WorldWideScience

Sample records for analyzing equity impacts

  1. Analyzing the Impact of Brand Equity and Advertisement on Customers’ Loyalty in Isfahan City

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hossein Moshref Javadi; Sayyed Mohsen Allameh; Amir Poursaaedi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of advertisement and brand equity on customers’ loyalty in Isfahan city. literature review on advertising, brand equity, customer loyalty research model was presented. A standard questionnaire was used as data collection instrument. To measure SNOWA Corporation brand equity, Keller's brand equity model was used with six dimensions of brand's salience, performance, image, judgments, feelings and resonance. Face validity was used to verify t...

  2. Analyzing consumer-based brand equity on Facebook: The impact of brand gender

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, J. C.; Azar, Salim L.; Vacas-de-Carvalho, Leonor; Mendes, A.; André, R.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Facebook and other social media have become key players in branding activities. However, empirical research is still needed about the way in which consumerbased brand equity is created on social media. The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between masculine and feminine brand personality and brand equity, on Facebook, and to analyze the mediating role of consumer-brand engagement and brand love on this relationship. Data were collected using an...

  3. Market Impact Costs of Institutional Equity Trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Spierdijk, L.; van der Sluis, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes market impact costs of equity trading by one of the world's largest pension funds. We find that, on average, these costs are small in terms of market disruption, but substantial in terms of costs for the pension fund. Average market impact costs equal 20 basis points for buys

  4. Market Impact Costs of Institutional Equity Trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, P.J.; Bikker, J.A.; Spierdijk, L.

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes market impact costs of equity trading by one of the world's largest pension funds. We find that, on average, these costs are small in terms of market disruption, but substantial in terms of costs for the pension fund. Average market impact costs equal 20 basis points for buys

  5. Market impact costs of institutional equity trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Jacob A.; Spierdijk, Laura; van der Sluis, Pieter Jelle

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes market impact costs of equity trading by one of the world's largest pension funds. We find that, on average, these costs are small in terms of market disruption, but substantial in terms of costs for the pension fund. Average market impact costs equal 20 basis points for buys

  6. Equity Impacts of Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio M. Bento

    2013-01-01

    This article surveys recent literature on the equity impacts of environmental policy. We focus on studies that look at the distribution of costs and benefits of alternative environmental policies. We also examine potentially important trade-offs between efficiency and equity that arise in the context of environmental policy, as well as transition effects. In many of the applications surveyed here, environmental policies can be regressive. Strategies are discussed to reduce this regressivity t...

  7. Analyzing Equity Capital Programs of Banks for Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Ahmad; Ken D. Duft; Ron C. Mittelhammer

    1986-01-01

    Characteristics of Banks for Cooperatives term loan and equity capital programs contribute toward complex intermittent exchanges of positive and negative cash flows between the cooperative lender and borrower and complicate the analysis of the net present value and effective interest of the financing project. A multiperiod linear program was developed to analyze the effect of variations in equity capital program components on the present value of the financing project. Furthermore, the concep...

  8. The Impact of Social Media Marketing on Brand Equity Toward the Purchase Intention of Starbucks Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Karman, Melissa Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Starbucks Indonesia is a global coffee company has been able to manage its strong presence in the retail coffee industry. However, the burgeoning independent coffee shops in several major cities of Indonesia has become the new competitor for Starbucks Indonesia. This research is aimed to analyze the impact of social media marketing on brand equity toward the purchase intention of Starbucks Indonesia. Moreover, this research attempts to examine the role of brand equity as the mediating varia...

  9. How have Global Health Initiatives impacted on health equity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    This review examines the impact of Global Health Initiatives (GHIs) on health equity, focusing on low- and middle-income countries. It is a summary of a literature review commissioned by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. GHIs have emerged during the past decade as a mechanism in development assistance for health. The review focuses on three GHIs, the US President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the World Bank's Multi-country AIDS Programme (MAP) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria. All three have leveraged significant amounts of funding for their focal diseases - together these three GHIs provide an estimated two-thirds of external resources going to HIV/AIDS. This paper examines their impact on gender equity. An analysis of these Initiatives finds that they have a significant impact on health equity, including gender equity, through their processes of programme formulation and implementation, and through the activities they fund and implement, including through their impact on health systems and human resources. However, GHIs have so far paid insufficient attention to health inequities. While increasingly acknowledging equity, including gender equity, as a concern, Initiatives have so far failed to adequately translate this into programmes that address drivers of health inequity, including gender inequities. The review highlights the comparative advantage of individual GHIs, which point to an increased need for, and continued difficulties in, harmonisation of activities at country level. On the basis of this comparative analysis, key recommendations are made. They include a call for equity-sensitive targets, the collection of gender-disaggregated data, the use of policy-making processes for empowerment, programmes that explicitly address causes of health inequity and impact assessments of interventions' effect on social inequities.

  10. An equity tool for health impact assessments: Reflections from Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Wagler, Meghan; Lkhagvasuren, Oyun; Laing, Lory; Davison, Colleen; Janes, Craig

    2012-01-01

    A health impact assessment (HIA) is a tool for assessing the potential effects of a project or policy on a population's health. In this paper, we discuss a tool for successfully integrating equity concerns into HIAs. This discussion is the product of collaboration by Mongolian and Canadian experts, and it incorporates comments and suggestions of participants of a workshop on equity focused HIAs that took place in Mongolia in October, 2010. Our motivation for discussing this tool is based on the observation that existing HIAs tend either to fail to define equity or use problematic accounts of this concept. In this paper we give an overview of socio-demographic and health indicators in Mongolia and briefly discuss its mining industry. We then review three accounts of equity and argue for the importance of developing a consensus understanding of this concept when integrating considerations of equity into an HIA. Finally, we present findings from the workshop in Mongolia and outline a tool, derived from lessons from this workshop, for critically considering and integrating the concept of equity into an HIA.

  11. Analyzing the relationship between advertising and sales promotion with brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haim Hilman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s competitive business environment, customers are considered to be the source of brand success. Customers have numerous choices to form among alternative products, and they apply a high level of effect in the market with regard to several aspects such as quality, product size, services, and price. Hence, it is very important for manufacturers to meet customers’ needs in order to stay competitive. Advertising and sales promotion are considered as the main tools of marketing communication which is influential in attracting the attention of the customer and building brand equity. Advertising and sales promotions are highly effective in affecting consumer purchase decisions of a particular brand. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the link between advertising and sales promotion with brand equity. It reviews the past studies on the above-mentioned variables and provides some clarification to the nature of relationship existing between them.

  12. The impact of brand communication on brand equity through Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Schivinski, B; Dabrowski, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to fill the gap in the discussion of the ways in which firm-created and user-generated social media brand communication impacts consumer-based brand equity metrics through Facebook. Design/methodology/approach: We evaluated 302 data sets that were generated through a standardized online-survey to investigate the impact of firm-created and user-generated social media brand communication on brand awareness/associations, perceived quality, and brand loyalty ...

  13. Analyzing Brand Equity On Purchase Intention Through Brand Preference Of Samsung Smartphone User In Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Emor, Angelina M.

    2015-01-01

    Consumers nowadays tend to value a product from its brand. Strong brand equity brings positive effect to the product. Thus, it is assumed that brand equity affects preference and purchase intention as well. Samsung has become popular in the Smartphone market these years. Currently, Samsung holds the place at the top of Android-based Smartphones globally. This research wants to study about the effect of brand equity on purchase intention through brand preference of Samsung Smartphone users in ...

  14. The impacts of individualization on equity educational policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Francia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article has as its aim to illustrate and discuss the impacts of individualization strategies on equity educational policies through the analysis of individualized teaching strategies applied within the framework of educational priority policies in Sweden. The methodology used in our research work includes: (a the study of research literature about the individualization of teaching implemented in the Swedish comprehensive compulsory school; and (b the study of research literature about educational priority policies aimed at children from socially and ethnically segregated areas. Comparative research of educational policies considers the individualization of teaching carried out in the Swedish comprehensive compulsory school as a relevant explanation for the successful application of equitable educational policies in that country. However, research studies published during the 2000s in Sweden show a more complex perspective regarding the effects of individualized teaching strategies. This contribution reviews European comparative research studies on individualization strategies followed in the context of equity policies. It raises questions about the lack of analyses referring to the impacts of individualization on schools located in socially and ethnically segregated areas. It argues that this ideology tends to reduce the issue of school failure to ethnic segregation and individualized teacher support. This article claims that Individualization strategies based on differentiated curricula for students run the risk of increasing the discrimination of students for reasons of language or ethnic background. Even though the present study focuses on the Swedish experience, it can lead to a better understanding of the impacts caused by individualization strategies on equity in other European countries.

  15. A framework for analyzing and responding to the equity problems involved in high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperson, R.E.; Ratick, S.; Renn, O.

    1988-06-01

    As used in the discussion that follows, and in our research papers treating equity in the Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Impact Study, equity refers to the fairness of the process or results of a particular activity or development on the various affected groups or individuals. The proper role for equity analyses, in our view, is not to provide final answers for the difficult issues involved. Any such solutions would require absolute values to which all interested and affected parties would subscribe. They would also require agreement as to the meaning of ''harm,'' ''benefit,'' and ''burden'' as well as how these factors should most appropriately be measured and valued. Such absolute values and social consensus is not realistic. So no overall quantitative expression of the amount of inequity can be definitively calculated or stated

  16. The Carbon Impact of Investments in Mirova Equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Mirova is publishing the first measurement of its equity portfolios' carbon impact. They total euro 2.8 billion and 47% of its assets under management, in accordance with the commitments made as part of the Montreal Carbon Pledge and the Portfolio Decarbonization Coalition. This measurement has been carried out using Carbon Impact Analytics, an innovative methodology co-developed with Carbone 4, which emphasises: - Emissions induced by the activity of investees on their overall scope of responsibility, from cradle to grave, - Emissions avoided through the implementation of low-carbon strategies. The consolidated equity Portfolio presents induced emissions that are less than half that of a European benchmark (97 tCO_2/Meuro vs. 222 tCO_2/Meuro). This performance owes its strength mainly to the absence of very high-carbon companies (coal or oil) in all of Mirova's portfolios. As for its European environmental strategy, Mirova presents avoided emissions that are more than three times higher than the benchmark (-43 tCO_2/Meuro vs. -12 tCO_2/Meuro), thanks to investments specifically targeting leading companies providing low-carbon solutions. This particular investment strategy illustrates Mirova's determination to be aligned with a scenario in which the rise in temperatures does not exceed the 2 deg. C threshold. (authors)

  17. The impact of husbands' gender equity awareness on wives' reproductive health in rural areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Cui; Li, Yang; Hui, Han

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of husbands' gender equity awareness on wives' reproductive health in rural areas of China. A qualitative study of 1919 wives aged from 18 to 69 years and their husbands was conducted in rural China. Data were collected through 3838 structured interviews. We quantified "belief in gender equity" based on responses to 7 specific statements and graded the responses according to a system scoring the strength of the overall belief (a total score 19 or higher, strong; 15-18, moderate; and 14 or less, weak). Data were recorded by bi-input with EpiData 3.1 after being carefully checked. χ(2) tests and logistic regression were performed in this study. Only 20.0% of the husbands demonstrated strong convictions about gender equity. Husbands' gender equity awareness is related to wives' receiving any prenatal care, the number of prenatal visits to a healthcare provider, having a hospital delivery of a newborn, and having gynecological examination one time per year. Raising husbands' gender awareness on wives' reproductive health and reducing female illiteracy were very necessary. The whole community should participate actively in the progress of reproductive health promotion. China's Health System requires an integration of its various sectors, including family planning, maternal and child care in resource sharing, and service delivery. Obstetricians & gynecologists. After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to evaluate the impact of husbands' gender equity awareness on wives' reproductive health in rural areas of China; assess how raising husbands' gender awareness on wives' reproductive health and reducing female illiteracy will improve wives' reproductive health; and analyze how China's Health System can integrate its various sectors, including family planning, maternal, and childcare in resource sharing, and service delivery, to improve wives' reproductive health.

  18. Impact of terrorism and political instability on equity premium: Evidence from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    MengYun, Wu; Imran, Muhammad; Zakaria, Muhammad; Linrong, Zhang; Farooq, Muhammad Umer; Muhammad, Shah Khalid

    2018-02-01

    The study quantifies the impact of terrorism and political instability on firm equity premium in Pakistan using panel data for 306 non-financial firms for the period 2001 to 2014. Other variables included are law & order, government regime change and financial crisis of 2007/08. The estimated results reveal that terrorism has statistically significant negative impact on firm equity premium in Pakistan. This result is robust with alternative equation specifications. The result also remains same when terrorism variable is replaced with external and internal conflict variables. Law & order variable has significant positive effect on firm equity premium, which implies that equity premium increases with the improvement in law & order situation in the country. Equity premium also increases with government stability and when there is democratic system in the country. The result also reveals that global financial crisis of 2007/08 negatively influenced the firm equity premium. The study suggests some policy implications.

  19. An Empirical Investigation to Analyze the Brand Equity and Resonance of Banking Services: Evidence from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Gautam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to verify the determinants of brand equityof services based on consumers’ perception of a banking service.The present study is based on customer-based brand equity calledthe Brand Resonance model suggested by Keller (2001, whichcomprises six brand equity constructs, such as: brand resonance;brand judgements; brand feelings; brand performance; brand imagery;brand salience. Exploratory factor analysis was performedto reduce the total number of items to a small number of underlyingfactors, and the results produced six factors, namely: brandresonance; brand judgements; brand feelings; brand performance;brand imagery; brand salience. These alpha coefficients ofthe reliability test were found to be ranging from 0.781 to 0.912for all of the brand equity constructs individually, and for the entirescale the value of alpha was found to be 0.837. Correlationanalysis was performed to find out relationships among variouscomponents of brand equity. From the findings of multiple regressionanalysis it is evident that brand performance emergedas the most important determinant of brand resonance, followedby brand feelings (0.427 and brand judgements (0.306.

  20. Equity impact of interventions and policies to reduce smoking in youth: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tamara; Platt, Stephen; Amos, Amanda

    2014-11-01

    A systematic review to assess the equity impact of interventions/policies on youth smoking. Biosis, Cinahl, Cochrane Library, Conference Proceedings Citation Index, Embase, Eric, Medline, Psycinfo, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index and tobacco control experts. Published January 1995 to October 2013. Primary studies of interventions/policies reporting smoking-related outcomes in youth (11-25 years) of lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES). References were screened and independently checked. Studies were quality assessed; characteristics and outcomes were extracted. A narrative synthesis by intervention/policy type. Equity impact was assessed as: positive (reduced inequity), neutral (no difference by SES), negative (increased inequity), mixed (equity impact varied) or unclear.Thirty-eight studies of 40 interventions/policies were included: smokefree (12); price/tax (7); mass media campaigns (1); advertising controls (4); access controls (5); school-based programmes (5); multiple policies (3), individual-level cessation support (2), individual-level support for smokefree homes (1). The distribution of equity effects was: 7 positive, 16 neutral, 12 negative, 4 mixed, 1 unclear. All 7 positive equity studies were US-based: price/tax (4), age-of-sales laws (2) and text-messaging cessation support (1). A British school-based intervention (A Stop Smoking in Schools Trial (ASSIST)) showed mixed equity effects (neutral and positive). Most neutral equity studies benefited all SES groups. Very few studies have assessed the equity impact of tobacco control interventions/policies on young people. Price/tax increases had the most consistent positive equity impact. There is a need to strengthen the evidence base for the equity impact of youth tobacco control interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Impact of telephone nursing education program for equity in healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    H?glund, Anna T.; Carlsson, Marianne; Holmstr?m, Inger K.; Kaminsky, Elenor

    2016-01-01

    Background The Swedish Healthcare Act prescribes that healthcare should be provided according to needs and with respect for each person?s human dignity. The goal is equity in health for the whole population. In spite of this, studies have revealed that Swedish healthcare is not always provided equally. This has also been observed in telephone nursing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate if and how an educational intervention can improve awareness of equity in healthcare...

  2. Determining the impact of brand equity on consumer purchase intention

    OpenAIRE

    Özçifçi, Vesile

    2017-01-01

    In this study, it was attempted to determine whichbrand equity element is more effective regarding the mobile phone purchase ofuniversity students. Brand equity is defined in three dimensions which arebrand awareness, perceived quality and brand loyalty. Data was collected by1190 subjects studying at the faculties of Aksaray University. The data wastested by Structural Equation Modeling. As a result of the research, it wasfound that brand awareness affects perceived quality, but it does not a...

  3. Conceptualizing the social media communication impact on consumer based brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligita Zailskaitė-Jakštė

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of consumer-brand communication in social media on brand equity, providing conceptual model. Methodology/methods: The model was prepared using methods of comparative and systematic analysis of scientific literature. Scientific aim: The scientific aim of the article to propose the perspective of social media communication impact on brand equity conceptualization. The key factors of consumer engagement in company (brand communication process and amount of consumers created content (non-sponsored content, i.e. content created in interaction with company or brand, and sponsored content, i.e. content created in interaction with company (brand was under consideration. Findings: Our findings attempt to provide a comprehensive understanding of company (brand communication in social media seeking after a positive impact on brand equity dimensions. Theoretical analysis disclosed that it is not enough just to post message in a proper social media channel, it is essential to post appropriate content of the message and to post it in appropriate way in persuasion to engage consumers into communication. The consumer-generated content created in interaction with company and without interaction with company in social media is making impact on brand equity. Conclusions: The study extends the literature by examining communication in social media from company to consumer perspectives in order to disclose changes in marketing communication as source of brand equity in virtual context and to present key factors influencing brand equity in company (brand communication p

  4. Impact of Customer Relationships on Brand Equity in Chinese Retail Banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Cui, Jinhuan; Shiu, Eric

    of branding and relationship marketing, which are traditionally apart. The research findings provide bank managers with a comprehensive understanding of how customer relationships impact on the dimensions of brand equity, which will enable them in turn to design more effective marketing strategies to enhance...... issues. This study explores the associations between customer relationships and brand equity in the context of the Chinese banking system. A conceptual framework is proposed, in which the constructs of customer relationships including relationship closeness, relationship strength and relationship......Building strong brand equity is imperative in the highly competitive financial services sector. Despite tremendous interest in brand equity and relationship marketing, little conceptual development or empirical research has addressed whether relationships exist between these important marketing...

  5. Impact of Customer Relationships on Brand Equity in Chinese Retail Banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Cui, Jinhuan; Shiu, Erik

    2013-01-01

    of branding and relationship marketing, which are traditionally apart. The research findings provide bank managers with a comprehensive understanding of how customer relationships impact on the dimensions of brand equity, which will enable them in turn to design more effective marketing strategies to enhance...... issues. This study explores the associations between customer relationships and brand equity in the context of the Chinese banking system. A conceptual framework is proposed, in which the constructs of customer relationships including relationship closeness, relationship strength and relationship......Building strong brand equity is imperative in the highly competitive financial services sector. Despite tremendous interest in brand equity and relationship marketing, little conceptual development or empirical research has addressed whether relationships exist between these important marketing...

  6. [Preliminary study on main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei; Geng, Dong-Mei; Rong, Xue; Li, Zi; Liu, Wei; Yang, Li; Xu, Si-Qun; Jie, Xiao-Qian

    2013-05-01

    The brand equity is valuable intangible assets of traditional Chinese medicine companies, who are excellent representatives of traditional Chinese medicine enterprises and the most promising ones to good international medicine brands. However, there is still no systematic study on how to correctly evaluate the brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies at present. To make it clear, the main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, both structured open outline pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for the field survey, and some suggestions for how to protect and enhance the brand equity were also presented on the basis of survey and analysis, in the hope of improving the brand management level of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, and making a beneficial exploration for the development of brand theory of the traditional Chinese medicine industry.

  7. Assessing the health equity impacts of regional land-use plan making: An equity focussed health impact assessment of alternative patterns of development of the Whitsunday Hinterland and Mackay Regional Plan, Australia (Short report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunning, Colleen; Harris, Patrick; Mallett, John

    2011-01-01

    Health service and partners completed an equity focussed health impact assessment to influence the consideration of health and equity within regional land-use planning in Queensland, Australia. This project demonstrated how an equity oriented assessment matrix can assist in testing regional planning scenarios. It is hoped that this HIA will contribute to the emerging interest in ensuring that potential differential health impacts continue to be considered as part of land-use planning processes.

  8. The Equity Impact Vaccines May Have On Averting Deaths And Medical Impoverishment In Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Angela Y; Riumallo-Herl, Carlos; Perales, Nicole A; Clark, Samantha; Clark, Andrew; Constenla, Dagna; Garske, Tini; Jackson, Michael L; Jean, Kévin; Jit, Mark; Jones, Edward O; Li, Xi; Suraratdecha, Chutima; Bullock, Olivia; Johnson, Hope; Brenzel, Logan; Verguet, Stéphane

    2018-02-01

    With social policies increasingly directed toward enhancing equity through health programs, it is important that methods for estimating the health and economic benefits of these programs by subpopulation be developed, to assess both equity concerns and the programs' total impact. We estimated the differential health impact (measured as the number of deaths averted) and household economic impact (measured as the number of cases of medical impoverishment averted) of ten antigens and their corresponding vaccines across income quintiles for forty-one low- and middle-income countries. Our analysis indicated that benefits across these vaccines would accrue predominantly in the lowest income quintiles. Policy makers should be informed about the large health and economic distributional impact that vaccines could have, and they should view vaccination policies as potentially important channels for improving health equity. Our results provide insight into the distribution of vaccine-preventable diseases and the health benefits associated with their prevention.

  9. Analyzing health equity using household survey data: a guide to techniques and their implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Donnell, Owen A

    2008-01-01

    ... indicators 39 Computation of anthropometric indicators Analyzing anthropometric data 50 Useful sources of further information 55 References 55 44 5. Health Outcome #3: Adult Health 57 Describing...

  10. Equity-focused health impact assessment: A tool to assist policy makers in addressing health inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Sarah; Mahoney, Mary; Harris, Elizabeth; Aldrich, Rosemary; Stewart-Williams, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    In Australasia (Australia and New Zealand) the use of health impact assessment (HIA) as a tool for improved policy development is comparatively new. The public health workforce do not routinely assess the potential health and equity impacts of proposed policies or programs. The Australasian Collaboration for Health Equity Impact Assessment was funded to develop a strategic framework for equity-focused HIA (EFHIA) with the intent of strengthening the ways in which equity is addressed in each step of HIA. The collaboration developed a draft framework for EFHIA that mirrored, but modified the commonly accepted steps of HIA; tested the draft framework in six different health service delivery settings; analysed the feedback about application of the draft EFHIA framework and modified it accordingly. The strategic framework shows promise in providing a systematic process for identifying potential differential health impacts and assessing the extent to which these are avoidable and unfair. This paper presents the EFHIA framework and discusses some of the issues that arose in the case study sites undertaking equity-focused HIA

  11. Equity impact of population-level interventions and policies to reduce smoking in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tamara; Platt, Stephen; Amos, Amanda

    2014-05-01

    There is strong evidence about which tobacco control policies reduce smoking. However, their equity impact is uncertain. The aim was to assess the effectiveness of population-level interventions/policies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in adult smoking. Systematic review of studies of population-level interventions/policies reporting smoking-related outcomes in adults of lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES). References were screened and independently checked. Studies were quality assessed. Results are presented in a narrative synthesis. Equity impact was assessed as: positive (reduced inequality), neutral (no difference by SES), negative (increased inequality), mixed (equity impact varied) or unclear. 117 studies of 130 interventions/policies were included: smokefree (44); price/tax (27); mass media campaigns (30); advertising controls (9); cessation support (9); settings-based interventions (7); multiple policies (4). The distribution of equity effects was: 33 positive, 36 neutral, 38 negative, 6 mixed, 17 unclear. Most neutral equity studies benefited all SES groups. Fourteen price/tax studies were equity positive. Voluntary, regional and partial smokefree policies were more likely to be equity negative than national, comprehensive smokefree policies. Mass media campaigns had inconsistent equity effects. Cigarette marketing controls were equity positive or neutral. Targeted national smoking cessation services can be equity positive by achieving higher reach among low SES, compensating for lower quit rates. Few studies have assessed the equity impact of tobacco control policy/interventions. Price/tax increases had the most consistent positive equity impact. More research is needed to strengthen the evidence-base for reducing smoking inequalities and to develop effective equity-orientated tobacco control strategies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Impact of acquisition channels on customer equity, The

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Julian; Yoo, Shijin; Hanssens, Dominique M.

    2003-01-01

    Customer equity (CE henceforth) is a powerful new paradigm to evaluate the firm's value and to optimally allocate marketing resources. This paper is focused on the relationship between customer acquisition and CE. The authors attempt to answer the following four questions: 1) how should customer acquisition channels be categorized to make them meaningful to managers and academics?; 2) how do we measure the effects of different acquisition channels on the firm's performance?; 3) how do we dise...

  13. Impact of telephone nursing education program for equity in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Anna T; Carlsson, Marianne; Holmström, Inger K; Kaminsky, Elenor

    2016-09-21

    The Swedish Healthcare Act prescribes that healthcare should be provided according to needs and with respect for each person's human dignity. The goal is equity in health for the whole population. In spite of this, studies have revealed that Swedish healthcare is not always provided equally. This has also been observed in telephone nursing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate if and how an educational intervention can improve awareness of equity in healthcare among telephone nurses. The study had a quasi-experimental design, with one intervention group and one control group. A base-line measurement was performed before an educational intervention and a follow-up measurement was made afterwards in both groups, using a study specific questionnaire in which fictive persons of different age, gender and ethnicity were assessed concerning, e.g., power over one's own life, quality of life and experience of discrimination. The educational intervention consisted of a web-based lecture, literature and a seminar, covering aspects of inequality in healthcare related to gender, age and ethnicity, and gender and intersectionality theories as explaining models for these conditions. The results showed few significant differences before and after the intervention in the intervention group. Also in the control group few significant differences were found in the second measurement, although no intervention was performed in that group. The reason might be that the instrument used was not sensitive enough to pick up an expected raised awareness of equity in healthcare, or that solely the act of filling out the questionnaire can create a sort of intervention effect. Fictive persons born in Sweden and of young age were assessed to have a higher Good life-index than the fictive persons born outside Europe and of higher age in all assessments. The results are an imperative that equity in healthcare still needs to be educated and discussed in different healthcare

  14. The Impacts of Perceived Advertising Spending and Price Promotions on Brand Equity: a Case of an Indonesian Instant Noodle Brand

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara, Steven

    2014-01-01

    One of Indonesia's largest producers of instant noodle has the long term vision to make its brand Indonesia's number one instant noodles brand. Heavy advertising and intense price promotions are part of its strategy to increase the brand equity. The researcher, therefore, wishes to examine whether advertising and price promotions that the company conducts contribute to the instant noodle brand equity. To test the impacts of perceived advertising spending and price promotions on brand equity...

  15. The Impact of Perceived Advertising Spending and Price Promotion on Brand Equity:A Case of ABC Brand

    OpenAIRE

    Nurcahya, Kevin Edward

    2014-01-01

    Intense competition in Indonesian beverage industry lead many corporations to spend trillion rupiah on marketing communication, such as advertising and price promotion with the hope of increasing brand equity. However, the question is whether promotional activities in this industry amplify or attenuate the brand equity of a product. Therefore, this paper aims to model the impact of perceived advertising spending and price promotion on brand equity, measured through consumer perceptions, spec...

  16. Evaluating the Impacts of Bus Fare on Social Equity Based on IC Card Data in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowu Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bus fare equity has attracted significant attention in China in the past few years. Compared with developed countries, China’s intelligent transportation systems are in their infancy, with immature bus fare policies being used in many public transit systems. The methods used for evaluating public transit fare equity in developed countries compare different fare policies based on rich data and cannot be directly applied in developing countries like China. In this paper, we present a method that uses IC card data, bus-mounted GPS data, and relevant statistical yearbook data to evaluate the equity of flat bus fare. The method ranks the factors that influence the impacts of bus fare on social equity for different passenger groups and indicates that trip distance and passenger boarding time are the two primary factors for bus fare equity from a resource allocation perspective. Finally, we present a case study that evaluates the flat fare policy for route 204 in Suzhou using the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is feasible.

  17. The impact of customer-based brand equity on the operational performance of FMCG companies in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijuna C. Mohan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of brand equity has posed a big challenge to the companies in the Indian fast moving consumer goods (FMCG industry. This paper investigates the impact of brand equity on the operational performance of businesses in the Indian FMCG industry. The research study adopts descriptive and exploratory approaches. The results indicate that there is correlation between brand equity and operational performance of business. The practical implications of the findings are that brand equity has to be effectively managed for improved operational performance of business.

  18. A Measure of the Potential Impact of Hospital Community Health Activities on Population Health and Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begun, James W; Kahn, Linda M; Cunningham, Brooke A; Malcolm, Jan K; Potthoff, Sandra

    2017-12-13

    Many hospitals in the United States are exploring greater investment in community health activities that address upstream causes of poor health. Develop and apply a measure to categorize and estimate the potential impact of hospitals' community health activities on population health and equity. We propose a scale of potential impact on population health and equity, based on the cliff analogy developed by Jones and colleagues. The scale is applied to the 317 activities reported in the community health needs assessment implementation plan reports of 23 health care organizations in the Minneapolis-St Paul, Minnesota metropolitan area in 2015. Using a 5-point ordinal scale, we assigned a score of potential impact on population health and equity to each community health activity. A majority (50.2%) of health care organizations' community health activities are classified as addressing social determinants of health (level 4 on the 5-point scale), though very few (5.4%) address structural causes of health equity (level 5 on the 5-point scale). Activities that score highest on potential impact fall into the topic categories of "community health and connectedness" and "healthy lifestyles and wellness." Lower-scoring activities focus on sick or at-risk individuals, such as the topic category of "chronic disease prevention, management, and screening." Health care organizations in the Minneapolis-St Paul metropolitan area vary substantially in the potential impact of their aggregated community health activities. Hospitals can be significant contributors to investment in upstream community health programs. This article provides a scale that can be used not only by hospitals but by other health care and public health organizations to better align their community health strategies, investments, and partnerships with programming and policies that address the foundational causes of population health and equity within the communities they serve.

  19. Analyzing the economic impacts of transportation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The main goal of the study is to explore methods, approaches and : analytical software tools for analyzing economic activity that results from largescale : transportation investments in Connecticut. The primary conclusion is that the : transportation...

  20. The impact of brand equity and the hedonic level of products on consumer stock-out reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, LM; Verhoef, PC; Franses, PH

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the impact of brand equity and the hedonic level of the product on consumer stock-out responses. We also examine whether the hedonic level of the product moderates the effect of brand equity. Using a sample of Dutch consumers divided over eight product groups and eight retail chains,

  1. Analyzing the environmental impacts of laptop enclosures ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The market growth of consumer electronics makes it essential for industries and policy-makers to work together to develop sustainable products. The objective of this study is to better understand how to promote environmentally sustainable consumer electronics by examining the use of various materials in laptop enclosures (excluding mounting hardware, internal components, and insulation) using screening-level life cycle assessment. The baseline material, is a fossil plastic blend of polycarbonate-acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Alternative materials include polylactic acid, bamboo, aluminum, and various combinations of these materials known to be currently used or being considered for use in laptops. The flame retardants considered in this study are bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate), triphenyl phosphate, 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide, and borax-boric acid-phosphorous acid. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts v2.1 was used for the assessment of impacts related to climate change, human and ecological health, and resource use. The assessment demonstrates that plastics, relative to the other materials, are currently some of the better performing materials in terms of having the lowest potential environmental impact for a greater number of impact categories based on product life cycle models developed in this study. For fossil plastics, the material performance increases with increasing post-con

  2. The Impact of Uruguay’s 2007 Tax Reform on Equity and Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Martorano

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Uruguayan government implemented a new tax reform which introduced a new progressive labour income tax, a flat capital income tax, and reduced some indirect taxes, with the objective of improving fiscal balance, income distribution and economic growth. This paper presents an evaluation of the impact of such tax reform on equity and efficiency on the basis of data derived from the Encuesta Continua de Hogares (ECH) for the years 2006 and 2009. Using a Difference-in-Differences tec...

  3. The Impact of Social Media Communication Forms on Brand Equity Dimensions and Consumer Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Soewandi, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    The USAge of Internet eventually shifts companies' marketing strategy from traditional into digital one. Social media, as one of digital marketing tools, can help companies in strengthening their brand. Thus, in this research, the writer want to know the impact of social media communication forms on brand equity dimensions and consumer purchase intention, specifically in Lareia Cake & Co's Instagram account's (@lareiacakerie) which is used as this research's object. There are 250 sample...

  4. The Impact of Brand Personality on Product Sale through Brand Equity (Case Study: Cosmetic Products Retailers)

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Rezaei Dolatabadi; Ali Kazemi; Nima Soltani Rad

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, understanding the reasons of brand personality attraction for consumers, the determination of its effect on consumer behavior and brand equity has been an area of interest to researchers of consumer behavior. Certainly, this concept can be important for sellers of product that are on the other side of the purchase & sale equation and the results can be effective in promoting their brands. In order to reach this purpose, this study has analyzed the influence of brand personali...

  5. The impact of federalism on the healthcare system in terms of efficiency, equity, and cost containment: the case of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivelli, Luca; Salari, Paola

    2014-01-01

    According to the economic theory of federalism (Oates 1999), a decentralized decision to collectively fund and supply the quantity and quality of public services will increase economic welfare as long as three conditions are fulfilled: preferences and production costs of the different local constituencies are heterogeneous; local governments are better informed than the central agency because of their proximity to the citizens; and the competition between local governments exerts a significant impact on the performance of the local administration and on the ability of public agencies to implement policy innovation. Federalism also presents some negative aspects, including the opportunity costs of decentralization, which materialize in terms of unexploited economies of scale; the emergence of spillover effects among jurisdictions; and the risk of cost-shifting exercises from one layer of the government to the other. Finally, competition between fiscal regimes can affect the level of equity. The literature considers fiscal federalism as a mechanism for controlling the size of the public sector and for constraining the development of redistributive measures. The present paper reviews the impact that federalism has on the efficiency, equity, and cost containment of the healthcare system in Switzerland, a country with a strongly decentralized political system that is based on federalism and the institutions of direct democracy, a liberal economic culture, and a well-developed tradition of mutualism and social security (generous social expenditure and welfare system). By analyzing the empirical evidence available for Switzerland, we expect to draw some general policy lessons that might also be useful for other countries.

  6. A health equity impact assessment umbrella program (AAPRISS) to tackle social inequalities in health: program description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Thierry; Bidault, Elsa; Villeval, Mélanie; Alias, François; Gandouet, Benjamin; Servat, Martine; Theis, Ivan; Breton, Eric; Haschar-Noé, Nadine; Grosclaude, Pascale

    2016-09-01

    The failure to simultaneously address two objectives (increasing the average health of the population and reducing health inequalities) may have led to what has been observed in France so far: an overall decrease in mortality and increase in inequality. The Apprendre et Agir pour Réduire les Inégalités Sociales de Santé (AAPRISS) methodology is to analyze and modify interventions that are already underway in terms of their potential impact on health inequalities. It relies on partnership between researchers and actors in the health field, as well as policy makers. In this paper, we describe the program and discuss its feasibility and acceptability. This program is not a single intervention, but a process aiming at assessing and reshaping existing health programs, therefore acting as a kind of meta-intervention. The program develops scientific and methodological support stemming from co-construction methods aimed at increasing equity within the programs. Stakeholders from prevention policy-making and the health care system, as well as researchers, collaborate in defining interventions, monitoring their progress, and choosing indicators, methods and evaluation procedures. The target population is mainly the population of the greater Toulouse area. The steps of the process are described: (1) establishment of AAPRISS governance and partnerships; (2) inclusion of projects; and (3) the projects' process. Many partners have rallied around this program, which has been shown to be feasible and acceptable by partners and health actors. A major challenge is understanding each partner's expectations in terms of temporality of interventions, expected outcomes, assessment methods and indicators. Analyzing the projects has been quite feasible, and some modifications have been implemented in them in order to take inequalities in health into account. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Analyzing The Effect Of Marketing Mix, Service Quality And Brand Equity On Consumer Buying Decision In Indomaret Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Tumewu, Ferdinand J; Mongdong, Vilanri G

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays retail industry has been growing quite fast supported by the consumer behavior that has begun to shift from traditional to modern retail market. APRINDO predicted that the growth would be around 10% by 2015. Indomaret franchise is the pioneer in Indonesia. The objective of this research is to identify the effect of marketing mix, service quality and brand equity on consumer buying decision. In this research, the population refers to the consumer of Indomaret Manado with cluster sampl...

  8. Analyzing the equity of public primary care provision in Kenya: variation in facility characteristics by local poverty level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toda Mitsuru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Equitable access to health care is a key health systems goal, and is a particular concern in low-income countries. In Kenya, public facilities are an important resource for the poor, but little is known on the equity of service provision. This paper assesses whether poorer areas have poorer health services by investigating associations between public facility characteristics and the poverty level of the area in which the facility is located. Methods Data on facility characteristics were collected from a nationally representative sample of public health centers and dispensaries across all 8 provinces in Kenya. A two-stage cluster randomized sampling process was used to select facilities. Univariate associations between facility characteristics and socioeconomic status (SES of the area in which the facility was located were assessed using chi-squared tests, equity ratios and concentration indices. Indirectly standardized concentration indices were used to assess the influence of SES on facility inputs and service availability while controlling for facility type, province, and remoteness. Results For most indicators, we found no indication of variation by SES. The clear exceptions were electricity and laboratory services which showed evidence of pro-rich inequalities, with equity ratios of 3.16 and 3.43, concentration indices of 0.09 (p Conclusions The paper shows how local area poverty data can be combined with national health facility surveys, providing a tool for policy makers to assess the equity of input and service availability. There was little evidence of inequalities for most inputs and services, with the clear exceptions of electricity and laboratory services. However, efforts are required to improve the availability of key inputs and services across public facilities in all areas, regardless of SES.

  9. Tool for assessing health and equity impacts of interventions modifying air quality in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Yuri; Benmarhnia, Tarik; Brousselle, Astrid

    2015-12-01

    Urban outdoor air pollution (AP) is a major public health concern but the mechanisms by which interventions impact health and social inequities are rarely assessed. Health and equity impacts of policies and interventions are questioned, but managers and policy agents in various institutional contexts have very few practical tools to help them better orient interventions in sectors other than the health sector. Our objective was to create such a tool to facilitate the assessment of health impacts of urban outdoor AP interventions by non-public health experts. An iterative process of reviewing the academic literature, brainstorming, and consultation with experts was used to identify the chain of effects of urban outdoor AP and the major modifying factors. To test its applicability, the tool was applied to two interventions, the London Low Emission Zone and the Montréal BIXI public bicycle-sharing program. We identify the chain of effects, six categories of modifying factors: those controlling the source of emissions, the quantity of emissions, concentrations of emitted pollutants, their spatial distribution, personal exposure, and individual vulnerability. Modifiable and non-modifiable factors are also identified. Results are presented in the text but also graphically, as we wanted it to be a practical tool, from pollution sources to emission, exposure, and finally, health effects. The tool represents a practical first step to assessing AP-related interventions for health and equity impacts. Understanding how different factors affect health and equity through air pollution can provide insight to city policymakers pursuing Health in All Policies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of value-adding services on quality, loyalty and brand equity in the brewing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Juga, J. (Jari); Juntunen, J. (Jouni); Paananen, M. (Mikko)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of logistics value-adding services and perceived service quality on brand equity among B2B customers of a brewery company. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model is developed and tested using survey data from 173 hotel, restaurant and catering (HoReCa) industry customers of a brewery company in Finland. Findings: Value-adding services play an important role in building the brewery company’s brand eq...

  11. Angels or demons? Evidence on the impact of private equity firms on employment

    OpenAIRE

    Nathusius, Eva; Achleitner, Ann-Kristin

    2009-01-01

    The impact of private equity firms on employment in their portfolio companies is a controversial topic widely discussed in academia and in practice in recent years. A large body of research has resulted from this debate. The studies are focused on different aspects of employment and are based on a variety of methodologies as well as samples representing e.g. different types of buyouts and geographies. The aim of this paper is to provide access to and enhance the understanding of the highly fr...

  12. Analyzing the impact of conjunctive labeling as part of a regional wine branding strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Atkin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research studies have proven that place-based/regional branding methods have a positive effect on brand equity and economic benefits for companies. However, very small or specific regions may be confusing to consumers, so conjunctive labeling – or the process of advertising both a larger region and the sub-region of origin for a product – is suggested as a remedy for this situation. This study analyzes the impact of conjunctive labeling by comparing two national samples of consumers, before and two years after, conjunctive wine labeling was introduced in Sonoma County. The results show a higher awareness for both Sonoma County and its sub appellations (AVAs after conjunctive labeling was introduced than before. This demonstrates the potential benefit of associating sub-regional appellations with larger wine regions. Keywords: Regional branding, Appellations, Wine marketing, Conjunctive labeling, Place-based marketing

  13. Financial protection of patients through compensation of providers: the impact of Health Equity Funds in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gabriela; Ir, Por; Men, Chean R; O'Donnell, Owen; van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2013-12-01

    Public providers have no financial incentive to respect their legal obligation to exempt the poor from user fees. Health Equity Funds (HEFs) aim to make exemptions effective by giving NGOs responsibility for assessing eligibility and compensating providers for lost revenue. We use the geographic spread of HEFs over time in Cambodia to identify their impact on out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. Among households with some OOP payment, HEFs reduce the amount paid by 35%, on average. The effect is larger for households that are poorer and mainly use public health care. Reimbursement of providers through a government operated scheme also reduces household OOP payments but the effect is not as well targeted on the poor. Both compensation models raise household non-medical consumption but have no impact on health-related debt. HEFs reduce the probability of primarily seeking care in the private sector. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Impact of Brand Equity Assets on Consumer Preference for Foreign Brands in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ena Kumbara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the free market consumers are faced with a different variation while they making purchase decision. Brand as a term, name, and symbol gives quality and satisfy needs of consumers and on that way assure self recognition. Main objective of this study is to determine the factors which influence consumers to buy international brands rather than national brands. This study has four independent variables and one dependent variable. Data for this study will be collected using online surveys based on the previous researches about brand equity and its dimensions. Sample for this study were 214 respondents form the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Using descriptive statistics, correlation and multiple regression analyses these data are measured. Results of this research will give benefits to marketing professionals in Bosnian industries where they can try to understand consumers- whether brand equity and its dimensions affect their purchasing decision and does that effect have negative or positive impact. Contribution of this study is reflected in that Bosnian manufacturers and sellers can better meet consumer’s wishes and needs, possibilities of potential consumers in this strained economy.

  15. Brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrandt, Lutz; Tischer, Sven

    2012-01-01

    To explore how occurring critical incidents affect customer-brand relations, this study measures the impact on the basis of an online experiment. For this purpose, 1,122 usable responses are gathered considering the smartphone brands of Apple and Nokia as well as different scenarios. The respective reactions to these negative incidents are evaluated using the concept of customer-based brand equity. More precisely, a structure equation model is specified and differences in latent factor means ...

  16. The impact of liquidity and size premium on equity price formation in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minović Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to examine the impact of an overall market factor, the factor related to the firm size, the factor related to the ratio of book to market value of companies, and the factor of liquidity risk on expected asset returns in the Serbian market. For this market we estimated different factor models: Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM by Sharpe, 1964, Fama-French (FF model (1992, 1993, Liquidity-augmented CAPM (LCAPM by Liu (2006, and combination LCAPM with FF factors. We used daily data for the period from 2005 to 2009. Using a demanding methodology and complex dataset, we found that liquidity and firm size had a significant impact on equity price formation in Serbia. On the other hand, our results suggest that the factor related to the ratio of book to market value of companies does not have an important role in asset pricing in Serbia. We found that Liu’s two factor LCAPM model performs better in explaining stock returns than the standard CAPM and the Fama-French three factor model. Additionally, Liu’s LCAPM may indeed be a good tool for realistic assessment of the expected asset returns. The combination of the Fama-French model and the LCAPM could improve the understanding of equilibrium in the Serbian equity market. Even though previous papers have mostly dealt with examining different factor models of developed or emerging markets worldwide, none of them has tested factor models on the countries of former Yugoslavia. This paper is the first to test the FF model and LCAPM with FF factors in the case of Serbia and the area of ex-Yugoslavia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179015: Challenges and Prospects of Structural Changes in Serbia: Strategic Directions for Economic Development and Harmonization With EU Requirements

  17. Impact of Brand Orientation, Internal Marketing and Job Satisfaction on the Internal Brand Equity: The Case of Iranian’s Food and Pharmaceutical Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Azizi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal branding has been emerging recently as an important issue in marketing field. This study provides insights into how job satisfaction, internal marketing and brand orientation shape employees internal brand equity. Empirical data were collected by a questionnaire distributed to food and pharmaceutical firms. The empirical results indicated that while brand orientation and internal marketing were found to have impact on internal brand equity, job satisfaction has no effect on internal brand equity. Additionally, it was observed that job satisfaction and internal marketing has direct and positive impact on brand orientation and therefore indirect and positive impact on internal brand equity through brand orientation. Results of this study can help organizations to improve their financial performance through more awareness of the determinants of internal brand equity.

  18. Adopting the international financial reporting standards: a positive impact on 2004 income and consolidated equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallet, O.

    2005-03-01

    This document provides preliminary information on the quantitative impact of transition to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on AREVA 2004 financial position, in accordance with AMF recommendations regarding financial communications during the transition period.The basis for preparing 2004 information on transition to the IFRS comes from: the International Accounting Standards (IAS)/IFRS, as approved by the European Union. The impact of IAS 32/39 and IFRS 4 will not be recognized in shareholders equity until January 1, 2005; AREVA anticipation of the resolution of technical issues and ongoing projects under discussion by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC). Uncertainty factors on practical methods for applying certain standards and ongoing interpretations by IFRIC and regulatory organizations could impact the exactness of restatements identified at this stage. For all of these reasons, it is conceivable that the opening balance sheet at January 1, 2004, as presented in this document, will not be the balance sheet actually used to establish the consolidated financial statements for 2005. (author)

  19. The Impact of Brand Equity on Brand Preference and Purchase Intention in Indonesia's Bicycle Industry: a Case Study of Polygon

    OpenAIRE

    Soenyoto, Felly Liliyana

    2015-01-01

    In the midst of stiff competition of local and foreign brands in Indonesia's bicycle industry, understanding the role of a brand in influencing consumer's brand preference and purchase intention is becoming more important as more choices are available for consumers. Thus, taking the case study of Polygon, this research aims to investigate the impact of brand equity on consumer's brand preference and purchase intention as well as the possibility of brand preference as the mediator between bra...

  20. Health Equity Talk: Understandings of Health Equity among Health Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette M. Pauly

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reducing health inequities is a stated goal of health systems worldwide. There is widespread commitment to health equity among public health leaders and calls for reorientation of health systems towards health equity. As part of the Equity Lens in Public Health (ELPH program of research, public health decision makers and researchers in British Columbia collaborated to study the application of a health equity lens in a time of health system renewal. We drew on intersectionality, complexity and critical social justice theories to understand how participants construct health equity and apply a health equity lens as part of public health renewal. Methods: 15 focus groups and 16 individual semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 55 health system leaders. Data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis to explore how health equity was constructed in relation to understandings and actions. Results: Four main themes were identified in terms of how health care leaders construct health equity and actions to reduce health inequities: (1 population health, (2 determinants of health, and (3 accessibility and (4 challenges of health equity talk. The first three aspects of health equity talk reflect different understandings of health equity rooted in vulnerability (individual versus structural, determinants of health (material versus social determinants, and appropriate health system responses (targeted versus universal responses. Participants identified that talking about health equity in the health care system, either inside or outside of public health, is a ‘challenging conversation’ because health equity is understood in diverse ways and there is little guidance available to apply a health equity lens. Conclusions: These findings reflect the importance of creating a shared understanding of health equity within public health systems, and providing guidance and clarity as to the meaning and application of a health

  1. The equity impact of the universal coverage policy: lessons from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakongsai, Phusit; Limwattananon, Supon; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2009-01-01

    This chapter assesses health equity achievements of the Thai health system before and after the introduction of the universal coverage (UC) policy. It examines five dimensions of equity: equity in financial contributions, the incidence of catastrophic health expenditure, the degree of impoverishment as a result of household out-of-pocket payments for health, equity in health service use and the incidence of public subsidies for health. The standard methods proposed by O'Donnell, van Doorslaer, and Wagstaff (2008b) were used to measure equity in financial contribution, healthcare utilization and public subsidies, and in assessing the incidence of catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment. Two major national representative household survey datasets were used: Socio-Economic Surveys and Health and Welfare Surveys. General tax was the most progressive source of finance in Thailand. Because this source dominates total financing, the overall outcome was progressive, with the rich contributing a greater share of their income than the poor. The low incidence of catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment before UC was further reduced after UC. Use of healthcare and the distribution of government subsidies were both pro-poor: in particular, the functioning of primary healthcare (PHC) at the district level serves as a "pro-poor hub" in translating policy into practice and equity outcomes. The Thai health financing reforms have been accompanied by nationwide extension of PHC coverage, mandatory rural health service by new graduates and systems redesign, especially the introduction of a contracting model and closed-ended provider payment methods. Together, these changes have led to a more equitable and more efficient health system. Institutional capacity to generate evidence and to translate it into policy decisions, effective implementation and comprehensive monitoring and evaluation are essential to successful system-level reforms.

  2. How Brand Equity and Movieliking can Override Impact of Misleading Brand Placement toward Brand Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Zakaria Afiff

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of this study is the phenomenon termed misleading brand placement, a condition found where the brand placement in a movie depict the brand in a time where the brand has not yet exist, providing the brand an older age. As the brand used in the brand placement is a brand with high brand equity, the combination of older age and high brand equity is suspected to give a higher evaluation of the brand. To test these suspicions, three experiments were conducted to see the influence of consumer knowledge of the misleading brand placement, brand equity and movie liking toward the brand attitude. The results show that when consumers do not have knowledge of the misleading brand placement they are not affected by misleading brand placement; but when they know of the misleading brand placement, brand attitude tend to be still be high when brand equity is high; and finally, when brand equity is high, a positive movie liking can further strengthen brand equity in reducing the negative effect of the misleading brand placement. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Cambria","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  3. How Brand Equity and Movieliking Can Override Impact of Misleading Brand Placement Toward Brand Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Adi Zakaria Afiff; Westi Noria Furi; Denyza Wahyuadi Mertoprawiro

    2014-01-01

    The starting point of this study is the phenomenon termed misleading brand placement, a condition found where the brand placement in a movie depict the brand in a time where the brand has not yet exist, providing the brand an older age. As the brand used in the brand placement is a brand with high brand equity, the combination of older age and high brand equity is suspected to give a higher evaluation of the brand. To test these suspicions, three experiments were conducted to see the influenc...

  4. Private Equity and Industry Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Shai; Lerner, Josh; Sørensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The growth of the private equity industry has spurred concerns about its impact on the economy. This analysis looks across nations and industries to assess the impact of private equity on industry performance. We find that industries where private equity funds invest grow more quickly in terms...... of total production and employment and appear less exposed to aggregate shocks. Our robustness tests provide some evidence that is consistent with our effects being driven by our preferred channel....

  5. Marketing assets: Relating brand equity and customer equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Romero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Brand equity and customer equity are inextricably linked. Some authors propose that marketing activities build these intangible assets simultaneously. In contrast, others suggest that brand equity is an antecedent of customer equity. In this research, we aim to shed light about the relationship between brand equity and customer equity, by empirically testing these two alternative explanations. Design/methodology/approach: We propose four research models that reflect these two alternatives explanations regarding the link between brand equity and customer equity. In order to estimate these models we employ Structural Equations Modelling. We measure model variables using data collected through a survey to marketing managers of services companies that operate in Spain. We compare these four research models in terms of explanatory power and goodness of fit. Findings: Our results indicate that the models that correspond to the simultaneity approach have a higher explanatory power and goodness of fit than the models that suggest that brand equity is an antecedent of customer equity, thus supporting that these intangible assets are built by marketing activities at the same time. Research limitations/implications: Our results recommend caution when interpreting previous research about the effects of brand (customer equity, as they might indeed correspond to customer (brand management. Similarly, future research focusing on customer and brand management need to take into account both managerial areas in their studies. Practical implications: From a practitioners’ point of view, our findings suggest adopting a brand-customer portfolio approach to enhance company profitability. Similarly, we derive implications for firm valuation processes, which incorporate brand equity and customer equity in their calculations. Originality/value: We empirically study the relationship between brand equity and customer equity, while previous research has analyzed

  6. Continuing nursing education policy in China and its impact on health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mandatory continuing nursing education (MCNE) policy in China and to examine whether or not the policy addresses health equity. MCNE was instituted in 1996 in China to support healthcare reform was to include producing greater equity in health-care. However, the literature increasingly reports inequity in participation in MCNE, which is likely to have had a detrimental effect on the pre-existing discrepancies of education in the nursing workforce, and thereby failing to really address health equity. Despite a growing appeal for change, there is lack of critical reflection on the issues of MCNE policy. Critical ethnography underpinned by Habermas' Communicative Action Theory and Giddens' Structuration Theory were used to guide this study. Findings are presented in four themes: (i) inaccessibility of learning programs for nurses; (ii) undervaluation of workplace-based learning; (iii) inequality of the allocation of resources; and (iv) demands for additional support in MCNE from non-tertiary hospitals. The findings strongly suggest the need for an MCNE policy review based on rational consensus with stakeholders while reflecting the principles of health equity.

  7. Impact of a workplace intervention on attitudes and practices related to gender equity in Bengaluru, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Gambhir, Shalini; Luecke, Ellen; Jagannathan, Latha

    2016-10-01

    We describe the evaluation of a participatory, garment factory-based intervention to promote gender equity. The intervention comprised four campaigns focused on gender and violence against women, alcoholism, sexual and reproductive health, and HIV/AIDS, which were implemented using information displays (standees and posters) and interactive methods (street play, one-to-one interactions, experience-sharing, and health camps). Each campaign lasted six days and the entire intervention was implemented over 10 months. We evaluated the intervention using a quasi-experimental design in which one factory served as the intervention site and a second as a delayed control. Two mobile-phone-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted at baseline and 12 months with separate systematic random samples of employees from each site. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge and attitudes related to gender equity, intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol use were assessed, and differences in these variables associated with the intervention were examined using difference-in-difference estimation. Analyses of data from 835 respondents revealed substantial, statistically significant improvements in attitudes related to gender equity, unacceptability of IPV, and awareness of IPV and alcohol-related support services. In conclusion, our study offers compelling evidence on the effectiveness of workplace-based interventions in advancing gender equity.

  8. The impact of opening hours on the equity of individual space-time accessibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delafontaine, M.; Neutens, T.; Schwanen, T.; Weghe, N. van der

    2011-01-01

    While many studies have concentrated on the effects of the spatial distribution of services on individual accessibility, only little is known about the ways in which equity of individual accessibility is affected by the temporal organisation of service delivery. This paper seeks to deepen our

  9. A Structural Equation Modeling Approach to Investigate Negative Word of Mouth Impact on Customer-Based Brand Equity: Does Attribution Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Yehia Ebeid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a shortage in the research which addresses the relationship between negative word of mouth (WOM communication and customer-based brand equity dilution. This research utilizes attribution theory to demonstrate the negative word-of-mouth impact on the customer-based brand equity. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the proposed effect of negative WOM on brand equity. The study sample consists of 71 post-graduate students, the object of negative WOM was laptops which considered a highly involvement product. Experimental investigation results reveal that customer exposure to negative word-of-mouth increases the brand equity dilution. Results were discussed in the light of casual attribution theory, and practical implications were provided.

  10. Effect Of Marketing Communications, Brand Equity, Brand Awareness Attitudes And Decision Of Customers PT. Mortgage In South Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Mustari; Kadir, Abd. Rahman; Asdar, Muhammad; Sudirman, Indrianty

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze and assess (1) the impact of marketing communications on consumer attitudes, (2) the impact of marketing communication to the consumer decision, (3) the impact of brand equity on consumer attitude, (4) the effect of brand equity to the consumer decision, (5) the effect of brand awareness on consumer attitude, (6) the effect of brand awareness on consumer decisions, (7) the impact of consumer attitudes towards consumer decision, (8) the impact o...

  11. Health and equity impacts of climate change in Aotearoa-New Zealand, and health gains from climate action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Hayley; Jones, Rhys; Keating, Gay; Woodward, Alistair; Hales, Simon; Metcalfe, Scott

    2014-11-28

    Human-caused climate change poses an increasingly serious and urgent threat to health and health equity. Under all the climate projections reported in the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment, New Zealand will experience direct impacts, biologically mediated impacts, and socially mediated impacts on health. These will disproportionately affect populations that already experience disadvantage and poorer health. Without rapid global action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (particularly from fossil fuels), the world will breach its carbon budget and may experience high levels of warming (land temperatures on average 4-7 degrees Celsius higher by 2100). This level of climate change would threaten the habitability of some parts of the world because of extreme weather, limits on working outdoors, and severely reduced food production. However, well-planned action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions could bring about substantial benefits to health, and help New Zealand tackle its costly burden of health inequity and chronic disease.

  12. Social media marketing and its impact on customer based brand equity of luxury fashion products

    OpenAIRE

    Moorjani, Shivani

    2013-01-01

    Luxury companies have recently started using social media platforms to reach their customers, increase brand awareness, encourage brand loyalty, improve perception of perceived quality and therefore enhance brand equity. Companies have the ability to reach millions of people through these online media; however, they do not have complete control over this new tool of communication since consumers around the world actively engage in the use of Internet to follow, like, share or comment about br...

  13. Modernization vs. vulgarization in online fashion luxury : how is internet impacting luxury brand equity ?

    OpenAIRE

    Marrão, Ana Rita Galante de Abreu

    2016-01-01

    The Internet became an inherent part of people’s daily life and the major source of transformation in the relation between consumers and brands. However, in the luxury branding context, the introduction of prestige brands into a mass channel such as the Internet might bring the risk of vulgarization, loss of control over the brand, loss of the high-luxury appeal, jeopardizing brand equity. Hence, the present thesis paper proposes to answer the dilemma between the imperative of going online an...

  14. The impact of price changes on the brand equity of Toyota in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ezzat, AM

    2014-01-01

    Document 3 describes the research methodology used in this qualitative case study, the rationale/justification for the methodology and reports the findings with an analysis of the findings. The purpose of the study is to investigate and describe the effect of sudden price changes on consumer purchasing behaviour and attitudes toward brand equity. The qualitative case study consists of 6 mini focus group each were comprised of between 3-5 participants who are Saudi national car owners of Toyot...

  15. Measuring and Analyzing the Scholarly Impact of Experimental Evaluation Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelini, Marco; Ferro, Nicola; Larsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation initiatives have been widely credited with contributing highly to the development and advancement of information access systems, by providing a sustainable platform for conducting the very demanding activity of comparable experimental evaluation in a large scale. Measuring the impact...

  16. Education Resourcing in Post-Apartheid South Africa: The Impact of Finance Equity Reforms in Public Schooling: Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motala, Shireen

    2006-01-01

    Through an analysis of recent quantitative data on equity and school funding in South Africa, this article aims to explicate the patterns and typology of inequality in post-apartheid South Africa, and to deepen our understanding of the construct of equity. It also aims to understand the application of equity in the context of public schooling…

  17. Scholarometer: a social framework for analyzing impact across disciplines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasleen Kaur

    Full Text Available The use of quantitative metrics to gauge the impact of scholarly publications, authors, and disciplines is predicated on the availability of reliable usage and annotation data. Citation and download counts are widely available from digital libraries. However, current annotation systems rely on proprietary labels, refer to journals but not articles or authors, and are manually curated. To address these limitations, we propose a social framework based on crowdsourced annotations of scholars, designed to keep up with the rapidly evolving disciplinary and interdisciplinary landscape. We describe a system called Scholarometer, which provides a service to scholars by computing citation-based impact measures. This creates an incentive for users to provide disciplinary annotations of authors, which in turn can be used to compute disciplinary metrics. We first present the system architecture and several heuristics to deal with noisy bibliographic and annotation data. We report on data sharing and interactive visualization services enabled by Scholarometer. Usage statistics, illustrating the data collected and shared through the framework, suggest that the proposed crowdsourcing approach can be successful. Secondly, we illustrate how the disciplinary bibliometric indicators elicited by Scholarometer allow us to implement for the first time a universal impact measure proposed in the literature. Our evaluation suggests that this metric provides an effective means for comparing scholarly impact across disciplinary boundaries.

  18. Scholarometer: a social framework for analyzing impact across disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasleen; Hoang, Diep Thi; Sun, Xiaoling; Possamai, Lino; Jafariasbagh, Mohsen; Patil, Snehal; Menczer, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    The use of quantitative metrics to gauge the impact of scholarly publications, authors, and disciplines is predicated on the availability of reliable usage and annotation data. Citation and download counts are widely available from digital libraries. However, current annotation systems rely on proprietary labels, refer to journals but not articles or authors, and are manually curated. To address these limitations, we propose a social framework based on crowdsourced annotations of scholars, designed to keep up with the rapidly evolving disciplinary and interdisciplinary landscape. We describe a system called Scholarometer, which provides a service to scholars by computing citation-based impact measures. This creates an incentive for users to provide disciplinary annotations of authors, which in turn can be used to compute disciplinary metrics. We first present the system architecture and several heuristics to deal with noisy bibliographic and annotation data. We report on data sharing and interactive visualization services enabled by Scholarometer. Usage statistics, illustrating the data collected and shared through the framework, suggest that the proposed crowdsourcing approach can be successful. Secondly, we illustrate how the disciplinary bibliometric indicators elicited by Scholarometer allow us to implement for the first time a universal impact measure proposed in the literature. Our evaluation suggests that this metric provides an effective means for comparing scholarly impact across disciplinary boundaries.

  19. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  20. Gender equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on gender equity. Gender equity is difficult to achieve when there is no economic, social, or political equity. The Gender Development Index evidenced this. There were a lot of instances where women are psychologically traumatized, whether it is through domestic rape, purchased sexual services in the red light area, and seduction or violation of neighbors, relatives, daughter or child. The economic changes linked with globalization and media's influence have worsened women's position. The policy for empowerment of women is an attempt toward ensuring equity. Furthermore, many women and women's organizations are trying to address these inequities; wherein they fight for strong acceptance of women's rights, social, economic, and political rights, as well as equities between gender and within gender.

  1. Multidimensional journal evaluation analyzing scientific periodicals beyond the impact factor

    CERN Document Server

    Haustein, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Scientific communication depends primarily on publishing in journals. The most important indicator to determine the influence of a journal is the Impact Factor. Since this factor only measures the average number of citations per article in a certain time window, it can be argued that it does not reflect the actual value of a periodical. This book defines five dimensions, which build a framework for a multidimensional method of journal evaluation. The author is winner of the Eugene Garfield Doctoral Dissertation Scholarship 2011.

  2. The longitudinal impact of patient navigation on equity in colorectal cancer screening in a large primary care network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percac-Lima, Sanja; López, Lenny; Ashburner, Jeffrey M; Green, Alexander R; Atlas, Steven J

    2014-07-01

    The long-term effects of interventions to improve colorectal (CRC) screening in vulnerable populations are uncertain. The authors evaluated the impact of patient navigation (PN) on the equity of CRC prevention over a 5-year period. A culturally tailored CRC screening PN program was implemented in 1 community health center (CHC) in 2007. In a primary care network, CRC screening rates from 2006 to 2010 among eligible patients from the CHC with PN were compared with the rates from other practices without PN. Multivariable logistic regression models for repeated measures were used to assess differences over time. Differences in CRC screening rates diminished among patients at the CHC with PN and at other practices between 2006 (49.2% vs 62.5%, respectively; P practices (5% vs 3.4% per year; P practices, lower CRC screening rates in 2006 (47.5% vs 52.1%, respectively; P = .02) were higher by 2010 (73.5% vs 67.3%, respectively; P practices in 2006 (44.3% vs 44.7%, respectively; P = .79) were higher at the CHC by 2010 (70.6% vs 58.6%, respectively; P practices (both P < .001). A PN program increased CRC screening rates in a CHC and improved equity in vulnerable patients. Long-term funding of PN programs has the potential to reduce cancer screening disparities. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  3. Analyzing the impact of human capital factors on competitivenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óhegyi Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of approaches to measure national competitiveness. However, in these reports human capital typically appears indirectly. The author's purpose is to uncover how human capital contributes to competitiveness of economies and to propose an approach to identify the most effective improvement opportunities for countries, illustrated on the example of Hungary. The analysis is based on the data of the Global Talent Index Report (2011 and the Global Competitiveness Report 2012-2013. The components of the Global Talent Index (GTI and their relation to the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI were analyzed with a linear programming based similarity analysis method, component-based object comparison for objectivity (COCO. Based on the output of the analysis it was identified how sensitive the Global Competitiveness Index is to the components of the GTI. Hungary's position was analyzed further to quantify improvement opportunities and threats based on the step function resulted by the COCO analysis. The author concludes that the human resource of a country is a pivotal element of national competitiveness. By developing human capital of the country the overall competitive position may be improved. Areas of priorities may be identified and the level of intervention may be quantified specific to a country. This could help policy makers to decide in the allocation of resource to maximize effectiveness, leading to improve (or protect a country's overall competitive position in the global arena.

  4. Harnessing Implementation Science to Increase the Impact of Health Equity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinman, Matthew; Woodward, Eva N; Curran, Geoffrey M; Hausmann, Leslie R M

    2017-09-01

    Health disparities are differences in health or health care between groups based on social, economic, and/or environmental disadvantage. Disparity research often follows 3 steps: detecting (phase 1), understanding (phase 2), and reducing (phase 3), disparities. Although disparities have narrowed over time, many remain. We argue that implementation science could enhance disparities research by broadening the scope of phase 2 studies and offering rigorous methods to test disparity-reducing implementation strategies in phase 3 studies. We briefly review the focus of phase 2 and phase 3 disparities research. We then provide a decision tree and case examples to illustrate how implementation science frameworks and research designs could further enhance disparity research. Most health disparities research emphasizes patient and provider factors as predominant mechanisms underlying disparities. Applying implementation science frameworks like the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research could help disparities research widen its scope in phase 2 studies and, in turn, develop broader disparities-reducing implementation strategies in phase 3 studies. Many phase 3 studies of disparity-reducing implementation strategies are similar to case studies, whose designs are not able to fully test causality. Implementation science research designs offer rigorous methods that could accelerate the pace at which equity is achieved in real-world practice. Disparities can be considered a "special case" of implementation challenges-when evidence-based clinical interventions are delivered to, and received by, vulnerable populations at lower rates. Bringing together health disparities research and implementation science could advance equity more than either could achieve on their own.

  5. Is Nordic Private Equity Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Most research on private equity is based on American theory, tested on American empirical data. Nevertheless, the private equity concept has gained a solid foothold in the Nordic region, especially in Sweden. This article analyzes whether American-biased assumptions prevail in the Nordic countries...

  6. Gender Equity in Physics Practice: The Indian Context & the Social Impact of Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Prajval

    2015-04-01

    The gender gap in the physics profession that is seen world-wide has been attributed to multiple factors. The applicability of these factors is explored in the context of physics practice in India, using available empirical investigations and theoretical insights from gender studies. Indications are that girls are as interested in science as boys at the high-school level. In the profession, however, there is a significant gender gap. Data show that it is caused not only by the discriminatory familial responsibilities that women encounter in their personal lives, but also by gender-discriminatory attitudes in the scientific workplace. Although the Government of India, which is the major funder of scientific research and higher education, has acknowledged the gender disparity and initiated several measures to address it, these measures also come from a gendered perspective, and are therefore likely to be limited in their long-term effectiveness. Policy measures must address the gender discrimination in the workplace as well in order to achieve gender equity.

  7. The impact of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and their interactions with customer equity drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, Yi-Chun; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Customer equity drivers (CEDs) include value, brand, and relationship equity, which have a strong link with loyalty intentions. This study aims to examine the incremental effects of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and to determine whether these emotions moderate the positive

  8. The impact of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and their interactions with customer equity drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, Yi-Chun; Verhoef, Peter C.

    Customer equity drivers (CEDs) include value, brand, and relationship equity, which have a strong link with loyalty intentions. This study aims to examine the incremental effects of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and to determine whether these emotions moderate the positive

  9. [Tools to assess the impact on health of public health programmes and community interventions from an equity perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Álvarez, Óscar; Fernández-Feito, Ana; Vallina Crespo, Henar; Aldasoro Unamuno, Elena; Cofiño, Rafael

    2018-05-11

    It is essential to develop a comprehensive approach to institutionally promoted interventions to assess their impact on health from the perspective of the social determinants of health and equity. Simple, adapted tools must be developed to carry out these assessments. The aim of this paper is to present two tools to assess the impact of programmes and community-based interventions on the social determinants of health. The first tool is intended to assess health programmes through interviews and analysis of information provided by the assessment team. The second tool, by means of online assessments of community-based interventions, also enables a report on inequality issues that includes recommendations for improvement. In addition to reducing health-related social inequities, the implementation of these tools can also help to improve the efficiency of public health interventions. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficiency or equity? Simulating the impact of high-risk and population intervention strategies for the prevention of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Platt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maximizing both efficiency and equity are core considerations for population health. These considerations can result in tension in population health science as we seek to improve overall population health while achieving equitable health distributions within populations. Limited work has explored empirically the consequences of different population health intervention strategies on the burden of disease and on within- and between-group differences in disease. To address this gap, we compared the impact of four simulated interventions using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In particular, we focus on assessing how population and high-risk primary prevention and population and high-risk secondary interventions efforts to reduce smoking behavior influence systolic blood pressure (SBP and hypertension, and how such strategies influence inequalities in SBP by income. The greatest reductions in SBP mean and standard deviation resulted from the population secondary prevention. High-risk primary and secondary prevention and population secondary prevention programs all yielded substantial reductions in hypertension prevalence. The effect of population primary prevention did little to decrease population SBP mean and standard deviation, as well as hypertension prevalence. Both high-risk strategies had a larger impact in the low-income population, leading to the greatest narrowing the income-related gap in disease. The population prevention strategies had a larger impact in the high-income population. Population health approaches must consider the potential impact on both the whole population and also on those with different levels of risk for disease within a population, including those in under-represented or under-served groups.

  11. Advertising non-premium products as if they were premium: The impact of advertising up on advertising elasticity and brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Guitart, I.A. (Ivan A.); Gonzalez, J. (Jorge); Stremersch, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    textabstractNon-premium brands occasionally emulate their premium counterparts by using ads that emphasize premium characteristics such as superior performance and exclusivity. We define this practice as “advertising up” and develop hypotheses about its short- and long-term impact on advertising elasticity and brand equity respectively. We test the hypotheses in two large-scale empirical studies using a comprehensive dataset from the automotive industry that includes, among others, the conten...

  12. Product innovation as a mediator in the impact of R&D expenditure and brand equity on marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, P.; Davcik, N.; Pillai, K. G.

    2016-01-01

    WOS:000385318500014 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) This study combines the signaling theory and dynamic marketing capabilities perspective to investigate the mediating role of product innovation in the influence of R&D expenditure and brand equity on marketing performance. The study shows that MNC firms are able to use R&D expenditure to improve their product innovation and market share to a greater extent compared to SME and retailer firms. However, the stronger brand equity of MNC firms m...

  13. The impact of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and their interactions with customer equity drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Yi-Chun; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Customer equity drivers (CEDs) include value, brand, and relationship equity, which have a strong link with loyalty intentions. This study aims to examine the incremental effects of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and to determine whether these emotions moderate the positive link between CEDs and loyalty intentions. We use customer data with 102 leading firms across eighteen services industries in the Netherlands. The results show that (1) positive and negative emotions h...

  14. Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Feltham, Gerald A.

    , interest rates, expected equity returns, and inflation rates are all stochastic. We explicitly characterize the risk-adjustments to the fundamentals in an equilibrium setting. We show how the term structure of risk-adjustments depends on both the time-series properties of the free cash flows......-coupon interest rates. We show that standard estimates of the cost of capital, based on historical stock returns, are likely to be a significantly biased measure of the firm’s cost of capital, but also that the bias is almost impossible to quantify empirically. The new approach recognizes that, in practice......We review and critically examine the standard approach to equity valuation using a constant risk-adjusted cost of capital, and we develop a new valuation approach discounting risk-adjusted fundamentals, such as expected free cash flows and residual operating income, using nominal zero...

  15. The Impact of the 2008 Global Financial Crisis on the Structure of the Transmission of Price Innovations Across Financial Markets: The Case of Southwest Asian Equity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Qunfeng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the reaction of Southeast Asian equity markets to the transmission of price innovations from major equity markets during the pre and post periods of the 2008 global financial crisis. In particular, we examine the reaction of returns indices in Malaysia, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand as endogenous variables, and compare them to the returns indices of the U.S., the Eurozone, Japan, and China as exogenous variables. The results of VAR models indicate the combined and individual impact of the price innovations from the major equity markets on the volatility of returns of selected countries is relatively trivial during either the pre- or post-financial crisis periods. However, the individual impact of the U.S. innovations is generally higher during the post-financial crisis. The ARCH and GARCH models indicate the stock markets of Southeast Asian countries are more responsive to their own price innovations during both the pre- and the post-crisis periods, although some response to U.S. and Eurozone shocks is also observed.

  16. A Value beyond Money? Assessing the Impact of Equity Scholarships: From Access to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Richard J.; Hurd, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on evidence drawn from an evaluation of the impact of a scholarship programme for students from disadvantaged backgrounds at Macquarie University, Sydney. In addition to evidence of improved retention rates, the article suggests that qualitative data derived from a number of interviews with scholarship recipients highlight…

  17. Rising equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a financial rankings survey of the independent energy industry indicating that lenders and investors provided more than five billion dollars in capital for new, private power projects during the first six months of 1992. The topics of the article include rising equity requirements, corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions, project finance investors, revenue bonds, project finance lenders for new projects, project finance lenders for restructurings, and project finance advisors

  18. Valuing Private Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Wang, Neng; Yang, Jinqiang

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees, car....... On average, LPs may just break even, net of management fees, carry, risk, and costs of illiquidity.......We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees......, carried interest, and illiquidity are costly, and GPs must generate substantial alpha to compensate LPs for bearing these costs. Debt is cheap and reduces these costs, potentially explaining the high leverage of buyout transactions. Conventional interpretations of PE performance measures appear optimistic...

  19. The Impact of Social Network Media on Brand Equity in SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Nemat Gorgani

    2016-01-01

    Given the virtual world’s controlling role in everyday life, no one can ignore its crucial impacts on the physical world. In this term social network media play a considerable role in peoples’ daily lives and business by information sharing and the impressions of friends’ comments on own view. Dealing with change, continuing to develop in the dynamic marketplace furthermore, access to information on a level never experienced before are possible benefits to companies;Social media influences co...

  20. Analyzing the impact of intermodal facilities to the design and management of biofuels supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact that an intermodal facility has on location and transportation : decisions for biofuel production plants. Location decisions impact the management of the in-bound and out-bound logistics of a plant. We model this supply...

  1. IMPACT OF LIQUIDITY AND SIZE PREMIUM ON EQUITY PRICE FORMATION IN SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Minović; Boško Živković

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine the impact of an overall market factor, the factor related to the firm size, the factor related to the ratio of book to market value of companies, and the factor of liquidity risk on expected asset returns in the Serbian market. For this market we estimated different factor models: Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM by Sharpe, 1964), Fama-French (FF) model (1992, 1993), Liquidity-augmented CAPM (LCAPM) by Liu (2006), and combination LCAPM with FF factors. W...

  2. Analyzing socio-economic impacts of tourism : Case of Lumbini region- Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    K.C., Shambhu; Gewali, Jhabindra

    2014-01-01

    The first objective of this Thesis is to identify, select, and analyze the socio- economic impacts of faith tourism in Lumbini region. The second objective is to present the impacts in context of changing business environment. And the last objective is to develop strategies for economic progress in a society. In this research work previous reports, theses, literatures and reviews were studied to get an idea about the socio-economic impacts of faith tourism in Lumbini region. In addition,...

  3. Private label brand equity: a conceptual framework

    OpenAIRE

    Xara-Brasil, Duarte; Marreiros, Cristina; Dionísio, Andreia

    2012-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado na AMA/ACRA First Triennial Conference, 18-21 de abril de 2012, Seattle, USA This paper presents a conceptual framework to analyze private label brand equity in a retail context. Several authors proposed brand equity models as Aaker (1996), Keller (1993) and Yoo and Donthu (2001), and specific research has been done in retail industry (Jara & Cliquet, 2009), (Pappu & Quester, 2006). To study private label brand equity, we suggest a framework based on the Yo...

  4. IMPACT_S: integrated multiprogram platform to analyze and combine tests of selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Maldonado

    Full Text Available Among the major goals of research in evolutionary biology are the identification of genes targeted by natural selection and understanding how various regimes of evolution affect the fitness of an organism. In particular, adaptive evolution enables organisms to adapt to changing ecological factors such as diet, temperature, habitat, predatory pressures and prey abundance. An integrative approach is crucial for the identification of non-synonymous mutations that introduce radical changes in protein biochemistry and thus in turn influence the structure and function of proteins. Performing such analyses manually is often a time-consuming process, due to the large number of statistical files generated from multiple approaches, especially when assessing numerous taxa and/or large datasets. We present IMPACT_S, an easy-to-use Graphical User Interface (GUI software, which rapidly and effectively integrates, filters and combines results from three widely used programs for assessing the influence of selection: Codeml (PAML package, Datamonkey and TreeSAAP. It enables the identification and tabulation of sites detected by these programs as evolving under the influence of positive, neutral and/or negative selection in protein-coding genes. IMPACT_S further facilitates the automatic mapping of these sites onto the three-dimensional structures of proteins. Other useful tools incorporated in IMPACT_S include Jmol, Archaeopteryx, Gnuplot, PhyML, a built-in Swiss-Model interface and a PDB downloader. The relevance and functionality of IMPACT_S is shown through a case study on the toxicoferan-reptilian Cysteine-rich Secretory Proteins (CRiSPs. IMPACT_S is a platform-independent software released under GPLv3 license, freely available online from http://impact-s.sourceforge.net.

  5. IMPACT_S: integrated multiprogram platform to analyze and combine tests of selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Emanuel; Sunagar, Kartik; Almeida, Daniela; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2014-01-01

    Among the major goals of research in evolutionary biology are the identification of genes targeted by natural selection and understanding how various regimes of evolution affect the fitness of an organism. In particular, adaptive evolution enables organisms to adapt to changing ecological factors such as diet, temperature, habitat, predatory pressures and prey abundance. An integrative approach is crucial for the identification of non-synonymous mutations that introduce radical changes in protein biochemistry and thus in turn influence the structure and function of proteins. Performing such analyses manually is often a time-consuming process, due to the large number of statistical files generated from multiple approaches, especially when assessing numerous taxa and/or large datasets. We present IMPACT_S, an easy-to-use Graphical User Interface (GUI) software, which rapidly and effectively integrates, filters and combines results from three widely used programs for assessing the influence of selection: Codeml (PAML package), Datamonkey and TreeSAAP. It enables the identification and tabulation of sites detected by these programs as evolving under the influence of positive, neutral and/or negative selection in protein-coding genes. IMPACT_S further facilitates the automatic mapping of these sites onto the three-dimensional structures of proteins. Other useful tools incorporated in IMPACT_S include Jmol, Archaeopteryx, Gnuplot, PhyML, a built-in Swiss-Model interface and a PDB downloader. The relevance and functionality of IMPACT_S is shown through a case study on the toxicoferan-reptilian Cysteine-rich Secretory Proteins (CRiSPs). IMPACT_S is a platform-independent software released under GPLv3 license, freely available online from http://impact-s.sourceforge.net.

  6. Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Feltham, Gerald A.

    -coupon interest rates. We show that standard estimates of the cost of capital, based on historical stock returns, are likely to be a significantly biased measure of the firm’s cost of capital, but also that the bias is almost impossible to quantify empirically. The new approach recognizes that, in practice......We review and critically examine the standard approach to equity valuation using a constant risk-adjusted cost of capital, and we develop a new valuation approach discounting risk-adjusted fundamentals, such as expected free cash flows and residual operating income, using nominal zero...

  7. Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Feltham, Gerald A.

    -coupon interest rates. We show that standard estimates of the cost of capital, based on historical stock returns, are likely to be a significantly biased measure of the firm’s cost of capital, but also that the bias is almost impossible to quantify empirically. The new approach recognizes that, in practice......, interest rates, expected equity returns, and inflation rates are all stochastic. We explicitly characterize the risk-adjustments to the fundamentals in an equilibrium setting. We show how the term structure of risk-adjustments depends on both the time-series properties of the free cash flows...

  8. INTEREST ON EQUITY: AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT FOR THE PAYER AND THE RECEIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Heloisa Bisca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the publication of law 9.249/95 the use of interest on capital becomes an option for the compensation of shareholders and stakeholders in the companies. Once this alternative is chosen, the company gains the rights to deduct the value of the JSCP as the basis for calculating income tax and social contribution. This study demonstrates the impact results of this choice for the company and for the shareholders. The company will have a fiscal tax advantage with the use of JSCP, as the tax base for income and social contribution is reduced after the deduction of interest on capital as a financial expense. The shareholders, as natural person, will benefit because they will have a tax liability on the JSCP taxes hold, and still will Keyreceive a larger portion of dividends -words: Interest on capital; distribution of profits; tax; JSCP; Dividends.because with the spending cuts the amount to be distributed by the company increases. For the artificial person, this method may not be the most INTRODUÇÃO attractive one because the JSCP are considered financial revenue which results in higher taxation for the corporation.

  9. Measuring the Impact of Brand Equity on Company Performance: A Study on the Mobile Phone Brands in The Klang Valley, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Amelia Woon Ai

    2007-01-01

    Building and managing brand equity is emphasised in many consumer goods industry to ensure their success. The key to this success is understanding brand equity and managing it to achieve good financial results. Among the many methods of examining brand equity, this study chose the customer-based brand equity method conceptualised by Aaker (1991) and tested by Yoo and Donthu (2001). The aim of this study is to examine the dimensions of brand equity which are brand awareness, brand loyalty, per...

  10. The Impact of School Finance Litigation on Resource Distribution: A Comparison of Court-Mandated Equity and Adequacy Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Matthew G.; Liu, Keke; Guthrie, James W.

    2009-01-01

    While there is a wealth of research on school finance equity and adequacy, and school finance theory clearly documents differences between the two concepts, no study has examined whether the reforms engendered by each approach actually differ in terms of resource distribution. The present study examines the issues using district-level data on…

  11. Equity Analytics: A Methodological Approach for Quantifying Participation Patterns in Mathematics Classroom Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholz, Daniel L.; Shah, Niral

    2018-01-01

    Equity in mathematics classroom discourse is a pressing concern, but analyzing issues of equity using observational tools remains a challenge. In this article, we propose equity analytics as a quantitative approach to analyzing aspects of equity and inequity in classrooms. We introduce a classroom observation tool that focuses on relatively…

  12. Private Equity Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han); W.A. van den Berg (Ward)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis study presents a dynamic model for the private equity market in which information revelation and uncertainty rationally explain the cyclical pattern of investment flows into private equity. The net benefit of private equity over public equity is i) uncertain and ii) agents have

  13. Equity Mispricing and Leverage Adjustment Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warr, R.S.; Elliott, W.B.; Koeter-Kant, J.; Oztekin, O.

    2012-01-01

    We find that equity mispricing impacts the speed at which firms adjust to their target leverage (TL) and does so in predictable ways depending on whether the firm is over- or underlevered. For example, firms that are above their TL and should therefore issue equity (or retire debt) adjust more

  14. The impact of rural hospital closures on equity of commuting time for haemodialysis patients: simulation analysis using the capacity-distance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Takahiko; Kashima, Saori; Takeuchi, Keisuke

    2012-07-23

    Frequent and long-term commuting is a requirement for dialysis patients. Accessibility thus affects their quality of lives. In this paper, a new model for accessibility measurement is proposed in which both geographic distance and facility capacity are taken into account. Simulation of closure of rural facilities and that of capacity transfer between urban and rural facilities are conducted to evaluate the impacts of these phenomena on equity of accessibility among dialysis patients. Post code information as of August 2011 of all the 7,374 patients certified by municipalities of Hiroshima prefecture as having first or third grade renal disability were collected. Information on post code and the maximum number of outpatients (capacity) of all the 98 dialysis facilities were also collected. Using geographic information systems, patient commuting times were calculated in two models: one that takes into account road distance (distance model), and the other that takes into account both the road distance and facility capacity (capacity-distance model). Simulations of closures of rural and urban facilities were then conducted. The median commuting time among rural patients was more than twice as long as that among urban patients (15 versus 7 minutes, psimulation, when five rural public facilitiess were closed, Gini coefficient of commuting times among the patients increased by 16%, indicating a substantial worsening of equity, and the number of patients with commuting times longer than 90 minutes increased by 72 times. In contrast, closure of four urban public facilities with similar capacities did not affect these values. Closures of dialysis facilities in rural areas have a substantially larger impact on equity of commuting times among dialysis patients than closures of urban facilities. The accessibility simulations using the capacity-distance model will provide an analytic framework upon which rational resource distribution policies might be planned.

  15. Analyzing impact factors of CO2 emissions using the STIRPAT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Ying; Liu Lancui; Wu Gang; Wei Yiming

    2006-01-01

    Using the STIRPAT model, this paper analyzes the impact of population, affluence and technology on the total CO 2 emissions of countries at different income levels over the period 1975-2000. Our main results show at the global level that economic growth has the greatest impact on CO 2 emissions, and the proportion of the population between ages 15 and 64 has the least impact. The proportion of the population between 15 and 64 has a negative impact on the total CO 2 emissions of countries at the high income level, but the impact is positive at other income levels. This may illustrate the importance of the 'B' in the 'I = PABT'; that is to say that different behavior fashions can greatly influence environmental change. For low-income countries, the impact of GDP per capita on total CO 2 emissions is very great, and the impact of energy intensity in upper-middle income countries is very great. The impact of these factors on the total CO 2 emissions of countries at the high income level is relatively great. Therefore, these empirical results indicate that the impact of population, affluence and technology on CO 2 emissions varies at different levels of development. Thus, policy-makers should consider these matters fully when they construct their long-term strategies for CO 2 abatement

  16. Price promotions and brand equity: the role of brand types

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntner, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – This study investigates whether the influence of selected marketing-mix elements on brand equity differs for different types of brands. The main focus is on price promotions’ influence. In addition, the impact of discount-store distribution is explored. Design/methodology/approach – This study applies fixed-effects regression to analyze German panel data, which includes 126 national brands in four product categories across five years. Findings – The results reveal that frequent pric...

  17. The impact of measures to promote equity in the secondary education certificate examinations in Malta : an evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Frank; Murphy, Roger

    1998-01-01

    When the national Secondary Education Certificate (SEC) examination system was established in Malta in 1994 as an alternative to the General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level (GCE O-Level) offered by English examination boards, the opportunity was taken to promote equity among candidates of different attainment levels, gender and social backgrounds. The measures included the setting of examination papers at different levels; the introduction of an element of school-bas...

  18. Using decision trees for measuring gender equity in the timing of angiography in patients with acute coronary syndrome: a novel approach to equity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Arlene S; Brown, Adalsteinn D; Levinton, Carey M

    2015-12-23

    Methods to measure or quantify equity in health care remain scarce, if not difficult to interpret. A novel method to measure health equity is presented, applied to gender health equity, and illustrated with an example of timing of angiography in patients following a hospital admission for an acute coronary syndrome. Linked administrative hospital discharge and survey data was used to identify a retrospective cohort of patients hospitalized with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) between 2002 and 2008 who also responded to the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), was analyzed using decision trees to determine whether gender impacted the delay to angiography following an ACS. Defining a delay to angiography as 1 day or more, resulted in a non-significant difference in an equity score of 0.14 for women and 0.12 for men, where 0 and 1 represents perfect equity and inequity respectively. Using 2 and 3 day delays as a secondary outcome resulted in women and men producing scores of 0.19 and 0.17 for a 2 day delay and 0.22 and 0.23 for a 3 day delay. A technique developed expressly for measuring equity suggests that men and women in Ontario receive equitable care in access to angiography with respect to timeliness following an ACS.

  19. The impact of rural hospital closures on equity of commuting time for haemodialysis patients: simulation analysis using the capacity-distance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Masatoshi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frequent and long-term commuting is a requirement for dialysis patients. Accessibility thus affects their quality of lives. In this paper, a new model for accessibility measurement is proposed in which both geographic distance and facility capacity are taken into account. Simulation of closure of rural facilities and that of capacity transfer between urban and rural facilities are conducted to evaluate the impacts of these phenomena on equity of accessibility among dialysis patients. Methods Post code information as of August 2011 of all the 7,374 patients certified by municipalities of Hiroshima prefecture as having first or third grade renal disability were collected. Information on post code and the maximum number of outpatients (capacity of all the 98 dialysis facilities were also collected. Using geographic information systems, patient commuting times were calculated in two models: one that takes into account road distance (distance model, and the other that takes into account both the road distance and facility capacity (capacity-distance model. Simulations of closures of rural and urban facilities were then conducted. Results The median commuting time among rural patients was more than twice as long as that among urban patients (15 versus 7 minutes, p  Conclusions Closures of dialysis facilities in rural areas have a substantially larger impact on equity of commuting times among dialysis patients than closures of urban facilities. The accessibility simulations using thecapacity-distance model will provide an analytic framework upon which rational resource distribution policies might be planned.

  20. THE IMPACT OF THE CONVERSION OF HISTORICAL COST TO CORRECTED CURRENT COST ON RETURN ON ASSETS AND EQUITY: ANALYSIS FROM DUPONT SYSTEM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Silva da Penha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical cost is the most used form of accounting valuation, but it does not reflect the effect of currency in time. The Theory of Corrected Current Cost, albeit with limitations, may show evidence of real and relevant accounting information of the entity. In this context, a question can be formulated: What is the impact of the conversion of historical cost to corrected current cost in return on assets and equity? In order to answer this question, the DuPont system was applied in a model company as a tool for analysis. The results showed that the return of assets at historical cost and corrected current cost were 12.11% and 3.14%, respectively, a decrease of 74.07%, and the result of the return on equity, the historical cost and corrected current cost were 20.59% and 4.96%, respectively, decreased 75.91%. Based on these variations it is observed that the impacts of the conversion of the corrected current cost were significant,confirming the importance of the adoption of this practice, whenever possible.

  1. The relation of equity issues to risk perceptions and socioeconomic impacts of a high level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colglazier, E.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how equity concerns are an important component of the debater on controversial public policy decisions such as those regarding high-level waste disposal. In science policy, concepts of fairness need to be applied to what counts as evidence, as well as to process (means) and outcomes (ends). A science policy decision that involves technologies perceived as risky may have a better chance of enduring over time if all the key parties feel that they have been fairly treated. One task of risk communication is to engage in a dialogue with affected parties and the public about what is fair in terms of process, evidence, and outcomes

  2. Gender equity and health: evaluating the impact of Millennium Development Goal Three on women's health in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Geordan D; Im, Dana D; Katzelnick, Leah; Franco, Oscar H

    2013-01-01

    Researchers evaluated the progress of Millennium Development Goal Three, which promotes gender equity and empowering women, by assessing the targets for education, employment, and government, and their relation to women's health in South Asia. Researchers obtained data from the United Nations, Inter-Parliamentary Union, International Labor Organization, World Bank, and World Health Organization. First, they performed a literature review including manuscripts that quantified a Millenium Development Goal Three outcome in South Asia and were published after 1991. They derived women's health outcomes from World Health Organization databases. Spearman's rank test was used to evaluate the relationship between change in gender parity and change in women's health outcomes. South Asia's average primary education Gender Parity Index (defined as the ratio of girls to boys enrolled in primary, secondary, and tertiary education and expressed as a value between 0 and 1.0) improved from 0.73 (SD 0.34) to 0.92 (SD 0.13) between 2000 and 2008. Secondary and tertiary education had a lower Gender Parity Index (average 2008 Gender Parity Index 0.87 (SD 0.21) and 0.59 (SD 0.23), respectively), but had also improved from 2000 (average Gender Parity Index = 0.77, SD 0.38) to 2008 (average Gender Parity Index = 0.52, SD 0.11). An average proportion of 22.1% (SD 12.58) of women participated in waged, non-agricultural employment and 16.6% (SD 10.3) in national parliaments. No clear association was found between change in gender equity and women's health in South Asia between 2000 and 2008. Some progress has been made toward gender equity in South Asia, although the results have been mixed and inequities persist, especially in employment and government. While gender equity does not appear to have been related to female health outcomes, both must be addressed simultaneously as priority development targets and remain prerequisites to achieving the overall Millennium Development Goals

  3. ANALYSIS CONSUMER’S PERCEIVE FOR MARKETING MIX TOWARD BRAND EQUITY OF FRESTEA PRODUCTS (Case Study to Consumer’s Pamella Swalayan Supermarket in Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiarto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze impact of consumer’s perceive about marketing mix (promotion, price, and distribution toward perceived quality, and perceived brand loyality in forming the overall brand equity of Frestea. The data was collected from 200 respondents to four Swalayan Pamella in Yogyakarta. The data analysis technique with Structural Equation Modeling (SEM assisted by a computer application LISREL (Linear Structural Relationship 8.8 Student Version. The output analysis of SEM indicated that the structural model could be accepted (close-fit based on empirical facts. The structural model indicated that the brand equity of Frestea products was created by brand loyality, and perceived quality. Brand loyality with significant positive correlation toward brand equity had the biggest contribution, while the perceived quality had the lowest contribution with negative correlation toward brand equity. The estimation of parameter also showed that distribution intensity had significant positive correlation towards brand equity.

  4. Analyzing the Impact of Highways Associated with Farmland Loss under Rapid Urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Song

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Highway construction has accelerated urban growth and induced direct and indirect changes to land use. Although many studies have analyzed the relationship between highway construction and local development, relatively less attention has been paid to clarifying the various impacts of highways associated with farmland loss. This paper integrates GIS spatial analysis, remote sensing, buffer analysis and landscape metrics to analyze the landscape pattern change induced by direct and indirect highway impacts. This paper explores the interaction between the impact of highways and farmland loss, using the case of the highly urbanized traffic hubs in eastern China, Hang-Jia-Hu Plain. Our results demonstrate that the Hang-Jia-Hu Plain experienced extensive highway construction during 1990–2010, with a clear acceleration of expressway development since 2000. This unprecedented highway construction has directly fragmented the regional landscape and indirectly disturbed the regional landscape by attracting a large amount of built-up land transition from farmland during the last two decades. In the highway-effect zone, serious farmland loss initially occurred in the urban region and then spread to the rural region. Moreover, we found the discontinuous expansion of built-up land scattered the farmland in the rural region and expressway-effect zone. Furthermore, farmland protection policies in the 1990s had the effect of controlling the total area of farmland loss. However, the cohesive farmland structure was still fragmented by the direct and indirect impacts of highway construction. We suggest that an overall farmland protection system should be established to enhance spatial control and mitigate the adverse impacts caused by highway construction. This work improves the understanding of regional sustainable development, and provides a scientific basis for balanced urban development with farmland protection in decision-making processes.

  5. Customer Equity von KMUs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemel, Friedhelm W.; Henseler, Jörg; Meyer, Jorn-Axel

    2003-01-01

    Customer relationships are most important assets of many SMEs. Customer Equity is the sum of the values of all customer relationships. Customer Equity will not be found in any balance sheet, nevertheless it has strategic importance. Even if companies do not want to publish their Customer Equity for

  6. SHOCK-JR: a computer program to analyze impact response of shipping container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takeshi; Nakazato, Chikara; Shimoda, Osamu; Uchino, Mamoru.

    1983-02-01

    The report is provided for using a computer program, SHOCK-JR, which is used to analyze the impact response of shipping containers. Descriptions are the mathematical model, method of analysis, structures of the program and the input and output variables. The program solves the equations of motion for a one-dimensional, lumped mass and nonlinear spring model. The solution procedure uses Runge-Kutta-Gill and Newmark-β methods. SHOCK-JR is a revised version of SHOCK, which was developed by ORNL. In SHOCK-JR, SI dimension is used and graphical output is available. (author)

  7. DETERMINANTS OF BRAND EQUITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF IT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahid MUQADDAS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance of any brand can be measured by many methods. One of the widely used ways to calculate brand performance is through brand equity. Brand equity can be observed by customer’s perspective as well as financial perspective. This research paper investigates the impact of advertising and promotion, research and development (RD and profitability (return on assets on brand equity. In this research paper data is used from 20 international IT brands for a period of 5 years from 2011 to 2015. The results show that advertising and promotion and profitability have statistically significant impact on brand equity whereas RD doesn’t make significant impact on brand equity. Based on the findings, it is observed that advertising is having the strongest impact on brand equity.

  8. Equity Market Timing: Testing Using Brazilian IPOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Rossi Jr

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes whether the behavior related to the equity market timing affected the recent IPO wave of Brazilian firms and exerted an impact on companies'capital structure. Using data from january 2004 to december 2007 the paper classifies the months in the sample in hot or cold according the number of IPOs that took place in each month. The paper confirms an oportunistic behavior by the firms that issue a higher volume of stocks in periods classified as hot. The paper also shows that the impact of this behavior on companies` capital structure is very limited. Although there is a reduction in companies` leverage right after the IPO, this returns to its previous level only a few quarters after the IPO.

  9. Impact of Endogenous and Exogenous Interferences on Clinical Chemistry Parameters Measured on Blood Gas Analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieme, Caleb V; Voss, Dena R; Davis, Scott R; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of hemolysis, icterus, and lipemia (HIL) was determined for residual whole blood specimens analyzed for clinical chemistry parameters on blood gas analyzers. The frequency and potential impact of exogenous interference from iodide, salicylate, and thiocyanate (metabolite of sodium nitroprusside) on analysis of whole blood chloride was also assessed. Over an approximately two month period at an academic medical center, indices for HIL were determined on Roche cobas c502 analyzers for 1,986 residual whole blood specimens that had been previously analyzed for clinical chemistry parameters on Radiometer ABL90 FLEX blood gas analyzers. To examine exogenous interferences, retrospective analysis was performed over multiple years to ascertain whether patient samples analyzed for whole blood chloride were potentially affected by interference from iodide, salicylate, or thiocyanate. Some degree of hemolysis (defined as hemolysis index of greater than 60) was present in 9.7% of the whole blood specimens. Increasing rates of hemolysis were associated with higher whole blood potassium concentrations. Nearly 60% of specimens with potassium concentrations between 6.0 and 6.9 mEq/L had hemolysis indices of 100 or greater, and 75% of specimens with a potassium concentration of 7.0 mEq/L or greater were severely hemolyzed (hemolysis index of 300 or greater). In contrast to the hemolysis results, icterus and lipemia were determined to have minimal impact on patient results. For the exogenous interferences, we did not identify any patient samples where elevated salicylate levels or pharmaceutical iodide administration overlapped with whole blood chloride analysis (out of 75,887 and 169,229 total chloride measurements, respectively). We did, however, find that for patients receiving nitroprusside therapy in the inpatient setting, whole blood chloride concentrations were significantly higher during nitroprusside therapy [106.7 +/- 6.2 mEq/L (mean, SD)] compared to before

  10. The effect of customer-base reputation on brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Shahriyar Azizi; Behnaz Roustaian; Manizghe Gharache; Bahman Hajipour

    2016-01-01

    Among the most important sectors of Iranian economy is banking, an industry which has become more competitive over the recent decade. An objective of banks marketing is to increase brand equity. Since reputation is an important factor in improvement of brand equity, the present research evaluated the impact of bank customer-based reputation on total brand equity. A survey was conducted in Tehran metropolitan area, with the sample size of 246 people. Findings showed the positive impact of bank...

  11. Setting priorities for knowledge translation of Cochrane reviews for health equity: Evidence for Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugwell, Peter; Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Vincent, Jennifer; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Churchill, Rachel; deSavigny, Don; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Pantoja, Tomas

    2017-12-02

    A focus on equity in health can be seen in many global development goals and reports, research and international declarations. With the development of a relevant framework and methods, the Campbell and Cochrane Equity Methods Group has encouraged the application of an 'equity lens' to systematic reviews, and many organizations publish reviews intended to address health equity. The purpose of the Evidence for Equity (E4E) project was to conduct a priority-setting exercise and apply an equity lens by developing a knowledge translation product comprising summaries of systematic reviews from the Cochrane Library. E4E translates evidence from systematic reviews into 'friendly front end' summaries for policy makers. The following topic areas with high burdens of disease globally, were selected for the pilot: diabetes/obesity, HIV/AIDS, malaria, nutrition, and mental health/depression. For each topic area, a "stakeholder panel" was assembled that included policymakers and researchers. A systematic search of Cochrane reviews was conducted for each area to identify equity-relevant interventions with a meaningful impact. Panel chairs developed a rating sheet which was used by all panels to rank the importance of these interventions by: 1) Ease of Implementation; 2) Health System Requirements; 3)Universality/Generalizability/Share of Burden; and 4) Impact on Inequities/Effect on equity. The ratings of panel members were averaged for each intervention and criterion, and interventions were ordered according to the average overall ratings. Stakeholder panels identified the top 10 interventions from their respective topic areas. The evidence on these interventions is being summarized with an equity focus and the results posted online, at http://methods.cochrane.org/equity/e4e-series . This method provides an explicit approach to setting priorities by systematic review groups and funders for providing decision makers with evidence for the most important equity

  12. Analyzing extreme sea levels for broad-scale impact and adaptation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, T.; Haigh, I. D.; Nicholls, R. J.; Arns, A.; Dangendorf, S.; Hinkel, J.; Slangen, A.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal impact and adaptation assessments require detailed knowledge on extreme sea levels (ESL), because increasing damage due to extreme events is one of the major consequences of sea-level rise (SLR) and climate change. Over the last few decades, substantial research efforts have been directed towards improved understanding of past and future SLR; different scenarios were developed with process-based or semi-empirical models and used for coastal impact studies at various temporal and spatial scales to guide coastal management and adaptation efforts. Uncertainties in future SLR are typically accounted for by analyzing the impacts associated with a range of scenarios and model ensembles. ESL distributions are then displaced vertically according to the SLR scenarios under the inherent assumption that we have perfect knowledge on the statistics of extremes. However, there is still a limited understanding of present-day ESL which is largely ignored in most impact and adaptation analyses. The two key uncertainties stem from: (1) numerical models that are used to generate long time series of storm surge water levels, and (2) statistical models used for determining present-day ESL exceedance probabilities. There is no universally accepted approach to obtain such values for broad-scale flood risk assessments and while substantial research has explored SLR uncertainties, we quantify, for the first time globally, key uncertainties in ESL estimates. We find that contemporary ESL uncertainties exceed those from SLR projections and, assuming that we meet the Paris agreement, the projected SLR itself by the end of the century. Our results highlight the necessity to further improve our understanding of uncertainties in ESL estimates through (1) continued improvement of numerical and statistical models to simulate and analyze coastal water levels and (2) exploit the rich observational database and continue data archeology to obtain longer time series and remove model bias

  13. Interventions to improve access to cataract surgical services and their impact on equity in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramke, Jacqueline; Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Blignault, Ilse; Gilbert, Clare; Blanchet, Karl; Christensen, Robin; Zwi, Anthony B; Tugwell, Peter

    2017-11-09

    Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the prevalence is inequitably distributed between and within countries. Interventions have been undertaken to improve cataract surgical services, however, the effectiveness of these interventions on promoting equity is not known. To assess the effects on equity of interventions to improve access to cataract services for populations with cataract blindness (and visual impairment) in LMICs. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 3), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 12 April 2017), Embase Ovid (1980 to 12 April 2017), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database) (1982 to 12 April 2017), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch); searched 12 April 2017, ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 12 April 2017 and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 12 April 2017. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We included studies that reported on strategies to improve access to cataract services in LMICs using the following study designs: randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled before-and-after studies, and interrupted time series studies. Included studies were conducted in LMICs, and were targeted at disadvantaged populations, or disaggregated outcome data by 'PROGRESS-Plus' factors (Place of residence; Race/ethnicity/ culture/ language; Occupation; Gender/sex; Religion; Education; Socio-economic status; Social capital/networks. The 'Plus' component includes disability, sexual orientation and age). Two authors (JR and JP) independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed them for risk of bias. Meta-analysis was not possible, so included studies were

  14. Capital raising of aerospace companies: equities or debts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Shan, L.; Taw-Onn, Y.; Wai-Mun, H.

    2016-10-01

    Aerospace products enhance national and economic activities, thus maintaining the sustainability of aerospace industry is crucial. One of the perspectives in ensuring sustainability of aerospace companies is expansion of firms by raising funds for research and development in order to provide a reasonable profitability to the firms. This study comprises a sample of 47 aerospace companies from 2009 to 2015 to analyze the impact of raising fund by equities or debts to the profitability of the firms. The result indicates that capital raising through equities is preferable than debts. Moreover, the study also identifies that the profit of aerospace industry is volatile and there is cyclical reduction of the net income in the first quarter of the year. The management needs to make wise decisions in raising fund to ensure a healthy growth of the aerospace company.

  15. Protocol for the development of a CONSORT-equity guideline to improve reporting of health equity in randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Vivian; Jull, J; Petkovic, J; Armstrong, R; Boyer, Y; Cuervo, L G; Edwards, Sjl; Lydiatt, A; Gough, D; Grimshaw, J; Kristjansson, E; Mbuagbaw, L; McGowan, J; Moher, D; Pantoja, T; Petticrew, M; Pottie, K; Rader, T; Shea, B; Taljaard, M; Waters, E; Weijer, C; Wells, G A; White, H; Whitehead, M; Tugwell, P

    2015-10-21

    Health equity concerns the absence of avoidable and unfair differences in health. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) can provide evidence about the impact of an intervention on health equity for specific disadvantaged populations or in general populations; this is important for equity-focused decision-making. Previous work has identified a lack of adequate reporting guidelines for assessing health equity in RCTs. The objective of this study is to develop guidelines to improve the reporting of health equity considerations in RCTs, as an extension of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT). A six-phase study using integrated knowledge translation governed by a study executive and advisory board will assemble empirical evidence to inform the CONSORT-equity extension. To create the guideline, the following steps are proposed: (1) develop a conceptual framework for identifying "equity-relevant trials," (2) assess empirical evidence regarding reporting of equity-relevant trials, (3) consult with global methods and content experts on how to improve reporting of health equity in RCTs, (4) collect broad feedback and prioritize items needed to improve reporting of health equity in RCTs, (5) establish consensus on the CONSORT-equity extension: the guideline for equity-relevant trials, and (6) broadly disseminate and implement the CONSORT-equity extension. This work will be relevant to a broad range of RCTs addressing questions of effectiveness for strategies to improve practice and policy in the areas of social determinants of health, clinical care, health systems, public health, and international development, where health and/or access to health care is a primary outcome. The outcomes include a reporting guideline (CONSORT-equity extension) for equity-relevant RCTs and a knowledge translation strategy to broadly encourage its uptake and use by journal editors, authors, and funding agencies.

  16. Analyze of Tourism Development Impacts on the Development of Rural Areas (Case Study: Kesselian County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Ebrahimi Koohbone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism development in rural areas is one of the main strategies to achieve rural development. The aim of this descriptive-analytical study is to analyze the impact of rural tourism in the socio-economic development of rural areas (Kesselian County of Mazandaran province. Data collected using 190 questionnaires determined using Cochrane formula. The validity of the questionnaires were confirmed by Cronbach Alpha equal to 0.796. The results show that there is significant positive relationship between rural tourism and improve in rural household income, health, sewage and waste disposal systems as well as development of rural homes and roads. The factor analysis results show that the best important positive effects of rural tourism in rural areas are infrastructural development, economic development and development of employment; and main negative effects of rural tourism in rural areas are destruction of the business environment, increased of social abnormalities and destruction of cultural environment.

  17. Analyzing the impact of ambient temperature indicators on transformer life in different regions of Chinese mainland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cui-fen; Gao, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Tong

    2013-01-01

    Regression analysis is applied to quantitatively analyze the impact of different ambient temperature characteristics on the transformer life at different locations of Chinese mainland. 200 typical locations in Chinese mainland are selected for the study. They are specially divided into six regions so that the subsequent analysis can be done in a regional context. For each region, the local historical ambient temperature and load data are provided as inputs variables of the life consumption model in IEEE Std. C57.91-1995 to estimate the transformer life at every location. Five ambient temperature indicators related to the transformer life are involved into the partial least squares regression to describe their impact on the transformer life. According to a contribution measurement criterion of partial least squares regression, three indicators are conclusively found to be the most important factors influencing the transformer life, and an explicit expression is provided to describe the relationship between the indicators and the transformer life for every region. The analysis result is applicable to the area where the temperature characteristics are similar to Chinese mainland, and the expressions obtained can be applied to the other locations that are not included in this paper if these three indicators are known.

  18. Analyzing the Impact of Ambient Temperature Indicators on Transformer Life in Different Regions of Chinese Mainland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cui-fen; Gao, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Tong

    2013-01-01

    Regression analysis is applied to quantitatively analyze the impact of different ambient temperature characteristics on the transformer life at different locations of Chinese mainland. 200 typical locations in Chinese mainland are selected for the study. They are specially divided into six regions so that the subsequent analysis can be done in a regional context. For each region, the local historical ambient temperature and load data are provided as inputs variables of the life consumption model in IEEE Std. C57.91-1995 to estimate the transformer life at every location. Five ambient temperature indicators related to the transformer life are involved into the partial least squares regression to describe their impact on the transformer life. According to a contribution measurement criterion of partial least squares regression, three indicators are conclusively found to be the most important factors influencing the transformer life, and an explicit expression is provided to describe the relationship between the indicators and the transformer life for every region. The analysis result is applicable to the area where the temperature characteristics are similar to Chinese mainland, and the expressions obtained can be applied to the other locations that are not included in this paper if these three indicators are known. PMID:23843729

  19. Impact of pH on Urine Chemistry Assayed on Roche Analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, R; Alkouri, R; Tostivint, I; Djiavoudine, S; Mestari, F; Dever, S; Atlan, G; Devilliers, C; Imbert-Bismut, F; Bonnefont-Rousselot, D; Monneret, D

    2017-10-01

    The pH may impact the concentration of certain urinary parameters, making urine pre-treatment questionable. 1) Determining the impact of pH in vitro on the urinary concentration of chemistry parameters assayed on Roche Modular analyzers. 2) Evaluating whether concentrations depended on pH in non-pretreated urines from patients. 1) The optimal urinary pH values for each measurement were: 6.3 ± 0.8 (amylase), 6.5 (uric acid). Urinary creatinine, sodium and urea concentrations were not pH-dependent. 2) In urines from patients, the pH was negatively associated with the concentration of some urinary parameters. However, concentrations of all the parameters were strongly and positively correlated with urinary creatinine, and relationships with pH were no longer evidenced after creatinine-normalization. The need for urine pH adjustment does not seem necessary when considering renal function. However, from an analytical and accreditation standpoint, the relationship between urine pH and several parameters justifies its measurement.

  20. Simulation Tools and Techniques for Analyzing the Impacts of Photovoltaic System Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Ali

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy integration in distribution networks is one of the fastest growing sectors of distributed energy integration. The growth in solar PV integration is incentivized by various clean power policies, global interest in solar energy, and reduction in manufacturing and installation costs of solar energy systems. The increase in solar PV integration has raised a number of concerns regarding the potential impacts that might arise as a result of high PV penetration. Some impacts have already been recorded in networks with high PV penetration such as in China, Germany, and USA (Hawaii and California). Therefore, network planning is becoming more intricate as new technologies are integrated into the existing electric grid. The integrated new technologies pose certain compatibility concerns regarding the existing electric grid infrastructure. Therefore, PV integration impact studies are becoming more essential in order to have a better understanding of how to advance the solar PV integration efforts without introducing adverse impacts into the network. PV impact studies are important for understanding the nature of the new introduced phenomena. Understanding the nature of the potential impacts is a key factor for mitigating and accommodating for said impacts. Traditionally, electric power utilities relied on phasor-based power flow simulations for planning their electric networks. However, the conventional, commercially available, phasor-based simulation tools do not provide proper visibility across a wide spectrum of electric phenomena. Moreover, different types of simulation approaches are suitable for specific types of studies. For instance, power flow software cannot be used for studying time varying phenomena. At the same time, it is not practical to use electromagnetic transient (EMT) tools to perform power flow solutions. Therefore, some electric phenomena caused by the variability of PV generation are not visible using the conventional

  1. Marketing assets: relating brand equity and customer equity

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Jaime; Yagüe, María J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Brand equity and customer equity are inextricably linked. Some authors propose that marketing activities build these intangible assets simultaneously. In contrast, others suggest that brand equity is an antecedent of customer equity. In this research, we aim to shed light about the relationship between brand equity and customer equity, by empirically testing these two alternative explanations. Design/methodology/approach: We propose four research models that reflect these two alte...

  2. Equity and Life-Long Learning: An Analysis of White Paper No. 16 (2006/2007) of Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Cecilie Ronning

    2010-01-01

    Nationally and internationally equity in education has become a key goal. In Norway, a White Paper has been tabled to address how equity can be improved through education. In this paper the pedagogic and knowledge orientation of the initiatives are analyzed and discussed in relation to two models of equity: "equity through equality" and…

  3. Iranian nursing students' perspectives of educational equity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Ghiyasvandian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Around the world there is a growing consensus that students' rights must be protected, regardless of race, creed, color, sex, religion, and socioeconomic status. One of these rights is the educational equity. However, little is known about these phenomena in nursing education. The aim of this study was to explore the educational equity from the perspective of nursing students. A qualitative study was conducted. Thus, we purposefully recruited for in-depth interviews 13 nursing students (8 female and 5 male. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by thematic analysis approach to identify categories and themes. Four main themes emerged from the data: Fair Educational Opportunity, fair evaluation, attempts to combat discrimination, and employing qualified teachers.  It is argued that educational equity should be developed in higher education. Principles of equity and students' rights may form the most basic rationale for all formal and informal efforts to extend the right of equal access to education.

  4. DETERMINANTS OF BRAND EQUITY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF IT INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Fahid MUQADDAS; Ishtiaq AHMAD

    2016-01-01

    The performance of any brand can be measured by many methods. One of the widely used ways to calculate brand performance is through brand equity. Brand equity can be observed by customer’s perspective as well as financial perspective. This research paper investigates the impact of advertising and promotion, research and development (RD) and profitability (return on assets) on brand equity. In this research paper data is used from 20 international IT brands for a period of 5 years from 2011 to...

  5. The equity of school facilities funding: Examples from Kentucky.

    OpenAIRE

    William J. Glenn; Lawrence O. Picus; Allan Odden; Anabel Aportela

    2009-01-01

    While there is an extensive literature analyzing the relative equity of state funding systems for current operating revenues, there is a dearth of research on capital funding systems. This article presents an analysis of the school capital funding system in Kentucky since 1990, using the operating-revenue analysis concepts of horizontal equity, vertical equity, and fiscal neutrality. In general one could tentatively conclude that Kentucky’s capital-funding system was reasonably equitable unti...

  6. Analyzing the Impacts of Land Use Land Change on Near Shore Coastal Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, R. D.; Ta, E.; Boyle, C.; Alwood, B.

    2017-12-01

    The natural beauty of the United States Virgin Islands (USVI) has continued to attract visitors and residents, which overtime has increased human development and impact. The resulting land use change increases sediment loads and the flow of pollutants into surrounding nearshore environments such as coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds. Compounded with regional climate-related processes such as rising ocean temperatures and acidification, future land-use change poses a formidable threat to coral reefs and other susceptible marine environments. Without a healthy environment, the USVI economy also becomes endangered because it is mainly supported by tourism and recreation. Using Google Earth Engine, we created a tool to composite yearly Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS and Sentinel-2 MSI images identify changes from 1985 to present day. Using these land cover change maps we then analyzed trends at a watershed scale using hydrological data. We found there is a spatial relationship between development intensity and the health of coral reefs. Our work supports the existing knowledge of the link between land use and coastal ecosystem health.

  7. Analyzing the Impact of Residential Building Attributes, Demographic and Behavioral Factors on Natural Gas Usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Olga V.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2011-03-03

    This analysis examines the relationship between energy demand and residential building attributes, demographic characteristics, and behavioral variables using the U.S. Department of Energy’s Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2005 microdata. This study investigates the applicability of the smooth backfitting estimator to statistical analysis of residential energy consumption via nonparametric regression. The methodology utilized in the study extends nonparametric additive regression via local linear smooth backfitting to categorical variables. The conventional methods used for analyzing residential energy consumption are econometric modeling and engineering simulations. This study suggests an econometric approach that can be utilized in combination with simulation results. A common weakness of previously used econometric models is a very high likelihood that any suggested parametric relationships will be misspecified. Nonparametric modeling does not have this drawback. Its flexibility allows for uncovering more complex relationships between energy use and the explanatory variables than can possibly be achieved by parametric models. Traditionally, building simulation models overestimated the effects of energy efficiency measures when compared to actual "as-built" observed savings. While focusing on technical efficiency, they do not account for behavioral or market effects. The magnitude of behavioral or market effects may have a substantial influence on the final energy savings resulting from implementation of various energy conservation measures and programs. Moreover, variability in behavioral aspects and user characteristics appears to have a significant impact on total energy consumption. Inaccurate estimates of energy consumption and potential savings also impact investment decisions. The existing modeling literature, whether it relies on parametric specifications or engineering simulation, does not accommodate inclusion of a behavioral component. This

  8. Brand Equity – Measuring Corporate Brand Strength in the Swedish Smartphone Market; Dimensions of Corporate Brand Equity from a Consumer Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lökken, Andreas; Nayar, Malini; Runering, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the concept of brand equity composition in the Swedish smartphone market. The three dimensions used to describe brand equity are based on Aaker’s definition of consumer based brand equity namely; brand awareness, brand loyalty and perceived quality. The corporate brands represented on the market are analyzed with regards to consumer rating and brand equity composition using a proven theoretical model and a standardized questionnaire. The findings in this study indicate t...

  9. Effect of Dimensions of Service Quality on the Brand Equity in the Fast Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeilpour Majid

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing competition in the industry and service sectors, creating the powerful brands has great importance in these industries. One of the main factors that help to create a powerful brand is investment and improving the quality of services. Nowadays, the competition for improving the quality of services is raised as a key strategic issue for organizations that operate in the services sector. The aim of this research is to investigate how the dimensions of service quality affect the brand equity in the fast food industry. The customers of fast food industry (Restaurant Raphael in Boushehr constitute the statistical population of this research. Given that the statistical population is unlimited, through sampling 390 questionnaires were distributed, collected and analyzed. For analyzing the data, the structural equations modelling was used by help of the software smart PLS. The results show that the entire dimensions of service quality of model SERVQUAL (tangible factors of services, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy have a positive and significant impact on the brand equity. It also became clear that among the five dimensions of quality of services, the tangible factors of services have the most impact on the brand equity in the fast food industry. So implementing the programs to enhance the quality of services will have to a very large extent a positive effect on increasing the brand equity in the fast food industry.

  10. Simulation of steam generator plugging tubes in a PWR to analyze the operating impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pla, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.pla-freixa@ec.europa.eu [Nuclear Reactor Safety Assessment Unit, Institute for Energy and Transport, Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission, Petten (Netherlands); Reventos, Francesc, E-mail: francesc.reventos@upc.edu [Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain); Martin Ramos, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.martin-ramos@ec.europa.eu [Nuclear Safety and Security Coordination Unit, Policy Support Coordination, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Brussels (Belgium); Sol, Ismael, E-mail: isol@anacnv.com [Asociación Nuclear Ascó-Vandellós-II (ANAV), Tarragona (Spain); Strucic, Miodrag, E-mail: miodrag.strucic@ec.europa.eu [Nuclear Reactor Safety Assessment Unit, Institute for Energy and Transport, Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission, Petten (Netherlands)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Plugging a fraction of the SG tubes does not affect power output of the plant. • There is a limit to SG plugging in the range of 10–15%. • The rupture of a SG tube in a 12% plugged SG has shown no significant differences in operator actions. • A SBLOCA in a 12% plugged SG has shown no significant differences in operator actions. - Abstract: A number of nuclear power plants (NPPs) with pressurized water reactors (PWR) in the world have replaced their steam generators (SG) due to degradation of the SG tubes caused by different problems. Several methods were attempted to correct the defects of the tubes, but eventually the only permanent solution was to plug them. The consequences of plugging the tubes are the decrease of heat transfer surface, the reduction of the flow area and subsequent reduction of the primary system mass flow and for a fraction of plugged tubes higher than a given value, the reduction of reactor output and economic losses. The objective of this paper is to analyze whether steam generator tube plugging has an impact in the effectiveness of accident management actions. An analysis with Relap5 Mod 3.3 patch03 for the Spanish reactor Ascó-2, a 3-loop 2940.6 MWth Westinghouse PWR, in which plugging of steam generator tubes are simulated, is presented in order to find the limit for the adequate operation of the plant. Several steady state calculations were performed with different fractions of plugged SG tubes, by modeling the reduction of the primary to secondary heat transfer surface and the reduction of the primary coolant mass flow area in the tubes as well. The results of the analysis yield that plugging 12% of the SG tubes is around the limit for optimal reactor operation. To complete the study two events, in which the steam generators are used to cooldown the plant, were simulated to find out if the plugging of SGs tubes could influence the efficiency of the operator actions described in the emergency operating

  11. The Equity of School Facilities Funding: Examples from Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, William J.; Picus, Lawrence O.; Odden, Allan; Aportela, Anabel

    2009-01-01

    While there is an extensive literature analyzing the relative equity of state funding systems for current operating revenues, there is a dearth of research on capital funding systems. This article presents an analysis of the school capital funding system in Kentucky since 1990, using the operating-revenue analysis concepts of horizontal equity,…

  12. Evaluation of Health Equity Impact of Structural Policies: Overview of Research Methods Used in the SOPHIE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Anton E

    2017-07-01

    This article briefly assesses the research methods that were applied in the SOPHIE project to evaluate the impact of structural policies on population health and health inequalities. The evaluation of structural policies is one of the key methodological challenges in today's public health. The experience in the SOPHIE project was that mixed methods are essential to identify, understand, and predict the health impact of structural policies. On the one hand, quantitative studies that included spatial comparisons or time trend analyses, preferably in a quasi-experimental design, showed that some structural policies were associated with improved population health and smaller health inequalities. On the other hand, qualitative studies, often inspired by realist approaches, were important to understand how these policies could have achieved the observed impact and why they would succeed in some settings but fail in others. This review ends with five recommendations for future studies that aim to evaluate, understand, and predict how health inequalities can be reduced through structural policies.

  13. Evaluation of Health Equity Impact of Structural Policies: Overview of Research Methods Used in the SOPHIE Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, Anton E.

    2017-01-01

    This article briefly assesses the research methods that were applied in the SOPHIE project to evaluate the impact of structural policies on population health and health inequalities. The evaluation of structural policies is one of the key methodological challenges in today's public health. The

  14. Game Analysis on Influence Mechanism of Equity Incentive on R&D Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Cao Wen; Li Yuewen

    2014-01-01

    A game model between shareholders and manager is built to analyze influence mechanism of equity incentive on R&D investments based on principal-agent theory. Research shows that there are inverted U-shaped relationships between equity incentive and R&D investments, the modest equity should be gave for stimulate manager.

  15. What does the development of medical tourism in Barbados hold for health equity? an exploratory qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Runnels, Vivien; Crooks, Valorie A; Johnston, Rory; Snyder, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Although the global growth of privatized health care services in the form of medical tourism appears to generate economic benefits, there is debate about medical tourism's impacts on health equity in countries that receive medical tourists. Studies of the processes of economic globalization in relation to social determinants of health suggest that medical tourism's impacts on health equity can be both direct and indirect. Barbados, a small Caribbean nation which has universal public health care, private sector health care and a strong tourism industry, is interested in developing an enhanced medical tourism sector. In order to appreciate Barbadians' understanding of how a medical tourism industry might impact health equity. We conducted 50 individual and small-group interviews in Barbados with stakeholders including government officials, business and health professionals. The interviews were coded and analyzed deductively using the schedule's questions, and inductively for novel findings, and discussed by the authors. The findings suggest that in spite of Barbados' universal health care and strong population health indicators, there is expressed concern for medical tourism's impact on health equity. Informants pointed to the direct ways in which the domestic population might access more health care through medical tourism and how privately-provided medical tourism in Barbados could provide health benefits indirectly to the Barbadian populations. At the same time, they cautioned that these benefits may not materialize. For example, the transfer of public resources - health workers, money, infrastructure and equipment - to the private sector to support medical tourism with little to no return to government revenues could result in health inequity through reductions in access to and availability of health care for residents. In clarifying the direct and indirect pathways by which medical tourism can impact health equity, these findings have implications for health

  16. Investors’ Expectations of Equity for NGCs and LLCs and Implications on Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ada, Chancel Akono; Nganje, William E.; Kaitibie, Simeon; Gustafson, Cole R.

    2005-01-01

    New Generation Cooperatives (NGCs) are undergoing several structural changes with the acceptance of non-farmer investor equity and demutualization or transformation into investororiented ownerships, Limited Liability Companies (LLCs), to ameliorate perceived financial constraints for high technology investments. Using data of stock traded between members, we developed a model of investment decision and analyzed the impacts of expectations of change in growth and social capital, among other va...

  17. Pengaruh Social Media Marketing terhadap Customer Equity pada Pengusaha Muda di Kota Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Alfifto

    2017-01-01

    150521065 Digital era has influenced varians business and marketing types. Social media has given big impact on marketer to promote their brands, covering worldwide marketing, increasing the sales and building the community compared to conventional media. The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence social media marketing which consist of consumption, curation, creation dan collaboration on customer equity of young entrepreneurs in Medan City. This research us...

  18. Equity weighting and the marginal damage costs of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthoff, David [The Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland)]|[International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modelling, Hamburg (Germany)]|[Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg (Germany); Hepburn, Cameron [Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, and James Martin Institute, Said Business School, University of Oxford, and New College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Tol, Richard S.J. [The Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland)]|[Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg (Germany)]|[Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Climate change will give rise to different impacts in different countries, and different countries have different levels of development. Equity-weighted estimates of the (marginal) impact of greenhouse gas emissions reflect these differences. This paper analyses the impact of equity weighting on the marginal damage cost of carbon dioxide emissions, and reaches four main conclusions. First, equity-weighted estimates are substantially higher than estimates without equity-weights; equity-weights may even change the sign of the social cost estimates. Second, estimates differ by two orders of magnitude depending on the region to which the equity weights are normalised. Third, equity-weighted estimates are sensitive to the resolution of the impact estimates. Depending on the assumed intra-regional income distribution, estimates may be more than twice as high if national rather than regional impacts are aggregated. Fourth, variations in the assumed inequality aversion have different impacts in different scenarios, not only because different scenarios have different emissions and hence warming, but also because different scenarios have different income differences, different growth rates, and different vulnerabilities. (author)

  19. Equity weighting and the marginal damage costs of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthoff, David; Hepburn, Cameron; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change will give rise to different impacts in different countries, and different countries have different levels of development. Equity-weighted estimates of the (marginal) impact of greenhouse gas emissions reflect these differences. This paper analyses the impact of equity weighting on the marginal damage cost of carbon dioxide emissions, and reaches four main conclusions. First, equity-weighted estimates are substantially higher than estimates without equity-weights; equity-weights may even change the sign of the social cost estimates. Second, estimates differ by two orders of magnitude depending on the region to which the equity weights are normalised. Third, equity-weighted estimates are sensitive to the resolution of the impact estimates. Depending on the assumed intra-regional income distribution, estimates may be more than twice as high if national rather than regional impacts are aggregated. Fourth, variations in the assumed inequality aversion have different impacts in different scenarios, not only because different scenarios have different emissions and hence warming, but also because different scenarios have different income differences, different growth rates, and different vulnerabilities. (author)

  20. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  1. DETERMINANTS OF RETURN ON EQUITY OF COOPERATIVE BANKS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the diversity of return on equity in the cooperative banks in Poland in 2010– 2014. The analysis was conducted using data of the Polish Financial Supervision Authority, on the basis of a modifi ed decomposition rate of return on equity. Assessment of the rate of return on equity was made in a size of banks, as determined by the value of assets. In addition, in order to determine the strength and direction of impact the individual components of the model on the formation of return on equity method was applied functional. The study suggests that cooperative banks eff ectively use the equity, because the rate of return on equity was signifi cantly higher than the rate of return on assets. The average return on assets in 2010–2014 was relatively lower in the largest banks and ranged from 0.7–0.9%, and the smallest banks return on assets was approximately 1%. In turn, the return on equity was higher at banks with major assets (over 200 million PLN. In 2013–2014 the rate of return both on assets and equity expressly declined. The main determinants of changes in return on equity were changing the multiplier reduction of profi t from banking activities by operating costs and costs of banking risk and return on assets, as well as measured result on banking activities.

  2. Brands and Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Brunello Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays brands have become significant drivers for product purchasing and usage decisions. Thus, they constitute a substantial intangible asset for most companies. In order to gain customers and make them become loyal, firms have to establish the equity of the brand and present it in a clear and visible way to their target market. Therefore the topic of brand equity plays a major role in the creation and development of product and company brand strategy. The paper focuses on some general inf...

  3. Additional Indicators to Promote Social Sustainability within Government Programs: Equity and Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Acevedo Tirado

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Social programs are crucial to reduce poverty and inequity in developing countries. The operation of social programs, however, cannot be improved with traditional engineering tools since these tools are designed to maximize profits: in social programs maximizing profits is not the objective, social sustainability is. Field research was conducted and it was found that the operation of social programs is considered more socially sustainable if it meets two criteria: Efficiency and Equity; in other words, if the program can help more people who need it the most. This paper proposes a methodology centered in the development of mathematical formulas for the concepts of Efficiency and Equity, so that, by being able to measure them, government programs operation can be enhanced with engineering tools. The methodology is illustrated with a case study, a subsidized milk distribution program in Mexico, called Liconsa. Once the formulas were developed and used in a simulation model for Liconsa, different policies were tested and their results regarding Efficiency and Equity were compared. Results showed the best policies for Liconsa are the balanced ones: where help is increased for beneficiaries, while cost reduction commitments are obtained. In the discussion it is argued how the developed Equity and Efficiency indicators help to understand the tradeoffs between the objectives in opposition: instead of analyzing dozens of indicators, some of them improving and others worsening, the two formulas allow to capture all effects into two objectives and evaluate decisions based on their integral impact. Conclusions show that the mathematical definition of Equity and Efficiency supports better and more informed decision making towards improving the social sustainability of the programs operation. The mathematical definition of Equity and Efficiency and its use in engineering models helps balance the opposing objectives of social programs operation and promotes

  4. The Impact of Marketing Mix Elements Toward Brand Equity Through Brand Awareness and Brand Image as Mediators in Bakery Industry in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Ivena Renata

    2015-01-01

    As the factor accompanying the rise of GDP of people in Indonesia, consumption habit in having meal is as well shifting from traditional staple to wheat based product such as bakery products. Knowing from this phenomenon, it is known that bakery industry in Indonesia is on the business's concern recently.The effort in having good brand equity in the consumer's eyes surely will bring long term profit for the companies that are playing in this industry. In order to have a good brand equity, mar...

  5. Analyzing Vegetation Change in an Elephant-Impacted Landscape Using the Moving Standard Deviation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Fullman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern Botswana is influenced by various socio-ecological drivers of landscape change. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana is one of the leading sources of landscape shifts in this region. Developing the ability to assess elephant impacts on savanna vegetation is important to promote effective management strategies. The Moving Standard Deviation Index (MSDI applies a standard deviation calculation to remote sensing imagery to assess degradation of vegetation. Used previously for assessing impacts of livestock on rangelands, we evaluate the ability of the MSDI to detect elephant-modified vegetation along the Chobe riverfront in Botswana, a heavily elephant-impacted landscape. At broad scales, MSDI values are positively related to elephant utilization. At finer scales, using data from 257 sites along the riverfront, MSDI values show a consistent negative relationship with intensity of elephant utilization. We suggest that these differences are due to varying effects of elephants across scales. Elephant utilization of vegetation may increase heterogeneity across the landscape, but decrease it within heavily used patches, resulting in the observed MSDI pattern of divergent trends at different scales. While significant, the low explanatory power of the relationship between the MSDI and elephant utilization suggests the MSDI may have limited use for regional monitoring of elephant impacts.

  6. Assessing High Impact Practices Using NVivo: An Automated Approach to Analyzing Student Reflections for Program Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, Jennifer; Filer, Kimberly; Lyon, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Critical reflection allows students to synthesize their learning and deepen their understanding of an experience (Ash & Clayton, 2009). A recommended reflection method is for students to write essays about their experiences. However, on a large scale, such reflection essays become difficult to analyze in a meaningful way. At Roanoke College,…

  7. Analyzing the greenhouse gas impact potential of smallholder development actions across a global food security program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewer, Uwe; Nash, Julie; Gurwick, Noel; Bockel, Louis; Galford, Gillian; Richards, Meryl; Costa Junior, Ciniro; White, Julianna; Pirolli, Gillian; Wollenberg, Eva

    2018-04-01

    This article analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) impact potential of improved management practices and technologies for smallholder agriculture promoted under a global food security development program. Under ‘business-as-usual’ development, global studies on the future of agriculture to 2050 project considerable increases in total food production and cultivated area. Conventional cropland intensification and conversion of natural vegetation typically result in increased GHG emissions and loss of carbon stocks. There is a strong need to understand the potential greenhouse gas impacts of agricultural development programs intended to achieve large-scale change, and to identify pathways of smallholder agricultural development that can achieve food security and agricultural production growth without drastic increases in GHG emissions. In an analysis of 134 crop and livestock production systems in 15 countries with reported impacts on 4.8 million ha, improved management practices and technologies by smallholder farmers significantly reduce GHG emission intensity of agricultural production, increase yields and reduce post-harvest losses, while either decreasing or only moderately increasing net GHG emissions per area. Investments in both production and post-harvest stages meaningfully reduced GHG emission intensity, contributing to low emission development. We present average impacts on net GHG emissions per hectare and GHG emission intensity, while not providing detailed statistics of GHG impacts at scale that are associated to additional uncertainties. While reported improvements in smallholder systems effectively reduce future GHG emissions compared to business-as-usual development, these contributions are insufficient to significantly reduce net GHG emission in agriculture beyond current levels, particularly if future agricultural production grows at projected rates.

  8. Decomposing European bond and equity volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    The paper investigates volatility spillover from US and aggregate European asset markets into European national asset markets. A main contribution is that bond and equity volatilities are analyzed simultaneously. A new model belonging to the "volatilityspillover" family is suggested: The conditio...

  9. Learning, Official Languages and Employment Equity Advisor ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary Plans and coordinates human resources services in the areas of Learning, Official Languages (OL) and Employment Equity (EE) while ensuring that management's needs are met. Provides operational services and advises managers and employees in determining their needs, analyzing problems, ...

  10. Private equity investments and disclosure policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuselinck, C.A.C.; Deloof, M.; Manigart, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, we dynamically analyze unlisted firms’ voluntary disclosure decisions around private equity (PE) participation. First, we disentangle the role of disclosure in attracting PE investments. In addition, we examine the extent to which a firm’s disclosure policy is affected by the

  11. Analyzing the Impacts of Increased Wind Power on Generation Revenue Sufficiency: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Hongyu; Tan, Jin; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Li, Wanning; Luo, Cheng

    2016-08-01

    The Revenue Sufficiency Guarantee (RSG), as part of make-whole (or uplift) payments in electricity markets, is designed to recover the generation resources' offer-based production costs that are not otherwise covered by their market revenues. Increased penetrations of wind power will bring significant impacts to the RSG payments in the markets. However, literature related to this topic is sparse. This paper first reviews the industrial practices of implementing RSG in major U.S. independent system operators (ISOs) and regional transmission operators (RTOs) and then develops a general RSG calculation method. Finally, an 18-bus test system is adopted to demonstrate the impacts of increased wind power on RSG payments.

  12. Promoting household water treatment through women's self help groups in Rural India: assessing impact on drinking water quality and equity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Freeman

    Full Text Available Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC of drinking water samples (source and household were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk, and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the

  13. Promoting Household Water Treatment through Women's Self Help Groups in Rural India: Assessing Impact on Drinking Water Quality and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew C.; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent

  14. ANALYZE THE IMPACT OF HABITAT PATCHES ON WILDLIFE ROAD-KILL

    OpenAIRE

    Seok, S.; Lee, J.

    2015-01-01

    The ecosystem fragmentation due to transportation infrastructure causes a road-kill phenomenon. When making policies for mitigating road-kill it is important to select target-species in order to enhance its efficiency. However, many wildlife crossing structures have been questioned regarding their effectiveness due to lack of considerations such as target-species selection, site selection, management, etc. The purpose of this study is to analyse the impact of habitat patches on wildlife road-...

  15. Analyzing the impact of social factors on homelessness: a Fuzzy Cognitive Map approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mago, Vijay K; Morden, Hilary K; Fritz, Charles; Wu, Tiankuang; Namazi, Sara; Geranmayeh, Parastoo; Chattopadhyay, Rakhi; Dabbaghian, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Background The forces which affect homelessness are complex and often interactive in nature. Social forces such as addictions, family breakdown, and mental illness are compounded by structural forces such as lack of available low-cost housing, poor economic conditions, and insufficient mental health services. Together these factors impact levels of homelessness through their dynamic relations. Historic models, which are static in nature, have only been marginally successful in capturing th...

  16. Using Factor Analysis Tool to Analyze the Important Packaging Elements that Impact Consumer Buying Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Vjollca Visoka Hasani; Jusuf Zeqiri

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the elements that play an important role on consumer’s buying behavior. The purpose of this research is to find out the main important factors related with the packaging effect. Companies in order to create the right packaging for their products, they must understand the consumer buying process and understand the role and the impact of packaging elements as variables that can influence the purchase decision. So, by understanding what factors influen...

  17. A queueing network model to analyze the impact of parallelization of care on patient cycle time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lixiang; Giachetti, Ronald E

    2008-09-01

    The total time a patient spends in an outpatient facility, called the patient cycle time, is a major contributor to overall patient satisfaction. A frequently recommended strategy to reduce the total time is to perform some activities in parallel thereby shortening patient cycle time. To analyze patient cycle time this paper extends and improves upon existing multi-class open queueing network model (MOQN) so that the patient flow in an urgent care center can be modeled. Results of the model are analyzed using data from an urgent care center contemplating greater parallelization of patient care activities. The results indicate that parallelization can reduce the cycle time for those patient classes which require more than one diagnostic and/ or treatment intervention. However, for many patient classes there would be little if any improvement, indicating the importance of tools to analyze business process reengineering rules. The paper makes contributions by implementing an approximation for fork/join queues in the network and by improving the approximation for multiple server queues in both low traffic and high traffic conditions. We demonstrate the accuracy of the MOQN results through comparisons to simulation results.

  18. A framework for analyzing the impact of data integrity/quality on electricity market operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dae Hyun

    This dissertation examines the impact of data integrity/quality in the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system on real-time locational marginal price (LMP) in electricity market operations. Measurement noise and/or manipulated sensor errors in a SCADA system may mislead system operators about real-time conditions in a power system, which, in turn, may impact the price signals in real-time power markets. This dissertation serves as a first attempt to analytically investigate the impact of bad/malicious data on electric power market operations. In future power system operations, which will probably involve many more sensors, the impact of sensor data integrity/quality on grid operations will become increasingly important. The first part of this dissertation studies from a market participant's perspective a new class of malicious data attacks on state estimation, which subsequently influences the result of the newly emerging look-ahead dispatch models in the real-time power market. In comparison with prior work of cyber-attack on static dispatch where no inter-temporal ramping constraint is considered, we propose a novel attack strategy, named ramp-induced data (RID) attack, with which the attacker can manipulate the limits of ramp constraints of generators in look-ahead dispatch. It is demonstrated that the proposed attack can lead to financial profits via malicious capacity withholding of selected generators, while being undetected by the existing bad data detection algorithm embedded in today's state estimation software. In the second part, we investigate from a system operator's perspective the sensitivity of locational marginal price (LMP) with respect to data corruption-induced state estimation error in real-time power market. Two data corruption scenarios are considered, in which corrupted continuous data (e.g., the power injection/flow and voltage magnitude) falsify power flow estimate whereas corrupted discrete data (e.g., the on/off status of

  19. Analyzing Potential Grid Impacts from Future In-Motion Roadway Wireless Power Transfer Scenarios: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meintz, Andrew; Gonder, Jeffrey; Jorgenson, Jennie; Brooker, Aaron

    2016-08-01

    This work examines the grid impact of in-motion roadway wireless power transfer through the examination of the electrification of high-capacity roadways inside a metropolitan area. The work uses data from a regional travel study and the Federal Highway Administration's Highway Performance Monitoring System to estimate the electrified roadway's hourly power use throughout a week. The data are then combined with hourly grid load estimates for the same metropolitan area to determine the overlay of traditional grid load with additional load from a future electrified roadway.

  20. Trade, Gender and Equity in Latin America : Knowledge for Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will analyze the complex trade liberalization-gender equity nexus, focusing ... Interface of research on gender and trade with the negotiations of trade agreements ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Doctoral Research Awards.

  1. Analyzing climate change impacts on water resources under uncertainty using an integrated simulation-optimization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, X. W.; Li, Y. P.; Nie, S.; Fan, Y. R.; Huang, G. H.

    2018-01-01

    An integrated simulation-optimization (ISO) approach is developed for assessing climate change impacts on water resources. In the ISO, uncertainties presented as both interval numbers and probability distributions can be reflected. Moreover, ISO permits in-depth analyses of various policy scenarios that are associated with different levels of economic consequences when the promised water-allocation targets are violated. A snowmelt-precipitation-driven watershed (Kaidu watershed) in northwest China is selected as the study case for demonstrating the applicability of the proposed method. Results of meteorological projections disclose that the incremental trend of temperature (e.g., minimum and maximum values) and precipitation exist. Results also reveal that (i) the system uncertainties would significantly affect water resources allocation pattern (including target and shortage); (ii) water shortage would be enhanced from 2016 to 2070; and (iii) the more the inflow amount decreases, the higher estimated water shortage rates are. The ISO method is useful for evaluating climate change impacts within a watershed system with complicated uncertainties and helping identify appropriate water resources management strategies hedging against drought.

  2. Gender, equity, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Although equity theory has served as a theoretical framework applying to most individuals in most situations, empirical research suggests that gender may affect the utility of equity theory in explaining organizational behaviors. Studies have indicat...

  3. Brazilian Science between National and Foreign Journals: Methodology for Analyzing the Production and Impact in Emerging Scientific Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehl, Letícia; Calabró, Luciana; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Amaral, Lívio

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, we have observed an intensification of science, technology and innovation activities in Brazil. The increase in production of scientific papers indexed in international databases, however, has not been accompanied by an equivalent increase in the impact of publications. This paper presents a methodology for analyzing production and the impact of certain research areas in Brazil related to two aspects: the origin of the journals (national or foreign) and international collaboration. These two variables were selected for being of particular importance in understanding the context of scientific production and communication in countries with emerging economies. The sample consisted of papers written by Brazilian researchers in 19 subfields of knowledge published from 2002 to 2011, totaling 85,082 papers. To calculate the impact, we adopted a normalized indicator called the relative subfield citedness (Rw) using a window of 5 years to obtain measurements evaluated in 2 different years: 2007 and 2012. The data on papers and citations were collected from the Web of Science database. From the results, we note that most of the subfields have presented, from one quinquennium to another, improved performance in the world production rankings. Regarding publication in national and foreign journals, we observed a trend in the distribution maintenance of production of the subfields based on the origin of the journal. Specifically, for impact, we identified a lower Rw pattern for Brazilian papers when they were published in national journals in all subfields. When Brazilian products are published in foreign journals, we observed a higher impact for those papers, even surpassing the average global impact in some subfields. For international collaboration, we analyzed the percentage of participation of foreign researchers and the connection between collaboration and the impact of papers, especially emphasizing the distinction of hyperauthorship papers in terms of

  4. Brazilian Science between National and Foreign Journals: Methodology for Analyzing the Production and Impact in Emerging Scientific Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabró, Luciana; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Amaral, Lívio

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, we have observed an intensification of science, technology and innovation activities in Brazil. The increase in production of scientific papers indexed in international databases, however, has not been accompanied by an equivalent increase in the impact of publications. This paper presents a methodology for analyzing production and the impact of certain research areas in Brazil related to two aspects: the origin of the journals (national or foreign) and international collaboration. These two variables were selected for being of particular importance in understanding the context of scientific production and communication in countries with emerging economies. The sample consisted of papers written by Brazilian researchers in 19 subfields of knowledge published from 2002 to 2011, totaling 85,082 papers. To calculate the impact, we adopted a normalized indicator called the relative subfield citedness (Rw) using a window of 5 years to obtain measurements evaluated in 2 different years: 2007 and 2012. The data on papers and citations were collected from the Web of Science database. From the results, we note that most of the subfields have presented, from one quinquennium to another, improved performance in the world production rankings. Regarding publication in national and foreign journals, we observed a trend in the distribution maintenance of production of the subfields based on the origin of the journal. Specifically, for impact, we identified a lower Rw pattern for Brazilian papers when they were published in national journals in all subfields. When Brazilian products are published in foreign journals, we observed a higher impact for those papers, even surpassing the average global impact in some subfields. For international collaboration, we analyzed the percentage of participation of foreign researchers and the connection between collaboration and the impact of papers, especially emphasizing the distinction of hyperauthorship papers in terms of

  5. The Differences Cost of Equity Capital between Before and After Adoption of IFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Sugiartha Sanjaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze and compare between cost of equity capital between before and after adoption of IFRS on Statement of Financial Accounting Standard Financial Instrument (PSAK for banking companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange. The period on this study was 2008-2009 for before adoption and 2013-2014 for after adoption. Data on this study was secondary data such as annual financial reporting and share price. Cost of equity capital was measured using Ohlson Model. Sample in this study was banking companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange in 2008, 2009, 2013, and 2014. Selecting sample was by purposive sampling with specific criteria. Results of this study proved that cost of equity capital was lower for after adoption of IFRS on Statement of Financial Accounting Standard Financial Instrument for banking companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange than before adoption. It meant that adoption IFRS could reduce cost of equity capital. This result had an impact on reducing non performing loan, increasing loan to deposit ratio, and increasing net interest margin.

  6. Analyzing the impact of changing size and composition of a crop model ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alfredo

    2017-04-01

    The use of an ensemble of crop growth simulation models is a practice recently adopted in order to quantify aspects of uncertainties in model simulations. Yet, while the climate modelling community has extensively investigated the properties of model ensembles and their implications, this has hardly been investigated for crop model ensembles (Wallach et al., 2016). In their ensemble of 27 wheat models, Martre et al. (2015) found that the accuracy of the multi-model ensemble-average only increases up to an ensemble size of ca. 10, but does not improve when including more models in the analysis. However, even when this number of members is reached, questions about the impact of the addition or removal of a member to/from the ensemble arise. When selecting ensemble members, identifying members with poor performance or giving implausible results can make a large difference on the outcome. The objective of this study is to set up a methodology that defines indicators to show the effects of changing the ensemble composition and size on simulation results, when a selection procedure of ensemble members is applied. Ensemble mean or median, and variance are measures used to depict ensemble results among other indicators. We are utilizing simulations from an ensemble of wheat models that have been used to construct impact response surfaces (Pirttioja et al., 2015) (IRSs). These show the response of an impact variable (e.g., crop yield) to systematic changes in two explanatory variables (e.g., precipitation and temperature). Using these, we compare different sub-ensembles in terms of the mean, median and spread, and also by comparing IRSs. The methodology developed here allows comparing an ensemble before and after applying any procedure that changes the ensemble composition and size by measuring the impact of this decision on the ensemble central tendency measures. The methodology could also be further developed to compare the effect of changing ensemble composition and size

  7. Natural hazard impacts on transport systems: analyzing the data base of transport accidents in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    We consider a transport accident as any accident that occurs during transportation of people and goods. It comprises of accidents involving air, road, rail, water, and pipeline transport. With over 1.2 million people killed each year, road accidents are one of the world's leading causes of death; another 20-50 million people are injured each year on the world's roads while walking, cycling, or driving. Transport accidents of other types including air, rail, and water transport accidents are not as numerous as road crashes, but the relative risk of each accident is much higher because of the higher number of people killed and injured per accident. Pipeline ruptures cause large damages to the environment. That is why safety and security are of primary concern for any transport system. The transport system of the Russian Federation (RF) is one of the most extensive in the world. It includes 1,283,000 km of public roads, more than 600,000 km of airlines, more than 200,000 km of gas, oil, and product pipelines, 115,000 km of inland waterways, and 87,000 km of railways. The transport system, especially the transport infrastructure of the country is exposed to impacts of various natural hazards and weather extremes such as heavy rains, snowfalls, snowdrifts, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, snow avalanches, debris flows, rock falls, fog or icing roads, and other natural factors that additionally trigger many accidents. In June 2014, the Ministry of Transport of the RF has compiled a new version of the Transport Strategy of the RF up to 2030. Among of the key pillars of the Strategy are to increase the safety of the transport system and to reduce negative environmental impacts. Using the data base of technological accidents that was created by the author, the study investigates temporal variations and regional differences of the transport accidents' risk within the Russian federal regions and a contribution of natural factors to occurrences of different

  8. Analyzing the impact of social factors on homelessness: a fuzzy cognitive map approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mago, Vijay K; Morden, Hilary K; Fritz, Charles; Wu, Tiankuang; Namazi, Sara; Geranmayeh, Parastoo; Chattopadhyay, Rakhi; Dabbaghian, Vahid

    2013-08-23

    The forces which affect homelessness are complex and often interactive in nature. Social forces such as addictions, family breakdown, and mental illness are compounded by structural forces such as lack of available low-cost housing, poor economic conditions, and insufficient mental health services. Together these factors impact levels of homelessness through their dynamic relations. Historic models, which are static in nature, have only been marginally successful in capturing these relationships. Fuzzy Logic (FL) and fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) are particularly suited to the modeling of complex social problems, such as homelessness, due to their inherent ability to model intricate, interactive systems often described in vague conceptual terms and then organize them into a specific, concrete form (i.e., the FCM) which can be readily understood by social scientists and others. Using FL we converted information, taken from recently published, peer reviewed articles, for a select group of factors related to homelessness and then calculated the strength of influence (weights) for pairs of factors. We then used these weighted relationships in a FCM to test the effects of increasing or decreasing individual or groups of factors. Results of these trials were explainable according to current empirical knowledge related to homelessness. Prior graphic maps of homelessness have been of limited use due to the dynamic nature of the concepts related to homelessness. The FCM technique captures greater degrees of dynamism and complexity than static models, allowing relevant concepts to be manipulated and interacted. This, in turn, allows for a much more realistic picture of homelessness. Through network analysis of the FCM we determined that Education exerts the greatest force in the model and hence impacts the dynamism and complexity of a social problem such as homelessness. The FCM built to model the complex social system of homelessness reasonably represented reality for the

  9. ANALYZE THE IMPACT OF HABITAT PATCHES ON WILDLIFE ROAD-KILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Seok

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem fragmentation due to transportation infrastructure causes a road-kill phenomenon. When making policies for mitigating road-kill it is important to select target-species in order to enhance its efficiency. However, many wildlife crossing structures have been questioned regarding their effectiveness due to lack of considerations such as target-species selection, site selection, management, etc. The purpose of this study is to analyse the impact of habitat patches on wildlife road-kill and to suggest that spatial location of habitat patches should be considered as one of the important factors when making policies for mitigating road-kill. Habitat patches were presumed from habitat variables and a suitability index on target-species that was chosen by literature review. The road-kill hotspot was calculated using Getis-Ord Gi*. After that, we performed a correlation analysis between Gi Z-score and the distance from habitat patches to the roads. As a result, there is a low negative correlation between two variables and it increases the Gi Z-score if the habitat patches and the roads become closer.

  10. Analyze the Impact of Habitat Patches on Wildlife Road-Kill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, S.; Lee, J.

    2015-10-01

    The ecosystem fragmentation due to transportation infrastructure causes a road-kill phenomenon. When making policies for mitigating road-kill it is important to select target-species in order to enhance its efficiency. However, many wildlife crossing structures have been questioned regarding their effectiveness due to lack of considerations such as target-species selection, site selection, management, etc. The purpose of this study is to analyse the impact of habitat patches on wildlife road-kill and to suggest that spatial location of habitat patches should be considered as one of the important factors when making policies for mitigating road-kill. Habitat patches were presumed from habitat variables and a suitability index on target-species that was chosen by literature review. The road-kill hotspot was calculated using Getis-Ord Gi*. After that, we performed a correlation analysis between Gi Z-score and the distance from habitat patches to the roads. As a result, there is a low negative correlation between two variables and it increases the Gi Z-score if the habitat patches and the roads become closer.

  11. A survey on important factors influencing brand equity: A case study of banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sehhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in increasing customers' needs is to increase the quality of services through providing better quality services. Customer satisfaction is one of the primary requirements to meet people's needs and to have an efficient customer relationship management (CRM we need to detect the most important factors influencing efficiency and effectiveness in banking industry. In this paper, we present an empirical study to detect these factors in one of private banks in Iran. The proposed study of this paper tries to reach three objectives. We first detect important factors, which build customers' perception towards CRM, then we detect all influencing factors, which impact CRM, and finally, we evaluate the impact of CRM towards brand equity. The proposed study first designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 386 customers. Using structural equation modeling and certified factor analysis, we analyze the results. The results indicate that three factors including information, employee job behavior and suggestions and other factor have meaningful impact on customer brand equity. However, the impact of equipment on customer brand equity was not meaningful.

  12. Use of fish parasite species richness indices in analyzing anthropogenically impacted coastal marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikowski, R.; Paperna, I.; Diamant, A.

    2003-10-01

    species richness for a given habitat, in the characterization of communities of differentially impacted coastal marine ecosystems.

  13. Creating supportive nutrition environments for population health impact and health equity: an overview of the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network's efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanck, Heidi M; Kim, Sonia A

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity is a major threat to individual health and society overall. Policies that support healthier food and beverage choices have been endorsed by many decision makers. These policies may reach a large proportion of the population or in some circumstances aim to reduce nutrition disparities to ensure health equity. The Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN) evaluates policy as a tool to improve food and beverage environments where Americans live, work, play, and learn. The network aspires to address research and evaluation gaps related to relevant policies, create standardized research tools, and help build the evidence base of effective policy solutions for childhood obesity prevention with a focus on reach, equity, cost effectiveness, and sustainability. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Organizing Equity Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Torsten

    In the last years equity exchanges have diversified their operations into business areas such as derivatives trading, post-trading services, and software sales. Securities trading and post-trading are subject to economies of scale and scope. The integration of these functions into one institution ensures efficiency by economizing on transactions costs.

  15. Gender Equity Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    Under a legislative mandate from the state of Washington, this report provides updated information on gender equity at each of the public institutions of higher education in Washington and at the community and technical colleges, as applicable. A look at student support and services shows that pay scales in student employment are not…

  16. Equity Literacy for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Paul C.; Swalwell, Katy

    2015-01-01

    If the authors have learned anything working with schools across the United States, they've learned this: When it comes to educational equity, the trouble is not a lack of multicultural programs or diversity initiatives in schools. Nor is it a lack of educators who appreciate and even champion diversity. The trouble lies in how so many diversity…

  17. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working grou...

  18. How just and just how? A systematic review of social equity in conservation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Rachel S.; Law, Elizabeth A.; Bennett, Nathan J.; Ives, Christopher D.; Thorn, Jessica P. R.; Wilson, Kerrie A.

    2018-05-01

    Background: Conservation decisions not only impact wildlife, habitat, and environmental health, but also human wellbeing and social justice. The inclusion of safeguards and equity considerations in the conservation field has increasingly garnered attention in international policy processes and amongst conservation practitioners. Yet, what constitutes an ‘equitable’ solution can take many forms, and how the concept is treated within conservation research is not standardized. This review explores how social equity is conceptualized and assessed in conservation research. Methods/Design: Using a structured search and screening process, we identified 138 peer-reviewed studies that addressed equity in relation to conservation actions. The authors developed a coding framework to guide the review process, focusing on the current state of, definitions used for, and means of assessing social equity in empirical conservation research. Review Results: Results show that empirical research on social equity in conservation is rapidly growing, with the majority of studies on the topic published only since 2009. Equity within conservation research is skewed toward distributional concerns and to a lesser extent procedural issues, with recognition and contextual equity receiving little attention. Studies are primarily situated in forested biomes of the Global South. Conservation interventions mostly resulted in mixed or negative impacts on equity. Synthesis and Discussion: Our results demonstrate the current limitations of research on equity in conservation, and raise challenging questions about the social impacts of conservation and how to ameliorate equity concerns. Framing of equity within conservation research would benefit from greater transparency of study motivation, more explicit definition of how equity is used within the study context, and consideration for how best to assess it. We recommend that the empirical conservation literature more deeply engage with different

  19. The effects of multimedia advertising on building brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pirayesh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of multimedia advertisement on building brand equity. The proposed study uses two questionnaires, one for multimedia advertisement, which consists of 17 questions and the other one for measuring brand equity. The survey is applied among 384 randomly selected customers who do their daily businesses with banks located in province of Kordestan, Iran. Using Pearson correlation as well as linear regression techniques, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between these two variables. In our survey, word of mouth advertisement seems to have the highest impact on brand equity followed by having seminars.

  20. Reconciling Means and Ends in Equity and Access through Further and Higher Education Sector Partnerships: An Australian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the educational implications of pursuing equity and access for adult learners across further and higher education sectors. It contextualizes some advantages and disadvantages in cross-sectoral arrangements by reference to a specific access and equity partnership program in Australia and analyses the impact on the equity aims of…

  1. The Study of Consumer’s Post-Purchase Evaluation toward Brand Equity of Five Stars Hotels in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Dejsiriphun, Chonnikarn; Suviratvithayakit, Kritsana

    2011-01-01

    Date: May 30, 2011 Program: MIMA- International Marketing Course Name: Master Thesis (EFO705) Title: The Study of Consumer’s Post-Purchase Evaluation toward Brand Equity of Five Stars Hotels in Thailand Research Problem: What are the characteristics of brand equity of five star luxury hotels in Thailand and which components of brand equity are the majority concerns from customers’ evaluation? Purpose: The study aims to investigate and analyze the interrelationship of brand equity of five star...

  2. Can Equity Volatility Explain the Global Loan Pricing Puzzle?

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis Gaul; Pinar Uysal

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines whether unobservable differences in firm volatility are responsible for the global loan pricing puzzle, which is the observation that corporate loan interest rates appear to be lower in Europe than in the United States. We analyze whether equity volatility, an error prone measure of firm volatility, can explain this difference in loan spreads. We show that using equity volatility in OLS regressions will result in biased and inconsistent estimates of the difference in U.S. ...

  3. Securing energy equity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimsby, Lars Kare, E-mail: lars.grimsby@umb.no [Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Noragric, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas (Norway)

    2011-11-15

    Addressing energy poverty rather than energy equity conveniently evades the problem of the gap in energy consumption per capita in the developed and developing world. For energy security policies to adequately address energy poverty it requires a widening of scope from national to global. This is a comment to the forthcoming presentation of IEA's proposition for a new architecture for financing universal modern energy access to be presented at the conference 'Energy for all-Financing access for the poor' held in Oslo in October 2011. - Highlights: > Addressing energy poverty may elude the disparity in energy consumption between rich and poor. > A minimum threshold of energy for the poor does not itself address inequity in energy consumption. > Energy equity may be secured by widening scope from national to global, from the poorest to us all.

  4. Securing energy equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimsby, Lars Kare

    2011-01-01

    Addressing energy poverty rather than energy equity conveniently evades the problem of the gap in energy consumption per capita in the developed and developing world. For energy security policies to adequately address energy poverty it requires a widening of scope from national to global. This is a comment to the forthcoming presentation of IEA's proposition for a new architecture for financing universal modern energy access to be presented at the conference 'Energy for all-Financing access for the poor' held in Oslo in October 2011. - Highlights: → Addressing energy poverty may elude the disparity in energy consumption between rich and poor. → A minimum threshold of energy for the poor does not itself address inequity in energy consumption. → Energy equity may be secured by widening scope from national to global, from the poorest to us all.

  5. Toward Ensuring Health Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Epstein, Jonathan; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2015-01-01

    , the Evaluative Linguistic Framework for Questionnaires, developed to assess text quality of questionnaires. We also considered a study assessing cross-cultural adaptation with/without back-translation and/or expert committee. The results of this preconference work were presented to the equity working group......OBJECTIVE: The goal of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 12 (2014) equity working group was to determine whether and how comprehensibility of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) should be assessed, to ensure suitability for people with low literacy and differing cultures. METHODS......: The English, Dutch, French, and Turkish Health Assessment Questionnaires and English and French Osteoarthritis Knee and Hip Quality of Life questionnaires were evaluated by applying 3 readability formulas: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook; and a new tool...

  6. Designing Modern Equity Portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Jean Degen

    2011-01-01

    This aim of this paper is to describe possible ways of investing in equity; choosing the right stocks(among small-cap, large-cap, value, growth, and foreign) using fundamental analysis, defining their appropriate mix in the portfolios according to the desired return-risk profiles based on Markowitz?s modern portfolio theory, and using technical analysis to buy and sell them.

  7. Empowerment evaluation of a Swedish gender equity plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Gavriilidis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empowerment is essential for gender equity and health. The city of Malmö, Sweden, has formulated a development plan for gender equity integration (GEIDP. A ‘Policy Empowerment Index’ (PEI was previously developed to assess the empowerment potential of policies. Objectives: To pilot-evaluate the GEIDP's potential for empowerment and to test the PEI for future policy evaluations. Design: The GEIDP was analyzed and scored according to electronically retrieved evidence on constituent opinion, participation, capacity development, evaluation–adaptation, and impact. Results: The plan's PEI score was 64% (CI: 48–78 and was classified as ‘enabling’, ranging between ‘enabling’ and ‘supportive’. The plan's strengths were: 1 constituent knowledge and concern; 2 peripheral implementation; 3 protection of vulnerable groups; and 4 evaluation/adaptation procedures. It scored average on: 1 policy agenda setting; 2 planning; 3 provisions for education; 4 network formation; 5 resource mobilization. The weakest point was regarding promotion of employment and entrepreneurship. Conclusions: The PEI evaluation highlighted the plan's potential of constituency empowerment and proposed how it could be augmented.

  8. FOMC communication and emerging equity markets

    OpenAIRE

    Hayo, Bernd; Kutan, Ali M.; Neuenkirch, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Using a GARCH model, we study the effects of Federal Funds target rate changes and FOMC communication on emerging equity market returns and volatility over the period 1998–2006. First, both types of news have a significant impact on market returns. Second, target rate changes are more important than informal communication. Third, the occurrence of monetary policy reports lowers price volatility. Finally, American emerging markets react more to U.S. news than non-American markets.

  9. Decomposing European bond and equity volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates volatility spillover from US and aggregate European asset markets into European national asset markets. A main contribution is that bond and equity volatilities are analyzed simultaneously. A new model belonging to the "volatilityspillover" family is suggested: The conditional variance of e.g. the unexpected German stock return is divided into separate effects from the contemporaneous idiosyncratic variance of US bonds, US stocks, European bonds, European stocks, German...

  10. Customer equity of Pakistani fast food restaurant: A study of attitudinal customer equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Customer Equity is true representative of relationship marketing. There are two major approach-es to measure Customer Equity: Transaction/sales based approach and Attitudinal Approach. This research is an effort to check customer equity of fast food restaurants of Pakistan by using attitudinal approach. Transactional customer equity is treated as criterion for attitudinal customer equity. Three drivers of Customer Equity are Value Equity, Brand equity and Relationship equity are taken as independent variables in this research. Convenient sampling technique was used and sample size was 393 respondents. The results show that attitudinal customer equity had strong association with transactional equity. Brand equity, value equity and relationship equity show positive associations with attitudinal customer equity.

  11. Health care and equity in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balarajan, Yarlini; Selvaraj, S; Subramanian, S V

    2011-01-01

    India’s health system faces the ongoing challenge of responding to the needs of the most disadvantaged members of Indian society. Despite progress in improving access to health care, inequalities by socioeconomic status, geography and gender continue to persist. This is compounded by high out-of-pocket expenditures, with the rising financial burden of health care falling overwhelming on private households, which account for more than three-quarter of health spending in India. Health expenditures are responsible for more than half of Indian households falling into poverty; the impact of this has been increasing pushing around 39 million Indians into poverty each year. In this paper, we identify key challenges to equity in service delivery, and equity in financing and financial risk protection in India. These include imbalanced resource allocation, limited physical access to quality health services and inadequate human resources for health; high out-of-pocket health expenditures, health spending inflation, and behavioral factors that affect the demand for appropriate health care. Complementing other paper in this Series, we argue for the application of certain principles in the pursuit of equity in health care in India. These are the adoption of equity metrics in monitoring, evaluation and strategic planning, investment in developing a rigorous knowledge-base of health systems research; development of more equity-focused process of deliberative decision-making in health reform, and redefinition of the specific responsibilities and accountabilities of key actors. The implementation of these principles, together with strengthening of public health and primary care services, provide an approach for ensuring more equitable health care for India’s population. PMID:21227492

  12. Discount rates, equity weights and the social cost of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Equity weighting has been proposed as a way of allowing welfare equivalents to be included in the social cost of carbon since a dollar to a poor person is worth more than a dollar to a rich one. Here we use the PAGE2002 integrated assessment model to show that the social cost of carbon is higher without equity weights (an elasticity of marginal utility with respect to income of 0) than with them. This might seem counter-intuitive, but it comes about because of the logical link between equity weights and discount rates; as the elasticity goes from 0 to - 0.5 to - 1.0, the social rate of time preference rises, and the drop in present values that results far outweighs the small increase in impacts that equity weights bring. (author)

  13. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND EQUITY OF BALI AS A TOURISM DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Surya Diarta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, competition among tourism destinations is more stringent in getting foreign tourists, including Bali. One effort to win the competition is increasing destination brand equity through maintaining its influencing factors and gaining tourist positive behavior toward destination. This effort, in long run, will increase and stabilize destination revenue and sustainability. This research aims to analyze factors influencing brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. This research was conducted in Bali’s five major tourism objects. The 240 foreign tourists were chosen as respondents through convenience sampling technique. Data were analyzed using factor analysis. The results showed that factors that significantly influenced Bali brand equity were: symbolic and experiential benefit factor, direct and indirect destinations attributes, destination reliability and tangibility, assurance and empathy, brand destinations recognition and recall, destinations common psychological attributes, destination common functional attributes, unique functional attributes, behavioral loyalty, destination awareness, and attitudinal loyalty. Given the fluctuative nature of brand equity, Bali needs a consistent effort to maintain or to enhance brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. Maintaining the dominant factors that influence the strength of brand equity can be used as a basis to develop destination branding strategy to expand market segment,  choose the right target market, and anchoring destination position in world market competition.

  14. Developing Marketing Strategies To Increase Brand Equity: The Differences Between Age Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Chu Chen; Robert D. Green

    2012-01-01

    Retailers are facing challenges from global competitors, aging consumer markets, and households with less income that impact brand equity. This study examines three age groups (younger, middle, older) marketing strategy perceptions and their brand equity (brand loyalty, brand awareness, perceived quality, brand association). As expected, different strategies influence each age group. Generally, older retailer shoppers have the highest brand equity. The results have certain implications to the...

  15. Assessment of value creation in private equity: the acquisition of Burger King by 3G Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Hoene, Daniel Jobst Elmar

    2016-01-01

    This thesis elaborates the creation of value in private equity and in particular analyzes value creation in 3G Capital’s acquisition of Burger King. In this sense, a specific model is applied that composes value creation into several drivers, in order to answer the question of how value creation can be addressed in private equity investments. Although previous research by Achleitner et al. (2010) introduced a specific model that addresses value creation in private equity, the r...

  16. Protected areas and territorial exclusion of traditional communities: analyzing the social impacts of environmental compensation strategies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felisa C. Anaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The creation of the protected areas (PAs of restricted use dominates conservation policies throughout the world and reflects the western idea of separation between pristine nature and human-modified habitats. However, this conservation strategy has caused the proliferation of environmental conflicts involving territorial rights of traditional peoples and local communities throughout the world. Our study aims to analyze the impacts of the creation of a system of PAs of restricted use on the livelihoods and well-being of traditional communities in the north of Minas Gerais State, in Brazil. We analyzed the conflicts emerging in the study region from the perspective of the environmental justice paradigm. We used the extended-case method, conducting fieldwork to observe and register the movements of social resistance of traditional communities, and interviews with key stakeholders. Between 1970-1990, the Jaíba irrigation project was implemented in the north of Minas Gerais and, to compensate for the huge environmental impact of the project, several PAs of restricted use were created, disregarding the traditional peoples that inhabited the region. As a consequence, these populations were expelled from their territories without compensation or resettlement, causing severe restrictions to their traditional livelihoods and well-being, including access to natural resources such as water, fisheries and timber, and nontimber products, jeopardizing their food security, cultural identity, and social integrity. They initiated the "Movement of the People Cornered by Parks," lately evolving to "Vazanteiros in Movement," incorporating elements of the environmental arena to politically dispute alternative conservation projects. Sustainable development policies that incorporate the "economy of repair," expressed as environmental compensation strategies, are intrinsically contradictory and inappropriate from the perspective of environmental justice. Inclusive

  17. Unilever Group : equity valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Susana Sofia Castelo

    2014-01-01

    The following dissertation has the purpose to value the Unilever Group, but more specifically Unilever N.V. being publicly traded in the Amsterdam Exchange Index. Unilever is seen as a global player and one of most successful and competitive fast-moving consumer goods companies. In order to valuate Unilever’s equity, a Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) approach is first carried out, since it is believed to be the most reliable methodology. The value estimated was €36.39, advising one to buy its s...

  18. History of Pay Equity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbezat, Debra A.

    2002-01-01

    Traces the evolution of salary-equity studies over time, and how the findings have changed with regard to pay differences by gender and race/ethnicity. Reviews the literature on salary equity for both faculty and nonfaculty academic employees. (EV)

  19. Product Placement and Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Corniani, Margherita

    2003-01-01

    Product placement is the planned insertion of a brand within a movie, a fiction, etc. It can be used with other communication tools (i.e. advertising, sales promotions, etc.) in order to disseminate brand awareness and characterize brand image, developing brand equity. In global markets, product placement is particularly useful for improving brand equity of brands with a well established brand awareness.

  20. Corporate Governance and Equity Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between corporate governance and equity returns from the small investors view point. A primary survey has been conducted to gather the data required to examine the link. Preliminary result of the study shows that the four elements of governance: board structure, transparency, fairness and responsibility are positively related with equity returns.

  1. Intergenerational equity and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

  2. Assessing equity of public transport: the case of Palma (Mallorca, Illes Balears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurici Ruiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of sustainable transport planning must take into account the level of territorial and social equity of service. The equity analysis requires a deep understanding of the service and the territorial and social characteristics where it is implanted. We propose a simplified method to analyze the equity of the public bus system that has been used in the city of Palma de Mallorca. The bus service level was calculated from the spatial analysis of the offer and was contrasted with the population and with a multidimensional index of social need for public transportation leading to horizontal and vertical equity respectively. Next the overall equity of the service was tested with the support of the Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of bus routes depending on the role they play in the equity of the service was performed.

  3. Private equity ownership and nursing home financial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Rohit; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Harman, Jeffrey S; Laberge, Alex; Hyer, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Private equity has acquired multiple large nursing home chains within the last few years; by 2009, it owned nearly 1,900 nursing homes. Private equity is said to improve the financial performance of acquired facilities. However, no study has yet examined the financial performance of private equity nursing homes, ergo this study. The primary purpose of this study is to understand the financial performance of private equity nursing homes and how it compares with other investor-owned facilities. It also seeks to understand the approach favored by private equity to improve financial performance-for instance, whether they prefer to cut costs or maximize revenues or follow a mixed approach. Secondary data from Medicare cost reports, the Online Survey, Certification and Reporting, Area Resource File, and Brown University's Long-term Care Focus data set are combined to construct a longitudinal data set for the study period 2000-2007. The final sample is 2,822 observations after eliminating all not-for-profit, independent, and hospital-based facilities. Dependent financial variables consist of operating revenues and costs, operating and total margins, payer mix (census Medicare, census Medicaid, census other), and acuity index. Independent variables primarily reflect private equity ownership. The study was analyzed using ordinary least squares, gamma distribution with log link, logit with binomial family link, and logistic regression. Private equity nursing homes have higher operating margin as well as total margin; they also report higher operating revenues and costs. No significant differences in payer mix are noted. Results suggest that private equity delivers superior financial performance compared with other investor-owned nursing homes. However, causes for concern remain particularly with the long-term financial sustainability of these facilities.

  4. Implied and realized volatility in the cross-section of equity options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammann, Manuel; Skovmand, David; Verhofen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Using a complete sample of US equity options, we analyze patterns of implied volatility in the cross-section of equity options with respect to stock characteristics. We find that high-beta stocks, small stocks, stocks with a low-market-to-book ratio, and non-momentum stocks trade at higher implied...

  5. Application of driving force- Pressure- State- Impact- Response (DPSIR Framework for Analyzing the Human habitat in City of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Salehi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human habitat change is a complicated issue that many factors play different roles in its formation and distribution. Considering this complication, a more comprehensive and holistic approach is needed for a better understanding and management of those factors. The causal frameworks are among systemic and integrated methods for addressing the causes of environmental problems and the relationships that exist between the environmental systems for proposing proper solutions. The DPSIR model is a functional analysis framework to depict the cause-effect relationships that exist in creating environmental problems. Tehran is one of the major megacities in the Middle East that faces environmental consequences of over population and unplanned urban sprawl, and because of its location in arid region, its vulnerable to rise of environmental problem. In this research, by using the DPSIR framework, different aspects of habitat condition of Tehran are analyzed and later with the help of this conceptual framework, strategies for controlling urban environment. The results show that urbanization is the major driving force that is induced by overpopulation and the need for further urban sprawl, which cause pressure on natural resources. The state of housing and rapid land use changes have brought about unfavorable living conditions that result in unfavorable impacts on public health and safety, which are the results of ineffective policies and solutions.

  6. Health equity monitoring for healthcare quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, R; Asaria, M; Ali, S; Shaw, R; Doran, T; Goldblatt, P

    2018-02-01

    Population-wide health equity monitoring remains isolated from mainstream healthcare quality assurance. As a result, healthcare organizations remain ill-informed about the health equity impacts of their decisions - despite becoming increasingly well-informed about quality of care for the average patient. We present a new and improved analytical approach to integrating health equity into mainstream healthcare quality assurance, illustrate how this approach has been applied in the English National Health Service, and discuss how it could be applied in other countries. We illustrate the approach using a key quality indicator that is widely used to assess how well healthcare is co-ordinated between primary, community and acute settings: emergency inpatient hospital admissions for ambulatory care sensitive chronic conditions ("potentially avoidable emergency admissions", for short). Whole-population data for 2015 on potentially avoidable emergency admissions in England were linked with neighborhood deprivation indices. Inequality within the populations served by 209 clinical commissioning groups (CCGs: care purchasing organizations with mean population 272,000) was compared against two benchmarks - national inequality and inequality within ten similar populations - using neighborhood-level models to simulate the gap in indirectly standardized admissions between most and least deprived neighborhoods. The modelled inequality gap for England was 927 potentially avoidable emergency admissions per 100,000 people, implying 263,894 excess hospitalizations associated with inequality. Against this national benchmark, 17% of CCGs had significantly worse-than-benchmark equity, and 23% significantly better. The corresponding figures were 11% and 12% respectively against the similar populations benchmark. Deprivation-related inequality in potentially avoidable emergency admissions varies substantially between English CCGs serving similar populations, beyond expected statistical

  7. Challenges of Ensuring Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya

    and on a conceptual framework to examine equity in REDD+. Qualitative research with a case study in Cambodia provides the empirical foundation for the thesis, supplemented with a quantitative analysis of climate change research to address the fourth research question. Together, these articles and approaches...... these challenges, specific recomm ndations are summarized in the thesis, namely: better integration of qualitative methods in social assessments, greater emphasis on local inclusion and representativeness in relation to resource access and decision-making, more field research and cross...... social assessments in REDD+ are inadequate due to a dominant positivistic approach to methods and indicators for social assessment, which contrasts the complexities and context of REDD+ projects; 2) The distribution of costs and benefits within communities in Oddar Meanchey is uneven, as the costs...

  8. Significant components of service brand equity in healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Hardeep; Bala, Madhu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine three significant components of service brand equity--i.e. perceived service quality, brand loyalty, and brand image--and analyze relationships among the components of brand equity and also their relationship with brand equity, which is still to be theorized and developed in the healthcare literature. Effective responses were received from 206 respondents, selected conveniently from the localities of Jammu city. After scale item analysis, the data were analyzed using factor analysis, correlations, t-tests, multiple regression analysis and path modeling using SEM. The findings of the study support that service brand equity in the healthcare sector is greatly influenced by brand loyalty and perceived quality. However, brand image has an indirect effect on service brand equity through brand loyalty (mediating variable). The research can be criticized on the ground that data were selected conveniently from respondents residing in the city of Jammu, India. But at the same time the respondents were appropriate for the study as they have adequate knowledge about the hospitals, and were associated with the selected hospital for more than four years. Furthermore, the validity and reliability of the data are strong enough to take care of the limitations of the convenience sampling selection method. The study has unique value addition to the service marketing vis-à-vis healthcare literature, from both theoretical and managerial perspectives. The study establishes a direct and significant relationship between service brand equity and its two components, i.e. perceived service quality and brand loyalty in the healthcare sector. It also provides directions to healthcare service providers in creating, enhancing, and maintaining service brand equity through service quality and brand loyalty, to sustain competitive advantage.

  9. Social Security and the Equity Premium Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Olovsson, Conny

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows that social security may be an important factor in explaining the equity premium puzzle. In the absence of shortselling constraints, the young shortsell bonds to the middle-aged and buy equity. Social security reduces the bond demand of the middle-aged, thereby restricting the possibilities of the young to finance their equity purchases. Their equity demand increases as does the average return to equity. Social security also increases the covariance between future consumption...

  10. Equity Versus Non-Equity International Strategic Alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Globerman, Steven; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    A substantial literature has evolved focusing on the ownership structure of international strategic alliances (ISAs). Most of the relevant studies are theoretical in nature and concentrate on the conceptual factors that influence the choice between equity and non-equity structures. A smaller numb...... involving Danish firms. Our study documents how the determinants of governance mode choice vary in importance depending upon the "quality" of the governance infrastructure of the host country....

  11. Essays on executive equity-based compensation and equity ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Elsilä, A. (Anna)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A major proposition of the agency theory is that the conflict of interests between an agent and a principal is reduced when the agent’s wealth and compensation are tied to the performance of the firm. Apart from the direct predicted relation to corporate performance, compensating managers with equity instruments has implications for corporate risk-taking and payout policy choices. Additionally, equity-based compensation practices are to a large extent shaped by institutional facto...

  12. SU-G-BRA-13: An Advanced Deformable Lung Phantom for Analyzing the Dosimetric Impact of Respiratory Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, D; Kang, S; Kim, D; Kim, T; Kim, K; Cho, M; Suh, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The difference between three-dimensional (3D) and four-dimensional (4D) dose is affected by factors such as tumor size and motion. To quantitatively analyze the effects of these factors, a phantom that can independently control for each factor is required. The purpose of this study is to develop a deformable lung phantom with the above attributes and evaluate characteristics. Methods: A phantom was designed to simulate diaphragm motion with amplitude in the range 1 to 7 cm and various periods of regular breathing. To simulate different size tumors, tumors were produced by pouring liquid silicone into custom molds created by a 3D printer. The accuracy of phantom diaphragm motion was assessed using calipers and protractor. To control tumor motion, tumor trajectories were evaluated using 4D computed tomography (CT), and diaphragm-tumor correlation curve was calculated by curve fitting method. Three-dimensional dose and 4D dose were calculated and compared according to tumor motion. Results: The accuracy of phantom diaphragm motion was less than 1 mm. Maximum tumor motion amplitudes in the left-right and anterior-posterior directions were 0.08 and 0.12 cm, respectively, in a 10 cm"3 tumor, and 0.06 and 0.27 cm, respectively, in a 90 cm"3 tumor. The diaphragm-tumor correlation curve showed that tumor motion in the superior-inferior direction was increased with increasing diaphragm motion. In the 10 cm"3 tumor, the tumor motion was larger than the 90 cm"3 tumor. According to tumor motion, variation of dose difference between 3D and 4D was identified. Conclusion: The developed phantom can independently control factors such as tumor size and motion. In potentially, this phantom can be used to quantitatively analyze the dosimetric impact of respiratory motion according to the factors that influence the difference between 3D and 4D dose. This research was supported by the Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future

  13. SU-G-BRA-13: An Advanced Deformable Lung Phantom for Analyzing the Dosimetric Impact of Respiratory Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, D; Kang, S; Kim, D; Kim, T; Kim, K; Cho, M; Suh, T [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The difference between three-dimensional (3D) and four-dimensional (4D) dose is affected by factors such as tumor size and motion. To quantitatively analyze the effects of these factors, a phantom that can independently control for each factor is required. The purpose of this study is to develop a deformable lung phantom with the above attributes and evaluate characteristics. Methods: A phantom was designed to simulate diaphragm motion with amplitude in the range 1 to 7 cm and various periods of regular breathing. To simulate different size tumors, tumors were produced by pouring liquid silicone into custom molds created by a 3D printer. The accuracy of phantom diaphragm motion was assessed using calipers and protractor. To control tumor motion, tumor trajectories were evaluated using 4D computed tomography (CT), and diaphragm-tumor correlation curve was calculated by curve fitting method. Three-dimensional dose and 4D dose were calculated and compared according to tumor motion. Results: The accuracy of phantom diaphragm motion was less than 1 mm. Maximum tumor motion amplitudes in the left-right and anterior-posterior directions were 0.08 and 0.12 cm, respectively, in a 10 cm{sup 3} tumor, and 0.06 and 0.27 cm, respectively, in a 90 cm{sup 3} tumor. The diaphragm-tumor correlation curve showed that tumor motion in the superior-inferior direction was increased with increasing diaphragm motion. In the 10 cm{sup 3} tumor, the tumor motion was larger than the 90 cm{sup 3} tumor. According to tumor motion, variation of dose difference between 3D and 4D was identified. Conclusion: The developed phantom can independently control factors such as tumor size and motion. In potentially, this phantom can be used to quantitatively analyze the dosimetric impact of respiratory motion according to the factors that influence the difference between 3D and 4D dose. This research was supported by the Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF funded by the Ministry of Science

  14. Slum Upgrading and Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason; Sverdlik, Alice

    2017-03-24

    Informal settlement upgrading is widely recognized for enhancing shelter and promoting economic development, yet its potential to improve health equity is usually overlooked. Almost one in seven people on the planet are expected to reside in urban informal settlements, or slums, by 2030. Slum upgrading is the process of delivering place-based environmental and social improvements to the urban poor, including land tenure, housing, infrastructure, employment, health services and political and social inclusion. The processes and products of slum upgrading can address multiple environmental determinants of health. This paper reviewed urban slum upgrading evaluations from cities across Asia, Africa and Latin America and found that few captured the multiple health benefits of upgrading. With the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focused on improving well-being for billions of city-dwellers, slum upgrading should be viewed as a key strategy to promote health, equitable development and reduce climate change vulnerabilities. We conclude with suggestions for how slum upgrading might more explicitly capture its health benefits, such as through the use of health impact assessment (HIA) and adopting an urban health in all policies (HiAP) framework. Urban slum upgrading must be more explicitly designed, implemented and evaluated to capture its multiple global environmental health benefits.

  15. Social equity, mobility, and access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This report discusses how transportation policies can aggravate or alleviate social equity problems. Current transit systems : (Detroit, Atlanta, Cleveland, Denver, and St. Louis) were studied with respect to their strategies and relative success in ...

  16. Sustainability : Intergeneration Equity and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.D. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    Regarding intergenerational equity as prerequisite for sustainability, we derive an optimal investment rule for intergenerational equity from an optimization model allowing for capital accumulation and pollution. This rule provides a condition for intergenerational equity such that an economy maintains constant net value of investment the difference between the physical capital investment value and the environmental resource depletion(pollution) value. This rule is more generalized condition for intergenerational equity than the 'keep capital intact' rule suggested by Hartwick(1977) and Solow(1999), in a sense that this rule includes their condition as a special. Also, we expect this rule to offer an empirical measure of sustainability. In addition, we discuss a variety of recent environmental issues in practice, especially associated with the implications from the rule. (author). 13 refs.

  17. Equity in children's dental caries before and after cessation of community water fluoridation: differential impact by dental insurance status and geographic material deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Lindsay; McNeil, Deborah A; Potestio, Melissa; Patterson, Steve; Thawer, Salima; Faris, Peter; Shi, Congshi; Shwart, Luke

    2016-02-11

    One of the main arguments made in favor of community water fluoridation is that it is equitable in its impact on dental caries (i.e., helps to offset inequities in dental caries). Although an equitable effect of fluoridation has been demonstrated in cross-sectional studies, it has not been studied in the context of cessation of community water fluoridation (CWF). The objective of this study was to compare the socio-economic patterns of children's dental caries (tooth decay) in Calgary, Canada, in 2009/10 when CWF was in place, and in 2013/14, after it had been discontinued. We analyzed data from population-based samples of schoolchildren (grade 2) in 2009/10 and 2013/14. Data on dental caries (decayed, missing, and filled primary and permanent teeth) were gathered via open mouth exams conducted in schools by registered dental hygienists. We examined the association between dental caries and 1) presence/absence of dental insurance and 2) small area index of material deprivation, using Poisson (zero-inflated) and logistic regression, for both time points separately. For small-area material deprivation at each time point, we also computed the concentration index of inequality for each outcome variable. Statistically significant inequities by dental insurance status and by small area material deprivation were more apparent in 2013/14 than in 2009/10. Results are consistent with increasing inequities in dental caries following cessation of CWF. However, further research is needed to 1) confirm the effects in a study that includes a comparison community, and 2) explore possible alternative reasons for the findings, including changes in treatment and preventive programming.

  18. PENGARUH STRUKTUR KEPEMILIKAN DALAM MEKANISME CORPORATE GOVERNANCE TERHADAP COST OF EQUITY CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tarjo tarjo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance mechanisms believed to have strong impact to the companies’ performance. Corporate governance mechanisms examined in this study are managerial ownership and institutional ownership structure. The purposes of this study are to know the variables effect of managerial ownership and institutional ownership on cost of equity capital. The samples of the study are firms listed in Jakarta Stock Exchange in 2005. The F-test on the all variables at the level confidence 1% indicates the effect of all variables on cost of equity capital is significant. The result of this study showed that managerial ownership and institutional ownership have positive significant impact (at the level of confidence 1% and 5% on the cost of equity capital. However this result showed that corporate governance mechanisms fail to decrease the cost of equity capital.  Keywords: corporate governance, managerial ownership, institutional ownership, cost of equity capital.

  19. Discounting human lives: Uranium and global equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    Long-term, global environmental health risks complicate efforts to evaluate the efficiency and equity of economic activities from a public welfare perspective. This study sets out a practical framework based on the theory of neoclassical welfare economics for evaluating whether an economic activity yields such inefficient or inequitable net effects to justify government intervention from a variety of decision-making perspectives. It applies this empirical approach to the case of public policies that encouraged uranium production (the mining, milling, and refining of uranium ore) near Elliot Lake and Blind River in Northern Ontario. The analysis tests the two-fold hypothesis that if future negative externalities of production are considered along with past net effects, the these policies result in (1) an inefficient allocation of economic resources according to the potential Pareto criterion, and (2) an inequitable distribution of impacts according to Rawls' maximin criterion. The analytical framework to test these hypotheses has three parts: Risk-cost-benefit analysis, distributions analysis, and efficiency and equity analysis. Quantitative impacts are derived from empirical estimates of cost and benefit streams during 1956 to 1990, and modelled future cancer death costs. Net effects are aggregated to nine observations across three dimensions: Geographic, intergenerational, and social. Qualitative observations are provided about the boom-and-bust uranium economy, environmental burdens, and other unquantifiable impacts. The results illustrate how underlying normative assumptions overwhelm other aspects of efficiency and equity analyses of long-term, global environmental changes. These assumptions appear in discounting equations that ultimately derive from a priori allocations of rights to natural assets and corollary duties to protect such rights. More than two-thirds of the discounting scenarios yield inefficient outcomes and over ninety percent are inequitable

  20. Analyzing the impacts of final demand changes on total output using input-output approach: The case of Japanese ICT sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of final demand changes on total output of Japanese Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sectors in future time. This study employs one of analysis tool in Input-Output (IO) analysis, demand-pull IO quantity model, in achieving the purpose. There are three final demand changes used in this study, namely (1) export, (2) import, and (3) outside households consumption changes. This study focuses on "pure change" condition, the condition that final demand changes only appear in analyzed sectors. The results show that export and outside households consumption modifications give positive impact while opposite impact could be seen in import change.

  1. Health equity in Lebanon: a microeconomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad Firas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health sector in Lebanon suffers from high levels of spending and is acknowledged to be a source of fiscal waste. Lebanon initiated a series of health sector reforms which aim at containing the fiscal waste caused by high and inefficient public health expenditures. Yet these reforms do not address the issues of health equity in use and coverage of healthcare services, which appear to be acute. This paper takes a closer look at the micro-level inequities in the use of healthcare, in access, in ability to pay, and in some health outcomes. Methods We use data from the 2004/2005 Multi Purpose Survey of Households in Lebanon to conduct health equity analysis, including equity in need, access and outcomes. We briefly describe the data and explain some of its limitations. We examine, in turn, and using standardization techniques, the equity in health care utilization, the impact of catastrophic health payments on household wellbeing, the effect of health payment on household impoverishment, the equity implications of existing health financing methods, and health characteristics by geographical region. Results We find that the incidence of disability decreases steadily across expenditure quintiles, whereas the incidence of chronic disease shows the opposite pattern, which may be an indication of better diagnostics for higher quintiles. The presence of any health-related expenditure is regressive while the magnitude of out-of-pocket expenditures on health is progressive. Spending on health is found to be "normal" and income-elastic. Catastrophic health payments are likelier among disadvantaged groups (in terms of income, geography and gender. However, the cash amounts of catastrophic payments are progressive. Poverty is associated with lower insurance coverage for both private and public insurance. While the insured seem to spend an average of almost LL93,000 ($62 on health a year in excess of the uninsured, they devote a smaller

  2. The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act evaluation study: Impact on specialty behavioral healthcare utilization and spending among enrollees with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sarah; Xu, Haiyong; Harwood, Jessica M; Azocar, Francisca; Hurley, Brian; Ettner, Susan L

    2017-09-01

    The federal Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) sought to eliminate historical disparities between behavioral health and medical health insurance benefits among the commercially insured. This study determines whether MHPAEA was associated with increased BH expenditures and utilization among a population with substance use disorder (SUD) diagnoses. Claims and eligibility data from 5,987,776 enrollees, 2008-2013, were obtained from a national, commercial, managed behavioral health organization. An interrupted time series study design with segmented regression analysis estimated time trends of per-member-per-month (PMPM) spending and use before (2008-2009), during (2010), and after (2011-2013) MHPAEA compliance. The study sample contained individuals with drug or alcohol use disorder diagnosis during study period (N=2,716,473 member-month observations). Outcomes included: total, plan, patient out-of-pocket spending; outpatient utilization (assessment/diagnostic evaluation visits; medication management; individual, group and family psychotherapy, and structured outpatient care); intermediate care utilization (day treatment; recovery home and residential); and inpatient utilization. Starting at the beginning of the post-parity period, MHPAEA was associated with increased levels of PMPM total and plan spending ($25.80 [p=0.01]; $28.33 [p=0.00], respectively), as well as the number of PMPM assessment/evaluation, individual psychotherapy, and group psychotherapy visits, and inpatient days (0.01 visits [p=0.01]; 0.02 visits [p=0.01]; 0.01 visits [p=0.03]; 0.01days [p=0.01], respectively). Following these initial level changes, MHPAEA was also associated with monthly increases in PMPM total, plan, and patent out-of-pocket spending ($2.56/month [p=0.00]; $2.25/month [p=0.00]; $0.27 [p=0.03], respectively), as well as structured outpatient visits and inpatient days (0.0012 visits/month [p=0.01]; 0.0012days/month [p=0.00]). MHPAEA was associated with modest

  3. Priorización y análisis de problemas de salud con una mirada desde la equidad: experiencia en el nivel local en Venezuela Approaches to determine priorities and to analyze problems of health with a look from the equity: experience in the local level in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Heredia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la aplicación del momento explicativo de la Planificación Estratégica Situacional (PES y el Análisis de la Situación de Salud (ASIS, como enfoques que conjugados permiten priorizar con una mirada desde la equidad problemas de salud en el nivel local factibles de intervención. A través del estudio de un caso desarrollado en la parroquia Zuata del Estado Aragua, Venezuela, se presenta la aplicación de ambos enfoques. Los actores claves de dicha parroquia priorizaron la baja cobertura de agua potable, como problema de salud. Al analizar el problema se seleccionaron las siguientes causas claves para elaborar la propuesta de acción: escasa participación comunitaria, debilidad de planes gubernamentales, ausencia de políticas urbanísticas, inadecuada administración de los recursos públicos y poca conciencia en el uso racional del agua. Al final se concluye que la articulación PES-ASIS contribuye a generar insumos que concretizados por los actores en un plan de acción, pueden contribuir en la reducción de inequidades. Asimismo, la participación activa de los actores permite evidenciar los problemas reales de la población y construir un plan de demandas.This article analyzes the application of the explanatory moment of the Strategic Situational Planning (SSP and the Analysis of the Situation of Health (ASIS, as approaches that together, allow to prioritize with a look from the equity problems of health in the local level feasible of intervention. By using the case study developed in the parish Zuata of Aragua State, Venezuela, it can be observed the application of both approaches The main actors of the above mentioned parish prioritized the low coverage of drinkable water, like a health problem. On having analyzed the problem, the following causes were selected to prepare the proposed action: scarce community participation, weakness of governmental plans, absence of political town-planning, inadequate

  4. The Fine Structure of Equity-Index Option Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben G.; Bondarenko, Oleg; Todorov, Viktor

    We analyze the high-frequency dynamics of S&P 500 equity-index option prices by constructing an assortment of implied volatility measures. This allows us to infer the underlying fine structure behind the innovations in the latent state variables driving the movements of the volatility surface...

  5. Equity Audit: A Teacher Leadership Tool for Nurturing Teacher Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    View, Jenice L.; DeMulder, Elizabeth; Stribling, Stacia; Dodman, Stephanie; Ra, Sophia; Hall, Beth; Swalwell, Katy

    2016-01-01

    This is a three-part essay featuring six teacher educators and one classroom teacher researcher. Part one describes faculty efforts to build curriculum for teacher research, scaffold the research process, and analyze outcomes. Part two shares one teacher researcher's experience using an equity audit tool in several contexts: her teaching practice,…

  6. Social innovation for the promotion of health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Chris; Barraket, Jo; Friel, Sharon; O'Rourke, Kerryn; Stenta, Christian-Paul

    2015-09-01

    The role of social innovations in transforming the lives of individuals and communities has been a source of popular attention in recent years. This article systematically reviews the available evidence of the relationship between social innovation and its promotion of health equity. Guided by Fair Foundations: The VicHealth framework for health equity and examining four types of social innovation--social movements, service-related social innovations, social enterprise and digital social innovations--we find a growing literature on social innovation activities, but inconsistent evaluative evidence of their impacts on health equities, particularly at the socio-economic, political and cultural level of the framework. Distinctive characteristics of social innovations related to the promotion of health equity include the mobilization of latent or unrealised value through new combinations of (social, cultural and material) resources; growing bridging social capital and purposeful approaches to linking individual knowledge and experience to institutional change. These have implications for health promotion practice and for research about social innovation and health equity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Equity financing constraints and corporate capital structure:a model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengwei Wang; Wuxiang Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose-The "supply-side effect" brought about by the imperfection of the capital market has increasingly been concerned.The purpose of this paper is to study how will the uncertainty of equity financing brought about by the equity financing regulations in emerging capital market affect company's capital structure decisions.Design/methodology/approach-This paper establishes a theoretical model and tries to introduce equity financing uncertainty into the company's capital structure decision-making.The paper uses mathematical derivation method to get some basic conclusions.Next,in order to characterize the quantitative impact of specific factor on capital structure,numerical solution methods are used.Findings-The model shows that firm's value would decrease with the uncertainty of equity financing,because of the relationship between firm's future cash and their financing policies.The numerical solution of the model suggests that the uncertainty of equity financing is one of the important factors affecting the choice of optimal capital structure,the greater the uncertainty is,the lower optimal capital structure is.Originality/value-The research of this paper has certain academic value for further understanding of the issues.

  8. The Effect of Brand Equity and Prodcut Quality Toward Consumer's Purchase Decision (Case Study: J.co Donuts & Coffee Manado)

    OpenAIRE

    Kiling, Christika; Tumewu, Ferdinand F. J

    2017-01-01

    Purchasing decisions are in the stage of the buyer decision-making process in which consumer actually buy. Some of the factors that influence consumer purchase decisions are brand equity and product quality. This research aimed to analyze simultaneously and partially effect of brand equity and product quality toward consumer purchase decision of J.CO Donuts & Coffee Manado. Theories supporting research are brand equity, product quality and purchase decision. The population refers to J.CO Donu...

  9. Evaluating Value Chain Development Programs: Assessing Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Equity Effects of Contract Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.

    2015-01-01

    Provides insights regarding the possible procedures for assessing welfare, efficiency, and equity effects of value chain development (VCD) programs, taking advantage of available analytical tools derived from impact analysis, transaction cost theory, and contract choice approaches and briefly

  10. Interstellar Sweat Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. H.; Becker, R. E.; O'Donnell, D. J.; Brody, A. R.

    So, you have just launched aboard the Starship, headed to an exoplanet light years from Earth. You will spend the rest of your natural life on this journey in the expectation and hope that your grandchildren will arrive safely, land, and build a new settlement. You will need to govern the community onboard the Starship. This system of governance must meet unique requirements for participation, representation, and decision-making. On a spaceship that can fly and operate by itself, what will the crewmembers do for their generations in transit? Certainly, they will train and train again to practice the skills they will need upon arrival at a new world. However, this vicarious practice neither suffices to prepare the future pioneers for their destiny at a new star nor will it provide them with the satisfaction in their own work. To hone the crewmembers' inventive and technical skills, to challenge and prepare them for pioneering, the crew would build and expand the interstellar ship in transit. This transstellar ``sweat equity'' gives a stake in the enterprise to all the people, providing meaningful and useful activity to the new generations of crewmembers. They build all the new segments of the vessel from raw materials - including atmosphere - stored on board. Construction of new pressure shell modules would be one option, but they also reconstruct or fill-in existing pressurized volumes. The crew makes new life support system components and develops new agricultural modules in anticipation of their future needs. Upon arrival at the new star or planet, the crew shall apply these robustly developed skills and self-sufficient spirit to their new home.

  11. Brand Equity of a Tourist Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Kyung Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current climate of severe competition among tourist destinations, the importance of brand equity in tourism marketing is increasing. This study looks at the impact of branding in relation to the largest group of inbound overseas tourists to South Korea, the Chinese. Data for the current study were obtained from a survey of tourists visiting Seoul from the Greater China region, including Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, and the Chinese living in Southeast Asia. The survey was conducted in popular sightseeing spots, four and five-star hotels in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, and the Incheon International Airport. The respondents were selected randomly, with effort expended to avoid any potential bias in the composition of the sample. Out of a total of 385 distributed questionnaires, 350 (China 191, Hong Kong 71, Taiwan 68, others 20 were selected as valid and finally used in the analysis. The results of this study suggest that price and word of mouth have beneficial effects on perceived quality, publicity, and brand awareness, and advertisement has beneficial effects on brand image. We also found that brand awareness and perceived quality have impacts on brand image, and brand image is related to brand loyalty. This is a pioneering study on the relationships between influencing factors, destination brand equity and its elements, and brand loyalty, with respect to Seoul, South Korea, as a tourism destination for tourists from China.

  12. How brand personality, brand identification and service quality influence service brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Correia Loureiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past couple of decades, brand equity has emerged as one of the key concepts in marketing. Literature concerned with consumer brand relationship is calling for more studies in order to increase understanding of brand equity dimensions. Therefore, this study aims to contribute to the existing body of knowledge by examining the strength of relational variables on brand equity perceived by consumers. Findings support the proposed model in the service industry revealing that brand loyalty, brand identification, trust, brand personality and brand awareness are the variables that have a greatest impact on brand equity. Thus, this study is the first to measure the strength of assorted relational variables, and variables related with identification and personality on brand equity for brands in the service industry. In this vein, brand managers should be aware of the importance of building a brand regarding the way they communicate the features of the brand.

  13. International For-Profit Investments in Microfinance Institutions Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodriguez Monroy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this document is to review the funding options for Microfinance Institutions (MFIs, define the size of the holdings of international investors in MFI equity and in particular the MFIs listed in stock exchanges, analyze the characteristics of these subset of the financial world and study the stock exchange evolution of some listed MFIs amid the financial crisis. Design/methodology/approach: Since academic literature on listed MFI equity is virtually inexistent, most of the information has been obtained from the World Bank, annual accounts of the listed MFIs, stock exchanges and from equity research documents. Findings and Originality/value: Microfinance Institutions share several common characteristics that make them a resilient business and the few MFIs that are listed in stock exchanges seem to have performed better in the financial crisis. Microfinance can be considered as one of the new frontiers of the expansion of the global banking industry. Practical implications: Presently, international for-profit investors have very few ways of investing in microfinance equity. Most of the equity of the MFI equity is funded locally or thanks to the local public sector. The stock exchange listing of the MFIs should drive MFIs towards a more professional management, more transparency and better governance. Social implications: Microfinance Institutions provide credit to microenterprises in poor countries that have no other alternative sources of external capital to expand its activity. If global investors could easily invest in the listed equity of the MFIs these institutions would expand its lending books and would improve its governance, part of the population living in poor areas or with lower income could ameliorate its standard of living. Originality/value: The number of Microfinance Institutions that are professionally run like commercial banks is still scarce and even more scarce are the MFI listed in public stock exchanges

  14. Equity effects of economic instruments for greenhouse gas abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, D. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the equity effects of using economic instruments--such as a carbon tax or carbon emissions trading program--to regulate greenhouse gas emissions. Determining these equity effects is more complicated than assessing overall costs and benefits, although some of the same issues arise. Among the key issues are the following: (1) benchmark for evaluating impacts of economic instruments (status quo or regulatory program that achieves the same emission reductions); (2) use of any government revenues collected, which are transfers overall but affect gains and losses; (3) time period (long-term or transitional impacts); and (4) groupings (income groups, sectors or regions). Empirical studies suggest that a national tax is regressive in the US but may be less so in other countries. The equity impacts of an international carbon tax or emissions trading program differ greatly depending upon the specific elements. The paper considers options to compensate or mitigate adverse effects to income groups, sectors, or regions of the world. Although impossible to avoid all losses to every group, it would be possible to avoid major equity effects if carbon taxes or carbon trading programs were used to control global warming

  15. Transient analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The design and design philosophy of a high performance, extremely versatile transient analyzer is described. This sub-system was designed to be controlled through the data acquisition computer system which allows hands off operation. Thus it may be placed on the experiment side of the high voltage safety break between the experimental device and the control room. This analyzer provides control features which are extremely useful for data acquisition from PPPL diagnostics. These include dynamic sample rate changing, which may be intermixed with multiple post trigger operations with variable length blocks using normal, peak to peak or integrate modes. Included in the discussion are general remarks on the advantages of adding intelligence to transient analyzers, a detailed description of the characteristics of the PPPL transient analyzer, a description of the hardware, firmware, control language and operation of the PPPL transient analyzer, and general remarks on future trends in this type of instrumentation both at PPPL and in general

  16. Determinants and Equity Evaluation for Health Expenditure Among Patients with Rare Diseases in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiao-Xiong; Zhao, Liang; Guan, Xiao-Dong; Shi, Lu-Wen

    2016-06-20

    China has not established social security system for rare diseases. Rare diseases could easily impoverish patients and their families. Little research has studied the equity and accessibility of health services for patients with rare diseases in China. This study aimed to explore the factors that influence health expenditure of rare diseases and evaluate its equity. Questionnaire survey about living conditions and cost burden of patients with rare diseases was conducted. Individual and family information, health expenditure and reimbursement in 2014 of 982 patients were collected. The impact of medical insurance, individual sociodemographic characteristics, family characteristics, and healthcare need on total and out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures was analyzed through the generalized linear model. Equity of health expenditure was evaluated by both concentration index and Lorenz curve. Of all the surveyed patients, 11.41% had no medical insurance and 92.10% spent money to seek medical treatment in 2014. It was suggested female (P = 0.048), over 50 years of age (P = 0.062), high-income group (P = 0.021), hospitalization (P = 0.000), and reimbursement ratio (RR) (P = 0.000) were positively correlated with total health expenditure. Diseases not needing long-term treatment (P = 0.000) was negatively correlated with total health expenditure. Over 50 years of age (P = 0.065), high-income group (P = 0.018), hospitalization (P = 0.000) and having Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) (P = 0.022) were positively correlated with OOP health expenditure. Patient or the head of the household having received higher education (P = 0.044 and P = 0.081) and reimbursement ratio (P = 0.078) were negatively correlated with OOP health expenditure. The equity evaluation found concentration indexes of health expenditure before and after reimbursement were 0.0550 and 0.0539, respectively. OOP health expenditure of patients with UEBMI was significantly more than that of

  17. Swimming against the tide: A Canadian qualitative study examining the implementation of a province-wide public health initiative to address health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Charmaine; Ndumbe-Eyoh, Sume; Betker, Claire; Oickle, Dianne; Peroff-Johnston, Nancy

    2016-08-19

    Effectively addressing the social determinants of health and health equity are critical yet still-emerging areas of public health practice. This is significant for contemporary practice as the egregious impacts of health inequities on health outcomes continue to be revealed. More public health organizations seek to augment internal organizational capacity to address health equity while the evidence base to inform such leadership is in its infancy. The purpose of this paper is to report on findings of a study examining key factors influencing the development and implementation of the social determinants of health public health nurse (SDH-PHN) role in Ontario, Canada. A descriptive qualitative case study approach examined the first Canadian province-wide initiative to add SDH-PHNs to each public health unit. Data sources were documents and staff from public health units (i.e., SDH-PHNs, Managers, Directors, Chief Nursing Officers, Medical Officers of Health) as well as external stakeholders. Data were collected through 42 individual interviews and 226 documents. Interview data were analyzed using framework analysis methods; Prior's approach guided document analysis. Three themes related to the SDH-PHN role implementation were identified: (1) 'Swimming against the tide' to lead change as staff navigated ideological tensions, competency development, and novel collaborations; (2) Shifting organizational practice environments impacted by initial role placement and action to structurally embed health equity priorities; and (3) Bridging policy implementation gaps related to local-provincial implementation and reporting expectations. This study extends our understanding of the dynamic interplay among leadership, change management, ideological tensions, and local-provincial public health policy impacting health equity agendas. Given that the social determinants of health lie outside public health, collaboration with communities, health partners and non-health partners is

  18. Analyzing the environmental impact of transportation in reengineered supply chains: a case study from a leather upholstery company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazan, Devrim Murat; Yazan, Devrim; Petruzzelli, Antonio Messeni; Albino, Vito

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of process disaggregation and specialization on the environmental performance of the supply chain of a leather upholstery company. An enterprise input–output model that relates geographical information with production processes and transportation routes is developed.

  19. The impact of pancreas and kidney transplant on cardiovascular risk factors (analyzed by mode of immunosuppression and exocrine drainage).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davenport, Colin

    2011-04-06

    The aim of this study was to determine the cardiovascular (CV) risk factor response in Irish patients with type 1 diabetes following simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK), analyzing response based on mode of immunosuppression and surgical drainage in a uniquely homogenous population.

  20. Can rural health insurance improve equity in health care utilization? a comparison between China and Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaoyun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Health care financing reforms in both China and Vietnam have resulted in greater financial difficulties in accessing health care, especially for the rural poor. Both countries have been developing rural health insurance for decades. This study aims to evaluate and compare equity in access to health care in rural health insurance system in the two countries. Methods Household survey and qualitative study were conducted in 6 counties in China and 4 districts in Vietnam. Health insurance policy and its impact on utilization of outpatient and inpatient service were analyzed and compared to measure equity in access to health care. Results In China, Health insurance membership had no significant impact on outpatient service utilization, while was associated with higher utilization of inpatient services, especially for the higher income group. Health insurance members in Vietnam had higher utilization rates of both outpatient and inpatient services than the non-members, with higher use among the lower than higher income groups. Qualitative results show that bureaucratic obstacles, low reimbursement rates, and poor service quality were the main barriers for members to use health insurance. Conclusions China has achieved high population coverage rate over a short time period, starting with a limited benefit package. However, poor people have less benefit from NCMS in terms of health service utilization. Compared to China, Vietnam health insurance system is doing better in equity in health service utilization within the health insurance members. However with low population coverage, a large proportion of population cannot enjoy the health insurance benefit. Mutual learning would help China and Vietnam address these challenges, and improve their policy design to promote equitable and sustainable health insurance.

  1. Can rural health insurance improve equity in health care utilization? a comparison between China and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Health care financing reforms in both China and Vietnam have resulted in greater financial difficulties in accessing health care, especially for the rural poor. Both countries have been developing rural health insurance for decades. This study aims to evaluate and compare equity in access to health care in rural health insurance system in the two countries. Methods Household survey and qualitative study were conducted in 6 counties in China and 4 districts in Vietnam. Health insurance policy and its impact on utilization of outpatient and inpatient service were analyzed and compared to measure equity in access to health care. Results In China, Health insurance membership had no significant impact on outpatient service utilization, while was associated with higher utilization of inpatient services, especially for the higher income group. Health insurance members in Vietnam had higher utilization rates of both outpatient and inpatient services than the non-members, with higher use among the lower than higher income groups. Qualitative results show that bureaucratic obstacles, low reimbursement rates, and poor service quality were the main barriers for members to use health insurance. Conclusions China has achieved high population coverage rate over a short time period, starting with a limited benefit package. However, poor people have less benefit from NCMS in terms of health service utilization. Compared to China, Vietnam health insurance system is doing better in equity in health service utilization within the health insurance members. However with low population coverage, a large proportion of population cannot enjoy the health insurance benefit. Mutual learning would help China and Vietnam address these challenges, and improve their policy design to promote equitable and sustainable health insurance. PMID:22376290

  2. Framework for Evaluation of Equity Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexley, Emmaline; Harris, Kerri-Lee; James, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Framework for Evaluation of Equity Initiatives has been prepared to support the Go8 Equity Strategy. Its purpose is to assist Group of Eight (Go8) universities to evaluate the effectiveness of their equity initiatives and interventions in the context of federal policies and the distinctive missions and responsibilities of the individual Go8…

  3. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by usi...

  4. Advertising non-premium products as if they were premium: The impact of advertising up on advertising elasticity and brand equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guitart, I.A. (Ivan A.); Gonzalez, J. (Jorge); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractNon-premium brands occasionally emulate their premium counterparts by using ads that emphasize premium characteristics such as superior performance and exclusivity. We define this practice as “advertising up” and develop hypotheses about its short- and long-term impact on advertising

  5. Equity Gauge Zambia : Enhancing Governance, Equity and Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... identifying strategies for and indicators of equitable community participation; refining a ... Human resources for health in Zambia : equity and health system strengthening; some local perspectives (IDRC lunch hour discussion, Ottawa, 22 Mar. ... and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.

  6. Shareowners' Equity at Campbell Soup: How Can Equity Be Negative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrman, Mary Beth; Stuerke, Pamela S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an instructional case based on the 2001 annual report of the Campbell Soup Company (CPB). During that year, CPB's shareowners' equity went from a surplus of USD137 million to a deficit of USD247 million. The analysis will allow students to determine that the change resulted from borrowing to purchase treasury stock. Students…

  7. Analyzing the impact of theft and vandalism in relation to the sustainability of renewable energy development projects in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikejemba, Eugene C.X.; Schuur, Peter C.

    2018-01-01

    Theft and vandalism impede the sustainability of renewable energy (RE) development projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, it is essential to explore where these crimes originate from, how they propagate and how they can be counteracted. In our study, we analyze the impact of these disturbances

  8. Using game theory to analyze green stormwater infrastructure implementation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, R. K.; Garg, J.; Stillwell, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    While green stormwater infrastructure is a useful approach in addressing multiple challenges facing the urban environment, little consensus exists on how to best incentivize its adoption by private landowners. Game theory, a field of study designed to model conflict and cooperation between two or more agents, is well-suited to address this policy question. We used a cooperative game theory framework to analyze the impacts of three different policy approaches frequently used to incentivize the uptake of green infrastructure by private landowners: municipal regulation, direct grants, and stormwater fees. The results indicate that municipal regulation leads to the greatest environmental benefits; however, the choice of "best" regulatory approach is dependent on a variety of different factors including political and financial considerations. Policy impacts are also highly dependent on agents' spatial positions within the stormwater network. This finding leads to important questions of social equity and environmental justice.

  9. Analyzing the impacts of final demand changes on total output using input-output approach: The case of Japanese ICT sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of final demand changes on total output of Japanese Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sectors in future time. This study employs one of analysis tool in Input-Output (IO) analysis, demand-pull IO quantity model, in achieving the purpose. There are three final demand changes used in this study, namely (1) export, (2) import, and (3) outside households consumption changes. This study focuses on ''pure change'' condition, the condition that final demand changes only appear in analyzed sectors. The results show that export and outside households consumption modifications give positive impact while opposite impact could be seen in import change

  10. The Factor Structure in Equity Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Fournier, Mathieu; Jacobs, Kris

    Principal component analysis of equity options on Dow-Jones firms reveals a strong factor structure. The first principal component explains 77% of the variation in the equity volatility level, 77% of the variation in the equity option skew, and 60% of the implied volatility term structure across...... equities. Furthermore, the first principal component has a 92% correlation with S&P500 index option volatility, a 64% correlation with the index option skew, and a 80% correlation with the index option term structure. We develop an equity option valuation model that captures this factor structure...

  11. Analyzing the impact of global financial crisis on the interconnectedness of Asian stock markets using network science

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra Aswani

    2015-01-01

    As importance of Asian Stock Markets (ASM) has increased after the globalization, it is become significant to know how this network of ASM behaves on the onset of financial crises. For this study, the Global Financial Crisis is considered whose origin was in the developed country, US, unlike the Asian crisis of 1997. To evaluate the impact of financial crisis on the ASM, network theory is used as a tool here. Network modeling of stock markets is useful as it can help to avert the spillover of...

  12. Consumer Learning and Brand Equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.J. van Osselaer (Stijn); J.W. Alba (Joseph)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractA series of experiments illustrates a learning process that enhances brand equity at the expense of quality-determining attributes. When the relationship between brand name and product quality is learned prior to the relationship between product attributes and quality, inhibition of the

  13. Private Equity and Regulatory Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; Charlier, E.

    2008-01-01

    Regulatory Capital requirements for European banks have been put forward in the Basel II Capital Framework and subsequently in the Capital Requirements Directive (CRD) of the EU. We provide a detailed discussion of the capital requirements for private equity investments under the simple risk weight

  14. Style drift in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less

  15. Taxes and gender equity

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Brenda Battisti

    One-pagers are a publication of IDRC's “Globalization, Growth and Poverty” Program Initiative, and are based on ... While taxation offers a means to reduce socio-economic inequality, little is known about its impacts on gender disparities.

  16. The trade-off between trips and distance travelled in analyzing the emissions impacts of center-based telecommuting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtarian, P.L. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Institute of Transportation Studies; Varma, K.V. [Decision Focus Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Several travel indicators were compared between telecommuting (TC) days and non-telecommuting days for a sample of 72 center-based telecommuters in California. Distance travelled decreased significantly on TC days, with average reductions of 51 person-miles (58%) and 35 vehicle-miles (53%). When weighted by telecommuting frequency, average reductions of 11.9% in PMT and 11.5% in VMT were found over a five-day work week. Person-trips and vehicle-trips increased slightly (but not significantly) on TC days. Despite the increase in trip rates, TC-day reductions were found for all pollutants analyzed: 15% for total organic gas emissions, 21% for carbon monoxide, 35% for oxides of nitrogen, and 51% for particulate matter. (author)

  17. A study on the effects of sales related factors on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of sales related factors on brand equity. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among all 353 sales representatives who work for a dairy producer in province of Mazandaran, Iran. Using principal component analysis, seven variables including qualification criteria, motivation, personality, empowering sales representative, information size, personal characteristics and sales interest in job on brand equity are extracted. The implementation of structural equation modeling has confirmed that there were positive and meaningful relationships between seven factors and brand equity. The highest impact belongs to empowering sales representative followed by qualification criteria, quantity of information, personality and sales motivation.

  18. Differentiation, international equity and efficiency in the fight against the global climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, O.; Criqui, P.; Viguier, L.; Trommetter, M.

    1998-05-01

    The first difficulty to get over in the international negotiation on the climatic change, has been and still remain the distribution of the efforts and the research of the equity in the objective determination. This paper analyzes the possible consequences of the negotiable emission licenses in terms of efficiency and equity. The first part is a review of the different charts of the objectives differentiation discussed or proposed in the international negotiation process on the greenhouse effect. It aims to find a bond between the the charts and the equity. The second part deals with the programs cost and their relative efficiency, taking into account the marginal cost curves. (A.L.B.)

  19. The impact of targeted subsidies for facility-based delivery on access to care and equity - evidence from a population-based study in rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Allegri, Manuela; Ridde, Valéry; Louis, Valérie R; Sarker, Malabika; Tiendrebéogo, Justin; Yé, Maurice; Müller, Olaf; Jahn, Albrecht

    2012-11-01

    We conducted the first population-based impact assessment of a financing policy introduced in Burkina Faso in 2007 on women's access to delivery services. The policy offers an 80 per cent subsidy for facility-based delivery. We collected information on delivery in five repeated cross-sectional surveys carried out from 2006 to 2010 on a representative sample of 1050 households in rural Nouna Health District. Over the 5 years, the proportion of facility-based deliveries increased from 49 to 84 per cent (Ptariff of 900 CFA. Our findings indicate the operational effectiveness of the policy in increasing the use of facility-based delivery services for women. The potential to reduce maternal mortality substantially has not yet been assessed by health outcome measures of neonatal and maternal mortality.

  20. Zebrafish: a model animal for analyzing the impact of environmental pollutants on muscle and brain mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Rossignol, R; Brèthes, D

    2013-01-01

    Mercury, anthropogenic release of uranium (U), and nanoparticles constitute hazardous environmental pollutants able to accumulate along the aquatic food chain with severe risk for animal and human health. The impact of such pollutants on living organisms has been up to now approached by classical toxicology in which huge doses of toxic compounds, environmentally irrelevant, are displayed through routes that never occur in the lifespan of organisms (for instance injecting a bolus of mercury to an animal although the main route is through prey and fish eating). We wanted to address the effect of such pollutants on the muscle and brain mitochondrial bioenergetics under realistic conditions, at unprecedented low doses, using an aquatic model animal, the zebrafish Danio rerio. We developed an original method to measure brain mitochondrial respiration: a single brain was put in 1.5 mL conical tube containing a respiratory buffer. Brains were gently homogenized by 13 strokes with a conical plastic pestle, and the homogenates were immediately used for respiration measurements. Skinned muscle fibers were prepared by saponin permeabilization. Zebrafish were contaminated with food containing 13 μg of methylmercury (MeHg)/g, an environmentally relevant dose. In permeabilized muscle fibers, we observed a strong inhibition of both state 3 mitochondrial respiration and cytochrome c oxidase activity after 49 days of MeHg exposure. We measured a dramatic decrease in the rate of ATP release by skinned muscle fibers. Contrarily to muscles, brain mitochondrial respiration was not modified by MeHg exposure although brain accumulated twice as much MeHg than muscles. When zebrafish were exposed to 30 μg/L of waterborne U, the basal mitochondrial respiratory control ratio was decreased in muscles after 28 days of exposure. This was due to an increase of the inner mitochondrial membrane permeability. The impact of a daily ration of food containing gold nanoparticles of two sizes (12 and

  1. Radiometric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, S.; Oda, M.; Miyashita, K.; Takada, M.

    1977-01-01

    A radiometric analyzer for measuring the characteristic values of a sample by radiation includes a humer of radiation measuring subsystems having different ratios of sensitivities to the elements of the sample and linearizing circuits having inverse function characteristics of calibration functions which correspond to the radiation measuring subsystems. A weighing adder operates a desirable linear combination of the outputs of the linearizing circuits. Operators for operating between two or more different linear combinations are included

  2. Does environmental impact assessment really support technological change? Analyzing alternatives to coal-fired power stations in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.; Hvelplund, F.

    1997-01-01

    Danish energy policy calls for development of decentralized, cleaner technologies to replace conventional power stations and, since 1990, aims to reduce CO 2 emissions in 2005 to 20% below their 1988 level. These political goals require a technological change, from conventional, central power stations to cleaner, decentralized technologies such as energy conservation, cogeneration, and renewable energy. In principle, environmental impact assessment (EIA) supports this change on a project-by-project basis. The EU directive on EIA was based on the preventive principle: to eliminate pollution source rather than attempting to counteract it subsequently. According to the Danish implementation of the directive, an EIA must review a project's main alternatives and the environmental consequences of the alternatives. If this were done properly, EIAs could assist Denmark in meeting its CO 2 reduction goals. However, because EIA is implemented on a restricted, regional basis, it does not support technological change. Responsibility for the preparation of the EIA is given to the regional authorities through a law which does not require alternatives to be assessed that extend geographically beyond the boundaries of a regional authority. Thus, there is no certainty of serious analysis of cleaner technology alternatives to large coal-fired power stations. This conclusion is based on examination of three case studies using a participatory research method

  3. Impact of SO(2) on Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptome in wildtype and sulfite oxidase knockout plants analyzed by RNA deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamisch, Domenica; Randewig, Dörte; Schliesky, Simon; Bräutigam, Andrea; Weber, Andreas P M; Geffers, Robert; Herschbach, Cornelia; Rennenberg, Heinz; Mendel, Ralf R; Hänsch, Robert

    2012-12-01

    High concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO(2) ) as an air pollutant, and its derivative sulfite, cause abiotic stress that can lead to cell death. It is currently unknown to what extent plant fumigation triggers specific transcriptional responses. To address this question, and to test the hypothesis that sulfite oxidase (SO) is acting in SO(2) detoxification, we compared Arabidopsis wildtype (WT) and SO knockout lines (SO-KO) facing the impact of 600 nl l(-1) SO(2) , using RNAseq to quantify absolute transcript abundances. These transcriptome data were correlated to sulfur metabolism-related enzyme activities and metabolites obtained from identical samples in a previous study. SO-KO plants exhibited remarkable and broad regulative responses at the mRNA level, especially in transcripts related to sulfur metabolism enzymes, but also in those related to stress response and senescence. Focusing on SO regulation, no alterations were detectable in the WT, whereas in SO-KO plants we found up-regulation of two splice variants of the SO gene, although this gene is not functional in this line. Our data provide evidence for the highly specific coregulation between SO and sulfur-related enzymes like APS reductase, and suggest two novel candidates for involvement in SO(2) detoxification: an apoplastic peroxidase, and defensins as putative cysteine mass storages. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Statistical modeling methods to analyze the impacts of multiunit process variability on critical quality attributes of Chinese herbal medicine tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Yi; Dai, Shengyun; Yang, Chan; Cui, Xianglong; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-01-01

    The quality of Chinese herbal medicine tablets suffers from batch-to-batch variability due to a lack of manufacturing process understanding. In this paper, the Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) immediate release tablet was taken as the research subject. By defining the dissolution of five active pharmaceutical ingredients and the tablet tensile strength as critical quality attributes (CQAs), influences of both the manipulated process parameters introduced by an orthogonal experiment design and the intermediate granules' properties on the CQAs were fully investigated by different chemometric methods, such as the partial least squares, the orthogonal projection to latent structures, and the multiblock partial least squares (MBPLS). By analyzing the loadings plots and variable importance in the projection indexes, the granule particle sizes and the minimal punch tip separation distance in tableting were identified as critical process parameters. Additionally, the MBPLS model suggested that the lubrication time in the final blending was also important in predicting tablet quality attributes. From the calculated block importance in the projection indexes, the tableting unit was confirmed to be the critical process unit of the manufacturing line. The results demonstrated that the combinatorial use of different multivariate modeling methods could help in understanding the complex process relationships as a whole. The output of this study can then be used to define a control strategy to improve the quality of the PNS immediate release tablet.

  5. Statistical modeling methods to analyze the impacts of multiunit process variability on critical quality attributes of Chinese herbal medicine tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Yi; Dai, Shengyun; Yang, Chan; Cui, Xianglong; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-01-01

    The quality of Chinese herbal medicine tablets suffers from batch-to-batch variability due to a lack of manufacturing process understanding. In this paper, the Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) immediate release tablet was taken as the research subject. By defining the dissolution of five active pharmaceutical ingredients and the tablet tensile strength as critical quality attributes (CQAs), influences of both the manipulated process parameters introduced by an orthogonal experiment design and the intermediate granules’ properties on the CQAs were fully investigated by different chemometric methods, such as the partial least squares, the orthogonal projection to latent structures, and the multiblock partial least squares (MBPLS). By analyzing the loadings plots and variable importance in the projection indexes, the granule particle sizes and the minimal punch tip separation distance in tableting were identified as critical process parameters. Additionally, the MBPLS model suggested that the lubrication time in the final blending was also important in predicting tablet quality attributes. From the calculated block importance in the projection indexes, the tableting unit was confirmed to be the critical process unit of the manufacturing line. The results demonstrated that the combinatorial use of different multivariate modeling methods could help in understanding the complex process relationships as a whole. The output of this study can then be used to define a control strategy to improve the quality of the PNS immediate release tablet. PMID:27932865

  6. Analysis Brazilian preference shares: financial liabilities or equity instruments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lucia de Almeida

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian preference shares, in general, except when they present specific features, such as mandatory redemption and cumulative dividends, meet the accounting definition of equity instruments. However, the scientific literature believes that those shares that do not have discretion to avoid the delivery of cash must be classified as financial liabilities. In a context in which remain differences of understanding of their proper accounting treatment, the following question arises: preferred shares of Brazilian companies are being recognized in the financial statements in accordance with the theoretical and normative precepts? Thus, the aim of this study is to verify if the preference shares of Brazilian companies have been recognized in the financial statements for according to the scientific literature and accounting standards. Through content analysis, we analyzed the information of 157 companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA. The results show that 155 companies classify its preference shares as equity instruments and two as financial liabilities. These two companies, as well as 149 of those which qualify as equity instruments, are treating them properly in its accounting. The other six companies should present its preference shares as liabilities, given the absence of discretion to avoid cash delivery, feature present in financial liabilities, unlike equity instruments. It is noticed that, unlike what happens, for instance, in the US market, it is not possible to classify all Brazilian preference shares as a financial liability, since, in Brazil , they are used in different legal format of those widely found in that market. Moreover, almost all of the analyzed shares have essential features for classification as equity instruments. Hence, the importance of analysis of the economic essence of each instrument, thus, enabling the appropriate accounting treatment in the financial statements.

  7. Medical tourism's impact on health care equity and access in low- and middle-income countries: making the case for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y Y Brandon; Flood, Colleen M

    2013-01-01

    There is currently an evidentiary gap in the scholarship concerning medical tourism's impact on low- and middle-income destination countries (LMICs). This article reviews relevant evidence that exists and concludes that there are signs of correlation between medical tourism and the expansion of private, technology- intensive health care in LMICs, which has largely remained out of reach for the majority of the local patients. In light of this health care inequity between local residents and medical tourists in LMICs, we argue that the presumption should not be in favor of medical tourism and that governments have a legitimate interest in seeking to regulate this industry to ensure that the net effects for their citizens is positive. Moreover, sending countries, particularly those in the developed world, have the responsibility to adopt public policies to diminish demand on the part of their citizens for medical tourism and to work with LMICs to ensure that the growth of medical tourism does not occur at the expense of the poorest of the poor. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  8. Impact of dehydration and fasting on intraocular pressure and corneal biomechanics measured by the Ocular Response Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Betul Seher; Duru, Necati; Ozen, Umut; Arikan Yorgun, Mucella; Akcay, Emine; Caglayan, Mehtap; Cagil, Nurullah

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effects of dehydration and fasting on the intraocular pressure (IOP) and corneal biomechanics during Ramadan in healthy subjects. A total of 36 healthy fasting male volunteers with a mean age of 32.7 ± 5.1 years (range 28-38 years) were enrolled in the study. A Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) was used to measure the corneal resistance factor (CRF), corneal hysteresis (CH), Goldman-correlated IOP (IOPg), and corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc), additionally IOP with Goldmann applanation tonometer (IOP-GAT) was taken. All measurements were recorded at 8:00 am and 4:00 p.m. during Ramadan and during a 1-month follow-up after Ramadan was over. Statistical analysis demonstrated no difference in the ORA measurements including CH, CRF, IOPcc, and IOPg; CCT and CV values between fasting and non-fasting periods or within a single day (diurnal changes). Nine volunteers (25% of total subjects) were excluded because eyedrops were believed to disrupt the Ramadan fast consequently IOP-GAT could not be measured from these subjects. No statistically significant difference was noted between IOP-GAT and IOPg measurements of twenty-seven subjects at the different periods and time points. Our results reveal that fasting during Ramadan does not profoundly affect corneal biomechanics and IOP values in healthy volunteers without ocular diseases such as glaucoma. When planning corneal refractive surgery and determining IOP, the ORA measurements can be done safely during a Ramadan fast. Moreover, ORA may be a better alternative for patients that refuse IOP measurement via GAT for examining the accuracy of IOP during fasting. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of these parameters on corneal disease and glaucoma during fasting.

  9. Statistical modeling methods to analyze the impacts of multiunit process variability on critical quality attributes of Chinese herbal medicine tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun F

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fei Sun,1 Bing Xu,1,2 Yi Zhang,1 Shengyun Dai,1 Chan Yang,1 Xianglong Cui,1 Xinyuan Shi,1,2 Yanjiang Qiao1,2 1Research Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine Information Engineering, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, 2Key Laboratory of Manufacture Process Control and Quality Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The quality of Chinese herbal medicine tablets suffers from batch-to-batch variability due to a lack of manufacturing process understanding. In this paper, the Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS immediate release tablet was taken as the research subject. By defining the dissolution of five active pharmaceutical ingredients and the tablet tensile strength as critical quality attributes (CQAs, influences of both the manipulated process parameters introduced by an orthogonal experiment design and the intermediate granules’ properties on the CQAs were fully investigated by different chemometric methods, such as the partial least squares, the orthogonal projection to latent structures, and the multiblock partial least squares (MBPLS. By analyzing the loadings plots and variable importance in the projection indexes, the granule particle sizes and the minimal punch tip separation distance in tableting were identified as critical process parameters. Additionally, the MBPLS model suggested that the lubrication time in the final blending was also important in predicting tablet quality attributes. From the calculated block importance in the projection indexes, the tableting unit was confirmed to be the critical process unit of the manufacturing line. The results demonstrated that the combinatorial use of different multivariate modeling methods could help in understanding the complex process relationships as a whole. The output of this study can then be used to define a control strategy to improve the quality of the PNS immediate release tablet. Keywords: Panax

  10. The Equity Franchise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodribb, Somer; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a report that made recommendations on issues of sexual harassment in the department of political science at the University of Victoria, and the committee's subsequent struggles for redress against silence and retaliation. Analyzes the performance of those avenues and the offices that were supposed to be sources of remedy or protection.…

  11. Contamination Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  12. Reform towards National Health Insurance in Malaysia: the equity implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chai Ping; Whynes, David K; Sach, Tracey H

    2011-05-01

    This paper assesses the potential equity impact of Malaysia's projected reform of its current tax financed system towards National Health Insurance (NHI). The Kakwani's progressivity index was used to assess the equity consequences of the new NHI system (with flat rate NHI scheme) compared to the current tax financed system. It was also used to model a proposed system (with a progressive NHI scheme) that can generate the same amount of funding more equitably. The new NHI system would be less equitable than the current tax financed system, as evident from the reduction of Kakwani's index to 0.168 from 0.217. The new flat rate NHI scheme, if implemented, would reduce the progressivity of the health finance system because it is a less progressive finance source than that of general government revenue. We proposed a system with a progressive NHI scheme that generates the same amount of funding whilst preserving the equity at the Kakwani's progressivity index of 0.213. A NHI system with a progressive NHI scheme is proposed to be implemented to raise health funding whilst preserving the equity in health care financing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Approaches that Affect Consumer-Based Brand Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Santos de Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Current studies on factors affecting the dimensions of consumer-based brand equity have been dispersed, applicable to specific contexts and not systematized in the literature. So, the purpose of this paper is to identify and categorize factors that create, increase or decrease each of the consumer-based brand equity dimensions: brand associations, brand awareness, perceived quality and brand loyalty. The extensive analysis of literature shows that there are significant differences between factors affecting each of the brand equity dimensions. Factors that positively affect one dimension cannot have the same effect on another. Moreover, it notes that the effect of such factors is variations when analyzed in different sectors and economic contexts. The main contribution of this research lies in the fact that it provides a research panorama already conducted on factors affecting the dimensions of consumer-based brand equity, indicating a potential for development of future studies. This research also enriches the literature categorizing the factors identified in the literature in four sets that allow the future targeting studies.

  14. Studying the relationship between brand equity and consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satvati Razavi Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between brand equity and consumer behavior. In today's competitive world, where the consumer is faced with a broad range of products made in different countries, companies should further seek to identify the factors of customers' trends towards products to encourage customers to select and purchase the product. In the model proposed in this study, the relationship between brand equity and the dimensions of consumer behavior including the willingness to pay for extra cost, brand preference and purchase intention is investigated. The research method is a descriptive correlational. Structural equations and descriptive and inferential statistics and factor analysis were used to analyze the data. The statistical population of the study includes the owners of Grand Vitara, Sportage and Santafe from the companies of Iran Khodro, Kia and Hyundai. The population was unlimited including 384 people using Cochran formula; and cluster sampling and endemic questionnaire tool were used. In the marketing literature, the lack of empirical research that seeks to explore the relationship between brand equity and consumer behavior is tangible. This research focuses on those reactions that provide more sales and the ability to grow. According to the results, it seems that there is a relationship between brand equity and consumer behavior including paying extra cost, brand preference and purchase intention.

  15. Changes in out-of-pocket payments for healthcare in Vietnam and its impact on equity in payments, 1992-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Anoshua; Roy, Kakoli

    2008-10-01

    be because the rich could avail of health insurance more than those at lower incomes and as a consequence, were able to use the healthcare system more effectively without paying a high OOP payment. In contrast, the poor either incurred higher OOP payments or were discouraged from seeking treatments until their ailment became serious. This inequality becomes exacerbated in 1998 when insurance take-up rates were not high, but the impact of privatization and deregulation was already occurring. By 2002, insurance take-up rates were much higher, and poverty alleviation policies (e.g., free health insurance and health fund membership targeted for the poor) were instituted, which may have resulted in a less regressive system.

  16. Modeling of drainage and hay production over the Crau aquifer for analyzing the impact of global change on aquifer recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olioso, Albert; Lecerf, Rémi; Baillieux, Antoine; Chanzy, André; Ruget, Françoise; Banton, Olivier; Lecharpentier, Patrice; Alkassem Alosman, Mohamed; Ruy, Stéphane; Gallego Elvira, Belen

    2013-04-01

    proportion of irrigation water that contributes to the recharge of aquifer was evaluated to 75 %, which represent 80% of the total recharge; - increase in temperature in the future leads to an increase in hay production (+ 10% in 2030 compared to now) - increase in potential evapotranspiration in the future leads to an increase of meadow evapotranspiration by 10% which has a significant impact on the amount of irrigation water required to sustain the level of aquifer recharge and the level of the water table - decrease in irrigated surfaces (-10% forecasted for 2030) results in a significant decrease of aquifer recharge (- 8%) that may affect water resources in the area (amount almost equivalent to water withdrawal for domestic use in the area) - reduction in available water for irrigation directly affect the aquifer recharge: e.g. 30% reduction in irrigation level result in a 35% reduction in drainage at the aquifer scale; however, the production of hay would be just slightly affected. This work was performed in the frame of Astuce et Tic project (French ministries financial support) and Sirrimed project (European FP7 financial support).

  17. European Integration between Equity, Efficiency and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Marchis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout this article I tried to highlight the path for improving the Europeans standards ofliving. Poverty, inequality and efficiency are the key concepts of the welfare economic. Similar to many otherarticles about equity, efficiency and welfare, this article offers an account of the challenges facing theEuropean Union welfare in a context of global economy assessing the ability of different components of thewelfare governance to respond to these challenges. The welfare of European Union is analyzed under themultidimensional aspects of integration, such as: internal versus external integration and multilevelintegration. Aging, changes in the labor market, increased mobility are particular aspects that characterize EUand under the fundamental reform of Europe 2020 Strategy, welfare economic becomes a priority even if thepolitical integration comes first to the economic one. As Europe grows more diverse, the welfare economictranslates from desire to necessity.

  18. [Evaluating cost/equity in the Colombian health system, 1998-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier; Barón, Gilberto; Gaitán-Duarte, Hernando; Alfonso, Helman; Agudelo, Carlos; Sánchez, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    An economic analysis of cost-equity (from society's viewpoint) for evaluating the impact of Law 100/93 in Colombia between 1998 and 2005. An economic analysis compared costs and equity in health in Colombia between 1998 and 2005. Data was taken from the Colombian Statistics' Administration Department ( Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica - DANE) and from national demographic and health surveys carried out in 2000 and 2005. Information regarding costs was taken from the National Health Accounts' System. Inequity in Health was considered in line with the Inequity in Health Index (IHI). Incremental and average cost-equity analysis covered three sub-periods; 1998-1999 (during which time per capita gross internal product became reduced in Colombia ), 2000-2001 (during which time total health expense became reduced) and 2001 -2005. An unstable tendency for inequity in health becoming reduced during the period was revealed. There was an inverse relationship between IHI and public health spending and a direct relationship between out-of-pocket spending on health and equity in health (Spearman, p<0.05). The second period had the best incremental cost-equity ratio. Fluctuations in IHI and marginal cost-equity during the periods being analysed suggested that health spending depended on equity in health in Colombia during the period being studied.

  19. Equity and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.

    1994-01-01

    Following the recommendations of the US National Academy of Sciences and the mandates of the 1987 Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act, the US Department of Energy has proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site of the world's first permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste. The main justification for permanent disposal (as opposed to above-ground storage) is that it guarantees safety by means of waste isolation. This essay argues, however, that considerations of equity (safer for whom?) undercut the safety rationale. The article surveys some prima facie arguments for equity in the distribution of radwaste risks and then evaluates four objections that are based, respectively, on practicality, compensation for risks, scepticism about duties to future generations, and the uranium criterion. The conclusion is that, at least under existing regulations and policies, permanent waste disposal is highly questionable, in part, because it fails to distribute risk equitably or to compensate, in full, for this inequity

  20. Equity, Economic Growth and Lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nørgaard, Jørgen; Hvelplund, Frede

    2011-01-01

    Consequences of global warming are appearing much faster than assumed just a few years ago and irreversible ”tipping points” are few years ahead [IPCC, James Hansen]. So far, strategies for mitigation of global warming have mostly been focusing on technological solutions e.g. renewable energy...... such questions as national and international equity, “limits to growth”, alternative employment policies, military and security policy and alternatives to traditional GDP as the dominant indicator of welfare and of sound development....

  1. Equity valuation of Tesco Plc.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation aimed to value the British retailer Tesco Plc. The objective was to determine a target price for the company and as a consequence determine a buy or sell recommendation when comparing it to the current market price. After the state of the art of literature regarding equity valuation has been assessed, the retail industry as well as Tesco have been analysed in more detail. Based on this, the retail business of Tesco has been valued using the Adjusted Present Va...

  2. Strategic pricing of equity issues

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Ritzberger; Frank Milne

    2002-01-01

    Consider a general equilibrium model where agents may behave strategically. Specifically, suppose some firm issues new shares. If the primary market price is controlled by the issuing institution and investors' expectations on future equity prices are constant in their share purchases, the share price on the primary market cannot exceed the secondary market share price. In certain cases this may imply strict underpricing of newly issued shares. If investors perceive an influence on future sha...

  3. Equity, Economic Growth and Lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nørgaard, Jørgen; Hvelplund, Frede

    2011-01-01

    sources (RES) in the supply sector and energy efficiency in the demand sector. Much less attention has been given to potential changes in life style and to alternative economic and social systems. This chapter will focus on non-technological strategies for mitigation of global warming including...... such questions as national and international equity, “limits to growth”, alternative employment policies, military and security policy and alternatives to traditional GDP as the dominant indicator of welfare and of sound development....

  4. the effect of external knowledge on brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    sajad khani; abdolhamid ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Most traditional organizations managers focus on tangible and financial assets such as land, money, labor and ... One of the industries where competition is intense day by day the concept of competitive advantage and value creation in its resolution finds the banking industry. In this regard, the present study sought to examine the impact of intangible assets (external knowledge) to improve service quality and brand equity in the banking industry and the Export Development Bank of Iran. ...

  5. Required Steps of Managing International Equity Placement Strategic Alliance

    OpenAIRE

    Wandebori, Harimukti; de Bruijn, Erik Joost; Steenhuis, Harm-Jan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to unravel the steps of managing international equity placement strategic alliance (IEPSA). The steps of managing an IEPSA are obtained by conducting theoretical review. The theoretical reviews consist of theory of strategic alliance; definition, classification, and finding definition of an IEPSA, political and analytical considerations and the necessary steps. These steps of managing IEPSA can be classified into analyzing of macro consideration, micro considera...

  6. Examining equity: a multidimensional framework for assessing equity in payments for ecosystem services

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, Melanie; Mahanty, Sango; Schreckenberg, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    Concern over social equity dominates current debates about payments for ecosystem services and reduced deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). Yet, despite the apprehension that these initiatives may undermine equity, the term is generally left undefined. This paper presents a systematic framework for the analysis of equity that can be used to examine how local equity is affected as the global value of ecosystem services changes. Our framework identifies three dimensions that form the c...

  7. Gender equity & human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepa, Swarna S

    2007-10-01

    The welfare of both women and men constitutes the human welfare. At the turn of the century amidst the glory of unprecedented growth in national income, India is experiencing the spread of rural distress. It is mainly due to the collapse of agricultural economy. Structural adjustments and competition from large-scale enterprises result in loss of rural livelihoods. Poor delivery of public services and safety nets, deepen the distress. The adverse impact is more on women than on men. This review examines the adverse impact of the events in terms of endowments, livelihood opportunities and nutritional outcomes on women in detail with the help of chosen indicators at two time-periods roughly representing mid nineties and early 2000. The gender equality index computed and the major indicators of welfare show that the gender gap is increasing in many aspects. All the aspects of livelihoods, such as literacy, unemployment and wages now have larger gender gaps than before. Survival indicators such as juvenile sex ratio, infant mortality, child labour have deteriorated for women, compared to men, though there has been a narrowing of gender gaps in life expectancy and literacy. The overall gender gap has widened due to larger gaps in some indicators, which are not compensated by the smaller narrowing in other indicators both in the rural and urban context.

  8. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by using...... stocks' exposure to crude oil option information. Option-implied information can also help construct better mean-variance portfolios and better estimates of market beta....

  9. Reviewing the Concept of Brand Equity and Evaluating Consumer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE) Models

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz Farjam; Xu Hongyi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of brand equity and discuss its different perspectives, we try to review existing literature of brand equity and evaluate various Customer-based brand equity models to provide a collection from well-known databases for further research in this area.Classification-JEL: M00

  10. Health Equity Pilot Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    inequalities related to the major policy themes of nutrition, physical activity and alcohol. This report provides an update on the scientific evidence on the status of health inequalities in Europe relating to the following determinants of health: • Nutrition and diet in the first 1000 days • Nutrition...... and diet beyond early years • Physical activity (and sedentary behaviour) In each case, reviews of the literature were conducted on the impact and efficiency of policies and actions on health inequalities related to these lifestyle determinants, including evidence on the effectiveness and efficiency...... indicators of deprivation and physical (in)activity • Geographic indicators of deprivation and traffic speed (and traffic calming measures) Social determinants of health inequalities There are marked differences in the social determinants of health across EU Member States and inequalities in health between...

  11. Exploring Issues of Implementation, Equity, and Student Achievement With Educational Software in the DC Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Ahn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present analyses from a researcher-practitioner partnership in the District of Columbia Public Schools, where we are exploring the impact of educational software on students’ academic achievement. We analyze a unique data set that combines student-level information from the district with data of student usage of a mathematics game platform: First in Math (FIM. These data offer a window into long-standing issues in the educational technology literature around implementation, equity, and student achievement. We show that time spent in FIM was correlated with improved future performance on standardized math assessments for students in Grades 4–8. However, student time spent using FIM was highly related to factors such as race, gender, and prior achievement. Such observations from data are helpful for school districts and researchers to inform equitable implementation of new technologies and maximize benefits to learners.

  12. A framework linking community empowerment and health equity: it is a matter of CHOICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, Susan B

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents a framework to explore the relationship between health equity and community empowerment. It traces the progression of the concept of participation to the present term of empowerment and the links among empowerment, equity, and health outcomes. It argues that the relationship can best be described by using the acronym CHOICE (Capacity-building, Human rights, Organizational sustainability, Institutional accountability, Contribution, and Enabling environment). Based on the concept of development as freedom put forward by Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen, the paper describes how each factor illustrates the relationship between equity and empowerment in positive health outcomes, giving appropriate examples. In conclusion, it is suggested that these factors might form the basis of a tool to assess the relationship between equity and empowerment and its impact on health outcomes.

  13. DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND THEIR ROLE IN SUPPORTING EMERGING MARKETS PRIVATE EQUITY FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTON Sorin Gabriel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Development financial institutions have emerged in the last years as major investors in the private equity industry. Their main goals are to create new jobs, to foster innovation and to develop the private sector. The aim of the paper is to analyze the role played by the development financial institutions in the creation and development of emerging markets private equity funds in the light of financial crisis started in 2008. We found that many development banks have increased their financial support to the emerging markets private equity funds and have improved the standards and norms of the local industry. They played a countercyclical role during a difficult period when private investors proved reluctant in backing new private equity funds.

  14. Measuring brand equity in banking industry: A case study of Mellat Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nadernezhad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influencing factors on brand equity in banking industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire consists of 16 questions for measuring brand loyalty, brand awareness, brand compatibility and perceived quality in one of Iranian banks named Mellat Bank. Using a descriptive and non-experimental study, the proposed study gathers data and analyze them using t-student test. The results indicate that three components including brand loyalty, brand awareness and brand equity compatibility on brand equity of Mellat bank branches in Mazandaran province are in desirable level but the effect of perceived quality indicator on brand equity of Mellat Bank is not desirable. The study provides necessary suggestions to improve the quality of services for the proposed case study.

  15. Private Equity Capital in a Less Developed Economy: Evidence, Issues and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melusi Mpofu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the structure of the private equity industry and issues that impact on its development and growth in Zimbabwe. Studies conducted internationally have unequivocally demonstrated the importance of private equity investments in assisting firms at start/growth phase and decline phase. However there is a dearth of literature on how these financial intermediaries assist in unlocking firm value from an emerging markets perspective. The study uses the document analysis and an exploratory research paradigms to achieve the stated objectives. The study finds that the venture capital industry in Zimbabwe mimics similar industries in other countries except that it is constrained by market liquidity. Lack of regulation and viable business sectors coupled with excessive risks in the political economy narrows the scope of private equity operations. Several issues impacting on the development of the private equity industry are identified and evaluated. The study has policy implications for the development of regulatory framework to bolster the growth of the private equity industry in emerging market economies. This study provides new evidence and policy suggestions on the operations of the private equity industry in a liquidity constrained and less developed economy.

  16. Colombian equity return and narrow money supply: an asymmetric cointegration analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu V. Nguyen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric, cointegrating relationship between the return on equity market and the narrowly defined money supply is documented. In fact, equity return and the monthly percentage change in the Colombian money supply M1 spread adjusts to the threshold value slower when a contractionary countercyclical policy action or an economic shock causes the money supply M1 to fall relative to the share price index, widening their spread, than when an expansionary countercyclical monetary policy action or a shock causes money supply M1 to move in the opposite direction, narrowing their spread. The empirical findings further indicate the impact lag on the Colombian monetary policy in the equity market is two years. These empirical findings should be of interest to both domestic and international investors who are interested in the Colombian equity market. The results also reveal the presence of both the neoclassical and the post-Keynesian positions on the relationship between equity return and money supply M1 in the Colombian financial market. In the age of globalization, these findings may provide a better understanding of the impact of the countercyclical monetary policy on the equity market in Latin American economies.

  17. The effects of service quality and corporate rebranding on brand image, customer satisfaction, brand equity and customer loyalty: study in advertising company at tvOne

    OpenAIRE

    CHANIAGO ASPIZAIN

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of service quality on brand image, service quality on customer satisfaction, service quality on brand equity, service quality on customer loyalty, corporate rebranding on brand image, corporate rebranding on customer satisfaction, corporate rebranding on brand equity, brand image on customer satisfaction, corporate rebranding on customer loyalty, brand image on brand equity, brand image on customer loyalty, customer satisfaction on customer...

  18. Impact of collection conditions on the metabolite content of human urine samples as analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Roux, Aurélie; Thévenot, Etienne A.; Seguin, François; Olivier, Marie-Françoise; Junot, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of comprehensive studies documenting the impact of sample collection conditions on metabolic composition of human urine. To address this issue, two experiments were performed at a 3-month interval, in which midstream urine samples from healthy individuals were collected, pooled, divided into several aliquots and kept under specific conditions (room temperature, 4 °C, with or without preservative) up to 72 h before storage at −80 °C. Samples were analyzed by high-performance li...

  19. What does the development of medical tourism in Barbados hold for health equity? an exploratory qualitative case study

    OpenAIRE

    Labonté, Ronald; Runnels, Vivien; Crooks, Valorie A.; Johnston, Rory; Snyder, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Background Although the global growth of privatized health care services in the form of medical tourism appears to generate economic benefits, there is debate about medical tourism’s impacts on health equity in countries that receive medical tourists. Studies of the processes of economic globalization in relation to social determinants of health suggest that medical tourism’s impacts on health equity can be both direct and indirect. Barbados, a small Caribbean nation which has universal publi...

  20. Putting equity center stage: challenging evidence-free reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Margaret; Dahlgren, Göran; McIntyre, Di

    2007-01-01

    Do we have an "evidence-free zone" around the health sector reforms that have taken place over the past few decades? Certainly, many of the policy prescriptions have been based on ideology and assumptions about the likely impact of policies, rather than evidence-based. The provision of health care is increasingly treated as a commodity that can be subjected to the same prescription as other goods: privatization, competition, deregulation, decentralization. Evidence has slowly emerged over the 1990s and early 2000s on the adverse effects of these policy prescriptions on equity, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, but a shift in policy is barely perceptible. There is a need for a fresh approach that puts equity center stage. A gap that must be filled is on the "demand" or "need" side: in particular, the impact of policy changes on families and communities. This article is the first in a series of eight articles that present the findings of studies that attempt to fill this gap, helping to develop a more evidence-based approach to equity and health sector policy from the users'/potential patients' perspective.

  1. Consumer Based-Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Ekinci, Yuksel

    2014-01-01

    Research Objectives The objectives of this study are to: - Assess external validity of Nam et al.’s (2011) CBBE model in different culture (Turkey) and new service context (fashion retailing). - Compare validity of Nam et al.’s (2011) CBBE model with the brand equity model introduced by Yoo and Donthu (2001). - Expand the Nam et al.’s (2011) model by introducing “brand awareness”. Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech.

  2. Equity in the social sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enbar, M.

    1984-01-01

    This review suggests that many social scientists and philosophers are increasingly sensitive to the ethical and moral dimensions of analytic endeavors and of normative policymaking, in particular to the fact that no purely technical fix exists for problems whose solutions impinge upon the political process. The presence of equity issues widens the scope of the decision making process, requiring the consideration of a broader field of options and consequences and an awareness of the institutional and social fabrics from which solutions to previous analogous problems were fashioned. Current policy must reflect greater sensitivity to the distributional outcomes of major collective decisions and to the moral and ethical foundations which underlie them. 85 references

  3. Using the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to Analyze Impacts of Climate Change on Ecosystems within Northern California Climate Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, K.; Little, M.; Loewenstein, M.; Iraci, L. T.; Milesi, C.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    The projected impacts of climate change on Northern California ecosystems using model outputs from the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) for the period 1950-2099 based on 1km downscaled climate data from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model are analyzed in this study. The impacts are analyzed for the Special Report Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B and A2, both maintaining present levels of urbanization constant and under projected urban expansion. The analysis is in support of the Climate Adaptation Science Investigation at NASA Ames Research Center. A statistical analysis is completed for time series of temperature, precipitation, gross primary productivity (GPP), evapotranspiration, soil runoff, and vapor pressure deficit. Trends produced from this analysis show that increases in maximum and minimum temperatures lead to declines in peak GPP, length of growing seasons, and overall declines in runoff within the watershed. For Northern California, GPP is projected under the A2 scenario to decrease by 18-25% by the 2090 decade as compared to the 2000 decade. These trends indicate a higher risk to crop production and other ecosystem services, as conditions would be less hospitable to vegetation growth. The increase in dried out vegetation would then lead to a higher risk of wildfire and mudslides in the mountainous regions.

  4. The effect of unethical behavior on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Faezeh Rezazadeh Baei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the components of ethical behavior and their impacts on life insurance companies in province of Mazandaran, Iran. There were 367 insurance representatives and the study selects a sample of 187 ones based on Cochran formula and 2 questionnaires were distributed among them. The first questionnaire, unethical behavior, includes 8 items including Bribery, Cheating, Deception, Interact with colleagues, Act as social behavior, Uncommitted to firm and Irresponsibility. In addition, the questionnaire of brand equity contains three components of Awareness, Perceived quality and Loyalty. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined that the effects of cheating and deception on unethical behaviors were not confirmed but the effects of other factors, bribery, interact with colleagues, act as social behavior, uncommitted to firm and irresponsibility on unethical behavior were confirmed. In addition, three components of Awareness, Perceived quality and Loyalty had positive relationship with brand equity.

  5. PNG Education System: Equity Trends and Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheret, Michael

    This paper identifies and discusses inequities in the educational system of Papua New Guinea (PNG). It begins by explaining the use of the Gini coefficient as an equity index, and then discusses inequities and equity trends in four concern areas: geographic distribution of formal education between provinces; educational achievement; distribution…

  6. Illiquidity Premia in the Equity Options Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Goyenko, Ruslan; Jacobs, Kris

    2018-01-01

    constructed from intraday effective spreads for a large panel of U.S. equities, and they are robust to different empirical implementations. Our findings are consistent with evidence that market makers in the equity options market hold large and risky net long positions, and positive illiquidity premia...

  7. Accessibility, equity and efficiency. Part 1: Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs, Karst Teunis; Dentinho, T.; Patuelli, R.; Geurs, K.T.; Patuelli, R.; Dentinho, T.

    2016-01-01

    The tension between efficiency and equity has been the focus of major debate since equity aspects started to be considered as part of project evaluation procedures (Thomopoulos et al. 2009). In this book, we contribute to the debate by focusing on the links and trade-offs between accessibility,

  8. On the Real Effects of Private Equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPrivate equity has become an increasingly important part of our economy. Around the world the companies owned by private equity investors account for a substantial percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and private sector employment. These investors have recently been under fire in

  9. Explaining the performance of Chinese equity funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Xiaohong; Shi, Qiqiang

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of Chinese equity fund performance measured by market benchmark adjusted returns and risk adjusted return (Jensen’s Alpha). The sample covers 193 equity funds from January 2006 to December 2011, including both bear (2008 and 2011) and bull (2006, 2007, 2009, and

  10. Leisure Today: Equity Issues in Leisure Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, Daniel L., Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Seven articles on equity issues in leisure services focus on conservation for the future, resource allocation inequities in wildland recreation, leisure services for people of color and people with disabilities, serving all children in community recreation, women and leisure services, and equity in public sector resource allocations. (JD)

  11. [Equity issues in health care reform in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmartino, Susana

    2002-01-01

    This article analyzes the historical and contemporary development of the Argentine health care system from the viewpoint of equity, a principle which is not explicitly mentioned in the system's founding documents. However, other values can be identified such as universal care, accessibility, and solidarity, which are closely related to equity. Nevertheless, the political dynamics characterizing the development of the country's health care system led to the suppression of more universalistic approaches, with group solidarity the only remaining principle providing structure to the system. The 1980s financial crisis highlighted the relative value of this principle as the basis for an equitable system. The authors illustrate the current situation with data on coverage under the medical social security system.

  12. The effect of sales promotions characteristics on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Jabarzadeh Karbasi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, retail industry in Iran has faced an increasing competition and this has encouraged the managers of chain stores to find ways to differentiate their own companies. One of the influential factors in this field is brand equity. Concerning this issue, the aim of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of sale promotions on the brand equity of ETKA chain stores. Therefore, a sample of 500 people among the customers of these stores in Tehran was examined. The achieved information obtained from the questionnaire was analyzed through structural equation modeling. The results showed that monetary and non-monetary promotions could influence on brand association, brand awareness and the perceived quality. On the other hand, it came out that brand association and the perceived quality are influential on brand loyalty. At last, a few suggestions were presented based on the results of this research.

  13. AN ANALYSIS REGARDING DESCRIPTIVE DIMENSIONS OF BRAND EQUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan MOISESCU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The competitive potential of any company is significantly influenced by the brands held in the company’s portfolio. Brands are definitely valuable marketing assets. As the brand is a central element of any marketing strategy it is essential to be aware of the descriptive dimensions of its equity. This paper tries to outline these dimensions as follows: brand loyalty, brand awareness, brand perceived quality, brand personality, brand image, brand identity and brand associations, as analyzed in the specialized literature. Identifying and comparing different approaches regarding each brand equity dimension and revealing interdependencies between these dimensions, focusing on the importance of scientifically determining their role in generating a long-term increase in marketing efforts efficiency, are among the main objectives of this paper.

  14. Impacto de la reforma del sistema de seguridad social sobre la equidad en los servicios de salud en Colombia The impact of social security reform on health services equity in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eduardo Céspedes-Londoño

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar el impacto sobre la equidad en el acceso y en la utilización de servicios de salud del nuevo Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud Colombiano (SGSSS, se compararon dos cortes transversales de la población, antes (1993 y después (1997 de promulgada la Ley 100, de 1993, que lo creó, con respecto a dos indicadores de equidad: las curvas (CC e índices de concentración (IC correspondientes a la distribución del aseguramiento y a la utilización de servicios. Entre 1993 y 1997, el IC en el aseguramiento se redujo a la mitad, del 0,34 al 0,17; simultáneamente, la cobertura del SGSSS se incrementó del 23% al 57%, sobretodo entre los segmentos más pobres de la población, donde pasó del 3,1% al 43,7%, como resultado de los subsidios otorgados por los gobiernos locales. Los IC en la utilización de servicios variaron muy poco. Adicionalmente, se detectó una mayor prevalencia de enfermedad y utilización de servicios entre los asegurados, debido a selección sesgada de riesgos y riesgo moral. Estos resultados sugieren un impacto positivo del SGSSS sobre las inequidades en el acceso al aseguramiento; sin embargo, no se evidenció un impacto claro sobre la equidad en la utilización final de servicios.To evaluate the impact on access to, and use of, health services in Colombia's new national health insurance system, the authors compared two cross sections of the population: before (1993 and after (1997, with the approval of Act 100, creating the General System for Social Security in Health (SGSSS. Two equity indicators were assessed: concentration curves (CC and concentration indices (CI, summarizing the distribution of access to health care and utilization of health care services provided by the SGSSS according to income deciles. Between 1993 and 1997, the CI for access to insurance halved from 0.34 to 0.17; simultaneously, coverage increased from 23% to 57%, especially among the poorest segments of the population, where it

  15. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  16. From Analysis to Impact: Challenges and Outcomes from Google's Cloud-based Platforms for Analyzing and Leveraging Petapixels of Geospatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thau, D.

    2017-12-01

    For the past seven years, Google has made petabytes of Earth observation data, and the tools to analyze it, freely available to researchers around the world via cloud computing. These data and tools were initially available via Google Earth Engine and are increasingly available on the Google Cloud Platform. We have introduced a number of APIs for both the analysis and presentation of geospatial data that have been successfully used to create impactful datasets and web applications, including studies of global surface water availability, global tree cover change, and crop yield estimation. Each of these projects used the cloud to analyze thousands to millions of Landsat scenes. The APIs support a range of publishing options, from outputting imagery and data for inclusion in papers, to providing tools for full scale web applications that provide analysis tools of their own. Over the course of developing these tools, we have learned a number of lessons about how to build a publicly available cloud platform for geospatial analysis, and about how the characteristics of an API can affect the kinds of impacts a platform can enable. This study will present an overview of how Google Earth Engine works and how Google's geospatial capabilities are extending to Google Cloud Platform. We will provide a number of case studies describing how these platforms, and the data they host, have been leveraged to build impactful decision support tools used by governments, researchers, and other institutions, and we will describe how the available APIs have shaped (or constrained) those tools. [Image Credit: Tyler A. Erickson

  17. Development of an Extraterrestrial Organic Analyzer (EOA) for Highly Sensitive Organic Detection on an Ice Shell Impact Penetrator (IceShIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, A. M.; Duca, Z. A.; Cato, M.; Cantrell, T.; Kim, J.; Putman, P.; Schmidt, B. E.

    2016-12-01

    Kinetic penetrators have the potential to enable low cost in situ measurements of the ice of worlds including Europa and Enceladus [1]. Their small size and mass, critical to limiting their kinetic energy, makes them ideal small landers riding on primarily orbiter missions, while enabling sampling at several m depth due to burial and excavation. In situ microfluidic-based organic analysis systems are a powerful, miniaturized approach for detecting markers of habitability and recent biological activity. Development of microfluidic technology, like that of the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA) [2,3] and Enceladus Organic Analyzer (EOA), has led to an instrument capable of in situ organic chemical analysis compatible with a kinetic penetrator platform. This technology uses an integrated microfluidic processor to prepare samples for analysis via fluorescent derivatization prior to highly sensitive laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Selective derivatization in the presence of a chiral selector enables distinction between amino acid enantiomers. Finite element analysis of the core microfluidic processing and analytical device indicated that the device itself is more than capable of surviving the stresses associated with an impact acceleration of >50,000g. However, a number of developments were still required to enable a flight-ready system. Preliminary experiments indicated that moving from a pneumatically-actuated to a hydraulically-actuated microvalve system may provide better impact resistance. A hydraulically-actuated microvalve system was developed and tested. A modification of an established microfabricated LIF detection system would use indium bump bonding to permanently weld optical components using standard microfabrication techniques with perfect alignment. Recent work has also focused on developing and characterizing impact-resistant electronics. This work shows the low-TRL development of EOA's LIF and microfluidic subsystems for future planetary impact

  18. THE BORROWER CHARACTERISTICS IN HOT EQUITY MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HALIL DINCER KAYA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I examine the characteristics of U.S. corporate borrowers (public debt, private placement, and syndicated loan firms in HOT versus COLD equity markets. My main objective is to see the characteristics of firms that choose debt financing even when the equity market is HOT. HOT equity markets are defined as the top twenty percent of the months in terms of the de-trended number of equity offerings. I find that the HOT equity market borrowers generally have higher market-to-book ratios compared to the COLD market borrowers. Also, in HOT equity markets, the public debt firms (i.e. the corporate bond issuers tend to have fewer tangible assets, the private placement firms tend to be smaller and highly levered, and the syndicated loan firms tend to be smaller, more profitable, and less levered compared to the COLD market firms. When I look at the number of transactions in each market, I find that when the equity market is active (i.e. HOT, the syndicated loan market is even more active. During these periods, the public debt market is also active (although not as much as the equity or the syndicated loan markets. When I look at the sizes of the transactions in each market, I find that the private placements tend to be significantly larger in HOT markets compared to COLD markets. I conclude that while the equity, the public debt, and the syndicated loan markets move together in terms of market activity, the equity market and the private placement markets move together in terms of the size of the transaction.

  19. The effects of mandatory health insurance on equity in access to outpatient care in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Budi; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Dong, Hengjin; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2004-09-01

    This paper examines the effects of mandatory health insurance on access and equity in access to public and private outpatient care in Indonesia. Data from the second round of the 1997 Indonesian Family Life Survey were used. We adopted the concentration index as a measure of equity, and this was calculated from actual data and from predicted probability of outpatient-care use saved from a multinomial logit regression. The study found that a mandatory insurance scheme for civil servants (Askes) had a strongly positive impact on access to public outpatient care, while a mandatory insurance scheme for private employees (Jamsostek) had a positive impact on access to both public and private outpatient care. The greatest effects of Jamsostek were observed amongst poor beneficiaries. A substantial increase in access will be gained by expanding insurance to the whole population. However, neither Askes nor Jamsostek had a positive impact on equity. Policy implications are discussed.

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING OVERALL BRAND EQUITY: THE CASE OF SHAHRVAND CHAIN STORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar AZIZI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the role of chain stores in distribution system of Iran has been paid more attention. Managers of these stores are seeking to increase the stores’ brand equity. This study develops a model of factors affecting overall brand equity in SHAHRVAND chain store as a case study. The Sample of 167 customers in Tehran city using convenience sampling method was selected. Data was gathered by the 44-items questionnaire in self-reporting way. Path analysis was applied using Lisrel 8.80 to test the conceptual model which includes six hypotheses. Results showed that brand-customer personality congruency affects brand identification positively. The positive impact of brand identification on brand loyalty and trust was confirmed. Analysis also revealed that brand trust impact brand loyalty positively. Results also indicated the positive impact of brand loyalty and trust on the overall brand equity.

  1. Medical tourism in the Caribbean region: a call to consider environmental health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R; Crooks, V A

    2013-03-01

    Medical tourism, which is the intentional travel by private-paying patients across international borders for medical treatment, is a sector that has been targeted for growth in many Caribbean countries. The international development of this industry has raised a core set of proposed health equity benefits and drawbacks for host countries. These benefits centre on the potential investment in health infrastructure and opportunities for health labour force development while drawbacks focus on the potential for reduced access to healthcare for locals and inefficient use of limited public resources to support the growth of the medical tourism industry. The development of the medical tourism sector in Caribbean countries raises additional health equity questions that have received little attention in existing international debates, specifically in regard to environmental health equity. In this viewpoint, we introduce questions of environmental health equity that clearly emerge in relation to the developing Caribbean medical tourism sector These questions acknowledge that the growth of this sector will have impacts on the social and physical environments, resources, and waste management infrastructure in countries. We contend that in addition to addressing the wider health equity concerns that have been consistently raised in existing debates surrounding the growth of medical tourism, planning for growth in this sector in the Caribbean must take environmental health equity into account in order to ensure that local populations, environments, and ecosystems are not harmed by facilities catering to international patients.

  2. Addressing equity in interventions to reduce air pollution in urban areas: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Rey, Lynda; Cartier, Yuri; Clary, Christelle M; Deguen, Séverine; Brousselle, Astrid

    2014-12-01

    We did a systematic review to assess quantitative studies investigating the association between interventions aiming to reduce air pollution, health benefits and equity effects. Three databases were searched for studies investigating the association between evaluated interventions aiming to reduce air pollution and heath-related benefits. We designed a two-stage selection process to judge how equity was assessed and we systematically determined if there was a heterogeneous effect of the intervention between subgroups or subareas. Of 145 identified articles, 54 were reviewed in-depth with eight satisfying the inclusion criteria. This systematic review showed that interventions aiming to reduce air pollution in urban areas have a positive impact on air quality and on mortality rates, but the documented effect on equity is less straightforward. Integration of equity in evidence-based public health is a great challenge nowadays. In this review we draw attention to the importance of considering equity in air pollution interventions. We also propose further methodological and theoretical challenges when assessing equity in interventions to reduce air pollution and we present opportunities to develop this research area.

  3. Effect of Entry into Socially Responsible Investment Index on Cost of Equity and Firm Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kijung Eom

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of a company’s incorporation into the Socially Responsible Investment (SRI index on its cost of equity (COE and corporate value. The study collected and analyzed data about the four-year long changes of the component stocks of the Korea Exchange (KRX SRI index from September 2010 to September 2013 to verify the correlation between the incorporation of the SRI index and the cost of equity or corporate value by using the Price-Earnings Growth (PEG, Modified PEG (MPEG and Gode and Mohanram (GM models for estimation of the implied costs of equity capital, as well as Tobin’s Q ratio. The analysis results failed to show any significant relation between the incorporation of the SRI index and the cost of equity capital. Also, no statistically significant correlation between the incorporation of the SRI index and corporate value was observed. However, at an early phase of introduction of the SRI index, the included companies revealed a negative correlation with the cost of equity. However, after changing the listed stocks, they showed a positive correlation with the cost of equity capital. All in all, this can be ascribed to a mixed presence of optimistic and pessimistic investors about CSR activities, or there is a possibility that the KRX SRI index might not correctly reflect the CSR activities of companies.

  4. Does consideration and assessment of effects on health equity affect the conclusions of systematic reviews? A methodology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Vivian; Petticrew, Mark; Ueffing, Erin; Benkhalti Jandu, Maria; Brand, Kevin; Dhaliwal, Bharbhoor; Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Smylie, Janet; Wells, George Anthony; Tugwell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Tackling health inequities both within and between countries remains high on the agenda of international organizations including the World Health Organization and local, regional and national governments. Systematic reviews can be a useful tool to assess effects on equity in health status because they include studies conducted in a variety of settings and populations. This study aims to describe the extent to which the impacts of health interventions on equity in health status are considered in systematic reviews, describe methods used, and assess the implications of their equity related findings for policy, practice and research. We conducted a methodology study of equity assessment in systematic reviews. Two independent reviewers extracted information on the reporting and analysis of impacts of health interventions on equity in health status in a group of 300 systematic reviews collected from all systematic reviews indexed in one month of MEDLINE, using a pre-tested data collection form. Any differences in data extraction were resolved by discussion. Of the 300 systematic reviews, 224 assessed the effectiveness of interventions on health outcomes. Of these 224 reviews, 29 systematic reviews assessed effects on equity in health status using subgroup analysis or targeted analyses of vulnerable populations. Of these, seven conducted subgroup analyses related to health equity which were reported in insufficient detail to judge their credibility. Of these 29 reviews, 18 described implications for policy and practice based on assessment of effects on health equity. The quality and completeness of reporting should be enhanced as a priority, because without this policymakers and practitioners will continue lack the evidence base they need to inform decision-making about health inequity. Furthermore, there is a need to develop methods to systematically consider impacts on equity in health status that is currently lacking in systematic reviews.

  5. Confronting the Equity "Learning Problem" through Practitioner Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Cheryl D.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined how participation in an inquiry-based workshop on assessing course syllabi for equity-mindedness and cultural inclusivity fostered community college math faculty learning about racial/ethnic equity and equity-mindedness. Findings show that the workshop prompted reflection on what equity means and how participants' teaching…

  6. Distributional equity problems at the proposed Yucca Mountain facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperson, R.E.; Abdollahzadeh, S.

    1988-07-01

    This paper addresses one quite specific part of this broad range of issues -- the distribution of impacts to the state of Nevada and to the nation likely to be associated with the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. As such, it is one of four needed analyses of the overall equity problems and needs to be read in conjunction with our proposed overall framework for equity studies. The objective of this report is to consider how an analysis might be made of the distribution of projected outcomes between the state and nation. At the same time, it needs to be clear that no attempt will be made actually to implement the analysis that is proposed. What follows is a conceptual statement that identifies the analytical issues and pro poses an approach for overcoming them. Significantly, it must also be noted that this report will not address procedural equity issues between the state and nation for this is the subject of a separate analysis. 14 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Impact of adopting IFRS standard on the equity cost of brazilian open capital companies / Impacto da adoção do padrão IFRS no custo de capital próprio das empresas de capital aberto no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Confetti Gatsios

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to assess the impact of adopting IFRS standard on the equity cost of Brazilian open capital companies in the period of 2004-2013. Originality/gap/relevance/implications: The adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards aims to increase the quality of accounting information. Studies performed in Europe suggest that, after the adoption of the IFRS standard, there was a reduction in the equity cost of companies due to the reduction of information asymmetry and risk. Key methodological aspects: The equity cost was calculated using the capital asset pricing model (CAPM adapted to the Brazilian case. The empirical strategy was the difference analysis in differences, comparing the results of companies that voluntarily adopted the IFRS with companies that adopted IFRS after the mandatory adoption period. Summary of key results: The results indicate that the adoption of the IFRS standard does not contribute to reduce the equity cost in Brazil. Key considerations/conclusions: Suggesting that the process of adopting the international accounting standard may take more time to impact the equity cost of Brazilian open capital companies, since the impact of IFRS is not related only with the adoption, but also with its use by companies and users. Objetivo: Este trabalho se propõe a avaliar o impacto da adoção do padrão IFRS sobre o custo de capital próprio das empresas de capital aberto no Brasil. Originalidade/Lacuna/Relevância/Implicações: A adoção do padrão International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS apresenta como objetivo o aumento da qualidade das informações contábeis. Estudos realizados para a Europa indicam que após a adoção do padrão IFRS se verificou a redução do custo de capital próprio das empresas devido a redução da assimetria de informação e do risco. Principais aspectos metodológicos: O estudo foi realizado no período de 2004 a 2013. O custo de capital próprio foi calculado

  8. Non-controlling interests, financial performance and the equity of groups. An empirical study of groups listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Ignatowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to (a analyze IFRS requirements for the recognition and presentation of non-controlling (minority interests in consolidated financial statements in relation to theoretical concepts of consolidation of financial statements, and (b assess the share and importance of non-controlling inter-ests in financial performance and the equity of the groups of companies in practice.For the purpose of the article, selected scientific methods have been used, including: descriptive and analytical ones (for analyzing the theoretical concepts and IFRS requirements, critical analysis, especial-ly used for the literature review, and for the assessment of practice: primary empirical research methods, and quantitative methods, including descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests and correlation analysis. The empirical material collected was used to verify several hypotheses related to non-controlling interests of the groups whose parents are registered in Poland and whose securities are traded on a regulated, Polish capital market (Warsaw Stock Exchange. The empirical evidence is that non-controlling interests represent a very small part of group’s equity (taking the mean of about 3.5%, but the median below 1% and obviously, they are significantly lower than the share of majority interests. Their deviation among the different classes of companies (big, small and banks is negligible. Slightly higher is the share of minority interests in the group’s net profit and total comprehensive income. However, no significant difference is to be found between the shares of non-controlling interests in the group’s equity, net profit and total comprehensive income. Overall, shares of majority (minority interests in a group’s income are in line with their shares in the group’s equity. The hypothesis on comparable returns on non-controlling and majority interests (in terms of ROE cannot be rejected if both net profit and losses are considered

  9. Non-controlling interests, financial performance and the equity of groups. An empirical study of groups listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Ignatowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to (a analyze IFRS requirements for the recognition and presentation of non-controlling (minority interests in consolidated financial statements in relation to theoretical concepts of consolidation of financial statements, and (b assess the share and importance of non-controlling inter-ests in financial performance and the equity of the groups of companies in practice. For the purpose of the article, selected scientific methods have been used, including: descriptive and analytical ones (for analyzing the theoretical concepts and IFRS requirements, critical analysis, especial-ly used for the literature review, and for the assessment of practice: primary empirical research methods, and quantitative methods, including descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests and correlation analysis. The empirical material collected was used to verify several hypotheses related to non-controlling interests of the groups whose parents are registered in Poland and whose securities are traded on a regulated, Polish capital market (Warsaw Stock Exchange. The empirical evidence is that non-controlling interests represent a very small part of group’s equity (taking the mean of about 3.5%, but the median below 1% and obviously, they are significantly lower than the share of majority interests. Their deviation among the different classes of companies (big, small and banks is negligible. Slightly higher is the share of minority interests in the group’s net profit and total comprehensive income. However, no significant difference is to be found between the shares of non-controlling interests in the group’s equity, net profit and total comprehensive income. Overall, shares of majority (minority interests in a group’s income are in line with their shares in the group’s equity. The hypothesis on comparable returns on non-controlling and majority interests (in terms of ROE cannot be rejected if both net profit and losses are considered

  10. Impact of The N - S Fracture Zone Along The Indo-Australia Plate Analyzed from Local Seismic Data In The Western Offshore of Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridhi, H. A.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Huang, B. S.; Lee, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    Large subduction earthquake have repeatedly occurred along the Sumatra and Andaman subduction zones where the Indo-Australia plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian plate. We have analyzed earthquake data from local seismic network along the Sumatra region that provided by the Meteorology Climatology Geophysical Agencies of Indonesia (MCGAI), giving a reliable P-wave velocity model by using joint inversion of picked P-wave travel time using VELEST and a re-scanned single channel seismic reflection of Sumatra cruise I and II. As much as 1,503 events are being analyzed, that is from two years and three months of data recording (2009/04 - 2011/07). The VELEST and DD technique are used to relocate all events by forcing the obtained velocity model. It is found that the surface deformation and earthquake cluster are strongly influenced by the impact of an N - S subparalel fracture zone along the Indo-Australia plate. This also explains the seismic gaps along the Sumatra and Andaman subduction zones. So far, the intriguing seismogenic behaviour and forearc structure are not well explained by the existing models. Therefore, the planned IODP Expedition 362 is trying to ground truth the scientific questions. The aftershock earthquake data are huge, but they will provide a gateway to help the understanding of this shallow megathrust slip and reduce its devastated harzards.

  11. A Sociological Framework to Address Gender Equity in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mary Anne

    2017-04-01

    Lack of equity in the science workforce is a sociological problem; those wishing to seek its amelioration can benefit by viewing the issue with a sociological lens (and a sociologist). One useful framework that we have used to think strategically about how to lower barriers to equity is Barbara Risman's (2004): this framework views barriers to equity as individual, interpersonal ("interactional"), and institutional. Any given barrier may fit into one or more of these frames. Individual barriers include those intrinsic to an individual and may include: lack of access to vital networks and mentors, lack of preparation, etc. Such barriers can be addressed through mentoring programs and attention to building networks (e.g., through professional society memberships). Interpersonal or "interactional" barriers are those that arise from how we perceive and treat one another. Implicit bias underlies many of these barriers, including whether we perceive women as scientists, as competent, as dedicated (etc) as men. Such barriers can be reduced through implicit bias awareness. Institutional barriers arise from the structure and history of the academy itself, from its policies and procedures. Many such policies and procedures have a differential impact on men or women, generally without that intention. Policies that reduce equity barriers include family leave, childcare facilities, search committee training, clearly articulated practices for evaluation of applications and personnel reviews, equal starting pay and startup packages, equable canvassing for names to consider for nominations for honors and awards, to name a few. By viewing the issue through such a framework, the appropriate response can be generated for a more effective result.

  12. Required Steps of Managing International Equity Placement Strategic Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harimukti Wandebori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to unravel the steps of managing international equity placement strategic alliance (IEPSA. The steps of managing an IEPSA are obtained by conducting theoretical review. The theoretical reviews consist of theory of strategic alliance; definition, classification, and finding definition of an IEPSA, political and analytical considerations and the necessary steps. These steps of managing IEPSA can be classified into analyzing of macro consideration, micro consideration, domestic company’s stakeholder support, cultural understanding, strategic planning, internal support, human resource management, organizational arrangement, management control system, evolved cultural understanding, and evaluating results. In this research, the domestic partners who formed the IEPSAs are limited to State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs. The IEPSA was one of the means of privatization. The research will be beneficial for both foreign and domestic partners who form an IEPSA in the previous SOEs. By knowing the steps of managing the IEPSA both partners will be able to secure a successful implementation of IEPSA. By identifying the steps of managing the IEPSA, the stakeholder will not see IEPSA as threat rather as an opportunity to improve performance, to create synergy, and generate benefits for both partners and stakeholder. By knowing the necessary steps of managing the IEPSA, the stakeholder including society and politician will envisage the IEPSA as a means of effectively improving the SOEs’ performances.The research was espected to provide contributions for the research on strategic alliances. Apparently, there exist no literatures discussing about IEPSA in the domain of strategic alliances. Keywords: strategic alliance, equity placement, international equity placement strategic alliance, privatization, steps of international equity placement strategic alliance, state-owned enterprises

  13. The Factor Structure in Equity Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Fournier, Mathieu; Jacobs, Kris

    2018-01-01

    Equity options display a strong factor structure. The first principal components of the equity volatility levels, skews, and term structures explain a substantial fraction of the crosssectional variation. Furthermore, these principal components are highly correlated with the S&P 500 index option...... volatility, skew, and term structure, respectively. We develop an equity option valuation model that captures this factor structure. The model predicts that firms with higher market betas have higher implied volatilities, steeper moneyness slopes, and a term structure that covaries more with the market...

  14. Banking Firm, Equity and Value at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Broll

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the interaction between the solvency probability of a banking firm and the diversification potential of its asset portfolio when determining optimal equity capital. The purpose of this paper is to incorporate value at risk (VaR into the firm-theoretical model of a banking firm facing the risk of asset return. Given the necessity to achieve a confidence level for solvency, we demonstrate that diversification reduces the amount of equity. Notably, the VaR concept excludes a separation of equity policy and asset-liability management.

  15. The Factor Structure in Equity Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Fournier, Mathieu; Jacobs, Kris

    Equity options display a strong factor structure. The first principal components of the equity volatility levels, skews, and term structures explain a substantial fraction of the cross-sectional variation. Furthermore, these principal components are highly correlated with the S&P500 index option...... volatility, skew, and term structure respectively. We develop an equity option valuation model that captures this factor structure. The model predicts that firms with higher market betas have higher implied volatilities, steeper moneyness slopes, and a term structure that co-varies more with the market...

  16. Equity trees and graphs via information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harré, M.; Bossomaier, T.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the similarities and differences between two measures of the relationship between equities traded in financial markets. Our measures are the correlation coefficients and the mutual information. In the context of financial markets correlation coefficients are well established whereas mutual information has not previously been as well studied despite its theoretically appealing properties. We show that asset trees which are derived from either the correlation coefficients or the mutual information have a mixture of both similarities and differences at the individual equity level and at the macroscopic level. We then extend our consideration from trees to graphs using the "genus 0" condition recently introduced in order to study the networks of equities.

  17. Consumption-based Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Peter O.

    2016-01-01

    implementations of standard valuation models, both in terms of median absolute valuation errors (MAVE) and in terms of excess returns on simple investment strategies based on the differences between model and market prices. The CCAPM-based valuation model yields a significantly lower MAVE than the best performing...... standard valuation model. Both types of models can identify investment strategies with subsequent excess returns. The CCAPM-based valuation model yields time-series of realized hedge returns with more and higher positive returns and fewer and less negative returns compared with the time-series of realized...... through a risk-adjusted cost of equity in the denominator. The risk adjustments are derived based on assumptions about the time-series properties of residual income returns and aggregate consumption rather than on historical stock returns. We compare the performance of the model with several...

  18. Consumption-based Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Peter Ove

    2013-01-01

    the performance of the model with several implementations of standard valuation models, both in terms of absolute valuation errors, and in terms of the returns on simple investment strategies based on the differences between model and market prices in the respective valuation models. The CCAPM-based valuation...... model performs substantially better than the best performing standard valuation model when comparing absolute valuation errors. Both types of models are able to identify investment strategies with subsequent excess returns but also in this setting, the CCAPM-based valuation model outperforms...... residual income for risk in the numerator rather than through a risk-adjusted cost of equity in the denominator. The risk-adjustments are derived based on assumptions about the time-series properties of residual income returns and aggregate consumption rather than on historical stock returns. We compare...

  19. The Equity-Equality Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2013-01-01

    -for-performance systems) perceived as fair and when are they not? When can differences in contribution (equity) overrule the social norm of equality? Which contingent reward structure should be applied for teamwork members, if any? Which structure to motivate employees to a continuous search for smarter working......This article investigatesthe factors that determine workplace actors’ appeal to social norms of fairness in some situations and what ‘fairness’ is perceived as consisting of. When is a pay level considered as relativity fair, and when is it not? When are contingent pay systems (i.e. pay...... procedures and solutions? These are central concerns of motivation theory, where rational choice decisions are counterbalanced by endowment effectsor other fairness concerns. Management is placed in a dilemma between what is, e.g., an economically rational structure of incentives, on the one hand, and what...

  20. Liquidity Risk and Distressed Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medhat, Mamdouh

    I show theoretically and empirically that cash holdings can help rationalize the low returns to distressed equity. In my model, levered firms with financing constraints optimally choose their cash holdings to eliminate liquidity risk and optimally default when insolvent. Using data on solvency......, liquidity, and returns for US firms, I find evidence consistent with the model’s predictions: (1) In all solvency levels, the average firm holds enough liquid assets to cover its short-term liabilities; less solvent firms have (2) a higher fraction of their total assets in liquid assets and therefore (3......) lower conditional betas and (4) lower returns; (5) the profits of long-short solvency strategies are highest among firms with low liquidity; and (6) the profits of long-short liquidity strategies are highest among firms with low solvency....

  1. When is a randomised controlled trial health equity relevant? Development and validation of a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, J; Whitehead, M; Petticrew, M; Kristjansson, E; Gough, D; Petkovic, J; Volmink, J; Weijer, C; Taljaard, M; Edwards, S; Mbuagbaw, L; Cookson, R; McGowan, J; Lyddiatt, A; Boyer, Y; Cuervo, L G; Armstrong, R; White, H; Yoganathan, M; Pantoja, T; Shea, B; Pottie, K; Norheim, O; Baird, S; Robberstad, B; Sommerfelt, H; Asada, Y; Wells, G; Tugwell, P; Welch, V

    2017-09-25

    Randomised controlled trials can provide evidence relevant to assessing the equity impact of an intervention, but such information is often poorly reported. We describe a conceptual framework to identify health equity-relevant randomised trials with the aim of improving the design and reporting of such trials. An interdisciplinary and international research team engaged in an iterative consensus building process to develop and refine the conceptual framework via face-to-face meetings, teleconferences and email correspondence, including findings from a validation exercise whereby two independent reviewers used the emerging framework to classify a sample of randomised trials. A randomised trial can usefully be classified as 'health equity relevant' if it assesses the effects of an intervention on the health or its determinants of either individuals or a population who experience ill health due to disadvantage defined across one or more social determinants of health. Health equity-relevant randomised trials can either exclusively focus on a single population or collect data potentially useful for assessing differential effects of the intervention across multiple populations experiencing different levels or types of social disadvantage. Trials that are not classified as 'health equity relevant' may nevertheless provide information that is indirectly relevant to assessing equity impact, including information about individual level variation unrelated to social disadvantage and potentially useful in secondary modelling studies. The conceptual framework may be used to design and report randomised trials. The framework could also be used for other study designs to contribute to the evidence base for improved health equity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Venture Capital and Other Private Equity: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Metrick; Ayako Yasuda

    2010-01-01

    We review the theory and evidence on venture capital (VC) and other private equity: why professional private equity exists, what private equity managers do with their portfolio companies, what returns they earn, who earns more and why, what determines the design of contracts signed between (i) private equity managers and their portfolio companies and (ii) private equity managers and their investors (limited partners), and how/whether these contractual designs affect outcomes. Findings highlig...

  3. Private Equity for Retail Investors : How to efficiently involve Finnish retail investors in private equity

    OpenAIRE

    Moita, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Private equity has been the best performing asset class for institutional investors. Meanwhile, retail investors have been left out from the asset class for several reasons, such as legislation and wealth profiling. This study aims at assessing the types of private equity vehicles that could be the most appropriate for Finnish retail investors. The study solely focuses on the investment opportunities, hence it does not cover investment behaviour. Private equity should not be a primary as...

  4. Influences of Seasoned Equity Offerings on Stock Return of Ho Chi Minh Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Viet Tien

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the impact of seasoned equity offerings (SEO on stock return of listed companies in Ho Chi Minh City market using the method “event study” which has been basically formed by Campbell, Lo, and MacKinlay (1997. The sample includes 332 SEOs from 2007 to 2010. The main findings show evidence that the Ho Chi Minh City market was not efficient in terms of the semi-strong form because the price has increased significantly on the ex-right date, day 0. In an opposite way, the market also reacted significantly negatively from T-4 to T-2. There are some significant impacts of timing on issue methods – equity right issues were in priority for favorable time and issues as “dividend by stocks” were chosen during unfavorable time. Keywords: Efficient Market Hypothesis, event study, Seasoned Equity Offerings

  5. The Determinants of Equity Risk and Their Forecasting Implications: A Quantile Regression Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bonaccolto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Several market and macro-level variables influence the evolution of equity risk in addition to the well-known volatility persistence. However, the impact of those covariates might change depending on the risk level, being different between low and high volatility states. By combining equity risk estimates, obtained from the Realized Range Volatility, corrected for microstructure noise and jumps, and quantile regression methods, we evaluate the forecasting implications of the equity risk determinants in different volatility states and, without distributional assumptions on the realized range innovations, we recover both the points and the conditional distribution forecasts. In addition, we analyse how the the relationships among the involved variables evolve over time, through a rolling window procedure. The results show evidence of the selected variables’ relevant impacts and, particularly during periods of market stress, highlight heterogeneous effects across quantiles.

  6. Positioning of equity in financial intermediation cooperatives compared to IFRS on financial instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Martínez Batista

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research has not transeccional experimental and design, it focuses on analyzing the equity position of financial intermediation cooperatives (I.F. against the contributions of its partners. Begins with theoretical approaches of international and local accounting standards, the ratio of total invested assets versus liabilities, Heritage and Contributions. The case study analyzed the balance sheet figures, the real differences under the uncertainty of the full standard. The results show 14.8% equity and deterioration of overall indebtedness in the same order. Case Study In the real situation, versus the full standard, and considering the irreducible minimum of Capital Contributions, as decreases in 10.2% Equity and Financial Liabilities increased 10.2%. In conclusion, it is considered solvent use some strategy that the situation of international accounting standards with national converge for the benefit of cooperatives.

  7. The Influence of the Country of Origin Image on Brand Equity: A Study of Spanish Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Alves Prado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As there are few studies on the influence of the country of origin image on brand equity for services companies (as it is the case of financial institutions, the aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of the country of origin image on the brand equity of Spanish banks. A descriptive and quantitative research was employed, using the survey method to verify the hypothesis that the country of origin image (Spain positively influences the brand equity of Spanish banks. The main statistical analyzes were the  factor analysis and the multiple regression analysis. As a result, it was found that the Attitude dimension underlying the variable Brand equity of Spanish banks suffered more influence than the Awareness dimension. Furthermore, it was found that the country of origin image positively influences the brand equity of Spanish banks. The technical aspects, in general, influence more than friendly aspects, thus implying a direction for the Spain brand development strategy focused on these aspects. Limitations of this study include the use of a non-probability sample and the use of Spanish banks as the object of study. We suggest the development of new works in the services area, in different categories and with different countries of origin, in order to provide further discussion and theoretical basis for future studies and strategic actions, aiming to create and improve the image of countries.

  8. Equity and Value in 'Precision Medicine'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Muir; Lagerberg, Tyra; Dombrádi, Viktor

    2017-04-01

    Precision medicine carries huge potential in the treatment of many diseases, particularly those with high-penetrance monogenic underpinnings. However, precision medicine through genomic technologies also has ethical implications. We will define allocative, personal, and technical value ('triple value') in healthcare and how this relates to equity. Equity is here taken to be implicit in the concept of triple value in countries that have publicly funded healthcare systems. It will be argued that precision medicine risks concentrating resources to those that already experience greater access to healthcare and power in society, nationally as well as globally. Healthcare payers, clinicians, and patients must all be involved in optimising the potential of precision medicine, without reducing equity. Throughout, the discussion will refer to the NHS RightCare Programme, which is a national initiative aiming to improve value and equity in the context of NHS England.

  9. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios Arvanitis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  10. RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL ISSUES IN GENDER EQUITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL ISSUES IN GENDER EQUITY: IMPLICATION FOR ... Education and Culture of any country determine its developmental rate. Culture affects the way ... expectations that people of one gender are expected to fulfill ...

  11. Improvement of Educational Equity & Teacher Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Rodríguez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Educational improvement for equity and professional teacher development are crucial issues concerning the essential right all students have of a good education. Firstly the article proposes a contextual reflection on improvement, some considerations related to well known traditions in the field and particularly the social justice and its relationships and implication for educational politics, curriculum, teaching, teacher and community. Secondly, it claims for the coherence of teacher professional development to educational equity. Different analysis and proposals are outlined related to policies and tasks the public administration should undertake and some dimensions of teacher education are considered attending educational equity criteria. Professional learning communities are described and valued as a hypothetical framework in order to improve equity and teacher education relationships.

  12. 76 FR 6774 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... rise to the achievement gap, with a focus on systems of finance, and recommend appropriate ways in... recommendations for restructuring school finance systems to achieve equity in the distribution of educational...

  13. 76 FR 55059 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... gap, with a focus on systems of finance, and recommend appropriate ways in which Federal policies... restructuring school finance systems to achieve equity in the distribution of educational resources and further...

  14. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  15. 28 CFR 548.15 - Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.15 Equity. No one may disparage the religious beliefs of an inmate, nor coerce or harass an inmate to change religious affiliation. Attendance at all...

  16. Financialisation in health care: An analysis of private equity fund investments in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren Vural, Ipek

    2017-08-01

    The 2007-2008 global financial crisis revived interest in the impacts of financial markets and actors on our social and economic life. Nevertheless, research on health care financialisation remains scant. This article presents findings from research on one modality of financial investments in health care: global private equity funds' investments in private hospitals. Adopting a political economy approach, it analyses the drivers and impacts of the upsurge of global private equity investments in the Turkish private hospital sector amid the global financial crisis. The analysis derives from review of research and archival literature, as well as six in-depth interviews held with owners/executive board directors/general managers of the largest private hospital chains in Turkey and the general partners of their PE investors. The interviewing process took place between January and November 2016. All interviews were conducted by the author in Istanbul. The findings point to a mutually reinforcing relationship between neoliberal policies and financialisation processes in health care. The article shows that neoliberal healthcare reforms, introduced under consecutive Justice and Development Party (JDP) governments in Turkey, have been important precursors of private equity investments in healthcare services. These private equity investments, in turn, intensified and broadened the process of marketisation in health care services. Four impacts are identified, through which private equity investments hasten the marketisation of health care services. These relate to the impacts of private equity investments on a) advancing the process of chain formation by large hospital groups, b) spreading financial imperatives into the operations of private hospitals c) fostering internationalisation of capital, and d) augmenting inequities in access to health care services and standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Achieving Health Equity Through Community Engagement in Translating Evidence to Policy: The San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership, 2010?2016

    OpenAIRE

    Grumbach, Kevin; Vargas, Roberto A.; Fleisher, Paula; Arag?n, Tom?s J.; Chung, Lisa; Chawla, Colleen; Yant, Abbie; Garcia, Estela R.; Santiago, Amor; Lang, Perry L.; Jones, Paula; Liu, Wylie; Schmidt, Laura A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership (SFHIP) promotes health equity by using a novel collective impact model that blends community engagement with evidence-to-policy translational science. The model involves diverse stakeholders, including ethnic-based community health equity coalitions, the local public health department, hospitals and health systems, a health sciences university, a school district, the faith community, and others sectors. Community Context We report o...

  18. Brand Equity and Factors Affecting Consumer-s Purchase Intention towards Luxury Brands in Bangkok Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Sumalee Lekprayura

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this research were 1) to study consumer-based equity of luxury brands, 2) to study consumers- purchase intention for luxury brands, 3) to study direct factors affecting purchase intention towards luxury brands, and 4) to study indirect factors affecting purchase intention towards luxury brands through brand consciousness and brand equity to analyze information by descriptive statistic and hierarchical stepwise regression analysis. The findings revealed tha...

  19. Dampak Brand Equity pada Keputusan Pembelian melalui Brand Preference Konsumen pada Produk Televisi Merek Sony di Kota Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    Restuti, Sri; Sulistyowati, Lilis; Prajnagaja, Soracca Devi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of brand equity on the purchase decisions of consumers through brand preference Sony brand televisions in the city of Pekanbaru. This study used 112 samples. The analytical method used is descriptive analysis method is a way to test variables, regression test, and final test path analysis or path analysis. From the results of the testing that has been done, brand equity directly affect Consumer Buying Decision on Sony Television Products in Pekanbaru "is...

  20. Determinants of Beef and Pork Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2003-01-01

    A set of consumer-level characteristic demand models were estimated to determine the level of brand equity for pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premiums and discounts vary by private, national, and store brands; and brand equity varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Other results are that product size discounts are linear, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically do not garner higher prices than supermark...

  1. Equity Volatility and Corporate Bond Yields

    OpenAIRE

    John Y. Campbell; Glen B. Taksler

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of equity volatility on corporate bond yields. Panel data for the late 1990s show that idiosyncratic firm-level volatility can explain as much cross-sectional variation in yields as can credit ratings. This finding, together with the upward trend in idiosyncratic equity volatility documented by Campbell, Lettau, Malkiel, and Xu (2001), helps to explain recent increases in corporate bond yields. The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com.

  2. Brand equity in the Pakistani hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ishaq, Muhammad Ishtiaq; Hussain, Nazia; Asim, Ali Ijaz; Cheema, Luqman J.

    2014-01-01

    Brand equity is considered as the most important aspect of branding, which is a set of brands' assets and liabilities, its symbol or name that subtracts from or adds the value provided by a product or service to a firm and customers. The current research endeavor was to identify the interrelationship of customer-based brand equity dimensions (brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand image, and service quality) in Pakistani hotel industry. Data was collected from 821 consumers who experienced the...

  3. Impact of collection conditions on the metabolite content of human urine samples as analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Aurélie; Thévenot, Etienne A; Seguin, François; Olivier, Marie-Françoise; Junot, Christophe

    There is a lack of comprehensive studies documenting the impact of sample collection conditions on metabolic composition of human urine. To address this issue, two experiments were performed at a 3-month interval, in which midstream urine samples from healthy individuals were collected, pooled, divided into several aliquots and kept under specific conditions (room temperature, 4 °C, with or without preservative) up to 72 h before storage at -80 °C. Samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry and bacterial contamination was monitored by turbidimetry. Multivariate analyses showed that urinary metabolic fingerprints were affected by the presence of preservatives and also by storage at room temperature from 24 to 72 h, whereas no change was observed for urine samples stored at 4 °C over a 72-h period. Investigations were then focused on 280 metabolites previously identified in urine: 19 of them were impacted by the kind of sample collection protocol in both experiments, including 12 metabolites affected by bacterial contamination and 7 exhibiting poor chemical stability. Finally, our results emphasize that the use of preservative prevents bacterial overgrowth, but does not avoid metabolite instability in solution, whereas storage at 4 °C inhibits bacterial overgrowth at least over a 72-h period and slows the chemical degradation process. Consequently, and for further LC/MS analyses, human urine samples should be kept at 4 °C if their collection is performed over 24 h.

  4. Sustaining a Focus on Health Equity at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Through Organizational Structures and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Hazel D; Roberts, George W; Bouye, Karen E; Green, Yvonne; McDonald, Marian

    2016-01-01

    The public health infrastructure required for achieving health equity is multidimensional and complex. The infrastructure should be responsive to current and emerging priorities and capable of providing the foundation for developing, planning, implementing, and evaluating health initiatives. This article discusses these infrastructure requirements by examining how they are operationalized in the organizational infrastructure for promoting health equity at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, utilizing the nation's premier public health agency as a lens. Examples from the history of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's work in health equity from its centers, institute, and offices are provided to identify those structures and functions that are critical to achieving health equity. Challenges and facilitators to sustaining a health equity organizational infrastructure, as gleaned from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's experience, are noted. Finally, we provide additional considerations for expanding and sustaining a health equity infrastructure, which the authors hope will serve as "food for thought" for practitioners in state, tribal, or local health departments, community-based organizations, or nongovernmental organizations striving to create or maintain an impactful infrastructure to achieve health equity.

  5. Keynes, population, and equity prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarascio, V J

    1985-01-01

    Keynes in 1937 examined the phenomenon of the Great Depression from a longrun perspective in contradiction to the "General Theory," where the focus was on the shortrun. "Some Economic Consequences of a Declining Population," Keynes' article, reveals the context in which the "General Theory" was written. In the "General Theory," the focus is on short-term fluctuations, i.e., business cycles, but Keynes fails to provide any theoretical explanation as to why the depression of the 1930s was so severe and intractable. In the 1937 article, the depression is seen as the result of the combined effects of a decline in longrun growth due to population growth decline and a shortrun cyclical decline, together producing severe economic consequences. What is important for the purposes of this discussion is the implication, within the context of the 1937 article, that not only was the stock market crash of 1929 related to population change (with its accompanying collapse in expectations) but that, in general, changes in the rate of growth of population are accompanied by stock price movements in the same direction. The remainder of the discussion is devoted to a simple empirical test of this relationship. The data used are population size (POP), defined as the total residential population in the US from 1870-1979, and the Standard and Poor 500 Stock index (SP) for the corresponding 109-year period. In addition, a 3rd series was constructed, a price deflated Standard and Poor index (RSP) with a base period of 1870, to account for possible inflationary distortion of the index. The empirical results do not invalidate the hypothesis that population growth rates affect equity markets. In fact, there seems to be strong evidence that they are related in a manner suggestive of Keynes' intutition, namely, that the stock market crash of 1929 was due to factors more fundamental than those often perceived from a shortrun perspective. According to Keynes (1937), population is the most

  6. Equity Options During the Shorting Ban of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusret Cakici

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Securities and Exchange Commission’s 2008 emergency order introduced a shorting ban of some 800 financials traded in the US. This paper provides an empirical analysis of the options market around the ban period. Using transaction level data from OPRA (The Options Price Reporting Authority, we study the options volume, spreads, pricing measures and option trade volume informativeness during the ban. We also consider the put–call parity relationship. While mostly statistically significant, economic magnitudes of our results suggest that the impact of the ban on the equity options market was likely not as dramatic as initially thought.

  7. Analyzing The Impacts of the Biogas-to-Electricity Purchase Incentives on Electric Vehicle Deployment with the MA3T Vehicle Choice Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podkaminer, Kara [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); Xie, Fei [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    scenario 2025 also represents the last year in which biogas-derived electricity is able to fully supply the transportation electricity demand in the model. After 2025, the credit value declines on a per vehicle basis. At the same time a larger fraction of the credit may shift towards biogas producers in order to incent additional biogas production. The expanded 41 TWh/year biogas availability scenarios represent an increase beyond today s generation capacity and allow greater eRIN generation. With a 5.24kWh/RIN equivalence value, when all of the credit is directed towards reducing vehicle purchase prices, the 41 TWh/year biogas scenario results in 4.1 million additional PHEVs and 12.2 million additional BEVs on the road in 2030 beyond the baseline of 2.5 million PHEVs and 6.1 million BEVs. Under this expanded biogas capacity, biogas-derived electricity generation is able to fully supply electricity for a fleet of over 21 million EVs (15.6 million BEVs and 5.8 million PHEVs) on a yearly basis. In addition to assessing the full value credit scenarios described above, multiple scenarios were analyzed to determine the impact if only a fraction of the credit value was passed on to the consumer. In all of these cases, the EV deployment was scaled back as the fraction of the credit that was passed on to the consumer was reduced. These scenarios can be used to estimate the impact if the credit value is reduced in other ways as well, as demonstrated by the scenarios where the current (22.6 kWh/RIN) equivalence value was used. The EV deployment that results from an equivalence value of 22.6 kWh/RIN equivalence value is roughly equivalent to the EV deployment observed in the 25% case using the 5.24 kWh/RIN equivalence value. A higher equivalence value means that a smaller number of credits, and therefore value, is created for each kWh, and therefore the impact on EV deployment is reduced. This analysis shows several of the drivers that will impact eRIN generation and credit value

  8. Impact of reduced-radiation dual-energy protocols using 320-detector row computed tomography for analyzing urinary calculus components: initial in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiangran; Zhou, Qingchun; Yu, Juan; Xian, Zhaohui; Feng, Youzhen; Yang, Wencai; Mo, Xukai

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of reduced-radiation dual-energy (DE) protocols using 320-detector row computed tomography on the differentiation of urinary calculus components. A total of 58 urinary calculi were placed into the same phantom and underwent DE scanning with 320-detector row computed tomography. Each calculus was scanned 4 times with the DE protocols using 135 kV and 80 kV tube voltage and different tube current combinations, including 100 mA and 570 mA (group A), 50 mA and 290 mA (group B), 30 mA and 170 mA (group C), and 10 mA and 60 mA (group D). The acquisition data of all 4 groups were then analyzed by stone DE analysis software, and the results were compared with x-ray diffraction analysis. Noise, contrast-to-noise ratio, and radiation dose were compared. Calculi were correctly identified in 56 of 58 stones (96.6%) using group A and B protocols. However, only 35 stones (60.3%) and 16 stones (27.6%) were correctly diagnosed using group C and D protocols, respectively. Mean noise increased significantly and mean contrast-to-noise ratio decreased significantly from groups A to D (P calculus component analysis while reducing patient radiation exposure to 1.81 mSv. Further reduction of tube currents may compromise diagnostic accuracy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The use of a simulation model to analyze the impact of heavy transport generated by the port to the city traffic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasiak Natalia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the impact of transport on heavy urban traffic on Wharf Kwiatkowski using program PTV Vissim. The data for analysis were taken from the Road and Greenery in Gdynia from program PTV Visum. Attention has been focused on vehicle traffic in the afternoon the top of its intensity. Model of Kwiatkowskiego Wharf, made entirely in the PTV VISSIM, was used for microscopic simulation of traffic. With its help, it was possible to find and analyze the behavior of each autonomous vehicle and interactions on the Web. For the analysis was used as a program of traffic lights currency at these junctions. The analysis results of simulation in the PTV VISSIM are related to the movement of the two structures. The first assumes that the route will move cars and trucks, taking into account their share in the network based on the intensity of traffic during peak hours of the afternoon, the second consisted only of cars. The results presented are based on measuring the time of travel and delays on specific relationships and the average length of queues at selected inlets. The results of analysis and simulation tests were subjected to statistical analysis.

  10. Methodological Aspects of the Potential Use of Dendrochronological Techniques When Analyzing the Long-Term Impact of Tourism on Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciapała, Szymon; Adamski, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Intensification of pedestrian tourism causes damage to trees near tourist tracks, and likewise changes the soil structure. As a result, one may expect that annual amount of trees growing near tracks is significantly lower than deeper in the forest. However, during the study of the long-term impact of tourism on the environment (determined from tree increment dynamics), some methodological problems may occur. It is particularly important in protected areas where law and administrative regulations related to nature conservation force research to be conducted using small samples. In this paper we have analyzed the data collected in the Polish part of the Tatra National Park in the two study plots divided into two zones each: the area directly under the influence of the tourist's trampling and the control group. The aim of such analyses was to present the potential effects of the factors which may affect the results of dendrochronological analysis: (i) small size of samples that affects their representativeness, (ii) spatial differences in the rates of the process, as a result of spatial variability of environmental factors and (iii) temporal differences in the rates of the process. This study confirms that the factors mentioned above could significantly influence the results and should be taken into consideration during the analysis.

  11. Methodological Aspects of the Potential Use of Dendrochronological Techniques When Analyzing the Long-Term Impact of Tourism on Protected Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Ciapała

    Full Text Available Intensification of pedestrian tourism causes damage to trees near tourist tracks, and likewise changes the soil structure. As a result, one may expect that annual amount of trees growing near tracks is significantly lower than deeper in the forest. However, during the study of the long-term impact of tourism on the environment (determined from tree increment dynamics, some methodological problems may occur. It is particularly important in protected areas where law and administrative regulations related to nature conservation force research to be conducted using small samples. In this paper we have analyzed the data collected in the Polish part of the Tatra National Park in the two study plots divided into two zones each: the area directly under the influence of the tourist's trampling and the control group. The aim of such analyses was to present the potential effects of the factors which may affect the results of dendrochronological analysis: (i small size of samples that affects their representativeness, (ii spatial differences in the rates of the process, as a result of spatial variability of environmental factors and (iii temporal differences in the rates of the process. This study confirms that the factors mentioned above could significantly influence the results and should be taken into consideration during the analysis.

  12. KNOWLEDGE, PERCEPTION AND ATTITUDE OF BALINESE COMMUNITY TOWARD GENDER CONCEPT AND GENDER EQUITY AND EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Arjani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gender inequity and inequality in the community would restrict developmentprocess. Therefore, struggle toward gender equity and equality is become interestingglobal issue for the world and also Indonesia and Bali.The aims of this study is 1 to analyze knowledge, perception, and attitude ofBalinese community toward gender concept and gender equity and equality, and 2 toknow implementation of gender role in the family and community. This study is carriedout in the three regencies/city in Bali, i.e. Buleleng, Tabanan and Denpasar. In eachregency/city, two types of village is determined that are urban and rural. Data arecollected by implementing structured interview based on questionnaire which is asked to120 respondents and completed with in-depth interview based on interview guidance tosome key respondents.The finding shows that most of respondent (68.30 % have not known genderconcept, means that only 21.70 percent stated that they already known it, and they havedifferent understanding both about gender term and gender equity and equality. Withregard to gender equity and equality, only 24.20 percent of respondent report that theyhave read and heard about this term. However, when it is related to gender equity andequality program, most of them (91.60 % of respondent stated that they agree with sucha program. In addition, it is also found that in the reality, almost all respondent actuallyhave implemented job sharing between man and women flexibly, means that they swapthe role of each other depend on situation and condition. This reality reflects that there isa shifting of thinking pattern of the community from rigid toward flexible division of job.Based on the findings, it can be concluded that although only small number ofcommunity member have known and understand gender concept and gender equity andequality, actually they have implemented it in their daily life. In general, communitymember also agree for changing their attitude toward gender role

  13. Equity, tariffing, regulation: analysis of the cost allocation policies of an electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezzina, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, an analysis in terms of equity of policies of tariffing regulation and cost allocation of a multi-products electric company (organized as a natural monopoly) is proposed. The goal is double. In a standard point of view, the first goal is to show that today's literature in the domains of public economy, industrial organization and regulation (traditionally based on efficiency considerations) is able to supply reading keys for the analysis of moral philosophy problems. In a positive point of view, the second goal is to demonstrate that the equity criterion is operational enough to judge tariffing management practices in a particular industrial environment and can be used as a regulatory instrument by an ethics-concerned authority. The document is organized in two parts. An ethical and economical analysis of the equity concepts between allocation efficiency, production efficiency and tariffing practices of companies is proposed first. A particular equity concept is considered which is ready to be implemented for the regulation of a public utility, and the ins and outs expected with an equity theory of tariffing practices are evoked. In a second part, an analysis of goal conflicts between the authority and the regulated company is made in a point of view of equity regulation and cost allocation. An improved equity criterion is defined first, from which a measure is built and becomes a tool for the regulatory authority. Then, its use by a regulatory authority fully informed or encountering information asymmetry problems are analyzed in order to show its stakes on the cost allocation and tariffing policies of the company. (J.S.)

  14. Design and Feasibility Testing of the truth FinishIt Tobacco Countermarketing Brand Equity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Rath, Jessica; Pitzer, Lindsay; Hair, Elizabeth C; Snider, Jeremy; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna

    2016-07-01

    The original truth campaign was a branded, national smoking prevention mass media effort focused on at-risk youth ages 12-17. Today the truth brand focuses on the goal of finishing tobacco (truth FinishIt). There have been significant changes in the tobacco control landscape, leading FinishIt to focus on 15- to 21-year-olds. The present article reports on formative research and media monitoring data collected to pilot test a new truth FinishIt brand equity scale. The goals of this study were to (a) content analyze truth FinishIt mass media ads, (b) assess truth's social media and followers' perceptions of truth's digital brand identity, and (c) develop and feasibility test a new version of the truth FinishIt brand equity scale using data from an existing Truth Initiative media monitoring study. Through factor analysis, we identified a brand equity scale, as in previous research, consisting of 4 main constructs: brand loyalty, leadership/satisfaction, personality, and awareness. Targeted truth attitudes and beliefs about social perceptions, acceptability, and industry-related beliefs were regressed on the higher order factor and each of the 4 individual brand equity factors. Ordinary least squares regression models generally showed associations in the expected directions (positive for anti-tobacco and negative for pro-tobacco) between targeted attitudes/beliefs and truth FinishIt brand equity. This study succeeded in developing and validating a new truth FinishIt brand equity scale. The scale may be a valuable metric for future campaign evaluation. Future studies should examine the effects of truth FinishIt brand equity on tobacco use behavioral outcomes over time.

  15. Private equity leveraged buyout and public values : The bankruptcy of Eircom, Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, W.; Groenewegen, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 the Delft University of Technology was commissioned by the Ministry of Economic Affairs of the Netherlands to investigate the potential impact of private equity leverage buy-out in the telecommunication sector on the public values that the government wished to safeguard. The study provided

  16. Can the Stock Market Anticipate Future Operating Performance? Evidence from Equity Rights Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Roosenboom, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines whether the stock market valuation impact is consistent with subsequent operating performance of firms. We use data for equity rights offerings - the widely adopted flotation method in the Netherlands. We first examine the stock market announcement effect of rights issues and

  17. Can the stock market anticipate future operating performance? Evidence from equity rights issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kabir (Rezaul); P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines whether the stock market valuation impact is consistent with subsequent operating performance of firms. We use data for equity rights offerings - the widely adopted flotation method in the Netherlands. We first examine the stock market announcement effect of rights

  18. New private equity models : How should the interests of investors and managers be aligned?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Cahery, J.A.; Vermeulen, E.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    The recent global turbulence in the credit markets had a severe impact on all aspects of the private equity industry. In response, lawmakers introduced legislation that subjects fund managers to a registration requirement and provisions targeted at improving fund monitoring and accountability. Yet,

  19. Formula-Based Public School Funding System in Victoria: An Empirical Analysis of Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaranayake, Bandara

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the formula-based school funding system in the state of Victoria, Australia, where state funds are directly allocated to schools based on a range of equity measures. The impact of Victoria' funding system for education in terms of alleviating inequality and disadvantage is contentious, to say the least. It is difficult to…

  20. Generating Global Brand Equity through Corporate Social Responsibility to Key Stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Lacomba, Anna; Atribo, Jo; Bijmolt, Tammo H.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we argue that socially responsible policies have positive short-term and long-term impact on equity of global brands. We find that corporate social responsibility towards all stakeholders, whether primary (customers, shareholders, employees and suppliers) or secondary (community), have

  1. The relative importance of the brand of music festivals: a customer equity perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, M.A.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine the relative impact of tangible and intangible factors on the success of music festivals. The paper draws on literature relating to hedonic consumption, customer equity, loyalty, and the success of music festivals. Data are collected among music festival goers by

  2. What Happens to a Nursing Home Chain When Private Equity Takes Over? A Longitudinal Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Harrington, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed what happens to a nursing home chain when private equity takes over, with regard to strategy, financial performance, and resident well-being. We conducted a longitudinal (2000-2012) case study of a large nursing home chain that triangulated qualitative and quantitative data from 5

  3. Diversification in Private Equity Funds : On Knowledge-sharing, Risk-aversion and Limited-attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humphery-Jenner, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines diversification as a source of value creation and destruction in private equity. The literature has focused on the `diversification discount' in corporations. It has not analyzed diversification in PE-funds, where diversification might increase value by ameliorating managerial

  4. Vocational Education and the Work Establishment of Youth: Equity and Effectiveness Issues. A Rand Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Sue E.

    A study examined data from literature and from three surveys of high school students to analyze the equity of the way in which high schools assign students to the vocational track and the effectiveness of vocational education in preparing students for work. Data revealed that while students' junior high abilities, achievement, and curricular…

  5. A Report to the Minnesota Legislature concerning Interscholastic Athletic Equity in Minnesota High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dildine, Robert A.

    This report analyzes interscholastic athletic programs offered by Minnesota high schools to identify errors in data reporting and suggest corrective action, identify areas of gender inequality in athletic offerings, and identify needed improvements in rule, law, or reporting requirements. The report outlines issues in sports equity, compares…

  6. The Culture of Exclusion in Mathematics Education and Its Persistence in Equity-Oriented Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Nicole L.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I investigate the influence of the dominant culture characterizing mathematics education--which I term the "culture of exclusion"--on efforts to teach for equity. Analyzing a year of observations in an urban high school mathematics department, I found that this culture structured everyday instruction even for teachers…

  7. Brand equity v kategorii jogurtů na českém trhu.

    OpenAIRE

    Flodrová, Tereza

    2008-01-01

    Thesis deals with the subject of brand value / equity. In the application part equity of selected brands of yoghurts is measured using Equity Builder and Brand Power methodologies and recommendations for their brand equity growth are given.

  8. The determinant of equity financing in sharia banking and sharia business units

    OpenAIRE

    Effendi, Jaenal

    2018-01-01

    Equity financing plays an important role in mobilizing financing in the real sector. The core business of sharia banking is based on the real sector, but the financing portion in sharia banking is still dominated by debt financing. This study aims to analyze the factors that affect equity financing in General Sharia Bank (BUS) and Sharia Business Unit (SBU) in Indonesia. This study uses Error Correction Model. The results show that in the long-term model of Third Party Fund (DPK), Finance to ...

  9. Societal foundations for explaining fertility: Gender equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McDonald

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gender equity theory in relation to fertility argues that very low fertility is the result of incoherence in the levels of gender equity in individually-oriented social institutions and family-oriented social institutions. The salience of gender to the fertility transition is strong in theory but not as strong in specification of testable hypotheses as has been pointed out in the literature. OBJECTIVE The paper aims to clarify the specification of gender equity theory through a discussion of the difference between equity and equality and to suggest methods that might be applied to test the theory. METHODS The theory is restated and further developed using literature from different disciplines. The method is described using a decomposition of fertility for women by human capital levels. RESULTS The clarification of the theory includes a reminder that the theory relates to differences in fertility between countries and not to differences in fertility between women in the same country. In comparisons between countries, higher gender equity leads to higher fertility. In comparisons of fertility across women in the same country, higher gender equity does not necessarily imply higher fertility. In relation to measurement, a specification is suggested that effectively compares women across countries controlling for their level of human capital. Simple graphics are used to indicate ways in which fertility between countries may vary. CONCLUSIONS The paper concludes that it is likely the gender equity theory can be tested more readily by examining the behaviour across countries of women with higher levels of human capital.

  10. Assessing a brand equity model for fast moving consumer goods in cosmetic and hygiene industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Karbasivar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of ten factors on brand equity. The study provides an assessment using a brand equity model for fast moving consumer goods in cosmetic and hygiene industry. The study has accomplished among people who purchase goods in six major cities of Iran based on an adapted questionnaire originally developed by Aaker (1992a [Aaker, D. A. (1992a. The value of brand equity. Journal of Business Strategy, 13(4, 27-32.]. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.88, which is well above the minimum acceptable level of 0.7. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling adequacy and Bartlett's test of Sphericity approximation Chi-Square are 0.878, 276628 with Sig. = 0.000, respectively. The proposed study of this paper uses structural equation modeling to test different hypotheses of the survey. The Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA, Comparative Fit Index (CFI and Chi-Square/df are 0.067, 0.840 and 4.244 and they are within desirable levels. While the effects of seven factors on brand equity have been confirmed. However, the survey does not confirm the effects of perceived value, advertisement effectiveness and advertisement to brand on brand equity. In our survey, brand loyalty maintains the highest positive impact followed by having updated brand, trust to brand, perceived quality to brand, brand awareness, intensity of supply and perception to brand.

  11. Implementation of Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool: a Case of Matsapha, Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makadzange, Kevin; Radebe, Zamahlubi; Maseko, Nokuthula; Lukhele, Voyivoyi; Masuku, Sabelo; Fakudze, Gciniwe; Mengestu, Tigest Ketsela; Prasad, Amit

    2018-04-03

    Equity in health implies that ideally everyone could attain their full health potential and that no one should be disadvantaged from achieving this potential because of their social position or other socially determined circumstances. Making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable contributes towards ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages in dignity, equality and in a healthy environment. This paper illustrates a case of applying the Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART) in a small town in Africa. It describes the process followed, facilitating factors and challenges faced. A descriptive single-case study design using qualitative research methods was adopted to collect data from purposively selected respondents. The study revealed that residents of the Matsapha peri-urban informal settlements faced challenges with conditions of daily living which impacted negatively on their health. There were health equity gaps. The application of the tools was facilitated by the formation of an all-inclusive team, intersectoral collaboration and incorporating strategies for improving urban health equity into existing programmes and projects. Urban HEART is a simple and easy to use valuable tool for pursuing the goal of health equity towards attaining sustainable development through evidence-based approaches for intersectoral action and community involvement.

  12. Influence of gender equity awareness on women's reproductive healthcare in rural areas of midwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Cui, Ying; Zhang, Li; Wang, Chao; Jiang, Yan; Shi, Wei

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the impact of married women's gender equity awareness on use of reproductive healthcare services in rural China. The questionnaire-based study recruited 1500 married women who were aged 15-49years, had at least 1 pregnancy, and were living in rural Gansu, Qinghai, Shanxi, or Xinjiang, China, between October and December 2010. "Gender equity awareness" was quantified by responses to 7 statements, graded in accordance with a system scoring the strength of overall belief (≥19, strong; 15-18, moderate; and ≤14, weak). Only 383 women (26.3%) demonstrated high gender equity awareness. The percentage of women who received consistent prenatal care was highest in the group scoring 15 points or more (Pgender equity awareness is not strong in rural midwest China. There was a positive correlation between gender equity awareness and use of reproductive healthcare services. There should be an emphasis on various activities to educate women so that they can fully access reproductive healthcare. © 2013.

  13. Prioritizing Factors Affecting Internet Companies' Brand Equity (Allame Tabatabayi University's Students' Viewpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Mohammadian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lack of appropriate strategies to enhance brand equity of Internet companies needs particular attention in Iran. The aim of this research is to study factors influencing on the brand equity of internet companies. The study is descriptive-survey type. At first, different factors influencing on brand equity were defined. Then the hypothesis was examined via regression analysis (Partial Least Squares Modeling. After that the results were analyzed and discussed. The statistical population was the students of Allameh Tabataba’i University who have had at least one experience of internet shopping. To collect the primary data, questionnaires were distributed and the population was selected using available stratified sampling method; both paper and online questionnaire were used .After collecting acceptable questionnaires, the statistical methods such as Partial Least Squares analysis and Friedman test were used. The finding shows that among factors influencing on brand equity, marketing communication and customer's services had priority. Other factors which affect the brand equity were brand awareness, perceived quality of brand and interactivity.

  14. The role of localization strategy in development of brand equity: A case study of Samsumg firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Babayi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt is made to analyze the components of localization strategy including attribute policy, benefits policy, application/implementation policy, consumer policy, competition policy, quality/price policy and product category policy on development of brand equity. The study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring bran equity, which is adopted from Buil et al. (2013 [Buil, I., de Chernatony, L., & Martínez, E. (2013. Examining the role of advertising and sales promotions in brand equity creation. Journal of Business Research, 66(1, 115-122.], and the other for measuring localization strategy designed by researchers. Cronbach alphas for brand equity and localization strategy are 0.82 and 0.78, respectively. The study is applied among consumers of products with a name of Samsung in city of Tehran, Iran. Using Pearson correlation as well as multiple regression technique, the study has determined that attribute, consumer and application/implementation policies influenced positively on brand equity.

  15. The Effect of Brand Equity on Brand Attitude and Brand Loyalty in Exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Namju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the influential relationships among exhibition brand equity, brand attitude and brand loyalty, focusing on the participants of ‘HANATOUR International Travel Show’ to evaluate brand equity and provide some helpful suggestions for the brand strategies of domestic exhibitions. Survey was conducted for three days from May 23, 2014 to May 25, 2014. The special range of study objects were collected with convenient sampling from the participants of HANATOUR International Travel Show in 2014. The data collected for this study were analyzed with the program AMOS 18.0. As a result, perceived quality and brand image as the components of brand equity had positive influence on brand attitude, brand attitude to brand loyalty, and brand awareness to brand loyalty. Therefore, the study concluded that ‘HANATOUR International Travel Show’ needs to try harder to establish brand equity and enhance their brand value to establish brand equity for a competitive and successful exhibition.

  16. Environmental Equity through Negotiation: A Case Study on Urban Landfills and the Roma Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu-Mag, Ruxandra Mălina; Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Oroian, Ioan Gheorghe; Safirescu, Ovidiu Călin; Bican-Brișan, Nicoleta

    2016-06-14

    The paper discusses the necessity to bring environmental equity within the Pata Rât Roma community in Northwest Romania, relying on the answers to three questions: "Does environmental equity exist in Pata Rât?", "How can it be attained?", and "To what extent can it be brought to the targeted people?" It was shown how a trio of factors tailors the destiny of Roma inhabitants: being a minority, their ethnicity, and the fact they are living on and off what society rejects and dumps-a landfill. The framing of the environmental equity concerns within a vision considering negotiation as the most adequate means to attain it is a novel approach. Further on, the results of the study can fuel win-win solutions in environmental equity. The information abstracted from a set of indicators, assessed through an evaluation matrix, represents a beneficial platform for future bottom-up decisions concerning landfill residents. Three action options were analyzed: on-site living opportunities-that resulted to be preferred, off-site living opportunities, and "Do nothing". The analysis provides qualitative evidence that the evaluation of environmental equity is largely subjective, because of its complexity and specificity related to geographical, historical, cultural characteristics, and political interests.

  17. Environmental Equity through Negotiation: A Case Study on Urban Landfills and the Roma Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu-Mag, Ruxandra Mălina; Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Oroian, Ioan Gheorghe; Safirescu, Ovidiu Călin; Bican-Brișan, Nicoleta

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the necessity to bring environmental equity within the Pata Rât Roma community in Northwest Romania, relying on the answers to three questions: “Does environmental equity exist in Pata Rât?”, “How can it be attained?”, and “To what extent can it be brought to the targeted people?” It was shown how a trio of factors tailors the destiny of Roma inhabitants: being a minority, their ethnicity, and the fact they are living on and off what society rejects and dumps—a landfill. The framing of the environmental equity concerns within a vision considering negotiation as the most adequate means to attain it is a novel approach. Further on, the results of the study can fuel win-win solutions in environmental equity. The information abstracted from a set of indicators, assessed through an evaluation matrix, represents a beneficial platform for future bottom-up decisions concerning landfill residents. Three action options were analyzed: on-site living opportunities—that resulted to be preferred, off-site living opportunities, and “Do nothing”. The analysis provides qualitative evidence that the evaluation of environmental equity is largely subjective, because of its complexity and specificity related to geographical, historical, cultural characteristics, and political interests. PMID:27314371

  18. [Public control and equity of access to hospitals under non-State public administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro Junior, Nivaldo; Elias, Paulo Eduardo

    2006-10-01

    To analyze social health organizations in the light of public control and the guarantee of equity of access to health services. Utilizing the case study technique, two social health organizations in the metropolitan region of São Paulo were selected. The analytical categories were equity of access and public control, and these were based on interviews with key informants and technical-administrative reports. It was observed that the overall funding and administrative control of the social health organizations are functions of the state administrator. The presence of a local administrator is important for ensuring equity of access. Public control is expressed through supervisory actions, by means of accounting and financial procedures. Equity of access and public control are not taken into consideration in the administration of these organizations. The central question lies in the capacity of the public authorities to have a presence in implementing this model at the local level, thereby ensuring equity of access and taking public control into consideration.

  19. Analyzing the Impact of Theft and Vandalism in Relation to the Sustainability of Renewable Energy Development Projects in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene C.X. Ikejemba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Theft and vandalism impede the sustainability of renewable energy (RE development projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, it is essential to explore where these crimes originate from, how they propagate and how they can be counteracted. In our study, we analyze the impact of these disturbances on implemented projects. We utilize a consumer clinic approach to generate data that represents the situation. We define our instigators practically (Government Inequality, Crime to Survive, Sabotage and demarcate the actions of the offenders into 4 types: (1 vandalization of small RE projects (SPv; (2 theft of RE infrastructures from small RE projects (SPt; (3 vandalization of large RE projects (LPv; and (4 theft of RE infrastructures from large RE projects (LPt. To counteract these actions we define three types of security interference: human, societal and technical. We model the career of an RE criminal as a multi-stage Markov model. In every stage the offender can commit any of the offences SPv, SPt, LPv, LPt, or go to rest. Transition probabilities are our means to reflect offender maturity. Crucial to our model is that they are affected by the level of interference installed at the project site. Calibrated on a dialogue with 144 respondents, our Markov model directs us to adequate interferences per project. Specifically, for large projects technical and human security are the most effective, whereas, for small projects we recommend societal security. The paper introduces a mathematical model of the career of a RE-offender including the influence of security interference and calibrates the parameters through an ethnographic approach.

  20. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF BRAND EQUITY OF A COMMERCIAL BANK IN VADODARA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Anil Sandhe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Banks play an important role in circulation of money in a country.  With increased competition in banking sector, marketing of a bank becomes important and marketing strategies an essential for every bank.  A research was carried out in Vadodara, India to identify the brand equity of one of the major private sector banks.  Brand equity was studied by applying Keller’s Brand Resonance Model.  It was found in the study that brand feelings are the most important component of brand equity in Vadodara and brand salience the least important one.  Also, all four components i.e. brand salience, brand performance, brand judgements and brand feelings were positively correlated to each other and also brand resonance.  Regression model was applied to estimate brand resonance and the impact of four components on it.

  1. Diminishing musyarakah investment model based on equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Maheran Mohd; Zain, Shaharir Mohamad; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2017-11-01

    Most of the mudharabah and musyarakah contract funds are involved in debt financing. This does not support the theory that profit sharing contract is better than that of debt financing due to the sharing of risks and ownership of equity. Indeed, it is believed that Islamic banking is a financial model based on equity or musyarakah which emphasis on the sharing of risks, profit and loss in the investment between the investor and entrepreneur. The focus of this paper is to introduce the mathematical model that internalizes diminishing musyarakah, the sharing of profit and equity between entrepreneur and investor. The entrepreneur pays monthly-differed payment to buy out the equity that belongs to the investor (bank) where at the end of the specified period, the entrepreneur owns the business and the investor (bank) exits the joint venture. The model is able to calculate the amount of equity at any time for both parties and hence would be a guide in helping to estimate the value of investment should the entrepreneur or investor exit before the end of the specified period. The model is closer to the Islamic principles for justice and fairness.

  2. Pay Equity Act, 17 May 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the 1988 Pay Equity Act of Prince Edward Island, Canada. (Nova Scotia enacted similar legislation in 1988.) This act defines "female-dominated class" or "male-dominated class" as a class with 60% or more female or male incumbents, respectively. The objective of this act is to achieve pay equity among public sector employers and employees by identifying systemic gender discrimination through a comparison of the relative wages and value of the work performed by female- and male-dominated classes. The value of work is to be determined by considering the skill, effort, and responsibility required by the work as well as the conditions under which it is performed. A difference in wages between a female- and male-dominated class performing work of equal or comparable value can be justified by a formal performance appraisal system or formal seniority system that does not discriminate on the basis of gender or by a skills shortage which requires a temporary inflation in wages to attract workers for a certain position. No wages shall be reduced to implement pay equity. Implementation of pay equity will include the work of bargaining agents to achieve agreement on salient points. Pay equity may be implemented in four stages over a period of 24 months.

  3. On the evolutionary origins of equity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Debove

    Full Text Available Equity, defined as reward according to contribution, is considered a central aspect of human fairness in both philosophical debates and scientific research. Despite large amounts of research on the evolutionary origins of fairness, the evolutionary rationale behind equity is still unknown. Here, we investigate how equity can be understood in the context of the cooperative environment in which humans evolved. We model a population of individuals who cooperate to produce and divide a resource, and choose their cooperative partners based on how they are willing to divide the resource. Agent-based simulations, an analytical model, and extended simulations using neural networks provide converging evidence that equity is the best evolutionary strategy in such an environment: individuals maximize their fitness by dividing benefits in proportion to their own and their partners' relative contribution. The need to be chosen as a cooperative partner thus creates a selection pressure strong enough to explain the evolution of preferences for equity. We discuss the limitations of our model, the discrepancies between its predictions and empirical data, and how interindividual and intercultural variability fit within this framework.

  4. Health care and equity in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balarajan, Y; Selvaraj, S; Subramanian, S V

    2011-02-05

    In India, despite improvements in access to health care, inequalities are related to socioeconomic status, geography, and gender, and are compounded by high out-of-pocket expenditures, with more than three-quarters of the increasing financial burden of health care being met by households. Health-care expenditures exacerbate poverty, with about 39 million additional people falling into poverty every year as a result of such expenditures. We identify key challenges for the achievement of equity in service provision, and equity in financing and financial risk protection in India. These challenges include an imbalance in resource allocation, inadequate physical access to high-quality health services and human resources for health, high out-of-pocket health expenditures, inflation in health spending, and behavioural factors that affect the demand for appropriate health care. Use of equity metrics in monitoring, assessment, and strategic planning; investment in development of a rigorous knowledge base of health-systems research; development of a refined equity-focused process of deliberative decision making in health reform; and redefinition of the specific responsibilities and accountabilities of key actors are needed to try to achieve equity in health care in India. The implementation of these principles with strengthened public health and primary-care services will help to ensure a more equitable health care for India's population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Achieving equity within universal health coverage: a narrative review of progress and resources for measuring success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Anna M; Hill, Peter S

    2014-10-10

    Equity should be implicit within universal health coverage (UHC) however, emerging evidence is showing that without adequate focus on measurement of equity, vulnerable populations may continue to receive inadequate or inferior health care. This study undertakes a narrative review which aims to: (i) elucidate how equity is contextualised and measured within UHC, and (ii) describe tools, resources and lessons which will assist decision makers to plan and implement UHC programmes which ensure equity for all. A narrative review of peer-reviewed literature published in English between 2005 and 2013, retrieved from PubMed via the search words, 'universal health coverage/care' and 'equity/inequity' was performed. Websites of key global health organizations were also searched for relevant grey literature. Papers were excluded if they failed to focus on equity (of access, financial risk protection or health outcomes) as well as focusing on one of the following: (i) the impact of UHC programmes, policies or interventions on equity (ii) indicators, measurement, monitoring and/or evaluation of equity within UHC, or (iii) tools or resources to assist with measurement. Eighteen journal articles consisting mostly of secondary analysis of country data and qualitative case studies in the form of commentaries/reviews, and 13 items of grey literature, consisting largely of reports from working groups and expert meetings focusing on defining, understanding and measuring inequity in UHC (including recent drafts of global/country monitoring frameworks) were included. The literature advocates for progressive universalism addressing monetary and non-monetary barriers to access and strengthening existing health systems. This however relies on countries being effectively able to identify and reach disadvantaged populations and estimate unmet need. Countries should assess the new WHO/WB-proposed framework for its ability to adequately track the progress of disadvantaged populations in terms

  6. The equity dimension in evaluations of the quality and outcomes framework: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckxstaens, Pauline; Smedt, Delphine De; Maeseneer, Jan De; Annemans, Lieven; Willems, Sara

    2011-08-31

    contribute to the inverse care law. Introducing different targets for specific patient groups and including appropriate, non-disease specific and patient-centred indicators that grasp the complexity of primary care might refine the equity dimension of the evaluation of QOF. Also, information on the actual uptake of care, information at the patient level and monitoring of individuals' health care utilisation tracks could make large contributions to an in-depth evaluation. Finally, evaluating pay-for-quality initiatives in a broader health systems impact assessment strategy with equity as a full assessment criterion is of utmost importance.

  7. Research to action to address inequities: the experience of the Cape Town Equity Gauge

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    Reagon Gavin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the importance of promoting equity to achieve health is now recognised, the health gap continues to increase globally between and within countries. The description that follows looks at how the Cape Town Equity Gauge initiative, part of the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA is endeavouring to tackle this problem. We give an overview of the first phase of our research in which we did an initial assessment of health status and the socio-economic determinants of health across the subdistrict health structures of Cape Town. We then describe two projects from the second phase of our research in which we move from research to action. The first project, the Equity Tools for Managers Project, engages with health managers to develop two tools to address inequity: an Equity Measurement Tool which quantifies inequity in health service provision in financial terms, and a Equity Resource Allocation Tool which advocates for and guides action to rectify inequity in health service provision. The second project, the Water and Sanitation Project, engages with community structures and other sectors to address the problem of diarrhoea in one of the poorest areas in Cape Town through the establishment of a community forum and a pilot study into the acceptability of dry sanitation toilets. Methods A participatory approach was adopted. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. The first phase, the collection of measurements across the health subdistricts of Cape Town, used quantitative secondary data to demonstrate the inequities. In the Equity Tools for Managers Project further quantitative work was done, supplemented by qualitative policy analysis to study the constraints to implementing equity. The Water and Sanitation Project was primarily qualitative, using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. These were used to gain an understanding of the impact of the inequities, in this instance, inadequate sanitation

  8. Health equity in the New Zealand health care system: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Nicolette F; Kenealy, Timothy W; Connolly, Martin J; Mahony, Faith; Barber, P Alan; Boyd, Mary Anne; Carswell, Peter; Clinton, Janet; Devlin, Gerard; Doughty, Robert; Dyall, Lorna; Kerse, Ngaire; Kolbe, John; Lawrenson, Ross; Moffitt, Allan

    2011-10-20

    In all countries people experience different social circumstances that result in avoidable differences in health. In New Zealand, Māori, Pacific peoples, and those with lower socioeconomic status experience higher levels of chronic illness, which is the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and inequitable health outcomes. Whilst the health system can enable a fairer distribution of good health, limited national data is available to measure health equity. Therefore, we sought to find out whether health services in New Zealand were equitable by measuring the level of development of components of chronic care management systems across district health boards. Variation in provision by geography, condition or ethnicity can be interpreted as inequitable. A national survey of district health boards (DHBs) was undertaken on macro approaches to chronic condition management with detail on cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, stroke and diabetes. Additional data from expert informant interviews on program reach and the cultural needs of Māori and Pacific peoples was sought. Survey data were analyzed on dimensions of health equity relevant to strategic planning and program delivery. Results are presented as descriptive statistics and free text. Interviews were transcribed and NVivo 8 software supported a general inductive approach to identify common themes. Survey responses were received from the majority of DHBs (15/21), some PHOs (21/84) and 31 expert informants. Measuring, monitoring and targeting equity is not systematically undertaken. The Health Equity Assessment Tool is used in strategic planning but not in decisions about implementing or monitoring disease programs. Variable implementation of evidence-based practices in disease management and multiple funding streams made program implementation difficult. Equity for Māori is embedded in policy, this is not so for other ethnic groups or by geography. Populations

  9. Health equity in the New Zealand health care system: a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doughty Robert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In all countries people experience different social circumstances that result in avoidable differences in health. In New Zealand, Māori, Pacific peoples, and those with lower socioeconomic status experience higher levels of chronic illness, which is the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and inequitable health outcomes. Whilst the health system can enable a fairer distribution of good health, limited national data is available to measure health equity. Therefore, we sought to find out whether health services in New Zealand were equitable by measuring the level of development of components of chronic care management systems across district health boards. Variation in provision by geography, condition or ethnicity can be interpreted as inequitable. Methods A national survey of district health boards (DHBs was undertaken on macro approaches to chronic condition management with detail on cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, stroke and diabetes. Additional data from expert informant interviews on program reach and the cultural needs of Māori and Pacific peoples was sought. Survey data were analyzed on dimensions of health equity relevant to strategic planning and program delivery. Results are presented as descriptive statistics and free text. Interviews were transcribed and NVivo 8 software supported a general inductive approach to identify common themes. Results Survey responses were received from the majority of DHBs (15/21, some PHOs (21/84 and 31 expert informants. Measuring, monitoring and targeting equity is not systematically undertaken. The Health Equity Assessment Tool is used in strategic planning but not in decisions about implementing or monitoring disease programs. Variable implementation of evidence-based practices in disease management and multiple funding streams made program implementation difficult. Equity for Māori is embedded in policy, this is not so

  10. ACCOUNTING, TAX AND FINANCIAL APPROACHES CONCERNING THE CONCEPT OF EQUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TULVINSCHI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Substantiating the concept of equity is an issue of interest to specialists in accounting, taxation and finance. The purpose of this article is to present three of the sensitive issues generated by the concept of equity. One aspect considered is the demarcation of financial liabilities from the equity instruments. The distinction between equity and debt instruments is necessary because it has consequences on financial reporting. A second part of the study focuses on the fiscal side, trying to find the answer to the question: Are there deferred taxes recognized in equity? Deferred tax liabilities will be presented at the end of the year in equity and not debt, because they are related to gains recorded directly in equity. The third part of the article discusses the financial importance of equity, focusing on subscription and attribution rights as financial instruments used when raising capital. By creating subscription rights it is desired to obtain immediate funds needed to finance the entity.

  11. Students’ perceived risk and investment intention: the effect of brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Macías

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Emerging markets bring out the question of motivation to include of new investors in the market for financial securities often arises. The purpose of this study is to analyze how brands influence the investment intention of young potential investors. Specifically, the relationship between consumer based brand equity - according to Aaker’s multidimensional conceptualization - and investment intention, mediated by perceived risk, is analyzed. The study contributes to the literature in two ways: (1 based on the revision made, no study has analyzed Aaker’s brand equity construct in investment decisions; (2 studies linking brand aspects to investment decisions have not examined the mediating role of perceived risk. Through an experiment, where perceived risk and investment intention in a famous brand were measured as differences from fictitious brands, the following results were found: (1 the investment intention in a famous brand is higher than in a non-famous one, once controlled for risk and return; (2 the higher the brand equity, the lesser the perceived risk of investing in the famous brand, and the higher the investment intention; (3 the perceived quality of a brand’s products was the dimension by which the effect of brand equity is transmitted. Involvement with the investment task and cognitive ability, at an individual level, the relative size of comparable firms, and the risk and return of investment alternatives were introduced as control variables.

  12. Negotiating equity for management of DOE wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    One important factor frustrating optimal management of Department of Energy (DOE)-complex wastes is the inability to use licensed and permitted facilities systematically. Achieving the goal of optimal use of DOE's waste management facilities is politically problematic for two reasons. First, no locale wants to bear a disproportionate burden from DOE wastes. Second, the burden imposed by additional wastes transported from one site to another is difficult to characterize. To develop a viable framework for equitably distributing these burdens while achieving efficient use of all DOE waste management facilities, several implementation and equity issues must be addressed and resolved. This paper discusses stakeholder and equity issues and proposes a framework for joint research and action that could facilitate equity negotiations among stakeholder and move toward a more optimal use of DOE's waste management capabilities

  13. Brand Equity Evolution: a System Dynamics Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Crescitelli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges in brand management lies in monitoring brand equity over time. This paper aimsto present a simulation model able to represent this evolution. The model was drawn on brand equity concepts developed by Aaker and Joachimsthaler (2000, using the system dynamics methodology. The use ofcomputational dynamic models aims to create new sources of information able to sensitize academics and managers alike to the dynamic implications of their brand management. As a result, an easily implementable model was generated, capable of executing continuous scenario simulations by surveying casual relations among the variables that explain brand equity. Moreover, the existence of a number of system modeling tools will allow extensive application of the concepts used in this study in practical situations, both in professional and educational settings

  14. Negotiating equity for management of DOE wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    One important factor frustrating optimal management of DOE-complex wastes is inability to use licensed and permitted facilities systematically. Achieving the goal of optimal use of DOE's waste management facilities is politically problematic for two reasons. First, no locale wants to bear a disproportionate burden from DOE wastes. Second, the burden imposed by additional wastes transported from one site to another is difficult to characterize. To develop a viable framework for equitably distributing these burdens while achieving efficient use of all DOE waste management facilities, several implementation and equity issues must be addressed and resolved. This paper discusses stakeholders and equity issues and proposes a framework for joint research and action that could facilitate equity negotiations among stakeholders and move toward a more optimal use of DOE's waste management capabilities

  15. Governing health equity in Scandinavian municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Christian Elling; Little, Ingvild; Diderichsen, Finn

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Local governments in the Scandinavian countries are increasingly committed to reduce health inequity through 'health equity in all policies' (HEiAP) governance. There exists, however, only very sporadic implementation evidence concerning municipal HEiAP governance, which is the focus...... of this study. METHODS: Data are based on qualitative thematic network analysis of 20 interviews conducted from 2014 to 2015 with Scandinavian political and administrative practitioners. RESULTS: We identify 24 factors located within three categories; political processes, where insufficient political commitment...... to health equity goals outside of the health sector and inadequate economic prioritization budget curbs implementation. Concerning evidence, there is a lack of epidemiological data, detailed evidence of health equity interventions as well as indicators relevant for monitoring implementation. Concerted...

  16. Country brand equity model: Sustainability perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Milivoj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model of country brand equity that incorporates the issue of sustainability in determining destination brand equity. In particular, the model includes elements of sustainability as its core dimensions and promotes the concept of the country sustainability promise that transforms destination resources into the positive perception and experience. The theoretical model is empirically tested using global secondary data confirming that country image is the most important element followed by sustainability and loyalty. Also, the analysis suggests the existence of the higher order construct confirming the country brand equity concept. Based on the research findings, the article offers some implications to the destination managers by suggesting the direction for further development and strategy implementation.

  17. Negotiating equity for management of DOE wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    One important factor frustrating optimal management of Department of Energy (DOE)-complex wastes is the inability to use licensed and permitted facilities systematically. Achieving the goal of optimal use of DOE's waste management facilities is politically problematic for two reasons. First, no locale wants to bear a disproportionate burden from DOE wastes. Second, the burden imposed by additional wastes transported from one site to another is difficult to characterize. To develop a viable framework for equitably distributing these burdens while achieving efficient use of all DOE waste management facilities, several implementation and equity issues must be addressed and resolved. This paper discusses stakeholders and equity issues and proposes a framework for joint research and action that could facilitate equity negotiations among stakeholders and move toward a more optimal use of DOE's waste management capabilities

  18. Medical pluralism: global perspectives on equity issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Florica

    2007-12-01

    Over the last decades, awareness has increased about the phenomenon of medical pluralism and the importance to integrate biomedicine and other forms of health care. The broad variety of healing cultures existing alongside biomedicine is called complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) in industrialized countries and traditional medicine (TM) in developing countries. Considerable debate has arisen about ethical problems related to the growing use of CAM in industrialized countries. This article focuses on equity issues and aims to consider them from a global perspective of medical pluralism. Several dimensions of equity are explored and their interrelatedness discussed: access to care, research (paradigm and founding) and recognition. This so-called 'equity circle' is then related to Iris Marion Young's justice theory and particularly to the concepts of cultural imperialism, powerlessness and marginalisation.

  19. The Equity Share in New Issues and Aggregate Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Baker; Jeffrey Wurgler

    1999-01-01

    The share of equity issues in total new equity and debt issues is a strong predictor of U.S. stock market returns between 1928 and 1997. In particular, firms issue relatively more equity than debt just before periods of low market returns. The equity share in new issues has stable predictive power in both halves of the sample period, and after controlling for other known predictors. We do not find support for efficient market ex

  20. Conceptualization of the Relationship between Brand Equity and Purchase Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunnaike, Olaleke Olusye; Kehinde, Oladele Joseph; Omoyayi, Oluwadamilola Oluwatosin; Popoola, Oluwamakinde Oluwamayowa; Amoruwa, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Assessing the customer perspective of brand equity will provide deep understanding of how brands influence purchase behaviour of customers. The purpose of this paper is to formulate a conceptual framework that will provide an understanding of the relationship existing between the elements of brand equity and that of purchase behaviour. The adoption of Aaker’s brand equity model will serve as a guide for conceiving associations between brand equity and purchase behaviour for this study. Litera...

  1. The role of advertising through social networks to promote brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Bakhshizadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Social networks are online gathering places for people who would like to share their interests and activities. In this context, advertising through social networks is one of the most important topics in the field of marketing and brand that has been considered only in few studies. This study examines the impact of advertising on brand equity through social networks in the beverage industry (PepsiCo. This research study was to survey and collect data from the a standard questionnaire. PepsiCo brand, which is a well known beverage industry worldwide is selected for the proposed study of this paper. Thus, all customers of Pepsi products in city of Tehran are considered as statistical research community and a sample size of 385 people is selected for the proposed study. In order to analyze the data, we use structural equations method and certified factor analysis. The results of our survey indicate that advertisement on social networks has a positive impact in this industry. Based on the results of our survey, we realize that there are some positive relationship between social network advertisement and quality perception, brand loyalty, brand awareness and brand association when the level of significance is one percent.

  2. Equity in health care financing: The case of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chai Ping; Whynes, David K; Sach, Tracey H

    2008-06-09

    Equitable financing is a key objective of health care systems. Its importance is evidenced in policy documents, policy statements, the work of health economists and policy analysts. The conventional categorisations of finance sources for health care are taxation, social health insurance, private health insurance and out-of-pocket payments. There are nonetheless increasing variations in the finance sources used to fund health care. An understanding of the equity implications would help policy makers in achieving equitable financing. The primary purpose of this paper was to comprehensively assess the equity of health care financing in Malaysia, which represents a new country context for the quantitative techniques used. The paper evaluated each of the five financing sources (direct taxes, indirect taxes, contributions to Employee Provident Fund and Social Security Organization, private insurance and out-of-pocket payments) independently, and subsequently by combined the financing sources to evaluate the whole financing system. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on the Household Expenditure Survey Malaysia 1998/99, using Stata statistical software package. In order to assess inequality, progressivity of each finance sources and the whole financing system was measured by Kakwani's progressivity index. Results showed that Malaysia's predominantly tax-financed system was slightly progressive with a Kakwani's progressivity index of 0.186. The net progressive effect was produced by four progressive finance sources (in the decreasing order of direct taxes, private insurance premiums, out-of-pocket payments, contributions to EPF and SOCSO) and a regressive finance source (indirect taxes). Malaysia's two tier health system, of a heavily subsidised public sector and a user charged private sector, has produced a progressive health financing system. The case of Malaysia exemplifies that policy makers can gain an in depth understanding of the equity impact, in order to help

  3. Gender equity and tobacco control: bringing masculinity into focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2010-03-01

    Gender is a key but often overlooked--determinant of tobacco use, especially in Asia, where sex-linked differences in prevalence rates are very large. In this article we draw upon existing data to consider the implications of these patterns for gender equity and propose approaches to redress inequity through gender-sensitive tobacco control activities. International evidence demonstrates that, in many societies, risk behaviours (including tobacco use) are practised substantially more by men and boys, and are also viewed as expressions of masculine identity. While gender equity focuses almost exclusively on the relative disadvantage of girls and women that exists in most societies, disproportionate male use of tobacco has profound negative consequences for men (as users) and for women (nonusers). Surprisingly, health promotion and tobacco control literature rarely focus on the role of gender in health risks among boys and men. However, tobacco industry marketing has masterfully incorporated gender norms, and also other important cultural values, to ensure its symbols are context-specific. By addressing gender-specific risks within the local cultural context--as countries are enjoined to do within the Framework Convention's Guiding Principles--it may be possible to accelerate the impact of mechanisms such as tobacco pricing, restrictions on marketing, smoking bans and provision of accurate information. It is essential that we construct a new research-to-policy framework for gender-sensitive tobacco control. Successful control of tobacco can only be strengthened by bringing males, and the concept of gender as social construction, back into our research and discussion on health and gender equity.

  4. NEGATIVE CURRENCY-RISK-EXPOSURE FOR TURKISH EQUITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore J. Terregrossa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currency-risk-exposure is an issue for Turkish equities, from two different angles: internationaltrade and foreign-portfolio-investment. The likely effect is positive for the former, and negative for the latter aspect. Consequently, the overall or net effect on equity value depends on which of these aspects of currency-risk-exposure has the greater impact. The present empirical analysis estimates currency risk of Turkish equities within a multi-factor regression setting, utilizing the framework of the Security Market Plane (SMP model. The SMP model embodies a conditional relation among three variables: beta, realized excess market-return, and expected excess portfolio-return. The SMP empirical framework is extended to include a currency-risk-factor in the present analysis. The currency-risk-factor is specified as the excess return to holding foreign currency (€; $, relative to holding domestic currency (Turkish Lira. The SMP-related factor is the cross-product term of beta and realized excess market-return (β it rMt . A regression of realized excess portfolio-returns against the corresponding currency-risk-factor and cross product-term (β it rMt finds that the Turkish stocks represented in the analysis generally have overall negative currency-risk-exposure; suggesting that unexpected currency depreciation generally leads to lower values for Turkish stocks (and portfolios of Turkish stocks. Thus, after accounting for the SMP-related interaction-effect between beta and realized excess marketreturn, currency risk is found to command a premium for the Turkish stocks represented in the analysis.

  5. Equity in health care financing: The case of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sach Tracey H

    2008-06-01

    can gain an in depth understanding of the equity impact, in order to help shape health financing strategies for the nation.

  6. Moving towards global health equity: Opportunities and threats: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MESKE

    time in recent history. ... Results: Equity has been a long quest in public health and global health equity could be seen as part of ... Sub-Saharan Africa will remain an enduring preoccupation ..... In recent years, “Equity as a shared vision for health and ..... skilled workers is evolving as a policy position in the US and Europe.

  7. 26 CFR 1.809-10 - Computation of equity base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of equity base. 1.809-10 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Gain and Loss from Operations § 1.809-10 Computation of equity base. (a) In general. For purposes of section 809, the equity base of a life insurance company includes the amount of any...

  8. La valutazione degli investimenti finanziati tramite equity crowdfunding

    OpenAIRE

    Zanetti, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Evoluzione e dimensione del crowdfunding, La valutazione e strutturazione dell’investimento tramite equity crowdfunding, Valutazioni implicite nelle raccolte fondi in equity crowdfunding, Peculiarità specifiche dell’equity crowdfunding, Un confronto con la bolla valutativa delle aziende internet degli anni 2000

  9. Gender Equity and Mass Communication's Female Student Majority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombisky, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of the history and politics of gender equity to make problematic the phrase "gender equity," to introduce the gender equity in education literature, and to outline some issues relevant to mass communication. Suggests that equal access represents a sex-blind approach dependent on a male standard. (SG)

  10. Reviving Pay Equity: New Strategies for Attacking the Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peggy; Figart, Deborah M.

    1998-01-01

    Pay equity remains a problem linked to the problem of low pay. Pay equity must be understood as one solution to the problem of securing a living wage for women and men in the restructuring economy as well as a means for challenging gender equity. (JOW)

  11. Do Firms Replenish Executives’ Incentives After Equity Sales?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladika, T.

    2013-01-01

    After selling firm equity, executives' incentives to maximize shareholder value may decrease. How do boards respond? Theory shows boards can restore executives' incentives by shifting subsequent pay from cash toward equity. Unobservable firm-level changes that cause executives to sell equity and

  12. Value at risk, bank equity and credit risk

    OpenAIRE

    Broll, Udo; Wahl, Jack E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the implications of the value at risk concept for the bank's optimum amount of equity capital under credit risk. The market value of loans is risky and lognormally distributed. We show that the required equity capital depends upon managerial and market factors. Furthermore, the bank's equity and asset/liability management has to be addressed simultaneously by bank managers.

  13. Inquiry as an Entry Point to Equity in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gail; El Turkey, Houssein; Cilli-Turner, Emily; Savic, Milos; Karakok, Gulden; Plaxco, David

    2017-01-01

    Although many policy documents include equity as part of mathematics education standards and principles, researchers continue to explore means by which equity might be supported in classrooms and at the institutional level. Teaching practices that include opportunities for students to engage in active learning have been proposed to address equity.…

  14. As Endowment Managers Turn to Private Equity, Questions Arise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Andrea; Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Endowment growth in 2011 came in no small part because universities have increasingly invested in private equity--the same private equity that has become a hot-button issue on the 2012 campaign trail, with some candidates and commentators calling into question its social value. Private equity is "of increasing significance" for endowments. It made…

  15. 12 CFR 5.36 - Other equity investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other equity investments. 5.36 Section 5.36... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Expansion of Activities § 5.36 Other equity investments. (a) Authority... types of equity investments pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 24(Seventh) and other statutes. These investments are...

  16. Legal aspects of intergenerational equity issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, H.P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which American law and legal institutions have addressed problems of intergenerational equities. Beginning with a definition of the issue, the paper goes on to address conservation law, public debt ceilings, property law, and eugenic laws. The research supports the conclusion that neither statutory law, the formal expression of public policy articulated by the legislature, nor common law, the case-by-case definition of private legal rights by the courts has developed a coherent set of legal principles for dealing with the difficult problems of intergenerational equity. 15 references

  17. Illiquidity Premia in the Equity Options Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Goyenko, Ruslan; Jacobs, Kris

    , including standard measures of illiquidity of the underlying stock, determinants of spreads, and a measure of net demand pressure. The positive illiquidity premium we find is consistent with existing evidence that market makers in the equity options market hold net long positions.......Illiquidity is well-known to be a significant determinant of stock and bond returns. We are the first to estimate illiquidity premia in equity option markets using effective spreads for a large cross-section of firms. The risk-adjusted return spread for illiquid over liquid options is 23 bps per...

  18. Equity in health and health care reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, S M

    1999-01-01

    In planning healthcare reforms increasing attention has been focused on the issue of equity. Inequities in the provision of healthcare exist even in relatively egalitarian societies. Poverty is still one of the major contributors to ill health and there are many powerful influences in society that continue to thwart the goal of a maximally equitable system for the provision of healthcare. The principles of equity in a healthcare system have been well articulated in recent years. It is incumbent on healthcare professionals who understand the issues to join the efforts towards a more humane and equitable healthcare system in their societies.

  19. Option-implied measures of equity risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Bo-Young; Christoffersen, Peter; Vainberg, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Equity risk measured by beta is of great interest to both academics and practitioners. Existing estimates of beta use historical returns. Many studies have found option-implied volatility to be a strong predictor of future realized volatility. We find that option-implied volatility and skewness...... are also good predictors of future realized beta. Motivated by this finding, we establish a set of assumptions needed to construct a beta estimate from option-implied return moments using equity and index options. This beta can be computed using only option data on a single day. It is therefore potentially...

  20. Performance analysis of portuguese equity mutual funds: indexing vs active portfolio management

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Alexandra João Santana

    2011-01-01

    Master in Finance The present thesis was done with the objective of analyzing the portfolio management strategies followed by managers of Portuguese Equity Funds, using the PSI Geral as the benchmark. Thus, the quarter returns and compositions of portfolio were used. The market timing ability and the variables that may have influenced tracking error (vs. PSI Geral) were also analyzed. The main conclusion was that just 1 fund managed to put successfully into practice the active portfolio...

  1. How well does consumer-based brand equity align with sales-based brand equity and marketing mix response?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, Hannes; Ailawadi, Kusum L.; van Heerde, H.J.

    Brand equity is the differential preference and response to marketing effort that a product obtains because of its brand identification. Brand equity can be measured based on either consumer perceptions or on sales. Consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) measures what consumers think and feel about the

  2. Equity venture capital platform model based on complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dongwei; Zhang, Lanshu; Liu, Miao

    2018-05-01

    This paper uses the small-world network and the random-network to simulate the relationship among the investors, construct the network model of the equity venture capital platform to explore the impact of the fraud rate and the bankruptcy rate on the robustness of the network model while observing the impact of the average path length and the average agglomeration coefficient of the investor relationship network on the income of the network model. The study found that the fraud rate and bankruptcy rate exceeded a certain threshold will lead to network collapse; The bankruptcy rate has a great influence on the income of the platform; The risk premium exists, and the average return is better under a certain range of bankruptcy risk; The structure of the investor relationship network has no effect on the income of the investment model.

  3. Does oil move equity prices? A global view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandha, Mohan; Faff, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Many studies indicate that oil price shocks have an adverse effect on real output and, hence, an adverse effect on corporate profits where oil is used as a key input. The present study examines whether and to what extent the adverse effect of oil price shocks impacts stock market returns. To this end we, analyse 35 DataStream global industry indices for the period from April 1983 to September 2005. Our findings indicate that oil price rises have a negative impact on equity returns for all sectors except mining, and oil and gas industries. Generally, these results are consistent with economic theory and evidence provided by previous empirical studies. Little evidence of any asymmetry is detected in the oil price sensitivities. In light of our findings, we recommend that international portfolio investors consider hedging oil price risk. (author)

  4. Essays on energy, equity, and the environment in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Debra Kim

    1999-11-01

    The essays in this dissertation explore different environmental and public policy issues relevant to developing countries. Essay I examines household-level survey responses to the question "How willing would you be to pay somewhat higher taxes to the government if you knew the money would be spent to protect the environment and prevent land, water and air pollution?" Specifically, for twelve developing and three developed countries included in the survey, the empirical relationships among willingness to pay for environmental quality, relative household income and national income are investigated. The results indicate that when the effects of household and national income are combined, households with below-average income in low-income countries are less willing to pay for environmental protection than those with above-average income in high-income countries. Furthermore, willingness to pay for environmental protection increases more significantly with relative household income than with national income. Essay II uses data from urban Bolivia to study the determinants of household fuel choice, an important link between deforestation and indoor air pollution in developing countries. In particular, the effects of fixed fuel costs, income growth, and female earned income on household fuel choice are examined. The results imply that reduction in firewood use in developing countries is not likely to occur simply as the result of income growth. The essay discusses possible policy implications based on the results that fixed fuel costs appear to be a deterrent to switching to a cleaner fuel and households with female earned income seem less likely to use firewood than other households. Essay III analyzes the equity implications of the elimination of fuel subsidies in the 1985 Bolivian economic reforms. An analysis of the direct static burden shows that while the elimination of gasoline subsidies was progressively distributed, the elimination of LPG and kerosene subsidies

  5. To analyze the impact of intracavitary brachytherapy as boost radiation after external beam radiotherapy in carcinoma of the external auditory canal and middle ear: A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh K Badakh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: ICBT as a boost after EBRT has got a positive impact on the OS. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that radical radiation therapy (EBRT and ICBT is the treatment of choice for stage T2, carcinoma of EACMA.

  6. Country-of-origin and brand reputation effects on brand equity. Can a strong brand name strengthen or reverse country-of-origin effects on brand equity?

    OpenAIRE

    Sanfilippo, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Masteroppgave(MSc) in Master of Science in Business, Marketing - Handelshøyskolen BI, 2017 The concept of country-of-origin has been extensively studied with the apparition of multinational companies separating and outsourcing their operations worldwide. It has been established that country-of-origin has an impact on brand equity mediated by four dimensions, namely brand awareness, brand associations, perceived quality and brand loyalty. The purpose of this study is to examine ...

  7. Analyzing the Impacts of a Biogas-to-Electricity Purchase Incentive on Electric Vehicle Deployment with the MA3T Vehicle Choice Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podkaminer, Kara [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Xie, Fei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lin, Zhenhong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In 2014, the EPA approved a biogas-to-electricity pathway under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). However, no specific applications for this pathway have been approved to date. This analysis helps understand the impact of the pathway by representing the biogas-to-electricity pathway as a point of purchase incentive and tests the impact of this incentive on EV deployment using a vehicle consumer choice model.

  8. Analyzing the impact on consumer satisfaction, behavior and at-titudes by using eco-friendly practices and products in Surfers Paradise/Gold Coast city hotels, Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Chikita, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study explores customer attitude towards environmentally friendly practices by hotels and the impact on customer satisfaction. The research investigates individual’s behavior, attitude, knowledge, satisfaction and willingness to support eco-friendly prac-tices. The hotel industry contributes to the global environmental challenges. Consumers are becoming more aware of the environmental impacts by the hotels and a new market segment of eco-friendly customers has developed. In addition ...

  9. Customer Perceived Brand Equity in Measuring Consumption Preference towards Local and Imported Products: A serial Studies on Urban and Suburban Level of Indonesia Society in Greater Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study generally aims to analyze how the preferences of Indonesian as a customer in consuming local and imported products. The specific purpose of this study is to confirm measurement tools of the customer perceived brand equity, which are product country image, culture, marketing mix, and product quality. The result of this study indicates that Indonesian consider much about the marketing mix and product quality, while not so much considering culture.The product country image on the other hand gives the opposite effect. It is significantly related but has negative impact to the customer preference. This study is expected to provide insight on factors that contribute to form customer preference, consumption, and behavior in consuming local and imported product. It is expected that this study can bring impact in increasing local product competitiveness so that local and imported product could compete equally.

  10. An Experiment Examining the Relationship of Affect, Equity, and Equity Sensitivity, With Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Kalanick, Julie Lynn

    2006-01-01

    This study employed an experimental design intended to be an analog to the workplace to simultaneously examine the affect orientation and equity theory explanations of OCBs, which were evaluated as prosocial behaviors. Participants were 188 undergraduates. Participantsâ dispositional variables were measured at time 1, and at time 2, participants experienced an equity manipulation and were given the opportunity to perform prosocial behaviors. Results indicated a distinction between the decis...

  11. An investigation on the effect of advertising corporate social responsibility on building corporate reputation and brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Saeednia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR plays an important role on creating a good image for business owners especially in banking industry. In this paper, we present an empirical survey to measure the impact of CSR on increasing reputation as well as creating brand equity through customer satisfaction. There are five hypotheses in our survey where we examine whether positive perception on bank’s customers on CSR activities influences customer satisfaction, brand equity and firm’s reputation. In addition, we examine whether customer satisfaction, as in intermediate variable, influences the relationship between CSR and bank’s reputation as well as CSR and firm’s brand equity. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 384 experts who work for an Iranian bank located in city of Tehran, Iran. According to our results, there is a positive impact of CSR on customer satisfaction (β=0.84. In addition, there is a positive relationship between customer satisfaction and firm reputation (β=0.70, and between customer satisfaction and brand equity (β=0.98. However, our survey did not confirm that CSR had any positive impact on corporate reputation or brand equity.

  12. Equity and Quality Dimensions in Educational Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyriakides, L.; Creemers, B.P.M.; Charalambous, E.

    2018-01-01

    This book aims to make a contribution to the theory, research and practice on quality and equity in education by providing a comprehensive overview of these two dimensions of educational effectiveness and proposing a methodological instrument that may be used to measure the contribution that each

  13. Gender Equity, Sport Sponsorship, and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiamouyiannis, Athena

    2009-01-01

    As the pressure to win in select collegiate sports escalates, financial pressures mount, and the need to comply with Title IX regulations and gender equity policies continues, athletics administrators are faced with having to make difficult decisions regarding their sport programs. To assist in the decision-making process regarding sport programs,…

  14. Housing equity, residential mobility and commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Highly productive economies require a flexible labor force with workers that move in accordance with the changing demand for goods and services. In times with falling housing prices, the mobility of home owning workers may be hampered by a lock-in effect of low or even negative housing equity. Th...

  15. Opinion Health equity from the African perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MESKE

    will not be able to realize meaningful poverty alleviation despite the creditable record of relatively high economic ... Poverty reduction is the MDG goal most crucial to health equity. Anyangwe et.al characterize poverty as both .... disaster, the Horn of Africa recently experienced drought-caused famine and a similar threat is ...

  16. Social Conflict and Sex Equity in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantz, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Holds that male/female differences in such behavior characteristics as aggression, cooperation/competition, compliance, and anxiety are not innate, but rather are social strategies available to both sexes and utilized whenever reasonable. Suggests that the sex equity problems in education can be solved by eliminating differential treatment of boys…

  17. Strategic default and equity risk across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favara, G.; Schroth, E.; Valta, P.

    2010-01-01

    We test whether the firm’s systematic equity risk reflects the shareholders’ incentives to default strategically on the firm’s debt. We use a real options model to relate the shareholders’ strategic default behavior to frictions in the debt renegotiation procedure. We test the model’s predictions

  18. Disability and Equity in Higher Education Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphin, Henry C., Jr., Ed.; Lavine, Jennie, Ed.; Chan, Roy Y., Ed.

    2017-01-01

    Education is the foundation to almost all successful lives. It is vital that learning opportunities are available on a global scale, regardless of individual disabilities or differences, and to create more inclusive educational practices. "Disability and Equity in Higher Education Accessibility" is a comprehensive reference source for…

  19. Addressing Gender Equity in Nonfaculty Salaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toukoushian, Robert K.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses methodology of gender equity studies on noninstructional employees of colleges and universities, including variable selection in the multiple regression model and alternative approaches for measuring wage gaps. Analysis of staff data at one institution finds that experience and market differences account for 80 percent of gender pay…

  20. Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There exists limited understanding of how e-Health solutions are perceived, designed, implemented and used. ... The Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity Building in e-Health (SEARCH) program will cultivate local research capacity to examine e-health and ... Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.

  1. Employment Equity | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    At IDRC, diversity is one of the keys to our success. We are committed to achieving employment equity for designated groups in our workforce. Our goal is to create and maintain an innovative and responsive work environment where employees are valued and respected. Designated groups – Definitions.

  2. The Joint Dynamics of Equity Market Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Langlois, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    The 4 equity market factors from Fama and French (1993) and Carhart (1997) are pervasive in academia and practice. However, not much is known about their joint distribution and dynamics. We find striking evidence of asymmetric tail dependence across the factors. While the linear factor correlatio...

  3. 19 CFR 351.507 - Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of a government-provided equity infusion, a benefit exists to the extent that the investment decision... company as a whole. In making the equityworthiness determination, the Secretary may examine the following..., adjusted, if appropriate, to conform to generally accepted accounting principles; (C) Rates of return on...

  4. Governance for Equity in Health Systems Deadline

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... of training and mentorship in research, research management, and grant administration allows awardees to pursue their research goals in a dynamic team environment in one of the world's leaders in generating new knowledge to meet global challenges. IDRC's Governance for Equity in Health Systems ...

  5. Diversity, Equity, & Inclusion at Berkeley Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley Lab A-Z Index Directory Search Diversity, Equity, & Inclusion at Berkeley Lab Home Diversity & Inclusion Council Women Scientists & Engineers Council Employee Resource Groups -and culture of inclusion are key to attracting and engaging the brightest minds and furthering our

  6. Globalisation, Equity and Social Development | Mkandawire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 1 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Globalisation, Equity and ...

  7. Teaching for Equity: A Transformationist Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Tiffany R.; Trail, Amelia El-Hindi

    2010-01-01

    Today's teachers must be equipped to reach all children and embrace a pedagogy of equity. Toward that end, teacher preparation programs need to foster a transformationist pedagogy which allows students to develop into culturally responsive teachers. This paper describes three components of a teacher preparation program that embraces teaching for…

  8. 7 CFR 1735.18 - Additional equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1735.18 Additional equity. If determined by the Administrator to be necessary for loan security, a borrower applying for an initial loan shall increase its net worth as a percentage of assets to...

  9. Volatility Spillover Effects in European Equity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper quantifies the magnitude and time-varying nature of volatility spillovers from the aggregate European (EU) and US market to 13 local European equity markets.I develop a shock spillover model that decomposes local unexpected returns into a country speciffic shock, a regional European

  10. Argentina : Gender Equity in the Private Sector

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    First tested in Mexico in 2003, and most recently applied in 2009 in Argentina, the World Bank has developed a model to incorporate gender equity into private sector organizations while simultaneously enhancing their business. Under the model, participating organizations conduct a self-diagnosis to identify gender biases and gaps in the operations. This baseline is then used to create and ...

  11. The Role of Courts in Shaping Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2017-10-01

    United States' courts have played a limited, yet key, role in shaping health equity in three areas of law: racial discrimination, disability discrimination, and constitutional rights. Executive and administrative action has been much more instrumental than judicial decisions in advancing racial equality in health care. Courts have been reluctant to intervene on racial justice because overt discrimination has largely disappeared, and the Supreme Court has interpreted civil rights laws in a fashion that restricts judicial authority to address more subtle or diffused forms of disparate impact. In contrast, courts have been more active in limiting disability discrimination by expanding the conditions that are considered disabling and by articulating and applying the operative concepts "reasonable accommodation" and "other qualified" in the context of both treatment and insurance coverage decisions. Finally, regarding constitutional rights, courts have had limited opportunity to intervene because, outside of specially protected arenas such as reproduction, constitutional law gives government wide discretion to define health and safety goals and methods. Thus, courts have had only a limited role in shaping health equity in the United States. It remains to be seen whether this will change under the Affordable Care Act or whatever health reform measure might replace it. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  12. Energy efficiency and social equity in South Africa: seeking convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Horen, C.; Simmonds, G. [University of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa). Energy and Development Research Centre

    1998-09-01

    A key challenge facing post-apartheid South Africa is to achieve a balance between equity and efficiency goals. On the one hand, the democratic government wishes to improve the quality of life of the majority of the population, whilst on the other, the country needs an efficient and internationally competitive economy. At the more specific level of household energy policy, this efficiency-equity linkage represents a key challenge for policy-making and implementation: it is essential that convergence is sought between household energy strategies aimed at improving energy efficiency, and those strategies which improve the living conditions of the poor. This paper begins by reviewing developments in South Africa`s household energy sector in the early-1990s, most notably the national electrification plan which was launched in 1991. A second development, in 1994, was the establishment of the National Electricity Regulator. Despite the attention given to energy efficiency in the government`s new energy policy, energy efficiency considerations have not yet emerged as a major force in the energy sector. Electricity prices underestimated the environmental and other impacts of coal and nuclear-generated electricity. A range of economic and institutional reasons for this are identified and considered. Finally, two interventions on which some progress has been made, are described: these include insulation and thermal performance projects in new lost-cost houses, and a compact fluorescent lighting programme. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Gender equity and fertility intentions in Italy and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia Tanturri

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Fertility levels have fallen drastically in most industrialized countries. Diverse theoretical and empirical frameworks have had difficulty in explaining these unprecedented low levels of fertility. More recently, however, attention has turned from classic explanations, such as women's increased labour market participation, to gender equity as the essential link to understand this phenomenon. The increase in women's labour market participation did not prompt an increase in men's domestic duties, which is often referred to women's 'dual burden' or 'second shift'. Institutions and policies within countries also facilitate or constrain the combination of women's employment with fertility. This paper provides an empirical test of gender equity theory by examining whether the unequal division of household labour leads to lower fertility intentions of women in different institutional contexts. Italy constitutes a case of high gender inequity, low female labour market participation and the lowest-low fertility. The Netherlands has moderate to low gender inequity, high part-time female labour market participation and comparatively higher fertility. Using data from the 2003 Italian Multipurpose Survey - Family and Social Actors and the 2004/5 Dutch sample from the European Social Survey, a series of logistic regression models test this theory. A central finding is that the unequal division of household labour only has a significant impact on women's fertility intentions when they already carry the load of high paid work hours or children, a finding that is particularly significant for working women in Italy.

  14. Prominent Determinants of Consumer-Based Brand Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Battistoni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the most prominent drivers of brand equity, from a consumerbased point of view. We present a new approach for measuring brand equity, which can be applied regardless of the brand sector and is based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process. This approach has the main advantage of allowing for comparisons to be made between non‐directly measurable elements and also has the advantage of enabling the ranking of intangible criteria, such as consumers’ feelings or purchase intentions. We focus on the fashion industry, since we believe in the higher value of our approach when applied to brands which offer products with less tangible characteristics. Thanks to a case study – which involved about 250 interviewees – we succeed in finding and prioritizing the elements which can have an impact on the brand value. We also provide a global ranking for three apparel brands: Gap, H&M and Zara. The results from our model are consistent with other popular ratings and can be extremely useful for brand managers.

  15. GENERAL ISSUES CONSIDERING BRAND EQUITY WITHIN THE NATION BRANDING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa, COTÎRLEA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work-paper was written in order to provide an overview of the intangible values that actively contribute to brand capital formation within the nation branding process; through this article, the author tried to emphasize the differences existent between brand capital and brand equity within the context of the nation branding process, which has became a widely approached subject both in the national and international literature. Also, the evolution of brand capital and brand equity was approached, in order to identify and explain their components and their role, by highlighting the entire process of their evolution under a sequence of steps scheme. The results of this paper are focused on the identification of a structured flowchart through which the process of nation branding -and the brand capital itself- are to be perceived as holistic concepts, integrator and inter-correlated ones, easily understood.The methodology used in order to write the present article resumes to all appropriate methods and techniques used for collecting and processing empirical data and information, respectively to observing, sorting, correlating, categorizing, comparing and analyzing data, so that the addressed theoretical elements could have been founded; in the center of the qualitative thematic research addressed in the present article lie general elements belonging to Romania's image and identity promotion.

  16. Equity trade-offs in conservation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Elizabeth A; Bennett, Nathan J; Ives, Christopher D; Friedman, Rachel; Davis, Katrina J; Archibald, Carla; Wilson, Kerrie A

    2018-04-01

    Conservation decisions increasingly involve multiple environmental and social objectives, which result in complex decision contexts with high potential for trade-offs. Improving social equity is one such objective that is often considered an enabler of successful outcomes and a virtuous ideal in itself. Despite its idealized importance in conservation policy, social equity is often highly simplified or ill-defined and is applied uncritically. What constitutes equitable outcomes and processes is highly normative and subject to ethical deliberation. Different ethical frameworks may lead to different conceptions of equity through alternative perspectives of what is good or right. This can lead to different and potentially conflicting equity objectives in practice. We promote a more transparent, nuanced, and pluralistic conceptualization of equity in conservation decision making that particularly recognizes where multidimensional equity objectives may conflict. To help identify and mitigate ethical conflicts and avoid cases of good intentions producing bad outcomes, we encourage a more analytical incorporation of equity into conservation decision making particularly during mechanistic integration of equity objectives. We recommend that in conservation planning motivations and objectives for equity be made explicit within the problem context, methods used to incorporate equity objectives be applied with respect to stated objectives, and, should objectives dictate, evaluation of equity outcomes and adaptation of strategies be employed during policy implementation. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. What does equity in health mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, G

    1987-01-01

    The author posits some ethical concerns and theories of distribution in order to gain some insight into the meaning of equity in health, as referred to in WHO documents. It is pointed out that the lack of clarity in the WHO positions is evidenced by examining 1) the European strategy document, which focuses on giving equal health to all and equity access to health care, and 2) the Global Strategy for Health, which talks about reducing inequality and health as a human right. The question raised in document 1 is whether more equal sharing of health might mean less health for the available quantity of resources. The question raised in document 2 is whether there is a right to health per se. The question is how does one measure health policy effects. Health effects are different for an 8-year-old girl and an octogenarian. How does one measure the fairness of access to health care in remote mountain villages versus an urban area? Is equal utilization which is more easily measured comparable to equal need as a measure? How does one distribute doctors equitably? The author espouses the determinant of health as Aday's illness and health promotion, which is not biased by class and controversy. The Aday definition embraces both demand and need, although his definition is still open to question. Concepts of health with distinction between need and demand are made. Theories of Veatch which relate to distributive justice and equity in health care are provided as entitlement theory (market forces determine allocation of resources), utilitarianism (greatest good for the greatest number regardless of redistribution issues), maximum theory (maximize the minimum position or giver priority to the least well off), and equality (fairness in distribution). Different organizational and financing structures will influence the approach to equity. The conclusion is that equity is a value laden concept which has no uniquely correct definition. 5 theories of equity in distribution of health

  18. Modelling home equity conversion loans with life insurance models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baškot Bojan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Home equity represents a reserve that can be used for providing additional money for its owners during their retirement. Life insurance models can be successfully applied to model home equity conversion loans. The home equity conversion loan is a financial product that provides a certain flexibility by using home equity as a resource for a quality life during retirement. Home equity conversion loans do not have a predetermined maturity date, as do conventional loans. But, like every loan, it must be repaid. One potential advantage of using a home equity conversion loan during tough financial times instead of some types of need-based assistance is that eligibility is straightforward. Home equity conversion loans can be useful tools in the process of pension system reform.

  19. From denial to awareness: a conceptual model for obtaining equity in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Anna T; Carlsson, Marianne; Holmström, Inger K; Lännerström, Linda; Kaminsky, Elenor

    2018-01-22

    Although Swedish legislation prescribes equity in healthcare, studies have reported inequalities, both in face-to-face encounters and in telephone nursing. Research has suggested that telephone nursing has the capability to increase equity in healthcare, as it is open to all and not limited by long distances. However, this requires an increased awareness of equity in healthcare among telephone nurses. The aim of this study was to explore and describe perceptions of equity in healthcare among Swedish telephone nurses who had participated in an educational intervention on equity in health, including which of the power constructs gender, ethnicity and age they commented upon most frequently. Further, the aim was to develop a conceptual model for obtaining equity in healthcare, based on the results of the empirical investigation. A qualitative method was used. Free text comments from questionnaires filled out by 133 telephone nurses before and after an educational intervention on equity in health, as well as individual interviews with five participants, were analyzed qualitatively. The number of comments related to inequity based on gender, ethnicity or age in the free text comments was counted descriptively. Gender was the factor commented upon the least and ethnicity the most. Four concepts were found through the qualitative analysis: Denial, Defense, Openness, and Awareness. Some informants denied inequity in healthcare in general, and in telephone nursing in particular. Others acknowledged it, but argued that they had workplace routines that protected against it. There were also examples of an openness to the fact that inequity existed and a willingness to learn and prevent it, as well as an already high awareness of inequity in healthcare. A conceptual model was developed in which the four concepts were divided into two qualitatively different blocks, with Denial and Defense on one side of a continuum and Openness and Awareness on the other. In order to reach

  20. The Relationship between Brand Equity, Customer Satisfaction, and Brand Loyalty on Coffee Shop: Study of Excelso and Starbucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Susanty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of the Brand Equity on the Customer Satisfaction and the Brand Loyalty of Starbucks and Excelso coffee shops’ customers. Starbucks is the strongest competitor of Excelso. Data used in this study was primary data which were collected through closed questionnaires with 1-5 Likert scale. A sample of this study was 270 respondents; 135 respondents for each brand. The study used Structural Equation Modelling (SEM operated by LISREL program to analyze the hypothesis. The results of this study showed that The Physical Quality, the Ideal Self-Congruence, and the Lifestyle Congruence have a positive and significant impact on the Customer Satisfaction on Excelso and Starbucks. Staff behaviour only have a positive and significant impact on the Customer Satisfaction in the Excelso; whereas, brand identification only have a positive and significant impact on the Customer Satisfaction in the Starbucks. However, in both of coffee shop brand, the Consumer Satisfaction have a positive and significant impact on the Brand Loyalty.