthesis and conversion of testosterone (HSD17B1, HSD17B2, CYP19A1, SRD5A1-2, AR, ER-α, HSD17B6 and AKR1-3) in myotubes from ten patients with PCOS and ten matched controls. Testosterone treatment significantly increased aromatase and androgen receptor gene expression levels in patients and controls. Glucose transport in myotubes was comparable in patients with PCOS vs. controls and was unchanged by testosterone treatment (p=0.21 PCOS vs. controls). These results suggest that testosterone treatment of myotubes increases the aromatase and androgen receptor gene expression without affecting insulin sensitivity and if testosterone is implicated in muscular insulin resistance in PCOS, this is by and indirect mechanism.

  9. Inhibition of in vitro metabolism of testosterone in human, dog and horse liver microsomes to investigate species differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Jana; Mevissen, Meike

    2015-04-01

    Testosterone hydroxylation was investigated in human, canine and equine liver microsomes and in human and canine single CYPs. The contribution of the CYP families 1, 2 and 3 was studied using chemical inhibitors. Testosterone metabolites were analyzed by HPLC. The metabolites androstenedione, 6β- and 11β-hydroxytestosterone were found in microsomes of all species, but the pattern of metabolites varied within species. Androstenedione was more prominent in the animal species, and an increase over time was seen in equines. Testosterone hydroxylation was predominantly catalyzed by the CYP3A subfamily in all three species. While CYP2C9 did not metabolise testosterone, the canine ortholog CYP2C21 produced androstenedione. Quercetin significantly inhibited 6β- and 11β-hydroxytestosterone in all species investigated, suggesting that CYP2C8 is involved in testosterone metabolism, whereas sulfaphenazole significantly inhibited the formation of 6β- and 11β-hydroxytestosterone in human microsomes, at 60 min in equine microsomes, but not in canine microsomes. A contribution of CYP2B6 in testosterone metabolism was only found in human and equine microsomes. Inhibition of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 indicated its involvement in androstenedione formation in humans, increased androstenedione formation was found in equines and no involvement in canines. These findings provide improved understanding of differences in testosterone biotransformation in animal species.

  10. Salivary Testosterone Levels Under Psychological Stress and Its Relationship with Rumination and Five Personality Traits in Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrisham, Reza; Sadegh-Nejadi, Sahar; SoliemaniFar, Omid; Kooti, Wesam; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Alamiri, Fatima; Najjar-Asl, Sedigheh; Khaneh-Keshi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the salivary testosterone levels under psychological stress and its relationship with rumination and five personality traits in medical students. Methods A total of 58 medical students, who wanted to participate in the final exam, were selected by simple random sampling. Two months before the exam, in the basal conditions, the NEO Inventory short form, and the Emotional Control Questionnaire (ECQ) were completed. Saliva samples were taken from students in both the basal conditions and under exam stress. Salivary testosterone was measured by ELISA. Data was analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures, paired samples t-test, Pearson correlation and stepwise regression analysis. Results Salivary testosterone level of men showed a significant increase under exam stress (p<0.05). However, a non-significant although substantial reduction observed in women. A significant correlation was found between extroversion (r=-0.33) and openness to experience (r=0.30) with salivary testosterone (p<0.05). Extraversion, aggression control and emotional inhibition predicted 28% of variance of salivary testosterone under stress. Conclusion Salivary testosterone reactivity to stress can be determined by sexual differences, personality traits, and emotional control variables which may decrease or increase stress effects on biological responses, especially the salivary testosterone. PMID:27909455

  11. Testosterone protects from metabolic syndrome-associated prostate inflammation: an experimental study in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignozzi, Linda; Morelli, Annamaria; Sarchielli, Erica; Comeglio, Paolo; Filippi, Sandra; Cellai, Ilaria; Maneschi, Elena; Serni, Sergio; Gacci, Mauro; Carini, Marco; Piccinni, Marie-Pierre; Saad, Farid; Adorini, Luciano; Vannelli, Gabriella B; Maggi, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)/lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are often associated. One of their common denominators is hypogonadism. However, testosterone supplementation is limited by concerns for potential prostatic side effects. The objective was to determine whether MetS-associated prostate alterations are prevented by testosterone supplementation. We used a previously described animal model of MetS, obtained by feeding male rabbits a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Subsets of HFD rabbits were treated with testosterone or with the farnesoid X receptor agonist INT-747. Rabbits fed a standard diet were used as controls. HFD-animals develop hypogonadism and all the MetS features: hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and visceral obesity. In addition, HFD-animals show a prostate inflammation. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that HFD-induced prostate fibrosis, hypoxia, and inflammation. The mRNA expression of several proinflammatory (IL8, IL6, IL1β, and TNFα), T lymphocyte (CD4, CD8, Tbet, Gata3, and ROR γt), macrophage (TLR2, TLR4, and STAMP2), neutrophil (lactoferrin), inflammation (COX2 and RAGE), and fibrosis/myofibroblast activation (TGFβ, SM22α, αSMA, RhoA, and ROCK1/ROCK2) markers was significantly increased in HFD prostate. Testosterone, as well as INT-747, treatment prevented some MetS features, although only testosterone normalized all the HFD-induced prostate alterations. Interestingly, the ratio between testosterone and estradiol plasma level retains a significant, negative, association with all the fibrosis and the majority of inflammatory markers analyzed. These data highlight that testosterone protects rabbit prostate from MetS-induced prostatic hypoxia, fibrosis, and inflammation, which can play a role toward the development/progression of BPH/LUTS.

  12. Effect of Serum Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Levels in Patients With Seborrhea

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    Eshghi G

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Seborrhea is a condition of sebaceous glands hyperactivity and increase in the secretion of sebum on head and face surface. Sebaceous glands hyperfunction causes oily and glassy appearance with large pores on the skin. The effect of androgens on providing seborrhea is controversial. Since sufficient and definite information about testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in seborrhic cases is not available, this study was carried out to evaluate effect of serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels in the seborrheic patients. Methods:In this case-control study, 36patients with seborrhea and 36control individuals, under 40years of age were selected. Serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels were measured in ng/mL. Data were analyzed using SPSS v.16, Chi-square and t-tests α = 0.05. Results:Twenty-three males and 49females, who referred to the dermatology department of Farshchian Hospital of Hamadan, participated in this study. The age distribution of the participants was between 19and 39years old with mean age of 5.71± 28.66. The mean level and SD of serum testosterone in control and case groups was 2.75± 2.83and ± 1.21 1.09, respectively, while dihydrotestosterone level was 373± 500.38and 228.2± 350.99 ng/mL. Means and SDs values of serum testosterone were 2.75± 2.83and 1.09± 1.21 and dihydrotestosterone was 373± 500.38and 228.2± 350.99ng/mL in case and control groups, respectively. The findings showed that there were differences in serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone values between case and control groups P< 0.05. Conclusions:According to the results of this study there is a positive relationship between serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone values with seborrhea.

  13. Male-typical visuospatial functioning in gynephilic girls with gender dysphoria — organizational and activational effects of testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sarah M.; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Veltman, Dick J.; Klink, Daniel T.; Bakker, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background Sex differences in performance and regional brain activity during mental rotation have been reported repeatedly and reflect organizational and activational effects of sex hormones. We investigated whether adolescent girls with gender dysphoria (GD), before and after 10 months of testosterone treatment, showed male-typical brain activity during a mental rotation task (MRT). Methods Girls with GD underwent fMRI while performing the MRT twice: when receiving medication to suppress their endogenous sex hormones before onset of testosterone treatment, and 10 months later during testosterone treatment. Two age-matched control groups participated twice as well. Results We included 21 girls with GD, 20 male controls and 21 female controls in our study. In the absence of any group differences in performance, control girls showed significantly increased activation in frontal brain areas compared with control boys (pFWE = 0.012). Girls with GD before testosterone treatment differed significantly in frontal brain activation from the control girls (pFWE = 0.034), suggesting a masculinization of brain structures associated with visuospatial cognitive functions. After 10 months of testosterone treatment, girls with GD, similar to the control boys, showed increases in brain activation in areas implicated in mental rotation. Limitations Since all girls with GD identified as gynephilic, their resemblance in spatial cognition with the control boys, who were also gynephilic, may have been related to their shared sexual orientation rather than their shared gender identity. We did not account for menstrual cycle phase or contraceptive use in our analyses. Conclusion Our findings suggest atypical sexual differentiation of the brain in natal girls with GD and provide new evidence for organizational and activational effects of testosterone on visuospatial cognitive functioning. PMID:27070350

  14. Endogenous Estradiol and Testosterone may Predispose toward Atherogenic Lipid Profile, but Higher Blood Level of Testosterone is Associated with Lower Number of Stenoses in the Coronary Arteries of Men with Coronary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wranicz, Jerzy Krzysztof; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Kula, Piotr; Walczak-Jedrzejowska, Renata; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Kula, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the correlations between blood levels of sex steroid hormones and blood lipid profile or the degree of coronary artery stenosis in men with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: 111 men with stable CAD, aged 36-73 yrs, unselected for the coexisting clinical coronary risk factors were prospectively studied. Degree of coronary stenosis was assessed angiographically using different indices. Total cholesterol (T-Ch), high density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-Ch), low density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-Ch), triglicerydes (TG), testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in the blood. Free testosterone index (FTI) was calculated. Results: A positive, significant correlations were found between blood concentrations of estradiol and T-Ch (r=0.29, p<0.01) or LDL-Ch (r=0.34, p<0.005) as well as between FTI and blood LDL-Ch (r=0.23, p<0.05). Blood level of estradiol negatively correlated with HDL-Ch/T-Ch ratio (r=-0.21, p<0.05). While blood levels of T-Ch correlated positively with 3 out of 5 applied here indices of coronary stenosis, blood LDL-Ch with two of them. In turn, blood level of testosterone negatively correlated with one index of coronary stenosis (r=-0.26, p<0.05). Conclusion: In men with CAD, plasma estradiol concentrations are predictive for T-Ch, LDL-Ch and HDL-Ch/TCh ratio, and FTI for LDL-Ch. Regression analyses indicated that while sex steroid hormones may predispose toward atherogenic lipid profile and are predictive for the number and degree of coronary artery stenosis, higher blood level of total testosterone was associated with the lower number of stenosis in the coronary arteries. Hence, endogenous testosterone may have beneficial effect on coronary arteries. PMID:23674975

  15. STUDY OF SERUM TESTOSTERONE IN DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Rajendra Prasad Kathula

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetes Mellitus is not a disease, but can be considered as a metabolic syndrome in which not only the sugar metabolism is impaired, but also is said to have profound effects or influence on other metabolic disorders. Almost, all the metabolic pathways will be affected in this dreadful disease. It’s a slow poison, which starts showing its effects as the time progresses. One of the commonest complaint seen in the diabetes patients is the loss of libido or derangement in the sexual physiology. The most common complaints include the erectile dysfunction and mood elevations. The patients also complain of stressfulness. These symptoms point out towards a common source i.e. decrease in the testosterone levels. A sincere effort has been put in this study to understand the relations of total serum testosterone seen in diabetes mellitus patients. This may help the physicians, operating surgeons, and also anaesthetists to understand the plethora of metabolic disturbances seen in the diabetes mellitus and take necessary steps to correct such conditions and also take necessary preventive members that may result in catastrophe. METHODS This study is a cross-sectional study done in Government Medical College, Nizamabad. One hundred known diabetic patients who attended the Department of Surgery, Government Medical College, Nizamabad, were identified. The fasting levels of postprandial level and HbA1c were detected. The total testosterone level was identified. The incidence of low testosterone (<300 ng/dL was checked. The different levels of glucose (Fasting, postprandial and HbA1c was compared to the amount of serum total testosterone. Finally, the time since the diabetes was known to the patients were correlated to the levels of testosterone. RESULT In the present study, the incidence of the low total testosterone was found to be in 39 percent of the diabetics. In the present study, there is a positive correlation between the total testosterone

  16. Testosterone Substitution: Current Modalities and Perspectives

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    Zitzmann M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical picture of male hypogonadism is associated with typical symptoms, such as disturbances of mood and cognitive abilities as well as sexual functions; furtheron, a decrease in muscle mass and strength, an accumulation of body fat and osteopenia/osteoporosis are observed. There are indications that insulin sensitivity is mitigated in a state of androgen depletion. In older men, symptoms of androgen deficiency (late-onset hypogonadism may exhibit a differential profile due to accompanying other chronic illnesses. Restoring serum testosterone levels by replacement therapy can markedly attenuate, if not relieve, the clinical picture of hypogonadism. Recently, new treatment modalities have been introduced, which include short-acting transdermal or buccal modalities as well as the long-acting depot preparation of testosterone undecanoate. This review summarises the pathways of diagnosis of male hypogonadism and discusses the various modern methods of initiation and surveillance of testosterone substitution therapy. Future perspectives regarding pharmacogenetic aspects are discussed.

  17. Habitual alcohol consumption associated with reduced semen quality and changes in reproductive hormones; a cross-sectional study among 1221 young Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Gottschau, Mads; Madsen, Jens Otto Broby;

    2014-01-01

    /day)) in the past 30 days was estimated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Semen quality (volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, and percentages of motile and morphologically normal spermatozoa) and serum concentration of reproductive hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, testosterone, sex...

  18. Effect of Testosterone Replacement Therapy on Cognitive Performance and Depression in Men with Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to evaluate the effect of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on cognitive function and depression in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome. Materials and Methods We carried out a prospective, placebo-controlled trial involving 106 men with total testosterone levels testosterone undecanoate) or a placebo (advice to modify lifestyle), the study population was divided into a TRT group (n=54) and a control group (n=52). Results The age among patients in the TRT and control groups was 56.7±12.6 years and 57.8±11.4 years, respectively (p> 0.05). At baseline, no significant differences between the TRT and control groups were noted regarding serum testosterone or prostate-specific antigen levels, or regarding the scores for aging symptoms (Aging Males' Symptoms scale), erectile function (5-item International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire), cognitive function (Korean Mini-Mental State Examination), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory). At 8 months after intervention total serum testosterone levels and erectile function scores had significantly increased (ptestosterone deficiency syndrome if low testosterone levels are associated with depression or cognitive impairment. PMID:28053949

  19. Proses Penuaan: Peranan Testosteron, Dehidroepiandrosteron, Hormon Pertumbuhan, Estrogen, dan Progestogen Sebagai Terapi Hormonal

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Muhammad Fidel Ganis

    2016-01-01

    Proses penuaan (aging) m.erupakan proses yang berlangsung secara terus menerus secara alamiah. Proses ini dimulai sejak proses pembuahan dan umum dialami oleh semua mahkluk hidup serta berlangsung berbeda-beda pada setiap orang. Sejak zaman dahulu, manusia sudah peduli dengan pengembangan dan pertahanan kemudaanya, memperlambat berjalannya usia, dan memperpanjang kehidupannya. Saat ini terdapat kemajuan besar dalam memahami proses penuaan dalam upaya untuk menundanya 8ebe...

  20. Testosterone alters genomic responses to song and monoaminergic innervation of auditory areas in a seasonally breeding songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matragrano, Lisa L; LeBlanc, Meredith M; Chitrapu, Anjani; Blanton, Zane E; Maney, Donna L

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral responses to social stimuli often vary according to endocrine state. Our previous work has suggested that such changes in behavior may be due in part to hormone-dependent sensory processing. In the auditory forebrain of female white-throated sparrows, expression of the immediate early gene ZENK (egr-1) is higher in response to conspecific song than to a control sound only when plasma estradiol reaches breeding-typical levels. Estradiol also increases the number of detectable noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus and the density of noradrenergic and serotonergic fibers innervating auditory areas. We hypothesize, therefore, that reproductive hormones alter auditory responses by acting on monoaminergic systems. This possibility has not been examined in males. Here, we treated non-breeding male white-throated sparrows with testosterone to mimic breeding-typical levels and then exposed them to conspecific male song or frequency-matched tones. We observed selective ZENK responses in the caudomedial nidopallium only in the testosterone-treated males. Responses in another auditory area, the caudomedial mesopallium, were selective regardless of hormone treatment. Testosterone treatment reduced serotonergic fiber density in the auditory forebrain, thalamus, and midbrain, and although it increased the number of noradrenergic neurons detected in the locus coeruleus, it reduced noradrenergic fiber density in the auditory midbrain. Thus, whereas we previously reported that estradiol enhances monoaminergic innervation of the auditory pathway in females, we show here that testosterone decreases it in males. Mechanisms underlying testosterone-dependent selectivity of the ZENK response may differ from estradiol-dependent ones

  1. Long Rest Interval Promotes Durable Testosterone Responses in High-Intensity Bench Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudese, Estevão; Simão, Roberto; Senna, Gilmar; Vingren, Jakob L; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Baffi, Matheus; Miranda, Humberto

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of rest period duration (1 vs. 3 minute between sets) on acute hormone responses to a high-intensity and equal volume bench press workout. Ten resistance-trained men (25.2 ± 5.6 years; 78.2 ± 5.7 kg; 176.7 ± 5.4 cm; bench press relative strength: 1.3 ± 0.1 kg per kilogram of body mass) performed 2 bench press workouts separated by 1 week. Each workout consisted of 5 sets of 3 repetitions performed at 85% of 1 repetition maximum, with either 1- or 3-minute rest between sets. Circulating concentrations of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), cortisol (C), testosterone/cortisol ratio (TT/C), and growth hormone (GH) were measured at preworkout (PRE), and immediately (T0), 15 minutes (T15), and 30 minutes (T30) postworkout. Rating of perceived exertion was recorded before and after each set. For TT, both rest lengths enhanced all postexercise verifications (T0, T15, and T30) compared with PRE, with 1 minute showing decreases on T15 and T30 compared with T0. For FT, both 1- and 3-minute rest protocols triggered augmentations on distinct postexercise moments (T0 and T15 for 1 minute; T15 and T30 for 3-minute) compared with PRE. The C values did not change throughout any postexercise verification for either rests. The TT/C ratio was significantly elevated for both rests in all postexercise moments compared with PRE. Finally, GH values did not change for both rest lengths. In conclusion, although both short and long rest periods enhanced acute testosterone values, the longer rest promoted a long-lasting elevation for both TT and FT.

  2. Salivary testosterone and cortisol responses to four different rugby training exercise protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviglio, Christopher M; Osborne, Mark; Kelly, Vincent G; Kilduff, Liam P; Cook, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the acute response of salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations to four exercise protocols in 27 elite male rugby players. Each athlete completed four protocols in random order on separate in-season weeks. Two protocols were resistance training based consisting of four exercises (high pull, bench press, squat and chin-ups/prone row): Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 15 repetitions at 55% of 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) with 1-minute rest (5 × 15-55%). Protocol 2 consisted of three sets of five repetitions at 85% 1 RM with 2-minute rest (3 × 5-85%). Protocol 3 was a strongman (STRNG) session consisting of three stations within a circuit of exercises that included exercises such as battling ropes, prowler push, farmer's walk and tyre flips. Protocol 4 was based on boxing and wrestling inspired exercises (combative--COMB). Salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations were measured before (PRE) and immediately after exercise (POST). Testosterone did not significantly change as a result of any intervention, whereas cortisol declined and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio increased significantly in both the 5 × 15-55% and 3 × 5-85% protocol. When results were retrospectively grouped and analysed according to the protocol that demonstrated the greatest absolute testosterone response, significant (P < 0.01) increases for the 5 × 15-55%, STRNG and COMB protocols were observed. The individualised hormone response to exercise observed in this study highlights the importance of recognising a protocol-dependent approach to training athletes. Furthermore this study also highlights a potential usefulness of employing STRNG and COMB training protocols as an alternative stimulus to resistance training.

  3. Alterations in male sexual behaviour, attractiveness and testosterone levels induced by an adult-onset calorie restriction regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govic, Antonina; Levay, Elizabeth A; Hazi, Agnes; Penman, Jim; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2008-06-26

    Despite an abundance of research on calorie restriction (CR) altering gonadal and appetite regulating hormones, the sexual behavioural consequences of CR remain to be examined systematically. This study compared the sexual behaviour, partner preference, serum testosterone and leptin levels of male adult Hooded Wistar rats administered a CR (continuous 25%, 50% CR or a temporary restriction) with ad libitum fed controls. The temporary restriction (Previous CR) failed to alter sexual behaviour, partner preference and levels of testosterone and leptin. The moderately 25% CR males did not demonstrate an impairment in sexual behaviour but did demonstrate a reduced level of attractiveness to females in one measure of partner preference. Sexual performance was affected by a substantial CR, as the CR 50% group exhibited a longer latency to the first intromission, indicating alteration in sexual arousal. Females also consistently demonstrated a clear preference for the control group compared to the CR 50% group. These findings indicate a possible reduction in the overall reproductive potential of the substantially CR animals. Testosterone levels were equally suppressed by both the 25% and 50% CR, while leptin levels were only reduced in the CR 50% group. Leptin, rather than testosterone, may have influenced the impairment in sexual behaviour only demonstrated by the substantially CR animals. Testosterone, may, however, play a role in modulating the preference of control over CR males, as attractiveness was totally reduced by a substantial CR, and partially reduced by a moderate restricted regimen.

  4. Methods to quantify sex steroid hormones in bone: applications to the study of androgen ablation and administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrow, Joshua F; Conover, Christine F; Lipinska, Judyta A; Santillana, Cesar A; Wronski, Thomas J; Borst, Stephen E

    2010-11-01

    Bone may contain an intraskeletal reservoir of sex steroids that is capable of producing biological effects. The purposes of these experiments were to 1) establish and validate methods to extract and measure intraskeletal sex hormones, 2) compare serum and intraskeletal sex hormone abundance, and 3) determine the impact of testosterone-enanthate administration and orchiectomy on intraskeletal sex hormone concentrations. Tibiae from male F344 rats were crushed, suspended in an aqueous buffer, disrupted mechanically and sonically, extracted with organic solvents, dried, and reconstituted in assay buffer appropriate for measurement of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol by immunoassay. Prior to extraction, bone homogenate was spiked with [³H]testosterone, [³H]dihydrotestosterone, or [³H]estradiol, and >80% of each ³H-labeled sex hormone was recovered. Extracted bone samples were also assayed with and without known amounts of unlabeled sex hormones, and >97% of the expected hormone concentrations were measured. Administration of testosterone-enanthate increased intraskeletal testosterone 11-fold and intraskeletal dihydrotestosterone by 82% without altering intraskeletal estradiol (P < 0.01). Conversely, orchiectomy did not alter intraskeletal testosterone or estradiol but increased intraskeletal dihydrotestosterone by 39% (P < 0.05). In intact rats, intraskeletal testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were directionally higher than in serum, whereas intraskeletal estradiol was directionally lower than serum. Serum androgens were positively correlated with intraskeletal androgens (r = 0.74-0.96, P < 0.001); however, neither serum nor intraskeletal androgens nor serum estradiol were correlated with intraskeletal estradiol. We report the validation of a novel method for measuring intraskeletal sex hormones. Our findings demonstrate that the intraskeletal sex steroid reservoirs are modifiable and only partially influenced by circulating sex hormones.

  5. Endogenous sex hormones and risk of venous thromboembolism in women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, B G; Schnohr, P

    2014-01-01

    Heart Study, who had estradiol and testosterone concentrations measured. Of these, 636 developed VTE (deep venous thrombosis [DVT] and/or pulmonary embolism [PE]) during a follow-up of 21 years (range, 0.02-32 years). Associations between endogenous estradiol and testosterone concentrations and risk......BACKGROUND: Use of oral contraceptives with estrogen and hormone replacement therapy with estrogen or testosterone are associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, whether endogenous estradiol and testosterone concentrations are also associated with risk of VTE...... is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that elevated endogenous total estradiol and total testosterone concentrations are associated with increased risk of VTE in the general population. METHODS: We studied 4658 women, not receiving exogenous estrogen, and 4673 men from the 1981-1983 Copenhagen City...

  6. Pituitary-gonadal and pituitary-thyroid axis hormone concentrations before and during a hypoglycemic clamp after sleep deprivation in healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Jauch-Chara

    Full Text Available Total sleep deprivation (TSD exerts strong modulatory effects on the secretory activity of endocrine systems that might be related to TSD-induced challenges of cerebral glucose metabolism. Here, we investigate whether TSD affects the course of male pituitary-gonadal and pituitary-thyroid axis related hormones during a subsequent 240-min hypoglycemic clamp. Ten healthy men were tested on 2 different conditions, TSD and 7-hour regular sleep. Circulating concentrations of total testosterone, prolactin (PRL, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free triiodothyronine (fT3, and free thyroxin (fT4 were measured during baseline and a subsequent hypoglycemic clamp taking place in the morning. Basal, i.e. at 07:00 am measured, concentrations of total testosterone (P = 0.05 and PRL (P<0.01 were lower while the values of TSH (P = 0.02, fT3 (P = 0.08, and fT4 (P = 0.04 were higher after TSD as compared to regular sleep. During the subsequent hypoglycemic clamp (all measurements from baseline to the end of the clamp analyzed total testosterone concentrations in the regular sleep (P<0.01 but not in the TSD condition (P = 0.61 decreased, while PRL levels increased (P = 0.05 irrespectively of the experimental condition (P = 0.31. TSH concentrations decreased during hypoglycemia (P<0.01, with this decrease being more pronounced after TSD (P = 0.04. However, at the end of the hypoglycemic clamp concentrations all of the above mentioned hormones did not differ between the two sleep conditions. Our data indicate a profound influence of TSD on male pituitary-gonadal and pituitary-thyroid axis hormones characterized by reduced basal testosterone and PRL levels and increased TSH levels. However, since concentrations of these hormones measured at the end of the 240-min hypoglycemic clamp were not affected by TSD it can be speculated that the influence of TSD on the two endocrine axes is rather short lived or does not interact in an additive

  7. Testosterone deficiency syndrome: benefits, risks, and realities associated with testosterone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Jacob; Barkin, Jack

    2016-02-01

    Testosterone deficiency syndrome, which has sometimes been termed age-related or late-onset hypogonadism, is a syndrome characterized by both clinical manifestations as well as a biochemical deficiency of testosterone. This condition is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, accounting for billions of dollars in health care costs. There is some evidence that suggests that restoring testosterone levels in these individuals may help to manage or delay progression of the associated morbidities. Furthermore, despite controversies in the literature and media, testosterone replacement has proven to be quite safe in most men with minimal if any adverse effects when dosing to achieve the eugonadal range. It is nevertheless very important for clinicians to be aware of the possible risks and contraindications of treatment to ensure proper patient selection and appropriate monitoring.

  8. Effects of dietary phytoestrogens on plasma testosterone and triiodothyronine (T3 levels in male goat kids

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    Ekstedt Elisabeth

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to xenoestrogens in humans and animals has gained increasing attention due to the effects of these compounds on reproduction. The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of low-dose dietary phytoestrogen exposure, i.e. a mixture of genistein, daidzein, biochanin A and formononetin, on the establishment of testosterone production during puberty in male goat kids. Methods Goat kids at the age of 3 months received either a standard diet or a diet supplemented with phytoestrogens (3 - 4 mg/kg/day for ~3 months. Plasma testosterone and total and free triiodothyronine (T3 concentrations were determined weekly. Testicular levels of testosterone and cAMP were measured at the end of the experiment. Repeated measurement analysis of variance using the MIXED procedure on the generated averages, according to the Statistical Analysis System program package (Release 6.12, 1996, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA was carried out. Results No significant difference in plasma testosterone concentration between the groups was detected during the first 7 weeks. However, at the age of 5 months (i.e. October 1, week 8 phytoestrogen-treated animals showed significantly higher testosterone concentrations than control animals (37.5 nmol/l vs 19.1 nmol/l. This elevation was preceded by a rise in plasma total T3 that occurred on September 17 (week 6. A slightly higher concentration of free T3 was detected in the phytoestrogen group at the same time point, but it was not until October 8 and 15 (week 9 and 10 that a significant difference was found between the groups. At the termination of the experiment, testicular cAMP levels were significantly lower in goats fed a phytoestrogen-supplemented diet. Phytoestrogen-fed animals also had lower plasma and testicular testosterone concentrations, but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion Our findings suggest that phytoestrogens can stimulate testosterone

  9. A short-term arm-crank exercise program improved testosterone deficiency in adults with chronic spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rosety-Rodriguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To determine the influence of arm-crank exercise in reproductive hormone levels in adults with chronic SCI. Further objectives were to assess the influence of arm-crank exercise on muscle strength and body composition. Materials and Methods Seventeen male adults with complete SCI at or below the 5th thoracic level (T5 volunteered for this study. Participants were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 9 or control group (n = 8 using a concealed method. The participants in the intervention group performed a 12-week arm-crank exercise program, 3 sessions/week, consisting of warming-up (10-15 min followed by a main part in arm-crank (20-30 min [increasing 2 min and 30 seconds each three weeks] at a moderate work intensity of 50-65% of heart rate reserve (HRR (starting at 50% and increasing 5% each three weeks and by a cooling-down period (5-10 min. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, testosterone and estradiol were determined by ELISA. Muscle strength (handgrip and body composition (waist circumference [WC] were assessed. Results After the completion of the training program, testosterone level was significantly increased (p = 0.0166;d = 1.14. Furthermore, maximal handgrip and WC were significantly improved. Lastly, a significant inverse correlation was found between WC and testosterone (r =- 0.35; p = 0.0377. Conclusion The arm-crank exercise improved reproductive hormone profile by increasing testosterone levels in adults with chronic SCI. A secondary finding was that it also significantly improved muscle strength and body composition in this group.

  10. An enquiry on appropriate selection of polymers for preparation of polymeric nanosorbents and nanofiltration/ultrafiltration membranes for hormone micropollutants removal from water effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansary, Milad Asgarpour; Mellat, Mostafa; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Fasihi-Ramandi, Mahdi; Kamali, Mehdi; Taheri, Ramezan Ali

    2017-02-01

    To analyze polymeric nanosorbents and nanofiltration/ultrafiltration membranes for hormone micropollutants removal from water effluents, here an in-through investigation on the suitability and compatibility of various polymers has been carried out. For this work, estradiol, estrone, testosterone, progesterone, estriol, mestranol, and ethinylestradiol were considered. A total number of 452 polymers were analyzed and initially screened using Hansen solubility parameters. The identified good pairs of hormones and polymers then were examined to obtain the equilibrium capacity of hormones removal from water effluents using a modified Flory-Huggins model. A distribution coefficient was defined as the ratio of hormones in water effluent phase and polymer phase. For removal of mestranol, estradiol and ethinylestradiol, no compatible polymer was identified based on initial screening of collected database. Three compatible polymers were identified for estriol. For progesterone, a wide variety of polymers was identified as good matching of polar, dispersion and hydrogen forces contributions can be observed for these pairs. For estrone, only two polymers can be proposed due to the mismatch observed between polar, dispersion and hydrogen forces contributions of other polymers and this hormone. The phase calculations showed that not all the identified good pairs could be used for practical separation applications. The domain of applicability of each good pair was investigated and potential polymers for practical micropollutants removal together with their removal capacity were represented in terms of phase envelops. The theoretical approach follows fundamental chemical thermodynamic equations and then can be simply applied for any system of interest.

  11. Comparison of methods for determination of testosterone and non-protein bound testosterone in men with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    The serum concentrations of testosterone and of non-protein bound testosterone were determined in 28 men with alcoholic liver disease having normal to decreased serum albumin concentrations and normal to raised SHBG concentrations. Serum testosterone concentrations determined with two radioimmuno...

  12. Sex hormones in postmenopausal women with primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Almdal, T; Christensen, E;

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate serum sex hormone profiles in nonalcoholic postmenopausal women with liver disease, 25 women with primary biliary cirrhosis (11 in cirrhotic stage) and 46 healthy controls were studied. The patients had significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated serum concentrations of estrone and andr......To evaluate serum sex hormone profiles in nonalcoholic postmenopausal women with liver disease, 25 women with primary biliary cirrhosis (11 in cirrhotic stage) and 46 healthy controls were studied. The patients had significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated serum concentrations of estrone...... and androstenedione and significantly (p less than 0.05) lower concentrations of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone compared with the 46 controls. Serum concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin, testosterone, non-sex hormone binding globulin-bound testosterone...... and non-protein-bound testosterone did not differ significantly (p greater than 0.05) between primary biliary cirrhosis patients and controls. Patients in the cirrhotic stage had significantly (p less than 0.05) higher concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin than did controls. Patients...

  13. Growth related hormones in idiopathic scoliosis. An endocrine basis for accelerated growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogland, L B; Miller, J A

    1980-10-01

    In a total of 95 children with idiopathic scoliosis and 60 controls between the ages of 7 and 17 years, a prospective study of hormones related to growth and maturation was carried out. The pituitary release mechanism for growth hormone was evaluated using the propanolol/L-dopa stimulation test. In addition the blood levels of testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, oestradiol, thyroxin, prolactin, cortisol, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were determined. The girls were divided into age groups and all results were evaluated according to chronological and skeletal age. The number of boys was too small (25) to allow subdivision into age groups. The girls with idiopathic scoliosis had a significantly higher response to the growth hormone stimulation test than had the controls between the ages of 7 and 12 years whereas no significant difference could be found for the older girls. In girls with a skeletal age between 9 and 12 years a significantly higher mean serum level of testosterone was found (P less than 0.05). No significant differences could be demonstrated for the remaining hormones. Growth hormone and testosterone are the most important growth factors in prepubertal and pubertal children. Thus, the present findings suggest a hormonal basis for the increased stature in children with idiopathic scoliosis which has previously been reported.

  14. Modulation of serum concentrations and hepatic metabolism of 17{beta}-estradiol and testosterone by amitraz in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chen-Ping [National Taiwan University, Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taiwan Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Taichung (China); Lu, Shui-Yuan [Taiwan Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Taichung (China); Ueng, Tzuu-Huei [National Taiwan University, Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, Taipei (China)

    2008-10-15

    The present study has investigated the ability of amitraz, a widely used formamidine pesticide, to modulate serum concentrations and liver microsomal metabolism of 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) and testosterone in rats. Amitraz was administered intraperitoneally to male rats for 4 days and to intact female rats or ovariectomized (OVX) and 0.5 mg/kg E2-supplemented female rats for 7 days. E2 and metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection and testosterone and metabolites were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. In OVX and E2-supplemented females, 50 mg/kg amitraz caused an 85% decrease of serum E2 concentration and a marked increase of 2-OH-E2 concentration. Amitraz at 25 and 50 mg/kg produced 9.0-fold or greater increases of serum testosterone and 2{beta}-OH-testosterone levels in males. Amitraz at 25 mg/kg resulted in no or minimal increases of liver microsomal formation of E2 or testosterone metabolites. Amitraz at 50 mg/kg produced 1.4- to 3.6-fold increases of 2-OH-E2; estrone; 2{beta}-, 6{beta}-, and 16{alpha}-OH-testosterone; and androstenedione formation in males and intact females. Amitraz at 50 mg/kg preferentially increased intact female 16{beta}-OH-testosterone production by 8.6-fold. In OVX females, E2 supplement alone or cotreatment with E2 and 50 mg/kg amitraz produced 1.3- to several-fold increases of 2- and 4-OH-E2 formation and 2{beta}- and 16{alpha}-OH-testosterone production. The cotreatment increased 6{beta}- and 16{beta}-OH-testosterone formation by 1.8- and 1.6-fold, respectively. The present findings show that amitraz induces hepatic E2 and testosterone metabolism in male and female rats, decreases serum E2 concentration in OVX and E2-supplemented females, but increases serum testosterone in males. (orig.)

  15. The role of testosterone and estrogen in consumer behavior and social & economic decision making: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Steven J

    2016-11-11

    This manuscript reviews the current literature on the actions of the steroid hormones testosterone and estradiol in shaping humans' behavior within two applied contexts, specifically consumer behavior and decision making (both social and economic). The theoretical argument put forth is that steroids shape these everyday behaviors and choices in service to being more competitive in achieving long-term goals related to resource acquisition, mating success, and social dominance. In addition, a discussion of the increased research focus on the role of steroids in other applied business domains will highlight the relevant applications of basic science discoveries in behavioral endocrinology.

  16. Is there a relationship between the performance in a chronometric mental-rotations test and salivary testosterone and estradiol levels in children aged 9-14 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia; Jansen, Petra; Lehmann, Jennifer; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2016-01-01

    The consistent gender differences favoring males in some spatial abilities like mental rotation have raised the question of whether testosterone or other gonadal hormones contribute to these differences--especially because such gender differences seem to appear mainly from the age of puberty on. Studies generally suggest that spatial ability is facilitated by moderately high testosterone levels (i.e., levels that are relatively high for females and relatively low for males). However, the role of sex steroids for mental-rotation performance of (pre-) pubertal children has not been the focus of research, yet. In our study, the relationships between different aspects of mental-rotation performance (accuracy, reaction time, rotation speed) and salivary testosterone and estradiol levels were investigated. Subjects were 109 children (51 boys and 58 girls) aged between 9 and 14 years (M = 11.41, SD = 1.74). They performed a chronometric mental-rotations test, in which the stimuli consisted of three-dimensional drawings of Shepard and Metzler cube figures. In addition, saliva samples were gathered for the analysis of free testosterone and estradiol levels. Results showed a significant gender difference in reaction time and rotational speed in favor of boys, and a significant age, but no gender difference in testosterone and estradiol levels. We found no significant relationships between hormonal levels and any measure of mental-rotation performance.

  17. Effects of estrogen and testosterone treatment on serotonin transporter binding in the brain of surgically postmenopausal women--a PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Hristina; Kocoska-Maras, Ljiljana; Rådestad, Angelique Flöter; Halldin, Christer; Borg, Jacqueline; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Nordström, Anna-Lena

    2015-02-01

    Sex hormones and the serotonergic system interact in the regulation of mood, learning, memory and sexual behaviour. However, the mechanisms have not been fully explored. The serotonin transporter protein (5-HTT) regulates synaptic concentrations of serotonin and is a primary target for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The aim of this study was to explore how estrogen treatment alone or in combination with testosterone affects 5-HTT binding potentials measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in specific brain regions of postmenopausal women. Ten healthy surgically postmenopausal women (years since oophorectomy 7.5 ± 4.0, mean ± SD) underwent PET examinations at baseline, after three months of estrogen treatment (transdermal estradiol 100 μg/24 hours) and after another three months of combined estrogen and testosterone (testosterone undecanoate 40 mg daily) treatment using the radioligand [(11)C] MADAM developed for examination of the serotonin transporter. The 5-HTT binding potentials decreased significantly in several cortical regions, as well as in limbic and striatal regions after both estrogen treatment alone and combined estrogen/testosterone treatment in comparison to baseline. The observed decrease in 5-HTT could either be due to direct effects on serotonin transporter expression or be the result of indirect adaptation to estrogen and /or testosterone effects on synaptic serotonin levels. Although the mechanism still needs further exploration, the study supports the view that gonadal hormones play a role in serotonin regulated mood disorders.

  18. Within-clutch variation in yolk testosterone as an adaptive maternal effect to modulate avian sibling competition: evidence from a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Martina; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2013-01-01

    In many species, embryos are exposed to maternal hormones in utero, in the egg, or in the seed. In birds, mothers deposit substantial testosterone into their eggs, which enhances competitive ability of offspring. These maternal testosterone concentrations vary systematically within clutches in different patterns and may enable mothers to adaptively fine-tune competitive hierarchies within broods. We performed a comparative analysis to investigate this hypothesis using a broad set of avian species. We expected species with small size differences among siblings (arising from small hatching asynchrony or slow growth rates) to aim for survival of the whole brood in good years and therefore compensate last-hatching eggs with relatively more testosterone. We expected species with large size differences among siblings (large hatching asynchrony or fast growth rates) to produce surplus young as insurance against failed offspring and to facilitate elimination of redundant surplus young by bestowing last-hatching eggs with relatively less testosterone. As predicted, we found that maternal testosterone compensation to last-hatching eggs is stronger when size differences among siblings become smaller. Maternal testosterone compensation to last-hatching eggs also correlated negatively with hatching asynchrony and growth rates. These findings provide evidence for correlated evolution of several maternal effects that together support different maternal reproductive strategies.

  19. Biomolecules/gold nanowires-doped sol-gel film for label-free electrochemical immunoassay of testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ke-Zhong; Qi, Jun-Sheng; Mu, Wei-Jun; Chen, Zai-Gang

    2008-04-24

    A direct, rapid, and label-free electrochemical immunoassay method for testosterone has been described based on encapsulating testosterone antibody into polyvinyl butyral sol-gel film doped with gold nanowires. Gold nanowires prepared by using nanopore polycarbonate membrane were used to conjugate testosterone antibody onto the probe surface. The presence of gold nanowires provided a biocompatible microenvironment for biomolecules, greatly amplified the immobilized amount of biomolecules on the electrode surface, and improved the sensitivity of the immunosensor. In comparison with gold nanoparticle-conjugating probe, the gold nanowire-functionalized probe could avoid the leakage of biomolecules from the composite film, and enhanced the stability of the sensor. The performance and factors influencing the performance of the resulting immunosensor were investigated in detail. Under optimal conditions, the developed immunosensor exhibited a good linear relationship with testosterone ranging from 1.2 to 83.5 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.1 ng mL(-1) (at 3delta). Moreover, the proposed immunosensor exhibited high sensitivity, good reproducibility and long-term stability. The as-prepared immunosensors were used to analyze testosterone in human serum specimens. Analytical results suggest that the developed immunoassay has a promising alternative approach for detecting testosterone in the clinical diagnosis. Compared with the conventional ELISAs, the proposed immunoassay method was simple and rapid without multiple labeling and separation steps. Importantly, the route provides an alternative approach to incorporate gold nanowires into the solid matrix for biosensing application.

  20. Waist-to-height ratio as a predictor of serum testosterone in ageing men with symptoms of androgen deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carolyn A Allan; Roger E Peverill; Boyd JG Strauss; Elise A Forbes; Robert I McLachlan

    2011-01-01

    The decline in serum testosterone in ageing men may be mediated in part by obesity; however, it is uncertain which measure of adiposity is most closely associated with testosterone levels. We have examined the relationships of age, adiposity and testosterone levels in ageing men with symptoms consistent with hypoandrogenism but who were otherwise in good health. We conducted a cross-sectional study of non-smoking men aged ≥ 54 years recruited from the community and who were free of cancer or serious medical illness. Height (Ht), weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height (WHt) ratio were calculated. Two morning blood samples were collected for measurement of total testosterone (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Free testosterone (cFT) was calculated. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to assess their relationship with measures of adiposity. Two hundred and seven men aged 54-86 years were studied. On univariate analysis WHt ratio was more strongly correlated with TT and cFT than either WC or BMI. Furthermore, in models of TT and cFT, the addition of Ht to WC resulted in an increase in the magnitude of the regression coefficients for both WC (inverse correlate) and Ht (positive correlate), with the contributions of both WC and Ht both being significant (P<0.05 for all). In conclusion, WHt ratio is the best anthropometric predictor of both TT and cFT in this group of healthy but symptomatic ageing men.

  1. Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs on Sexual Function and Reproductive Hormones of Male Epileptic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sonbolestan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diminished libido and sexual dysfunction are unusually common among male epileptic patients. The most important etiologic factor may be antiepileptic drugs (AEDs-induced androgen deficiency. We compared reproductive hormone levels among men with epilepsy taking various AEDs and normal controls. Methods: Subjects were 59 male epileptic patients who aged 24 ± 5 years. They had been receiving lamotrigine (LTG (n = 17, carbamazepine (CBZ (n = 18, and sodium valproate (VPA (n = 15 for at least 6 months. We also recruited 23 healthy controls. Testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, androstenedione (AND, luteinizing hormone (LH, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH levels and gonadal efficiency (testosterone/LH were compared between the four groups. The patients and the control group were examined and evaluated for male reproduction by urology and endocrinology services. Results: Subjects receiving CBZ, VPA, and LTG had significantly lower mean testosterone levels than the control group (P < 0.01. In addition, patients receiving LTG had significantly higher mean testosterone levels than CBZ and VPA groups (P < 0.01 and controls (P < 0.05. There were not any significant differences between the groups in mean estradiol levels. The mean and level in VPA was higher than CBZ, LTG, and control groups (P < 0.01. Men receiving CBZ had significantly lower DHEAS levels than the other groups (P < 0.01. Testosterone/LH ratio in the control group was more than other groups (P < 0.01. On the other hand, this value in LTG group was higher than CBZ and VPA groups (P < 0.01. However, CBZ and VPA groups were not significantly different in terms of testosterone/LH ratio. Conclusion: Although the mean levels of reproductive hormones were lower in the LTG group compared to the controls, among traditional antiepileptic drugs, LTG had fewer side effects on reproductive hormones. Therefore, it is a good

  2. Effects of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Level of Serum Testosterone in Males with Chronic Toxoplasmosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Eslamirad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that infects human and animals. Toxoplasma parasites are isolated from different parts of animals even from semen but there are little information about the effect of toxoplasmosis on fertility in animals and humans. In present study, the effect of chronic toxoplasmosis on serum levels of testosterone in men was studied.In this case-control study, 1026 men referred to Arak Post Marriage Center were selected. Three ml of blood samples were collected and sera separated by centrifugation at room temperature. These sera were analyzed for detection of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody. Next 365 positive sera were selected as cases and also the same number of negative sera (365 as controls. Finally the level of testosterone was analyzed for the cases and controls samples.Serological tests on the sera of 1,026 men in Arak City showed that 365 of them had anti-Toxoplasma antibody. Comparison of testosterone concentration in case and control groups showed that testosterone concentration in case group was less than control group and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.05.The chronic toxoplasmosis could affect reproductive parameters in men.

  3. The OECD validation program of the H295R steroidogenesis assay for the identification of in vitro inhibitors and inducers of testosterone and estradiol production. Phase 2: Inter-laboratory pre-validation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecker, Markus; Hollert, Henner; Cooper, Ralph

    2007-01-01

    related to one laboratory there were unexplained minor uncertainties related to the inter-laboratory hormone production variation. Based on the findings from this Phase 2 prevalidation study, the H295R Steroidogenesis Assay protocol is currently being refined. The next phase of the OECD validation program...... their potential to interact with the endocrine system of vertebrates. Study Design. Six laboratories from five countries participated in the pre-validation studies. Each laboratory tested the effects of three model chemicals on the production of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) using the H295R Steroidogenesis...... Assay. Chemicals tested were well described inducers or inhibitors of steroidogenic pathways (forskolin, prochloraz and fadrozole). All experiments were conducted in 24 well plates following standard protocols. Six different doses per compound were analyzed in triplicate per plate. A quality control (QQ...

  4. Menstrual irregularity and bone mass in premenopausal women: Cross-sectional associations with testosterone and SHBG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otahal Petr

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been few studies examining the associations between menstrual irregularity, androgens and bone mass in population-based samples of premenopausal women. This study aimed to describe the associations between menstrual pattern, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG and bone mass in a population-based sample of premenopausal women. Methods Cross-sectional study (N = 382, mean age 31.5 years. Menstrual pattern was assessed by questionnaire, bone mass measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS and androgen status was assessed by levels of serum testosterone, SHBG and the free androgen index (FAI. Results Women with irregular cycles (n = 41, 11% had higher free androgen index (FAI, P = 0.01 and higher QUS measurements including speed of sound (SOS, 1%, P Conclusion Irregular menstrual cycles were associated with higher bone mass in this population-based sample of premenopausal women suggesting menstrual disturbance should continue to be evaluated but may be less harmful for bone mass. The association between menstrual irregularity and bone mass was partially mediated by markers of androgen status especially free testosterone.

  5. Subsequent effect of subacute T-2 toxicosis on spermatozoa, seminal plasma and testosterone production in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, M; Tornyos, G; Matics, Zs; Kametler, L; Rajli, V; Bodnár, Zs; Kulcsár, M; Huszenicza, Gy; Keresztes, Zs; Cseh, S

    2011-08-01

    Pannon White (n=12) male rabbits (weight: 4050 to 4500 g, age: 9 months) received 2 ml of a suspension containing purified T-2 toxin by gavage for 3 days. The daily toxin intake was 4 mg/animal (0.78 to 0.99 mg/kg body weight (BW)). Control animals (n=12) received toxin-free suspension for 3 days. Since a feed-refusal effect was observed on the second day after T-2 administration, a group of bucks (n=10) were kept as controls (no toxin treatment) but on a restricted feeding schedule, that is, the same amount of feed was provided to them as was consumed by the exposed animals. On day 51 of the experiment (i.e. 48 days after the 3-day toxin treatment), semen was collected, and pH, concentration, motility and morphology of the spermatozoa, as well as concentration of citric acid, zinc and fructose in the seminal plasma, were measured. After gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue treatment, the testosterone level was examined. One day of T-2 toxin treatment dramatically decreased voluntary feed intake (by 27% compared to control, P0.05). The ratio of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology increased (Pplasma (Pplasma parameters (fructose and zinc) was observed. T-2 toxin decreased the basic testosterone level by 45% compared to control (Pcomposition of the seminal plasma or testosterone concentration--its effect needs further examination.

  6. Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fornieles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS. A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94 and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57 in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS.

  7. The reduction of boar taint in male pigs by neonatal testosterone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Bote, C; Ventanas, J

    1988-01-01

    Ten neonatal male pigs were treated with 100 mg of testosterone propionate, and the effects of the treatment on endocrine function, carcass fatness, meat and fat composition were studied. No important changes were found in carcass fatness or in chemical composition of the M. longissimus dorsi. Fatty acid composition of the backfat was modified in the treated pigs, with a decrease in palmitoleic (P < 0·001) and oleic (P < 0·05) acids and an increase in stearic acid (P < 0·05); consequently, the fat had a higher melting point (P < 0·05). Neonatal treatment with testosterone propionate led to a decrease in testicle weight (P < 0·05), testosterone concentration (P < 0·05) and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in the hypophysis (P < 0·001). Histological evidence of modification of the intertubular area in the testicle was found (P < 0·001). Decrease of endocrine secretion in the testes led to a reduction in the levels of detectable boar taint in treated animals, as assessed by sensory evaluation.

  8. Hormone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  9. Light induced degradation of testosterone in waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulliet, Emmanuelle, E-mail: e.vulliet@sca.cnrs.fr [Service Central d' Analyse du CNRS - USR59, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France); Falletta, Marine; Marote, Pedro [Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques - UMR 5180, Universite Claude Bernard, 43 bd du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lomberget, Thierry [Laboratoire de Chimie Therapeutique, Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Faculte de Pharmacie-ISPB, EA 4443 Biomolecules, Cancer et Chimioresistances, INSERM U863 Hormones steroides et proteines de liaison, IFR 62, 8 avenue Rockefeller, F-69373, Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Paisse, Jean-Olivier; Grenier-Loustalot, Marie-Florence [Service Central d' Analyse du CNRS - USR59, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France)

    2010-08-01

    The degradation of testosterone under simulated irradiations was studied in phosphate buffers and in natural waters at various excitation wavelengths. The quantum yield of photolysis was significantly lower at 313 nm (2.4 x 10{sup -3}) than at 254 nm (0.225). The formation of several photoproducts was observed, some of them being rapidly transformed in turn while others show higher stability towards subsequent irradiations. The nature of the main products was tentatively identified, both deduced from their spectral and spectrometric data and by comparison with synthesised standard compounds. Among the obtained photoproducts, the main one is possibly a spiro-compound, hydroxylated derivative of testosterone originating from the photohydratation of the enone group. The photodegradation pathway includes also photorearrangements. One of them leads to (1,5,10)-cyclopropyl-17{beta}-hydroxyandrostane-2-one. The pH of the water does not seem to affect the rate of phototransformation and the nature of the by-products.

  10. Occurrence and removal of estrogens, progesterone and testosterone in three constructed wetlands treating municipal sewage in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymazal, Jan; Březinová, Tereza; Koželuh, Milan

    2015-12-01

    Estrogenic hormones, progesterone and testosterone are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and their presence in aquatic environments represents a potentially adverse environmental and public health impact. There is a considerable amount of information about removal of estrogens, progesterone and testosterone in conventional wastewater treatment plants, namely activated sludge systems. However, the information about removal of these compounds in constructed wetlands is very limited. Three constructed wetlands with horizontal subsurface flow in the Czech Republic have been selected to evaluate removal of estrogens (estrone, estriol, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol), testosterone and progesterone. Monitored constructed wetlands for 100, 150 and 200 PE have been in operation for more than 10 years and all systems exhibit very high treatment efficiency for organics and suspended solids. The results indicate that removal of all estrogens, progesterone and testosterone was high and only estrone was found in the outflow from one constructed wetland in concentrations above the limit of quantification 1 ng l(-1). The limits of quantification for other estrogens, i.e., 10 ng l(-1) for estriol, 1 ng l(-1) for 17β-estradiol and 2 ng l(-1) for 17α-ethinylestradiol were not exceeded in the outflow of all monitored constructed wetlands. Also, for progesterone and testosterone, all outflow concentrations were below the LOQ of 0.5 ng l(-1). The results indicated that constructed wetlands with horizontal subsurface flow are a promising technology for elimination of estrogens, progesterone and testosterone from municipal sewage but more information is needed to confirm this finding.

  11. A safer method for studying hormone metabolism in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus): accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, Lisa; Faulkner, Brian; Kanchanapangka, Sumolya; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak; Meepan, Sompast; Lasley, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Noninvasive hormone assays provide a way to determine an animal's health or reproductive status without the need for physical or chemical restraint, both of which create unnecessary stress for the animal, and can potentially alter the hormones being measured. Because hormone metabolism is highly species-specific, each assay must be validated for use in the species of interest. Validation of noninvasive steroid hormone assays has traditionally required the administration of relatively high doses of radiolabelled compounds (100 µCi or more of (14)C labeled hormone) to permit subsequent detection of the excreted metabolites in the urine and feces. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is sensitive to extremely low levels of rare isotopes such as (14)C, and provides a way to validate hormone assays using much lower levels of radioactivity than those traditionally employed. A captive Asian bull elephant was given 1 µCi of (14)C-testosterone intravenously, and an opportunistic urine sample was collected 2 hr after the injection. The sample was separated by HPLC and the (14)C in the fractions was detected by AMS to characterize the metabolites present in the urine. A previously established HPLC protocol was used, which permitted the identification of fractions into which testosterone sulfate, testosterone glucuronide, and the parent compound testosterone elute. Results from this study indicate that the majority of testosterone excreted in the urine of the Asian bull elephant is in the form of testosterone sulfate. A small amount of testosterone glucuronide is also excreted, but there is no parent compound present in the urine at all. These results underscore the need for enzymatic hydrolysis to prepare urine samples for hormone assay measurement. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of proper hormone assay validation in order to ensure accurate measurement of the desired hormone. Although this study demonstrated the utility of AMS for safer validation of

  12. Testosterone levels of children with a diagnosis of developmental stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk EB

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Engin Burak Selçuk,1 Lale Gönenir Erbay,2 Özlem Özel Özcan,3 Sükrü Kartalci,2 Kadir Batcioğlu4 1Department of Family Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Inonu University Medical Faculty, 4Inonu University Pharmacy Faculty, Malatya, Turkey Background: Stuttering is defined as a disruption in the rhythm of speech and language articulation, where the subject knows what he/she wants to say, but is unable to utter the intended word or phrase fluently. The effect of sex on development and chronicity of stuttering is well known; it is more common and chronic in males. We aimed to investigate the relationship between developmental stuttering and serum testosterone levels in this study.Materials and methods: In this study, we evaluated a total of 50 children (7–12 years of age; eight (16% were female and 42 (84% were male. Twenty-five children who stutter and 25 typically fluent peers with the same demographic properties (ages between 7 years and 12 years were included in this study. The testosterone levels of the two groups were determined in terms of nanogram per milliliter (ng/mL by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The difference between the means of the two groups was analyzed.Results: The medians of the testosterone levels of the stutterer and control groups were determined as 20 ng/mL (range =12–184 ng/mL and 5 ng/mL (range =2–30 ng/mL, respectively. Testosterone levels of the stutterer group were significantly higher than in the control group (I=0.001. Besides, there was a significant correlation between the severity of the stuttering and testosterone levels in the stutterer group (I=0.0001.Conclusion: The findings of this study show that testosterone may have an effect on the severity of developmental stuttering and on the clinical differences between sexes. However, further investigations are needed to show that testosterone may play a role in the etiology of developmental

  13. Digit ratio, color polymorphism and egg testosterone in the Australian painted dragon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Tobler

    Full Text Available Variation in exposure to sex hormones during early development contributes to phenotypic plasticity in vertebrate offspring. As a proposed marker for prenatal sex hormone exposure and because of their association with various physiological and behavioral characteristics, digit ratio and/or digit length have received notable interest within the field of evolutionary ecology. However, the validity of digit measures as a proxy of prenatal sex hormone exposure is controversial and only few studies have provided direct evidence for the link between digit development and prenatal sex hormones. Here, we report morph- and sex-specific variation in digit ratio in wild painted dragon lizards (Ctenophorus pictus. Lizards expressing a yellow bib have significantly larger third-to-fourth toe ratios (3D:4D than lizards without a bib. Males have significantly smaller 3D:4D than females. Furthermore, we show that experimental elevation of yolk testosterone significantly increases 3D:4D in hatchling painted dragon lizards, but has no influence on hatchling size. Our results provide direct and indirect evidence for the involvement of prenatal sex steroids in digit development and it is suggested that digit ratio may be used as a biomarker for prenatal steroid exposure in this reptilian species. As such, digit ratio may provide a useful tool to study temporal or spatial differences in the proximate hormonal mechanisms modulating physiological and behavioural phenotypes.

  14. ALPK1 affects testosterone mediated regulation of proinflammatory cytokines production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzer-Min; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Hsu, Hui-Ting; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Huang, Chung-Ming; Tu, Hung-Pin; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2015-11-01

    Alpha-protein kinase 1, also known as alpha-kinase 1 (ALPK1), is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), myocardial infarction, gout and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). In addition to having an inductive effect on the proinflammatory cytokines in monocytic THP1 cells, ALPK1 is expressed abundantly in the mouse testes. Low testosterone levels are commonly associated with arthritis, CKD, type 2 DM, cardiovascular disease and inflammation. The testosterone's anti-inflammatory effect has been demonstrated to reduce proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. In this study, we found that ALPK1 transgenic mice showed lower levels of testosterone in both the testes and the serum. Decreasing endogenous ALPK1 enhanced testosterone levels and transcripts of testosterone-regulated genes (P450scc, 3beta-HSD, P450C17, 17beta-HSD, StAR, and INSL3) in TM3 Leydig cells. In contrast, increasing testosterone decreased ALPK1 in both TM3 and monocytic THP1 cells. This decrease was accompanied by a reduction of the proinflammatory cytokines. Increased ALPK1 levels attenuated the testosterone effects in THP1 cells. Finally, we also found that ALPK1 increased the release of TNF-alpha and TGF-beta1 in the human embryonic kidney 293 cells, while testosterone inhibited ALPK1 in the primary kidney cells. Taken together, this data suggests that the balance between ALPK1 and testosterone plays a critical role in the testosterone-mediated inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines.

  15. Transdermal testosterone replacement therapy in men

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah MI; Riche DM; Koch CA

    2014-01-01

    M Iftekhar Ullah,1 Daniel M Riche,1,2 Christian A Koch1,31Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, The University of Mississippi, 3GV (Sonny) Montgomery VA Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USAAbstract: Androgen deficiency syndrome in men is a frequently diagnosed condition associated with clinical symptoms including fatigue, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Serum testosterone concentrations decline steadily ...

  16. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome: The link

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    Ranabir Salam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS or "Syndrome X" which is a constellation of insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and increased very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL and triglyceride (TG levels. It is one of the main threats for public health in the 21st century with its associated risk of cardiovascular disease. This condition affects a major chunk of mankind. International Diabetes Federation (IDF estimated that around 20-25% of the adult population of the world has MetS. Several definitions have been put forward by different expert bodies leading to confusion. To overcome this, joint new statement of many expert group have been issued. Serum testosterone (T has been shown to be associated with MetS. Several studies have shown a higher prevalence of MetS in subjects with low testosterone. There are also several studies showing a significant difference in serum T between those with MetS and those without. Serum T has also been shown to be associated with components of MetS and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT improves various metabolic and anthropometric parameters in MetS. Patients with androgen deprivation for treatment of various cancers have also been reported to have higher prevalence of MetS. But the evidence of association is not sufficient evidence for the causation of MetS by low testosterone and long-term studies are needed to confirm whether T deficiency is the cause or is a feature of MetS.

  17. Risks of testosterone replacement therapy in men

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    E Charles Osterberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT is a widely used treatment for men with symptomatic hypogonadism. The benefits seen with TRT, such as increased libido and energy level, beneficial effects on bone density, strength and muscle as well as cardioprotective effects, have been well-documented. TRT is contraindicated in men with untreated prostate and breast cancer. Men on TRT should be monitored for side-effects such as polycythemia, peripheral edema, cardiac and hepatic dysfunction.

  18. Testosterone depot injection in male hypogonadism: a critical appraisal

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    Aksam A Yassin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aksam A Yassin1, Mohamed Haffejee21Clinic of Urology/Andrology, Segeberger Kliniken, Norderstedt-Hamburg, Germany and Department of Urology, Gulf Medical College School of Medicine, Ajman-UAE 2Urology Division at the University of Witwaterstrand & Johannesburg Hospital, Johannesburg, South AfricaAbstract: Testosterone compounds have been available for almost 70 years, but the pharmaceutical formulations have been less than ideal. Traditionally, injectable testosterone esters have been used for treatment, but they generate supranormal testosterone levels shortly after the 2- to 3-weekly injection interval and then testosterone levels decline very rapidly, becoming subnormal in the days before the next injection. The rapid fluctuations in plasma testosterone are subjectively experienced as disagreeable. Testosterone undecanoate is a new injectable testosterone preparation with a considerably better pharmacokinetic profile. After 2 initial injections with a 6-week interval, the following intervals between two injections are almost always 12-weeks, amounting eventually to a total of 4 injections per year. Plasma testosterone levels with this preparation are nearly always in the range of normal men, so are its metabolic products estradiol and dihydrotestosterone. The “roller coaster” effects of traditional parenteral testosterone injections are not apparent. It reverses the effects of hypogonadism on bone and muscle and metabolic parameters and on sexual functions. Its safety profile is excellent due to the continuous normalcy of plasma testosterone levels. No polycythemia has been observed, and no adverse effects on lipid profiles. Prostate safety parameters are well within reference limits. There was no impairment of uroflow. Testosterone undecanoate is a valuable contribution to the treatment options of androgen deficiency.Keywords: testosterone treatment, testosterone undecanoate, pharmacokinetic profile, clinical efficacy, side effects

  19. Effects of gendered behavior on testosterone in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M; Steiger, Jeffrey; Goldey, Katherine L

    2015-11-10

    Testosterone is typically understood to contribute to maleness and masculinity, although it also responds to behaviors such as competition. Competition is crucial to evolution and may increase testosterone but also is selectively discouraged for women and encouraged for men via gender norms. We conducted an experiment to test how gender norms might modulate testosterone as mediated by two possible gender→testosterone pathways. Using a novel experimental design, participants (trained actors) performed a specific type of competition (wielding power) in stereotypically masculine vs. feminine ways. We hypothesized in H1 (stereotyped behavior) that wielding power increases testosterone regardless of how it is performed, vs. H2 (stereotyped performance), that wielding power performed in masculine but not feminine ways increases testosterone. We found that wielding power increased testosterone in women compared with a control, regardless of whether it was performed in gender-stereotyped masculine or feminine ways. Results supported H1 over H2: stereotyped behavior but not performance modulated testosterone. These results also supported theory that competition modulates testosterone over masculinity. Our findings thus support a gender→testosterone pathway mediated by competitive behavior. Accordingly, cultural pushes for men to wield power and women to avoid doing so may partially explain, in addition to heritable factors, why testosterone levels tend to be higher in men than in women: A lifetime of gender socialization could contribute to "sex differences" in testosterone. Our experiment opens up new questions of gender→testosterone pathways, highlighting the potential of examining nature/nurture interactions and effects of socialization on human biology.

  20. Analysis of Naturally Occurring Steroid Hormones in Infant Formulas by HPLC-MS/MS and Contribution to Dietary Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Barreiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Milk is a natural fluid and as such contains small amounts of naturally occurring steroids. Human milk is recommended as the optimal source of nutrients for infants and young children, and it has been associated to several short- and long-term benefits. For this reason, its composition is used as a reference for designing infant formulas. However, the available information on the hormonal levels of these dairy products is scarce, and it is usually limited to estradiol and estrone. In the present study, six natural sex hormones (pregnenolone, progesterone, estrone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone and androstenedione have been extracted from sixteen milk-based infant formulas and analyzed with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS. The purpose of this research was to quantify natural steroid hormones in various infant formulas, to provide food and nutrition practitioners with information to estimate intakes in children. In addition, data found in the literature was used for comparison. The findings suggest that there are certain similarities between bovine milk and dairy products for infants. Furthermore, the detected levels were in general lower than those observed in human milk and/or colostrum. The reported results represent a valuable addition to the current knowledge on natural hormone content of infant foods.

  1. Influence of dioxin exposure upon levels of prostate-specific antigen and steroid hormones in Vietnamese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xian Liang; Kido, Teruhiko; Honma, Seijiro; Okamoto, Rie; Manh, Ho Dung; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nakano, Takeshi; Koh, Eitetsu; Takasuga, Takumi; Nhu, Dang Duc; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke

    2016-04-01

    Most studies on the relationship between Agent Orange and prostate cancer have focused on US veterans of the Vietnam War. There have been few studies focusing on the relationship between levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and dioxins or steroid hormones in Vietnamese men. In 2009-2011, we collected blood samples from 97 men who had resided in a "dioxin hotspot" and 85 men from a non-sprayed region in Vietnam. Then levels of PSA, dioxins, and steroid hormones were analyzed. Levels of most dioxins, furans, and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls were higher in the hotspot than those in the non-sprayed region. Levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and estradiol differed significantly between the hotspot and the non-sprayed region, but there were no correlations between levels of PSA and steroid hormones and dioxins in either of the two regions. Our findings suggest that PSA levels in Vietnamese men are not associated with levels of dioxin or steroid hormones in these two regions.

  2. Analysis of Naturally Occurring Steroid Hormones in Infant Formulas by HPLC-MS/MS and Contribution to Dietary Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, Rocío; Regal, Patricia; Díaz-Bao, Mónica; Fente, Cristina A.; Cepeda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Milk is a natural fluid and as such contains small amounts of naturally occurring steroids. Human milk is recommended as the optimal source of nutrients for infants and young children, and it has been associated to several short- and long-term benefits. For this reason, its composition is used as a reference for designing infant formulas. However, the available information on the hormonal levels of these dairy products is scarce, and it is usually limited to estradiol and estrone. In the present study, six natural sex hormones (pregnenolone, progesterone, estrone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone and androstenedione) have been extracted from sixteen milk-based infant formulas and analyzed with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The purpose of this research was to quantify natural steroid hormones in various infant formulas, to provide food and nutrition practitioners with information to estimate intakes in children. In addition, data found in the literature was used for comparison. The findings suggest that there are certain similarities between bovine milk and dairy products for infants. Furthermore, the detected levels were in general lower than those observed in human milk and/or colostrum. The reported results represent a valuable addition to the current knowledge on natural hormone content of infant foods.

  3. Transdermal testosterone replacement therapy in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M Iftekhar; Riche, Daniel M; Koch, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen deficiency syndrome in men is a frequently diagnosed condition associated with clinical symptoms including fatigue, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Serum testosterone concentrations decline steadily with age. The prevalence of androgen deficiency syndrome in men varies depending on the age group, known and unknown comorbidities, and the respective study group. Reported prevalence rates may be underestimated, as not every man with symptoms of androgen deficiency seeks treatment. Additionally, men reporting symptoms of androgen deficiency may not be correctly diagnosed due to the vagueness of the symptom quality. The treatment of androgen deficiency syndrome or male hypogonadism may sometimes be difficult due to various reasons. There is no consensus as to when to start treating a respective man or with regards to the best treatment option for an individual patient. There is also lack of familiarity with treatment options among general practitioners. The formulations currently available on the market are generally expensive and dose adjustment protocols for each differ. All these factors add to the complexity of testosterone replacement therapy. In this article we will discuss the general indications of transdermal testosterone replacement therapy, available formulations, dosage, application sites, and recommended titration schedule.

  4. Trends in sex hormone concentrations in US males: 1988-1991 to 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyante, S J; Graubard, B I; Li, Y; McQuillan, G M; Platz, E A; Rohrmann, S; Bradwin, G; McGlynn, K A

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that male testosterone concentrations have declined over time. To explore this in a large US population, we examined testosterone and free testosterone concentrations in National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 1988-1991 and 1999-2004. We also examined sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol, and androstanediol glucuronide (3α-diol-G) over the same period. Non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American men from 1988-1991 and 1999-2004 NHANES surveys who were ≥20 years old and had serum from morning blood draws were included in this analysis (1988-1991: N = 1,413; 1999-2004: N = 902). Testosterone, estradiol and SHBG were measured by competitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassays and 3α-diol-G was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Free testosterone was calculated using testosterone and SHBG values. Adjusted mean hormone concentrations were estimated using linear regression, accounting for NHANES sampling weights and design, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, waist circumference, alcohol use and smoking. Differences in adjusted mean concentrations (Δ) and two-sided p-values were calculated; p 1988-1991 and 1999-2004, but there was little change in testosterone, free testosterone, or SHBG (Δ: 3α-diol-G = -1.83 ng/mL, p 1988-1991 and 1999-2004 in the US general population. Subgroup analyses suggest that SHBG and 3α-diol-G declined in young white men, estradiol declined in white and Mexican-American men, and free testosterone increased in young black men. These changes may be related to the increasing prevalence of reproductive disorders in young men.

  5. Prevalence of low testosterone levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

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    Ayman A Al Hayek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high prevalence of low serum testosterone (LST in men with type 2 diabetes have been reported worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of LST in men with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted among 1,089 men (aged 30-70 years with type 2 diabetes who consecutively attended a major diabetes center in Amman, Jordan, between August 2008 and February 2009. The patients′ demographic characteristics were collected using a prestructured questionnaire. Duration of diabetes, smoking habits, presence of retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy were collected from the medical records. All participants were asked to complete the Androgen Deficiency in Ageing Male (ADAM questionnaire. Venous blood sample was collected to test for total testosterone (TT, free testosterone (FT, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, prolactin (PRL, serum lipids, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c. LST was defined as TT <3 ng/ml. Results: Overall, 36.5% of patients with diabetes had TT level <3 ng/ml and 29% had symptoms of androgen deficiency. Of those with serum testosterone level <3 ng/ml, 80.2% had symptoms of androgen deficiency, 16.9% had primary hypogonadism (HG, and 83.1% had secondary HG. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between age, income, education, body mass index (BMI, smoking, duration of diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, and HbA1c. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated age, income, BMI, and diabetic neuropathy as the independent risk factors of LST. Conclusions: The prevalence of LST among men with type 2 diabetes is high. Age, income, BMI, and diabetic neuropathy were found to be the independent risk factors for LST.

  6. Prevalence of low testosterone levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hayek, Ayman A.; Khader, Yousef S.; Jafal, Sahar; Khawaja, Nahla; Robert, Asirvatham A.; Ajlouni, Kamel

    2013-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of low serum testosterone (LST) in men with type 2 diabetes have been reported worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of LST in men with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted among 1,089 men (aged 30-70 years) with type 2 diabetes who consecutively attended a major diabetes center in Amman, Jordan, between August 2008 and February 2009. The patients’ demographic characteristics were collected using a prestructured questionnaire. Duration of diabetes, smoking habits, presence of retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy were collected from the medical records. All participants were asked to complete the Androgen Deficiency in Ageing Male (ADAM) questionnaire. Venous blood sample was collected to test for total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), serum lipids, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). LST was defined as TT <3 ng/ml. Results: Overall, 36.5% of patients with diabetes had TT level <3 ng/ml and 29% had symptoms of androgen deficiency. Of those with serum testosterone level <3 ng/ml, 80.2% had symptoms of androgen deficiency, 16.9% had primary hypogonadism (HG), and 83.1% had secondary HG. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between age, income, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, duration of diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, and HbA1c. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated age, income, BMI, and diabetic neuropathy as the independent risk factors of LST. Conclusions: The prevalence of LST among men with type 2 diabetes is high. Age, income, BMI, and diabetic neuropathy were found to be the independent risk factors for LST. PMID:24672276

  7. Guangzhou Chemical Industry%Research Progress on Detection Method for Methyl Testosterone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冬艳; 王彩萍; 丁超梦

    2016-01-01

    甲基睾酮作为激素类药物由于可以促进水产品种的性别转变及口服稳定有效的特点在养殖业广泛使用。但在我国农业部235号公告规定甲基睾酮为禁止使用兽药,在所有食用动物的所有可食组织中不得检出。本文对甲基睾酮现有的检测方法进行详细介绍,分析其优缺点,进一步介绍甲基睾酮检测方法的新动态,为加强进出口农产品中违禁药物残留的检测提供一定的思路。%Methyl testosterone,as hormone drugs of the promotion of aquatic species change sex and oral stable and effective features, is widely used in the aquaculture industry. But in China the Ministry of Agriculture Bulletin No. 235 stipulates that methyl testosterone is prohibited in the use of veterinary drugs, can’t be detected inall edible tissues inall food animals. Methyl testosterone existing detection methods was described in detail. Its strengths and weaknesses wereanalyzed,and new dynamic detection methods of methyl testosterone were further introduced, to provide some ideasabout the import and export of agricultural products to detect illegal drug residues.

  8. The Protective Effect of Testosterone on Indomethacin Induced Gastric Ulcer in Female Sprague Dawley Rats

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    U. Akpamu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric ulcer has shown association with changes in sex hormones, with impact exacerbated in males. Also, males are known to be more exposed to ulcer risk factors. This study investigates the effect of testosterone on indomethacin induced gastric ulcers in adult female rats. Eighteen female rats (225 ± 25 g body weight were randomly assigned to 3 groups under standard laboratory condition. After acclimatization, animals fasted for 40 hrs but were given water ad libitum. Group A served as control while group B served as the ulcer control, in which ulcer was induced without treatment using indomethacin (40 mg/kg single orally dose. Group C was pretreated with testosterone (1 mg/kg IM eight hours before ulcer induction. Eight hours after ulcer induction, animals were sacrificed and the stomach was harvested for analysis. Results showed a significant reduction in mucus content in groups C (0.79±0.11 g and B (0.87±0.02 g compared to A (1.11±0.03 g. Gastric mucus pH was significantly acidic in group B (4.40±0.55 compared to C (5.20±0.45 and A (5.80±0.45. There was a significantly higher ulcer index in group B (4.60±0.55 mm compared to C (3.60±0.89 mm and testosterone pretreatment resulted in a 21.74% ulcer inhibition. Although weak, the findings suggest that testosterone might protect the gastric mucosa against NSAIDs in females.

  9. Indices of Free Testosterone And Hyperandrogenemia in Relation To Hirsutism in Middle Aged Egyptian females

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    *Kandil H.T., * Hassan Z.A., * Abaza D.M. ** Abd. El Fattah . A.M

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Hirsutism is an androgen excess related disorder that commonly affects women causing a variety of negative metabolic disturbances. Early and accurate diagnoses of androgen over-production or hypersensitivity to normal circulating androgen have an important implication for treatment and follow up of patients. The aim of this work is to study the validity of hyperandrogonemic index (HAI and index of free testosterone (IFT in, diagnosis of hirsute Egyptian women, and its correlation to hair score as a clinical marker for hirsutism. Twenty-four hirsute women aged 19-32 y's, median (24.25 ± 4.3 were studied. Ten age matched nonhirsute females, were studied as controls. Patients and control were subjected to the following, full history and clinical examination. Biochemical and hormonal parameters were measured, fasting blood sugar (FBLS, 2 hours post prandial blood sugar (2h pp BL. S, serum total testosterone (TT, free testosterone (FT, dihydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, Dihydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS androstenedion (ADION, prolactin (PL and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG. Index of free testosterone (IFT and index of hyperandrogenemia (IHA were calculated. Results showed significant higher BMI (P< 0.009, 2hrs PPBLS. (P< 0.001, TT (P< 0.005, FT (P< 0.000, SHBG (P< 0.02 and (ADION (P< 0.000 in hirsute females compared to controls. Hair score was positively correlated with IFT only while it was not correlated with all of the measured hormones. FT was positively correlated with BMI (P< 0.004, FBLS (P< 0.001 and 2hrs PPBL.S (P< 0.000. While TT was positively correlated with BMI (P< 0.001. Androstenedion was positively correlated with systolic BL.P (P< 0.000, diastolic BL.P (P< 0.02, FBL.S (P< 0.001 and 2hrs PPBL.S (P< 0.000. IFT was positively correlated with hair score (P< 0.05, BMI (P< 0.01, systolic BL.P (P< 0.004, FBL.S (P< 0.001 and 2hrs PPBL.S (P< 0.01. SHBG was negatively correlated with systolic BL.P (P< 0.04, FBL.S (P< 0.05 and 2hrs PPBL

  10. Cross-cultural variation in women's preferences for cues to sex- and stress-hormones in the male face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, F. R.; Coetzee, V.; Contreras-Garduño, J.; Debruine, L. M.; Kleisner, K.; Krams, I.; Marcinkowska, U.; Nord, A.; Perrett, D. I.; Rantala, M. J.; Schaum, N.; Suzuki, T. N.

    2013-01-01

    Women in the UK prefer the faces of men with low levels of the stress hormone cortisol, and the relationship is moderated by the sex hormone testosterone. In a Latvian sample, however, women's preferences were not affected by cortisol, and the interaction with testosterone differed from that of the UK. To further explore cross-cultural variation in preferences for facial cues to sex- and stress-hormones, we tested the preferences of women from 13 countries for facial composites constructed to differ in combinations of the hormones. We found significant relationships between a measure of societal development (the United Nations human development index 2011) and preferences for cues to testosterone in the face, and the interaction between preferences for cues to testosterone and cortisol. We also found a significant relationship between preferences for cues to testosterone and a societal-level measure of parasite stress. We conclude that societal-level ecological factors influence the relative value of traits revealed by combinations of sex- and stress-hormones. PMID:23536442

  11. Dehydroepiandrosterone Supplementation Combined with Whole-Body Vibration Training Affects Testosterone Level and Body Composition in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Tzeng, Yen-Dun

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related biochemical responses and testosterone content in young-adult C57BL/6 mice. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) for 6-weeks treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), DHEA supplementation (DHEA, 10.2 mg/kg), WBV training (WBV; 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g), and WBV training with DHEA supplementation (WBV+DHEA; WBV: 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g and DHEA: 10.2 mg/kg). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after a 15-min swimming exercise. In addition, the biochemical parameters and the testosterone content were measured at the end of the experiment. Six-week DHEA supplementation alone significantly increased mice body weight (BW), muscle weight, testosterone level, and glycogen contents (liver and muscle) when compared with SC group. DHEA supplementation alone had no negative impact on all tissue and biochemical profiles, but could not improve exercise performance. However, WBV+DHEA supplementation also significantly decreased BW, testosterone level and glycogen content of liver, as well as serum

  12. Dysregulation of male sex hormones in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Serafi, A T; Osama, S; El-Zalat, H; EL-Deen, I M

    2016-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection is a serious problem all over the world and has a special importance in Egypt, where the prevalence of infection is 14.7% of population. In males, HCV is associated with sexual dysfunction and changes in the semen parameters. This study aimed at estimation of a panel of the most important related hormones in the serum of patients and illustration of their correlation to the routine laboratory investigations. The four studied hormones showed alteration in the patients in comparison with the controls. While androstenedione, prolactin and testosterone were significantly increased in patients, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate was decreased. These changes in the hormones were not related to the liver functions, pathological grade or even viral load. We hypothesised a model of how HCV can induce these hormonal changes and recommended to add these hormones to the follow-up panel of male patients with HCV.

  13. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and reproductive hormones in adult sons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Thulstrup, A M; Olsen, J; Ernst, E; Andersen, C Y; Bonde, J P

    2008-12-01

    Smoking during pregnancy has been reported to alter levels of reproductive hormones in adult sons. From a Danish pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987, 347 out of 5109 sons were selected according to their exposure to tobacco smoke in foetal life. From February 2005 to January 2006, a blood sample from each young man (18-21 years) was collected and analysed for reproductive hormones. There were no apparent trends of increasing or decreasing hormonal levels with increased exposure to maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy. Only the free testosterone/free estradiol ratios increased with increased maternal smoking during pregnancy (p for trend = 0.05). No trends for increasing odds ratios for high follicle-stimulating hormone (> or =25 percentile) or low inhibin B (hormones later in life, but the data may suggest a shift in the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis towards higher androgenicity. This result was, however, of only borderline significance and could be because of chance.

  14. Redefining Hormone Sensitive Disease in Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Hou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the United States. For decades, the cornerstone of medical treatment for advanced prostate cancer has been hormonal therapy, intended to lower testosterone levels, known as Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT. The development of hormone-resistant prostate cancer (now termed castration-resistant prostate cancer:CRPC remains the key roadblock in successful long-term management of prostate cancer. New advancements in medical therapy for prostate cancer have added to the hormonal therapy armamentarium. These new therapeutic agents not only provide a survival benefit but also show potential for reversing hormonal resistance in metastatic CRPC, and thus redefining hormonally sensitive disease.

  15. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone, Progesterone, Seminal Antisperm Antibody, and Fructose Levels among Jordanian Males with a History of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala I. Al-Daghistani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the biochemical complexity of seminal fluid, we attempt to study the possible correlation between fructose, which is secreted under the effect of androgen hormone, and autoimmunity, which might play a role in varicocele associated infertility, in reducing sperm motility. Seminal fructose, antisperm antibodies (ASAs and blood steroids hormones (testosterone and progesterone levels were measured in 66 infertile males with varicocele and 84 without varicocele referred for fertility treatment. Seminal analysis was performed with biochemical measurements of seminal fructose and mixed agglutination reaction (MAR for ASA. Serum levels of progesterone and testosterone were estimated using a competitive chemoluminescent enzyme immunoassay. The mean values for serum testosterone were 380.74±24.331, 365.9±16.55, and 367.5±21.8 ng/dl, progesterone 0.325±0.243, 0.341±0.022, and 0.357  ±  0.0306 ng/ml, and seminal plasma fructose 359.6  ±  26.75, 315.6  ±  13.08, and 332.08  ±  24.38 mg/dl in males with varicocele, without varicocele, and fertile males, respectively. A significant high level of testosterone was observed within varicocele group (P=.001. This result showed that testosterone may play a role as an infertility determinant in subjects with varicocele. ASA was detected in 18 (26.47% of cases with varicocele, 20 (38.46% without varicocele, and in 16 (32.0% fertile men. Cases with ASAs associated with low sperm motility morphology. An inverse correlation between sperm-bound antibodies and viscosity has been shown (P=.017. ASA showed some significant inverse relations with ages, durations of infertility, and viscosity (P<.05. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between ASA positive seminal plasma and testosterone concentration among infertile cases (with or without varicocele and fertile (P<.05. Our results suggest a relationship between testicular steroid hormone levels with

  16. Surveys of serum reproductive hormone levels and the prevalence rates of late onset of hypogonadism in Chinese aging males

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Shan-jie; Li Xian-kun; Lu Wen-hong; Liang Xiao-wei; Yuan Dong; Li Hong; Gu Yi-qun; Zhang Bao-long; Ji Yu-dang; Wang Can-gang

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the change patterns of reproductive hormones in serum of aging males and the difference among male age brackets and the prevalence rates of late onset of hypogonadism (LOH) in males in Chinese middle and aging males.Methods:Subjects included 1,498 men aged 40 to 69 from a county,and the serum reproductive hormones of 434 subjects were measured and calculated.In addition,the prevalence rates of LOH were analyzed by cut-off point of total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (cFT),and screening scales (a questionnaire of androgen deficiency in the aging males (ADAM) and a scale of aging males' symptoms (AMS)).TT,cFT,bio-available testosterone (Bio-T),luteinizing hormone (LH),sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG),testosterone secretion index (TSI),free testosterone index (FTI),the positive rates of LOH screening,androgen deficiency rates and the clinical prevalence rates of LOH were measured or calculated.Results:The serum TT levels did not change significantly with male aging while serum LH and SHBG levels gradually increased,but cFT,Bio-T,TSI and FTI levels gradually decreased with male aging.There was very significant difference in other six parameters of reproductive hormones (P<0.01),except for serum TT among the four age brackets(P>0.05).There was no correlation between serum TT levels and aging,LH levels(P>0.05).However,there was significantly a positive correlation between serum LH,SHBG and age (P<0.01),while there were negative correlation between cFT,Bio-T,TSI,FTI and age,LH levels (P<0.01).Moreover,SHBG level was positively correlated with LH level (P<0.01).Utilizing the Questionnaire of ADAM and AMS to screen subjects aged 40 to 69 years,mean positive rates of LOH screening were 80.77% and 32.34% respectively.Mean androgen deficiency rates were 14.02% and 43.69%by using TT and cFT cut-off point.In addition,mean LOH clinical prevalence rates of subjects on positive questionnaire results were 37.85% and 15.42

  17. Hormonal correlates of acne and hirsutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucky, A W

    1995-01-16

    Acne is a multifactorial disorder reflecting the role of infection, abnormal keratinization and immunologic reaction, as well as hormonal influences, on the pilosebaceous unit. Clinical studies have correlated elevated levels of androgens, originating in both the adrenal glands and ovaries, with acne. These include total and free testosterone, delta 4-androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate, and low levels of sex hormone binding globulin. The pathogenesis of acne initiation in childhood has been linked to rising serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Hirsutism has been more directly correlated with increased levels of serum androgens, notably free testosterone. Underlying causes of elevated androgens in both disorders include very rare tumors, partial or late-onset forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, developmental adrenal abnormalities and, most commonly, polycystic ovary syndrome. Early acne treatment may include topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and tretinoin. More severe disease can be treated systemically (with antibiotics and/or isotretinoin). Very-low-dose corticosteroids can be used to eliminate the adrenal component of hyperandrogenism. Oral contraceptives, especially those that contain low-androgenic progestins, can reduce excessive androgens from any source and specifically suppress the ovary in polycystic ovary syndrome. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, with or without estrogen supplementation, and systemic or topical antiandrogens may play a more important role in the future.

  18. Different responses of selected hormones to three types of exercise in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Keith A; Gilbert, Kate L; Hall, George M; Andrews, Robert C; Thompson, Dylan

    2013-03-01

    Exercise is a potent stimulus for release of growth hormone (GH), cortisol, testosterone and prolactin, and prolonged exercise inhibits insulin secretion. These responses seem to be specific to the type of exercise but this has been poorly characterised primarily because they have not been compared during exercise performed by the same individuals. We investigated hormone responses to resistance, sprint and endurance exercise in young men using a repeated measures design in which each subject served as their own control. Eight healthy non-obese young adults (18-25 years) were studied on four occasions in random order: 30-s cycle ergometer sprint (Sprint), 30-min resistance exercise bout (Resistance), 30-min cycle at 70 % VO(2max) (Endurance), and seated rest in the laboratory (Rest). Cortisol, GH, testosterone, prolactin, insulin and glucose concentrations were measured for 60 min after the four different interventions. Endurance and sprint exercise significantly increased GH, cortisol, prolactin and testosterone. Sprint exercise also increased insulin concentrations, whereas this decreased in response to endurance exercise. Resistance exercise significantly increased only testosterone and glucose. Sprint exercise elicited the largest response per unit of work, but the smallest response relative to mean work rate in all hormones. In conclusion, the nature and magnitude of the hormone response were influenced by exercise type, perhaps reflecting the roles of these hormones in regulating metabolism during and after resistance, sprint and endurance exercise.

  19. Waist-to-Hip Ratio, but Not Body Mass Index, Is Associated with Testosterone and Estradiol Concentrations in Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mondragón-Ceballos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied if testosterone and estradiol concentrations are associated with specific female waist-to-hip ratios (WHRs and body mass indices (BMIs. Participants were 187 young women from which waist, hips, weight, and height were measured. In addition, participants informed on which day of their menstrual cycle they were and provided a 6 mL saliva sample. Ninety-one of them were in the follicular phase and 96 in the luteal phase. Only in the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle we found a significant interaction between testosterone and estradiol affecting WHR (b±s.e.=-0.000003±0.000001; t94=-2.12, adjusted R2=-0.008, P=0.03. Women with the highest levels of both hormones had the lowest WHRs, while women with low estradiol and high testosterone showed the highest WHRs. BMI significantly increased as testosterone increased in female in their nonfertile days.

  20. Study of testosterone as a predictor of tumor aggressiveness in patients with prostate cancer

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    Pedro Henrique Oliveira Cabral

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose A growing body of evidence suggests that low testosterone can be an independent predictor of adverse clinicopathological features and worse prognosis in prostate cancer (PCa patients. However, this association is still incompletely understood and the results are divisive. The aim of this study was to analyze testosterone as a predictor of aggressive disease in subjects with clinically localized PCa. Materials and Methods A cohort was conducted including the patients submitted to radical prostatectomy in our institution during a period of four years. The patients had clinically localized disease and their total testosterone (TT was routinely measured preoperatively in the morning before surgery. They were stratified in groups with low ( 0.99. Conversely, men with high Gleason score had similar mean TT compared to those with lower scores. Preoperative low TT (defined as TT < 300 ng/dL could not be statistically correlated with either preoperative PSA levels, pathological Gleason score, extraprostatic extension, positive surgical margins or seminal vesicles involvement. Conclusions This study indicates that testosterone may be a useful predictive tool once pathological extraprostatic extension was somewhat signaled by lower TT levels preoperatively. However, it does not consolidate a clear association between aggressive tumor biology and hypogonadism.

  1. Welcoming low testosterone as a cardiovascular risk factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, M; Basaria, S

    2009-01-01

    Male hypogonadism now has a new spectrum of complications. They are mainly cardiometabolic in nature. Low serum testosterone levels are a risk factor for diabetes, metabolic syndrome, inflammation and dyslipidemia. These metabolic and inflammatory complications are not without consequences. Recent studies have shown low serum testosterone levels to be an independent risk factor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. It is time to welcome low serum testosterone levels as a cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:19536127

  2. Welcoming low testosterone as a cardiovascular risk factor

    OpenAIRE

    Maggio, M; Basaria, S.

    2009-01-01

    Male hypogonadism now has a new spectrum of complications. They are mainly cardiometabolic in nature. Low serum testosterone levels are a risk factor for diabetes, metabolic syndrome, inflammation and dyslipidemia. These metabolic and inflammatory complications are not without consequences. Recent studies have shown low serum testosterone levels to be an independent risk factor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. It is time to welcome low serum testosterone levels as a cardiovascular r...

  3. Sleep regulation and sex hormones exposure in men and women across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, C; Sekerovic, Z; Carrier, J

    2014-10-01

    This review aims to discuss how endogenous and exogenous testosterone exposures in men and estrogens/progesterone exposures in women interact with sleep regulation. In young men, testosterone secretion peaks during sleep and is linked to sleep architecture. Animal and human studies support the notion that sleep loss suppresses testosterone secretion. Testosterone levels decline slowly throughout the aging process, but relatively few studies investigate its impact on age-related sleep modifications. Results suggest that poorer sleep quality is associated with lower testosterone concentrations and that sleep loss may have a more prominent effect on testosterone levels in older individuals. In women, sex steroid levels are characterized by a marked monthly cycle and reproductive milestones such as pregnancy and menopause. Animal models indicate that estrogens and progesterone influence sleep. Most studies do not show any clear effects of the menstrual cycle on sleep, but sample sizes are too low, and research designs often inhibit definitive conclusions. The effects of hormonal contraceptives on sleep are currently unknown. Pregnancy and the postpartum period are associated with increased sleep disturbances, but their relation to the hormonal milieu still needs to be determined. Finally, studies suggest that menopausal transition and the hormonal changes associated with it are linked to lower subjective sleep quality, but results concerning objective sleep measures are less conclusive. More research is necessary to unravel the effects of vasomotor symptoms on sleep. Hormone therapy seems to induce positive effects on sleep, but key concerns are still unresolved, including the long-term effects and efficacy of different hormonal regimens.

  4. Mouse Spermatogenesis Requires Classical and Nonclassical Testosterone Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toocheck, Corey; Clister, Terri; Shupe, John; Crum, Chelsea; Ravindranathan, Preethi; Lee, Tae-Kyung; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Raj, Ganesh V; Sukhwani, Meena; Orwig, Kyle E; Walker, William H

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone acts though the androgen receptor in Sertoli cells to support germ cell development (spermatogenesis) and male fertility, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which testosterone acts are not well understood. Previously, we found that in addition to acting through androgen receptor to directly regulate gene expression (classical testosterone signaling pathway), testosterone acts through a nonclassical pathway via the androgen receptor to rapidly activate kinases that are known to regulate spermatogenesis. In this study, we provide the first evidence that nonclassical testosterone signaling occurs in vivo as the MAP kinase cascade is rapidly activated in Sertoli cells within the testis by increasing testosterone levels in the rat. We find that either classical or nonclassical signaling regulates testosterone-mediated Rhox5 gene expression in Sertoli cells within testis explants. The selective activation of classical or nonclassical signaling pathways in Sertoli cells within testis explants also resulted in the differential activation of the Zbtb16 and c-Kit genes in adjacent spermatogonia germ cells. Delivery of an inhibitor of either pathway to Sertoli cells of mouse testes disrupted the blood-testis barrier that is essential for spermatogenesis. Furthermore, an inhibitor of nonclassical testosterone signaling blocked meiosis in pubertal mice and caused the loss of meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells in adult mouse testes. An inhibitor of the classical pathway caused the premature release of immature germ cells. Collectively, these observations indicate that classical and nonclassical testosterone signaling regulate overlapping and distinct functions that are required for the maintenance of spermatogenesis and male fertility.

  5. Testosterone Replacement Therapy on the Natural History of Prostate Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Aaron; Butcher, Michael J; Köhler, Tobias S

    2015-08-01

    The physiology of testosterone production and action are closely related to prostatic disease. An understanding of the natural history of testosterone and prostate growth and development is needed in order to understand this complex relationship. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer, and sexual function are common disorders for which testosterone is thought to play a role. Proposed in this review are some theories as to how testosterone interacts to potentially ameliorate these conditions. Further research is needed, but we feel our proposed points are valid given the review of the literature.

  6. Hormone replacement therapy in morphine-induced hypogonadic male chronic pain patients

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    Ravaioli Laura

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In male patients suffering from chronic pain, opioid administration induces severe hypogonadism, leading to impaired physical and psychological conditions such as fatigue, anaemia and depression. Hormone replacement therapy is rarely considered for these hypogonadic patients, notwithstanding the various pharmacological solutions available. Methods To treat hypogonadism and to evaluate the consequent endocrine, physical and psychological changes in male chronic pain patients treated with morphine (epidural route, we tested the administration of testosterone via a gel formulation for one year. Hormonal (total testosterone, estradiol, free testosterone, DHT, cortisol, pain (VAS and other pain questionnaires, andrological (Ageing Males' Symptoms Scale - AMS and psychological (POMS, CES-D and SF-36 parameters were evaluated at baseline (T0 and after 3, 6 and 12 months (T3, T6, T12 respectively. Results The daily administration of testosterone increased total and free testosterone and DHT at T3, and the levels remained high until T12. Pain rating indexes (QUID progressively improved from T3 to T12 while the other pain parameters (VAS, Area% remained unchanged. The AMS sexual dimension and SF-36 Mental Index displayed a significant improvement over time. Conclusions In conclusion, our results suggest that a constant, long-term supply of testosterone can induce a general improvement of the male chronic pain patient's quality of life, an important clinical aspect of pain management.

  7. Risk of Breast Cancer in Relation to Combined Effects of Hormone Therapy, Body Mass Index, and Alcohol Use, by Hormone-receptor Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Tjonneland, Anne; Keiding, Niels;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption, increased body mass index (BMI), and hormone therapy are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer, but their combined effects are not well understood. Because hormone therapy is effective for the relief of menopausal symptoms, the identification of "high...... therapy users across all BMI strata (P for interaction = 0.003). A markedly higher risk of breast cancer was also observed for alcohol combined with hormone therapy use compared with abstinent nonusers (P for interaction = 0.02). These effects were primarily restricted to ER-positive cases. Combined...... effects of hormone therapy/high BMI and hormone therapy/alcohol on serum estradiol and testosterone supported the hypothesis of a hormonal pathway linking these exposures to breast cancer. CONCLUSION: These analyses suggest an increased risk of breast cancer associated with hormone therapy use-a risk...

  8. Influence of Music on Steroid Hormones and the Relationship between Receptor Polymorphism and Musical Ability: a Pilot Study

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    Hajime eFukui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that music confers plasticity to the brain. In a preliminary pilot study, we examined the effect of music listening on steroid hormones and the relationship between steroid hormone receptor polymorphisms and musical ability. Twenty-one subjects (10 males and 11 females were recruited and divided into musically talented and control groups. The subjects selected (1 music they preferred (chill-inducing music and (2 music they did not like. Before and after the experiments, saliva was collected to measure the levels of steroid hormones such as testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol. DNA was also isolated from the saliva samples to determine the androgen receptor and arginine vasopressin receptor 1A genotypes. Advanced Measures of Music Audiation (AMMA was used to determine the musical ability of the subjects. With both types of music, the cortisol levels decreased significantly in both sexes. The testosterone (T levels declined in males when they listened to both types of music. In females, the T levels increased in those listening to chill-inducing music but declined when they listened to music they disliked. However, these differences were not significant. The 17-beta estradiol levels increased in males with both types of music, whereas the levels increased with chill-inducing music but declined with disliked music in females. The AMMA scores were higher for the short repeat length-type AR than for the long repeat length-type. Comparisons of AR polymorphisms and T levels before the experiments showed that the T levels were within the low range in the short repeat length-type group and there was a positive relationship with the repeat length, although it was not significant. This is the first study conducted in humans to analyze the relationships between the AR gene, T levels, and musical ability.

  9. Calorie restriction at increasing levels leads to augmented concentrations of corticosterone and decreasing concentrations of testosterone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Elizabeth A; Tammer, Amanda H; Penman, Jim; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2010-05-01

    The influence of calorie restriction (CR) on increasing life span, enhancing immunocompetence, and reducing the incidence of age-related diseases is well established. Evidence points to the involvement of neuroendocrine alterations in these beneficial effects. Accordingly, we hypothesized that CR will result in significant alterations to the hormones investigated. Little attention has been directed toward ascertaining the doses of CR required to obtain such alterations and, indeed, whether a dose-response exists. Adult rats were subjected to 1 of 5 dietary regimens: control, CR12.5%, CR25%, CR37.5%, or CR50%. Rats were decapitated 3 weeks following the onset of restriction; and trunk blood was collected and assayed for concentrations of serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone, and testosterone, as well as plasma concentrations of noradrenalin and adrenalin. No effect was found as a result of dietary manipulation for serum concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone. However, all doses of CR resulted in increased serum corticosterone in a dose-response trend. A dose-response was also observed for serum testosterone, with higher doses of CR associated with lower testosterone. Concentrations of noradrenalin were not found to be altered by any CR dose, although a trend toward a down-regulation at CR50% was observed. Plasma adrenalin displayed a biphasic distribution with reductions observed at CR25% and CR50%, although the down-regulations only attained statistical significance relative to the CR37.5% and not the control group. As well as reporting the effect of CR on multiple hormones within individual animals, these results go some way in determining the optimal levels of CR needed to induce neuroendocrinologic alterations.

  10. Relationship between dioxin and steroid hormones in sera of Vietnamese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xian Liang; Kido, Teruniko; Okamoto, Rie; Manh, Ho Dung; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Honma, Seijiro; Nakano, Takeshi; Takasuga, Takumi; Nhu, Dang Duc; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke

    2014-05-01

    A recent study found an inverse correlation between serum TCDD levels and serum testosterone in the US veterans, while there is little known on the dioxin and steroid hormones about Vietnamese men. We collected blood samples from 48 men who had resided in a hotspot when exposure happened and 38 men in a non-sprayed area. Some steroid hormones levels showed significant differences between two areas. There were no correlations between steroid hormones and dioxin TEQ, after ajusting for age and other factors. Our findings indicate that steroid hormones of Vietnamese men did not correlate with dioxin TEQ in two areas.

  11. Establishing the "Biological Relevance" of Dipentyl Phthalate Reductions in Fetal Rat Testosterone Production and Plasma and Testis Testosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Leon Earl; Furr, Johnathan; Tatum-Gibbs, Katoria R; Lambright, Christy; Sampson, Hunter; Hannas, Bethany R; Wilson, Vickie S; Hotchkiss, Andrew; Foster, Paul M D

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of compounds that are used for many consumer product applications. Many of the C2-C7 di-ortho PEs reduce fetal testicular hormone and gene expression levels in rats resulting in adverse effects seen later in life but it appears that relatively large reductions in fetal testosterone (T) levels and testis gene expression may be required to adversely affect reproductive development (Hannas, B. R., Lambright, C. S., Furr, J., Evans, N., Foster, P. M., Gray, E. L., and Wilson, V. S. (2012). Genomic biomarkers of phthalate-induced male reproductive developmental toxicity: a targeted RT-PCR array approach for defining relative potency. Toxicol. Sci. 125, 544-557). The objectives of this study were (1) to model the relationships between changes in fetal male rat plasma testosterone (PT), T levels in the testis (TT), T production (PROD), and testis gene expression with the reproductive malformation rates, and (2) to quantify the "biologically relevant reductions" (BRRs) in fetal T necessary to induce adverse effects in the offspring. In the fetal experiment, Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with dipentyl phthalate (DPeP) at 0, 11, 33, 100, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestational days (GD) 14-18 and fetal testicular T, PT levels, and T Prod and gene expression were assessed on GD 18. In the postnatal experiment, rats were dosed with DPeP from GD 8-18 and reproductive development was monitored through adulthood. The dose-response curves for TT levels (ED(50) = 53 mg/kg) and T PROD (ED(50) = 45 mg/kg) were similar, whereas PT was reduced at ED50 = 19 mg/kg. When the reductions in TPROD and Insl3 mRNA were compared with the postnatal effects of in utero DPeP, dose-related reproductive alterations were noted when T PROD and Insl3 mRNA were reduced by >45% and 42%, respectively. The determination of BRR levels may enable risk assessors to utilize fetal endocrine data to help establish points of departure for

  12. Analyzing Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Archaeoastronomical field survey typically involves the measurement of structural orientations (i.e., orientations along and between built structures) in relation to the visible landscape and particularly the surrounding horizon. This chapter focuses on the process of analyzing the astronomical potential of oriented structures, whether in the field or as a desktop appraisal, with the aim of establishing the archaeoastronomical "facts". It does not address questions of data selection (see instead Chap. 25, "Best Practice for Evaluating the Astronomical Significance of Archaeological Sites", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_25) or interpretation (see Chap. 24, "Nature and Analysis of Material Evidence Relevant to Archaeoastronomy", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_22). The main necessity is to determine the azimuth, horizon altitude, and declination in the direction "indicated" by any structural orientation. Normally, there are a range of possibilities, reflecting the various errors and uncertainties in estimating the intended (or, at least, the constructed) orientation, and in more formal approaches an attempt is made to assign a probability distribution extending over a spread of declinations. These probability distributions can then be cumulated in order to visualize and analyze the combined data from several orientations, so as to identify any consistent astronomical associations that can then be correlated with the declinations of particular astronomical objects or phenomena at any era in the past. The whole process raises various procedural and methodological issues and does not proceed in isolation from the consideration of corroborative data, which is essential in order to develop viable cultural interpretations.

  13. Natural variation in steroid hormone profiles of male Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus, in northwest Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M; Beaupre, Steven J

    2014-09-15

    We describe the seasonal profile of circulating steroid hormones (testosterone and corticosterone) in relation to the breeding season in free ranging male Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus, over the course of three active seasons. In addition, we examine variation in steroid concentrations across years and in relation to body condition. We found that seasonal profiles of plasma testosterone were different compared to other crotalines with similar mating patterns. Concentrations of testosterone were elevated above baseline in the three months leading up to the single late summer breeding season. Testosterone peaked in July at the onset of the breeding season and dropped to baseline during the peak months of breeding (August and September). Testosterone concentrations also varied annually. Although the exact cause of annual variation could not be established, our results indicate that weather patterns may have driven observed differences. Testosterone concentrations were positively related to body condition, indicating that testosterone production is modulated according to energetic status (particularly in the two months prior to the breeding season). Corticosterone did not vary seasonally or with any measured variable, a result similar to other studied crotalines. Our results highlight the importance of long-term descriptive studies of the regulatory mechanisms that underlie behavior and physiology in diverse taxa, as these mechanisms can vary greatly within and among populations and are valuable in elucidating the intrinsic and extrinsic sources of such variation.

  14. A FSH-Secreting Pituitary Macroadenoma Causing A Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available FSH-secreting pituitary adenomas can affect sexual and reproductive function. In this article, we have reported the case of a 32-year-old male with secondary infertility. The patient had sexual and reproductive disturbances. The test results of the blood samples indicated obviously decreased testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 levels. Based on previous hormonal results, the patient received pituitary stimulation and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG tests. Both follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH showed low response during the pituitary stimulation test. The results of the hCG test indicated that T/E2 could recover to a normal level. In addition, this patient was diagnosed with pituitary macroadenoma, which was supported by the pituitary MRI. The man’s sexual and reproductive functions recovered following surgery. The pathological results confirmed that the tumor tissue was an FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma by immunohistochemical staining. The purpose of this report was to review the relative literature and discuss the influence of FSH-secreting pituitary adenomas on hormones through the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis.

  15. Exogenous testosterone in women enhances and inhibits competitive decision-making depending on victory-defeat experience and trait dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, P.H.; Son, V. van; Welker, K.M.; Prasad, S.; Sanfey, A.G.; Smidts, A.; Roelofs, K.

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment tested the causal impact of testosterone on human competitive decision-making. According to prevailing theories about testosterone's role in social behavior, testosterone should directly boost competitive decisions. But recent correlational evidence suggests that testosterone'

  16. Hormonal manipulation of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic obstruction

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    Adita Raja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the etiology of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS is often multifactorial, a significant proportion of men over the age of 50 suffer from benign prostatic obstruction (BPO secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prostate, being an androgen responsive organ is dependent on the male sex hormone, testosterone, for growth. Thus, treatment strategies that manipulate the levels of circulating hormones that influence the level of testosterone and/or prostatic growth represent an important potential option for patients suffering with troublesome LUTS due to BPO. Despite this, the only hormonal treatment that is currently used in daily clinical practice is the 5-alpha reductase inhibitor. In this article, we review the current evidence on the use of the 5-alpha reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride. We also discuss new emerging hormonal manipulation strategies for patients with LUTS secondary to BPO.

  17. Hormonal responses to training and its tapering off in competitive swimmers: relationships with performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, I; Chatard, J C; Padilla, S; Guezennec, C Y; Geyssant, A

    1996-01-01

    During a winter training season, the effects of 12 weeks of intense training and 4 weeks of tapering off (taper) on plasma hormone concentrations and competition performance were investigated in a group of highly trained swimmers (n = 8). Blood samples were collected and the swimmers performed their speciality in competition at weeks 10 (mid-season), 22 (pre-taper) and 26 (post-taper). No statistically significant changes were observed in the concentrations of total testosterone (TT), non-sex hormone binding globulin-bound-testosterone (NSBT), cortisol (C), luteinising hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine plasma catecholamines, creatine kinase and ammonia during training and taper. Mid-season NSBT: C ratio and the amount of training were statistically related (r = 0.82, P swimmers' performance capacities throughout the training season.

  18. Environmental mercury exposure, semen quality and reproductive hormones in Greenlandic Inuit and European men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocevic, Emina; Specht, Ina O; Marott, Jacob Louis;

    2013-01-01

    Several animal studies indicate that mercury is a male reproductive toxicant, but human studies are few and contradictory. We examined semen characteristics and serum levels of reproductive hormones in relation to environmental exposure to mercury. Blood and semen samples were collected from 529.......024 to 0.110). The association may be due to beneficial effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are contained in seafood and fish. No significant association (P>0.05) was found between blood concentrations of mercury and any of the other measured semen characteristics (semen volume, total...... sperm count, sperm concentration, morphology and motility) and reproductive hormones (free androgen index (FAI), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone and LH×testosterone) in any region. In conclusion, the findings do not provide evidence that environmental mercury...

  19. Hormone Health Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Resource Center Online Store Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living ...

  20. An open-label, phase 2, single centre, randomized, crossover design bioequivalence study of AndroForte 5 testosterone cream and Testogel 1% testosterone gel in hypogonadal men: study LP101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittert, G A; Harrison, R W; Buckley, M J; Wlodarczyk, J

    2016-01-01

    We compared a novel 5% testosterone (T) cream (AndroForte 5, Lawley Pharmaceuticals, Australia) with a 1% T gel (Testogel, Besins Healthcare, Australia). Using an open-label crossover design, subjects were randomized to one of two treatment sequences using either the T gel or T cream first in a 1 : 1 ratio. Each treatment period was 30 days with a 7-14 days washout period between them. On Days 1 and 30 of each treatment period blood was sampled at -15, -5 min, 0, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12 and 16 h post study drug administration. Sixteen men with established androgen deficiency aged between 29 and 73 years, who had undertaken a washout from prior testosterone therapy participated in the study. One subject failed to complete both arms and another was excluded post-completion because of a major protocol violation. Bioequivalence was established based on key pharmacokinetic (PK) variables: AUC, C(avg), C(max), T(max), % fluctuation (with and without baseline correction) for the two formulations of testosterone on Day 1 and Day 30. The ratio and 90% CI of AUC 0.99 (0.86-1.14), C(max) 1.02 (0.84-1.24) and C(avg) 0.99 (0.86-1.14) for T cream/T gel were within the predetermined bio-equivalence criteria of 80% to 125% at Day 30. There were no statistically significant differences between secondary biochemical markers: serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT), oestradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH) and (FSH). The two testosterone formulations were shown to be bioequivalent.

  1. Extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones, ischemic heart disease, and death in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Voss, Sidsel Skou; Holmegard, Haya N;

    2015-01-01

    of ischemic heart disease and death in women. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In a nested prospective cohort study, we measured plasma estradiol in 4600 and total testosterone in 4716 women not receiving oral contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy from the 1981 to 1983 examination of the Copenhagen City Heart......OBJECTIVE: Sex hormones may be critical determinants of ischemic heart disease and death in women, but results from previous studies are conflicting. To clarify this, we tested the hypothesis that extreme plasma concentrations of endogenous estradiol and testosterone are associated with risk......%-81%) higher; however, plasma estradiol concentrations did not associate with death. Also, in women with a plasma testosterone concentration at or above the 95th percentile compared with between the 10th and 89th percentiles, multifactorially adjusted risk was 68% (34%-210%) higher for ischemic heart disease...

  2. Testosterone and BMD in Elite Male Lightweight Rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A.; Christiansen, E.; Ekdahl, C.;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate if a relationship between BMD and testosterone levels could be identified in elite male lightweight rowers. Thirteen male lightweight national team rowers had their BMD measured in a DEXA scanner. Plasma concentrations of total testosterone (TT)...

  3. Testosterone and BMD in elite male lightweight rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A; Kanstrup, I-L; Christiansen, E;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate if a relationship between BMD and testosterone levels could be identified in elite male lightweight rowers. Thirteen male lightweight national team rowers had their BMD measured in a DEXA scanner. Plasma concentrations of total testosterone (TT)...

  4. Current and emerging testosterone therapies for male hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynia B

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Blake Wynia,1 Jed C Kaminetsky21Department of Urology, New York University Langone Medical Center, 2University Urology Associates, Manhattan Medical Research, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Exogenous testosterone was introduced nearly 80 years ago as a pharmaceutical agent to treat male hypogonadism. Researchers continue to enhance the pharmacokinetic profile of testosterone to improve various benefits, including mood and sexual function, among other potential benefits. The modalities that are currently available include implants, intramuscular injections, oral formulations, transdermal delivery systems (ie, patches, gels, and a solution, transbuccal delivery systems, and most recently, intranasal testosterone. Each of these products differs by the delivery system, half-life, and ability to mimic physiological levels of testosterone. While we recognize the unique characteristics and benefits of existing agents, we must address unmet needs, including how best to mimic physiological levels of testosterone and how to administer it through a more effective, safe, and convenient mechanism. In our overview of current and emerging testosterone therapies, we will examine these topics and address the controversy of prostate cancer and cardiovascular risk.Keywords: hypogonadism, low testosterone, testosterone replacement therapy, cardiovascular

  5. Testosterone Therapy May Have Benefits, but Risks Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on cardiovascular disease," Gill said. The use of testosterone-replacement therapy has nearly doubled in recent years, from 1.3 million patients in 2009 to 2.3 million in 2013, according to the U.S. ... harm of testosterone treatment. In response, the U.S. National Institute on ...

  6. Vitamin D supplementation and testosterone concentrations in male human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Oosterwerff, Mirjam; Schroten, Nicolas F.; Eekhoff, Elisabeth M. W.; Chel, Victor G. M.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; Lips, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveA possible association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and testosterone levels has been reported; however, contradictory results have emerged. DesignTo investigate a causal link between vitamin D and testosterone status, we studied the effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum testoste

  7. Correlations of estradiol and testosterone in hyperuricemia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹永彤

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the serum concentrations of estradiol and testosterone in hyperuricemia patients and possible correlations of the two factors and uric acid(UA)in hyperuricemia(HUA)patients.Methods This was a case control study,which involved 90 hyperuricemia patients,103 healthy controls.Estradiol,testosterone,UA,serum

  8. Testosterone regulates tight junction proteins and influences prostatic autoimmune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jing; Mostaghel, Elahe A; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Montgomery, Bruce; True, Larry; Nelson, Peter S

    2011-06-01

    Testosterone and inflammation have been linked to the development of common age-associated diseases affecting the prostate gland including prostate cancer, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy. We hypothesized that testosterone regulates components of prostate tight junctions which serve as a barrier to inflammation, thus providing a connection between age- and treatment-associated testosterone declines and prostatic pathology. We examined the expression and distribution of tight junction proteins in prostate biospecimens from mouse models and a clinical study of chemical castration, using transcript profiling, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. We determined that low serum testosterone is associated with reduced transcript and protein levels of Claudin 4 and Claudin 8, resulting in defective tight junction ultrastructure in benign prostate glands. Expression of Claudin 4 and Claudin 8 was negatively correlated with the mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate caused by testosterone deprivation. Testosterone suppression also induced an autoimmune humoral response directed toward prostatic proteins. Testosterone supplementation in castrate mice resulted in re-expression of tight junction components in prostate epithelium and significantly reduced prostate inflammatory cell numbers. These data demonstrate that tight junction architecture in the prostate is related to changes in serum testosterone levels, and identify an androgen-regulated mechanism that potentially contributes to the development of prostate inflammation and consequent pathology.

  9. Effect of Camphor on Pituitary-Gonadal Hormonal Axis and Oogenesis in Adult Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Habibollah Johari; Amir Ashkan Mahjoor; Siyamak Fallahi; Hossein Kargar Jahromi; Maryam Abedini; Mohammad Ali Poor Danesh; Zahra Zamani

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objective: Camphor stimulates the nervous system and the circulatory system, reduces lactation, and prevents conception and embryo embedding. We investigated the effects of camphor on the pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis and concentration of steroidal hormones.   Materials & Methods: The parameters investigated were concentrations of LH, FSH, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone. Forty adult female rats at a mean weight of 180 ± 20 grams were divided into five groups. Camphor ...

  10. Female social and sexual interest across the menstrual cycle: the roles of pain, sleep and hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Gray Peter B; Manlove Heidi A; Guillermo Chrisalbeth J; Zava David T; Marrs Chandler R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Although research suggests that socio-sexual behavior changes in conjunction with the menstrual cycle, several potential factors are rarely taken into consideration. We investigated the role of changing hormone concentrations on self-reported physical discomfort, sleep, exercise and socio-sexual interest in young, healthy women. Methods Salivary hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate-DHEAS, progesterone, cortisol, testosterone, estradiol and estriol) and socio-sexual var...

  11. Muscle expressions of MGF, IGF-IEa, and myostatin in intact and hypophysectomized rats: effects of rhGH and testosterone alone or combined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, A E; Locatelli, L; Cella, S G; Bonomo, S M; Giunta, M; Molinari, F; Sartorio, A; Müller, E E

    2009-01-01

    Myostatin and mechano-growth factor (MGF), an isoform of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), are two important regulators of muscle hypertrophy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and/or testosterone on muscle MGF/IGF-IEa/myostatin expression in intact and hypophysectomized rats treated for 15 d with 1) saline or rhGH, 2) sesame oil or testosterone, 3) saline+sesame oil, or rhGH+testosterone (first experiment) or for 7 d with saline or rhGH (second experiment). Animals were killed by decapitation 24 h or 4 d after the last injection (first or second experiment, respectively). Muscle expressions of MGF, IGF-IEa, and myostatin were determined by RT-PCR. A significant increase in the weight of gastrocnemius muscle was observed only in hypophysectomized rats treated with rhGH alone or in combination with testosterone. Administration of rhGH to hypophysectomized rats caused a marked increase in both MGF and IGF-IEa muscle mRNA levels (without any change in the muscle expression of myostatin), an effect that was abolished when testosterone was combined with rhGH. Conversely, in intact rats rhGH increased myostatin muscle mRNA levels without affecting those of MGF and IGF-IEa. Testosterone, alone or combined with rhGH, induced an inhibition of myostatin expression in the muscle of intact rats, but did not change muscle paradigms of hypophysectomized rats. In conclusion, rhGH and/or testosterone anabolic effects in the muscle are mediated by a different expression of MGF/IGF-IEa/myostatin, which is related to the pituitary function.

  12. Role of the planar cell polarity pathway in regulating ectopic hair cell-like cells induced by Math1 and testosterone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Yu; Jin, Kai; Ma, Rui; Yang, Juan-Mei; Luo, Wen-Wei; Han, Zhao; Cong, Ning; Ren, Dong-Dong; Chi, Fang-Lu

    2015-07-30

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling regulates cochlear extension and coordinates orientation of sensory hair cells in the inner ear. Retroviral-mediated introduction of the Math1 transcription factor leads to the transdifferentiation of some mature supporting cells into hair cells. Testosterone, a gonadal sex steroid hormone, is associated with neuroprotection and regeneration in Central Nervous System (CNS) development. Experiments were performed in vitro using Ad5-EGFP-Math1/Ad5-Math1 in neonatal mouse cochleas. Establishment of ectopic hair-cell like cell(HCLC) polarity in the lesser epithelial ridge (LER) with or without testosterone-3-(O-carboxymethyl) oxime bovine serum albumin (testosterone-BSA) treatment was investigated to determine the role of the PCP pathway in regulating ectopic regenerated (HCLCs) through induction by Math1 and testosterone treatment. After Math1 infection, new ectopic regenerated HCLCs were detected in the LER. After the HCLCs developed actin-rich stereocilia, the basal bodies moved from the center to the distal side. Moreover, the narrower, non-sensory LER region meant that the convergent extension (CE) was also established after transfection with Math1. After 9 days of in vitro testosterone-BSA treatment, more Edu(+), Sox2(+), and HCLC cells were observed in the LER with an accompanying downregulation of E-cadherin. Interestingly, the CE of the Ad5-EGFP-math1 treated LER is altered, but the intrinsic cellular polarity of the HCLCs is not obviously changed. In summary, our results indicate that PCP signaling is involved in the development of ectopic HCLCs and the CE of the ectopic sensory region is altered by testosterone-BSA through downregulation of cell-cell adhesion. Testosterone-BSA and Math1 treatment could promote an increase in HCLCs in the LER through proliferation and transdifferentiation.

  13. SHBG, Sex Hormones, and Inflammatory Markers in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceda, Gian Paolo; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Corsi, Anna Maria; Giallauria, Francesco; Guralnik, Jack M.; Zuliani, Giovanni; Cattabiani, Chiara; Parrino, Stefano; Ablondi, Fabrizio; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Ceresini, Graziano; Basaria, Shehzad; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Context: In premenopausal and older women, high testosterone and estradiol (E2) and low SHBG levels are associated with insulin resistance and diabetes, conditions characterized by low-grade inflammation. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between SHBG, total testosterone, total E2, and inflammatory markers in older women. Design and Patients: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of 433 women at least 65 yr old from the InCHIANTI Study, Italy, who were not on hormone replacement therapy or recently hospitalized and who had complete data on SHBG, testosterone, E2, C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6r), and TNF-α. Relationships between sex hormones and inflammatory markers were examined by multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking, insulin, physical activity, and chronic disease. Results: In fully adjusted analyses, SHBG was negatively associated with CRP (P = 0.007), IL-6 (P = 0.008), and sIL-6r (P = 0.02). In addition, testosterone was positively associated with CRP (P = 0.006), IL-6 (P = 0.001), and TNF-α (P = 0.0002). The negative relationship between testosterone and sIL-6r in an age-adjusted model (P = 0.02) was no longer significant in a fully adjusted model (P = 0.12). E2 was positively associated with CRP (P = 0.002) but not with IL-6 in fully adjusted models. In a final model including E2, testosterone, and SHBG, and all the confounders previously considered, SHBG (0.23 ± 0.08; P = 0.006) and E2 (0.21 ± 0.08; P = 0.007), but not testosterone (P = 0.21), were still significantly associated with CRP. Conclusion: In late postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy, SHBG and E2 are, respectively, negative and positive, independent and significant correlates of a proinflammatory state. PMID:21239514

  14. Embryonic exposure to maternal testosterone influences age-specific mortality patterns in a captive passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabl, Hubert; Holmes, Donna; Strasser, Rosemary; Scheuerlein, Alex

    2012-02-01

    Hormones are potent mediators of developmental programming and maternal epigenetic effects. In vertebrates, developmental exposure to maternal androgen hormones has been shown to impact multiple behavioral and physiological traits of progeny, but the possible consequences of this early exposure in terms of aging-related changes in mortality and fitness remain largely unexplored. Avian eggs naturally contain variable doses of maternal hormones-in particular, androgens-which have documented effects on embryo growth and differentiation as well as adult behavior and physiology. Here, we report that injections of a physiological dose of testosterone (T) into yolks of freshly laid eggs of a small, seasonally breeding songbird, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), increased survivorship in a semi-natural aviary environment. In addition, survival effects of developmental T exposure were sex-dependent, with males generally having a higher risk of death. Separate analyses for young birds in their first year of life (from hatching up to the first reproductive period the following calendar year) and in adulthood (after the first breeding season) showed similar effects. For first-year birds, mortality risk was higher during the winter than during the period after fledging; for adults, mortality risk was higher during the reproductive than the non-reproductive phase (post-breeding molt and winter). T treatment did not affect nestling body mass, but resulted in higher body mass at 3-4 months of age; T and body mass at this age interacted to influence mortality risk. Embryonic exposure to maternal testosterone may result in lower adult mortality by modifying intrinsic physiological processes involved in health or aging over the lifespan of adult birds.

  15. Effect of Sleep Extension on the Subsequent Testosterone, Cortisol and Prolactin Responses to Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, P J; Drogou, C; Sauvet, F; Regnauld, J; Dispersyn, G; Faraut, B; Millet, G Y; Leger, D; Gomez-Merino, D; Chennaoui, M

    2016-02-01

    Total sleep deprivation (TSD) in humans is associated with altered hormonal levels, which may have clinical relevance. Less is known about the effect of an extended sleep period before TSD on these hormonal changes. Fourteen subjects participated in two experimental counterbalanced conditions (randomised cross-over design): extended sleep (21.00-07.00 h time in bed, EXT) and habitual sleep (22.30-07.00 h time in bed, HAB). For each condition, subjects performed two consecutive phases: six nights of either EXT or HAB. These nights were followed by 3 days in the sleep laboratory with blood sampling at 07.00 and 17.00 h at baseline (B-07.00 and B-17.00), after 24 and 34 h of continuous awakening (24 h-CA, 34 h-CA) and after one night of recovery sleep (R-07.00 and R-17.00) to assess testosterone, cortisol, prolactin and catecholamines concentrations. At 24 h of awakening, testosterone, cortisol and prolactin concentrations were significantly lower compared to B-07.00 and recovered basal levels after recovery sleep at R-07.00 (P sleep extension was observed on testosterone, cortisol and catecholamines concentrations at 24 and 34 h of awakening. However, prolactin concentration was significantly lower in EXT at B-07.00 and R-07.00 compared to HAB (P sleep extension is not sufficient to limit decreased concentrations of testosterone and cortisol at 24 h of awakening but may have an impact on prolactin concentration.

  16. Testosterone replacement therapy in older male subjective memory complainers: double-blind randomized crossover placebo-controlled clinical trial of physiological assessment and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asih, Prita R; Wahjoepramono, Eka J; Aniwiyanti, Vilia; Wijaya, Linda K; de Ruyck, Karl; Taddei, Kevin; Fuller, Stephanie J; Sohrabi, Hamid; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Verdile, Giuseppe; Carruthers, Malcolm; Martins, Ralph N

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has been investigated in older men as a preventative treatment against Alzheimer's disease and dementia. However, previous studies have been contradictory. We assessed TRT physiological effects in 44 older men (aged 61 ± 7.7 years) with subjective memory complaints using a double blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study. Participants were randomized into 2 groups, one group received transdermal testosterone (50 mg) daily for 24 weeks, followed by a 4 week wash-out period, then 24 weeks of placebo; the other group received the reverse treatment. Blood evaluation revealed significant increases in total testosterone, free (calculated) testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and a decrease in luteinizing hormone levels (p<0.001) following TRT. Although there were significant increases in red blood cell counts, hemoglobin and prostate specific antigen levels following TRT, they remained within normal ranges. No significant differences in plasma amyloid beta, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, insulin levels, body fat percentage, or body mass index were detected. This is the first carefully controlled study that has investigated the influence of TRT in Indonesian men on blood biomarkers linked to dementia risk. Our study suggests TRT is safe and well-tolerated in this Indonesian cohort, yet longitudinal studies with larger cohorts are needed to assess TRT further, and to establish whether TRT reduces dementia risk.

  17. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisleni, Carmen; Bollmann, Steffen; Biason-Lauber, Anna; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Michels, Lars; Hersberger, Martin; Suckling, John; Klaver, Peter; O'Gorman, Ruth L

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women). Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  18. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ghisleni

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women. Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  19. Activation of GPER-1 estradiol receptor downregulates production of testosterone in isolated rat Leydig cells and adult human testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Vaucher

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Estradiol (E2 modulates testicular functions including steroidogenesis, but the mechanisms of E2 signaling in human testis are poorly understood. GPER-1 (GPR30, a G protein-coupled membrane receptor, mediates rapid genomic and non-genomic response to estrogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate GPER-1 expression in the testis, and its role in estradiol dependent regulation of steroidogenesis in isolated rat Leydig cells and human testis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolated Leydig cells (LC from adult rats and human testicular tissue were used in this study. Expression and localization studies of GPER-1 were performed with qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and Western Blot. Luteinizing Hormone (LH -stimulated, isolated LC were incubated with estradiol, G-1 (GPER-1-selective agonist, and estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. Testosterone production was measured with radioimmunoassay. LC viability after incubation with G-1 was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS assay. RESULTS: GPER-1 mRNA is abundantly expressed in rat LC and human testis. Co-localization experiments showed high expression levels of GPER-1 protein in LC. E2-dependent activation of GPER-1 lowers testosterone production in isolated rats LCs and in human testis, with statistically and clinically significant drops in testosterone production by 20-30% as compared to estradiol-naïve LC. The exposure to G-1 does not affect viability of isolated LCs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that activation of GPER-1 lowers testosterone levels in the rat and human testis. The expression of GPER-1 in human testis, which lack ERα, makes it an exciting target for developing new agents affecting testosterone production in men.

  20. A novel mechanism regulating a sexual signal: the testosterone-based inhibition of female sex pheromone expression in garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M Rockwell; Mason, Robert T

    2014-08-01

    Vertebrates communicate their sex to conspecifics through the use of sexually dimorphic signals, such as ornaments, behaviors and scents. Furthermore, the physiological connection between hormones and secondary sexual signal expression is key to understanding their dimorphism, seasonality and evolution. The red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) is the only reptile for which a described pheromone currently exists, and because garter snakes rely completely on the sexual attractiveness pheromone for species identification and mate choice, they constitute a unique model species for exploring the relationship between pheromones and the endocrine system. We recently demonstrated that estrogen can activate female pheromone production in male garter snakes. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism(s) acting to prevent female pheromone production in males. We found that castrated males (GX) are courted by wild males in the field and produce appreciable amounts of female sex pheromone. Furthermore, pheromone production is inhibited in castrates given testosterone implants (GX+T), suggesting that pheromone production is actively inhibited by the presence of testosterone. Lastly, testosterone supplementation alone (T) increased the production of several saturated methyl ketones in the pheromone but not the unsaturated ketones; this may indicate that saturated ketones are testosterone-activated components of the garter snake's skin lipid milieu. Collectively, our research has shown that pheromone expression in snakes results from two processes: activation by the feminizing steroid estradiol and inhibition by testosterone. We suggest that basal birds and garter snakes share common pathways of activation that modulate crucial intraspecific signals that originate from skin.

  1. Intrauterine sexual differentiation: biosyntesis and action of sexual steroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Cesar dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to describe sexual differentiation events in mammals, relating them to biosynthesis of sexual steroid hormones and their mechanisms of action. Cholesterol is the precursor of sexual steroid hormone biosynthesis via action of several enzymes converting these hormones. Progestagens hormones serve as substrate for the production of androgens, which in turn serve as substrate for estrogen hormones. These hormones are responsible for sexual differentiation and reproductive cycles of mammals. Sexual differentiation process comprises determining the sexual chromosomes XX or XY + SRY and other genes linked to them, differentiation of gonads in testis or ovary, differentiation of internal and external male or female genital organs from undifferentiated anatomical structures present in the embryo, which is dependent on the presence or absence of testes and the production of anti-Müllerian hormone and testosterone; and secondary sexual differentiation, which is the response of various tissues to hormones produced by the gonads, interacting with genes linked to sexual chromosomes to increase or decrease the differences in sexual phenotype. However, some differences between the sexes and some anomalies of sexual differentiation are not explained only by these sexual hormonal effects, but also by the effect of genes encoded in sexual chromosomes.

  2. Behavior of testosterone and cortisol during an intensity-controlled high-volume training period measured by a training task-specific test in men rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rämson, Raul; Jürimäe, Jaak; Jürimäe, Toivo; Mäestu, Jarek

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the stress hormones testosterone and cortisol after a task-specific exercise during a high-volume endurance training cycle in men rowers. Eight highly trained men rowers were investigated during a high-volume, low-intensity training period. A 2-hour, low-intensity, long-distance rowing (LDT) test was conducted at baseline, after a high-volume period, and after the recovery period. Training and performance intensities were obtained at the graded incremental test, were preset individually, and were the same during all LDTs. Fasting blood samples were taken during the same days as the LDTs. Exercise-induced blood samples were taken before, 5 minutes after, and 30 minutes after (post 30') the completion of each LDT. There were no significant changes in fasting cortisol and testosterone values during the whole study period, and there were no significant changes in cortisol and testosterone concentrations during the LDT. However, testosterone concentration was significantly decreased at post 30' compared with posttest values during the second LDT that was held after the 2-week high-training-volume period, and, during the second LDT, post 30' values of cortisol tended to be decreased compared with posttest values (p = 0.063). In conclusion, changes in the concentrations of testosterone and cortisol after long-distance rowing indicate decreased adaptivity after the training-specific performance test.

  3. Testosterone therapy decreases subcutaneous fat and adiponectin in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L.; Højlund, K.; Hougaard, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    , double-blinded, placebo-controlled study on 6-month testosterone treatment (gel) in 38 men, aged 60–78 years, with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm. METHODS: Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT......), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and thigh subcutaneous fat area (TFA) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Adiponectin levels were measured using an in-house immunofluorometric assay. Coefficients (b) represent the placebo-controlled mean effect of intervention. RESULTS: LEFM was decreased (b=–0......OBJECTIVE: Testosterone therapy increases lean body mass and decreases total fat mass in aging men with low normal testosterone levels. The major challenge is, however, to determine whether the metabolic consequences of testosterone therapy are overall positive. We have previously reported that 6...

  4. New Developments In Testosterone Therapy - a Congress Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oettel M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This congress report summarizes the presentations on the association of metabolic syndrome, testosterone deficiency, erectile dysfunction andthe options of therapy with intramuscular testosterone undecanoate given at the Educational Symposium, "Testosterone Therapy: New Devel-opments in Sexual Medicine", held at the 9th Congress of the European Society for Sexual Medicine.Men presenting with erectile dysfunction might have evidence of the metabolic syndrome and of insulin resistance. One of the conse-quences of obesity and type 2 diabetes is the promotion of a hypogonadal state also featuring hepatic, skeletal muscle insulin resistance, andvisceral fat deposition. Intramuscular testosterone undecanoate fulfils the criteria for a favorable parenteral system: improved Pharmacokineticsallowing injections four times a year without clinically significant non-physiological peaks or troughs of serum testosterone levels in hypogonadalmen.Identification and treatment of hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome are certainly beneficial for the overall health of the male patient,and may also benefit erectile dysfunction.

  5. The Treatment Analyze of Subclinical Hypothyroidism Patients in Gestation Period by Thyroid Hormones%妊娠期亚临床甲状腺功能减退患者甲状腺激素治疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高原

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨妊娠期亚临床甲状腺功能减退患者甲状腺激素治疗效果情况。方法:分析本院2012年8月-2014年8月收治的妊娠期亚临床甲状腺功能减退患者34例临床资料,依据是否进行甲状腺激素治疗进行分组,未治疗组14例和治疗组20例。结果:治疗组TSH、血清甘油三酯、总胆固醇异常均低于未治疗组,FT3、FT4水平均高于未治疗组,治疗组早产、妊娠期高血压疾病、子痫前期、胎盘早剥和妊娠期贫血发生率均低于未治疗组,两组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:妊娠期亚临床甲状腺功能减退患者甲状腺激素治疗可以提高妊娠结局,降低妊娠并发症,值得临床推广应用。%Objective:To approach the treatment result of subclinical hypothyroidism patients in gestation period by thyroid hormones.Method:34 patients clinical data of subclinical hypothyroidism in gestation period were selected in our hospital from August 2012 to August 2014,and were divided into two groups,no treatment group of 14 cases and treatment group of 20 cases.Result:The TSH,TG,total cholesterol abnormalities of treatment group were better than no treatment group,FT3,FT4 level were higher than no treatment group,the premature delivery,pregnancy-induced hypertension,preeclampsia,abruptio placentae and incidence of anemia during pregnancy of treatment group were lower than no treatment group,the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:The pregnancy outcome of subclinical hypothyroidism patients in gestation period by thyroid hormones are improved,the pregnancy complication is decreased,so it is worth to promote in clinical.

  6. Sex hormone binding globulin and incident Alzheimer's disease in elderly men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Majon; Schupf, Nicole; Manly, Jennifer J.; Mayeux, Richard; Luchsinger, Jose A.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that low levels of estradiol and testosterone increase dementia risk. However, results of the existing observational studies examining associations of endogenous sex hormones with cognition and dementia are conflicting. A possible explanation for these inconsistent findings cou

  7. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie; Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Samsioe, Göran; Halldin, Krister; Åkesson, Agneta

    2014-10-01

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk.

  8. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  9. Testosterone treatment in the aging male: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Nicole; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2012-03-19

    The definition of late onset hypogonadism in the aging male is controversially debated, and according to the latest literature consists of at least three especially sexual symptoms such as loss of morning erection, low sexual desire and erectile dysfunction as well as a total testosterone products for the aging male increased by over 170% in the previous five years. Furthermore, there is a lot of epidemiological data showing an inverse relationship between testosterone levels and obesity, insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, only few small randomised placebo-controlled studies have investigated the effect of testosterone replacement therapy on insulin resistance and HbA1c levels, with controversial results. Importantly, so far the long-term safety and efficacy of testosterone replacement therapy has not been established. Although until now no clear evidence has been found that testosterone replacement therapy has a causative role in prostate cancer or indeed in changes of the biology of the prostate, in a recent meta-analysis a 4-fold increased risk of prostate-associated event rates in testosterone treated elderly men sounds a note of caution. Also the risk for cardiovascular events is still not clear and caution is warranted especially in elderly men with cardiovascular disease and limited mobility. In summary, the actual available evidence of long-term risks and outcome of testosterone replacement therapy is still very limited and carefully designed placebo-controlled trials of testosterone administration to assess the risks and benefits of such a therapy are required. Until then, testosterone treatment in elderly men should be restricted to elderly men with clearly low testosterone levels in the presence of clinical symptoms, and the advantages and disadvantages need to be accurately weighted. A careful monitoring of potential side effects is necessary.

  10. Testosterone Therapy Can Interact With Thrombophilia, Leading to Osteonecrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Charles J; Riaz, Rashid; Prince, Marloe; Freiberg, Richard A; Wang, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Although this effect is not widely recognized, testosterone therapy can interact with thrombophilia, causing osteonecrosis. In 12 men and 4 women who had idiopathic osteonecrosis a median of 6 months after the onset of testosterone therapy, the authors examined the interaction between testosterone therapy and previously undiagnosed thrombophilia. The authors hypothesized that patients who had osteonecrosis after starting testosterone therapy were more likely than 110 normal control subjects or 48 patients who had osteonecrosis and were not receiving testosterone therapy to have thrombophilia. Measures of thrombophilia included Factor V Leiden, prothrombin, PAI-1 gene mutations, Factor VIII, Factor XI, anticardiolipin antibody immunoglobulin G or immunoglobulin M, and homocysteine values. In 10 cases, osteonecrosis occurred 6 months or less after the onset of testosterone therapy, and in all 16 cases, it occurred after a median of 6 months of testosterone therapy. Of the 16 cases, 5 (31%) were Factor V Leiden heterozygotes vs 2 of 109 (2%) healthy control subjects (P=.0003) and 4 of 48 patients who had osteonecrosis and were not receiving testosterone therapy (P=.04). Of the 16 cases, 4 (25%) had high (>150%) Factor VIII levels vs 7 of 103 (7%) healthy control subjects (P=.04), and 3 (19%) had high (>150%) Factor XI levels vs 3 of 101 (3%) healthy control subjects (P=.03). Of the 16 patients with osteonecrosis, 14 (88%) had at least 1 abnormal procoagulant value (of the 8 measured) vs 47 of 110 (43%) healthy control subjects (P=.0009). Of the 5 men whose serum estradiol level was measured while they were receiving testosterone therapy, this level was high (≥42.6 pg/mL) in 4. When testosterone therapy is given to patients with thrombophilia, they are at increased risk for osteonecrosis.

  11. Testosterone treatment diminishes sickness behavior in male songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Noah T; Hays, Quentin R; Bentley, George E; Wingfield, John C

    2009-06-01

    Males of many vertebrate species are typically more prone to disease and infection than female conspecifics, and this sexual difference is partially influenced by the immunosuppressive properties of testosterone (T) in males. T-induced immunosuppression has traditionally been viewed as a pleiotropic handicap, rather than an adaptation. Recently, it has been hypothesized that suppression of sickness behavior, or the symptoms of infection, may have adaptive value if sickness interferes with the expression of T-mediated behaviors important for male reproductive success. We conduct a classic hormone replacement experiment to examine if T suppresses sickness behavior in a seasonally-breeding songbird, Gambel's white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii). Triggered experimentally by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), sickness behavior includes decreased activity, anorexia, and weight loss. Gonadectomized (GDX) males that were treated with silastic implants filled with T exhibited suppression of behavioral and physiological responses to LPS compared to GDX and sham-GDX controls given empty implants. Sickness responses of control groups were statistically indistinguishable. T-implanted birds had significantly higher plasma T than control groups and levels were within the range associated with aggressive interactions during male-to-male contests. These findings imply that suppression of sickness behavior could occur when T is elevated to socially-modulated levels. Alternatively, it is possible that this suppressive effect is mediated through a stress-induced mechanism, as corticosterone levels were elevated in T-implanted subjects compared to controls. We propose that males wounded and infected during contests may gain a brief selective advantage by suppressing sickness responses that would otherwise impair competitive performance. The cost of immunosuppression would be manifested in males through an increased susceptibility to disease, which is presumably

  12. Neonatal sex-steroid hormones and timidity in 6-18-month-old boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, C N; Maccoby, E E; Doering, C H

    1983-05-01

    Five sex-steroid hormones (testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, estrone, and progesterone) are assayed in umbilical cord blood. Timidity is assessed in home and laboratory observations by reactions to a range of novel toys in children from 6 to 18 months of age. Significant short- (1 week) and long- (several months) term stability in timidity is demonstrated. Girls have higher mean scores on observed timidity than do boys in 2 of the 3 samples tested. An across-age timidity score is computed which shows significant correlations with neonatal progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol for boys, but is not significantly predicted by hormone concentrations in girls.

  13. Effect of pioglitazone combined with cyproterone acetate on the reproductive hormone level and insulin resistance of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Wei Hao; Dong-Zhen Liu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effect of Pioglitazone combined with cyproterone acetate on the reproductive hormone level and insulin resistance of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: 96 patients with the polycystic ovary syndrome in our hospital were randomly divided into observation group and controlgroup two groups, each of 48 cases. The control group was treated with the treatment of cyproterone acetate, observation group was treated with pioglitazone combined with cyproterone acetate treatment. The clinical efficacy of two groups were compared. The serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and fasting plasma glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS) level before and after treatment and calculate the insulin resistance index (IR) were observed. Results: After treatment, serum FSH, LH and T levels of two groups were significantly lower than that before treatment (P0.05). FBG, FINS and IR of the patients in the observation group were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: pioglitazone combined with cyproterone acetate has significant therapeutic effect on polycystic ovary syndrome, can effectively improve the patients with insulin resistance and reproductive hormone disorder.

  14. Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1 gene mutation as a frequent cause of primary amenorrhea in 46,XY female adolescents with low testosterone concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servant Nadège

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary amenorrhea due to 46,XY disorders of sex differentiation (DSD is a frequent reason for consultation in endocrine and gynecology clinics. Among the genetic causes of low-testosterone primary amenorrhea due to 46,XY DSD, SRY gene is reported to be frequently involved, but other genes, such as SF1 and WT1, have never been studied for their prevalence. Methods We directly sequenced SRY, SF1 and WT1 genes in 15 adolescent girls with primary amenorrhea, low testosterone concentration, and XY karyotype, to determine the prevalence of mutations. We also analyzed the LH receptor gene in patients with high LH and normal FSH concentrations. Results Among the 15 adolescents with primary amenorrhea and low testosterone concentration, we identified two new SRY mutations, five new SF1 mutations and one new LH receptor gene mutation. Our study confirms the 10-15% prevalence of SRY mutations and shows the high prevalence (33% of SF1 abnormalities in primary amenorrhea due to 46,XY DSD with low plasma testosterone concentration. Conclusions The genetic analysis of low-testosterone primary amenorrhea is complex as several factors may be involved. This work underlines the need to systematically analyze the SF1 sequence in girls with primary amenorrhea due to 46,XY DSD and low testosterone, as well as in newborns with 46,XY DSD.

  15. Avaliação dos níveis séricos de testosterona em pacientes com síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono Evaluation of testosterone serum levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Drimel Molina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Homens com síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono (SAOS podem apresentar diminuição dos níveis de testosterona devido à hipóxia. OBJETIVOS: Relacionar os níveis séricos da testosterona, em pacientes com SAOS, com parâmetros clínico-laboratoriais. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram revisados 103 prontuários de pacientes com SAOS, entre os anos de 2002 e 2009, e coletados os seguintes dados: idade à época da realização da polissonografia, valores do Hematócrito e Hemoglobina, nível sérico da testosterona total, IMC, índice de apneia/hipopneia(IAH e SatO2. FORMA DO ESTUDO: Estudo de casos retrospectivo em corte transversal. RESULTADOS: 79 pacientes (77% não apresentaram alteração hormonal e 24 (23% apresentaram níveis séricos inferiores. Dos pacientes com testosterona normal 70% estavam com sobrepeso, enquanto que 63% com testosterona alterada apresentaram obesidade grau I (pMales with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS may present decreased testosterone serum levels because of hypoxemia. AIM: To correlate testosterone levels in OSAS patients with laboratory parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 103 registries of OSAS patients were reviewed from 2002 to 2009. The following data collected: age when polysomnography was done, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, total testosterone serum levels, BMI, apnea/hypopnea index (AHI, and O2 saturation. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional retrospective case study. RESULTS: 79 patients (77% had no hormonal changes, and 24 patients (23% had decreased serum levels. In patients with normal testosterone levels, 70% were overweight; 63% with altered testosterone levels had obesity grade I (p<0.05. Patients with altered testosterone levels had significantly lower average doses of Ht, Hb and androgen compared to patients without altered androgen levels. The average BMI of patients with altered hormone levels was significantly higher compared to patients with normal hormone levels. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship

  16. Sex Hormones and Cognition: Neuroendocrine Influences on Memory and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamson, Dwayne K; Roes, Meighen M; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-06-13

    Sex differences in neurological disease exist in incidence, severity, progression, and symptoms and may ultimately influence treatment. Cognitive disturbances are frequent in neuropsychiatric disease with men showing greater cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, but women showing more severe dementia and cognitive decline with Alzheimer's disease. Although there are no overall differences in intelligence between the sexes, men, and women demonstrate slight but consistent differences in a number of cognitive domains. These include a male advantage, on average, in some types of spatial abilities and a female advantage on some measures of verbal fluency and memory. Sex differences in traits or behaviors generally indicate the involvement of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens. We review the literature on whether adult levels of testosterone and estradiol influence spatial ability in both males and females from rodent models to humans. We also include information on estrogens and their ability to modulate verbal memory in men and women. Estrone and progestins are common components of hormone therapies, and we also review the existing literature concerning their effects on cognition. We also review the sex differences in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex as they relate to cognitive performance in both rodents and humans. There has been greater recognition in the scientific literature that it is important to study both sexes and also to analyze study findings with sex as a variable. Only by examining these sex differences can we progress to finding treatments that will improve the cognitive health of both men and women. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1295-1337, 2016.

  17. Testosterone reactivity and identification with a perpetrator or a victim in a story are associated with attraction to violence-related cues

    OpenAIRE

    Weierstall, Roland; Moran, James; Giebel, Gilda; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundRecent field research has demonstrated that an attraction to aggressive behavior and cruelty is common among combatants and perpetrators involved in organized violence. The biological basis of this appetitive perception of aggression in humans has to date not been studied.AimsWe examined testosterone as a potential hormonal moderator during induction of specifically appetitive aggressive behavior in the laboratory.MethodTo activate physiological responding related to appetitive aggr...

  18. Effect of argan and olive oil consumption on the hormonal profile of androgens among healthy adult Moroccan men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Jafri, Ali; Driouch, Issam; El Khasmi, Mohammed; Adlouni, Ahmed; Benajiba, Nada; Bamou, Youssef; Saile, Rachid; Benouhoud, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of virgin argan oil (VAO) and extra virgin olive oil (EVO) on the hormonal profile of androgens and anthropometric parameters among healthy adult Moroccan men during a controlled nutritional intervention. The study was carried out on 60 young and healthy male volunteers aged between 23 and 40 years old. During a stabilization period of 2 weeks they consumed butter. The group was then randomized into two categories, the first one consuming VAO and the second EVO for 3 weeks. Testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) serum concentrations were measured at the beginning of the study and at the end of each period. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the two groups (VAO and EVO) during each step of the study. Differences in androgens and anthropometric parameters between the baseline and after 3 weeks of the diet in the VAO and EVO groups were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. T and LH serum concentrations significantly increased after the intervention period. T levels increased by 19.9% and 17.4% (p argan or olive oils. The results suggest that consumption of AVO and EVO might be the origin of a positive action on the androgen hormonal profile of men.

  19. ``Sex Hormones'' in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-11-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term “sex hormone” is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term “sex hormone” is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called “sex hormones” are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found that: (1) all the texts employed the term “sex hormone”; (2) in all texts estrogen is characterized as restricted to females and testosterone is characterized as restricted to males; and (3) in all texts testosterone and estrogen are discussed as exclusively involved in sex-related physiological roles. We conclude that (1) contemporary science textbooks preserve sex-dualistic models of steroid hormones (one sex, one “sex hormone”) that were rejected by medical science in the early 20th century and (2) use of the term “sex hormone” is associated with misconceptions regarding the presence and functions of steroid hormones in male and female bodies.

  20. Interactions between antiepileptic drugs and hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalheim, Sigrid; Sveberg, Line; Mochol, Monika; Taubøll, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are known to have endocrine side effects in both men and women. These can affect fertility, sexuality, thyroid function, and bone health, all functions of major importance for well-being and quality of life. The liver enzyme inducing antiepileptic drugs (EIAEDs), like phenobarbital, phenytoin, and carbamazepine, and also valproate (VPA), a non-EIAED, are most likely to cause such side effects. AED treatment can alter the levels of different sex hormones. EIAEDs increase sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations in both men and women. Over time, this elevation can lead to lower levels of bioactive testosterone and estradiol, which may cause menstrual disturbances, sexual problems, and eventually reduced fertility. VPA can cause weight gain in both men and women. In women, VPA can also lead to androgenization with increased serum testosterone concentrations, menstrual disturbances, and polycystic ovaries. Lamotrigine has not been shown to result in endocrine side effects. The newer AEDs have not yet been thoroughly studied, but case reports indicate that some of these drugs could also be suspected to cause such effects if endocrine changes commence after treatment initiation. It is important to be aware of possible endocrine side effects of AEDs as they can have a major impact on quality of life, and are, at least partly, reversible after AED discontinuation.

  1. Levels of estradiol and testosterone are altered in Chinese men with sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F; Chen, T; Mao, S; Jiang, H; Ding, Q; Xu, G

    2016-09-01

    An estimated 20-30% of adult men have at least one manifestation of sexual dysfunction, the most common of which are premature ejaculation (PE) and erectile dysfunction (ED). Emerging evidence has suggested an association between the regulation of hormones with the processes of erection and ejaculation. In this study, we aim to investigate the relationship between sexual dysfunction, namely, PE and ED, and the levels and ratios of estradiol to testosterone in Chinese men. A retrospective case-control study was performed involving 878 male patients aged from 18 to 74 years (mean: 36 years). The ratio of estradiol to testosterone was significantly higher for subjects with ED (7.45 ± 3.09 × 10(-3) ; p < 0.001), and combined PE and ED (6.66 ± 3.05 × 10(-3) ; p = 0.032) compared with that of the control group (6.01 ± 2.61 × 10(-3) ). The ratio was also significantly higher for ED patients when compared with PE patients (5.26 ± 2.18 × 10(-3) ; p < 0.001). Furthermore, compared with the control group, subjects with PE had similar levels of estradiol (95.47 ± 37.86 pmol/L vs. 94.12 ± 32.32 pmol/L; p = 0.678) but significantly higher levels of testosterone (18.66 ± 6.03 nmol/L vs. 16.82 ± 4.93 nmol/L; p < 0.001). This contrasted with the ED group, which showed similar levels of testosterone (16.96 ± 5.86 nmol/L vs. 16.82 ± 4.93 nmol/L; p = 0.773) and significantly higher levels of estradiol (116.88 ± 40.81 pmol/L vs. 94.12 ± 32.32 pmol/L; p < 0.001) compared with control. Subjects with combined ED and PE also had a significantly higher level of estradiol (104.98 ± 43.99 pmol/L vs. 94.12 ± 32.32 pmol/L; p = 0.014) and similar levels of testosterone (17.30 ± 7.23 nmol/L vs. 16.82 ± 4.93 nmol/L; p = 0.503) compared with control. In conclusion, this study involving Chinese males with sexual dysfunction reports, for the first time, that there is an association between sexual dysfunction

  2. Comparative studies on testicular and epididymal morphology, and serum hormone concentrations in foxes and the hybrids during the breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T A; Yang, Y H; Peng, Y H; Cong, B; Diao, Y F; Bao, K; Hu, P F; Song, X C; Liu, L L; Yang, Y F; Xing, X M; Yang, F H

    2016-05-01

    The silver fox and the blue fox belong to different genera, and the hybrid males are fully or partially sterile. In the present study, the objective was to evaluate the causes of hybrid male sterility, and therefore analyze the differences in testicular, and epididymal morphology and serum hormone concentrations among silver foxes, blue foxes, and the hybrids during the breeding season. Samples were collected from 20 male silver foxes, 20 male blue foxes, 15 male HSBs (silver fox female × blue fox male hybrids) and 14 male HBSs (blue fox male × silver fox female hybrids), respectively. Seminal evaluation showed large numbers of sperm present in the semen of blue foxes and silver foxes, but no sperm present in the hybrids. Mean testicular volume and the diameter of seminiferous tubules in silver foxes and blue foxes were greater than in the hybrids; and there were many Sertoli cells, spermatogenic cells, and sperm in silver foxes and blue foxes, while spermatogenic cells decreased with no sperm in the hybrids. Mean serum LH and prolactin concentrations in silver foxes and blue foxes were less and testosterone was greater than in the hybrids (P<0.05). The results indicate that germ cell meioses in the hybrids were arrested at the prophase stage of meiosis, and that lesser concentrations of testosterone and greater concentrations of LH and prolactin can inhibit the completion of spermatogenesis.

  3. Impact of 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure on main male reproductive hormone levels: a Rattus norvegicus model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Saeb, Mehdi; Nazifi, Saeed; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Jelodar, Gholamali; Saeb, Saeedeh

    2014-09-01

    This work analyzes the effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure on the reproductive system of male rats, assessed by measuring circulating levels of FSH, LH, inhibin B, activin B, prolactin, and testosterone. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (180 ± 10 g) were exposed to 900 MHz RF-EMF in four equal separated groups. The duration of exposure was 1, 2, and 4 h/day over a period of 30 days and sham-exposed animals were kept under the same environmental conditions as the exposed group except with no RF-EMF exposure. Before the exposure, at 15 and 30 days of exposure, determination of the abovementioned hormone levels was performed using ELISA. At the end of the experiment, FSH and LH values of the long time exposure (LTE) group were significantly higher than the sham-exposed group (p exposure (p exposure (p exposure and it may possibly affect reproductive functions. However, testosterone and inhibin B concentrations as a fertility marker and spermatogenesis were decreased significantly.

  4. Impact of 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure on main male reproductive hormone levels: a Rattus norvegicus model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Saeb, Mehdi; Nazifi, Saeed; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Jelodar, Gholamali; Saeb, Saeedeh

    2014-09-01

    This work analyzes the effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure on the reproductive system of male rats, assessed by measuring circulating levels of FSH, LH, inhibin B, activin B, prolactin, and testosterone. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (180 ± 10 g) were exposed to 900 MHz RF-EMF in four equal separated groups. The duration of exposure was 1, 2, and 4 h/day over a period of 30 days and sham-exposed animals were kept under the same environmental conditions as the exposed group except with no RF-EMF exposure. Before the exposure, at 15 and 30 days of exposure, determination of the abovementioned hormone levels was performed using ELISA. At the end of the experiment, FSH and LH values of the long time exposure (LTE) group were significantly higher than the sham-exposed group ( p exposure ( p exposure ( p exposure and it may possibly affect reproductive functions. However, testosterone and inhibin B concentrations as a fertility marker and spermatogenesis were decreased significantly.

  5. Testosterone and muscle hypertrophy in female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, F. E.; Max, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of chronic treatment with testosterone propionate (TP) on compensatory muscle hypertropy in female rats are examined. The 48 female rats were placed in one of four test groups: (1) no overload (synergist removal), no TP, (2) overload, no TP, (3) no overload + TP, and (4) overload + TP. The technique used to administer the TP is described. The preparation of the plantaris muscle, the analysis of pyruvate oxidation and the determination of malate and lactate dehydrogenases and the noncollogen protein are explained. The results which reveal the effect of overload and TP on body weight, noncollogen protein concentration, lactate and malate dehydrogenase activities, and pyruvate oxidation are presented and discussed. It is concluded that in terms of body weight, protein content, pyruvate, glycolysis, and oxidative metabolisms chronic TP treatments do not change compensatory muscle hypertropy.

  6. The effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on sex hormone-binding globulin and endogenous sex hormone levels: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedick Nicole M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Findings from observational studies suggest that sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and endogenous sex hormones may be mediators of the putative relation between coffee consumption and lower risk of type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on SHBG and sex hormone levels. Findings After a two-week run-in phase with caffeine abstention, we conducted an 8-week parallel-arm randomized controlled trial. Healthy adults (n = 42 were recruited from the Boston community who were regular coffee consumers, nonsmokers, and overweight. Participants were randomized to five 6-ounce cups of caffeinated or decaffeinated instant coffee or water (control group per day consumed with each meal, mid-morning, and mid-afternoon. The main outcome measures were SHBG and sex hormones [i.e., testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate]. No significant differences were found between treatment groups for any of the studied outcomes at week 8. At 4 weeks, decaffeinated coffee was associated with a borderline significant increase in SHBG in women, but not in men. At week 4, we also observed several differences in hormone concentrations between the treatment groups. Among men, consumption of caffeinated coffee increased total testosterone and decreased total and free estradiol. Among women, decaffeinated coffee decreased total and free testosterone and caffeinated coffee decreased total testosterone. Conclusions Our data do n