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Sample records for analyzing connectivity patterns

  1. Eigenvector centrality mapping for analyzing connectivity patterns in fMRI data of the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Lohmann

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance data acquired in a task-absent condition ("resting state" require new data analysis techniques that do not depend on an activation model. In this work, we introduce an alternative assumption- and parameter-free method based on a particular form of node centrality called eigenvector centrality. Eigenvector centrality attributes a value to each voxel in the brain such that a voxel receives a large value if it is strongly correlated with many other nodes that are themselves central within the network. Google's PageRank algorithm is a variant of eigenvector centrality. Thus far, other centrality measures - in particular "betweenness centrality" - have been applied to fMRI data using a pre-selected set of nodes consisting of several hundred elements. Eigenvector centrality is computationally much more efficient than betweenness centrality and does not require thresholding of similarity values so that it can be applied to thousands of voxels in a region of interest covering the entire cerebrum which would have been infeasible using betweenness centrality. Eigenvector centrality can be used on a variety of different similarity metrics. Here, we present applications based on linear correlations and on spectral coherences between fMRI times series. This latter approach allows us to draw conclusions of connectivity patterns in different spectral bands. We apply this method to fMRI data in task-absent conditions where subjects were in states of hunger or satiety. We show that eigenvector centrality is modulated by the state that the subjects were in. Our analyses demonstrate that eigenvector centrality is a computationally efficient tool for capturing intrinsic neural architecture on a voxel-wise level.

  2. Visualizing neuronal network connectivity with connectivity pattern tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilen Nordlie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex ideas are best conveyed through well-designed illustrations. Up to now, computational neuroscientists have mostly relied on box-and-arrow diagrams of even complex neuronal networks, often using ad hoc notations with conflicting use of symbols from paper to paper. This significantly impedes the communication of ideas in neuronal network modeling. We present here Connectivity Pattern Tables (CPTs as a clutter-free visualization of connectivity in large neuronal networks containing two-dimensional populations of neurons. CPTs can be generated automatically from the same script code used to create the actual network in the NEST simulator. Through aggregation, CPTs can be viewed at different levels, providing either full detail or summary information. We also provide the open source ConnPlotter tool as a means to create connectivity pattern tables.

  3. Analyzing animal movement patterns using potential functions

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    H. K. Preisler; A. A. Ager; M. J. Wisdom

    2013-01-01

    The advent of GPS technology has made it possible to study human-wildlife interactions on large landscapes and quantify behavioral responses to recreation and other anthropogenic disturbances at increasingly fine scales. Of particular interest are the potential impacts on habitat use patterns, energetics, and cascading impacts on fecundity and other life history traits...

  4. Analyzing Indonesian Air Connectivity Period of 2006 - 2016

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    Prayoga Nugraha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As an emerging country, Indonesia needs to cope up with recent global development. One of those pivotal elements is arguably the air connection. However, no studies have been found examining Indonesian air connectivity in detail. Deriving from such a situation, this study attempts to analysis the connectivity levels of Indonesia through the period of 2006 and 2016. The study uses the Netscan formulae which entail three elements, namely direct, indirect and hub connectivity. It has been noted that Indonesian connectivity has significantly increased by doubling in size. As a result, the country is relatively well connected in domestic level. Furthermore, many global destinations can be reached thanks to onward connections offered by international gateways with an exception toward Latin America and Central Asia. A contra-productive decision of government concerning designation of main international gateways is also outlined. As these airports mainly located in western part yet their growth is comparatively mature than those are in the eastern part or smaller regions. In terms of airport network, Indonesian airports have greatly raised their hub connectivity by nearly three times. However, these airports have barely been utilized as an intermediate stop for international flights. Finally, this study recommends suggestions to improve the connectivity level from available literature.

  5. Global patterns of fragmentation and connectivity of mammalian carnivore habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Crooks, Kevin R.; Burdett, Christopher L.; Theobald, David M.; Rondinini, Carlo; Boitani, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Although mammalian carnivores are vulnerable to habitat fragmentation and require landscape connectivity, their global patterns of fragmentation and connectivity have not been examined. We use recently developed high-resolution habitat suitability models to conduct comparative analyses and to identify global hotspots of fragmentation and connectivity for the world's terrestrial carnivores. Species with less fragmentation (i.e. more interior high-quality habitat) had larger geographical ranges...

  6. Data Auditor: Analyzing Data Quality Using Pattern Tableaux

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    Srivastava, Divesh

    Monitoring databases maintain configuration and measurement tables about computer systems, such as networks and computing clusters, and serve important business functions, such as troubleshooting customer problems, analyzing equipment failures, planning system upgrades, etc. These databases are prone to many data quality issues: configuration tables may be incorrect due to data entry errors, while measurement tables may be affected by incorrect, missing, duplicate and delayed polls. We describe Data Auditor, a tool for analyzing data quality and exploring data semantics of monitoring databases. Given a user-supplied constraint, such as a boolean predicate expected to be satisfied by every tuple, a functional dependency, or an inclusion dependency, Data Auditor computes "pattern tableaux", which are concise summaries of subsets of the data that satisfy or fail the constraint. We discuss the architecture of Data Auditor, including the supported types of constraints and the tableau generation mechanism. We also show the utility of our approach on an operational network monitoring database.

  7. Analyzing seasonal patterns of wildfire exposure factors in Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Alcasena, Fermin J; Arca, Bachisio; Finney, Mark A; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Spano, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we applied landscape scale wildfire simulation modeling to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of wildfire likelihood and intensity in the island of Sardinia (Italy). We also performed wildfire exposure analysis for selected highly valued resources on the island to identify areas characterized by high risk. We observed substantial variation in burn probability, fire size, and flame length among time periods within the fire season, which starts in early June and ends in late September. Peak burn probability and flame length were observed in late July. We found that patterns of wildfire likelihood and intensity were mainly related to spatiotemporal variation in ignition locations, fuel moisture, and wind vectors. Our modeling approach allowed consideration of historical patterns of winds, ignition locations, and live and dead fuel moisture on fire exposure factors. The methodology proposed can be useful for analyzing potential wildfire risk and effects at landscape scale, evaluating historical changes and future trends in wildfire exposure, as well as for addressing and informing fuel management and risk mitigation issues.

  8. Capturing and analyzing wheelchair maneuvering patterns with mobile cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jicheng; Hao, Wei; White, Travis; Yan, Yuqing; Jones, Maria; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    Power wheelchairs have been widely used to provide independent mobility to people with disabilities. Despite great advancements in power wheelchair technology, research shows that wheelchair related accidents occur frequently. To ensure safe maneuverability, capturing wheelchair maneuvering patterns is fundamental to enable other research, such as safe robotic assistance for wheelchair users. In this study, we propose to record, store, and analyze wheelchair maneuvering data by means of mobile cloud computing. Specifically, the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors in smart phones are used to record wheelchair maneuvering data in real-time. Then, the recorded data are periodically transmitted to the cloud for storage and analysis. The analyzed results are then made available to various types of users, such as mobile phone users, traditional desktop users, etc. The combination of mobile computing and cloud computing leverages the advantages of both techniques and extends the smart phone's capabilities of computing and data storage via the Internet. We performed a case study to implement the mobile cloud computing framework using Android smart phones and Google App Engine, a popular cloud computing platform. Experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed mobile cloud computing framework.

  9. Laterality patterns of brain functional connectivity: gender effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D

    2012-06-01

    Lateralization of brain connectivity may be essential for normal brain function and may be sexually dimorphic. Here, we study the laterality patterns of short-range (implicated in functional specialization) and long-range (implicated in functional integration) connectivity and the gender effects on these laterality patterns. Parallel computing was used to quantify short- and long-range functional connectivity densities in 913 healthy subjects. Short-range connectivity was rightward lateralized and most asymmetrical in areas around the lateral sulcus, whereas long-range connectivity was rightward lateralized in lateral sulcus and leftward lateralizated in inferior prefrontal cortex and angular gyrus. The posterior inferior occipital cortex was leftward lateralized (short- and long-range connectivity). Males had greater rightward lateralization of brain connectivity in superior temporal (short- and long-range), inferior frontal, and inferior occipital cortices (short-range), whereas females had greater leftward lateralization of long-range connectivity in the inferior frontal cortex. The greater lateralization of the male's brain (rightward and predominantly short-range) may underlie their greater vulnerability to disorders with disrupted brain asymmetries (schizophrenia, autism).

  10. Functional connectome fingerprinting: identifying individuals using patterns of brain connectivity.

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    Finn, Emily S; Shen, Xilin; Scheinost, Dustin; Rosenberg, Monica D; Huang, Jessica; Chun, Marvin M; Papademetris, Xenophon; Constable, R Todd

    2015-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies typically collapse data from many subjects, but brain functional organization varies between individuals. Here we establish that this individual variability is both robust and reliable, using data from the Human Connectome Project to demonstrate that functional connectivity profiles act as a 'fingerprint' that can accurately identify subjects from a large group. Identification was successful across scan sessions and even between task and rest conditions, indicating that an individual's connectivity profile is intrinsic, and can be used to distinguish that individual regardless of how the brain is engaged during imaging. Characteristic connectivity patterns were distributed throughout the brain, but the frontoparietal network emerged as most distinctive. Furthermore, we show that connectivity profiles predict levels of fluid intelligence: the same networks that were most discriminating of individuals were also most predictive of cognitive behavior. Results indicate the potential to draw inferences about single subjects on the basis of functional connectivity fMRI.

  11. Analyzing and Predicting Micro-Location Patterns of Software Firms

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    Jan Kinne

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While the effects of non-geographic aggregation on statistical inference are well studied in economics, research on the effects of geographic aggregation on regression analysis is rather scarce. This knowledge gap, together with the use of aggregated spatial units in previous firm location studies, results in a lack of understanding of firm location determinants at the microgeographic level. Suitable data for microgeographic location analysis has become available only recently through the emergence of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, especially the OpenStreetMap (OSM project, and the increasing availability of official (open geodata. In this paper, we use a comprehensive dataset of three million street-level geocoded firm observations to explore the location pattern of software firms in an Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA. Based on the ESDA results, we develop a software firm location prediction model using Poisson regression and OSM data. Our findings offer novel insights into the mode of operation of the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP in the context of a microgeographic location analysis: We find that non-aggregated data can be used to detect information on location determinants, which are superimposed when aggregated spatial units are analyzed, and that some findings of previous firm location studies are not robust at the microgeographic level. However, we also conclude that the lack of high-resolution geodata on socio-economic population characteristics causes systematic prediction errors, especially in cities with diverse and segregated populations.

  12. Modeling and analyzing stripe patterns in fish skin

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    Zheng, Yibo; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuan; Liang, Ping; Kang, Junjian

    2009-11-01

    The formation mechanism of stripe patterns in the skin of tropical fishes has been investigated by a coupled two variable reaction diffusion model. Two types of spatial inhomogeneities have been introduced into a homogenous system. Several Turing modes pumped by the Turing instability give rise to a simple stripe pattern. It is found that the Turing mechanism can only determine the wavelength of stripe pattern. The orientation of stripe pattern is determined by the spatial inhomogeneity. Our numerical results suggest that it may be the most possible mechanism for the forming process of fish skin patterns.

  13. Global patterns of fragmentation and connectivity of mammalian carnivore habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Kevin R; Burdett, Christopher L; Theobald, David M; Rondinini, Carlo; Boitani, Luigi

    2011-09-27

    Although mammalian carnivores are vulnerable to habitat fragmentation and require landscape connectivity, their global patterns of fragmentation and connectivity have not been examined. We use recently developed high-resolution habitat suitability models to conduct comparative analyses and to identify global hotspots of fragmentation and connectivity for the world's terrestrial carnivores. Species with less fragmentation (i.e. more interior high-quality habitat) had larger geographical ranges, a greater proportion of habitat within their range, greater habitat connectivity and a lower risk of extinction. Species with higher connectivity (i.e. less habitat isolation) also had a greater proportion of high-quality habitat, but had smaller, not larger, ranges, probably reflecting shorter distances between habitat patches for species with restricted distributions; such species were also more threatened, as would be expected given the negative relationship between range size and extinction risk. Fragmentation and connectivity did not differ among Carnivora families, and body mass was associated with connectivity but not fragmentation. On average, only 54.3 per cent of a species' geographical range comprised high-quality habitat, and more troubling, only 5.2 per cent of the range comprised such habitat within protected areas. Identification of global hotspots of fragmentation and connectivity will help guide strategic priorities for carnivore conservation.

  14. Connectivity patterns in cognitive control networks predict naturalistic multitasking ability.

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    Wen, Tanya; Liu, De-Cyuan; Hsieh, Shulan

    2018-06-01

    Multitasking is a fundamental aspect of everyday life activities. To achieve a complex, multi-component goal, the tasks must be subdivided into sub-tasks and component steps, a critical function of prefrontal networks. The prefrontal cortex is considered to be organized in a cascade of executive processes from the sensorimotor to anterior prefrontal cortex, which includes execution of specific goal-directed action, to encoding and maintaining task rules, and finally monitoring distal goals. In the current study, we used a virtual multitasking paradigm to tap into real-world performance and relate it to each individual's resting-state functional connectivity in fMRI. While did not find any correlation between global connectivity of any of the major networks with multitasking ability, global connectivity of the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) was predictive of multitasking ability. Further analysis showed that multivariate connectivity patterns within the sensorimotor network (SMN), and between-network connectivity of the frontoparietal network (FPN) and dorsal attention network (DAN), predicted individual multitasking ability and could be generalized to novel individuals. Together, these results support previous research that prefrontal networks underlie multitasking abilities and show that connectivity patterns in the cascade of prefrontal networks may explain individual differences in performance. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Short local descriptors from 2D connected pattern spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosilj, Petra; Kijak, Ewa; Wilkinson, Michael H. F.; Lefèvre, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    We propose a local region descriptor based on connected pattern spectra, and combined with normalized central moments. The descriptors are calculated for MSER regions of the image, and their performance compared against SIFT. The MSER regions were chosen because they can be efficiently selected by

  16. Patterns of coral species richness and reef connectivity in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waheed, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Much remains to be discovered about the biodiversity of coral reefs in Malaysia, making this area a priority for coral reef research. This thesis aims to provide insights into the patterns of reef coral species richness and the degree of reef connectivity across Malaysia. For the species richness

  17. Surveying and analyzing injection responses for patterns with horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedenczuk, L.; Hoffman, K.

    1998-12-31

    A novel method for visualizing injection responses in patterns that include horizontal and/or vertical wells is described. Understanding fluid communication between the horizontal well and the surrounding injectors is essential to estimating the effectiveness of the waterflood. Armed with the understanding of responses, injection patterns can be optimized, production rates can be increased and more efficient oil recovery can be achieved. In this study the time lags of correlations and a new parameter, the waterflood response type is introduced. The response type is based on the oil and total fluid responses. In addition spider diagrams are introduced to help visualizing the correlations, time lags and response types. Integration of the results with geology, petrophysics and completion techniques can help to find the cause and effect rules in waterflood fields. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Repositioning through Culture: Testing Change in Connectivity Patterns

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    Beatriz Plaza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Symbolic knowledge-driven innovations can play an important role in the economic development of cities and regions. Cultural events and infrastructures can act as powerful connectivity engines, generating new connections, rewiring links, and repositioning institutions/cities/regions on the Internet map. Within this framework, this paper aims to contribute to the analytical understanding of culture-led repositioning. For this purpose we perform regression analysis with cultural networks (observational cross-sectional network data from digital media for a specific cultural case study: the Basque Culinary Center (BCC, a higher education faculty of haute cuisine promoted by the University of Mondragon along with a group of Michelin-starred chefs. Results show that a cultural sector, such as haute cuisine, can contribute to structural changes in connectivity patterns, putting an institution/city/region on the media map. It is the connection (in the online press of the BCC to the influential Michelin-starred chefs that can fuel the accumulation of press articles (media items on the BCC; and it is precisely this accumulation of press articles that can impact BCC revenues. Put differently, the co-branding between the influential Michelin chefs and the BCC may have put the BCC on the press map, promoting new student registrations and fostering Basque haute cuisine. The main contribution of this article is a prototype of regression analysis to test repositioning with network data.

  19. Connectivity, excitability and activity patterns in neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Feber, Joost; Stoyanova, Irina I; Chiappalone, Michela

    2014-01-01

    Extremely synchronized firing patterns such as those observed in brain diseases like epilepsy may result from excessive network excitability. Although network excitability is closely related to (excitatory) connectivity, a direct measure for network excitability remains unavailable. Several methods currently exist for estimating network connectivity, most of which are related to cross-correlation. An example is the conditional firing probability (CFP) analysis which calculates the pairwise probability (CFP i,j ) that electrode j records an action potential at time t = τ, given that electrode i recorded a spike at t = 0. However, electrode i often records multiple spikes within the analysis interval, and CFP values are biased by the on-going dynamic state of the network. Here we show that in a linear approximation this bias may be removed by deconvoluting CFP i,j with the autocorrelation of i (i.e. CFP i,i ), to obtain the single pulse response (SPR i,j )—the average response at electrode j to a single spike at electrode i. Thus, in a linear system SPRs would be independent of the dynamic network state. Nonlinear components of synaptic transmission, such as facilitation and short term depression, will however still affect SPRs. Therefore SPRs provide a clean measure of network excitability. We used carbachol and ghrelin to moderately activate cultured cortical networks to affect their dynamic state. Both neuromodulators transformed the bursting firing patterns of the isolated networks into more dispersed firing. We show that the influence of the dynamic state on SPRs is much smaller than the effect on CFPs, but not zero. The remaining difference reflects the alteration in network excitability. We conclude that SPRs are less contaminated by the dynamic network state and that mild excitation may decrease network excitability, possibly through short term synaptic depression. (papers)

  20. Detecting altered connectivity patterns in HIV associated neurocognitive impairment using mutual connectivity analysis

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    Abidin, Anas Zainul; D'Souza, Adora M.; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Wismüller, Axel

    2016-03-01

    The use of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has provided interesting insights into our understanding of the brain. In clinical setups these scans have been used to detect and study changes in the brain network properties in various neurological disorders. A large percentage of subjects infected with HIV present cognitive deficits, which are known as HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). In this study we propose to use our novel technique named Mutual Connectivity Analysis (MCA) to detect differences in brain networks in subjects with and without HIV infection. Resting state functional MRI scans acquired from 10 subjects (5 HIV+ and 5 HIV-) were subject to standard preprocessing routines. Subsequently, the average time-series for each brain region of the Automated Anatomic Labeling (AAL) atlas are extracted and used with the MCA framework to obtain a graph characterizing the interactions between them. The network graphs obtained for different subjects are then compared using Network-Based Statistics (NBS), which is an approach to detect differences between graphs edges while controlling for the family-wise error rate when mass univariate testing is performed. Applying this approach on the graphs obtained yields a single network encompassing 42 nodes and 65 edges, which is significantly different between the two subject groups. Specifically connections to the regions in and around the basal ganglia are significantly decreased. Also some nodes corresponding to the posterior cingulate cortex are affected. These results are inline with our current understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of HIV associated neurocognitive disease (HAND) and other HIV based fMRI connectivity studies. Hence, we illustrate the applicability of our novel approach with network-based statistics in a clinical case-control study to detect differences connectivity patterns.

  1. Fibroblastic connective tissue nevus: a rare cutaneous lesion analyzed in a series of 25 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Feraudy, Sébastien; Fletcher, Christopher D M

    2012-10-01

    Fibroblastic connective tissue nevus (FCTN) represents a rare and distinct benign cutaneous mesenchymal lesion of fibroblastic/myofibroblastic lineage, which broadens the spectrum of lesions presently recognized as connective tissue nevus. A series of 25 cases of FCTN has been analyzed to further characterize the clinicopathologic spectrum and immunohistochemical features of this entity. Sixteen patients were female (64%) and 9 were male (36%), with age at presentation ranging from 1.5 months to 58 years (median, 10 y). Most patients presented with a solitary, slowly growing, painless plaque-like or nodular skin lesion. Eleven cases (44%) arose on the trunk, 9 (36%) on the head and neck, and 5 (20%) on the limbs. The lesion was present for a median duration of 11.5 months (mean, 13.2 mo). Grossly, the lesions were tan-brown to tan-white, smooth, and firm. Their size ranged from 0.3 to 2.0 cm in greatest dimension (mean size, 0.67 cm; median, 0.6 cm). All tumors showed poor circumscription and were situated primarily in the reticular deep dermis, extending into the superficial subcutis in 13 cases (52%). The lesion was associated with papillomatous epidermis in 17 cases (70%) and the presence of adipose tissue in the reticular dermis in 14 cases (60.9%). All tumors were composed of a proliferation of bland intradermal fibroblastic/myofibroblastic cells with indistinct palely eosinophilic cytoplasm and tapering nuclei, with no significant cytologic atypia or pleomorphism, arranged in short-intersecting fascicles and entrapping appendages. No mitoses were identified. Immunostains showed positivity for CD34 in 20 of 23 cases (87%) and weak focal positivity for smooth muscle actin in 9 of 19 cases (47%). No case stained positively for desmin or S100 protein. Clinical follow-up was obtained for 14 patients (median duration, 4 y). No tumor recurred locally, even when surgical excision was incomplete. No lesion metastasized. FCTN occurs most commonly as a plaque on the

  2. Functional connectivity patterns reflect individual differences in conflict adaptation.

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    Wang, Xiangpeng; Wang, Ting; Chen, Zhencai; Hitchman, Glenn; Liu, Yijun; Chen, Antao

    2015-04-01

    Individuals differ in the ability to utilize previous conflict information to optimize current conflict resolution, which is termed the conflict adaptation effect. Previous studies have linked individual differences in conflict adaptation to distinct brain regions. However, the network-based neural mechanisms subserving the individual differences of the conflict adaptation effect have not been studied. The present study employed a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis with a color-naming Stroop task to examine this issue. The main results were as follows: (1) the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-seeded PPI revealed the involvement of the salience network (SN) in conflict adaptation, while the posterior parietal cortex (PPC)-seeded PPI revealed the engagement of the central executive network (CEN). (2) Participants with high conflict adaptation effect showed higher intra-CEN connectivity and lower intra-SN connectivity; while those with low conflict adaptation effect showed higher intra-SN connectivity and lower intra-CEN connectivity. (3) The PPC-centered intra-CEN connectivity positively predicted the conflict adaptation effect; while the ACC-centered intra-SN connectivity had a negative correlation with this effect. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that conflict adaptation is likely supported by the CEN and the SN, providing a new perspective on studying individual differences in conflict adaptation on the basis of large-scale networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analyzing the association between functional connectivity of the brain and intellectual performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Gustavo S. P.; Santos Neto, Gérson S.; Rosset, Sara R. E.; Rogers, Baxter P.; Salmon, Carlos E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of functional connectivity support the hypothesis that the brain is composed of distinct networks with anatomically separated nodes but common functionality. A few studies have suggested that intellectual performance may be associated with greater functional connectivity in the fronto-parietal network and enhanced global efficiency. In this fMRI study, we performed an exploratory analysis of the relationship between the brain's functional connectivity and intelligence scores derived from the Portuguese language version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) in a sample of 29 people, born and raised in Brazil. We examined functional connectivity between 82 regions, including graph theoretic properties of the overall network. Some previous findings were extended to the Portuguese-speaking population, specifically the presence of small-world organization of the brain and relationships of intelligence with connectivity of frontal, pre-central, parietal, occipital, fusiform and supramarginal gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Verbal comprehension was associated with global network efficiency, a new finding. PMID:25713528

  4. Analyzing the association between functional connectivity of the brain and intellectual performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Santo Pedro Pamplona

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of functional connectivity support the hypothesis that the brain is composed of distinct networks with anatomically separated nodes but common functionality. A few studies have suggested that intellectual performance may be associated with greater functional connectivity in the fronto-parietal network and enhanced global efficiency. In this fMRI study, we performed an exploratory analysis of the relationship between the brain's functional connectivity and intelligence scores derived from the Portuguese language version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III in a sample of 29 people, born and raised in Brazil. We examined functional connectivity between 82 regions, including graph theoretic properties of the overall network. Some previous findings were extended to the Portuguese-speaking population, specifically the presence of small-world organization of the brain and relationships of intelligence with connectivity of frontal, pre-central, parietal, occipital, fusiform and supramarginal gyrus and caudate nucleus. Verbal comprehension was associated with global network efficiency, a new finding.

  5. Internet Connection Control based on Idle Time Using User Behavior Pattern Analysis

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    Fadilah Fahrul Hardiansyah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase of smartphone ability is rapidly increasing the power consumption. Many methods have been proposed to reduce smartphone power consumption. Most of these methods use the internet connection control based on the availability of the battery power level regardless of when and where a waste of energy occurs. This paper proposes a new approach to control the internet connection based on idle time using user behavior pattern analysis. User behavior patterns are used to predict idle time duration. Internet connection control performed during idle time. During idle time internet connection periodically switched on and off by a certain time interval. This method effectively reduces a waste of energy. Control of the internet connection does not interfere the user because it is implemented on idle time. Keywords: Smartphone, User Behavior, Pattern Recognition, Idle Time, Internet Connection Control

  6. Close encounters: Analyzing how social similarity and propinquity contribute to strong network connections.

    OpenAIRE

    Reagans, Ray Eugene

    2010-01-01

    Models of network formation emphasize the importance of social similarity and propinquity in producing strong interpersonal connections. The positive effect each factor can have on tie strength has been documented across a number of studies, and yet we know surprisingly very little about how the two factors combine to produce strong ties. Being in close proximity could either amplify or dampen the positive effect that social similarity can have on tie strength. Data on tie strength among teac...

  7. Understanding Spatiotemporal Patterns of Biking Behavior by Analyzing Massive Bike Sharing Data in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolu

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of bike sharing systems (BSS) in many cities largely facilitates biking for transportation and recreation. Most recent bike sharing systems produce time and location specific data, which enables the study of travel behavior and mobility of each individual. However, despite a rapid growth of interest, studies on massive bike sharing data and the underneath travel pattern are still limited. Few studies have explored and visualized spatiotemporal patterns of bike sharing behavior using flow clustering, nor examined the station functional profiles based on over-demand patterns. This study investigated the spatiotemporal biking pattern in Chicago by analyzing massive BSS data from July to December in 2013 and 2014. The BSS in Chicago gained more popularity. About 15.9% more people subscribed to this service. Specifically, we constructed bike flow similarity graph and used fastgreedy algorithm to detect spatial communities of biking flows. By using the proposed methods, we discovered unique travel patterns on weekdays and weekends as well as different travel trends for customers and subscribers from the noisy massive amount data. In addition, we also examined the temporal demands for bikes and docks using hierarchical clustering method. Results demonstrated the modeled over-demand patterns in Chicago. This study contributes to offer better knowledge of biking flow patterns, which was difficult to obtain using traditional methods. Given the trend of increasing popularity of the BSS and data openness in different cities, methods used in this study can extend to examine the biking patterns and BSS functionality in different cities.

  8. Analyzing Social Media Networks with NodeXL Insights from a Connected World

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    Hansen, Derek; Smith, Marc A

    2010-01-01

    Businesses, entrepreneurs, individuals, and government agencies alike are looking to social network analysis (SNA) tools for insight into trends, connections, and fluctuations in social media. Microsoft's NodeXL is a free, open-source SNA plug-in for use with Excel. It provides instant graphical representation of relationships of complex networked data. But it goes further than other SNA tools -- NodeXL was developed by a multidisciplinary team of experts that bring together information studies, computer science, sociology, human-computer interaction, and over 20 years of visual analytic theor

  9. Understanding Spatiotemporal Patterns of Biking Behavior by Analyzing Massive Bike Sharing Data in Chicago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Zhou

    Full Text Available The growing number of bike sharing systems (BSS in many cities largely facilitates biking for transportation and recreation. Most recent bike sharing systems produce time and location specific data, which enables the study of travel behavior and mobility of each individual. However, despite a rapid growth of interest, studies on massive bike sharing data and the underneath travel pattern are still limited. Few studies have explored and visualized spatiotemporal patterns of bike sharing behavior using flow clustering, nor examined the station functional profiles based on over-demand patterns. This study investigated the spatiotemporal biking pattern in Chicago by analyzing massive BSS data from July to December in 2013 and 2014. The BSS in Chicago gained more popularity. About 15.9% more people subscribed to this service. Specifically, we constructed bike flow similarity graph and used fastgreedy algorithm to detect spatial communities of biking flows. By using the proposed methods, we discovered unique travel patterns on weekdays and weekends as well as different travel trends for customers and subscribers from the noisy massive amount data. In addition, we also examined the temporal demands for bikes and docks using hierarchical clustering method. Results demonstrated the modeled over-demand patterns in Chicago. This study contributes to offer better knowledge of biking flow patterns, which was difficult to obtain using traditional methods. Given the trend of increasing popularity of the BSS and data openness in different cities, methods used in this study can extend to examine the biking patterns and BSS functionality in different cities.

  10. VPA: an R tool for analyzing sequencing variants with user-specified frequency pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The massive amounts of genetic variant generated by the next generation sequencing systems demand the development of effective computational tools for variant prioritization. Findings VPA (Variant Pattern Analyzer is an R tool for prioritizing variants with specified frequency pattern from multiple study subjects in next-generation sequencing study. The tool starts from individual files of variant and sequence calls and extract variants with user-specified frequency pattern across the study subjects of interest. Several position level quality criteria can be incorporated into the variant extraction. It can be used in studies with matched pair design as well as studies with multiple groups of subjects. Conclusions VPA can be used as an automatic pipeline to prioritize variants for further functional exploration and hypothesis generation. The package is implemented in the R language and is freely available from http://vpa.r-forge.r-project.org.

  11. Spatial-temporal-spectral EEG patterns of BOLD functional network connectivity dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoš, Martin; Mareček, Radek; Slavíček, Tomáš; Mikl, Michal; Rektor, Ivan; Jan, Jiří

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Growing interest in the examination of large-scale brain network functional connectivity dynamics is accompanied by an effort to find the electrophysiological correlates. The commonly used constraints applied to spatial and spectral domains during electroencephalogram (EEG) data analysis may leave part of the neural activity unrecognized. We propose an approach that blindly reveals multimodal EEG spectral patterns that are related to the dynamics of the BOLD functional network connectivity. Approach. The blind decomposition of EEG spectrogram by parallel factor analysis has been shown to be a useful technique for uncovering patterns of neural activity. The simultaneously acquired BOLD fMRI data were decomposed by independent component analysis. Dynamic functional connectivity was computed on the component’s time series using a sliding window correlation, and between-network connectivity states were then defined based on the values of the correlation coefficients. ANOVA tests were performed to assess the relationships between the dynamics of between-network connectivity states and the fluctuations of EEG spectral patterns. Main results. We found three patterns related to the dynamics of between-network connectivity states. The first pattern has dominant peaks in the alpha, beta, and gamma bands and is related to the dynamics between the auditory, sensorimotor, and attentional networks. The second pattern, with dominant peaks in the theta and low alpha bands, is related to the visual and default mode network. The third pattern, also with peaks in the theta and low alpha bands, is related to the auditory and frontal network. Significance. Our previous findings revealed a relationship between EEG spectral pattern fluctuations and the hemodynamics of large-scale brain networks. In this study, we suggest that the relationship also exists at the level of functional connectivity dynamics among large-scale brain networks when no standard spatial and spectral

  12. A deep convolutional neural network to analyze position averaged convergent beam electron diffraction patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W; LeBeau, J M

    2018-05-01

    We establish a series of deep convolutional neural networks to automatically analyze position averaged convergent beam electron diffraction patterns. The networks first calibrate the zero-order disk size, center position, and rotation without the need for pretreating the data. With the aligned data, additional networks then measure the sample thickness and tilt. The performance of the network is explored as a function of a variety of variables including thickness, tilt, and dose. A methodology to explore the response of the neural network to various pattern features is also presented. Processing patterns at a rate of  ∼ 0.1 s/pattern, the network is shown to be orders of magnitude faster than a brute force method while maintaining accuracy. The approach is thus suitable for automatically processing big, 4D STEM data. We also discuss the generality of the method to other materials/orientations as well as a hybrid approach that combines the features of the neural network with least squares fitting for even more robust analysis. The source code is available at https://github.com/subangstrom/DeepDiffraction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimization of the kernel functions in a probabilistic neural network analyzing the local pattern distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleske, I; Castellanos, J

    2002-05-01

    This article proposes a procedure for the automatic determination of the elements of the covariance matrix of the gaussian kernel function of probabilistic neural networks. Two matrices, a rotation matrix and a matrix of variances, can be calculated by analyzing the local environment of each training pattern. The combination of them will form the covariance matrix of each training pattern. This automation has two advantages: First, it will free the neural network designer from indicating the complete covariance matrix, and second, it will result in a network with better generalization ability than the original model. A variation of the famous two-spiral problem and real-world examples from the UCI Machine Learning Repository will show a classification rate not only better than the original probabilistic neural network but also that this model can outperform other well-known classification techniques.

  14. Deafferentation-Induced Plasticity of Visual Callosal Connections: Predicting Critical Periods and Analyzing Cortical Abnormalities Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime F. Olavarria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Callosal connections form elaborate patterns that bear close association with striate and extrastriate visual areas. Although it is known that retinal input is required for normal callosal development, there is little information regarding the period during which the retina is critically needed and whether this period correlates with the same developmental stage across species. Here we review the timing of this critical period, identified in rodents and ferrets by the effects that timed enucleations have on mature callosal connections, and compare it to other developmental milestones in these species. Subsequently, we compare these events to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI measurements of water diffusion anisotropy within developing cerebral cortex. We observed that the relationship between the timing of the critical period and the DTI-characterized developmental trajectory is strikingly similar in rodents and ferrets, which opens the possibility of using cortical DTI trajectories for predicting the critical period in species, such as humans, in which this period likely occurs prenatally. Last, we discuss the potential of utilizing DTI to distinguish normal from abnormal cerebral cortical development, both within the context of aberrant connectivity induced by early retinal deafferentation, and more generally as a potential tool for detecting abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  15. Design patterns for instructional materials that foster proficiency at analyzing and interpreting complex geoscience data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastens, K. A.; Krumhansl, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards incorporate a stronger emphasis on having students work with data than did prior standards. This emphasis is most obvious in Practice 4: Analyzing and Interpreting Data, but also permeates performance expectations built on Practice 2 when students test models, Practice 6 when students construct explanations, and Practice 7 when student test claims with evidence. To support curriculum developers who wish to guide high school students towards more sophisticated engagement with complex data, we analyzed a well-regarded body of instructional materials designed for use in introductory college courses (http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/teaching_materials/). Our analysis sought design patterns that can be reused for a variety of topics at the high school or college level. We found five such patterns, each of which was used in at least half of the modules analyzed. We describe each pattern, provide an example, and hypothesize a theory of action that could explain how the sequence of activities leverages known perceptual, cognitive and/or social processes to foster learning from and about data. In order from most to least frequent, the observed design patterns are as follows: In Data Puzzles, students respond to guiding questions about high-value snippets of data pre-selected and sequenced by the curriculum developer to lead to an Aha! inference. In Pooling Data to See the Big Picture, small groups analyze different instances of analogous phenomenon (e.g. different hurricanes, or different divergent plate boundaries) and pool their insights to extract the commonalities that constitute the essence of that phenomenon. In Make a Decision or Recommendation, students combine geoscience data with other factors (such as economic or environmental justice concerns) to make a decision or recommendation about a human or societal action. In Predict-Observe-Explain, students make a prediction about what the Earth will look like under conditions

  16. Replicability of time-varying connectivity patterns in large resting state fMRI samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrol, Anees; Damaraju, Eswar; Miller, Robyn L; Stephen, Julia M; Claus, Eric D; Mayer, Andrew R; Calhoun, Vince D

    2017-12-01

    The past few years have seen an emergence of approaches that leverage temporal changes in whole-brain patterns of functional connectivity (the chronnectome). In this chronnectome study, we investigate the replicability of the human brain's inter-regional coupling dynamics during rest by evaluating two different dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) analysis frameworks using 7 500 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) datasets. To quantify the extent to which the emergent functional connectivity (FC) patterns are reproducible, we characterize the temporal dynamics by deriving several summary measures across multiple large, independent age-matched samples. Reproducibility was demonstrated through the existence of basic connectivity patterns (FC states) amidst an ensemble of inter-regional connections. Furthermore, application of the methods to conservatively configured (statistically stationary, linear and Gaussian) surrogate datasets revealed that some of the studied state summary measures were indeed statistically significant and also suggested that this class of null model did not explain the fMRI data fully. This extensive testing of reproducibility of similarity statistics also suggests that the estimated FC states are robust against variation in data quality, analysis, grouping, and decomposition methods. We conclude that future investigations probing the functional and neurophysiological relevance of time-varying connectivity assume critical importance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Control strategy based on SPWM switching patterns for grid connected photovoltaic inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassaine, L.; Mraoui, A.

    2017-02-01

    Generally, for lower installation of photovoltaic systems connected to the grid, pulse width modulation (PWM) is a widely used technique for controlling the voltage source inverters injects currents into the grid. The current injected must be sinusoidal with reduced harmonic distortion. In this paper, a digital implementation of a control strategy based on PWM switching patterns for an inverter for photovoltaic system connected to the grid is presented. This strategy synchronize a sinusoidal inverter output current with a grid voltage The digital implementation of the proposed PWM switching pattern when is compared with the conventional one exhibit the advantage: Simplicity, reduction of the memory requirements and power calculation for the control

  18. Patterns and persistence of larval retention and connectivity in a marine fish metapopulation

    KAUST Repository

    Saenz Agudelo, Pablo

    2012-08-14

    Connectivity, the demographic linking of local populations through the dispersal of individuals, is one of the most poorly understood processes in population dynamics, yet has profound implications for conservation and harvest strategies. For marine species with pelagic larvae, direct estimation of connectivity remains logistically challenging and has mostly been limited to single snapshots in time. Here, we document seasonal and interannual patterns of larval dispersal in a metapopulation of the coral reef fish Amphiprion polymnus. A 3-year record of larval trajectories within and among nine discrete local populations from an area of approximately 35 km was established by determining the natal origin of settled juveniles through DNA parentage analysis. We found that spatial patterns of both self-recruitment and connectivity were remarkably consistent over time, with a low level of self-recruitment at the scale of individual sites. Connectivity among sites was common and multidirectional in all years and was not significantly influenced by seasonal variability of predominant surface current directions. However, approximately 75% of the sampled juveniles could not be assigned to parents within the study area, indicating high levels of immigrations from sources outside the study area. The data support predictions that the magnitude and temporal stability of larval connectivity decreases significantly with increasing distance between subpopulations, but increases with the size of subpopulations. Given the considerable effort needed to directly measure larval exchange, the consistent patterns suggest snapshot parentage analyses can provide useful dispersal estimates to inform spatial management decisions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Application of a clustering-remote sensing method in analyzing security patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Caloca, Alejandra; Martínez-Viveros, Elvia; Chapela-Castañares, José Ignacio

    2009-04-01

    In Mexican academic and government circles, research on criminal spatial behavior has been neglected. Only recently has there been an interest in criminal data geo-reference. However, more sophisticated spatial analyses models are needed to disclose spatial patterns of crime and pinpoint their changes overtime. The main use of these models lies in supporting policy making and strategic intelligence. In this paper we present a model for finding patterns associated with crime. It is based on a fuzzy logic algorithm which finds the best fit within cluster numbers and shapes of groupings. We describe the methodology for building the model and its validation. The model was applied to annual data for types of felonies from 2005 to 2006 in the Mexican city of Hermosillo. The results are visualized as a standard deviational ellipse computed for the points identified to be a "cluster". These areas indicate a high to low demand for public security, and they were cross-related to urban structure analyzed by SPOT images and statistical data such as population, poverty levels, urbanization, and available services. The fusion of the model results with other geospatial data allows detecting obstacles and opportunities for crime commission in specific high risk zones and guide police activities and criminal investigations.

  20. Pattern-mixture models for analyzing normal outcome data with proxy respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shardell, Michelle; Hicks, Gregory E; Miller, Ram R; Langenberg, Patricia; Magaziner, Jay

    2010-06-30

    Studies of older adults often involve interview questions regarding subjective constructs such as perceived disability. In some studies, when subjects are unable (e.g. due to cognitive impairment) or unwilling to respond to these questions, proxies (e.g. relatives or other care givers) are recruited to provide responses in place of the subject. Proxies are usually not approached to respond on behalf of subjects who respond for themselves; thus, for each subject, data from only one of the subject or proxy are available. Typically, proxy responses are simply substituted for missing subject responses, and standard complete-data analyses are performed. However, this approach may introduce measurement error and produce biased parameter estimates. In this paper, we propose using pattern-mixture models that relate non-identifiable parameters to identifiable parameters to analyze data with proxy respondents. We posit three interpretable pattern-mixture restrictions to be used with proxy data, and we propose estimation procedures using maximum likelihood and multiple imputation. The methods are applied to a cohort of elderly hip-fracture patients. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Application of frequent itemsets mining to analyze patterns of one-stop visits in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yi Tu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The free choice of health care facilities without limitations on frequency of visits within the National Health Insurance in Taiwan gives rise to not only a high number of annual ambulatory visits per capita but also a unique "one-stop shopping"phenomenon, which refers to a patient' visits to several specialties of the same healthcare facility in one day. The visits to multiple physicians would increase the potential risk of polypharmacy. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and patterns of one-stop visits in Taiwan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The claims datasets of 1 million nationally representative people within Taiwan's National Health Insurance in 2005 were used to calculate the number of patients with one-stop visits. The frequent itemsets mining was applied to compute the combination patterns of specialties in the one-stop visits. Among the total 13,682,469 ambulatory care visits in 2005, one-stop visits occurred 144,132 times and involved 296,822 visits (2.2% of all visits by 66,294 (6.6% persons. People tended to have this behavior with age and the percentage reached 27.5% (5,662 in 20,579 in the age group ≥80 years. In general, women were more likely to have one-stop visits than men (7.2% vs. 6.0%. Internal medicine plus ophthalmology was the most frequent combination with a visited frequency of 3,552 times (2.5%, followed by cardiology plus neurology with 3,183 times (2.2%. The most frequent three-specialty combination, cardiology plus neurology and gastroenterology, occurred only 111 times. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Without the novel computational technique, it would be hardly possible to analyze the extremely diverse combination patterns of specialties in one-stop visits. The results of the study could provide useful information either for the hospital manager to set up integrated services or for the policymaker to rebuild the health care system.

  2. Assemblage patterns of fish functional groups relative to habitat connectivity and conditions in floodplain lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazono, S.; Aycock, J.N.; Miranda, L.E.; Tietjen, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the influences of habitat connectivity and local environmental factors on the distribution and abundance patterns of fish functional groups in 17 floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin, USA. The results of univariate and multivariate analyses showed that species-environmental relationships varied with the functional groups. Species richness and assemblage structure of periodic strategists showed strong and positive correlations with habitat connectivity. Densities of most equilibrium and opportunistic strategists decreased with habitat connectivity. Densities of certain equilibrium and opportunistic strategists increased with turbidity. Forested wetlands around the lakes were positively related to the densities of periodic and equilibrium strategists. These results suggest that decreases in habitat connectivity, forested wetland buffers and water quality resulting from environmental manipulations may cause local extinction of certain fish taxa and accelerate the dominance of tolerant fishes in floodplain lakes. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. A word-count approach to analyze linguistic patterns in the reflective writings of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wei Lin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teaching reflection and administering reflective writing assignments to students are widely practiced and discussed in medical education and health professional education. However, little is known about how medical students use language to construct their narratives. Exploring students’ linguistic patterns in their reflective writings can facilitate understanding the scope and facets of their reflections and their representational or communication approaches to share their experiences. Moreover, research findings regarding gender differences in language use are inconsistent. Therefore, we attempted to examine how females and males differ in their use of words in reflective writing within our research circumstance to detect the unique and gender-specific approaches to learning and their applications. Methods: We analyzed the linguistic profiles of psychological process categories in the reflective writings of medical students and examined the difference in word usage between male and female medical students. During the first year of a clinical rotation, 60 fifth-year medical students wrote reflective narratives regarding pediatric patients and the psychosocial challenges faced by the patients and their family members. The narratives were analyzed using the Chinese version of Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (CLIWC, a text analysis software program. Multivariate procedures were applied for statistical analysis. Results: Cognitive words were most pervasive, averaging 22.16%, whereas perceptual words (2.86% were least pervasive. Female students used more words related to positive emotions and sadness than did male students. The male students exceeded the female students only in the space category. The major limitation of this study is that CLIWC cannot directly acquire contextual text meanings; therefore, depending on the research topic, further qualitative study of the given texts might be necessary. Conclusions: To enhance students

  4. The structural connectivity pattern of the default mode network and its association with memory and anxiety

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    Yan eTao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The default mode network (DMN is one of the most widely studied resting state functional networks. The structural basis for the DMN is of particular interest and has been studied by several researchers using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Most of these previous studies focused on a few regions or white matter tracts of the DMN so that the global structural connectivity pattern and network properties of the DMN remain unclear. Moreover, evidences indicate that the DMN is involved in both memory and emotion, but how the DMN regulates memory and anxiety from the perspective of the whole DMN structural network remains unknown. We used multimodal neuroimaging methods to investigate the structural connectivity pattern of the DMN and the association of its network properties with memory and anxiety in 205 young healthy subjects. Using a probabilistic fiber tractography technique based on DTI data and graph theory methods, we constructed the global structural connectivity pattern of the DMN and found that memory quotient (MQ score was significantly positively correlated with the global and local efficiency of the DMN whereas anxiety was found to be negatively correlated with the efficiency. The strong structural connectivity between multiple brain regions within DMN may reflect that the DMN has certain structural basis. Meanwhile, we found the network efficiency of the DMN were related to memory and anxiety measures, which indicated that the DMN may play a role in the memory and anxiety.

  5. Multivariate Pattern Classification of Facial Expressions Based on Large-Scale Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yin; Liu, Baolin; Li, Xianglin; Wang, Peiyuan

    2018-01-01

    It is an important question how human beings achieve efficient recognition of others' facial expressions in cognitive neuroscience, and it has been identified that specific cortical regions show preferential activation to facial expressions in previous studies. However, the potential contributions of the connectivity patterns in the processing of facial expressions remained unclear. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explored whether facial expressions could be decoded from the functional connectivity (FC) patterns using multivariate pattern analysis combined with machine learning algorithms (fcMVPA). We employed a block design experiment and collected neural activities while participants viewed facial expressions of six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, and surprise). Both static and dynamic expression stimuli were included in our study. A behavioral experiment after scanning confirmed the validity of the facial stimuli presented during the fMRI experiment with classification accuracies and emotional intensities. We obtained whole-brain FC patterns for each facial expression and found that both static and dynamic facial expressions could be successfully decoded from the FC patterns. Moreover, we identified the expression-discriminative networks for the static and dynamic facial expressions, which span beyond the conventional face-selective areas. Overall, these results reveal that large-scale FC patterns may also contain rich expression information to accurately decode facial expressions, suggesting a novel mechanism, which includes general interactions between distributed brain regions, and that contributes to the human facial expression recognition.

  6. Patterns of Bullying and Sexual Harassment: Connections with Parents and Teachers as Direct Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Jennifer L; Gower, Amy L; Rudi, Jessie H; McMorris, Barbara J; Borowsky, Iris W

    2017-11-01

    Involvement in bullying and sexual harassment in adolescence is associated with a variety of internalizing, externalizing, and health-risk behaviors. Yet, the two behaviors are often studied independently. The current study examined how bullying and sexual harassment co-occur and whether social connections protected youth from risk patterns. The data for this study come from the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (N = 121,311; 50% female, 74% White, 26% received free or reduced-price lunch; M age  = 14.9, SD = 1.3). Students reported on bullying and sexual harassment victimization and perpetration. Using latent class analysis, youth were classified into five patterns: High-Risk of All Forms of Victimization and Perpetration (7%), Relational and Cyberbullying Victimization (17%), Sexual Harassment Victimization and Perpetration (8%), Physical Bullying Perpetration (6%), and Low-Risk (62%). Compared to the low-risk class, the four other classes had lower levels of social connections, particularly with teachers and parents. Older youth (9th and 11th grade students) were at greater risk for the sexual harassment pattern, while younger youth (8th grade students) were at greater risk for bullying patterns. The results indicate that efforts to reduce bullying should also address sexual harassment and social connections with adults.

  7. [Scale effect of Nanjing urban green infrastructure network pattern and connectivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ya Ping; Yin, Hai Wei; Kong, Fan Hua; Wang, Jing Jing; Xu, Wen Bin

    2016-07-01

    Based on ArcGIS, Erdas, GuidosToolbox, Conefor and other software platforms, using morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA) and landscape connectivity analysis methods, this paper quantitatively analysed the scale effect, edge effect and distance effect of the Nanjing urban green infrastructure network pattern in 2013 by setting different pixel sizes (P) and edge widths in MSPA analysis, and setting different dispersal distance thresholds in landscape connectivity analysis. The results showed that the type of landscape acquired based on the MSPA had a clear scale effect and edge effect, and scale effects only slightly affected landscape types, whereas edge effects were more obvious. Different dispersal distances had a great impact on the landscape connectivity, 2 km or 2.5 km dispersal distance was a critical threshold for Nanjing. When selecting the pixel size 30 m of the input data and the edge wide 30 m used in the morphological model, we could get more detailed landscape information of Nanjing UGI network. Based on MSPA and landscape connectivity, analysis of the scale effect, edge effect, and distance effect on the landscape types of the urban green infrastructure (UGI) network was helpful for selecting the appropriate size, edge width, and dispersal distance when developing these networks, and for better understanding the spatial pattern of UGI networks and the effects of scale and distance on the ecology of a UGI network. This would facilitate a more scientifically valid set of design parameters for UGI network spatiotemporal pattern analysis. The results of this study provided an important reference for Nanjing UGI networks and a basis for the analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of medium-scale UGI landscape networks in other regions.

  8. Is Reading Instruction Evidence-Based? Analyzing Teaching Practices Using T-Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Suárez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to analyze whether primary teachers use evidence-based reading instruction for primary-grade readers. The study sample consisted of six teachers whose teaching was recorded. The observation instrument used was developed ad hoc for this study. The recording instrument used was Match Vision Studio. The data analysis was performed using SAS, GT version 2.0 E, and THEME. The results indicated that the teaching practices used most frequently and for the longest duration were: feedback (i.e., correcting the student when reading; fluency (i.e., individual and group reading, both out loud and silently, with and without intonation; literal or inference comprehension exercises (i.e., summarizing, asking questions; and use of educational resources (i.e., stories, songs, poems. Later, we conducted analyses of T-Patterns that showed the sequence of instruction in detail. We can conclude that <50% of the teaching practices used by the majority of teachers were based on the recommendations of the National Reading Panel (NRP. Only one teacher followed best practices. The same was the case for instructional time spent on the five essential components of reading, with the exception of teacher E., who dedicated 70.31% of class time implementing best practices. Teaching practices (i.e., learners' activities designed and implemented to exercise and master alphabetic knowledge and phonological awareness skills were used less frequently in the classroom.

  9. Is Reading Instruction Evidence-Based? Analyzing Teaching Practices Using T-Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Natalia; Sánchez, Carmen R; Jiménez, Juan E; Anguera, M Teresa

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to analyze whether primary teachers use evidence-based reading instruction for primary-grade readers. The study sample consisted of six teachers whose teaching was recorded. The observation instrument used was developed ad hoc for this study. The recording instrument used was Match Vision Studio. The data analysis was performed using SAS, GT version 2.0 E, and THEME. The results indicated that the teaching practices used most frequently and for the longest duration were: feedback (i.e., correcting the student when reading); fluency (i.e., individual and group reading, both out loud and silently, with and without intonation); literal or inference comprehension exercises (i.e., summarizing, asking questions); and use of educational resources (i.e., stories, songs, poems). Later, we conducted analyses of T-Patterns that showed the sequence of instruction in detail. We can conclude that practices used by the majority of teachers were based on the recommendations of the National Reading Panel (NRP). Only one teacher followed best practices. The same was the case for instructional time spent on the five essential components of reading, with the exception of teacher E., who dedicated 70.31% of class time implementing best practices. Teaching practices (i.e., learners' activities) designed and implemented to exercise and master alphabetic knowledge and phonological awareness skills were used less frequently in the classroom.

  10. Analyzing crack development pattern of masonry structure in seismic oscillation by digital photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojian; Yu, Chengxin; Ding, Xinhua

    2018-01-01

    In this study, digital photography is used to monitor the instantaneous deformation of a masonry wall in seismic oscillation. In order to obtain higher measurement accuracy, the image matching-time baseline parallax method (IM-TBPM) is used to correct errors caused by the change of intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of digital cameras. Results show that the average errors of control point C5 are 0.79mm, 0.44mm and 0.96mm in X, Z and comprehensive direction, respectively. The average errors of control point C6 are 0.49mm, 0.44mm and 0.71mm in X, Z and comprehensive direction, respectively. These suggest that IM-TBPM can meet the accuracy requirements of instantaneous deformation monitoring. In seismic oscillation the middle to lower of the masonry wall develops cracks firstly. Then the shear failure occurs on the middle of masonry wall. This study provides technical basis for analyzing the crack development pattern of masonry structure in seismic oscillation and have significant implications for improved construction of masonry structures in earthquake prone areas.

  11. Connectivity strategies for higher-order neural networks applied to pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Reid, Max B.

    1990-01-01

    Different strategies for non-fully connected HONNs (higher-order neural networks) are discussed, showing that by using such strategies an input field of 128 x 128 pixels can be attained while still achieving in-plane rotation and translation-invariant recognition. These techniques allow HONNs to be used with the larger input scenes required for practical pattern-recognition applications. The number of interconnections that must be stored has been reduced by a factor of approximately 200,000 in a T/C case and about 2000 in a Space Shuttle/F-18 case by using regional connectivity. Third-order networks have been simulated using several connection strategies. The method found to work best is regional connectivity. The main advantages of this strategy are the following: (1) it considers features of various scales within the image and thus gets a better sample of what the image looks like; (2) it is invariant to shape-preserving geometric transformations, such as translation and rotation; (3) the connections are predetermined so that no extra computations are necessary during run time; and (4) it does not require any extra storage for recording which connections were formed.

  12. On Identifying Useful Patterns to Analyze Products in Retail Transaction Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Unil

    Mining correlated patterns in large transaction databases is one of the essential tasks in data mining since a huge number of patterns are usually mined, but it is hard to find patterns with the correlation. The needed data analysis should be made according to the requirements of the particular real application. In previous mining approaches, patterns with the weak affinity are found even with a high minimum support. In this paper, we suggest weighted support affinity pattern mining in which a new measure, weighted support confidence (ws-confidence) is developed to identify correlated patterns with the weighted support affinity. To efficiently prune the weak affinity patterns, we prove that the ws-confidence measure satisfies the anti-monotone and cross weighted support properties which can be applied to eliminate patterns with dissimilar weighted support levels. Based on the two properties, we develop a weighted support affinity pattern mining algorithm (WSP). The weighted support affinity patterns can be useful to answer the comparative analysis queries such as finding itemsets containing items which give similar total selling expense levels with an acceptable error range α% and detecting item lists with similar levels of total profits. In addition, our performance study shows that WSP is efficient and scalable for mining weighted support affinity patterns.

  13. Influence of Biological Factors on Connectivity Patterns for Concholepas concholepas (loco) in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavelli, Lysel; Colas, François; Verley, Philippe; Kaplan, David Michael; Yannicelli, Beatriz; Lett, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    In marine benthic ecosystems, larval connectivity is a major process influencing the maintenance and distribution of invertebrate populations. Larval connectivity is a complex process to study as it is determined by several interacting factors. Here we use an individual-based, biophysical model, to disentangle the effects of such factors, namely larval vertical migration, larval growth, larval mortality, adults fecundity, and habitat availability, for the marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas (loco) in Chile. Lower transport success and higher dispersal distances are observed including larval vertical migration in the model. We find an overall decrease in larval transport success to settlement areas from northern to southern Chile. This spatial gradient results from the combination of current direction and intensity, seawater temperature, and available habitat. From our simulated connectivity patterns we then identify subpopulations of loco along the Chilean coast, which could serve as a basis for spatial management of this resource in the future.

  14. Influence of Biological Factors on Connectivity Patterns for Concholepas concholepas (loco in Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysel Garavelli

    Full Text Available In marine benthic ecosystems, larval connectivity is a major process influencing the maintenance and distribution of invertebrate populations. Larval connectivity is a complex process to study as it is determined by several interacting factors. Here we use an individual-based, biophysical model, to disentangle the effects of such factors, namely larval vertical migration, larval growth, larval mortality, adults fecundity, and habitat availability, for the marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas (loco in Chile. Lower transport success and higher dispersal distances are observed including larval vertical migration in the model. We find an overall decrease in larval transport success to settlement areas from northern to southern Chile. This spatial gradient results from the combination of current direction and intensity, seawater temperature, and available habitat. From our simulated connectivity patterns we then identify subpopulations of loco along the Chilean coast, which could serve as a basis for spatial management of this resource in the future.

  15. A signaling network for patterning of neuronal connectivity in the Drosophila brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Srahna

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The precise number and pattern of axonal connections generated during brain development regulates animal behavior. Therefore, understanding how developmental signals interact to regulate axonal extension and retraction to achieve precise neuronal connectivity is a fundamental goal of neurobiology. We investigated this question in the developing adult brain of Drosophila and find that it is regulated by crosstalk between Wnt, fibroblast growth factor (FGF receptor, and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK signaling, but independent of neuronal activity. The Rac1 GTPase integrates a Wnt-Frizzled-Disheveled axon-stabilizing signal and a Branchless (FGF-Breathless (FGF receptor axon-retracting signal to modulate JNK activity. JNK activity is necessary and sufficient for axon extension, whereas the antagonistic Wnt and FGF signals act to balance the extension and retraction required for the generation of the precise wiring pattern.

  16. Variability in connectivity patterns of fish with ontogenetic migrations: Modelling effects of abiotic and biotic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Eva Tanner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Connectivity is a critical property of marine fish populations as it drives population replenishment, determines colonization patterns and the resilience of populations to harvest. Understanding connectivity patterns is particularly important in species that present ontogenetic migrations and segregated habitat use during their life history, such as marine species with estuarine nursery areas. Albeit challenging, fish movement can be estimated and quantified using different methodologies depending on the life history stages of interest (e.g. biophysical modelling, otolith chemistry, genetic markers. Relative contributions from estuarine nursery areas to the adult coastal populations were determined using otolith elemental composition and maximum likelihood estimation for four commercially important species (Dicentrarchus labrax, Plathichtys flesus, Solea senegalensis and Solea solea and showed high interannual variability. Here, the effects of abiotic and biotic factors on the observed variability in connectivity rates and extent between estuarine juvenile and coastal adult subpopulations are investigated using generalized linear models (GLM and generalized mixed models (GMM. Abiotic factors impacting both larval and juvenile life history stages are included in the models (e.g. wind force and direction, NAO, water temperature while biotic factors relative to the estuarine residency of juvenile fish are evaluated (e.g. juvenile density, food availability. Factors contributing most to the observed variability in connectivity rates are singled out and compared among species. General trends are identified and results area discussed in the general context of identifying potential management frameworks applicable to different life stages and which may prove useful for ontogenetically migrating species.

  17. Monitoring, analyzing and simulating of spatial-temporal changes of landscape pattern over mining area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei; Han, Ruimei; Wang, Shuangting

    2014-11-01

    According to the merits of remotely sensed data in depicting regional land cover and Land changes, multi- objective information processing is employed to remote sensing images to analyze and simulate land cover in mining areas. In this paper, multi-temporal remotely sensed data were selected to monitor the pattern, distri- bution and trend of LUCC and predict its impacts on ecological environment and human settlement in mining area. The monitor, analysis and simulation of LUCC in this coal mining areas are divided into five steps. The are information integration of optical and SAR data, LULC types extraction with SVM classifier, LULC trends simulation with CA Markov model, landscape temporal changes monitoring and analysis with confusion matrixes and landscape indices. The results demonstrate that the improved data fusion algorithm could make full use of information extracted from optical and SAR data; SVM classifier has an efficient and stable ability to obtain land cover maps, which could provide a good basis for both land cover change analysis and trend simulation; CA Markov model is able to predict LULC trends with good performance, and it is an effective way to integrate remotely sensed data with spatial-temporal model for analysis of land use / cover change and corresponding environmental impacts in mining area. Confusion matrixes are combined with landscape indices to evaluation and analysis show that, there was a sustained downward trend in agricultural land and bare land, but a continues growth trend tendency in water body, forest and other lands, and building area showing a wave like change, first increased and then decreased; mining landscape has undergone a from small to large and large to small process of fragmentation, agricultural land is the strongest influenced landscape type in this area, and human activities are the primary cause, so the problem should be pay more attentions by government and other organizations.

  18. l-Dopa responsiveness is associated with distinctive connectivity patterns in advanced Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Harith; Wu, Chengyuan; Hyam, Jonathan; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; De Vita, Enrico; Yousry, Tarek; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Hariz, Marwan; Behrens, Timothy; Ashburner, John; Zrinzo, Ludvic

    2017-06-01

    Neuronal loss and dopamine depletion alter motor signal processing between cortical motor areas, basal ganglia, and the thalamus, resulting in the motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease. Dopamine replacement therapy can reverse these manifestations with varying degrees of improvement. To evaluate functional connectivity in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and changes in functional connectivity in relation to the degree of response to l-dopa, 19 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in the on-medication state. Scans were obtained on a 3-Tesla scanner in 3 × 3 × 2.5 mm 3 voxels. Seed-based bivariate regression analyses were carried out with atlas-defined basal ganglia regions as seeds, to explore relationships between functional connectivity and improvement in the motor section of the UPDRS-III following an l-dopa challenge. False discovery rate-corrected P was set at basal ganglia resting-state functional connectivity patterns associated with different degrees of l-dopa responsiveness in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. l-Dopa exerts a graduated influence on remapping connectivity in distinct motor control networks, potentially explaining some of the variance in treatment response. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  19. A probabilistic approach to quantifying spatial patterns of flow regimes and network-scale connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, Silvia; Alessi Celegon, Elisa; Fanton, Pietro; Botter, Gianluca

    2017-04-01

    The temporal variability of river flow regime is a key feature structuring and controlling fluvial ecological communities and ecosystem processes. In particular, streamflow variability induced by climate/landscape heterogeneities or other anthropogenic factors significantly affects the connectivity between streams with notable implication for river fragmentation. Hydrologic connectivity is a fundamental property that guarantees species persistence and ecosystem integrity in riverine systems. In riverine landscapes, most ecological transitions are flow-dependent and the structure of flow regimes may affect ecological functions of endemic biota (i.e., fish spawning or grazing of invertebrate species). Therefore, minimum flow thresholds must be guaranteed to support specific ecosystem services, like fish migration, aquatic biodiversity and habitat suitability. In this contribution, we present a probabilistic approach aiming at a spatially-explicit, quantitative assessment of hydrologic connectivity at the network-scale as derived from river flow variability. Dynamics of daily streamflows are estimated based on catchment-scale climatic and morphological features, integrating a stochastic, physically based approach that accounts for the stochasticity of rainfall with a water balance model and a geomorphic recession flow model. The non-exceedance probability of ecologically meaningful flow thresholds is used to evaluate the fragmentation of individual stream reaches, and the ensuing network-scale connectivity metrics. A multi-dimensional Poisson Process for the stochastic generation of rainfall is used to evaluate the impact of climate signature on reach-scale and catchment-scale connectivity. The analysis shows that streamflow patterns and network-scale connectivity are influenced by the topology of the river network and the spatial variability of climatic properties (rainfall, evapotranspiration). The framework offers a robust basis for the prediction of the impact of

  20. Exploratory graphical models of functional and structural connectivity patterns for Alzheimer's Disease diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres eOrtiz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s Disease (AD is the most common neurodegenerative disease in elderly people. Itsdevelopment has been shown to be closely related to changes in the brain connectivity networkand in the brain activation patterns along with structural changes caused by the neurodegenerativeprocess.Methods to infer dependence between brain regions are usually derived from the analysis ofcovariance between activation levels in the different areas. However, these covariance-basedmethods are not able to estimate conditional independence between variables to factor out theinfluence of other regions. Conversely, models based on the inverse covariance, or precisionmatrix, such as Sparse Gaussian Graphical Models allow revealing conditional independencebetween regions by estimating the covariance between two variables given the rest as constant.This paper uses Sparse Inverse Covariance Estimation (SICE methods to learn undirectedgraphs in order to derive functional and structural connectivity patterns from Fludeoxyglucose(18F-FDG Position Emission Tomography (PET data and segmented Magnetic Resonanceimages (MRI, drawn from the ADNI database, for Control, MCI (Mild Cognitive ImpairmentSubjects and AD subjects. Sparse computation fits perfectly here as brain regions usually onlyinteract with a few other areas.The models clearly show different metabolic covariation patters between subject groups, revealingthe loss of strong connections in AD and MCI subjects when compared to Controls. Similarly,the variance between GM (Grey Matter densities of different regions reveals different structuralcovariation patterns between the different groups. Thus, the different connectivity patterns forcontrols and AD are used in this paper to select regions of interest in PET and GM images withdiscriminative power for early AD diagnosis. Finally, functional an structural models are combinedto leverage the classification accuracy.The results obtained in this work show the usefulness

  1. Multivariate pattern analysis reveals anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated differences of clinical signs and functional brain network organizations between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE, but the anatomical connectivity differences underlying functional variance between the left and right mTLE remain uncharacterized. We examined 43 (22 left, 21 right mTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis and 39 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging. After the whole-brain anatomical networks were constructed for each subject, multivariate pattern analysis was applied to classify the left mTLE from the right mTLE and extract the anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mTLE patients. The classification results reveal 93.0% accuracy for the left mTLE versus the right mTLE, 93.4% accuracy for the left mTLE versus controls and 90.0% accuracy for the right mTLE versus controls. Compared with the right mTLE, the left mTLE exhibited a different connectivity pattern in the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum. The majority of the most discriminating anatomical connections were located within or across the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum, thereby indicating that these disease-related anatomical network alterations may give rise to a portion of the complex of emotional and memory deficit between the left and right mTLE. Moreover, the orbitofrontal gyrus, cingulate cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which exhibit high discriminative power in classification, may play critical roles in the pathophysiology of mTLE. The current study demonstrated that anatomical connectivity differences between the left mTLE and the right mTLE may have the potential to serve as a neuroimaging biomarker to guide personalized diagnosis of the left and right mTLE.

  2. Multivariate pattern analysis reveals anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Peng; An, Jie; Zeng, Ling-Li; Shen, Hui; Chen, Fanglin; Wang, Wensheng; Qiu, Shijun; Hu, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differences of clinical signs and functional brain network organizations between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), but the anatomical connectivity differences underlying functional variance between the left and right mTLE remain uncharacterized. We examined 43 (22 left, 21 right) mTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis and 39 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging. After the whole-brain anatomical networks were constructed for each subject, multivariate pattern analysis was applied to classify the left mTLE from the right mTLE and extract the anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mTLE patients. The classification results reveal 93.0% accuracy for the left mTLE versus the right mTLE, 93.4% accuracy for the left mTLE versus controls and 90.0% accuracy for the right mTLE versus controls. Compared with the right mTLE, the left mTLE exhibited a different connectivity pattern in the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum. The majority of the most discriminating anatomical connections were located within or across the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum, thereby indicating that these disease-related anatomical network alterations may give rise to a portion of the complex of emotional and memory deficit between the left and right mTLE. Moreover, the orbitofrontal gyrus, cingulate cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which exhibit high discriminative power in classification, may play critical roles in the pathophysiology of mTLE. The current study demonstrated that anatomical connectivity differences between the left mTLE and the right mTLE may have the potential to serve as a neuroimaging biomarker to guide personalized diagnosis of the left and right mTLE.

  3. Patterns and drivers for wetland connections in the Prairie Pothole Region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Christensen, Jay R.; Alexander, Laurie C.

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem function in rivers, lakes and coastal waters depends on the functioning of upstream aquatic ecosystems, necessitating an improved understanding of watershed-scale interactions including variable surface-water flows between wetlands and streams. As surface water in the Prairie Pothole Region expands in wet years, surface-water connections occur between many depressional wetlands and streams. Minimal research has explored the spatial patterns and drivers for the abundance of these connections, despite their potential to inform resource management and regulatory programs including the U.S. Clean Water Act. In this study, wetlands were identified that did not intersect the stream network, but were shown with Landsat images (1990–2011) to become merged with the stream network as surface water expanded. Wetlands were found to spill into or consolidate with other wetlands within both small (2–10 wetlands) and large (>100 wetlands) wetland clusters, eventually intersecting a stream channel, most often via a riparian wetland. These surface-water connections occurred over a wide range of wetland distances from streams (averaging 90–1400 m in different ecoregions). Differences in the spatial abundance of wetlands that show a variable surface-water connection to a stream were best explained by smaller wetland-to-wetland distances, greater wetland abundance, and maximum surface-water extent. This analysis demonstrated that wetland arrangement and surface water expansion are important mechanisms for depressional wetlands to connect to streams and provides a first step to understanding the frequency and abundance of these surface-water connections across the Prairie Pothole Region.

  4. Distributed patterns of occipito-parietal functional connectivity predict the precision of visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano Weber, Elena M; Hahn, Tim; Hilger, Kirsten; Fiebach, Christian J

    2017-02-01

    Limitations in visual working memory (WM) quality (i.e., WM precision) may depend on perceptual and attentional limitations during stimulus encoding, thereby affecting WM capacity. WM encoding relies on the interaction between sensory processing systems and fronto-parietal 'control' regions, and differences in the quality of this interaction are a plausible source of individual differences in WM capacity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the coupling between perceptual and attentional systems affects the quality of WM encoding. We combined fMRI connectivity analysis with behavioral modeling by fitting a variable precision and fixed capacity model to the performance data obtained while participants performed a visual delayed continuous response WM task. We quantified functional connectivity during WM encoding between occipital and parietal brain regions activated during both perception and WM encoding, as determined using a conjunction of two independent experiments. The multivariate pattern of voxel-wise inter-areal functional connectivity significantly predicted WM performance, most specifically the mean of WM precision but not the individual number of items that could be stored in memory. In particular, higher occipito-parietal connectivity was associated with higher behavioral mean precision. These results are consistent with a network perspective of WM capacity, suggesting that the efficiency of information flow between perceptual and attentional neural systems is a critical determinant of limitations in WM quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimizing electrical load pattern in Kuwait using grid connected photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hasan, A.Y.; Ghoneim, A.A.; Abdullah, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    Grid connected photovoltaic systems is one of the most promising applications of photovoltaic systems. These systems are employed in applications where utility service is already available. In this case, there is no need for battery storage because grid power may be used to supplement photovoltaic systems (PV) when the load exceeds available PV generation. The load receives electricity from both the photovoltaic array and the utility grid. In this system, the load is the total electrical energy consumption. The main objective of the present work is to optimize the electrical load pattern in Kuwait using grid connected PV systems. In this situation, the electric load demand can be satisfied from both the photovoltaic array and the utility grid. The performance of grid connected photovoltaic systems in the Kuwait climate has been evaluated. It was found that the peak load matches the maximum incident solar radiation in Kuwait, which would emphasize the role of using the PV station to minimize the electrical load demand. In addition, a significant reduction in peak load can be achieved with grid connected PV systems

  6. Analyzing the causes and spatial pattern of the European 2003 carbon flux anomaly using seven models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vetter

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the year 2003 is associated with one of the largest atmospheric CO2 rises on record. In the same year, Europe experienced an anomalously strong flux of CO2 from the land to the atmosphere associated with an exceptionally dry and hot summer in Western and Central Europe. In this study we analyze the magnitude of this carbon flux anomaly and key driving ecosystem processes using simulations of seven terrestrial ecosystem models of different complexity and types (process-oriented and diagnostic. We address the following questions: (1 how large were deviations in the net European carbon flux in 2003 relative to a short-term baseline (1998–2002 and to longer-term variations in annual fluxes (1980 to 2005, (2 which European regions exhibited the largest changes in carbon fluxes during the growing season 2003, and (3 which ecosystem processes controlled the carbon balance anomaly .

    In most models the prominence of 2003 anomaly in carbon fluxes declined with lengthening of the reference period from one year to 16 years. The 2003 anomaly for annual net carbon fluxes ranged between 0.35 and –0.63 Pg C for a reference period of one year and between 0.17 and –0.37 Pg C for a reference period of 16 years for the whole Europe.

    In Western and Central Europe, the anomaly in simulated net ecosystem productivity (NEP over the growing season in 2003 was outside the 1σ variance bound of the carbon flux anomalies for 1980–2005 in all models. The estimated anomaly in net carbon flux ranged between –42 and –158 Tg C for Western Europe and between 24 and –129 Tg C for Central Europe depending on the model used. All models responded to a dipole pattern of the climate anomaly in 2003. In Western and Central Europe NEP was reduced due to heat and drought. In contrast, lower than normal temperatures and higher air humidity decreased NEP over Northeastern Europe. While models agree on the sign of changes in

  7. Undifferentiated connective tissue disease and interstitial lung disease: Trying to define patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, María Laura; Paulin, Francisco; Toledo, Heidegger Mateos; Fernández, Martín Eduardo; Caro, Fabián Matías; Rojas-Serrano, Jorge; Mejía, Mayra Edith

    To identify clinical or immunological features in patients with undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), in order to group them and recognize different functional and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) behavior. Retrospective cohort study. Patients meeting Kinder criteria for UCTD were included. We defined the following predictive variables: 'highly specific' connective tissue disease (CTD) manifestations (Raynaud's phenomenon, dry eyes or arthritis), high antinuclear antibody (ANA) titer (above 1: 320), and 'specific' ANA staining patterns (centromere, cytoplasmic and nucleolar patterns). We evaluated the following outcomes: change in the percentage of the predicted forced vital capacity (FVC%) during the follow-up period, and HRCT pattern. Sixty-six patients were included. Twenty-nine (43.94%) showed at least one 'highly specific' CTD manifestation, 16 (28.57%) had a 'specific' ANA staining pattern and 29 (43.94%) high ANA titer. Patients with 'highly specific' CTD manifestations were younger (mean [SD] 52 years [14.58] vs 62.08 years [9.46], P<.001), were more likely men (10.34% vs 48.65%, P<.001) and showed a smaller decline of the FVC% (median [interquartile range] 1% [-1 to 10] vs -6% [-16 to -4], P<.006). In the multivariate analysis, the presence of highly specific manifestations was associated with improvement in the FVC% (B coefficient of 13.25 [95% confidence interval, 2.41 to 24.09]). No association was observed in relation to the HRCT pattern. The presence of 'highly specific' CTD manifestations was associated with female sex, younger age and better functional behavior. These findings highlight the impact of the clinical features in the outcome of patients with UCTD ILD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  8. The phase interrogation method for optical fiber sensor by analyzing the fork interference pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Riqing; Qiu, Liqiang; Hu, Haifeng; Meng, Lu; Zhang, Yong

    2018-02-01

    The phase interrogation method for optical fiber sensor is proposed based on the fork interference pattern between the orbital angular momentum beam and plane wave. The variation of interference pattern with phase difference between the two light beams is investigated to realize the phase interrogation. By employing principal component analysis method, the features of the interference pattern can be extracted. Moreover, the experimental system is designed to verify the theoretical analysis, as well as feasibility of phase interrogation. In this work, the Mach-Zehnder interferometer was employed to convert the strain applied on sensing fiber to the phase difference between the reference and measuring paths. This interrogation method is also applicable for the measurements of other physical parameters, which can produce the phase delay in optical fiber. The performance of the system can be further improved by employing highlysensitive materials and fiber structures.

  9. Analyzing Unsaturated Flow Patterns in Fractured Rock Using an Integrated Modeling Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y.S. Wu; G. Lu; K. Zhang; L. Pan; G.S. Bodvarsson

    2006-01-01

    Characterizing percolation patterns in unsaturated fractured rock has posed a greater challenge to modeling investigations than comparable saturated zone studies, because of the heterogeneous nature of unsaturated media and the great number of variables impacting unsaturated flow. This paper presents an integrated modeling methodology for quantitatively characterizing percolation patterns in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a proposed underground repository site for storing high-level radioactive waste. The modeling approach integrates a wide variety of moisture, pneumatic, thermal, and isotopic geochemical field data into a comprehensive three-dimensional numerical model for modeling analyses. It takes into account the coupled processes of fluid and heat flow and chemical isotopic transport in Yucca Mountain's highly heterogeneous, unsaturated fractured tuffs. Modeling results are examined against different types of field-measured data and then used to evaluate different hydrogeological conceptualizations and their results of flow patterns in the unsaturated zone. In particular, this model provides a much clearer understanding of percolation patterns and flow behavior through the unsaturated zone, both crucial issues in assessing repository performance. The integrated approach for quantifying Yucca Mountain's flow system is demonstrated to provide a practical modeling tool for characterizing flow and transport processes in complex subsurface systems

  10. Analyzing collaboration networks and developmental patterns of nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD for brain cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of new and emerging science & technologies (NESTs brings unprecedented challenges, but also opportunities. In this paper, we use bibliometric and social network analyses, at country, institution, and individual levels, to explore the patterns of scientific networking for a key nano area – nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD. NEDD has successfully been used clinically to modulate drug release and to target particular diseased tissues. The data for this research come from a global compilation of research publication information on NEDD directed at brain cancer. We derive a family of indicators that address multiple facets of research collaboration and knowledge transfer patterns. Results show that: (1 international cooperation is increasing, but networking characteristics change over time; (2 highly productive institutions also lead in influence, as measured by citation to their work, with American institutes leading; (3 research collaboration is dominated by local relationships, with interesting information available from authorship patterns that go well beyond journal impact factors. Results offer useful technical intelligence to help researchers identify potential collaborators and to help inform R&D management and science & innovation policy for such nanotechnologies.

  11. Multi-Connection Pattern Analysis: Decoding the representational content of neural communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanning; Richardson, Robert Mark; Ghuman, Avniel Singh

    2017-11-15

    The lack of multivariate methods for decoding the representational content of interregional neural communication has left it difficult to know what information is represented in distributed brain circuit interactions. Here we present Multi-Connection Pattern Analysis (MCPA), which works by learning mappings between the activity patterns of the populations as a factor of the information being processed. These maps are used to predict the activity from one neural population based on the activity from the other population. Successful MCPA-based decoding indicates the involvement of distributed computational processing and provides a framework for probing the representational structure of the interaction. Simulations demonstrate the efficacy of MCPA in realistic circumstances. In addition, we demonstrate that MCPA can be applied to different signal modalities to evaluate a variety of hypothesis associated with information coding in neural communications. We apply MCPA to fMRI and human intracranial electrophysiological data to provide a proof-of-concept of the utility of this method for decoding individual natural images and faces in functional connectivity data. We further use a MCPA-based representational similarity analysis to illustrate how MCPA may be used to test computational models of information transfer among regions of the visual processing stream. Thus, MCPA can be used to assess the information represented in the coupled activity of interacting neural circuits and probe the underlying principles of information transformation between regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. FHR patterns that become significant in connection with ST waveform changes and metabolic acidosis at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Karl G; Norén, Håkan; Carlsson, Ann

    2018-04-18

    Recent developments have produced new CTG classification systems and the question is to what extent these may affect the model of FHR + ST interpretation? The two new systems (FIGO2015 and SSOG2017) classify FHR + ST events differently from the current CTG classification system used in the STAN interpretation algorithm (STAN2007). Identify the predominant FHR patterns in connection with ST events in cases of cord artery metabolic acidosis missed by the different CTG classification systems. Indicate to what extent STAN clinical guidelines could be modified enhancing the sensitivity. Provide a pathophysiological rationale. Forty-four cases with umbilical cord artery metabolic acidosis were retrieved from a European multicenter database. Significant FHR + ST events were evaluated post hoc in consensus by an expert panel. Eighteen cases were not identified as in need of intervention and regarded as negative in the sensitivity analysis. In 12 cases, ST changes occurred but the CTG was regarded as reassuring. Visual analysis of the FHR + ST tracings revealed specific FHR patterns: Conclusion: These findings indicate FHR + ST analysis may be undertaken regardless of CTG classification system provided there is a more physiologically oriented approach to FHR assessment in connection with an ST event.

  13. Analyzing the disturbing effects of microwave probe on mm-wave antenna pattern measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, A.C.F.; Dommele, van A.R.; Huang, M.D.; Herben, M.H.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Realizing an antenna measurement environment with specific supporting structures and interconnection between the antenna under test and measurement equipment like a vector network analyzer in the mm-wave range is not as trivial as for the much lower frequencies. Commonly used interconnection methods

  14. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A; Sanmiguel, Claudia P; Van Horn, John D; Woodworth, Davis; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Fling, Connor; Love, Aubrey; Tillisch, Kirsten; Labus, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the hedonic component of ingestive behaviors have been implicated as a possible risk factor in the pathophysiology of overweight and obese individuals. Neuroimaging evidence from individuals with increasing body mass index suggests structural, functional, and neurochemical alterations in the extended reward network and associated networks. To apply a multivariate pattern analysis to distinguish normal weight and overweight subjects based on gray and white-matter measurements. Structural images (N = 120, overweight N = 63) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) (N = 60, overweight N = 30) were obtained from healthy control subjects. For the total sample the mean age for the overweight group (females = 32, males = 31) was 28.77 years (SD = 9.76) and for the normal weight group (females = 32, males = 25) was 27.13 years (SD = 9.62). Regional segmentation and parcellation of the brain images was performed using Freesurfer. Deterministic tractography was performed to measure the normalized fiber density between regions. A multivariate pattern analysis approach was used to examine whether brain measures can distinguish overweight from normal weight individuals. 1. White-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 17 regional connections, achieved 97% accuracy in discriminating overweight individuals from normal weight individuals. For both brain signatures, greater connectivity as indexed by increased fiber density was observed in overweight compared to normal weight between the reward network regions and regions of the executive control, emotional arousal, and somatosensory networks. In contrast, the opposite pattern (decreased fiber density) was found between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula, and between thalamus and executive control network regions. 2. Gray-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 42 morphological features, achieved 69

  15. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A.; Sanmiguel, Claudia P.; Van Horn, John D.; Woodworth, Davis; Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Fling, Connor; Love, Aubrey; Tillisch, Kirsten; Labus, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alterations in the hedonic component of ingestive behaviors have been implicated as a possible risk factor in the pathophysiology of overweight and obese individuals. Neuroimaging evidence from individuals with increasing body mass index suggests structural, functional, and neurochemical alterations in the extended reward network and associated networks. Aim To apply a multivariate pattern analysis to distinguish normal weight and overweight subjects based on gray and white-matter measurements. Methods Structural images (N = 120, overweight N = 63) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) (N = 60, overweight N = 30) were obtained from healthy control subjects. For the total sample the mean age for the overweight group (females = 32, males = 31) was 28.77 years (SD = 9.76) and for the normal weight group (females = 32, males = 25) was 27.13 years (SD = 9.62). Regional segmentation and parcellation of the brain images was performed using Freesurfer. Deterministic tractography was performed to measure the normalized fiber density between regions. A multivariate pattern analysis approach was used to examine whether brain measures can distinguish overweight from normal weight individuals. Results 1. White-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 17 regional connections, achieved 97% accuracy in discriminating overweight individuals from normal weight individuals. For both brain signatures, greater connectivity as indexed by increased fiber density was observed in overweight compared to normal weight between the reward network regions and regions of the executive control, emotional arousal, and somatosensory networks. In contrast, the opposite pattern (decreased fiber density) was found between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula, and between thalamus and executive control network regions. 2. Gray-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 42

  16. Estimates of connectivity reveal non-equilibrium epiphyte occurrence patterns almost 180 years after habitat decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Victor; Snäll, Tord; Ranius, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    Habitat loss is a major cause of species decline and extinction. Immediately after habitat loss, species occurrences are not in equilibrium with the new landscape and more closely reflect the previous landscape structure. Species with slow colonisation-extinction dynamics may display long time-lags before reaching a new equilibrium. We investigated the importance of connectivity to current and historical dispersal sources with the aim of explaining the occurrence pattern of epiphytic lichens with different traits among 104 old oaks. We used oak survey data collected from 1830 and 2009 for a Swedish landscape where oak densities declined drastically shortly after 1830. We fitted a commonly used connectivity measure and estimated the confidence interval for the spatial scale parameter. Small differences in the spatial scale parameter resulted in large differences in model fit. Connectivity to trees in 1830 better explained the occurrence of three of the four species compared to the connectivity in 2009. The explanatory power of the historical landscape structure was highest for the species with traits that may result in a low colonisation rate--both a narrow niche (here few suitable trees) and large dispersal propagules. The results suggest that oak-dependent epiphytic lichens have not reached equilibrium with the spatial landscape structure 180 years after the drastic decline in habitat. For the long-term persistence of epiphytes associated with old trees, conservation efforts should focus on (1) protecting and restoring stands where specialised species with large dispersal propagules (i.e. with low colonisation rates) occur today and (2) promoting tree regeneration in their near vicinity.

  17. Preschool anxiety disorders predict different patterns of amygdala-prefrontal connectivity at school-age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly L H Carpenter

    Full Text Available In this prospective, longitudinal study of young children, we examined whether a history of preschool generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and/or social phobia is associated with amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation at school-age. As an exploratory analysis, we investigated whether distinct anxiety disorders differ in the patterns of this amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation.Participants were children taking part in a 5-year study of early childhood brain development and anxiety disorders. Preschool symptoms of generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and social phobia were assessed with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA in the first wave of the study when the children were between 2 and 5 years old. The PAPA was repeated at age 6. We conducted functional MRIs when the children were 5.5 to 9.5 year old to assess neural responses to viewing of angry and fearful faces.A history of preschool social phobia predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces. Preschool generalized anxiety predicted less functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices in response to fearful faces. Finally, a history of preschool separation anxiety predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces and greater school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices to angry faces.Our results suggest that there are enduring neurobiological effects associated with a history of preschool anxiety, which occur over-and-above the effect of subsequent emotional symptoms. Our results also provide preliminary evidence for the neurobiological differentiation of specific preschool anxiety disorders.

  18. Recommendation Systems for Geoscience Data Portals Built by Analyzing Usage Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C.; Nandigam, V.; Baru, C.

    2009-04-01

    Since its launch five years ago, the National Science Foundation-funded GEON Project (www.geongrid.org) has been providing access to a variety of geoscience data sets such as geologic maps and other geographic information system (GIS)-oriented data, paleontologic databases, gravity and magnetics data and LiDAR topography via its online portal interface. In addition to data, the GEON Portal also provides web-based tools and other resources that enable users to process and interact with data. Examples of these tools include functions to dynamically map and integrate GIS data, compute synthetic seismograms, and to produce custom digital elevation models (DEMs) with user defined parameters such as resolution. The GEON portal built on the Gridsphere-portal framework allows us to capture user interaction with the system. In addition to the site access statistics captured by tools like Google Analystics which capture hits per unit time, search key words, operating systems, browsers, and referring sites, we also record additional statistics such as which data sets are being downloaded and in what formats, processing parameters, and navigation pathways through the portal. With over four years of data now available from the GEON Portal, this record of usage is a rich resource for exploring how earth scientists discover and utilize online data sets. Furthermore, we propose that this data could ultimately be harnessed to optimize the way users interact with the data portal, design intelligent processing and data management systems, and to make recommendations on algorithm settings and other available relevant data. The paradigm of integrating popular and commonly used patterns to make recommendations to a user is well established in the world of e-commerce where users receive suggestions on books, music and other products that they may find interesting based on their website browsing and purchasing history, as well as the patterns of fellow users who have made similar

  19. A Method for Using Adjacency Matrices to Analyze the Connections Students Make within and between Concepts: The Case of Linear Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinski, Natalie E.; Rasmussen, Chris; Wawro, Megan; Zandieh, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The central goals of most introductory linear algebra courses are to develop students' proficiency with matrix techniques, to promote their understanding of key concepts, and to increase their ability to make connections between concepts. In this article, we present an innovative method using adjacency matrices to analyze students' interpretation…

  20. Multisensor analyzer detector (MSAD) for low cost chemical and aerosol detection and pattern fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David C.; Merdes, Daniel W.; Lysak, Daniel B., Jr.; Curtis, Richard C.; Lang, Derek C.; Mazzara, Andrew F.; Nicholas, Nicholas C.

    2002-08-01

    MSAD is being developed as a low-cost point detection chemical and biological sensor system designed around an information fusion inference engine that also allows additional sensors to be included in the detection process. The MSAD concept is based on probable cause detection of hazardous chemical vapors and aerosols of either chemical or biological composition using a small portable unit containing an embedded computer system and several integrated sensors with complementary capabilities. The configuration currently envisioned includes a Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) sensor of chemical vapors and a detector of respirable aerosols based on Fraunhofer diffraction. Additional sensors employing Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS), Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) detection, Flame Photometric Detection (FPD), and other principles are candidates for integration into the device; also, available commercial detectors implementing IMS, SAW, and FPD will be made accessible to the unit through RS232 ports. Both feature and decision level information fusion is supported using a Continuous Inference Network (CINET) of fuzzy logic. Each class of agents has a unique CINET with information inputs from a number of available sensors. Missing or low confidence sensor information is gracefully blended out of the output confidence for the particular agent. This approach constitutes a plug and play arrangement between the sensors and the information pattern recognition algorithms. We are currently doing simulant testing and developing out CINETs for actual agent testing at Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC) later this year.

  1. Analyzing Lifestyle and Consumption Pattern of Hire Groups under Product Service Systems in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Che Tu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the characteristics of rental goods, integrates the green concept in the design and development, and introduces the concept of product service into the rental consumption trend in Taiwan. This study takes the questionnaire survey to collect various opinions of the consumers to rental consumption and also classifies the Taiwanese consumers into five clusters based on the life styles, and the names of clusters are simple financial management cluster, environment and taste cluster, fashionable and flexible cluster, careful purchase cluster, and smart consumption cluster. Finally, conclusions are as follows. (1 The green consumption cognition and attitude of the consumers to the environmental goods can help to master the factor of green consumption property for developing the rental commodities. (2 The market segmentation of the rental consumption market can be enhanced by the variables of available life styles. (3 The applications with product service rental characteristics should take the opinion feedback of the consumers into the sustainable product development conditions and expand the service property of the product. (4 As the cost of cradle-to-cradle recycling pattern is high, the support and promotion of the government can help to construct the business model of product service rental consumption and develop the rental economy.

  2. Combining evolutionary game theory and network theory to analyze human cooperation patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scatà, Marialisa; Di Stefano, Alessandro; La Corte, Aurelio; Liò, Pietro; Catania, Emanuele; Guardo, Ermanno; Pagano, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the evolutionary dynamics of human cooperation in a social network. • We introduce the concepts of “Critical Mass”, centrality measure and homophily. • The emergence of cooperation is affected by the spatial choice of the “Critical Mass”. • Our findings show that homophily speeds up the convergence towards cooperation. • Centrality and “Critical Mass” spatial choice partially offset the impact of homophily. - Abstract: As natural systems continuously evolve, the human cooperation dilemma represents an increasingly more challenging question. Humans cooperate in natural and social systems, but how it happens and what are the mechanisms which rule the emergence of cooperation, represent an open and fascinating issue. In this work, we investigate the evolution of cooperation through the analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of behaviours within the social network, where nodes can choose to cooperate or defect following the classical social dilemmas represented by Prisoner’s Dilemma and Snowdrift games. To this aim, we introduce a sociological concept and statistical estimator, “Critical Mass”, to detect the minimum initial seed of cooperators able to trigger the diffusion process, and the centrality measure to select within the social network. Selecting different spatial configurations of the Critical Mass nodes, we highlight how the emergence of cooperation can be influenced by this spatial choice of the initial core in the network. Moreover, we target to shed light how the concept of homophily, a social shaping factor for which “birds of a feather flock together”, can affect the evolutionary process. Our findings show that homophily allows speeding up the diffusion process and make quicker the convergence towards human cooperation, while centrality measure and thus the Critical Mass selection, play a key role in the evolution showing how the spatial configurations can create some hidden patterns, partially

  3. River-floodplain Hydrologic Connectivity: Impact on Temporal and Spatial Floodplain Water Quality and Productivity Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, E. L.; Ahearn, D.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Grosholz, E.

    2003-12-01

    Nutrient spiraling and cycling are critical processes for floodplain systems, but these have not been well studied in western North America. Floodplain production and function relies on the integrity of river-floodplain interactions, particularly during periods of hydrologic connectivity. The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine the importance of the timing and duration of river-floodplain hydrologic connectivity, (2) link flood event water quality to subsequent primary and secondary production, and (3) identify temporal and spatial patterns of floodplain production. The Cosumnes River watershed transports surface runoff and snowmelt from the Sierra Nevadas to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. It is one of the few watersheds in California that has no major water diversions or impoundments; therefore the river responds to the natural watershed hydrology. The study site in southern Sacramento County is an unmanaged experimental floodplain, one of the few remaining floodplains in California. Weekly and flood-event water quality and macroinvertebrate sampling was conducted during the flood season from January through June in 2001 and 2002. Both water years were characterized by historically low river flows. On average, volatile suspended solids in the water column increased from 5 mg/l to 10 mg/l during early season periods of hydrologic connectivity (December - February), suggesting that during watershed flushing flood events, the river acts as a source of nutrients and organic matter to the floodplain. Following a flood event, invertebrate concentrations decreased on average from 26,000 individuals/m3 to 9,000 individuals/m3 for zooplankton and from 350 individuals/m2 to 65 individuals/m2 for benthic macro-invertebrate, suggesting a net dilution of invertebrates during flood events. Chlorophyll a (chl-a) levels were also diluted during flood events, on average from 25 ppb to 5 ppb. Zooplankton densities and chl-a levels quickly rose after flood events. On

  4. Persistence of self-recruitment and patterns of larval connectivity in a marine protected area network

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2012-02-01

    The use of marine protected area (MPA) networks to sustain fisheries and conserve biodiversity is predicated on two critical yet rarely tested assumptions. Individual MPAs must produce sufficient larvae that settle within that reserve\\'s boundaries to maintain local populations while simultaneously supplying larvae to other MPA nodes in the network that might otherwise suffer local extinction. Here, we use genetic parentage analysis to demonstrate that patterns of self-recruitment of two reef fishes (Amphiprion percula and Chaetodon vagabundus) in an MPA in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, were remarkably consistent over several years. However, dispersal from this reserve to two other nodes in an MPA network varied between species and through time. The stability of our estimates of self-recruitment suggests that even small MPAs may be self-sustaining. However, our results caution against applying optimization strategies to MPA network design without accounting for variable connectivity among species and over time. 2012 The Authors.

  5. Tensor analyzing power in backward pd elastic scattering and its connection to pp → πd at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, A.; Satta, L.

    1985-03-01

    The tensor analyzing power for pd backward elastic scattering is calculated in the energy range 150 <= Tsub(p) <= 800 MeV. Two main contributions are considered: the one nucleon exchange and the so called triangle graph, including pp → πd as a subprocess. The pd backward elastic cross section and tensor analyzing power are fairly well reproduced by the model. (author)

  6. Chronnectome fingerprinting: Identifying individuals and predicting higher cognitive functions using dynamic brain connectivity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Liao, Xuhong; Xia, Mingrui; He, Yong

    2018-02-01

    The human brain is a large, interacting dynamic network, and its architecture of coupling among brain regions varies across time (termed the "chronnectome"). However, very little is known about whether and how the dynamic properties of the chronnectome can characterize individual uniqueness, such as identifying individuals as a "fingerprint" of the brain. Here, we employed multiband resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from the Human Connectome Project (N = 105) and a sliding time-window dynamic network analysis approach to systematically examine individual time-varying properties of the chronnectome. We revealed stable and remarkable individual variability in three dynamic characteristics of brain connectivity (i.e., strength, stability, and variability), which was mainly distributed in three higher order cognitive systems (i.e., default mode, dorsal attention, and fronto-parietal) and in two primary systems (i.e., visual and sensorimotor). Intriguingly, the spatial patterns of these dynamic characteristics of brain connectivity could successfully identify individuals with high accuracy and could further significantly predict individual higher cognitive performance (e.g., fluid intelligence and executive function), which was primarily contributed by the higher order cognitive systems. Together, our findings highlight that the chronnectome captures inherent functional dynamics of individual brain networks and provides implications for individualized characterization of health and disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Metabolic connectivity by interregional correlation analysis using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and FDG brain PET; methodological development and patterns of metabolic connectivity in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Oh, Jungsu S.; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Kang, Hyejin [Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University, Programs in Brain and Neuroscience, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Heejung; Park, Hyojin [Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University, Interdisciplinary Program in Cognitive Science, Seoul (Korea)

    2008-09-15

    Regionally connected areas of the resting brain can be detected by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Voxel-wise metabolic connectivity was examined, and normative data were established by performing interregional correlation analysis on statistical parametric mapping of FDG-PET data. Characteristics of seed volumes of interest (VOIs) as functional brain units were represented by their locations, sizes, and the independent methods of their determination. Seed brain areas were identified as population-based gyral VOIs (n=70) or as population-based cytoarchitectonic Brodmann areas (BA; n=28). FDG uptakes in these areas were used as independent variables in a general linear model to search for voxels correlated with average seed VOI counts. Positive correlations were searched in entire brain areas. In normal adults, one third of gyral VOIs yielded correlations that were confined to themselves, but in the others, correlated voxels extended to adjacent areas and/or contralateral homologous regions. In tens of these latter areas with extensive connectivity, correlated voxels were found across midline, and asymmetry was observed in the patterns of connectivity of left and right homologous seed VOIs. Most of the available BAs yielded correlations reaching contralateral homologous regions and/or neighboring areas. Extents of metabolic connectivity were not found to be related to seed VOI size or to the methods used to define seed VOIs. These findings indicate that patterns of metabolic connectivity of functional brain units depend on their regional locations. We propose that interregional correlation analysis of FDG-PET data offers a means of examining voxel-wise regional metabolic connectivity of the resting human brain. (orig.)

  8. Metabolic connectivity by interregional correlation analysis using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and FDG brain PET; methodological development and patterns of metabolic connectivity in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Oh, Jungsu S.; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Myung Chul; Kang, Hyejin; Kim, Heejung; Park, Hyojin

    2008-01-01

    Regionally connected areas of the resting brain can be detected by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Voxel-wise metabolic connectivity was examined, and normative data were established by performing interregional correlation analysis on statistical parametric mapping of FDG-PET data. Characteristics of seed volumes of interest (VOIs) as functional brain units were represented by their locations, sizes, and the independent methods of their determination. Seed brain areas were identified as population-based gyral VOIs (n=70) or as population-based cytoarchitectonic Brodmann areas (BA; n=28). FDG uptakes in these areas were used as independent variables in a general linear model to search for voxels correlated with average seed VOI counts. Positive correlations were searched in entire brain areas. In normal adults, one third of gyral VOIs yielded correlations that were confined to themselves, but in the others, correlated voxels extended to adjacent areas and/or contralateral homologous regions. In tens of these latter areas with extensive connectivity, correlated voxels were found across midline, and asymmetry was observed in the patterns of connectivity of left and right homologous seed VOIs. Most of the available BAs yielded correlations reaching contralateral homologous regions and/or neighboring areas. Extents of metabolic connectivity were not found to be related to seed VOI size or to the methods used to define seed VOIs. These findings indicate that patterns of metabolic connectivity of functional brain units depend on their regional locations. We propose that interregional correlation analysis of FDG-PET data offers a means of examining voxel-wise regional metabolic connectivity of the resting human brain. (orig.)

  9. Observational study to analyze patterns of treatment of breakthrough dyspnea in cancer patients in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón-Gutiérrez, Luis; Delgado-Mingorance, Ignacio; Nabal-Vicuña, María; Jiménez-López, Antonio Javier; Cabezón-Álvarez, Ana; Soler-López, Begoña

    2018-06-12

    Although breakthrough dyspnea is very frequent in cancer patients, there are no precise recommendations for treating it. The main objective of this study was to analyze what treatments are used in clinical practice for the management of breakthrough dyspnea in cancer patients in Spain and the secondary objectives were to describe the characteristics of cancer patients with breakthrough dyspnea and the attributes of the disorder. Cancer patients over 18 years of age, with breakthrough dyspnea and a Karnofsky performance score of ≥30, who were treated at departments of oncology in institutes across Spain were included in this cross-sectional observational study. The characteristics of breakthrough dyspnea, history of treatment, anthropometric variables, Mahler dyspnea index, Borg scale, Edmonton Symptoms Assessment Scale, and patient satisfaction with current breakthrough dyspnea treatment were assessed. The mean age of the 149 included patients was 66 years (95% confidence interval: 64.3 to 67.9), and 53 were females (35.6%). The mean breakthrough dyspnea intensity was 5.85 (95% confidence interval 5.48 to 6.22, Borg scale). A total of 55.1% of the first-choice treatments consisted of opioids, followed by oxygen (17.3%). A total of 119 patients (79.9%) received monotherapy for breakthrough dyspnea. Patients presenting with basal dyspnea received oxygen in a greater proportion of cases (21.1% vs 7.4%; p = 0.07). Patients with predictable dyspnea received a greater proportion of opioids (70.9% vs 44.4%; p = 0.01). Opioids constitute first-line therapy for breakthrough dyspnea in routine clinical practice, though the scientific evidence supporting their use is scarce. Further information derived from controlled clinical trials is needed regarding the comparative efficacy of the different treatments in order to justify their use.

  10. Synthesis of compact patterns for NMR relaxation decay in intelligent "electronic tongue" for analyzing heavy oil composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapshenkov, E. M.; Volkov, V. Y.; Kulagin, V. P.

    2018-05-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of pattern creation of the NMR sensor signal for subsequent recognition by the artificial neural network in the intelligent device "the electronic tongue". The specific problem of removing redundant data from the spin-spin relaxation signal pattern that is used as a source of information in analyzing the composition of oil and petroleum products is considered. The method is proposed that makes it possible to remove redundant data of the relaxation decay pattern but without introducing additional distortion. This method is based on combining some relaxation decay curve intervals that increment below the noise level such that the increment of the combined intervals is above the noise level. In this case, the relaxation decay curve samples that are located inside the combined intervals are removed from the pattern. This method was tested on the heavy-oil NMR signal patterns that were created by using the Carr-Purcell-Meibum-Gill (CPMG) sequence for recording the relaxation process. Parameters of CPMG sequence are: 100 μs - time interval between 180° pulses, 0.4s - duration of measurement. As a result, it was revealed that the proposed method allowed one to reduce the number of samples 15 times (from 4000 to 270), and the maximum detected root mean square error (RMS error) equals 0.00239 (equivalent to signal-to-noise ratio 418).

  11. On the relevance of sophisticated structural annotations for disulfide connectivity pattern prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Becker

    Full Text Available Disulfide bridges strongly constrain the native structure of many proteins and predicting their formation is therefore a key sub-problem of protein structure and function inference. Most recently proposed approaches for this prediction problem adopt the following pipeline: first they enrich the primary sequence with structural annotations, second they apply a binary classifier to each candidate pair of cysteines to predict disulfide bonding probabilities and finally, they use a maximum weight graph matching algorithm to derive the predicted disulfide connectivity pattern of a protein. In this paper, we adopt this three step pipeline and propose an extensive study of the relevance of various structural annotations and feature encodings. In particular, we consider five kinds of structural annotations, among which three are novel in the context of disulfide bridge prediction. So as to be usable by machine learning algorithms, these annotations must be encoded into features. For this purpose, we propose four different feature encodings based on local windows and on different kinds of histograms. The combination of structural annotations with these possible encodings leads to a large number of possible feature functions. In order to identify a minimal subset of relevant feature functions among those, we propose an efficient and interpretable feature function selection scheme, designed so as to avoid any form of overfitting. We apply this scheme on top of three supervised learning algorithms: k-nearest neighbors, support vector machines and extremely randomized trees. Our results indicate that the use of only the PSSM (position-specific scoring matrix together with the CSP (cysteine separation profile are sufficient to construct a high performance disulfide pattern predictor and that extremely randomized trees reach a disulfide pattern prediction accuracy of [Formula: see text] on the benchmark dataset SPX[Formula: see text], which corresponds to

  12. Topologically convergent and divergent functional connectivity patterns in unmedicated unipolar depression and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Wang, J; Jia, Y; Zhong, S; Zhong, M; Sun, Y; Niu, M; Zhao, L; Zhao, L; Pan, J; Huang, L; Huang, R

    2017-07-04

    Bipolar disorder (BD), particularly BD II, is frequently misdiagnosed as unipolar depression (UD), leading to inappropriate treatment and poor clinical outcomes. Although depressive symptoms may be expressed similarly in UD and BD, the similarities and differences in the architecture of brain functional networks between the two disorders are still unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that UD and BD II patients would show convergent and divergent patterns of disrupted topological organization of the functional connectome, especially in the default mode network (DMN) and the limbic network. Brain resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired from 32 UD-unmedicated patients, 31 unmedicated BD II patients (current episode depressed) and 43 healthy subjects. Using graph theory, we systematically studied the topological organization of their whole-brain functional networks at the following three levels: whole brain, modularity and node. First, both the UD and BD II patients showed increased characteristic path length and decreased global efficiency compared with the controls. Second, both the UD and BD II patients showed disrupted intramodular connectivity within the DMN and limbic system network. Third, decreased nodal characteristics (nodal strength and nodal efficiency) were found predominantly in brain regions in the DMN, limbic network and cerebellum of both the UD and BD II patients, whereas differences between the UD and BD II patients in the nodal characteristics were also observed in the precuneus and temporal pole. Convergent deficits in the topological organization of the whole brain, DMN and limbic networks may reflect overlapping pathophysiological processes in unipolar and bipolar depression. Our discovery of divergent regional connectivity that supports emotion processing could help to identify biomarkers that will aid in differentiating these disorders.

  13. Utilizing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to analyze geographic and demographic patterns related to forensic case recovery locations in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpan, Katharine E; Warren, Michael

    2017-12-01

    This paper highlights how Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be utilized to analyze biases and patterns related to physical and cultural geography in Florida. Using case recovery locations from the C. Addison Pound Human Identification Laboratory (CAPHIL), results indicate that the majority of CAPHIL cases are recovered from urban areas with medium to low population density and low rates of crime. The results also suggest that more accurate record keeping methods would enhance the data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of new process network for gas chromatograph and analyzers connected with SCADA system and Digital Control Computers at Cernavoda NPP Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deneanu, Cornel; Popa Nemoiu, Dragos; Nica, Dana; Bucur, Cosmin

    2007-01-01

    The continuous monitoring of gas mixture concentrations (deuterium/ hydrogen/oxygen/nitrogen) accumulated in 'Moderator Cover Gas', 'Liquid Control Zone' and 'Heat Transport D 2 O Storage Tank Cover Gas', as well as the continuous monitoring of Heavy Water into Light Water concentration in 'Boilers Steam', 'Boilers Blown Down', 'Moderator heat exchangers', and 'Recirculated Water System', sensing any leaks of Cernavoda NPP U1 led to requirement of developing a new process network for gas chromatograph and analyzers connected to the SCADA system and Digital Control Computers of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1. In 2005 it was designed and implemented the process network for gas chromatograph which connected the gas chromatograph equipment to the SCADA system and Digital Control Computers of the Cernavoda NPP Unit 1. Later this process network for gas chromatograph has been extended to connect the AE13 and AE14 Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analyzers with either. The Gas Chromatograph equipment measures with best accuracy the mixture gases (deuterium/ hydrogen/oxygen/nitrogen) concentration. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) AE13 and AE14 Analyzers measure the Heavy Water into Light Water concentration in Boilers Steam, Boilers BlownDown, Moderator heat exchangers, and Recirculated Water System, monitoring and signaling any leaks. The Gas Chromatograph equipment and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) AE13 and AE14 Analyzers use the new OPC (Object Link Embedded for Process Control) technologies available in ABB's VistaNet network for interoperability with automation equipment. This new process network has interconnected the ABB chromatograph and Fourier Transform Infrared analyzers with plant Digital Control Computers using new technology. The result was an increased reliability and capability for inspection and improved system safety

  15. Connectivity to the surface determines diversity patterns in subsurface aquifers of the Fennoscandian shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubalek, Valerie; Wu, Xiaofen; Eiler, Alexander; Buck, Moritz; Heim, Christine; Dopson, Mark; Bertilsson, Stefan; Ionescu, Danny

    2016-10-01

    Little research has been conducted on microbial diversity deep under the Earth's surface. In this study, the microbial communities of three deep terrestrial subsurface aquifers were investigated. Temporal community data over 6 years revealed that the phylogenetic structure and community dynamics were highly dependent on the degree of isolation from the earth surface biomes. The microbial community at the shallow site was the most dynamic and was dominated by the sulfur-oxidizing genera Sulfurovum or Sulfurimonas at all-time points. The microbial community in the meteoric water filled intermediate aquifer (water turnover approximately every 5 years) was less variable and was dominated by candidate phylum OD1. Metagenomic analysis of this water demonstrated the occurrence of key genes for nitrogen and carbon fixation, sulfate reduction, sulfide oxidation and fermentation. The deepest water mass (5000 year old waters) had the lowest taxon richness and surprisingly contained Cyanobacteria. The high relative abundance of phylogenetic groups associated with nitrogen and sulfur cycling, as well as fermentation implied that these processes were important in these systems. We conclude that the microbial community patterns appear to be shaped by the availability of energy and nutrient sources via connectivity to the surface or from deep geological processes.

  16. When is connectivity important? A case study of the spatial pattern of sudden oak death

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Ellis; T. Vaclavik; R.K. Meentemeyer

    2010-01-01

    Although connectivity has been examined from many different angles and in many ecological disciplines, few studies have tested in which systems and under what conditions connectivity is important in determining ecological dynamics. Identifying general rules governing when connectivity is important is crucial not only for basic ecology, but also for our ability to...

  17. Analyzing a problem-solution pattern in the transcription of a conversation: suggestions for the ELF classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navas Brenes, César A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a problem-solution pattern shown in the transcription of a conversation. This analysis is based on a conversation that has been elicited from three native speakers of English. These speakers were given a topic that dealt with the problem of children being constantly exposed to violent video games. As a result, the writer recorded an oral text that contains several elements related to a problem-solution pattern such as the main issue, opinions, personal examples, possible solutions, and the evaluation of these solutions. The writer analyzed this pattern in terms of discourse analysis using idea units from the transcription. Moreover, the writer will point out how appropriate this transcription is for preparing teaching tasks for the EFL classroom. Este artículo analiza el patrón estructural de la solución de un problema evidente en la transcripción de una conversación. El análisis esta basado en un diálogo obtenido de tres hablantes nativos de la lengua inglesa. El autor suministró a dichas personas un tema relacionado con el problema de la exposición de niños al contenido violento de los juegos de video. Como resultado, el escritor obtuvo una grabación del texto oral que contiene varios elementos relacionados con el patrón estructural de la solución de un problema. Algunos de estos elementos son el problema principal, opiniones, ejemplos personales, soluciones viables al problema, y la evaluación de dichas soluciones. El autor analizó algunas líneas de la transcripción con la ayuda de algunos conceptos relacionados con el análisis del discurso. Cabe destacar que el uso de tales trascripciones es muy apropiado en la preparación de actividades para una clase de inglés como lengua extranjera.

  18. Patterns of resting state connectivity in human primary visual cortical areas: a 7T fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemaekers, Mathijs; Schellekens, Wouter; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton; Petridou, Natalia; Kristo, Gert; Ramsey, Nick F.

    2014-01-01

    The nature and origin of fMRI resting state fluctuations and connectivity are still not fully known. More detailed knowledge on the relationship between resting state patterns and brain function may help to elucidate this matter. We therefore performed an in depth study of how resting state

  19. Diluted connectivity in pattern association networks facilitates the recall of information from the hippocampus to the neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T

    2015-01-01

    The recall of information stored in the hippocampus involves a series of corticocortical backprojections via the entorhinal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and one or more neocortical stages. Each stage is considered to be a pattern association network, with the retrieval cue at each stage the firing of neurons in the previous stage. The leading factor that determines the capacity of this multistage pattern association backprojection pathway is the number of connections onto any one neuron, which provides a quantitative basis for why there are as many backprojections between adjacent stages in the hierarchy as forward projections. The issue arises of why this multistage backprojection system uses diluted connectivity. One reason is that a multistage backprojection system with expansion of neuron numbers at each stage enables the hippocampus to address during recall the very large numbers of neocortical neurons, which would otherwise require hippocampal neurons to make very large numbers of synapses if they were directly onto neocortical neurons. The second reason is that as shown here, diluted connectivity in the backprojection pathways reduces the probability of more than one connection onto a receiving neuron in the backprojecting pathways, which otherwise reduces the capacity of the system, that is the number of memories that can be recalled from the hippocampus to the neocortex. For similar reasons, diluted connectivity is advantageous in pattern association networks in other brain systems such as the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala; for related reasons, in autoassociation networks in, for example, the hippocampal CA3 and the neocortex; and for the different reason that diluted connectivity facilitates the operation of competitive networks in forward-connected cortical systems. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evidence of a dissociation pattern in resting-state default mode network connectivity in first-episode, treatment-naive major depression patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xueling; Wang, Xiang; Xiao, Jin; Liao, Jian; Zhong, Mingtian; Wang, Wei; Yao, Shuqiao

    2012-04-01

    Imaging studies have shown that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with altered activity patterns of the default mode network (DMN). However, the neural correlates of the resting-state DMN and MDD-related pathopsychological characteristics, such as depressive rumination and overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) phenomena, still remain unclear. Using independent component analysis, we analyzed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from 35 first-episode, treatment-naive young adults with MDD and from 35 matched healthy control subjects. Patients with MDD exhibited higher levels of rumination and OGM than did the control subjects. We observed increased functional connectivity in the anterior medial cortex regions (especially the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) and decreased functional connectivity in the posterior medial cortex regions (especially the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus) in MDD patients compared with control subjects. In the depressed group, the increased functional connectivity in the anterior medial cortex correlated positively with rumination score, while the decreased functional connectivity in the posterior medial cortex correlated negatively with OGM score. We report dissociation between anterior and posterior functional connectivity in resting-state DMNs of first-episode, treatment-naive young adults with MDD. Increased functional connectivity in anterior medial regions of the resting-state DMN was associated with rumination, whereas decreased functional connectivity in posterior medial regions was associated with OGM. These results provide new evidence for the importance of the DMN in the pathophysiology of MDD and suggest that abnormal DMN activity may be an MDD trait. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Contrasting brain patterns of writing-related DTI parameters, fMRI connectivity, and DTI–fMRI connectivity correlations in children with and without dysgraphia or dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, T.L.; Grabowski, T.J.; Boord, P.; Yagle, K.; Askren, M.; Mestre, Z.; Robinson, P.; Welker, O.; Gulliford, D.; Nagy, W.; Berninger, V.

    2015-01-01

    Based on comprehensive testing and educational history, children in grades 4–9 (on average 12 years) were diagnosed with dysgraphia (persisting handwriting impairment) or dyslexia (persisting word spelling/reading impairment) or as typical writers and readers (controls). The dysgraphia group (n = 14) and dyslexia group (n = 17) were each compared to the control group (n = 9) and to each other in separate analyses. Four brain region seed points (left occipital temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, precuneus, and inferior frontal gyrus) were used in these analyses which were shown in a metaanalysis to be related to written word production on four indicators of white matter integrity and fMRI functional connectivity for four tasks (self-guided mind wandering during resting state, writing letter that follows a visually displayed letter in alphabet, writing missing letter to create a correctly spelled real word, and planning for composing after scanning on topic specified by researcher). For those DTI indicators on which the dysgraphic group or dyslexic group differed from the control group (fractional anisotropy, relative anisotropy, axial diffusivity but not radial diffusivity), correlations were computed between the DTI parameter and fMRI functional connectivity for the two writing tasks (alphabet and spelling) by seed points. Analyses, controlled for multiple comparisons, showed that (a) the control group exhibited more white matter integrity than either the dysgraphic or dyslexic group; (b) the dysgraphic and dyslexic groups showed more functional connectivity than the control group but differed in patterns of functional connectivity for task and seed point; and (c) the dysgraphic and dyslexic groups showed different patterns of significant DTI–fMRI connectivity correlations for specific seed points and written language tasks. Thus, dysgraphia and dyslexia differ in white matter integrity, fMRI functional connectivity, and white matter–gray matter

  2. Contrasting brain patterns of writing-related DTI parameters, fMRI connectivity, and DTI–fMRI connectivity correlations in children with and without dysgraphia or dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Richards

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on comprehensive testing and educational history, children in grades 4–9 (on average 12 years were diagnosed with dysgraphia (persisting handwriting impairment or dyslexia (persisting word spelling/reading impairment or as typical writers and readers (controls. The dysgraphia group (n = 14 and dyslexia group (n = 17 were each compared to the control group (n = 9 and to each other in separate analyses. Four brain region seed points (left occipital temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, precuneus, and inferior frontal gyrus were used in these analyses which were shown in a metaanalysis to be related to written word production on four indicators of white matter integrity and fMRI functional connectivity for four tasks (self-guided mind wandering during resting state, writing letter that follows a visually displayed letter in alphabet, writing missing letter to create a correctly spelled real word, and planning for composing after scanning on topic specified by researcher. For those DTI indicators on which the dysgraphic group or dyslexic group differed from the control group (fractional anisotropy, relative anisotropy, axial diffusivity but not radial diffusivity, correlations were computed between the DTI parameter and fMRI functional connectivity for the two writing tasks (alphabet and spelling by seed points. Analyses, controlled for multiple comparisons, showed that (a the control group exhibited more white matter integrity than either the dysgraphic or dyslexic group; (b the dysgraphic and dyslexic groups showed more functional connectivity than the control group but differed in patterns of functional connectivity for task and seed point; and (c the dysgraphic and dyslexic groups showed different patterns of significant DTI–fMRI connectivity correlations for specific seed points and written language tasks. Thus, dysgraphia and dyslexia differ in white matter integrity, fMRI functional connectivity, and white matter–gray matter

  3. An adopter-centric approach to analyze the diffusion patterns of innovative residential heating systems in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif

    2008-01-01

    Innovation and diffusion of renewable energy technologies play a major role in mitigation of climate change. In Sweden replacing electric and oil heating systems with innovative heating systems such as district heating, heat pumps and wood pellet boilers in detached homes is a significant mitigation option. Using an adopter-centric approach, we analyzed the influence of investment subsidy on conversion of resistance heaters and oil boilers, and the variation in diffusion pattern of district heating, heat pumps and pellet boilers in Swedish detached homes. Results from questionnaire surveys of 1500 randomly selected homeowners in September 2004 and January 2007 showed that more than 80% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Hence, about 37% of the homeowners still have electric and oil heating systems. The government investment subsidy was important for conversion from a resistance heater, but not from an oil boiler. This is because homeowners currently replacing their oil boilers are the laggards, while those replacing resistance heaters are the 'early adopters'. Economic aspects and functional reliability were the most important factors for the homeowners when considering a new heating system. There is a variation in the perceived advantages associated with each of the innovative heating systems and therefore, the diffusion patterns of such systems vary. Installers and interpersonal sources were the most important communication channels for information on heating systems

  4. An adopter-centric approach to analyze the diffusion patterns of innovative residential heating systems in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, 831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2008-02-15

    Innovation and diffusion of renewable energy technologies play a major role in mitigation of climate change. In Sweden replacing electric and oil heating systems with innovative heating systems such as district heating, heat pumps and wood pellet boilers in detached homes is a significant mitigation option. Using an adopter-centric approach, we analyzed the influence of investment subsidy on conversion of resistance heaters and oil boilers, and the variation in diffusion pattern of district heating, heat pumps and pellet boilers in Swedish detached homes. Results from questionnaire surveys of 1500 randomly selected homeowners in September 2004 and January 2007 showed that more than 80% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Hence, about 37% of the homeowners still have electric and oil heating systems. The government investment subsidy was important for conversion from a resistance heater, but not from an oil boiler. This is because homeowners currently replacing their oil boilers are the laggards, while those replacing resistance heaters are the 'early adopters'. Economic aspects and functional reliability were the most important factors for the homeowners when considering a new heating system. There is a variation in the perceived advantages associated with each of the innovative heating systems and therefore, the diffusion patterns of such systems vary. Installers and interpersonal sources were the most important communication channels for information on heating systems. (author)

  5. Regional homogeneity and functional connectivity patterns in major depressive disorder, cognitive vulnerability to depression and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Luo, Lizhu; Yuan, Xinru; Zhang, Lu; He, Yini; Yao, Shuqiao; Wang, Jiaojian; Xiao, Jing

    2018-08-01

    Cognitive vulnerability to depression (CVD) is a high risk for depressive disorder. Recent studies focus on individuals with CVD to determine the neural basis of major depressive disorder (MDD) neuropathology. However, whether CVD showed specific or similar brain functional activity and connectivity patterns, compared to MDD, remain largely unknown. Here, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in subjects with CVD, healthy controls (HC) and MDD, regional homogeneity (ReHo) and resting-state functional connectivity (R-FC) analyses were conducted to assess local synchronization and changes in functional connectivity patterns. Significant ReHo differences were found in right posterior lobe of cerebellum (PLC), left lingual gyrus (LG) and precuneus. Compared to HC, CVD subjects showed increased ReHo in the PLC, which was similar to the difference found between MDD and HC. Compared to MDD patients, CVD subjects showed decreased ReHo in PLC, LG, and precuneus. R-FC analyses found increased functional connections between LG and left inferior parietal lobule, posterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in CVD compared to both HC and MDD. Moreover, Regional mean ReHo values were positively correlated with Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores. These analyses revealed that PLC and functional connections between LG and left inferior parietal lobule, posterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be a potential marker for CVD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. State-Dependent Changes of Connectivity Patterns and Functional Brain Network Topology in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barttfeld, Pablo; Wicker, Bruno; Cukier, Sebastian; Navarta, Silvana; Lew, Sergio; Leiguarda, Ramon; Sigman, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical and functional brain studies have converged to the hypothesis that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with atypical connectivity. Using a modified resting-state paradigm to drive subjects' attention, we provide evidence of a very marked interaction between ASD brain functional connectivity and cognitive state. We show that…

  7. Potential risk for healthy siblings to develop schizophrenia: evidence from pattern classification with whole-brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meijie; Zeng, Ling-Li; Shen, Hui; Liu, Zhening; Hu, Dewen

    2012-03-28

    Recent resting-state functional connectivity MRI studies using group-level statistical analysis have demonstrated the inheritable characters of schizophrenia. The objective of the present study was to use pattern classification as a means to investigate schizophrenia inheritance based on the whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity at the individual subject level. One-against-one pattern classifications were made amongst three groups (i.e. patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, healthy siblings, and healthy controls after preprocessing), resulting in an 80.4% separation between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, a 77.6% separation between schizophrenia patients and their healthy siblings, and a 78.7% separation between healthy siblings and healthy controls, respectively. These results suggest that the healthy siblings of schizophrenia patients have an altered resting-state functional connectivity pattern compared with healthy controls. Thus, healthy siblings may have a potential higher risk for developing schizophrenia compared with the general population. Moreover, this pattern differed from that of schizophrenia patients and may contribute to the normal behavior exhibition of healthy siblings in daily life.

  8. Connecting the dots: Illusory pattern perception predicts belief in conspiracies and the supernatural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Karen M.; De Inocencio, Clara

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A common assumption is that belief in conspiracy theories and supernatural phenomena are grounded in illusory pattern perception. In the present research we systematically tested this assumption. Study 1 revealed that such irrational beliefs are related to perceiving patterns in randomly generated coin toss outcomes. In Study 2, pattern search instructions exerted an indirect effect on irrational beliefs through pattern perception. Study 3 revealed that perceiving patterns in chaotic but not in structured paintings predicted irrational beliefs. In Study 4, we found that agreement with texts supporting paranormal phenomena or conspiracy theories predicted pattern perception. In Study 5, we manipulated belief in a specific conspiracy theory. This manipulation influenced the extent to which people perceive patterns in world events, which in turn predicted unrelated irrational beliefs. We conclude that illusory pattern perception is a central cognitive mechanism accounting for conspiracy theories and supernatural beliefs. PMID:29695889

  9. Connecting the dots: Illusory pattern perception predicts belief in conspiracies and the supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Douglas, Karen M; De Inocencio, Clara

    2018-04-01

    A common assumption is that belief in conspiracy theories and supernatural phenomena are grounded in illusory pattern perception. In the present research we systematically tested this assumption. Study 1 revealed that such irrational beliefs are related to perceiving patterns in randomly generated coin toss outcomes. In Study 2, pattern search instructions exerted an indirect effect on irrational beliefs through pattern perception. Study 3 revealed that perceiving patterns in chaotic but not in structured paintings predicted irrational beliefs. In Study 4, we found that agreement with texts supporting paranormal phenomena or conspiracy theories predicted pattern perception. In Study 5, we manipulated belief in a specific conspiracy theory. This manipulation influenced the extent to which people perceive patterns in world events, which in turn predicted unrelated irrational beliefs. We conclude that illusory pattern perception is a central cognitive mechanism accounting for conspiracy theories and supernatural beliefs.

  10. Aberrant patterns of local and long-range functional connectivity densities in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanxin; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Guangdong; Tian, Hongjun; Li, Jie; Qu, Hongru; Cheng, Langlang; Zhu, Jingjing; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2017-07-18

    Schizophrenia is a disorder of brain dysconnectivity, and both the connection strength and connection number are disrupted in patients with schizophrenia. The functional connectivity density (FCD) can reflect alterations in the connection number. Alterations in the global FCD (gFCD) in schizophrenia were previously demonstrated; however, alterations in two other indices of the pathological characteristics of the brain, local FCD (lFCD) and long-range FCD (lrFCD), have not been revealed. To investigate lFCD and lrFCD alterations in patients with schizophrenia, 95 patients and 93 matched healthy controls were examined using structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. lFCD and lrFCD were measured using FCD mapping, and differences were identified using a two-sample t-test in a voxel-wise manner, with age and gender considered to increase variability. Multiple comparisons were performed using a false discovery rate method with a corrected threshold of Pschizophrenia is a disorder of brain dysconnectivity, particularly affecting the local functional connectivity network, and support the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with a widespread cortical functional connectivity/activity deficit, with hyper- and/or hypo-connectivity/activity coexisting in some cortical or subcortical regions.

  11. Patterns of resting state connectivity in human primary visual cortical areas: a 7T fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raemaekers, Mathijs; Schellekens, Wouter; van Wezel, Richard J A; Petridou, Natalia; Kristo, Gert; Ramsey, Nick F

    2014-01-01

    The nature and origin of fMRI resting state fluctuations and connectivity are still not fully known. More detailed knowledge on the relationship between resting state patterns and brain function may help to elucidate this matter. We therefore performed an in depth study of how resting state fluctuations map to the well known architecture of the visual system. We investigated resting state connectivity at both a fine and large scale within and across visual areas V1, V2 and V3 in ten human subjects using a 7Tesla scanner. We found evidence for several coexisting and overlapping connectivity structures at different spatial scales. At the fine-scale level we found enhanced connectivity between the same topographic locations in the fieldmaps of V1, V2 and V3, enhanced connectivity to the contralateral functional homologue, and to a lesser extent enhanced connectivity between iso-eccentric locations within the same visual area. However, by far the largest proportion of the resting state fluctuations occurred within large-scale bilateral networks. These large-scale networks mapped to some extent onto the architecture of the visual system and could thereby obscure fine-scale connectivity. In fact, most of the fine-scale connectivity only became apparent after the large-scale network fluctuations were filtered from the timeseries. We conclude that fMRI resting state fluctuations in the visual cortex may in fact be a composite signal of different overlapping sources. Isolating the different sources could enhance correlations between BOLD and electrophysiological correlates of resting state activity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. More consistently altered connectivity patterns for cerebellum and medial temporal lobes than for amygdala and striatum in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning ePeters

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain architecture can be divided into a cortico-thalamic system and modulatory ‘subcortical-cerebellar’ systems containing key structures such as striatum, medial temporal lobes (MTLs, amygdala, and cerebellum. Subcortical-cerebellar systems are known to be altered in schizophrenia. In particular, intrinsic functional brain connectivity (iFC between these systems has been consistently demonstrated in patients. While altered connectivity is known for each subcortical-cerebellar system separately, it is unknown whether subcortical-cerebellar systems’ connectivity patterns with the cortico-thalamic system are comparably altered across systems, i.e., if separate subcortical-cerebellar systems’ connectivity patterns are consistent across patients. Methods: To investigate this question, 18 patients with schizophrenia (3 unmedicated, 15 medicated with atypical antipsychotics and 18 healthy controls were assessed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Independent component analysis of fMRI data revealed cortical intrinsic brain networks (NWs with time courses representing proxies for cortico-thalamic system activity. Subcortical-cerebellar systems’ activity was represented by fMRI-based time courses of selected regions-of-interest (ROIs (i.e., striatum, MTL, amygdala, cerebellum. Correlation analysis among ROI- and NWs-time courses yielded individual connectivity matrices (i.e. connectivity between NW and ROIs (allROIs-NW, separateROI-NW, only NWs (NWs-NWs, and only ROIs (allROIs-allROIs as main outcome measures, which were classified by support-vector-machine-based leave-one-out cross-validation. Differences in classification accuracy were statistically evaluated for consistency across subjects and systems. Results: Correlation matrices based on allROIs-NWs yielded 91% classification accuracy, which was significantly superior to allROIs-allROIs and NWs-NWs (56% and 74%, respectively. Considering separate

  13. Incongruent genetic connectivity patterns for VME indicator taxa: implications for the management of New Zealand's vulnerable marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. R.; Gardner, J.; Holland, L.; Zeng, C.; Hamilton, J. S.; Rowden, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    In the New Zealand region vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs) are at risk from commercial fishing activity and future seabed mining. Understanding connectivity among VMEs is important for the design of effective spatial management strategies, i.e. a network of protected areas. To date however, genetic connectivity in the New Zealand region has rarely been documented. As part of a project developing habitat suitability models and spatial management options for VMEs we used DNA sequence data and microsatellite genotyping to assess genetic connectivity for a range of VME indicator taxa, including the coral Desmophyllum dianthus, and the sponges Poecilastra laminaris and Penares palmatoclada. Overall, patterns of connectivity were inconsistent amonst taxa. Nonetheless, genetic data from each taxon were relevant to inform management at a variety of spatial scales. D. dianthus populations in the Kermadec volcanic arc and the Louisville Seamount Chain were indistinguishable, highlighting the importance of considering source-sink dynamics between populations beyond the EEZ in conservation planning. Poecilastra laminaris populations showed significant divergence across the Chatham Rise, in contrast to P. palmatoclada, which had a uniform haplotypic distribution. However, both sponge species exhibited the highest genetic diversity on the Chatham Rise, suggesting that this area is a genetic hotspot. The spatial heterogeneity of genetic patterns of structure suggest that inclusion of several taxa is necessary to facilitate understanding of regional connectivity patterns, variation in which may be attributed to alternate life history strategies, local hydrodynamic regimes, or in some cases, suboptimal sample sizes. Our findings provide important information for use by environmental managers, including summary maps of genetic diversity and barriers to gene flow, which will be used in spatial management decision-support tools.

  14. Measures for brain connectivity analysis: nodes centrality and their invariant patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Laysa Mayra Uchôa; Baltazar, Carlos Arruda; Silva, Camila Aquemi; Ribeiro, Mauricio Watanabe; de Aratanha, Maria Adelia Albano; Deolindo, Camila Sardeto; Rodrigues, Abner Cardoso; Machado, Birajara Soares

    2017-07-01

    The high dynamical complexity of the brain is related to its small-world topology, which enable both segregated and integrated information processing capabilities. Several measures of connectivity estimation have already been employed to characterize functional brain networks from multivariate electrophysiological data. However, understanding the properties of each measure that lead to a better description of the real topology and capture the complex phenomena present in the brain remains challenging. In this work we compared four nonlinear connectivity measures and show that each method characterizes distinct features of brain interactions. The results suggest an invariance of global network parameters from different behavioral states and that more complete description may be reached considering local features, independently of the connectivity measure employed. Our findings also point to future perspectives in connectivity studies that combine distinct and complementary dependence measures in assembling higher dimensions manifolds.

  15. Patterns and persistence of larval retention and connectivity in a marine fish metapopulation

    KAUST Repository

    Saenz Agudelo, Pablo; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Thorrold, Simon R.; Planes, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Connectivity, the demographic linking of local populations through the dispersal of individuals, is one of the most poorly understood processes in population dynamics, yet has profound implications for conservation and harvest strategies. For marine

  16. Influence of biological factors on connectivity patterns for Concholepas concholepas (loco) in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Garavelli, L.; Colas, F.; Verley, Philippe; Kaplan, David; Yannicelli, B.; Lett, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In marine benthic ecosystems, larval connectivity is a major process influencing the maintenance and distribution of invertebrate populations. Larval connectivity is a complex process to study as it is determined by several interacting factors. Here we use an individual-based, biophysical model, to disentangle the effects of such factors, namely larval vertical migration , larval growth, larval mortality, adults fecundity, and habitat availability, for the marine gastr...

  17. Patterns of deep-sea genetic connectivity in the New Zealand region: implications for management of benthic ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor K Bors

    Full Text Available Patterns of genetic connectivity are increasingly considered in the design of marine protected areas (MPAs in both shallow and deep water. In the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ, deep-sea communities at upper bathyal depths (<2000 m are vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbance from fishing and potential mining operations. Currently, patterns of genetic connectivity among deep-sea populations throughout New Zealand's EEZ are not well understood. Using the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I and 16S rRNA genes as genetic markers, this study aimed to elucidate patterns of genetic connectivity among populations of two common benthic invertebrates with contrasting life history strategies. Populations of the squat lobster Munida gracilis and the polychaete Hyalinoecia longibranchiata were sampled from continental slope, seamount, and offshore rise habitats on the Chatham Rise, Hikurangi Margin, and Challenger Plateau. For the polychaete, significant population structure was detected among distinct populations on the Chatham Rise, the Hikurangi Margin, and the Challenger Plateau. Significant genetic differences existed between slope and seamount populations on the Hikurangi Margin, as did evidence of population differentiation between the northeast and southwest parts of the Chatham Rise. In contrast, no significant population structure was detected across the study area for the squat lobster. Patterns of genetic connectivity in Hyalinoecia longibranchiata are likely influenced by a number of factors including current regimes that operate on varying spatial and temporal scales to produce potential barriers to dispersal. The striking difference in population structure between species can be attributed to differences in life history strategies. The results of this study are discussed in the context of existing conservation areas that are intended to manage anthropogenic threats to deep-sea benthic communities in the New Zealand region.

  18. Mapping Dynamics of Inundation Patterns of Two Largest River-Connected Lakes in China: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guiping Wu; Yuanbo Liu

    2016-01-01

    Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake are the two largest freshwater lakes in China. The lakes are located approximately 300 km apart on the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and are differently connected through their respective tributary systems, which will lead to different river–lake water exchanges and discharges. Thus, differences in their morphological and hydrological conditions should induce individual lake spatio-temporal inundation patterns. Quantitative comparative analyses of the dynam...

  19. Single-trial effective brain connectivity patterns enhance discriminability of mental imagery tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, Dheeraj; Cecotti, Hubert; Prasad, Girijesh

    2017-10-01

    Objective. The majority of the current approaches of connectivity based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems focus on distinguishing between different motor imagery (MI) tasks. Brain regions associated with MI are anatomically close to each other, hence these BCI systems suffer from low performances. Our objective is to introduce single-trial connectivity feature based BCI system for cognition imagery (CI) based tasks wherein the associated brain regions are located relatively far away as compared to those for MI. Approach. We implemented time-domain partial Granger causality (PGC) for the estimation of the connectivity features in a BCI setting. The proposed hypothesis has been verified with two publically available datasets involving MI and CI tasks. Main results. The results support the conclusion that connectivity based features can provide a better performance than a classical signal processing framework based on bandpass features coupled with spatial filtering for CI tasks, including word generation, subtraction, and spatial navigation. These results show for the first time that connectivity features can provide a reliable performance for imagery-based BCI system. Significance. We show that single-trial connectivity features for mixed imagery tasks (i.e. combination of CI and MI) can outperform the features obtained by current state-of-the-art method and hence can be successfully applied for BCI applications.

  20. Differential Resting-State Connectivity Patterns of the Right Anterior and Posterior Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortices (DLPFC in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Chechko

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In schizophrenia (SCZ, dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC has been linked to the deficits in executive functions and attention. It has been suggested that, instead of considering the right DLPFC as a cohesive functional entity, it can be divided into two parts (anterior and posterior based on its whole-brain connectivity patterns. Given these two subregions' differential association with cognitive processes, we investigated the functional connectivity (FC profile of both subregions through resting-state data to determine whether they are differentially affected in SCZ. Resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans were obtained from 120 patients and 172 healthy controls (HC at 6 different MRI sites. The results showed differential FC patterns for the anterior and posterior parts of the right executive control-related DLPFC in SCZ with the parietal, the temporal and the cerebellar regions, along with a convergent reduction of connectivity with the striatum and the occipital cortex. An increased psychopathology level was linked to a higher difference in posterior vs. anterior FC for the left IFG/anterior insula, regions involved in higher-order cognitive processes. In sum, the current analysis demonstrated that even between two neighboring clusters connectivity could be differentially disrupted in SCZ. Lacking the necessary anatomical specificity, such notions may in fact be detrimental to a proper understanding of SCZ pathophysiology.

  1. Investigating univariate temporal patterns for intrinsic connectivity networks based on complexity and low-frequency oscillation: a test-retest reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Jiao, Y; Tang, T; Wang, H; Lu, Z

    2013-12-19

    Intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are composed of spatial components and time courses. The spatial components of ICNs were discovered with moderate-to-high reliability. So far as we know, few studies focused on the reliability of the temporal patterns for ICNs based their individual time courses. The goals of this study were twofold: to investigate the test-retest reliability of temporal patterns for ICNs, and to analyze these informative univariate metrics. Additionally, a correlation analysis was performed to enhance interpretability. Our study included three datasets: (a) short- and long-term scans, (b) multi-band echo-planar imaging (mEPI), and (c) eyes open or closed. Using dual regression, we obtained the time courses of ICNs for each subject. To produce temporal patterns for ICNs, we applied two categories of univariate metrics: network-wise complexity and network-wise low-frequency oscillation. Furthermore, we validated the test-retest reliability for each metric. The network-wise temporal patterns for most ICNs (especially for default mode network, DMN) exhibited moderate-to-high reliability and reproducibility under different scan conditions. Network-wise complexity for DMN exhibited fair reliability (ICC<0.5) based on eyes-closed sessions. Specially, our results supported that mEPI could be a useful method with high reliability and reproducibility. In addition, these temporal patterns were with physiological meanings, and certain temporal patterns were correlated to the node strength of the corresponding ICN. Overall, network-wise temporal patterns of ICNs were reliable and informative and could be complementary to spatial patterns of ICNs for further study. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Convergent and divergent functional connectivity patterns in patients with long-term left-sided and right-sided deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyang; Mao, Zhiqi; Feng, Shiyu; Wang, Wenxin; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Xinguang

    2018-02-05

    Cortical reorganization may be induced in long-term single-sided deafness (SD); however, the influence of the deafness side on the functional changes remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated whole-brain functional connectivity patterns in long-term SD patients. The normalized voxel-based functional connectivity strength (FCS) was determined using resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) in 17 left-sided deafness (LD) patients, 21 right-sided deafness (RD) patients and 21 healthy controls (HCs). Relative to the HCs, both the LD and RD patients exhibited a reduction in the FCS in the ipsilateral visual cortex. However, compared to that in the HCs, a significantly higher FCS was observed in some regions in the salience and default-mode networks in the RD patients, but this FCS alternation pattern was not observed in the LD patients. A direct comparison of the two patient groups revealed a significantly increased FCS in the supplemental motor area in the LD group. Altogether, the long-term SD groups with LD and RD exhibited convergent and divergent functional connectivity patterns in whole-brain networks, providing promising evidence that the functional changes in long-term SD are highly deafness-side-dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Patterns in connectivity and retention of simulated Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) larvae in the eastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richar, Jonathan I.; Kruse, Gordon H.; Curchitser, Enrique; Hermann, Albert J.

    2015-11-01

    The eastern Bering Sea (EBS) population of Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) has exhibited high variability in recruitment to the commercially exploited stock since the late 1970s. Concurrently, apparent shifts in crab distribution have also been observed. Larval advection patterns and associated local retention offer a potential mechanism for these observations. The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was used to simulate larval Tanner crab advection patterns over 1978-2004 based on larval hatching sites inferred from the distributions of reproductive females sampled during annual National Marine Fisheries Service trawl surveys. Connectivity among EBS subregions was examined by comparing start and end float locations after 60 days of simulated drift. High levels of retention (>50% of floats) were observed in the majority of source subregions, and contributed significantly to the total number of endpoints in each region. Patterns in advection and resultant interregional connectivity were variable, with strongest sustained connectivity occurring along shelf, within individual domains. Increased settlement potential in the outer domain and southern middle domain after 1990 is consistent with an observed geographic shift in fishery productivity. Apparent reliance of Bristol Bay on local larval retention validates recent spatial fishery management to conserve this area as a subpopulation.

  4. Connectivity diagnostics in the Mediterranean obtained from Lagrangian Flow Networks; global patterns, sensitivity and robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, Pedro; Rossi, Vincent; Ser-Giacomi, Enrico; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    Lagrangian Flow Network (LFN) is a modeling framework in which geographical sub-areas of the ocean are represented as nodes in a network and are interconnected by links representing the transport of water, substances or propagules (eggs and larvae) by currents. Here we compute for the surface of the whole Mediterranean basin four connectivity metrics derived from LFN that measure retention and exchange processes, thus providing a systematic characterization of propagule dispersal driven by the ocean circulation. Then we assess the sensitivity and robustness of the results with respect to the most relevant parameters: the density of released particles, the node size (spatial-scales of discretization), the Pelagic Larval Duration (PLD) and the modality of spawning. We find a threshold for the number of particles per node that guarantees reliable values for most of the metrics examined, independently of node size. For our setup, this threshold is 100 particles per node. We also find that the size of network nodes has a non-trivial influence on the spatial variability of both exchange and retention metrics. Although the spatio-temporal fluctuations of the circulation affect larval transport in a complex and unpredictable manner, our analyses evidence how specific biological parametrization impact the robustness of connectivity diagnostics. Connectivity estimates for long PLDs are more robust against biological uncertainties (PLD and spawning date) than for short PLDs. Furthermore, our model suggests that for mass-spawners that release propagules over short periods (≃ 2 to 10 days), daily release must be simulated to properly consider connectivity fluctuations. In contrast, average connectivity estimates for species that spawn repeatedly over longer duration (a few weeks to a few months) remain robust even using longer periodicity (5 to 10 days). Our results give a global view of the surface connectivity of the Mediterranean Sea and have implications for the design of

  5. A study to analyze the different patterns of quid usage among subjects with chewer′s mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Betel chewer′s mucosa, although not considered as a potentially malignant lesion, has been suggested to be a precursor of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF. Thus a study was undertaken to asses various quid chewing patterns in patients with chewer′s mucosa and to evaluate possible association between chewer′s mucosa and a particular quid usage patter. Materials and methods: The study was done on 150 subjects clinically diagnosed of having chewers mucosa lesion. After complete oral examination, a detailed habit history was taken through preformed questionnaire. The data obtained was analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: Among the 150 subjects males to female ratio was 8:2- Majority of the subjects were within the age group of 20 to 30 years and chewed a combination of betel leaf, arecanut, tobacco, lime- Majority of the subjects of chewer′s mucosa used the quid for a duration of 1 to 5 years, a frequency of three to five quid per day. Conclusion: In the present study, chewers mucosa was seen in majority of the subjects who used the quid for a duration of 1 to 5 years, a frequency of three to five quid per day and chewed the quid containing betel leaf, arecanut, tobacco, lime as its constituents.

  6. Analyzing the spatial patterns and drivers of ecosystem services in rapidly urbanizing Taihu Lake Basin of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Junyong; Sun, Xiang; Feng, Lan; Li, Yangfan; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2015-09-01

    Quantifying and mapping the distribution patterns of ecosystem services can help to ascertain which services should be protected and where investments should be directed to improve synergies and reduce tradeoffs. Moreover, the indicators of urbanization that affect the provision of ecosystem services must be identified to determine which approach to adopt in formulating policies related to these services. This paper presents a case study that maps the distribution of multiple ecosystem services and analyzes the ways in which they interact. The relationship between the supply of ecosystem services and the socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin of eastern China is also revealed. Results show a significant negative relationship between crop production and tourism income ( p<0.005) and a positive relationship between crop production, nutrient retention, and carbon sequestration ( p<0.005). The negative effects of the urbanization process on providing and regulating services are also identified through a comparison of the ecosystem services in large and small cities. Regression analysis was used to compare and elucidate the relative significance of the selected urbanization factors to ecosystem services. The results indicate that urbanization level is the most substantial factor inversely correlated with crop production ( R 2 = 0.414) and nutrient retention services ( R 2 = 0.572). Population density is the most important factor that negatively affects carbon sequestration ( R 2 = 0.447). The findings of this study suggest the potential relevance of ecosystem service dynamics to urbanization management and decision making.

  7. A novel approach for analyzing glass-transition temperature vs. composition patterns: application to pharmaceutical compound+polymer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeras, Ioannis M

    2011-04-18

    In medicine, polymer-based materials are commonly used as excipients of poorly water-soluble drugs. The success of the encapsulation, as well as the physicochemical stability of the products, is often reflected on their glass transition temperature (T(g)) vs. composition (w) dependencies. The shape of the T(g)(w) patterns is critically influenced by polymer's molecular mass, drug molecule's shape and molecular volume, the type and degree of shielding of hydrogen-bonding capable functional groups, as well as aspects of the preparation process. By altering mixture's T(g) the amorphous solid form of the active ingredient may be retained at ambient or body temperatures, with concomitant improvements in handling, solubility, dissolution rate and oral bioavailability. Given the importance of the problem, the glass transitions observed in pharmaceutical mixtures have been extensively analyzed, aiming to appraise the state of mixing and intermolecular interactions. Here, accumulated experimental information on related systems is re-evaluated and comparably discussed under the light of a more effective and system-inclusive T(g)(w) equation. The present analysis indicates that free volume modifications and conformational changes of the macromolecular chains dominate, over enthalpic effects of mixing, in determining thermal characteristics and crystallization inhibition/retardation. Moreover, hydrogen-bonding and ion-dipole heterocontacts--although favorable of a higher degree of mixing--appear less significant compared to the steric hindrances and the antiplasticization proffered by the higher viscosity component. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional connectivity pattern during rest within the episodic memory network in association with episodic memory performance in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Reinke, Britta; Matura, Silke; Prvulovic, David; Linden, David E J; van de Ven, Vincent

    2015-02-28

    In this study, we sought to examine the intrinsic functional organization of the episodic memory network during rest in bipolar disorder (BD). The previous work suggests that deficits in intrinsic functional connectivity may account for impaired memory performance. We hypothesized that regions involved in episodic memory processing would reveal aberrant functional connectivity in patients with bipolar disorder. We examined 21 patients with BD and 21 healthy matched controls who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a resting condition. We did a seed-based functional connectivity analysis (SBA), using the regions of the episodic memory network that showed a significantly different activation pattern during task-related fMRI as seeds. The functional connectivity scores (FC) were further correlated with episodic memory task performance. Our results revealed decreased FC scores within frontal areas and between frontal and temporal/hippocampal/limbic regions in BD patients in comparison with controls. We observed higher FC in BD patients compared with controls between frontal and limbic regions. The decrease in fronto-frontal functional connectivity in BD patients showed a significant positive association with episodic memory performance. The association between task-independent dysfunctional frontal-limbic FC and episodic memory performance may be relevant for current pathophysiological models of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Group-ICA model order highlights patterns of functional brain connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed eAbou Elseoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state networks (RSNs can be reliably and reproducibly detected using independent component analysis (ICA at both individual subject and group levels. Altering ICA dimensionality (model order estimation can have a significant impact on the spatial characteristics of the RSNs as well as their parcellation into sub-networks. Recent evidence from several neuroimaging studies suggests that the human brain has a modular hierarchical organization which resembles the hierarchy depicted by different ICA model orders. We hypothesized that functional connectivity between-group differences measured with ICA might be affected by model order selection. We investigated differences in functional connectivity using so-called dual-regression as a function of ICA model order in a group of unmedicated seasonal affective disorder (SAD patients compared to normal healthy controls. The results showed that the detected disease-related differences in functional connectivity alter as a function of ICA model order. The volume of between-group differences altered significantly as a function of ICA model order reaching maximum at model order 70 (which seems to be an optimal point that conveys the largest between-group difference then stabilized afterwards. Our results show that fine-grained RSNs enable better detection of detailed disease-related functional connectivity changes. However, high model orders show an increased risk of false positives that needs to be overcome. Our findings suggest that multilevel ICA exploration of functional connectivity enables optimization of sensitivity to brain disorders.

  10. Modelling water and sediment connectivity patterns in a semi-arid landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cammeraat, L. H.; Beek, L. P. H. van; Dooms, T.

    2009-01-01

    Desertification is a major threat in SE Spain and mitigation strategies are required to reduce the adverse effect of water-induced erosion on soil production potential. Severity of soil erosion depends on local runoff response and the connectivity of pathways of water and sediment at different spatial scales. We investigated the connectivity between sources and sinks on semi-natural slopes by means of a semi-distributed model that delineated Hydrological response Units (HRUs) on the basis of physiographic characteristics. The model was calibrated with information at the plot, hill slope and sub-catchment scale covering the period 1995-2008 and validated against larger events that connected the semi-natural sub-catchment with the underlying cultivated slopes. (Author) 12 refs.

  11. Modelling water and sediment connectivity patterns in a semi-arid landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cammeraat, L. H.; Beek, L. P. H. van; Dooms, T.

    2009-07-01

    Desertification is a major threat in SE Spain and mitigation strategies are required to reduce the adverse effect of water-induced erosion on soil production potential. Severity of soil erosion depends on local runoff response and the connectivity of pathways of water and sediment at different spatial scales. We investigated the connectivity between sources and sinks on semi-natural slopes by means of a semi-distributed model that delineated Hydrological response Units (HRUs) on the basis of physiographic characteristics. The model was calibrated with information at the plot, hill slope and sub-catchment scale covering the period 1995-2008 and validated against larger events that connected the semi-natural sub-catchment with the underlying cultivated slopes. (Author) 12 refs.

  12. Jubilite: A 4-,8-connected Cubic Structural Pattern in Space Group Pm3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Castro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In the course of investigating structural modifications of the 3-,4-connected net known as the Pt3O4 structure-type (waserite, a novel 4-,8-connected structure-type was discovered. This lattice is generated by replacing the 3-connected trigonal planar vertices of the Pt3O4 structure-type with 4-connected tetrahedral vertices, to achieve a structure which possesses a generic empirical formula of JK6L8. In such a topological modification, the four 3-fold axes of the parent cubic, Pm3n, Pt3O4 structure-type are retained. Thus the 4-connected tetrahedral vertices are oriented so as to preserve cubic symmetry in the resulting Pm3, JK6L8 (jubilite lattice. The unit cell contains a single 8-connected cubecentered vertex, six 4-connected distorted square planar vertices and eight 4-connected distorted tetrahedral vertices. It is a Wellsean structure with a Wells point symbol given by (4166484(42826(43838 and a Schläfli symbol of (53/4, 4.2667. This latter index reveals a decrease in the lattice’s polygonality and concomitant increase in the connectivity through the transformation from waserite to jubilite. The topology of the parent waserite lattice (Pt3O4 corresponds to that of the Catalan structures with the Wells point symbol (843(834, which has the Schläfli symbol (8, 3.4285. Finally, it can be seen that a sequence of structure-types starting with waserite (Pt3O4 and moving to jubilite (JK6L8 and finally to fluorite (CaF2 represents a continuous crystallographic structural transformation in which the symmetry and topology undergo concomitant changes from one structure-type (waserite to the other structure-types. The topology of the fluorite lattice, represented by the Wells point symbol (424(462, and the Schläfli symbol (4, 51/3, indicates a discontinuous topological transformation from the intermediate jubilite lattice; like the discontinuous topological transformation from Pt3O4 to JK6L8; in which the

  13. Connecting the dots : Illusory pattern perception predicts belief in conspiracies and the supernatural

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Prooijen, Jan Willem; Douglas, Karen M.; De Inocencio, Clara

    A common assumption is that belief in conspiracy theories and supernatural phenomena are grounded in illusory pattern perception. In the present research we systematically tested this assumption. Study 1 revealed that such irrational beliefs are related to perceiving patterns in randomly generated

  14. Lobular patterns of cerebellar resting-state connectivity in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivito, Giusy; Lupo, Michela; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Clausi, Silvia; Baiocco, Roberto; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco; Leggio, Maria

    2018-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core deficits in social functioning. Core autistics traits refer to poor social and imagination skills, poor attention-switching/strong focus of attention, exceptional attention to detail, as expressed by the autism-spectrum quotient. Over the years, the importance of the cerebellum in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorder has been acknowledged. Neuroimaging studies have provided a strong support to this view, showing both structural and functional connectivity alterations to affect the cerebellum in autism spectrum disorder. According to the underconnectivity theory, disrupted connectivity within cerebello-cerebral networks has been specifically implicated in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorder. However, inconsistent results have been generated across studies. In this study, an integrated approach has been used in a selected population of adults with autism spectrum disorder to analyse both cerebellar morphometry and functional connectivity. In individuals with autism spectrum disorder, a decreased cerebellar grey matter volume affected the right Crus II, a region showing extensive connections with cerebral areas related to social functions. This grey matter reduction correlates with the degree of autistic traits as measured by autism-spectrum quotient. Interestingly, altered functional connectivity was found between the reduced cerebellar Crus II and contralateral cerebral regions, such as frontal and temporal areas. Overall, the present data suggest that adults with autism spectrum disorder present with specific cerebellar structural alterations that may affect functional connectivity within cerebello-cerebral modules relevant to social processing and account for core autistics traits. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Verbal communication about sex in marriage: patterns of language use and its connection with relational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jon A; Coffelt, Tina A

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the vocabulary husbands and wives use for talking to each other about sex, and connections between language use and relational qualities. Married people (n = 293) responded to a questionnaire about their use of common sex-related terms and about several characteristics of their marriage: sexual communication satisfaction, relational satisfaction, and relational closeness. Cluster analysis based on reported use revealed that sexual terms fell into clusters characterized as clinical terms, slang, or standard English. Results showed an association between use of sexual terms, particularly slang terms, and both satisfaction and closeness. This connection was stronger for women than for men. The findings offer insight into sexual talk and marital relationships.

  16. Connectivity and Dispersal Patterns of Protected Biogenic Reefs: Implications for the Conservation of Modiolus modiolus (L. in the Irish Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Gormley

    Full Text Available Biogenic reefs created by Modiolus modiolus (Linnaeus, 1758 (horse mussel reefs are marine habitats which support high levels of species biodiversity and provide valuable ecosystem services. Currently, M. modiolus reefs are listed as a threatened and/or declining species and habitat in all OSPAR regions and thus are highlighted as a conservation priority under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD. Determining patterns of larval dispersal and genetic connectivity of remaining horse mussel populations can inform management efforts and is a critical component of effective marine spatial planning (MSP. Larval dispersal patterns and genetic structure were determined for several M. modiolus bed populations in the Irish Sea including those in Wales (North Pen Llŷn, Isle of Man (Point of Ayre and Northern Ireland (Ards Peninsula and Strangford Lough. Simulations of larval dispersal suggested extant connectivity between populations within the Irish Sea. Results from the genetic analysis carried out using newly developed microsatellite DNA markers were consistent with those of the biophysical model. Results indicated moderately significant differentiation between the Northern Ireland populations and those in the Isle of Man and Wales. Simulations of larval dispersal over a 30 day pelagic larval duration (PLD suggest that connectivity over a spatial scale of 150km is possible between some source and sink populations. However, it appears unlikely that larvae from Northern Ireland will connect directly with sites on the Llŷn or Isle of Man. It also appears unlikely that larvae from the Llŷn connect directly to any of the other sites. Taken together the data establishes a baseline for underpinning management and conservation of these important and threatened marine habitats in the southern part of the known range.

  17. Control Networks in Paediatric Tourette Syndrome Show Immature and Anomalous Patterns of Functional Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jessica A.; Fair, Damien A.; Dosenbach, Nico U. F.; Cohen, Alexander L.; Miezin, Francis M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2009-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a developmental disorder characterized by unwanted, repetitive behaviours that manifest as stereotyped movements and vocalizations called "tics". Operating under the hypothesis that the brain's control systems may be impaired in TS, we measured resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) between 39 previously…

  18. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: 1. An increased BMI (i.e., overweight subjects is associated with distinct changes in gray-matter and fiber density of the brain. 2. Classification algorithms based on white-matter connectivity involving regions of the reward and associated networks can identify specific targets for mechanistic studies and future drug development aimed at abnormal ingestive behavior and in overweight/obesity.

  19. Algebraic connectivity of brain networks shows patterns of segregation leading to reduced network robustness in Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daianu, Madelaine; Jahanshad, Neda; Nir, Talia M.; Leonardo, Cassandra D.; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Bernstein, Matthew A.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Measures of network topology and connectivity aid the understanding of network breakdown as the brain degenerates in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We analyzed 3-Tesla diffusion-weighted images from 202 patients scanned by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative – 50 healthy controls, 72 with early- and 38 with late-stage mild cognitive impairment (eMCI/lMCI) and 42 with AD. Using whole-brain tractography, we reconstructed structural connectivity networks representing connections between pairs of cortical regions. We examined, for the first time in this context, the network's Laplacian matrix and its Fiedler value, describing the network's algebraic connectivity, and the Fiedler vector, used to partition a graph. We assessed algebraic connectivity and four additional supporting metrics, revealing a decrease in network robustness and increasing disarray among nodes as dementia progressed. Network components became more disconnected and segregated, and their modularity increased. These measures are sensitive to diagnostic group differences, and may help understand the complex changes in AD. PMID:26640830

  20. Persistence of self-recruitment and patterns of larval connectivity in a marine protected area network

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.; Almany, Glenn R; Planes, Serge; Jones, Geoffrey P; Saenz Agudelo, Pablo; Thorrold, Simon R

    2012-01-01

    to maintain local populations while simultaneously supplying larvae to other MPA nodes in the network that might otherwise suffer local extinction. Here, we use genetic parentage analysis to demonstrate that patterns of self-recruitment of two reef fishes

  1. Electroconvulsive therapy-induced brain functional connectivity predicts therapeutic efficacy in patients with schizophrenia: a multivariate pattern recognition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jing, Ri-Xing; Zhao, Rong-Jiang; Ding, Zeng-Bo; Shi, Le; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Lin, Xiao; Fan, Teng-Teng; Dong, Wen-Tian; Fan, Yong; Lu, Lin

    2017-05-11

    REVEAL GOOD CANDIDATES FOR BRAIN STIMULATION: Connectivity patterns in the brain may help identify patients with schizophrenia most likely to benefit from electroconvulsive therapy. A team led by Lin Lu from Peking University, China, and Yong Fan from the University of Pennsylvania, USA, took functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 34 people with schizophrenia and 34 control individuals without mental illness. Those with schizophrenia were scanned before and after treatment; some received antipsychotics alone, others received medication plus electroconvulsive therapy. The researchers created organizational brain maps known as "intrinsic connectivity networks" for each individual, and showed that the neuroimaging pattern could discriminate between people with and without schizophrenia. For the schizophrenia patients, the connectivity networks taken prior to treatment also helped predict who would benefit from the brain-stimulation procedure. Such a biomarker could prove a useful diagnostic tool for clinicians.

  2. What happens in an estuary doesn't stay there: patterns of biotic connectivity resulting from long term ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Martha E.; Finn, John T.; Kennedy, Christina G.; Deegan, Linda A.; Smith, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    The paucity of data on migratory connections and an incomplete understanding of how mobile organisms use geographically separate areas have been obstacles to understanding coastal dynamics. Research on acoustically tagged striped bass (Morone saxatilis) at the Plum Island Ecosystems (PIE) Long Term Ecological Research site, Massachusetts, documents intriguing patterns of biotic connectivity (i.e., long-distance migration between geographically distinct areas). First, the striped bass tagged at PIE migrated southward along the coast using different routes. Second, these tagged fish exhibited strong fidelity and specificity to PIE. For example, across multiple years, tagged striped bass resided in PIE waters for an average of 1.5-2.5 months per year (means: 51-72 days; range 2-122 days), left this estuary in fall, then returned in subsequent years. Third, this specificity and fidelity connected PIE to other locations. The fish exported nutrients and energy to at least three other coastal locations through biomass added as growth. These results demonstrate that what happens in an individual estuary can affect other estuaries. Striped bass that use tightly connected routes to feed in specific estuaries should have greater across-system impacts than fish that are equally likely to go anywhere. Consequently, variations in when, where, and how fish migrate can alter across-estuary impacts.

  3. Evolutionary plasticity of habenular asymmetry with a conserved efferent connectivity pattern.

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    Aldo Villalón

    Full Text Available The vertebrate habenulae (Hb is an evolutionary conserved dorsal diencephalic nuclear complex that relays information from limbic and striatal forebrain regions to the ventral midbrain. One key feature of this bilateral nucleus is the presence of left-right differences in size, cytoarchitecture, connectivity, neurochemistry and/or gene expression. In teleosts, habenular asymmetry has been associated with preferential innervation of left-right habenular efferents into dorso-ventral domains of the midbrain interpeduncular nucleus (IPN. However, the degree of conservation of this trait and its relation to the structural asymmetries of the Hb are currently unknown. To address these questions, we performed the first systematic comparative analysis of structural and connectional asymmetries of the Hb in teleosts. We found striking inter-species variability in the overall shape and cytoarchitecture of the Hb, and in the frequency, strength and to a lesser degree, laterality of habenular volume at the population level. Directional asymmetry of the Hb was either to the left in D. rerio, E. bicolor, O. latipes, P. reticulata, B. splendens, or to the right in F. gardneri females. In contrast, asymmetry was absent in P. scalare and F. gardneri males at the population level, although in these species the Hb displayed volumetric asymmetries at the individual level. Inter-species variability was more pronounced across orders than within a single order, and coexisted with an overall conserved laterotopic representation of left-right habenular efferents into dorso-ventral domains of the IPN. These results suggest that the circuit design involving the Hb of teleosts promotes structural flexibility depending on developmental, cognitive and/or behavioural pressures, without affecting the main midbrain connectivity output, thus unveiling a key conserved role of this connectivity trait in the function of the circuit. We propose that ontogenic plasticity in habenular

  4. Toward a Neuroscientific Understanding of Play: A Dimensional Coding Framework for Analyzing Infant–Adult Play Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Neale

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Play during early life is a ubiquitous activity, and an individual’s propensity for play is positively related to cognitive development and emotional well-being. Play behavior (which may be solitary or shared with a social partner is diverse and multi-faceted. A challenge for current research is to converge on a common definition and measurement system for play – whether examined at a behavioral, cognitive or neurological level. Combining these different approaches in a multimodal analysis could yield significant advances in understanding the neurocognitive mechanisms of play, and provide the basis for developing biologically grounded play models. However, there is currently no integrated framework for conducting a multimodal analysis of play that spans brain, cognition and behavior. The proposed coding framework uses grounded and observable behaviors along three dimensions (sensorimotor, cognitive and socio-emotional, to compute inferences about playful behavior in a social context, and related social interactional states. Here, we illustrate the sensitivity and utility of the proposed coding framework using two contrasting dyadic corpora (N = 5 of mother-infant object-oriented interactions during experimental conditions that were either non-conducive (Condition 1 or conducive (Condition 2 to the emergence of playful behavior. We find that the framework accurately identifies the modal form of social interaction as being either non-playful (Condition 1 or playful (Condition 2, and further provides useful insights about differences in the quality of social interaction and temporal synchronicity within the dyad. It is intended that this fine-grained coding of play behavior will be easily assimilated with, and inform, future analysis of neural data that is also collected during adult–infant play. In conclusion, here, we present a novel framework for analyzing the continuous time-evolution of adult–infant play patterns, underpinned by

  5. Toward a Neuroscientific Understanding of Play: A Dimensional Coding Framework for Analyzing Infant-Adult Play Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Dave; Clackson, Kaili; Georgieva, Stanimira; Dedetas, Hatice; Scarpate, Melissa; Wass, Sam; Leong, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Play during early life is a ubiquitous activity, and an individual's propensity for play is positively related to cognitive development and emotional well-being. Play behavior (which may be solitary or shared with a social partner) is diverse and multi-faceted. A challenge for current research is to converge on a common definition and measurement system for play - whether examined at a behavioral, cognitive or neurological level. Combining these different approaches in a multimodal analysis could yield significant advances in understanding the neurocognitive mechanisms of play, and provide the basis for developing biologically grounded play models. However, there is currently no integrated framework for conducting a multimodal analysis of play that spans brain, cognition and behavior. The proposed coding framework uses grounded and observable behaviors along three dimensions (sensorimotor, cognitive and socio-emotional), to compute inferences about playful behavior in a social context, and related social interactional states. Here, we illustrate the sensitivity and utility of the proposed coding framework using two contrasting dyadic corpora ( N = 5) of mother-infant object-oriented interactions during experimental conditions that were either non-conducive (Condition 1) or conducive (Condition 2) to the emergence of playful behavior. We find that the framework accurately identifies the modal form of social interaction as being either non-playful (Condition 1) or playful (Condition 2), and further provides useful insights about differences in the quality of social interaction and temporal synchronicity within the dyad. It is intended that this fine-grained coding of play behavior will be easily assimilated with, and inform, future analysis of neural data that is also collected during adult-infant play. In conclusion, here, we present a novel framework for analyzing the continuous time-evolution of adult-infant play patterns, underpinned by biologically informed

  6. Multivariate pattern analysis strategies in detection of remitted major depressive disorder using resting state functional connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runa Bhaumik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding abnormal resting-state functional connectivity of distributed brain networks may aid in probing and targeting mechanisms involved in major depressive disorder (MDD. To date, few studies have used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI to attempt to discriminate individuals with MDD from individuals without MDD, and to our knowledge no investigations have examined a remitted (r population. In this study, we examined the efficiency of support vector machine (SVM classifier to successfully discriminate rMDD individuals from healthy controls (HCs in a narrow early-adult age range. We empirically evaluated four feature selection methods including multivariate Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO and Elastic Net feature selection algorithms. Our results showed that SVM classification with Elastic Net feature selection achieved the highest classification accuracy of 76.1% (sensitivity of 81.5% and specificity of 68.9% by leave-one-out cross-validation across subjects from a dataset consisting of 38 rMDD individuals and 29 healthy controls. The highest discriminating functional connections were between the left amygdala, left posterior cingulate cortex, bilateral dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex, and right ventral striatum. These appear to be key nodes in the etiopathophysiology of MDD, within and between default mode, salience and cognitive control networks. This technique demonstrates early promise for using rs-fMRI connectivity as a putative neurobiological marker capable of distinguishing between individuals with and without rMDD. These methods may be extended to periods of risk prior to illness onset, thereby allowing for earlier diagnosis, prevention, and intervention.

  7. Multivariate pattern analysis strategies in detection of remitted major depressive disorder using resting state functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Runa; Jenkins, Lisanne M; Gowins, Jennifer R; Jacobs, Rachel H; Barba, Alyssa; Bhaumik, Dulal K; Langenecker, Scott A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding abnormal resting-state functional connectivity of distributed brain networks may aid in probing and targeting mechanisms involved in major depressive disorder (MDD). To date, few studies have used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to attempt to discriminate individuals with MDD from individuals without MDD, and to our knowledge no investigations have examined a remitted (r) population. In this study, we examined the efficiency of support vector machine (SVM) classifier to successfully discriminate rMDD individuals from healthy controls (HCs) in a narrow early-adult age range. We empirically evaluated four feature selection methods including multivariate Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) and Elastic Net feature selection algorithms. Our results showed that SVM classification with Elastic Net feature selection achieved the highest classification accuracy of 76.1% (sensitivity of 81.5% and specificity of 68.9%) by leave-one-out cross-validation across subjects from a dataset consisting of 38 rMDD individuals and 29 healthy controls. The highest discriminating functional connections were between the left amygdala, left posterior cingulate cortex, bilateral dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex, and right ventral striatum. These appear to be key nodes in the etiopathophysiology of MDD, within and between default mode, salience and cognitive control networks. This technique demonstrates early promise for using rs-fMRI connectivity as a putative neurobiological marker capable of distinguishing between individuals with and without rMDD. These methods may be extended to periods of risk prior to illness onset, thereby allowing for earlier diagnosis, prevention, and intervention.

  8. Contrasting patterns of connectivity among endemic and widespread fire coral species ( Millepora spp.) in the tropical Southwestern Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Júlia N.; Nunes, Flávia L. D.; Zilberberg, Carla; Sanchez, Juan A.; Migotto, Alvaro E.; Hoeksema, Bert W.; Serrano, Xaymara M.; Baker, Andrew C.; Lindner, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    Fire corals are the only branching corals in the South Atlantic and provide an important ecological role as habitat-builders in the region. With three endemic species ( Millepora brazilensis, M. nitida and M. laboreli) and one amphi-Atlantic species ( M. alcicornis), fire coral diversity in the Brazilian Province rivals that of the Caribbean Province. Phylogenetic relationships and patterns of population genetic structure and diversity were investigated in all four fire coral species occurring in the Brazilian Province to understand patterns of speciation and biogeography in the genus. A total of 273 colonies from the four species were collected from 17 locations spanning their geographic ranges. Sequences from the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were used to evaluate phylogenetic relationships. Patterns in genetic diversity and connectivity were inferred by measures of molecular diversity, analyses of molecular variance, pairwise differentiation, and by spatial analyses of molecular variance. Morphometrics of the endemic species M. braziliensis and M. nitida were evaluated by discriminant function analysis; macro-morphological characters were not sufficient to distinguish the two species. Genetic analyses showed that, although they are closely related, each species forms a well-supported clade. Furthermore, the endemic species characterized a distinct biogeographic barrier: M. braziliensis is restricted to the north of the São Francisco River, whereas M. nitida occurs only to the south. Millepora laboreli is restricted to a single location and has low genetic diversity. In contrast, the amphi-Atlantic species M. alcicornis shows high genetic connectivity within the Brazilian Province, and within the Caribbean Province (including Bermuda), despite low levels of gene flow between these populations and across the tropical Atlantic. These patterns reflect the importance of the Amazon-Orinoco Plume and the Mid-Atlantic Barrier as biogeographic barriers, and suggest that

  9. Selected issues connected with determination of requirements of spectral properties of camouflage patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racek, František; Jobánek, Adam; Baláž, Teodor; Krejčí, Jaroslav

    2017-10-01

    Traditionally spectral reflectance of the material is measured and compared with permitted spectral reflectance boundaries. The boundaries are limited by upper and lower curve of spectral reflectance. The boundaries for unique color has to fulfil the operational requirements as a versatility of utilization through the all year seasons, day and weather condition on one hand and chromatic and spectral matching with background as well as the manufacturability on the other hand. The interval between the boundaries suffers with ambivalent feature. Camouflage pattern producer would be happy to see it much wider, but blending effect into its particular background could be better with narrower tolerance limits. From the point of view of long time user of camouflage pattern battledress, there seems to be another ambivalent feature. Width of the tolerance zone reflecting natural dispersion of spectral reflectance values allows the significant distortions of shape of the spectral curve inside the given boundaries.

  10. The connection between cellular mechanoregulation and tissue patterns during bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, Felix; Vetter, Andreas; Duda, Georg N; Weinkamer, Richard

    2015-09-01

    The formation of different tissues in the callus during secondary bone healing is at least partly influenced by mechanical stimuli. We use computer simulations to test the consequences of different hypotheses of the mechanoregulation at the cellular level on the patterns of tissues formed during healing. The computational study is based on an experiment on sheep, where after a tibial osteotomy, histological sections were harvested at different time points. In the simulations, we used a recently proposed basic phenomenological model, which allows ossification to occur either via endochondral or intramembranous ossification, but tries otherwise to employ a minimal number of simulation parameters. The model was extended to consider also the possibility of bone resorption and consequently allowing a description of the full healing progression till the restoration of the cortex. Specifically, we investigated how three changes in the mechanoregulation influence the resulting tissue patterns: (1) a time delay between stimulation of the cell and the formation of the tissue, (2) a variable mechanosensitivity of the cells, and (3) an independence of long time intervals of the soft tissue maturation from the mechanical stimulus. For all three scenarios, our simulations do not show qualitative differences in the time development of the tissue patterns. Largest differences were observed in the intermediate phases of healing in the amount and location of the cartilage. Interestingly, the course of healing was virtually unaltered in case of scenario (3) where tissue maturation proceeded independent of mechanical stimulation.

  11. Analyzing Local Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Police Calls-for-Service Using Bayesian Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Luan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates spatio-temporal patterns of police calls-for-service in the Region of Waterloo, Canada, at a fine spatial and temporal resolution. Modeling was implemented via Bayesian Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA. Temporal patterns for two-hour time periods, spatial patterns at the small-area scale, and space-time interaction (i.e., unusual departures from overall spatial and temporal patterns were estimated. Temporally, calls-for-service were found to be lowest in the early morning (02:00–03:59 and highest in the evening (20:00–21:59, while high levels of calls-for-service were spatially located in central business areas and in areas characterized by major roadways, universities, and shopping centres. Space-time interaction was observed to be geographically dispersed during daytime hours but concentrated in central business areas during evening hours. Interpreted through the routine activity theory, results are discussed with respect to law enforcement resource demand and allocation, and the advantages of modeling spatio-temporal datasets with Bayesian INLA methods are highlighted.

  12. Using the "K[subscript 5]Connected Cognition Diagram" to Analyze Teachers' Communication and Understanding of Regions in Three-Dimensional Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Russo, Deborah; Viglietti, Janine M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that introduces and applies the "K[subscript 5]Connected Cognition Diagram" as a lens to explore video data showing teachers' interactions related to the partitioning of regions by axes in a three-dimensional geometric space. The study considers "semiotic bundles" (Arzarello, 2006), introduces "semiotic connections,"…

  13. Patterns of effective connectivity during memory encoding and retrieval differ between patients with mild cognitive impairment and healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampstead, B M; Khoshnoodi, M; Yan, W; Deshpande, G; Sathian, K

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that there is considerable overlap in the neural networks mediating successful memory encoding and retrieval. However, little is known about how the relevant human brain regions interact during these distinct phases of memory or how such interactions are affected by memory deficits that characterize mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition that often precedes dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. Here we employed multivariate Granger causality analysis using autoregressive modeling of inferred neuronal time series obtained by deconvolving the hemodynamic response function from measured blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) time series data, in order to examine the effective connectivity between brain regions during successful encoding and/or retrieval of object location associations in MCI patients and comparable healthy older adults. During encoding, healthy older adults demonstrated a left hemisphere dominant pattern where the inferior frontal junction, anterior intraparietal sulcus (likely involving the parietal eye fields), and posterior cingulate cortex drove activation in most left hemisphere regions and virtually every right hemisphere region tested. These regions are part of a frontoparietal network that mediates top-down cognitive control and is implicated in successful memory formation. In contrast, in the MCI patients, the right frontal eye field drove activation in every left hemisphere region examined, suggesting reliance on more basic visual search processes. Retrieval in the healthy older adults was primarily driven by the right hippocampus with lesser contributions of the right anterior thalamic nuclei and right inferior frontal sulcus, consistent with theoretical models holding the hippocampus as critical for the successful retrieval of memories. The pattern differed in MCI patients, in whom the right inferior frontal junction and right anterior thalamus drove successful memory retrieval, reflecting the

  14. Analyzing the Pattern of L1 Sounds on L2 Sounds Produced by Javanese Students of Stkip PGRI Jombang

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    Daning Hentasmaka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The studyconcerns on an analysis on the tendency of first language (L1 sound patterning on second language (L2 sounds done by Javanese students.Focusing on the consonant sounds, the data were collected by recording students’ pronunciationof English words during the pronunciation test. The data then analysed through three activities: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing/ verification. Theresult showedthatthe patterning of L1 sounds happened on L2 sounds especially on eleven consonant sounds: the fricatives [v, θ, ð, ʃ, ʒ], the voiceless stops [p, t, k], and the voiced stops [b, d, g].Thosepatterning case emergedmostlyduetothe difference in the existence of consonant sounds and rules of consonant distribution. Besides, one of the cases was caused by the difference in consonant clusters between L1 and L2

  15. ANALYZING THE PATTERN OF L1 SOUNDS ON L2 SOUNDS PRODUCED BY JAVANESE STUDENTS OF STKIP PGRI JOMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daning Hentasmaka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The studyconcerns on an analysis on the tendency of first language (L1 sound patterning on second language (L2 sounds done by Javanese students.Focusing on the consonant sounds, the data were collected by recording students’ pronunciationof English words during the pronunciation test. The data then analysed through three activities: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing/ verification. Theresult showedthatthe patterning of L1 sounds happened on L2 sounds especially on eleven consonant sounds: the fricatives [v, θ, ð, ʃ, ʒ], the voiceless stops [p, t, k], and the voiced stops [b, d, g].Thosepatterning case emergedmostlyduetothe difference in the existence of consonant sounds and rules of consonant distribution. Besides, one of the cases was caused by the difference in consonant clusters between L1 and L2.

  16. Association between magnetic resonance imaging patterns and baseline disease features in multiple myeloma: analyzing surrogates of tumour mass and biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Elias K.; Merz, Maximilian; Shah, Sofia; Hillengass, Michaela; Wagner, Barbara; Hose, Dirk; Raab, M.S. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine V, Heidelberg (Germany); Hielscher, Thomas [German Cancer Research Center, Division of Biostatistics, Heidelberg (Germany); Kloth, Jost K.; Weber, Marc-Andre [University Hospital of Heidelberg, Clinic of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Jauch, Anna [University Hospital of Heidelberg, Institute of Human Genetics, Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, Stefan [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Goldschmidt, Hartmut [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine V, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT) Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Hillengass, Jens [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine V, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    To assess associations between bone marrow infiltration patterns and localization in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and baseline clinical/prognostic parameters in multiple myeloma (MM). We compared baseline MM parameters, MRI patterns and localization of focal lesions to the mineralized bone in 206 newly diagnosed MM patients. A high tumour mass (represented by International Staging System stage III) was significantly associated with severe diffuse infiltration (p = 0.015) and a higher number of focal lesions (p = 0.006). Elevated creatinine (p = 0.003), anaemia (p < 0.001) and high LDH (p = 0.001) correlated with severe diffuse infiltration. A salt and pepper diffuse pattern had a favourable prognosis. A higher degree of destruction of mineralized bone (assessed by X-ray or computed tomography) was associated with an increasing number of focal lesions on MRI (p < 0.001). Adverse cytogenetics (del17p/gain1q21/t(4;14)) were associated with diffuse infiltration (p = 0.008). The presence of intraosseous focal lesions exceeding the mineralized bone had a borderline significant impact on prognosis. Diffuse bone marrow infiltration on MRI correlates with adverse cytogenetics, lowered haemoglobin values and high tumour burden in newly diagnosed MM whereas an increasing number of focal lesions correlates with a higher degree of bone destruction. Focal lesions exceeding the cortical bone did not adversely affect the prognosis. (orig.)

  17. Directional patterns of cross frequency phase and amplitude coupling within the resting state mimic patterns of fMRI functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kurt E.; Wander, Jeremiah D.; Ko, Andrew L.; Casimo, Kaitlyn; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Darvas, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Functional imaging investigations into the brain's resting state interactions have yielded a wealth of insight into the intrinsic and dynamic neural architecture supporting cognition and behavior. Electrophysiological studies however have highlighted the fact that synchrony across large-scale cortical systems is composed of spontaneous interactions occurring at timescales beyond the traditional resolution of fMRI, a feature that limits the capacity of fMRI to draw inference on the true directional relationship between network nodes. To approach the question of directionality in resting state signals, we recorded resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI) and electrocorticography (ECoG) from four human subjects undergoing invasive epilepsy monitoring. Using a seed-point based approach, we employed phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) and biPhase Locking Values (bPLV), two measures of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) to explore both outgoing and incoming connections between the seed and all non-seed, site electrodes. We observed robust PAC between a wide range of low-frequency phase and high frequency amplitude estimates. However, significant bPLV, a CFC measure of phase-phase synchrony, was only observed at specific narrow low and high frequency bandwidths. Furthermore, the spatial patterns of outgoing PAC connectivity were most closely associated with the rsfMRI connectivity maps. Our results support the hypothesis that PAC is relatively ubiquitous phenomenon serving as a mechanism for coordinating high-frequency amplitudes across distant neuronal assemblies even in absence of overt task structure. Additionally, we demonstrate that the spatial distribution of a seed-point rsfMRI sensorimotor network is strikingly similar to specific patterns of directional PAC. Specifically, the high frequency activities of distal patches of cortex owning membership in a rsfMRI sensorimotor network were most likely to be entrained to the phase of a low frequency rhythm engendered from the

  18. Connecting proximate mechanisms and evolutionary patterns: pituitary gland size and mammalian life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilar, J M; Tecot, S R

    2015-11-01

    At the proximate level, hormones are known to play a critical role in influencing the life history of mammals, including humans. The pituitary gland is directly responsible for producing several hormones, including those related to growth and reproduction. Although we have a basic understanding of how hormones affect life history characteristics, we still have little knowledge of this relationship in an evolutionary context. We used data from 129 mammal species representing 14 orders to investigate the relationship between pituitary gland size and life history variation. Because pituitary gland size should be related to hormone production and action, we predicted that species with relatively large pituitaries should be associated with fast life histories, especially increased foetal and post-natal growth rates. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that total pituitary size and the size of the anterior lobe of the pituitary significantly predicted a life history axis that was correlated with several traits including body mass, and foetal and post-natal growth rates. Additional models directly examining the association between relative pituitary size and growth rates produced concordant results. We also found that relative pituitary size variation across mammals was best explained by an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of evolution, suggesting an important role of stabilizing selection. Our results support the idea that the size of the pituitary is linked to life history variation through evolutionary time. This pattern is likely due to mediating hormone levels but additional work is needed. We suggest that future investigations incorporating endocrine gland size may be critical for understanding life history evolution. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Predicting targeted drug combinations based on Pareto optimal patterns of coexpression network connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrod, Nadia M; Greene, Casey S; Moore, Jason H

    2014-01-01

    Molecularly targeted drugs promise a safer and more effective treatment modality than conventional chemotherapy for cancer patients. However, tumors are dynamic systems that readily adapt to these agents activating alternative survival pathways as they evolve resistant phenotypes. Combination therapies can overcome resistance but finding the optimal combinations efficiently presents a formidable challenge. Here we introduce a new paradigm for the design of combination therapy treatment strategies that exploits the tumor adaptive process to identify context-dependent essential genes as druggable targets. We have developed a framework to mine high-throughput transcriptomic data, based on differential coexpression and Pareto optimization, to investigate drug-induced tumor adaptation. We use this approach to identify tumor-essential genes as druggable candidates. We apply our method to a set of ER(+) breast tumor samples, collected before (n = 58) and after (n = 60) neoadjuvant treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole, to prioritize genes as targets for combination therapy with letrozole treatment. We validate letrozole-induced tumor adaptation through coexpression and pathway analyses in an independent data set (n = 18). We find pervasive differential coexpression between the untreated and letrozole-treated tumor samples as evidence of letrozole-induced tumor adaptation. Based on patterns of coexpression, we identify ten genes as potential candidates for combination therapy with letrozole including EPCAM, a letrozole-induced essential gene and a target to which drugs have already been developed as cancer therapeutics. Through replication, we validate six letrozole-induced coexpression relationships and confirm the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition as a process that is upregulated in the residual tumor samples following letrozole treatment. To derive the greatest benefit from molecularly targeted drugs it is critical to design combination

  20. Extracting Usage Patterns and the Analysis of Tag Connection Dynamics within Collaborative Tagging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel MICAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative tagging has become a very popular way of annotation, thanks to the fact that any entity may be labeled by any individual based on his own reason. In this paper we present the results of the case study carried out on the basis of data gathered at different time intervals from the social tagging system developed and implemented on Întelepciune.ro. Analyzing collective data referring to the way in which community members associate different tags, we have observed that between tags, links are formed which become increasingly stable with the passing of time. Following the application of methodology specific to network analysis, we have managed to extract information referring to tag popularity, their influence within the network and the degree to which a tag depends upon another. As such, we have succeeded in determining different semantic structures within the collective tagging system and see their evolution at different stages in time. Furthermore, we have pictured the way in which tag rec-ommendations can be executed and that they can be integrated within recommendation sys-tems. Thus, we will be able to identify experts and trustworthy content based on different cat-egories of interest.

  1. Influence of urban form on landscape pattern and connectivity in metropolitan regions: a comparative case study of Phoenix, AZ, USA, and Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Hepcan, Çiğdem C; Hepcan, Şerif; Cook, Edward A

    2014-10-01

    Although ecological connectivity conservation in urban areas has recently been recognized as an important issue, less is known about its relationship to urban form and landscape pattern. This study investigates how urban morphology influences regional ecosystem pattern and landscape connectivity. Two metropolitan landscapes, Phoenix, AZ, USA, and Izmir, Turkey, were compared, both of which are fast-growing regions in their national context. A wide range of variables were considered for identifying natural and urban properties. The natural characteristics include typology of urban ecosystems, urban to natural cover ratio, dominant habitat type, urban biodiversity, landscape context, and connectivity conservation efforts. Urban parameters examine urban form, urban extent, urban cover proportion, growth rate, populations, urban gradient, major drivers of urbanization, urban density, and mode/approach of urban development. Twelve landscape metrics were measured and compared across the natural patches. Results show that there is little difference in landscape connectivity in the rural zones of Phoenix and Izmir, although Phoenix has slightly higher connectivity values. The connectivity variance in urbanized areas, however, is significantly dependent on the region. For example, Phoenix urban zones have substantially lower connectivity than either urban or suburban zones in Izmir. Findings demonstrate that small and compact urban settlements with more dense populations are more likely to conserve landscape connectivity compared to multiple-concentric but amalgamated urban form spreading all over the landscape (aka urban sprawl).

  2. Conservation patterns of HIV-1 RT connection and RNase H domains: identification of new mutations in NRTI-treated patients.

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    André F A Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although extensive HIV drug resistance information is available for the first 400 amino acids of its reverse transcriptase, the impact of antiretroviral treatment in C-terminal domains of Pol (thumb, connection and RNase H is poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We wanted to characterize conserved regions in RT C-terminal domains among HIV-1 group M subtypes and CRF. Additionally, we wished to identify NRTI-related mutations in HIV-1 RT C-terminal domains. We sequenced 118 RNase H domains from clinical viral isolates in Brazil, and analyzed 510 thumb and connection domain and 450 RNase H domain sequences collected from public HIV sequence databases, together with their treatment status and histories. Drug-naïve and NRTI-treated datasets were compared for intra- and inter-group conservation, and differences were determined using Fisher's exact tests. One third of RT C-terminal residues were found to be conserved among group M variants. Three mutations were found exclusively in NRTI-treated isolates. Nine mutations in the connection and 6 mutations in the RNase H were associated with NRTI treatment in subtype B. Some of them lay in or close to amino acid residues which contact nucleic acid or near the RNase H active site. Several of the residues pointed out herein have been recently associated to NRTI exposure or increase drug resistance to NRTI. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comprehensive genotypic analysis of a large sequence dataset that describes NRTI-related mutations in HIV-1 RT C-terminal domains in vivo. The findings into the conservation of RT C-terminal domains may pave the way to more rational drug design initiatives targeting those regions.

  3. Predicting clinical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder based on temporal patterns between and within intrinsic connectivity networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun-Heng; Jiao, Yun; Li, Lihua

    2017-10-24

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common brain disorder with high prevalence in school-age children. Previously developed machine learning-based methods have discriminated patients with ADHD from normal controls by providing label information of the disease for individuals. Inattention and impulsivity are the two most significant clinical symptoms of ADHD. However, predicting clinical symptoms (i.e., inattention and impulsivity) is a challenging task based on neuroimaging data. The goal of this study is twofold: to build predictive models for clinical symptoms of ADHD based on resting-state fMRI and to mine brain networks for predictive patterns of inattention and impulsivity. To achieve this goal, a cohort of 74 boys with ADHD and a cohort of 69 age-matched normal controls were recruited from the ADHD-200 Consortium. Both structural and resting-state fMRI images were obtained for each participant. Temporal patterns between and within intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) were applied as raw features in the predictive models. Specifically, sample entropy was taken asan intra-ICN feature, and phase synchronization (PS) was used asan inter-ICN feature. The predictive models were based on the least absolute shrinkage and selectionator operator (LASSO) algorithm. The performance of the predictive model for inattention is r=0.79 (p<10 -8 ), and the performance of the predictive model for impulsivity is r=0.48 (p<10 -8 ). The ICN-related predictive patterns may provide valuable information for investigating the brain network mechanisms of ADHD. In summary, the predictive models for clinical symptoms could be beneficial for personalizing ADHD medications. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Abundance of small mammals in the Atlantic Forest (ASMAF): a data set for analyzing tropical community patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Marcos S L; Barros, Camila S; Delciellos, Ana C; Guerra, Edú B; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro; Kajin, Maja; Alvarez, Martin R; Asfora, Paulo H; Astúa, Diego; Bergallo, Helena G; Cerqueira, Rui; Geise, Lena; Gentile, Rosana; Grelle, Carlos Eduardo V; Iack-Ximenes, Gilson E; Oliveira, Leonardo C; Weksler, Marcelo; Vieira, Marcus V

    2017-11-01

    Local abundance results from the interaction between populational and environmental processes. The abundance of the species in a community is also one of the most basic descriptors of its structure. Despite its importance, information about species abundances is fragmentary, creating a knowledge gap about species abundances known as the Prestonian Shortfall. Here we present a comprehensive data set of small mammal abundance in the Atlantic Forest. Data were extracted from 114 published sources and from unpublished data collected by our research groups spanning from 1943 to 2017. The data set includes 1,902 records of at least 111 species in 155 localities, totaling 42,617 individuals represented. We selected studies that (1) were conducted in forested habitats of the Atlantic Forest, (2) had a minimum sampling effort of at least 500 trap-nights, and (3) contained species abundance data in detail. For each study, we recorded (1) latitude and longitude, (2) name of the locality, (3) employed sampling effort, (4) type of traps used, (5) study year, (6) country, and (7) species name with (8) its respective abundances. For every locality, we also obtained information regarding its (9) ecoregion, (10) predominant vegetation type, and (11) biogeographic subdivision. Whenever necessary, we also (12) updated the species names as new species were described and some genera suffered taxonomic revision since the publication. The localities are spread across the Atlantic Forest and most of the small mammal species known to occur in Atlantic Forest are present in the data set, making it representative of communities of the entire biome. This data set can be used to address various patterns in community ecology and geographical ecology, as the relation between local abundance and environmental suitability, hypothesis regarding local and regional factors on community structuring, species abundance distributions (SAD), functional and phylogenetic mechanisms on community assembling

  5. Utilizing mixed methods research in analyzing Iranian researchers’ informarion search behaviour in the Web and presenting current pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Asadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using mixed methods research design, the current study has analyzed Iranian researchers’ information searching behaviour on the Web.Then based on extracted concepts, the model of their information searching behavior was revealed. . Forty-four participants, including academic staff from universities and research centers were recruited for this study selected by purposive sampling. Data were gathered from questionnairs including ten questions and semi-structured interview. Each participant’s memos were analyzed using grounded theory methods adapted from Strauss & Corbin (1998. Results showed that the main objectives of subjects were doing a research, writing a paper, studying, doing assignments, downloading files and acquiring public information in using Web. The most important of learning about how to search and retrieve information were trial and error and get help from friends among the subjects. Information resources are identified by searching in information resources (e.g. search engines, references in papers, and search in Online database… communications facilities & tools (e.g. contact with colleagues, seminars & workshops, social networking..., and information services (e.g. RSS, Alerting, and SDI. Also, Findings indicated that searching by search engines, reviewing references, searching in online databases, and contact with colleagues and studying last issue of the electronic journals were the most important for searching. The most important strategies were using search engines and scientific tools such as Google Scholar. In addition, utilizing from simple (Quick search method was the most common among subjects. Using of topic, keywords, title of paper were most important of elements for retrieval information. Analysis of interview showed that there were nine stages in researchers’ information searching behaviour: topic selection, initiating search, formulating search query, information retrieval, access to information

  6. Use of X-Chromosome Inactivation Pattern to Analyze the Clonality of 14 Female Cases of Kaposi Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ding; XiuJuan, Wu; Yan, Zhang; JunQin, Liang; Fang, Xiang; Shirong, Yu; Xiaojing, Kang; Yanyan, Feng; Weidong, Wu; Dong, Luo; Qingli, Lu; DeZhi, Zhang; XiongMing, Pu

    2015-06-16

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) has features of both neoplastic growth and hyperplastic proliferation. It is the most common tumor seen in patients with HIV infection. Whether KS is a real tumor or a benign hyperplastic disease is not known. Tissues from KS and cutaneous hemangioma lesion DNA were extracted, and then digested with methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease HpaII. Human androgen receptor gene (HUMARA) was amplified with PCR method and the product was separated on 10% denaturing polyacrylamide gels and stained with ethylene dibromide (EB) to show the polymorphism of HUMARA. Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) was amplified and the product was digested by BStXI, agarose gel and EB stained to show the polymorphism of PGK. Finally, we analyzed the clonality of KS. In the 14 patients with KS, heterozygosity of the HUMARA gene was observed in 12 (85.7%) cases. Loss of heterozygosity of HUMARA gene on X-chromosome (without HpaII digestion there were 2 bands, after HpaII digestion there were just 1 of the bands), representing monoclonal origin, was present in 11 cases of Kaposi sarcoma. Heterozygosity of the PGK gene was observed in 5 (35.7%) cases, which all represent monoclonal origin. There was no significant difference according to country, stage, or HIV and HHV-8 (P>0.05). The current findings suggest that Kaposi sarcoma is a clonal neoplasm, not a reactive proliferation.

  7. Analyzing Patterns of Community Interest at a Legacy Mining Waste Site to Assess and Inform Environmental Health Literacy Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Lothrop, Nathan; Wilkinson, Sarah T.; Root, Robert A.; Artiola, Janick F.; Klimecki, Walter; Loh, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Understanding a community’s concerns and informational needs is crucial to conducting and improving environmental health research and literacy initiatives. We hypothesized that analysis of community inquiries over time at a legacy mining site would be an effective method for assessing environmental health literacy efforts and determining whether community concerns were thoroughly addressed. Through a qualitative analysis, we determined community concerns at the time of being listed as a Superfund site. We analyzed how community concerns changed from this starting point over the subsequent years, and whether: 1) communication materials produced by the USEPA and other media were aligned with community concerns; and 2) these changes demonstrated a progression of the community’s understanding resulting from community involvement and engaged research efforts. We observed that when the Superfund site was first listed, community members were most concerned with USEPA management, remediation, site-specific issues, health effects, and environmental monitoring efforts related to air/dust and water. Over the next five years, community inquiries shifted significantly to include exposure assessment and reduction methods and issues unrelated to the site, particularly the local public water supply and home water treatment systems. Such documentation of community inquiries over time at contaminated sites is a novel method to assess environmental health literacy efforts and determine whether community concerns were thoroughly addressed. PMID:27595054

  8. Storage of phase-coded patterns via STDP in fully-connected and sparse network: a study of the network capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Scarpetta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the storage and retrieval of phase-coded patterns as stable dynamical attractors in recurrent neural networks, for both an analog and a integrate-and-fire spiking model. The synaptic strength is determined by a learning rule based on spike-time-dependent plasticity, with an asymmetric time window depending on the relative timing between pre- and post-synaptic activity. We store multiple patterns and study the network capacity. For the analog model, we find that the network capacity scales linearly with the network size, and that both capacity and the oscillation frequency of the retrieval state depend on the asymmetry of the learning time window. In addition to fully-connected networks, we study sparse networks, where each neuron is connected only to a small number $zll N$ of other neurons. Connections can be short range, between neighboring neurons placed on a regular lattice, or long range, between randomly chosen pairs of neurons. We find that a small fraction of long range connections is able to amplify the capacity of the network. This imply that a small-world-network topology is optimal, as a compromise between the cost of long range connections and the capacity increase. Also in the spiking integrate and fire model the crucial result of storing and retrieval of multiple phase-coded patterns is observed. The capacity of the fully-connected spiking network is investigated, together with the relation between oscillation frequency of retrieval state and window asymmetry.

  9. Geometric morphometrics of functionally distinct floral organs in Iris pumila: Analyzing patterns of symmetric and asymmetric shape variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Sanja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Iris flower is a complex morphological structure composed of two trimerous whorls of functionally distinct petaloid organs (the falls and the standards, one whorl of the stamens and one tricarpellary gynoecium. The petal-like style arms of the carpels are banded over the basal part of the falls, forming three pollination tunnels, each of which is perceived by the Iris pollinators as a single bilaterally symmetrical flower. Apart from the stamens, all petaloid floral organs are preferentially involved in advertising rewards to potential pollinators. Here we used the methods of geometric morphometrics to explore the shape variation in falls, standards and style arms of the Iris pumila flowers and to disentangle the symmetric and the asymmetric component of the total shape variance. Our results show that symmetric variation contributes mostly to the total shape variance in each of the three floral organs. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA was the dominant component of the asymmetric shape variation in the falls and the standards, but appeared to be marginally significant in the style arms. The values of FA indexes for the shape of falls (insects’ landing platforms and for the shape of standards (long-distance reward signals were found to be two orders of magnitude greater compared to that of the style arms. Directional asymmetry appeared to be very low, but highly statistically significant for all analyzed floral organs. Because floral symmetry can reliably indicate the presence of floral rewards, an almost perfect symmetry recorded for the style arm shape might be the outcome of pollinator preferences for symmetrical pollination units. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173007

  10. Expression pattern of glycoconjugates in the Bidderian and ovarian follicles of the Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus analyzed by lectin histochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Farias

    Full Text Available The Bidder's organ and ovary of the Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus were studied by light microscopy, using hematoxylin-eosin (HE and periodic acid Schiff (PAS staining. The expression and distribution of carbohydrate moieties was analyzed by lectin histochemistry, using 8 lectins with different carbohydrate specificities: Ulex europaeus (UEA I, Lens culinaris (LCA, Erythrina cristagalli (ECA, Arachis hypogaea (PNA, Ricinus communis (RCA I, Aleuria aurantia (AAA, Triticum vulgaris (WGA, and Glycine maximum (SBA. The results showed that the Bidderian zona pellucida presented alpha-mannose, alpha-L-fucose, beta-D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues. The Bidderian follicular cells showed the presence of beta-D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. In the extracellular matrix, alpha-mannose and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues were detected. The ovarian zona pellucida showed alpha-L-fucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues, and alpha-mannose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues were detected in the follicular cells. Thus, the zona pellucida in both organs contains N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues. alpha-L-fucose residues were detected in the zona pellucida of both organs, using different lectins. Considering that beta-D-galactose residue was absent from ovary but present in the Bidder's organ, this sugar residue may play an important role in follicle development, blocking the Bidderian follicles and preventing further development of the Bidder's organ into a functional ovary.

  11. Topologically convergent and divergent structural connectivity patterns between patients with remitted geriatric depression and amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Feng; Shu, Ni; Yuan, Yonggui; Shi, Yongmei; Yu, Hui; Wu, Di; Wang, Jinhui; Xia, Mingrui; He, Yong; Zhang, Zhijun

    2012-03-21

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be conceptualized as a disconnection syndrome. Both remitted geriatric depression (RGD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are associated with a high risk for developing AD. However, little is known about the similarities and differences in the topological patterns of white matter (WM) structural networks between RGD and aMCI. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging and deterministic tractography were used to map the human WM networks of 35 RGD patients, 38 aMCI patients, and 30 healthy subjects. Furthermore, graph theoretical methods were applied to investigate the alterations in the global and regional properties of the WM network in these patients. First, both the RGD and aMCI patients showed abnormal global topology in their WM networks (i.e., reduced network strength, reduced global efficiency, and increased absolute path length) compared with the controls, and there were no significant differences in these global network properties between the patient groups. Second, similar deficits of the regional and connectivity characteristics in the WM networks were primarily found in the frontal brain regions of RGD and aMCI patients compared with the controls, while a different nodal efficiency of the posterior cingulate cortex and several prefrontal brain regions were also observed between the patient groups. Together, our study provides direct evidence for the association of a great majority of convergent and a minority of divergent connectivity of WM structural networks between RGD and aMCI patients, which may lead to increasing attention in defining a population at risk of AD.

  12. ICN_Atlas: Automated description and quantification of functional MRI activation patterns in the framework of intrinsic connectivity networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozák, Lajos R; van Graan, Louis André; Chaudhary, Umair J; Szabó, Ádám György; Lemieux, Louis

    2017-12-01

    Generally, the interpretation of functional MRI (fMRI) activation maps continues to rely on assessing their relationship to anatomical structures, mostly in a qualitative and often subjective way. Recently, the existence of persistent and stable brain networks of functional nature has been revealed; in particular these so-called intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) appear to link patterns of resting state and task-related state connectivity. These networks provide an opportunity of functionally-derived description and interpretation of fMRI maps, that may be especially important in cases where the maps are predominantly task-unrelated, such as studies of spontaneous brain activity e.g. in the case of seizure-related fMRI maps in epilepsy patients or sleep states. Here we present a new toolbox (ICN_Atlas) aimed at facilitating the interpretation of fMRI data in the context of ICN. More specifically, the new methodology was designed to describe fMRI maps in function-oriented, objective and quantitative way using a set of 15 metrics conceived to quantify the degree of 'engagement' of ICNs for any given fMRI-derived statistical map of interest. We demonstrate that the proposed framework provides a highly reliable quantification of fMRI activation maps using a publicly available longitudinal (test-retest) resting-state fMRI dataset. The utility of the ICN_Atlas is also illustrated on a parametric task-modulation fMRI dataset, and on a dataset of a patient who had repeated seizures during resting-state fMRI, confirmed on simultaneously recorded EEG. The proposed ICN_Atlas toolbox is freely available for download at http://icnatlas.com and at http://www.nitrc.org for researchers to use in their fMRI investigations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. From One Pixel to One Earth: Building a Living Atlas in the Cloud to Analyze and Monitor Global Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, D.; Brumby, S. P.; Chartrand, R.; Franco, E.; Keisler, R.; Kelton, T.; Kontgis, C.; Mathis, M.; Raleigh, D.; Rudelis, X.; Skillman, S.; Warren, M. S.; Longbotham, N.

    2016-12-01

    The recent computing performance revolution has driven improvements in sensor, communication, and storage technology. Historical, multi-decadal remote sensing datasets at the petabyte scale are now available in commercial clouds, with new satellite constellations generating petabytes per year of high-resolution imagery with daily global coverage. Cloud computing and storage, combined with recent advances in machine learning and open software, are enabling understanding of the world at an unprecedented scale and detail. We have assembled all available satellite imagery from the USGS Landsat, NASA MODIS, and ESA Sentinel programs, as well as commercial PlanetScope and RapidEye imagery, and have analyzed over 2.8 quadrillion multispectral pixels. We leveraged the commercial cloud to generate a tiled, spatio-temporal mosaic of the Earth for fast iteration and development of new algorithms combining analysis techniques from remote sensing, machine learning, and scalable compute infrastructure. Our data platform enables processing at petabytes per day rates using multi-source data to produce calibrated, georeferenced imagery stacks at desired points in time and space that can be used for pixel level or global scale analysis. We demonstrate our data platform capability by using the European Space Agency's (ESA) published 2006 and 2009 GlobCover 20+ category label maps to train and test a Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) classifier, and generate current self-consistent LCLU maps in Brazil. We train a standard classifier on 2006 GlobCover categories using temporal imagery stacks, and we validate our results on co-registered 2009 Globcover LCLU maps and 2009 imagery. We then extend the derived LCLU model to current imagery stacks to generate an updated, in-season label map. Changes in LCLU labels can now be seamlessly monitored for a given location across the years in order to track, for example, cropland expansion, forest growth, and urban developments. An example of change

  14. Analyzing coastal turbidity under complex terrestrial loads characterized by a 'stress connectivity matrix' with an atmosphere-watershed-coastal ocean coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takahiro; Nadaoka, Kazuo

    2018-04-01

    Atmospheric, watershed and coastal ocean models were integrated to provide a holistic analysis approach for coastal ocean simulation. The coupled model was applied to coastal ocean in the Philippines where terrestrial sediment loads provided from several adjacent watersheds play a major role in influencing coastal turbidity and are partly responsible for the coastal ecosystem degradation. The coupled model was validated using weather and hydrologic measurement to examine its potential applicability. The results revealed that the coastal water quality may be governed by the loads not only from the adjacent watershed but also from the distant watershed via coastal currents. This important feature of the multiple linkages can be quantitatively characterized by a "stress connectivity matrix", which indicates the complex underlying structure of environmental stresses in coastal ocean. The multiple stress connectivity concept shows the potential advantage of the integrated modelling approach for coastal ocean assessment, which may also serve for compensating the lack of measured data especially in tropical basins.

  15. Differential Patterns of Abnormal Activity and Connectivity in the Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry in Bipolar-I and Bipolar-NOS Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Farchione, Tiffany; Diwadkar, Vaibhav; Pruitt, Patrick; Radwan, Jacqueline; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Phillips, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The functioning of neural systems supporting emotion processing and regulation in youth with bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) remains poorly understood. We sought to examine patterns of activity and connectivity in youth with BP-NOS relative to youth with bipolar disorder type I (BP-I) and healthy controls (HC). Method:…

  16. Population genomics meet Lagrangian simulations: Oceanographic patterns and long larval duration ensure connectivity among Paracentrotus lividus populations in the Adriatic and Ionian seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Marta; Schiavina, Marcello; Aglieri, Giorgio; Ben Souissi, Jamila; Boscari, Elisa; Casagrandi, Renato; Chassanite, Aurore; Chiantore, Mariachiara; Congiu, Leonardo; Guarnieri, Giuseppe; Kruschel, Claudia; Macic, Vesna; Marino, Ilaria A M; Papetti, Chiara; Patarnello, Tomaso; Zane, Lorenzo; Melià, Paco

    2017-04-01

    Connectivity between populations influences both their dynamics and the genetic structuring of species. In this study, we explored connectivity patterns of a marine species with long-distance dispersal, the edible common sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus , focusing mainly on the Adriatic-Ionian basins (Central Mediterranean). We applied a multidisciplinary approach integrating population genomics, based on 1,122 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained from 2b-RAD in 275 samples, with Lagrangian simulations performed with a biophysical model of larval dispersal. We detected genetic homogeneity among eight population samples collected in the focal Adriatic-Ionian area, whereas weak but significant differentiation was found with respect to two samples from the Western Mediterranean (France and Tunisia). This result was not affected by the few putative outlier loci identified in our dataset. Lagrangian simulations found a significant potential for larval exchange among the eight Adriatic-Ionian locations, supporting the hypothesis of connectivity of P. lividus populations in this area. A peculiar pattern emerged from the comparison of our results with those obtained from published P. lividus cytochrome b (cytb) sequences, the latter revealing genetic differentiation in the same geographic area despite a smaller sample size and a lower power to detect differences. The comparison with studies conducted using nuclear markers on other species with similar pelagic larval durations in the same Adriatic-Ionian locations indicates species-specific differences in genetic connectivity patterns and warns against generalizing single-species results to the entire community of rocky shore habitats.

  17. Chimera states in networks of logistic maps with hierarchical connectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    zur Bonsen, Alexander; Omelchenko, Iryna; Zakharova, Anna; Schöll, Eckehard

    2018-04-01

    Chimera states are complex spatiotemporal patterns consisting of coexisting domains of coherence and incoherence. We study networks of nonlocally coupled logistic maps and analyze systematically how the dilution of the network links influences the appearance of chimera patterns. The network connectivities are constructed using an iterative Cantor algorithm to generate fractal (hierarchical) connectivities. Increasing the hierarchical level of iteration, we compare the resulting spatiotemporal patterns. We demonstrate that a high clustering coefficient and symmetry of the base pattern promotes chimera states, and asymmetric connectivities result in complex nested chimera patterns.

  18. Habitat landscape pattern and connectivity indices : used at varying spatial scales for harmonized reporting in the EBONE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estreguil, C.; Caudullo, G.; Whitmore, C.

    2012-01-01

    This study is motivated by biodiversity related policy information needs on ecosystem fragmentation and connectivity. The aim is to propose standardized and repeatable methods to characterize ecosystem landscape structure in a harmonized way at varying spatial scales and thematic resolutions

  19. Reef-fish larval dispersal patterns validate no-take marine reserve network connectivity that links human communities

    KAUST Repository

    Abesamis, Rene A.; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Berumen, Michael L.; Bode, Michael; Jadloc, Claro Renato L.; Solera, Leilani A.; Villanoy, Cesar L.; Bernardo, Lawrence Patrick C.; Alcala, Angel C.; Russ, Garry R.

    2017-01-01

    Networks of no-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are a widely advocated strategy for managing coral reefs. However, uncertainty about the strength of population connectivity between individual reefs and NTMRs through larval dispersal remains a major

  20. Connectivity patterns and early life history of the black-faced blenny Tripterygion delaisi (Cadenat and Blache, 1970)

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Farahnaz Nissa

    2015-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Ciências do Mar, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, 2015 An understanding of population connectivity and the scale of larval dispersal is essential for designing management and conservation plans for meta-population dynamics, fisheries, and biodiversity reserves. In demersal reef fish that are relatively sedentary as adults, connectivity tends to occur via the pelagic larval phase. This pelagic larval phase, which is variable in duration, is ...

  1. Altered patterns of directed connectivity within the reading network of dyslexic children and their relation to reading dysfluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojko Žarić

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reading is a complex cognitive skill subserved by a distributed network of visual and language-related regions. Disruptions of connectivity within this network have been associated with developmental dyslexia but their relation to individual differences in the severity of reading problems remains unclear. Here we investigate whether dysfunctional connectivity scales with the level of reading dysfluency by examining EEG recordings during visual word and false font processing in 9-year-old typically reading children (TR and two groups of dyslexic children: severely dysfluent (SDD and moderately dysfluent (MDD dyslexics. Results indicated weaker occipital to inferior-temporal connectivity for words in both dyslexic groups relative to TRs. Furthermore, SDDs exhibited stronger connectivity from left central to right inferior-temporal and occipital sites for words relative to TRs, and for false fonts relative to both MDDs and TRs. Importantly, reading fluency was positively related with forward and negatively with backward connectivity. Our results suggest disrupted visual processing of words in both dyslexic groups, together with a compensatory recruitment of right posterior brain regions especially in the SDDs during word and false font processing. Functional connectivity in the brain’s reading network may thus depend on the level of reading dysfluency beyond group differences between dyslexic and typical readers.

  2. Atmospheric Circulation Patterns over East Asia and Their Connection with Summer Precipitation and Surface Air Temperature in Eastern China during 1961-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuping; Hou, Wei; Feng, Guolin

    2018-04-01

    Based on the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and Chinese observational data during 1961-2013, atmospheric circulation patterns over East Asia in summer and their connection with precipitation and surface air temperature in eastern China as well as associated external forcing are investigated. Three patterns of the atmospheric circulation are identified, all with quasi-barotropic structures: (1) the East Asia/Pacific (EAP) pattern, (2) the Baikal Lake/Okhotsk Sea (BLOS) pattern, and (3) the eastern China/northern Okhotsk Sea (ECNOS) pattern. The positive EAP pattern significantly increases precipitation over the Yangtze River valley and favors cooling north of the Yangtze River and warming south of the Yangtze River in summer. The warm sea surface temperature anomalies over the tropical Indian Ocean suppress convection over the northwestern subtropical Pacific through the Ekman divergence induced by a Kelvin wave and excite the EAP pattern. The positive BLOS pattern is associated with below-average precipitation south of the Yangtze River and robust cooling over northeastern China. This pattern is triggered by anomalous spring sea ice concentration in the northern Barents Sea. The anomalous sea ice concentration contributes to a Rossby wave activity flux originating from the Greenland Sea, which propagates eastward to North Pacific. The positive ECNOS pattern leads to below-average precipitation and significant warming over northeastern China in summer. The reduced soil moisture associated with the earlier spring snowmelt enhances surface warming over Mongolia and northeastern China and the later spring snowmelt leads to surface cooling over Far East in summer, both of which are responsible for the formation of the ECNOS pattern.

  3. Toxicity and Detoxification Effects of Herbal Caowu via Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Metabolomics Analyzed using Pattern Recognition Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Zhang, Aihua; Dong, Hui; Yan, Guangli; Sun, Hui; Wu, Xiuhong; Han, Ying; Wang, Xijun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Caowu (Radix Aconiti kusnezoffii, CW), the root of Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb., has widely used clinically in rheumatic arthritis, painful joints, and tumors for thousands of years. However, the toxicity of heart and central nervous system induced by CW still limited the application. Materials and Methods: Metabolomics was performed to identify the sensitive and reliable biomarkers and to characterize the phenotypically biochemical perturbations and potential mechanisms of CW-induced toxicity, and the detoxification by combinatorial intervention of CW with Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae) (CG), Baishao (Radix Paeoniae Alba) (CB), and Renshen (Radix Ginseng) (CR) was also analyzed by pattern recognition methods. Results: As a result, the metabolites were characterized and responsible for pentose and glucuronate interconversions, tryptophan metabolism, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, fructose and mannose metabolism, and starch and sucrose metabolism, six networks of which were the same to the metabolic pathways of Chuanwu (Radix Aconiti, CHW) group. The ascorbate and aldarate metabolism was also characterized by CW group. The urinary metabolomics also revealed CW-induced serious toxicity to heart and liver. Thirteen significant metabolites were identified and had validated as phenotypic toxicity biomarkers of CW, five biomarkers of which were commonly owned in Aconitum. The changes of toxicity metabolites obtained from combinatorial intervention of CG, CB, and CR also were analyzed to investigate the regulation degree of toxicity biomarkers adjusted by different combinatorial interventions at 6th month. Conclusion: Metabolomics analyses coupled with pattern recognition methods in the evaluation of drug toxicity and finding detoxification methods were highlighted in this work. SUMMARY Metabolomics was performed to characterize the biochemical potential mechanisms of Caowu toxicityThirteen significant metabolites

  4. Ventromedial hypothalamic expression of Bdnf is required to establish normal patterns of afferent GABAergic connectivity and responses to hypoglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kamitakahara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH controls energy and glucose homeostasis through direct connections to a distributed network of nuclei in the hypothalamus, midbrain, and hindbrain. Structural changes in VMH circuit morphology have the potential to alter VMH function throughout life, however, molecular signals responsible for specifying its neural connections are not fully defined. The VMH contains a high density of neurons that express brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a potent neurodevelopmental effector known to regulate neuronal survival, growth, differentiation, and connectivity in a number of neural systems. In the current study, we examined whether BDNF impacts the afferent and efferent connections of the VMH, as well as energy homeostatic function. Methods: To determine if BDNF is required for VMH circuit formation, a transgenic mouse model was used to conditionally delete Bdnf from steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1 expressing neurons of the VMH prior to the onset of establishing neural connections with other regions. Projections of SF1 expressing neurons were visualized with a genetically targeted fluorescent label and immunofluorescence was used to measure the density of afferents to SF1 neurons in the absence of BDNF. Physiological changes in body weight and circulating blood glucose were also evaluated in the mutant mice. Results: Our findings suggest that BDNF is required to establish normal densities of GABAergic afferents onto SF1 neurons located in the ventrolateral part of the VMH. Furthermore, loss of BDNF from VMH SF1 neurons results in impaired physiological responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that BDNF is required for formation and/or maintenance of inhibitory inputs to SF1 neurons, with enduring effects on glycemic control. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus

  5. Using Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing Data to Analyze the Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Dry Season Rice Production in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shew, A. M.; Ghosh, A.

    2017-10-01

    Remote sensing in the optical domain is widely used in agricultural monitoring; however, such initiatives pose a challenge for developing countries due to a lack of high quality in situ information. Our proposed methodology could help developing countries bridge this gap by demonstrating the potential to quantify patterns of dry season rice production in Bangladesh. To analyze approximately 90,000 km2 of cultivated land in Bangladesh at 30 m spatial resolution, we used two decades of remote sensing data from the Landsat archive and Google Earth Engine (GEE), a cloud-based geospatial data analysis platform built on Google infrastructure and capable of processing petabyte-scale remote sensing data. We reconstructed the seasonal patterns of vegetation indices (VIs) for each pixel using a harmonic time series (HTS) model, which minimizes the effects of missing observations and noise. Next, we combined the seasonality information of VIs with our knowledge of rice cultivation systems in Bangladesh to delineate rice areas in the dry season, which are predominantly hybrid and High Yielding Varieties (HYV). Based on historical Landsat imagery, the harmonic time series of vegetation indices (HTS-VIs) model estimated 4.605 million ha, 3.519 million ha, and 4.021 million ha of rice production for Bangladesh in 2005, 2010, and 2015 respectively. Fine spatial scale information on HYV rice over the last 20 years will greatly improve our understanding of double-cropped rice systems, current status of production, and potential for HYV rice adoption in Bangladesh during the dry season.

  6. Temporal and spatial patterns of wetland extent influence variability of surface water connectivity in the Prairie Pothole Region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Alexander, Laurie C.; Todd, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Context. Quantifying variability in landscape-scale surface water connectivity can help improve our understanding of the multiple effects of wetlands on downstream waterways. Objectives. We examined how wetland merging and the coalescence of wetlands with streams varied both spatially (among ecoregions) and interannually (from drought to deluge) across parts of the Prairie Pothole Region. Methods. Wetland extent was derived over a time series (1990-2011) using Landsat imagery. Changes in landscape-scale connectivity, generated by the physical coalescence of wetlands with other surface water features, were quantified by fusing static wetland and stream datasets with Landsat-derived wetland extent maps, and related to multiple wetness indices. The usage of Landsat allows for decadal-scale analysis, but limits the types of surface water connections that can be detected. Results. Wetland extent correlated positively with the merging of wetlands and wetlands with streams. Wetness conditions, as defined by drought indices and runoff, were positively correlated with wetland extent, but less consistently correlated with measures of surface water connectivity. The degree of wetland-wetland merging was found to depend less on total wetland area or density, and more on climate conditions, as well as the threshold for how wetland/upland was defined. In contrast, the merging of wetlands with streams was positively correlated with stream density, and inversely related to wetland density. Conclusions. Characterizing the degree of surface water connectivity within the Prairie Pothole Region in North America requires consideration of 1) climate-driven variation in wetness conditions and 2) within-region variation in wetland and stream spatial arrangements.

  7. Analyzing the effects of urban expansion on land surface temperature patterns by landscape metrics: a case study of Isfahan city, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanian, Maliheh; Soffianian, Ali Reza; Koupai, Saeid Soltani; Pourmanafi, Saeid; Momeni, Mehdi

    2018-03-03

    Urban expansion can cause extensive changes in land use and land cover (LULC), leading to changes in temperature conditions. Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the key parameters that should be considered in the study of urban temperature conditions. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effects of changes in LULC due to the expansion of the city of Isfahan on LST using landscape metrics. To this aim, two Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images, which had been acquired, respectively, on August 2, 1985, and July 4, 2015, were used. The support vector machine method was then used to classify the images. The results showed that Isfahan city had been encountered with an increase of impervious surfaces; in fact, this class covered 15% of the total area in 1985, while this value had been increased to 30% in 2015. Then LST zoning maps were created, indicating that the bare land and impervious surfaces categories were dominant in high temperature zones, while in the zones where water was present or NDVI was high, LST was low. Then, the landscape metrics in each of the LST zones were analyzed in relation to the LULC changes, showing that LULC changes due to urban expansion changed such landscape properties as the percentage of landscape, patch density, large patch index, and aggregation index. This information could be beneficial for urban planners to monitor and manage changes in the LULC patterns.

  8. A bioinformatics prediction approach towards analyzing the glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA/MUC1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalra, Rajkumar S., E-mail: renu-wadhwa@aist.go.jp; Wadhwa, Renu, E-mail: renu-wadhwa@aist.go.jp [Cell Proliferation Research Group and DBT-AIST International Laboratory for Advanced Biomedicine, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST Central 4), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA or MUC1) is a heavily glycosylated, type I transmembrane glycoprotein commonly expressed by epithelial cells of duct organs. It has been shown to be aberrantly glycosylated in several diseases including cancer. Protein sequence based annotation and analysis of glycosylation profile of glycoproteins by robust computational and comprehensive algorithms provides possible insights to the mechanism(s) of anomalous glycosylation. In present report, by using a number of bioinformatics applications we studied EMA/MUC1 and explored its trans-membrane structural domain sequence that is widely subjected to glycosylation. Exploration of different extracellular motifs led to prediction of N and O-linked glycosylation target sites. Based on the putative O-linked target sites, glycosylated moieties and pathways were envisaged. Furthermore, Protein network analysis demonstrated physical interaction of EMA with a number of proteins and confirmed its functional involvement in cell growth and proliferation pathways. Gene Ontology analysis suggested an involvement of EMA in a number of functions including signal transduction, protein binding, processing and transport along with glycosylation. Thus, present study explored potential of bioinformatics prediction approach in analyzing glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of EMA/MUC1 glycoprotein.

  9. A bioinformatics prediction approach towards analyzing the glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA/MUC1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalra, Rajkumar S.; Wadhwa, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA or MUC1) is a heavily glycosylated, type I transmembrane glycoprotein commonly expressed by epithelial cells of duct organs. It has been shown to be aberrantly glycosylated in several diseases including cancer. Protein sequence based annotation and analysis of glycosylation profile of glycoproteins by robust computational and comprehensive algorithms provides possible insights to the mechanism(s) of anomalous glycosylation. In present report, by using a number of bioinformatics applications we studied EMA/MUC1 and explored its trans-membrane structural domain sequence that is widely subjected to glycosylation. Exploration of different extracellular motifs led to prediction of N and O-linked glycosylation target sites. Based on the putative O-linked target sites, glycosylated moieties and pathways were envisaged. Furthermore, Protein network analysis demonstrated physical interaction of EMA with a number of proteins and confirmed its functional involvement in cell growth and proliferation pathways. Gene Ontology analysis suggested an involvement of EMA in a number of functions including signal transduction, protein binding, processing and transport along with glycosylation. Thus, present study explored potential of bioinformatics prediction approach in analyzing glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of EMA/MUC1 glycoprotein

  10. Intervessel connectivity and relationship with patterns of lateral water exchange within and between xylem sectors in seven xeric shrubs from the great Sahara desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halis, Youcef; Mayouf, Rabah; Benhaddya, Mohamed Lamine; Belhamra, Mohamed

    2013-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the role of intervessel contacts in determining the patterns of hydraulic integration both within and between xylem sectors. The degree of intervessel contacts and the lateral exchange capability within and between sectors were examined and correlated in different xeric shrubs. A dye injection method was used to detect the connections between vessels; an apoplastic dye was sucked through a known number of vessels and its distribution in the xylem network was followed. Hydraulic techniques were used to measure axial and tangential conductivity both within and between xylem sectors. The intra- and inter-sector integration indexes were then determined as the ratio of tangential to axial conductance. Species differed significantly in the degree of intervessel contacts, intra- and inter-sector integration index. In all cases, hydraulic integration was observed to be higher within sector than between sectors. From the correlation analyses, the intervessel contacts showed a very weak relationship with inter-sector integration index and a strong positive relationship with intra-sector integration index. Results suggested that (1) the factors affecting patterns of lateral flow within xylem sectors might be relatively different from those between sectors. (2) The degree of intervessel contacts was a major determinant of hydraulic integration within the same xylem sector. (3) Intervessel connectivity alone was a poor predictor of hydraulic integration between different sectors, implying a significant contribution of other anatomical, physiological and environmental factors in determining the patterns of integrated-sectored transport within woody stems.

  11. Reef-fish larval dispersal patterns validate no-take marine reserve network connectivity that links human communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abesamis, Rene A.; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Berumen, Michael L.; Bode, Michael; Jadloc, Claro Renato L.; Solera, Leilani A.; Villanoy, Cesar L.; Bernardo, Lawrence Patrick C.; Alcala, Angel C.; Russ, Garry R.

    2017-09-01

    Networks of no-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are a widely advocated strategy for managing coral reefs. However, uncertainty about the strength of population connectivity between individual reefs and NTMRs through larval dispersal remains a major obstacle to effective network design. In this study, larval dispersal among NTMRs and fishing grounds in the Philippines was inferred by conducting genetic parentage analysis on a coral-reef fish ( Chaetodon vagabundus). Adult and juvenile fish were sampled intensively in an area encompassing approximately 90 km of coastline. Thirty-seven true parent-offspring pairs were accepted after screening 1978 juveniles against 1387 adults. The data showed all types of dispersal connections that may occur in NTMR networks, with assignments suggesting connectivity among NTMRs and fishing grounds ( n = 35) far outnumbering those indicating self-recruitment ( n = 2). Critically, half (51%) of the inferred occurrences of larval dispersal linked reefs managed by separate, independent municipalities and constituent villages, emphasising the need for nested collaborative management arrangements across management units to sustain NTMR networks. Larval dispersal appeared to be influenced by wind-driven seasonal reversals in the direction of surface currents. The best-fit larval dispersal kernel estimated from the parentage data predicted that 50% of larvae originating from a population would attempt to settle within 33 km, and 95% within 83 km. Mean larval dispersal distance was estimated to be 36.5 km. These results suggest that creating a network of closely spaced (less than a few tens of km apart) NTMRs can enhance recruitment for protected and fished populations throughout the NTMR network. The findings underscore major challenges for regional coral-reef management initiatives that must be addressed with priority: (1) strengthening management of NTMR networks across political or customary boundaries; and (2) achieving adequate population

  12. Effects of Chronic Sleep Restriction during Early Adolescence on the Adult Pattern of Connectivity of Mouse Secondary Motor Cortex123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeh, Yazan N.; Bernard, Amy; de Vivo, Luisa; Honjoh, Sakiko; Mihalas, Stefan; Ng, Lydia; Koch, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cortical circuits mature in stages, from early synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning to late synaptic refinement, resulting in the adult anatomical connection matrix. Because the mature matrix is largely fixed, genetic or environmental factors interfering with its establishment can have irreversible effects. Sleep disruption is rarely considered among those factors, and previous studies have focused on very young animals and the acute effects of sleep deprivation on neuronal morphology and cortical plasticity. Adolescence is a sensitive time for brain remodeling, yet whether chronic sleep restriction (CSR) during adolescence has long-term effects on brain connectivity remains unclear. We used viral-mediated axonal labeling and serial two-photon tomography to measure brain-wide projections from secondary motor cortex (MOs), a high-order area with diffuse projections. For each MOs target, we calculated the projection fraction, a combined measure of passing fibers and axonal terminals normalized for the size of each target. We found no homogeneous differences in MOs projection fraction between mice subjected to 5 days of CSR during early adolescence (P25–P30, ≥50% decrease in daily sleep, n=14) and siblings that slept undisturbed (n=14). Machine learning algorithms, however, classified animals at significantly above chance levels, indicating that differences between the two groups exist, but are subtle and heterogeneous. Thus, sleep disruption in early adolescence may affect adult brain connectivity. However, because our method relies on a global measure of projection density and was not previously used to measure connectivity changes due to behavioral manipulations, definitive conclusions on the long-term structural effects of early CSR require additional experiments. PMID:27351022

  13. Reef-fish larval dispersal patterns validate no-take marine reserve network connectivity that links human communities

    KAUST Repository

    Abesamis, Rene A.

    2017-03-24

    Networks of no-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are a widely advocated strategy for managing coral reefs. However, uncertainty about the strength of population connectivity between individual reefs and NTMRs through larval dispersal remains a major obstacle to effective network design. In this study, larval dispersal among NTMRs and fishing grounds in the Philippines was inferred by conducting genetic parentage analysis on a coral-reef fish (Chaetodon vagabundus). Adult and juvenile fish were sampled intensively in an area encompassing approximately 90 km of coastline. Thirty-seven true parent-offspring pairs were accepted after screening 1978 juveniles against 1387 adults. The data showed all types of dispersal connections that may occur in NTMR networks, with assignments suggesting connectivity among NTMRs and fishing grounds (n = 35) far outnumbering those indicating self-recruitment (n = 2). Critically, half (51%) of the inferred occurrences of larval dispersal linked reefs managed by separate, independent municipalities and constituent villages, emphasising the need for nested collaborative management arrangements across management units to sustain NTMR networks. Larval dispersal appeared to be influenced by wind-driven seasonal reversals in the direction of surface currents. The best-fit larval dispersal kernel estimated from the parentage data predicted that 50% of larvae originating from a population would attempt to settle within 33 km, and 95% within 83 km. Mean larval dispersal distance was estimated to be 36.5 km. These results suggest that creating a network of closely spaced (less than a few tens of km apart) NTMRs can enhance recruitment for protected and fished populations throughout the NTMR network. The findings underscore major challenges for regional coral-reef management initiatives that must be addressed with priority: (1) strengthening management of NTMR networks across political or customary boundaries; and (2) achieving adequate population

  14. Connecting Self-Esteem and Achievement: Diversity in Academic Identification and Dis-Identification Patterns among Black College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Elan C.; Chavous, Tabbye M.; Jagers, Robert J.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Using a person-oriented approach, we explored patterns of self-esteem and achievement among 324 Black college students across the freshman college year and identified four academic identification profiles. Multivariate analyses revealed profile differences in academic and psychological outcomes at beginning and end of freshman year (academic…

  15. Transient analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The design and design philosophy of a high performance, extremely versatile transient analyzer is described. This sub-system was designed to be controlled through the data acquisition computer system which allows hands off operation. Thus it may be placed on the experiment side of the high voltage safety break between the experimental device and the control room. This analyzer provides control features which are extremely useful for data acquisition from PPPL diagnostics. These include dynamic sample rate changing, which may be intermixed with multiple post trigger operations with variable length blocks using normal, peak to peak or integrate modes. Included in the discussion are general remarks on the advantages of adding intelligence to transient analyzers, a detailed description of the characteristics of the PPPL transient analyzer, a description of the hardware, firmware, control language and operation of the PPPL transient analyzer, and general remarks on future trends in this type of instrumentation both at PPPL and in general

  16. Activation and connectivity patterns of the presupplementary and dorsal premotor areas during free improvisation of melodies and rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Manzano, Örjan; Ullén, Fredrik

    2012-10-15

    Free, i.e. non-externally cued generation of movement sequences is fundamental to human behavior. We have earlier hypothesized that the dorsal premotor cortex (PMD), which has been consistently implicated in cognitive aspects of planning and selection of spatial motor sequences may be particularly important for the free generation of spatial movement sequences, whereas the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), which shows increased activation during perception, learning and reproduction of temporal sequences, may contribute more to the generation of temporal structures. Here we test this hypothesis using fMRI and musical improvisation in professional pianists as a model behavior. We employed a 2 × 2 factorial design with the factors Melody (Specified/Improvised) and Rhythm (Specified/Improvised). The main effect analyses partly confirmed our hypothesis: there was a main effect of Melody in the PMD; the pre-SMA was present in the main effect of Rhythm, as predicted, as well as in the main effect of Melody. A psychophysiological interaction analysis of functional connectivity demonstrated that the correlation in activity between the pre-SMA and cerebellum was higher during rhythmic improvisation than during the other conditions. In summary, there were only subtle differences in activity level between the pre-SMA and PMD during improvisation, regardless of condition. Consequently, the free generation of rhythmic and melodic structures, appears to be largely integrated processes but the functional connectivity between premotor areas and other regions may change during free generation in response to sequence-specific spatiotemporal demands. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Home-range use patterns and movements of the Siberian flying squirrel in urban forests: Effects of habitat composition and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkeläinen, Sanna; de Knegt, Henrik J; Ovaskainen, Otso; Hanski, Ilpo K

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization causes modification, fragmentation and loss of native habitats. Such landscape changes threaten many arboreal and gliding mammals by limiting their movements through treeless parts of a landscape and by making the landscape surrounding suitable habitat patches more inhospitable. Here, we investigate the effects of landscape structure and habitat availability on the home-range use and movement patterns of the Siberian flying squirrel (Pteromys volans) at different spatial and temporal scales. We followed radio-tagged individuals in a partly urbanized study area in Eastern Finland, and analysed how landscape composition and connectivity affected the length and speed of movement bursts, distances moved during one night, and habitat and nest-site use. The presence of urban habitat on movement paths increased both movement lengths and speed whereas nightly distances travelled by males decreased with increasing amount of urban habitat within the home range. The probability of switching from the present nest site to another nest site decreased with increasing distance among the nest sites, but whether the nest sites were connected or unconnected by forests did not have a clear effect on nest switching. Flying squirrels preferred to use mature forests for their movements at night. Our results suggest that the proximity to urban habitats modifies animal movements, possibly because animals try to avoid such habitats by moving faster through them. Urbanization at the scale of an entire home range can restrict their movements. Thus, maintaining a large enough amount of mature forests around inhabited landscape fragments will help protect forest specialists in urban landscapes. The effect of forested connections remains unclear, highlighting the difficulty of measuring and preserving connectivity in a species-specific way.

  18. Spatial Patterns of Variability in Antarctic Surface Temperature: Connections to the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode and the Southern Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Ron; Comiso, Josefino C.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The 17-year (1982-1998) trend in surface temperature shows a general cooling over the Antarctic continent, warming of the sea ice zone, with moderate changes over the oceans. Warming of the peripheral seas is associated with negative trends in the regional sea ice extent. Effects of the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode (SAM) and the extrapolar Southern Oscillation (SO) on surface temperature are quantified through regression analysis. Positive polarities of the SAM are associated with cold anomalies over most of Antarctica, with the most notable exception of the Antarctic Peninsula. Positive temperature anomalies and ice edge retreat in the Pacific sector are associated with El Nino episodes. Over the past two decades, the drift towards high polarity in the SAM and negative polarity in the SO indices couple to produce a spatial pattern with warmer temperatures in the Antarctic Peninsula and peripheral seas, and cooler temperatures over much of East Antarctica.

  19. Modelling hydrological connectivity in semi-arid flat areas: effect of the flow accumulation algorithm on the spatial pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Álvarez, Sara

    2017-04-01

    Much of the water and sediment fluxes in semi-arid landscapes are found to be concentrated in localized pathways. Identifying the location of these pathways is important for management and restoration. This task becomes more complicated in flat areas, such as alluvial terraces, where geomorphic features of concentrated overland flow (rills and ephemeral gullies) are scarce or inexistent. Field identification of sediment delivery pathways as well as depositional areas is also difficult and challenged. The concept of hydrological connectivity (HC) helps us to express the complexity of landscape non-linear responses to rainfall inputs. One of the unsolved issues in overland flow modelling studies is the choice of the right flow accumulation algorithm (FAA). There is an abundant literature on runoff generation under semi-arid conditions, and relating HC and land use management and changes. However, we found a scientific gap in the literature focussed on modelling of HC in flat areas under semi-arid conditions. This study aims to fill in this gap by modelling HC in alluvial terraces (28 ha) in NE Spain under semi-arid conditions (342 mm / year), mainly devoted to rain-fed cereal fields, by using eight FAA. For this purpose, we applied a modified version of the Borselli's index of runoff and sediment connectivity (IC). The study area includes seven fields on flat alluvial terraces, three fields on a gentle slope, small patches of scrubland, and twelve grass buffer strips that are located between each set of fields. Gentle and flat areas (S drone (model eBee by senseFly Ltd.). In order to minimize the effect of the vegetation on the photogrammetry restitution technique, pictures were taken in early spring, before the growth of the cereals. Then, several DEMs were generated independently. For this study, we chose the DEM at 0.5 x 0.5 m of spatial resolution. Before running the IC model, the continuity of the flow path lines throughout the landscape was ensured by removing

  20. Tropical Cyclone Track Convergence Patterns, Arctic Sea-Ice Loss, and Superstorm Sandy: Is There a Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. C.; Francis, J. A.; Byrne, J. M.; Graham, J. R.; McDaniel, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    The potential for disruption to populations and food production due to global climate change will be catastrophic in some regions. Among the most vulnerable regions are those impacted by intensifying or changing tropical cyclones (TC). The objective of this research is to identify historical trends in TC tracks and regional circulation patterns that may forecast increasing risks due to TC intensification under global climate warming. We carry out spatial and temporal analysis of the 1979 - 2011 International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) historical hurricane database. The data were divided into several subsets to allow analysis of trend in: (i) early (JJAS) and late (OND) seasonal trends; and (ii) multi-year intervals (1979-95 and 1996-2011) to differentiate possible long term trends, if any. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) overlay analysis of the IBTrACS 64 knot hurricane wind radii data identified varying levels of historical tropical cyclone track convergence in the North Atlantic (NA) basin. Results of the track convergence analysis provide a first order analysis regarding changing potential population vulnerabilities due to changing seasonal or long-term tropical cyclone activity. During the summer of 2012, the amount of sea ice on the Arctic Ocean was diminished to about half of its normal extent and 25% of its normal volume relative to the nearly steady conditions that existed before the 1980s. This record loss continues an inexorable decline observed during recent decades. The dramatic increase in open water allows much more solar energy absorption at high latitude. Most of this extra heat returns to the atmosphere in autumn, contributing to the Arctic's rate of warming; exceeding that of mid-latitudes by a factor of two to three, a phenomenon called Arctic Amplification (AA). During October 2012, prior to the arrival of Superstorm Sandy along the eastern seaboard, AA was particularly strong, resulting in a substantial

  1. Radiometric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, S.; Oda, M.; Miyashita, K.; Takada, M.

    1977-01-01

    A radiometric analyzer for measuring the characteristic values of a sample by radiation includes a humer of radiation measuring subsystems having different ratios of sensitivities to the elements of the sample and linearizing circuits having inverse function characteristics of calibration functions which correspond to the radiation measuring subsystems. A weighing adder operates a desirable linear combination of the outputs of the linearizing circuits. Operators for operating between two or more different linear combinations are included

  2. Migratory connectivity of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus: patterns of spring re-colonization in eastern North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan G Miller

    Full Text Available Each year, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus migrate up to 3000 km from their overwintering grounds in central Mexico to breed in eastern North America. Malcolm et al. (1993 articulated two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses to explain how Monarchs re-colonize North America each spring. The 'successive brood' hypothesis proposes that monarchs migrate from Mexico to the Gulf Coast, lay eggs and die, leaving northern re-colonization of the breeding range to subsequent generations. The 'single sweep' hypothesis proposes that overwintering monarchs continue to migrate northward after arriving on the Gulf coast and may reach the northern portion of the breeding range, laying eggs along the way. To examine these hypotheses, we sampled monarchs throughout the northern breeding range and combined stable-hydrogen isotopes (δD to estimate natal origin with wing wear scores to differentiate between individuals born in the current vs. previous year. Similar to Malcolm et al. (1993, we found that the majority of the northern breeding range was re-colonized by the first generation of monarchs (90%. We also estimated that a small number of individuals (10% originated directly from Mexico and, therefore adopted a sweep strategy. Contrary to Malcolm et al. (1993, we found that 62% of monarchs sampled in the Great Lakes originated from the Central U.S., suggesting that this region is important for sustaining production in the northern breeding areas. Our results provide new evidence of re-colonization patterns in monarchs and contribute important information towards identifying productive breeding regions of this unique migratory insect.

  3. OpenNFT: An open-source Python/Matlab framework for real-time fMRI neurofeedback training based on activity, connectivity and multivariate pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koush, Yury; Ashburner, John; Prilepin, Evgeny; Sladky, Ronald; Zeidman, Peter; Bibikov, Sergei; Scharnowski, Frank; Nikonorov, Artem; De Ville, Dimitri Van

    2017-08-01

    Neurofeedback based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) is a novel and rapidly developing research field. It allows for training of voluntary control over localized brain activity and connectivity and has demonstrated promising clinical applications. Because of the rapid technical developments of MRI techniques and the availability of high-performance computing, new methodological advances in rt-fMRI neurofeedback become possible. Here we outline the core components of a novel open-source neurofeedback framework, termed Open NeuroFeedback Training (OpenNFT), which efficiently integrates these new developments. This framework is implemented using Python and Matlab source code to allow for diverse functionality, high modularity, and rapid extendibility of the software depending on the user's needs. In addition, it provides an easy interface to the functionality of Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) that is also open-source and one of the most widely used fMRI data analysis software. We demonstrate the functionality of our new framework by describing case studies that include neurofeedback protocols based on brain activity levels, effective connectivity models, and pattern classification approaches. This open-source initiative provides a suitable framework to actively engage in the development of novel neurofeedback approaches, so that local methodological developments can be easily made accessible to a wider range of users. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Theoretical Approach to Analyze the Parametric Influence on Spatial Patterns of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A G; Godoy, W A C

    2017-06-01

    Studies of the influence of biological parameters on the spatial distribution of lepidopteran insects can provide useful information for managing agricultural pests, since the larvae of many species cause serious impacts on crops. Computational models to simulate the spatial dynamics of insect populations are increasingly used, because of their efficiency in representing insect movement. In this study, we used a cellular automata model to explore different patterns of population distribution of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), when the values of two biological parameters that are able to influence the spatial pattern (larval viability and adult longevity) are varied. We mapped the spatial patterns observed as the parameters varied. Additionally, by using population data for S. frugiperda obtained in different hosts under laboratory conditions, we were able to describe the expected spatial patterns occurring in corn, cotton, millet, and soybean crops based on the parameters varied. The results are discussed from the perspective of insect ecology and pest management. We concluded that computational approaches can be important tools to study the relationship between the biological parameters and spatial distributions of lepidopteran insect pests.

  5. Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Clayton; Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake

    2010-01-01

    Water is in high demand for farmers regardless of where you go. Unfortunately, farmers in southern Florida have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. There is an interest by the agricultural community about the effect weather has on usable surface water, however, research into viable weather patterns during La Nina and El Nino has yet to be researched. Using rainfall accumulation data from NASA Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite, this project s purpose was to assess the influence of El Nino and La Nina Oscillations on sea breeze thunderstorm patterns, as well as general rainfall patterns during the summer season in South Florida. Through this research we were able to illustrate the spatial and temporal variations in rainfall accumulation for each oscillation in relation to major agricultural areas. The study period for this project is from 1998, when TRMM was first launched, to 2009. Since sea breezes in Florida typically occur in the months of May through October, these months were chosen to be the months of the study. During this time, there were five periods of El Nino and two periods of La Nina, with a neutral period separating each oscillation. In order to eliminate rainfall from systems other than sea breeze thunderstorms, only days that were conducive to the development of a sea breeze front were selected.

  6. Analyzing the Social Knowledge Construction Behavioral Patterns of an Online Synchronous Collaborative Discussion Instructional Activity Using an Instant Messaging Tool: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huei-Tse; Wu, Sheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Online discussions have been widely utilized as an educational activity, and much research has been conducted on the process and behaviors involved in asynchronous discussions. However, research on behavioral patterns in learners' synchronous discussions, including the process of social knowledge construction and project coordination is limited.…

  7. Contamination Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  8. Neural activation patterns and connectivity in visual attention during Number and Non-number processing: An ERP study using the Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marri, Faraj; Reza, Faruque; Begum, Tahamina; Hitam, Wan Hazabbah Wan; Jin, Goh Khean; Xiang, Jing

    2017-10-25

    Visual cognitive function is important to build up executive function in daily life. Perception of visual Number form (e.g., Arabic digit) and numerosity (magnitude of the Number) is of interest to cognitive neuroscientists. Neural correlates and the functional measurement of Number representations are complex occurrences when their semantic categories are assimilated with other concepts of shape and colour. Colour perception can be processed further to modulate visual cognition. The Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates are one of the best and most common screening tools for basic red-green colour vision testing. However, there is a lack of study of visual cognitive function assessment using these pseudoisochromatic plates. We recruited 25 healthy normal trichromat volunteers and extended these studies using a 128-sensor net to record event-related EEG. Subjects were asked to respond by pressing Numbered buttons when they saw the Number and Non-number plates of the Ishihara colour vision test. Amplitudes and latencies of N100 and P300 event related potential (ERP) components were analysed from 19 electrode sites in the international 10-20 system. A brain topographic map, cortical activation patterns and Granger causation (effective connectivity) were analysed from 128 electrode sites. No major significant differences between N100 ERP components in either stimulus indicate early selective attention processing was similar for Number and Non-number plate stimuli, but Non-number plate stimuli evoked significantly higher amplitudes, longer latencies of the P300 ERP component with a slower reaction time compared to Number plate stimuli imply the allocation of attentional load was more in Non-number plate processing. A different pattern of asymmetric scalp voltage map was noticed for P300 components with a higher intensity in the left hemisphere for Number plate tasks and higher intensity in the right hemisphere for Non-number plate tasks. Asymmetric cortical activation

  9. CMS Connect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcas, J.; Bockelman, B.; Gardner, R., Jr.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jayatilaka, B.; Aftab Khan, F.; Lannon, K.; Larson, K.; Letts, J.; Marra Da Silva, J.; Mascheroni, M.; Mason, D.; Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Tiradani, A.

    2017-10-01

    The CMS experiment collects and analyzes large amounts of data coming from high energy particle collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. This involves a huge amount of real and simulated data processing that needs to be handled in batch-oriented platforms. The CMS Global Pool of computing resources provide +100K dedicated CPU cores and another 50K to 100K CPU cores from opportunistic resources for these kind of tasks and even though production and event processing analysis workflows are already managed by existing tools, there is still a lack of support to submit final stage condor-like analysis jobs familiar to Tier-3 or local Computing Facilities users into these distributed resources in an integrated (with other CMS services) and friendly way. CMS Connect is a set of computing tools and services designed to augment existing services in the CMS Physics community focusing on these kind of condor analysis jobs. It is based on the CI-Connect platform developed by the Open Science Grid and uses the CMS GlideInWMS infrastructure to transparently plug CMS global grid resources into a virtual pool accessed via a single submission machine. This paper describes the specific developments and deployment of CMS Connect beyond the CI-Connect platform in order to integrate the service with CMS specific needs, including specific Site submission, accounting of jobs and automated reporting to standard CMS monitoring resources in an effortless way to their users.

  10. A high performance P(VDF-TrFE) nanogenerator with self-connected and vertically integrated fibers by patterned EHD pulling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoliang; Tian, Hongmiao; Li, Xiangming; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng; An, Ningli; Zhou, Yaopei

    2015-07-01

    Piezoelectricity based energy harvesting from mechanical vibrations has attracted extensive attention for its potential application in powering wireless mobile electronics recently. Here, a patterned electrohydrodynamic (EHD) pulling technology was proposed to fabricate a new self-connected, piezoelectric fiber array vertically integrated P(VDF-TrFE) nanogenerator, with a molecular poling orientation fully aligned to the principal excitation for maximized conversion and a well-bridged electrode pair for efficient charge collection. The nanogenerator is fabricated in a novel way by applying a voltage across an electrode pair sandwiching an air gap and an array of shallow micropillars, during which the EHD force tends to pull the micropillars upward, generating a microfiber array finally in robust contact with the upper electrode. Such a thermoplastic and EHD deformation of the microfibers, featured simultaneously by an electric field and by a microfiber elongation dominantly vertical to the electrode, leads to a poling orientation of P(VDF-TrFE) well coincident with the principal strain for the generator excited by a force normal to the electrodes. The as-prepared piezoelectric device exhibits an enhanced output voltage up to 4.0 V and a current of 2.6 μA, therefore the piezoelectric voltage was enhanced to 5.4 times that from the bulk film. Under periodic mechanical impact, electric signals are repeatedly generated from the device and used to power a seven-segment indicator, RBGY colored light-emitting diodes, and a large-scale liquid crystal display screen. These results not only provide a tool for fabricating 3D piezoelectric polymers but offer a new type of self-connected nanogenerator for the next generation of self-powered electronics.Piezoelectricity based energy harvesting from mechanical vibrations has attracted extensive attention for its potential application in powering wireless mobile electronics recently. Here, a patterned electrohydrodynamic (EHD

  11. Emission spectrometric isotope analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauersberger, K.; Meier, G.; Nitschke, W.; Rose, W.; Schmidt, G.; Rahm, N.; Andrae, G.; Krieg, D.; Kuefner, W.; Tamme, G.; Wichlacz, D.

    1982-01-01

    An emission spectrometric isotope analyzer has been designed for determining relative abundances of stable isotopes in gaseous samples in discharge tubes, in liquid samples, and in flowing gaseous samples. It consists of a high-frequency generator, a device for defined positioning of discharge tubes, a grating monochromator with oscillating slit and signal converter, signal generator, window discriminator, AND connection, read-out display, oscillograph, gas dosing device and chemical conversion system with carrier gas source and vacuum pump

  12. Identifying the Alteration Patterns of Brain Functional Connectivity in Progressive Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients: A Longitudinal Whole-Brain Voxel-Wise Degree Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yanjia; Liu, Kai; Shi, Lin; Lei, Yi; Liang, Peipeng; Li, Kuncheng; Chu, Winnie C W; Wang, Defeng

    2016-01-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), while some of them may remain stable over decades. The underlying mechanism is still not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to explore the connectivity differences between progressive MCI (PMCI) and stable MCI (SMCI) individuals on a whole-brain scale and on a voxel-wise basis, and we also aimed to reveal the differential dynamic alteration patterns between these two disease subtypes. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance images of PMCI and SMCI patients at baseline and year-one were obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative dataset, and the progression was determined based on a 3-year follow-up. A whole-brain voxel-wise degree map that was calculated based on graph-theory was constructed for each subject, and then the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses on the degree maps were performed between PMCI and SMCI patients. In longitudinal analyses, compared with SMCI group, PMCI group showed decreased long-range degree in the left middle occipital/supramarginal gyrus, while the short-range degree was increased in the left supplementary motor area and middle frontal gyrus and decreased in the right middle temporal pole. A significant longitudinal alteration of decreased short-range degree in the right middle occipital was found in PMCI group. Taken together with previous evidence, our current findings may suggest that PMCI, compared with SMCI, might be a "severe" presentation of disease along the AD continuum, and the rapidly reduced degree in the right middle occipital gyrus may have indicative value for the disease progression. Moreover, the cross-sectional comparison results and corresponding receiver-operator characteristic-curves analyses may indicate that the baseline degree difference is not a good predictor of disease progression in MCI patients. Overall, these findings may provide objective evidence and an indicator

  13. Impact of presumed service-connected diagnosis on the Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare utilization patterns of Vietnam-Theater Veterans: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Dennis A; Rajan, Mangala; Tseng, Chin-Lin; Helmer, Drew

    2018-05-01

    During the Vietnam War, the US military sprayed almost 20 million gallons of Agent Orange (AO), an herbicide contaminated with dioxin, over Vietnam. Approximately, 2.7 million US military personnel may have been exposed to AO during their deployment. Ordinarily, veterans who can demonstrate a nexus between a diagnosed condition and military service are eligible for Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) service-connected disability compensation. Vietnam Veterans have had difficulty, however, establishing a nexus between AO exposure and certain medical conditions that developed many years after the war. In response, VA has designated certain conditions as "presumed service connected" for Vietnam Veterans who were present and possibly exposed. Veterans with any of these designated conditions do not have to document AO exposure, making it easier for them to access the VA disability system. The extent to which VA healthcare utilization patterns reflect easier access afforded those with diagnosed presumptive conditions remains unknown. In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that Vietnam Veterans with diagnosed presumptive conditions would be heavier users of the VA healthcare system than those without these conditions. In our analysis of 85,699 Vietnam Veterans, we used binary and cumulative logit multivariable regression to assess associations between diagnosed presumptive conditions and VA healthcare utilization in 2013. We found that diagnosed presumptive conditions were associated with higher odds of 5+ VHA primary care visits (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.93-2.07), 5+ specialty care visits (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 2.04-2.18), emergency department use (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.11-1.34), and hospitalization (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.17-1.29). Consistent with legislative intent, presumptive policies appear to facilitate greater VA system utilization for Vietnam Veterans who may have been exposed to AO.

  14. Development of a time-trend model for analyzing and predicting case-pattern of Lassa fever epidemics in Liberia, 2013-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olugasa, Babasola O; Odigie, Eugene A; Lawani, Mike; Ojo, Johnson F

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to develop a case-pattern model for Lassa fever (LF) among humans and derive predictors of time-trend point distribution of LF cases in Liberia in view of the prevailing under-reporting and public health challenge posed by the disease in the country. A retrospective 5 years data of LF distribution countrywide among humans were used to train a time-trend model of the disease in Liberia. A time-trend quadratic model was selected due to its goodness-of-fit (R2 = 0.89, and P Liberia, on which a predictive model was developed. We proposed a computationally feasible two-stage space-time permutation approach to estimate the time-trend parameters and conduct predictive inference on LF in Liberia.

  15. Known from a handful of specimens: analyzing the worldwide patterns of occurrence and conservation of rodents and shrews recorded only from the type locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, conservation research has not focused on Rodentia and Soricomorpha, and many species are known from a handful of specimens and the type locality only (few and type locality species (FETP.  Here we studied the patterns of occurrence of FETP rodents and soricomorphs in relation to geographical area and vegetation zones and report some conservation considerations.  Overall, 91 species of Rodentia and 19 species of Soricomorpha were selected.  There was a positive correlation between number of species per genus and number of FETP species in each genus.  The majority of FETP rodents occur in the Neotropical, Afrotropical and Oriental regions, and soricomorphs in the Afrotropical and Oriental regions. Higher numbers of FETP rodent species occurred in Argentina and Indonesia.  There was a positive relationship between species richness of rodents per country and number of FETP species.  In terms of habitat type, FETP species of rodents and soricomorphs showed similar patterns, with most species being found in rainforest.  The great majority of selected species of both groups were Data Deficient (DD, with Critically Endangered (CR accounting for 16.5% of Rodentia and 5.3% of Soricomorpha.  Overall, IUCN threatened species mostly occur in the Neotropical region, followed by the Afrotropical region.  It is urged that IUCN authorities should promptly revise all FETP species and their precautionary CR status, at least when a reasonable timespan (i.e., >25 years has passed since the last records. 

  16. Age-Related Changes in BOLD Activation Pattern in Phonemic Fluency Paradigm: An Investigation of Activation, Functional Connectivity and Psychophysiological Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Christian; Garcia-Ramos, Camille; Nair, Veena A; Meier, Timothy B; Farrar-Edwards, Dorothy; Birn, Rasmus; Meyerand, Mary E; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is associated with decline of cognitive functions. However, even before those declines become noticeable, the neural architecture underlying those mechanisms has undergone considerable restructuring and reorganization. During performance of a cognitive task, not only have the task-relevant networks demonstrated reorganization with aging, which occurs primarily by recruitment of additional areas to preserve performance, but the task-irrelevant network of the "default-mode" network (DMN), which is normally deactivated during task performance, has also consistently shown reduction of this deactivation with aging. Here, we revisited those age-related changes in task-relevant (i.e., language system) and task-irrelevant (i.e., DMN) systems with a language production paradigm in terms of task-induced activation/deactivation, functional connectivity, and context-dependent correlations between the two systems. Our task fMRI data demonstrated a late increase in cortical recruitment in terms of extent of activation, only observable in our older healthy adult group, when compared to the younger healthy adult group, with recruitment of the contralateral hemisphere, but also other regions from the network previously underutilized. Our middle-aged individuals, when compared to the younger healthy adult group, presented lower levels of activation intensity and connectivity strength, with no recruitment of additional regions, possibly reflecting an initial, uncompensated, network decline. In contrast, the DMN presented a gradual decrease in deactivation intensity and deactivation extent (i.e., low in the middle-aged, and lower in the old) and similar gradual reduction of functional connectivity within the network, with no compensation. The patterns of age-related changes in the task-relevant system and DMN are incongruent with the previously suggested notion of anti-correlation of the two systems. The context-dependent correlation by psycho-physiological interaction

  17. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder from Brain Resting-State Functional Connectivity Patterns Using a Deep Neural Network with a Novel Feature Selection Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinyu; Dominick, Kelli C; Minai, Ali A; Li, Hailong; Erickson, Craig A; Lu, Long J

    2017-01-01

    The whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) pattern obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data are commonly applied to study neuropsychiatric conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by using different machine learning models. Recent studies indicate that both hyper- and hypo- aberrant ASD-associated FCs were widely distributed throughout the entire brain rather than only in some specific brain regions. Deep neural networks (DNN) with multiple hidden layers have shown the ability to systematically extract lower-to-higher level information from high dimensional data across a series of neural hidden layers, significantly improving classification accuracy for such data. In this study, a DNN with a novel feature selection method (DNN-FS) is developed for the high dimensional whole-brain resting-state FC pattern classification of ASD patients vs. typical development (TD) controls. The feature selection method is able to help the DNN generate low dimensional high-quality representations of the whole-brain FC patterns by selecting features with high discriminating power from multiple trained sparse auto-encoders. For the comparison, a DNN without the feature selection method (DNN-woFS) is developed, and both of them are tested with different architectures (i.e., with different numbers of hidden layers/nodes). Results show that the best classification accuracy of 86.36% is generated by the DNN-FS approach with 3 hidden layers and 150 hidden nodes (3/150). Remarkably, DNN-FS outperforms DNN-woFS for all architectures studied. The most significant accuracy improvement was 9.09% with the 3/150 architecture. The method also outperforms other feature selection methods, e.g., two sample t -test and elastic net. In addition to improving the classification accuracy, a Fisher's score-based biomarker identification method based on the DNN is also developed, and used to identify 32 FCs related to ASD. These FCs come from or cross different pre

  18. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder from Brain Resting-State Functional Connectivity Patterns Using a Deep Neural Network with a Novel Feature Selection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Guo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The whole-brain functional connectivity (FC pattern obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data are commonly applied to study neuropsychiatric conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD by using different machine learning models. Recent studies indicate that both hyper- and hypo- aberrant ASD-associated FCs were widely distributed throughout the entire brain rather than only in some specific brain regions. Deep neural networks (DNN with multiple hidden layers have shown the ability to systematically extract lower-to-higher level information from high dimensional data across a series of neural hidden layers, significantly improving classification accuracy for such data. In this study, a DNN with a novel feature selection method (DNN-FS is developed for the high dimensional whole-brain resting-state FC pattern classification of ASD patients vs. typical development (TD controls. The feature selection method is able to help the DNN generate low dimensional high-quality representations of the whole-brain FC patterns by selecting features with high discriminating power from multiple trained sparse auto-encoders. For the comparison, a DNN without the feature selection method (DNN-woFS is developed, and both of them are tested with different architectures (i.e., with different numbers of hidden layers/nodes. Results show that the best classification accuracy of 86.36% is generated by the DNN-FS approach with 3 hidden layers and 150 hidden nodes (3/150. Remarkably, DNN-FS outperforms DNN-woFS for all architectures studied. The most significant accuracy improvement was 9.09% with the 3/150 architecture. The method also outperforms other feature selection methods, e.g., two sample t-test and elastic net. In addition to improving the classification accuracy, a Fisher's score-based biomarker identification method based on the DNN is also developed, and used to identify 32 FCs related to ASD. These FCs come from or cross

  19. Long-term total sleep deprivation decreases the default spontaneous activity and connectivity pattern in healthy male subjects: a resting-state fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai XJ

    2015-03-01

    .33; P=0.021. The ICA method showed that, compared with RW subjects, SD subjects had decreased rsFC in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL, BA40 and in the left precuneus (PrC/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC (BA30, 31. The two different areas were selected as regions of interest (ROIs for future rsFC analysis. Compared with the same in RW subjects, in SD subjects, the right IPL showed decreased rsFC with the left PrC (BA7 and increased rsFC with the left fusiform gyrus (BA37 and the left cluster of middle temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus (BA37. However, the left PrC/PCC did not show any connectivity differences. Compared with RW subjects, SD subjects showed lower ALFF area in the left IPL (BA39, 40. The left IPL, as an ROI, showed decreased rsFC with the right cluster of IPL and superior temporal gyrus (BA39, 40. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC value of the left IPL was 0.75, with a cutoff point of 0.834 (mean ALFF signal value. Further diagnostic analysis exhibited that the AUC alone discriminated SD status from RW status, with 75% sensitivity and 91.7% specificity. Conclusion: Long-term SD disturbed the spontaneous activity and connectivity pattern of DMN. Keywords: sleep deprivation, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, default-mode network, functional magnetic resonance imaging, functional connectivity, independent component analysis, receiver operating characteristic curve

  20. Analyzing Economic Attainment Patterns of Foreign Born Latin American Male Immigrants to The United States: an Example Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Gotcher

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research which examines and endeavors to account for variation in the economic attainments of immigrants to the United States from Latin America, through the use of Hierarchical Linear Modeling. When analyzing this variation, researchers typically choose between two competing explanations. Human capital theory contends that variation in economic attainment is a product of different characteristics of individuals. Social capital theory contends that variation in economic attainment is a product of differences in characteristics of the societies from which the workers come. The author's central thesis is that we need not choose between human and social capital theories, that we can rely on both theoretical approaches, that it is an empirical and not a theoretical question how much variation can be explained by one set of factors versus the other. The real problem then is to build an appropriate methodology that allows us to partition the variation in economic attainments, identifying how much is explained by individual and how much by group characteristics. Using a multi-level modeling technique, this research presents such a methodology.

  1. miRTrail - a comprehensive webserver for analyzing gene and miRNA patterns to enhance the understanding of regulatory mechanisms in diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laczny Cedric

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression profiling provides new insights into regulatory and metabolic processes and in particular into pathogenic mechanisms associated with diseases. Besides genes, non-coding transcripts as microRNAs (miRNAs gained increasing relevance in the last decade. To understand the regulatory processes of miRNAs on genes, integrative computer-aided approaches are essential, especially in the light of complex human diseases as cancer. Results Here, we present miRTrail, an integrative tool that allows for performing comprehensive analyses of interactions of genes and miRNAs based on expression profiles. The integrated analysis of mRNA and miRNA data should generate more robust and reliable results on deregulated pathogenic processes and may also offer novel insights into the regulatory interactions between miRNAs and genes. Our web-server excels in carrying out gene sets analysis, analysis of miRNA sets as well as the combination of both in a systems biology approach. To this end, miRTrail integrates information on 20.000 genes, almost 1.000 miRNAs, and roughly 280.000 putative interactions, for Homo sapiens and accordingly for Mus musculus and Danio rerio. The well-established, classical Chi-squared test is one of the central techniques of our tool for the joint consideration of miRNAs and their targets. For interactively visualizing obtained results, it relies on the network analyzers and viewers BiNA or Cytoscape-web, also enabling direct access to relevant literature. We demonstrated the potential of miRTrail by applying our tool to mRNA and miRNA data of malignant melanoma. MiRTrail identified several deregulated miRNAs that target deregulated mRNAs including miRNAs hsa-miR-23b and hsa-miR-223, which target the highest numbers of deregulated mRNAs and regulate the pathway "basal cell carcinoma". In addition, both miRNAs target genes like PTCH1 and RASA1 that are involved in many oncogenic processes. Conclusions The application

  2. Identifying the Alternation Patterns of Brain Functional Connectivity in Progressive Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients: A Longitudinal Whole-brain Voxel-wise Degree Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjia Deng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI are at high risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD, while some of them may remain stable over decades. The underlying mechanism is still not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to explore the connectivity differences between progressive MCI (PMCI and stable MCI (SMCI individuals on a whole-brain scale and on a voxel-wise basis, and we also aimed to reveal the differential dynamic alternation patterns between these two disease subtypes. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance images of PMCI and SMCI patients at baseline and year-one were obtained from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative dataset, and the progression was determined based on a three-year follow-up. A whole-brain voxel-wise degree map that was calculated based on graph-theory was constructed for each subject, and then the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses on the degree maps were performed between PMCI and SMCI patients. In longitudinal analyses, compared with SMCI group, PMCI group showed decreased long-range degree in the left middle occipital/supramarginal gyrus, while the short-range degree was increased in the left supplementary motor area and middle frontal gyrus and decreased in the right middle temporal pole. A significant longitudinal alteration of decreased short-range degree in the right middle occipital was found in PMCI group. Taken together with previous evidence, our current findings may suggest that PMCI, compared with SMCI, might be a severe presentation of disease along the AD continuum, and the rapidly reduced degree in the right middle occipital gyrus may have indicative value for the disease progression. Moreover, the cross-sectional comparison results and corresponding receiver-operator characteristic-curves analyses may indicate that the baseline degree difference is not a good predictor of disease progression in MCI patients. Overall, these findings may provide objective

  3. Impact of presumed service-connected diagnosis on the Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare utilization patterns of Vietnam-Theater Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Dennis A.; Rajan, Mangala; Tseng, Chin-lin; Helmer, Drew

    2018-01-01

    Abstract During the Vietnam War, the US military sprayed almost 20 million gallons of Agent Orange (AO), an herbicide contaminated with dioxin, over Vietnam. Approximately, 2.7 million US military personnel may have been exposed to AO during their deployment. Ordinarily, veterans who can demonstrate a nexus between a diagnosed condition and military service are eligible for Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) service-connected disability compensation. Vietnam Veterans have had difficulty, however, establishing a nexus between AO exposure and certain medical conditions that developed many years after the war. In response, VA has designated certain conditions as “presumed service connected” for Vietnam Veterans who were present and possibly exposed. Veterans with any of these designated conditions do not have to document AO exposure, making it easier for them to access the VA disability system. The extent to which VA healthcare utilization patterns reflect easier access afforded those with diagnosed presumptive conditions remains unknown. In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that Vietnam Veterans with diagnosed presumptive conditions would be heavier users of the VA healthcare system than those without these conditions. In our analysis of 85,699 Vietnam Veterans, we used binary and cumulative logit multivariable regression to assess associations between diagnosed presumptive conditions and VA healthcare utilization in 2013. We found that diagnosed presumptive conditions were associated with higher odds of 5+ VHA primary care visits (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.93–2.07), 5+ specialty care visits (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 2.04–2.18), emergency department use (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.11–1.34), and hospitalization (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.17–1.29). Consistent with legislative intent, presumptive policies appear to facilitate greater VA system utilization for Vietnam Veterans who may have been exposed to AO. PMID:29742706

  4. Similar circuits but different connectivity patterns between the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and supplementary motor area in early Parkinson's disease patients and controls during predictive motor timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husárová, Ivica; Mikl, Michal; Lungu, Ovidiu V; Mareček, Radek; Vaníček, Jiří; Bareš, Martin

    2013-10-01

    The cerebellum, basal ganglia (BG), and other cortical regions, such as supplementary motor area (SMA) have emerged as important structures dealing with various aspects of timing, yet the modulation of functional connectivity between them during motor timing tasks remains unexplored. We used dynamic causal modeling to investigate the differences in effective connectivity (EC) between these regions and its modulation by behavioral outcome during a motor timing prediction task in a group of 16 patients with early Parkinson's disease (PD) and 17 healthy controls. Behavioral events (hits and errors) constituted the driving input connected to the cerebellum, and the modulation in connectivity was assessed relative to the hit condition (successful interception of target). The driving input elicited response in the target area, while modulatory input changed the specific connection strength. The neuroimaging data revealed similar structure of intrinsic connectivity in both groups with unidirectional connections from cerebellum to both sides of the BG, from BG to the SMA, and then from SMA to the cerebellum. However, the type of intrinsic connection was different between two groups. In the PD group, the connection between the SMA and cerebellum was inhibitory in comparison to the HC group, where the connection was activated. Furthermore, the modulation of connectivity by the performance in the task was different between the two groups, with decreased connectivity between the cerebellum and left BG and SMA and a more pronounced symmetry of these connections in controls. In the same time, there was an increased EC between the cerebellum and both sides of BG with more pronounced asymmetry (stronger connection with left BG) in patients. In addition, in the PD group the modulatory input strengthened inhibitory connectivity between the SMA and the cerebellum, while in the HC group the excitatory connection was slightly strengthened. Our findings indicate that although early PD

  5. Florida Agriculture - Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects Upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake; Cooley, Zachary Clayton; Mitchell, Brandie

    2010-01-01

    This project utilizes Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Landsat satellite data to assess the impact of sea breeze precipitation upon areas of agricultural land use in southern Florida. Water is a critical resource to agriculture, and the availability of water for agricultural use in Florida continues to remain a key issue. Recent projections of statewide water use by 2020 estimate that 9.3 billion gallons of water per day will be demanded, and agriculture represents 47% of this demand (Bronson 2003). Farmers have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. Sea breeze thunderstorms are responsible for much of the rainfall delivered to Florida during the wet season (May-October) and have been recognized as an important overall contributor of rainfall in southern Florida (Almeida 2003). TRMM satellite data was used to analyze how sea breeze-induced thunderstorms during El Nino and La Nina affected interannual patterns of precipitation in southern Florida from 1998-2009. TRMM's Precipitation Radar and Microwave Imager provide data to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere, precipitation rates and intensity, and the distribution of precipitation. Rainfall accumulation data derived from TRMM and other microwave sensors were used to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of rainfall during each phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Through the use of TRMM and Landsat, slight variations were observed, but it was determined that neither sea breeze nor total rainfall patterns in South Florida were strongly affected by ENSO during the study period. However, more research is needed to characterize the influence of ENSO on summer weather patterns in South Florida. This research will provide the basis for continued observations and study with the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission.

  6. Application of flood-intensity-duration curve, rainfall-intensity-duration curve and time of concentration to analyze the pattern of storms and their corresponding floods for the natural flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Won; Shin, Mun-Ju; Lee, Jeong Eun

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of storm effects on floods is essential step for designing hydraulic structure and flood plain. There are previous studies for analyzing the relationship between the storm patterns and peak flow, flood volume and durations for various sizes of the catchments, but they are not enough to analyze the natural storm effects on flood responses quantitatively. This study suggests a novel method of quantitative analysis using unique factors extracted from the time series of storms and floods to investigate the relationship between natural storms and their corresponding flood responses. We used a distributed rainfall-runoff model of Grid based Rainfall-runoff Model (GRM) to generate the simulated flow and areal rainfall for 50 catchments in Republic of Korea size from 5.6 km2 to 1584.2 km2, which are including overlapped dependent catchments and non-overlapped independent catchments. The parameters of the GRM model were calibrated to get the good model performances of Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. Then Flood-Intensity-Duration Curve (FIDC) and Rainfall-Intensity-Duration Curve (RIDC) were generated by Flood-Duration-Frequency and Intensity-Duration-Frequency methods respectively using the time series of hydrographs and hyetographs. Time of concentration developed for the Korea catchments was used as a consistent measure to extract the unique factors from the FIDC and RIDC over the different size of catchments. These unique factors for the storms and floods were analyzed against the different size of catchments to investigate the natural storm effects on floods. This method can be easily used to get the intuition of the natural storm effects with various patterns on flood responses. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (11-TI-C06) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  7. Connecting Grammaticalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård-Sørensen, Jens; Heltoft, Lars; Schøsler, Lene

    morphological, topological and constructional paradigms often connect to form complex paradigms. The book introduces the concept of connecting grammaticalisation to describe the formation, restructuring and dismantling of such complex paradigms. Drawing primarily on data from Germanic, Romance and Slavic...

  8. Modeling Structural Brain Connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosen, Karen Marie Sandø

    The human brain consists of a gigantic complex network of interconnected neurons. Together all these connections determine who we are, how we react and how we interpret the world. Knowledge about how the brain is connected can further our understanding of the brain’s structural organization, help...... improve diagnosis, and potentially allow better treatment of a wide range of neurological disorders. Tractography based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging is a unique tool to estimate this “structural connectivity” of the brain non-invasively and in vivo. During the last decade, brain connectivity...... has increasingly been analyzed using graph theoretic measures adopted from network science and this characterization of the brain’s structural connectivity has been shown to be useful for the classification of populations, such as healthy and diseased subjects. The structural connectivity of the brain...

  9. Mapping functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Vogt; Joseph R. Ferrari; Todd R. Lookingbill; Robert H. Gardner; Kurt H. Riitters; Katarzyna Ostapowicz

    2009-01-01

    An objective and reliable assessment of wildlife movement is important in theoretical and applied ecology. The identification and mapping of landscape elements that may enhance functional connectivity is usually a subjective process based on visual interpretations of species movement patterns. New methods based on mathematical morphology provide a generic, flexible,...

  10. Making Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pien, Cheng Lu; Dongsheng, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Effective teaching includes enabling learners to make connections within mathematics. It is easy to accord with this statement, but how often is it a reality in the mathematics classroom? This article describes an approach in "connecting equivalent" fractions and whole number operations. The authors illustrate how a teacher can combine a common…

  11. Deep neural network with weight sparsity control and pre-training extracts hierarchical features and enhances classification performance: Evidence from whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity patterns of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghoe; Calhoun, Vince D; Shim, Eunsoo; Lee, Jong-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Functional connectivity (FC) patterns obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data are commonly employed to study neuropsychiatric conditions by using pattern classifiers such as the support vector machine (SVM). Meanwhile, a deep neural network (DNN) with multiple hidden layers has shown its ability to systematically extract lower-to-higher level information of image and speech data from lower-to-higher hidden layers, markedly enhancing classification accuracy. The objective of this study was to adopt the DNN for whole-brain resting-state FC pattern classification of schizophrenia (SZ) patients vs. healthy controls (HCs) and identification of aberrant FC patterns associated with SZ. We hypothesized that the lower-to-higher level features learned via the DNN would significantly enhance the classification accuracy, and proposed an adaptive learning algorithm to explicitly control the weight sparsity in each hidden layer via L1-norm regularization. Furthermore, the weights were initialized via stacked autoencoder based pre-training to further improve the classification performance. Classification accuracy was systematically evaluated as a function of (1) the number of hidden layers/nodes, (2) the use of L1-norm regularization, (3) the use of the pre-training, (4) the use of framewise displacement (FD) removal, and (5) the use of anatomical/functional parcellation. Using FC patterns from anatomically parcellated regions without FD removal, an error rate of 14.2% was achieved by employing three hidden layers and 50 hidden nodes with both L1-norm regularization and pre-training, which was substantially lower than the error rate from the SVM (22.3%). Moreover, the trained DNN weights (i.e., the learned features) were found to represent the hierarchical organization of aberrant FC patterns in SZ compared with HC. Specifically, pairs of nodes extracted from the lower hidden layer represented sparse FC patterns implicated in SZ, which was

  12. About Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S Rockland

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the attention attracted by connectomics, one can lose sight of the very real questions concerning What are connections? In the neuroimaging community, structural connectivity is ground truth and underlying constraint on functional or effective connectivity. It is referenced to underlying anatomy; but, as increasingly remarked, there is a large gap between the wealth of human brain mapping and the relatively scant data on actual anatomical connectivity. Moreover, connections have typically been discussed as pairwise, point x projecting to point y (or: to points y and z, or more recently, in graph theoretical terms, as nodes or regions and the interconnecting edges. This is a convenient shorthand, but tends not to capture the richness and nuance of basic anatomical properties as identified in the classic tradition of tracer studies. The present short review accordingly revisits connectional weights, heterogeneity, reciprocity, topography, and hierarchical organization, drawing on concrete examples. The emphasis is on presynaptic long-distance connections, motivated by the intention to probe current assumptions and promote discussions about further progress and synthesis.

  13. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2015-10-27

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical tiling patterns on the plane must take on various shapes in order to faithfully and feasibly approximate curved surfaces. We define and analyze the deformations these tiles must undertake to account for curvature, and discover the symmetries that remain invariant under such deformations. We propose a novel method to regularize polyhedral patterns while maintaining these symmetries into a plethora of aesthetic and feasible patterns.

  14. Analyzing the Facebook Friendship Graph

    OpenAIRE

    Catanese, Salvatore; De Meo, Pasquale; Ferrara, Emilio; Fiumara, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    Online Social Networks (OSN) during last years acquired a huge and increasing popularity as one of the most important emerging Web phenomena, deeply modifying the behavior of users and contributing to build a solid substrate of connections and relationships among people using the Web. In this preliminary work paper, our purpose is to analyze Facebook, considering a significant sample of data reflecting relationships among subscribed users. Our goal is to extract, from this platform, relevant ...

  15. Unique gene expression and MR T2 relaxometry patterns define chronic murine dextran sodium sulphate colitis as a model for connective tissue changes in human Crohn's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Breynaert

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronically relapsing inflammation, tissue remodeling and fibrosis are hallmarks of inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in connective tissue in a chronic murine model resulting from repeated cycles of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS ingestion, to mimic the relapsing nature of the human disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to DSS in drinking water for 1 week, followed by a recovery phase of 2 weeks. This cycle of exposure was repeated for up to 3 times (9 weeks in total. Colonic inflammation, fibrosis, extracellular matrix proteins and colonic gene expression were studied. In vivo MRI T 2 relaxometry was studied as a potential non-invasive imaging tool to evaluate bowel wall inflammation and fibrosis. RESULTS: Repeated cycles of DSS resulted in a relapsing and remitting disease course, which induced a chronic segmental, transmural colitis after 2 and 3 cycles of DSS with clear induction of fibrosis and remodeling of the muscular layer. Tenascin expression mirrored its expression in Crohn's colitis. Microarray data identified a gene expression profile different in chronic colitis from that in acute colitis. Additional recovery was associated with upregulation of unique genes, in particular keratins, pointing to activation of molecular pathways for healing and repair. In vivo MRI T2 relaxometry of the colon showed a clear shift towards higher T2 values in the acute stage and a gradual regression of T2 values with increasing cycles of DSS. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated cycles of DSS exposure induce fibrosis and connective tissue changes with typical features, as occurring in Crohn's disease. Colonic gene expression analysis revealed unique expression profiles in chronic colitis compared to acute colitis and after additional recovery, pointing to potential new targets to intervene with the induction of fibrosis. In vivo T2 relaxometry is a promising non-invasive assessment of

  16. Internet Connectivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Internet Connectivity. BSNL, SIFY, HCL in Guwahati; only BSNL elsewhere in NE (local player in Shillong). Service poor; All vendors lease BW from BSNL.

  17. Mathematics Connection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MATHEMATICS CONNECTION aims at providing a forum topromote the development of Mathematics Education in Ghana. Articles that seekto enhance the teaching and/or learning of mathematics at all levels of theeducational system are welcome.

  18. HR Connect

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — HR Connect is the USAID HR personnel system which allows HR professionals to process HR actions related to employee's personal and position information. This system...

  19. Functional connectivity changes detected with magnetoencephalography after mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros I. Dimitriadis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI may affect normal cognition and behavior by disrupting the functional connectivity networks that mediate efficient communication among brain regions. In this study, we analyzed brain connectivity profiles from resting state Magnetoencephalographic (MEG recordings obtained from 31 mTBI patients and 55 normal controls. We used phase-locking value estimates to compute functional connectivity graphs to quantify frequency-specific couplings between sensors at various frequency bands. Overall, normal controls showed a dense network of strong local connections and a limited number of long-range connections that accounted for approximately 20% of all connections, whereas mTBI patients showed networks characterized by weak local connections and strong long-range connections that accounted for more than 60% of all connections. Comparison of the two distinct general patterns at different frequencies using a tensor representation for the connectivity graphs and tensor subspace analysis for optimal feature extraction showed that mTBI patients could be separated from normal controls with 100% classification accuracy in the alpha band. These encouraging findings support the hypothesis that MEG-based functional connectivity patterns may be used as biomarkers that can provide more accurate diagnoses, help guide treatment, and monitor effectiveness of intervention in mTBI.

  20. Connectivity pattern differences bilaterally in the cerebellum posterior lobe in healthy subjects after normal sleep and sleep deprivation: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu XM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Xuming Liu,1 Zhihan Yan,2 Tingyu Wang,1 Xiaokai Yang,1 Feng Feng,3 Luping Fan,1 Jian Jiang4 1Department of Radiology, The Third Clinical Institute Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 2Department of Radiology, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 3Peking Union Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 4Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI technique to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC differences of the bilaterial cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL after normal sleep (NS and after sleep deprivation (SD. Methods: A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight males, eight females underwent an fMRI scan twice at random: once following NS and the other following 24 hours’ SD, with an interval of 1 month between the two scans. The fMRI scanning included resting state and acupuncture stimulation. The special activated regions located during the acupuncture stimulation were selected as regions of interest for rsFC analysis. Results: Bilateral CPLs were positively activated by acupuncture stimulation. In the NS group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral CPL, bilateral frontal lobe (BFL, left precuneus and right inferior parietal lobule, while the right CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral temporal lobe, right cerebellum anterior lobe, right CPL, left frontal lobe, left anterior cingulate, right posterior cingulate, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule. In the SD group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the left posterior cingulate gyrus bilateral CPL, left precuneus, left precentral gyrus, BFL, and the left parietal lobe, while the right CPL showed rsFC with bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, bilateral CPL, left frontal lobe and left temporal lobe. Compared with the NS group, the

  1. Impact assessment of the European Clinical Trials Directive: a longitudinal, prospective, observational study analyzing patterns and trends in clinical drug trial applications submitted since 2001 to regulatory agencies in six EU countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Markus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shifts in clinical trial application rates over time indicate if the attractiveness of a country or region for the conduct of clinical trials is growing or decreasing. The purpose of this observational study was to track changes in drug trial application patterns across several EU countries in order to analyze the medium-term impact of the EU Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC on the conduct of drug trials. Methods Rates of Clinical Trial Applications (CTA for studies with medicinal products in those six countries in the EU, which authorize on average more than 500 trials per year, were analyzed. Publicly available figures on the number of annually submitted CTA, the distribution of trials per phase and the type of sponsorship were tracked; missing data were provided by national drug agencies. Results Since 2001, the number of CTA in Italy and Spain increased significantly (5.0 and 2.5% average annual growth. For Italy, the gain was driven by a strong increase of applications from academic trial sponsors; Spain's growth was due to a rise in trials run by commercial sponsors. The Netherlands, Germany, France and the UK saw a decline (1.9, 2.3, 3.0 and 5.3% average annual diminution; significant (P Conclusions The EU Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC did not achieve the harmonization of clinical trial requirements across Europe. Rather, it resulted in the leveling of clinical trial activities caused by a continuing decrease in CTA rates in the Netherlands, Germany, France and the UK. Southern European countries, Italy and Spain, benefited to some extent from policy changes introduced by the Directive. In Italy's case, national funding measures helped to considerably promote the conduct of non-commercial trials. On the other hand, the EU Directive-driven transition from liberal policy environments, based on non-explicit trial approval through notifications, towards red-taped processes of trial authorization, contributed to

  2. Economy, energy and environment - Methods to analyze connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlroth, Sofia; Finnveden, Goeran; Hochschorner Elisabeth; Ekvall, Thomas; Wadeskog, Anders; Palm, Viveka

    2003-12-01

    This report gives a review of instruments that can be used for finding economic, structural and environmental effects of decisions in the environmental area, and describe what is possible to achieve, economically and technically. Twelve different aspects are used for characterizing the instruments. Applications and limitations of the instruments are discussed. For many instruments there exists a lively discussion on their weaknesses and limitations. We focus on system analytical instruments, i.e. environment-economic methods, energy and energy-economic modelling and environment-system-analytical tools In the economic area we discuss I/O-analyses, CGE-models and econometric models as well as a few descriptive analytica tools: Cost-benefit analysis, CBA and Life Cycle Analyses.

  3. Effect of Integrated Cognitive Therapy on Hippocampal Functional Connectivity Patterns in Stroke Patients with Cognitive Dysfunction: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanli Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to identify abnormal hippocampal functional connectivity (FC following ischemic stroke using resting-state fMRI. We also explored whether abnormal hippocampal FC could be modulated by integrated cognitive therapy and tested whether these alterations were associated with cognitive performance. Methods. 18 right-handed cognitively impaired ischemic stroke patients and 18 healty control (HC subjects were included in this study. Stroke subjects were scanned at baseline and after integrated cognitive therapy, while HCs were only scanned at baseline, to identify regions that show significant correlations with the seed region. Behavioral and cognitive assessments were obtained before each scan. Results. During the resting state, we found abnormal hippocampal FC associated with temporal regions, insular cortex, cerebellum, and prefrontal cortex in stroke patients compared to HCs. After integrated cognitive therapy, however, the stroke group showed increased hippocampal FC mainly located in the prefrontal gyrus and the default mode network (DMN. Altered hippocampal FC was associated with cognitive improvement. Conclusion. Resting-state fMRI may provide novel insight into the study of functional networks in the brain after stroke. Furthermore, altered hippocampal FC may be a compensatory mechanism for cognitive recovery after ischemic stroke.

  4. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  5. Granular patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Aranson, Igor S

    2009-01-01

    This title presents a review of experiments and novel theoretical concepts needed to understand the mechanisms of pattern formation in granular materials. An effort is made to connect concepts and ideas developed in granular physics with new emergent fields, especially in biology, such as cytoskeleton dynamics.

  6. Establishing Connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    Global law settings are characterised by a structural pre-eminence of connectivity norms, a type of norm which differs from coherency or possibility norms. The centrality of connectivity norms emerges from the function of global law, which is to increase the probability of transfers of condensed ...... and human rights can be understood as serving a constitutionalising function aimed at stabilising and facilitating connectivity. This allows for an understanding of colonialism and contemporary global governance as functional, but not as normative, equivalents.......Global law settings are characterised by a structural pre-eminence of connectivity norms, a type of norm which differs from coherency or possibility norms. The centrality of connectivity norms emerges from the function of global law, which is to increase the probability of transfers of condensed...... social components, such as economic capital and products, religious doctrines and scientific knowledge, from one legally structured context to another within world society. This was the case from colonialism and colonial law to contemporary global supply chains and human rights. Both colonial law...

  7. Dynamic effective connectivity of inter-areal brain circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Battaglia

    Full Text Available Anatomic connections between brain areas affect information flow between neuronal circuits and the synchronization of neuronal activity. However, such structural connectivity does not coincide with effective connectivity (or, more precisely, causal connectivity, related to the elusive question "Which areas cause the present activity of which others?". Effective connectivity is directed and depends flexibly on contexts and tasks. Here we show that dynamic effective connectivity can emerge from transitions in the collective organization of coherent neural activity. Integrating simulation and semi-analytic approaches, we study mesoscale network motifs of interacting cortical areas, modeled as large random networks of spiking neurons or as simple rate units. Through a causal analysis of time-series of model neural activity, we show that different dynamical states generated by a same structural connectivity motif correspond to distinct effective connectivity motifs. Such effective motifs can display a dominant directionality, due to spontaneous symmetry breaking and effective entrainment between local brain rhythms, although all connections in the considered structural motifs are reciprocal. We show then that transitions between effective connectivity configurations (like, for instance, reversal in the direction of inter-areal interactions can be triggered reliably by brief perturbation inputs, properly timed with respect to an ongoing local oscillation, without the need for plastic synaptic changes. Finally, we analyze how the information encoded in spiking patterns of a local neuronal population is propagated across a fixed structural connectivity motif, demonstrating that changes in the active effective connectivity regulate both the efficiency and the directionality of information transfer. Previous studies stressed the role played by coherent oscillations in establishing efficient communication between distant areas. Going beyond these early

  8. Broad-scale sampling of primary freshwater fish populations reveals the role of intrinsic traits, inter-basin connectivity, drainage area and latitude on shaping contemporary patterns of genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sousa-Santos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worldwide predictions suggest that up to 75% of the freshwater fish species occurring in rivers with reduced discharge could be extinct by 2070 due to the combined effect of climate change and water abstraction. The Mediterranean region is considered to be a hotspot of freshwater fish diversity but also one of the regions where the effects of climate change will be more severe. Iberian cyprinids are currently highly endangered, with over 68% of the species raising some level of conservation concern. Methods. During the FISHATLAS project, the Portuguese hydrographical network was extensively covered (all the 34 river basins and 47 sub-basins in order to contribute with valuable data on the genetic diversity distribution patterns of native cyprinid species. A total of 188 populations belonging to 16 cyprinid species of Squalius, Luciobarbus, Achondrostoma, Iberochondrostoma, Anaecypris and Pseudochondrostoma were characterized, for a total of 3,678 cytochrome b gene sequences. Results. When the genetic diversity of these populations was mapped, it highlighted differences among populations from the same species and between species with identical distribution areas. Factors shaping the contemporary patterns of genetic diversity were explored and the results revealed the role of latitude, inter-basin connectivity, migratory behaviour, species maximum size, species range and other species intrinsic traits in determining the genetic diversity of sampled populations. Contrastingly, drainage area and hydrological regime (permanent vs. temporary seem to have no significant effect on genetic diversity. Species intrinsic traits, maximum size attained, inter-basin connectivity and latitude explained over 30% of the haplotype diversity variance and, generally, the levels of diversity were significantly higher for smaller sized species, from connected and southerly river basins. Discussion. Targeting multiple co-distributed species of primary

  9. Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    The Connected Traveler framework seeks to boost the energy efficiency of personal travel and the overall transportation system by maximizing the accuracy of predicted traveler behavior in response to real-time feedback and incentives. It is anticipated that this approach will establish a feedback loop that 'learns' traveler preferences and customizes incentives to meet or exceed energy efficiency targets by empowering individual travelers with information needed to make energy-efficient choices and reducing the complexity required to validate transportation system energy savings. This handout provides an overview of NREL's Connected Traveler project, including graphics, milestones, and contact information.

  10. Specialization Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  11. Tlx-1 and Tlx-3 homeobox gene expression in cranial sensory ganglia and hindbrain of the chick embryo: markers of patterned connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, C; Wingate, R J; McKay, I J; Lumsden, A

    1998-07-15

    Recent evidence suggests that in vertebrates the formation of distinct neuronal cell types is controlled by specific families of homeodomain transcription factors. Furthermore, the expression domains of a number of these genes correlates with functionally integrated neuronal populations. We have isolated two members of the divergent T-cell leukemia translocation (HOX11/Tlx) homeobox gene family from chick, Tlx-1 and Tlx-3, and show that they are expressed in differentiating neurons of both the peripheral and central nervous systems. In the peripheral nervous system, Tlx-1 and Tlx-3 are expressed in overlapping domains within the placodally derived components of a number of cranial sensory ganglia. Tlx-3, unlike Tlx-1, is also expressed in neural crest-derived dorsal root and sympathetic ganglia. In the CNS, both genes are expressed in longitudinal columns of neurons at specific dorsoventral levels of the hindbrain. Each column has distinct anterior and/or posterior limits that respect inter-rhombomeric boundaries. Tlx-3 is also expressed in D2 and D3 neurons of the spinal cord. Tlx-1 and Tlx-3 expression patterns within the peripheral and central nervous systems suggest that Tlx proteins may be involved not only in the differentiation and/or survival of specific neuronal populations but also in the establishment of neuronal circuitry. Furthermore, by analogy with the LIM genes, Tlx family members potentially define sensory columns early within the developing hindbrain in a combinatorial manner.

  12. Making connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marion Duimel

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Verbinding maken; senioren en internet. More and more older people are finding their way to the Internet. Many people aged over 50 who have only recently gone online say that a new world has opened up for them. By connecting to the Internet they have the feeling that they

  13. Fuel analyzer; Analisador de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzolino, Roberval [RS Motors, Indaiatuba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The current technology 'COMBUSTIMETRO' aims to examine the fuel through performance of the engine, as the role of the fuel is to produce energy for the combustion engine in the form of which is directly proportional to the quality and type of fuel. The 'COMBUSTIMETRO' has an engine that always keeps the same entry of air, fuel and fixed point of ignition. His operation is monitored by sensors (Sonda Lambda, RPM and Gases Analyzer) connected to a processor that performs calculations and records the information, generate reports and graphs. (author)

  14. Gendered Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the gendered nature of urban politics in Cape Town by focusing on a group of female, township politicians. Employing the Deleuzian concept of `wild connectivity', it argues that these politically entrepreneurial women were able to negotiate a highly volatile urban landscape...... by drawing on and operationalizing violent, male networks — from struggle activists' networks, to vigilante groups and gangs, to the police. The fact that they were women helped them to tap into and exploit these networks. At the same time, they were restricted by their sex, as their ability to navigate...... space also drew on quite traditional notions of female respectability. Furthermore, the article argues, the form of wild connectivity to an extent was a function of the political transition, which destabilized formal structures of gendered authority. It remains a question whether this form...

  15. Aberrant orbitofrontal connectivity in marijuana smoking adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Patricia Lopez-Larson

    2015-12-01

    Discussion: Findings indicate atypical OFC functional connectivity patterns in attentional/executive, motor and reward networks in adolescents with heavy MJ use. These anomalies may be related to suboptimal decision making capacities and increased impulsivity. Results also suggest different OFC connectivity patterns may be present in adolescents with early onset of MJ use and high lifetime exposure to MJ.

  16. Cosmic Connections

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard

    2003-01-01

    A National Research Council study on connecting quarks with the cosmos has recently posed a number of the more important open questions at the interface between particle physics and cosmology. These questions include the nature of dark matter and dark energy, how the Universe began, modifications to gravity, the effects of neutrinos on the Universe, how cosmic accelerators work, and whether there are new states of matter at high density and pressure. These questions are discussed in the context of the talks presented at this Summer Institute.

  17. Web server attack analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Mižišin, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Web server attack analyzer - Abstract The goal of this work was to create prototype of analyzer of injection flaws attacks on web server. Proposed solution combines capabilities of web application firewall and web server log analyzer. Analysis is based on configurable signatures defined by regular expressions. This paper begins with summary of web attacks, followed by detection techniques analysis on web servers, description and justification of selected implementation. In the end are charact...

  18. Electron attachment analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, P.; Grosse, H.J.; Leonhardt, J.; Mothes, S.; Oppermann, G.

    1984-01-01

    The invention concerns an electron attachment analyzer for detecting traces of electroaffine substances in electronegative gases, especially in air. The analyzer can be used for monitoring working places, e. g., in operating theatres. The analyzer consists of two electrodes inserted in a base frame of insulating material (quartz or ceramics) and a high-temperature resistant radiation source ( 85 Kr, 3 H, or 63 Ni)

  19. Nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of Nuclear Power Plant Analyzers in USA is described. There are two different types of Analyzers under development in USA, the forst in Idaho and Los Alamos national Lab, the second in brookhaven National lab. That one is described in detail. The computer hardware and the mathematical models of the reactor vessel thermalhydraulics are described. (author)

  20. Analyzing Peace Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavelsrud, Magnus; Stenberg, Oddbjorn

    2012-01-01

    Eleven articles on peace education published in the first volume of the Journal of Peace Education are analyzed. This selection comprises peace education programs that have been planned or carried out in different contexts. In analyzing peace pedagogies as proposed in the 11 contributions, we have chosen network analysis as our method--enabling…

  1. Analyzing in the present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line; Tanggaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a notion of “analyzing in the present” as a source of inspiration in analyzing qualitative research materials. The term emerged from extensive listening to interview recordings during everyday commuting to university campus. Paying attention to the way different parts of vari...

  2. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  3. Places Connected:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    This paper argues that development assistance contributed to the globalization of the 20th century by financing truly global networks of people. By focusing on the networks financed by development assistance bound by the national histories of Denmark and Japan, I illustrate how the people who...... experiences of place, however, when it is often the same people who experience many different places? Along with many other so-called donors in the 1950s, Denmark and Japan chose to invest in the education of own and other nationals involved in development and thereby financed personal connections between...... individuals throughout the world. Development assistance , where there are two or three links only between a Bangladeshi farmer, a street child in Sao Paolo and the President of the United States, the Queen of Denmark, or a suburban house wife in Japan, who has never left the Osaka area, but mothered a United...

  4. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  5. Analyzing Three-Decadal Patterns of Land Use/Land Cover Change and Regional Ecosystem Services at the Landscape Level: Case Study of Two Coastal Metropolitan Regions, Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Bin Cai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization, land scarcity, and accompanying ecological deterioration in China have received growing attention. In this paper, two fast-growing metropolitan regions, Greater Shanghai and Greater Hangzhou, were selected as case studies to quantify the impact of land use/land cover (LULC change on regional ecosystem services value (ESV at the landscape scale since the late 1970s. The results show that in both regions, dramatic LULC change, especially recent land development at the urban fringes, led to a steady decline in the available area of productive agricultural land, natural land and semi-natural land. This consequently caused remarkable landscape fragmentation along the urban-rural gradient as measured by five class-level landscape metrics. It was estimated that in Greater Shanghai, regulating, supporting, provisioning, and cultural ESVs decreased by 32.05%, 17.89%, 53.72%, and 17.06%, respectively. In Greater Hangzhou, these values decreased by 27.82%, 23.86%, 28.62%, and 22.85%, respectively. In addition, the relationship is quantified between zonal buffer-based ESV and class-level landscape metrics. Further analysis shows that spatiotemporal patterns of zonal ESVs along the urban-rural gradient in these two regions exhibited unbalanced patterns of ecological services delivery.

  6. Process connectivity in a naturally prograding river delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendrowski, Alicia; Passalacqua, Paola

    2017-03-01

    River deltas are lowland systems that can display high hydrological connectivity. This connectivity can be structural (morphological connections), functional (control of fluxes), and process connectivity (information flow from system drivers to sinks). In this work, we quantify hydrological process connectivity in Wax Lake Delta, coastal Louisiana, by analyzing couplings among external drivers (discharge, tides, and wind) and water levels recorded at five islands and one channel over summer 2014. We quantify process connections with information theory, a branch of mathematics concerned with the communication of information. We represent process connections as a network; variables serve as network nodes and couplings as network links describing the strength, direction, and time scale of information flow. Comparing process connections at long (105 days) and short (10 days) time scales, we show that tides exhibit daily synchronization with water level, with decreasing strength from downstream to upstream, and that tides transfer information as tides transition from spring to neap. Discharge synchronizes with water level and the time scale of its information transfer compares well to physical travel times through the system, computed with a hydrodynamic model. Information transfer and physical transport show similar spatial patterns, although information transfer time scales are larger than physical travel times. Wind events associated with water level setup lead to increased process connectivity with highly variable information transfer time scales. We discuss the information theory results in the context of the hydrologic behavior of the delta, the role of vegetation as a connector/disconnector on islands, and the applicability of process networks as tools for delta modeling results.

  7. Intranasal oxytocin modulates neural functional connectivity during human social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K; Chen, Xiangchuan; Chen, Xu; Haroon, Ebrahim

    2018-02-10

    Oxytocin (OT) modulates social behavior in primates and many other vertebrate species. Studies in non-primate animals have demonstrated that, in addition to influencing activity within individual brain areas, OT influences functional connectivity across networks of areas involved in social behavior. Previously, we used fMRI to image brain function in human subjects during a dyadic social interaction task following administration of either intranasal oxytocin (INOT) or placebo, and analyzed the data with a standard general linear model. Here, we conduct an extensive re-analysis of these data to explore how OT modulates functional connectivity across a neural network that animal studies implicate in social behavior. OT induced widespread increases in functional connectivity in response to positive social interactions among men and widespread decreases in functional connectivity in response to negative social interactions among women. Nucleus basalis of Meynert, an important regulator of selective attention and motivation with a particularly high density of OT receptors, had the largest number of OT-modulated connections. Regions known to receive mesolimbic dopamine projections such as the nucleus accumbens and lateral septum were also hubs for OT effects on functional connectivity. Our results suggest that the neural mechanism by which OT influences primate social cognition may include changes in patterns of activity across neural networks that regulate social behavior in other animals. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Dense neuron clustering explains connectivity statistics in cortical microcircuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V Klinshov

    Full Text Available Local cortical circuits appear highly non-random, but the underlying connectivity rule remains elusive. Here, we analyze experimental data observed in layer 5 of rat neocortex and suggest a model for connectivity from which emerge essential observed non-random features of both wiring and weighting. These features include lognormal distributions of synaptic connection strength, anatomical clustering, and strong correlations between clustering and connection strength. Our model predicts that cortical microcircuits contain large groups of densely connected neurons which we call clusters. We show that such a cluster contains about one fifth of all excitatory neurons of a circuit which are very densely connected with stronger than average synapses. We demonstrate that such clustering plays an important role in the network dynamics, namely, it creates bistable neural spiking in small cortical circuits. Furthermore, introducing local clustering in large-scale networks leads to the emergence of various patterns of persistent local activity in an ongoing network activity. Thus, our results may bridge a gap between anatomical structure and persistent activity observed during working memory and other cognitive processes.

  9. Performance of Series Connected GaAs Photovoltaic Converters under Multimode Optical Fiber Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiqiang Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many military and industrial applications, GaAs photovoltaic (PV converters are connected in series in order to generate the required voltage compatible with most common electronics. Multimode optical fibers are usually used to carry high-intensity laser and illuminate the series connected GaAs PV converters in real time. However, multimode optical fiber illumination has a speckled intensity pattern. The series connected PV array is extremely sensitive to nonuniform illumination; its performance is limited severely by the converter that is illuminated the least. This paper quantifies the effects of multimode optical fiber illumination on the performance of series connected GaAs PV converters, analyzes the loss mechanisms due to speckles, and discusses the maximum illumination efficiency. In order to describe the illumination dependent behavior detailedly, modeling of the series connected PV array is accomplished based on the equivalent circuit for PV cells. Finally, a series of experiments are carried out to demonstrate the theory analysis.

  10. Extraction spectrophotometric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batik, J.; Vitha, F.

    1985-01-01

    Automation is discussed of extraction spectrophotometric determination of uranium in a solution. Uranium is extracted from accompanying elements in an HCl medium with a solution of tributyl phosphate in benzene. The determination is performed by measuring absorbance at 655 nm in a single-phase ethanol-water-benzene-tributyl phosphate medium. The design is described of an analyzer consisting of an analytical unit and a control unit. The analyzer performance promises increased productivity of labour, improved operating and hygiene conditions, and mainly more accurate results of analyses. (J.C.)

  11. Americal options analyzed differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this note we analyze in a discrete-time context and with a finite outcome space American options starting with the idea that every tradable should be a martingale under a certain measure. We believe that in this way American options become more understandable to people with a good working

  12. Analyzing Political Television Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burson, George

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan to help students understand that political advertisements often mislead, lie, or appeal to emotion. Suggests that the lesson will enable students to examine political advertisements analytically. Includes a worksheet to be used by students to analyze individual political advertisements. (DK)

  13. Centrifugal analyzer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtis, C.A.; Bauer, M.L.; Bostick, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    The development of the centrifuge fast analyzer (CFA) is reviewed. The development of a miniature CFA with computer data analysis is reported and applications for automated diagnostic chemical and hematological assays are discussed. A portable CFA system with microprocessor was adapted for field assays of air and water samples for environmental pollutants, including ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, sulfates, and silica. 83 references

  14. Soft Decision Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin; Steele, Glen; Zucha, Joan; Schlesinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We describe the benefit of using closed-loop measurements for a radio receiver paired with a counterpart transmitter. We show that real-time analysis of the soft decision output of a receiver can provide rich and relevant insight far beyond the traditional hard-decision bit error rate (BER) test statistic. We describe a Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in live-time during the development of software defined radios. This test technique gains importance as modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more protocol overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios (SDRs) use error-correction codes that approach Shannon's theoretical limit of performance.

  15. KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennewitz, F.; Hummel, R.; Oelmann, K.

    1986-01-01

    The KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is a real time engineering simulator based on the KWU computer programs used in plant transient analysis and licensing. The primary goal is to promote the understanding of the technical and physical processes of a nuclear power plant at an on-site training facility. Thus the KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is available with comparable low costs right at the time when technical questions or training needs arise. This has been achieved by (1) application of the transient code NLOOP; (2) unrestricted operator interaction including all simulator functions; (3) using the mainframe computer Control Data Cyber 176 in the KWU computing center; (4) four color graphic displays controlled by a dedicated graphic computer, no control room equipment; and (5) coupling of computers by telecommunication via telephone

  16. Analyzed Using Statistical Moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltulu, O.

    2004-01-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEl) technique is a new x-ray imaging method derived from radiography. The method uses a monorheumetten x-ray beam and introduces an analyzer crystal between an object and a detector Narrow angular acceptance of the analyzer crystal generates an improved contrast over the evaluation radiography. While standart radiography can produce an 'absorption image', DEl produces 'apparent absorption' and 'apparent refraction' images with superior quality. Objects with similar absorption properties may not be distinguished with conventional techniques due to close absorption coefficients. This problem becomes more dominant when an object has scattering properties. A simple approach is introduced to utilize scattered radiation to obtain 'pure absorption' and 'pure refraction' images

  17. Altered amygdalar resting-state connectivity in depression is explained by both genes and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Palomera, Aldo; Tornador, Cristian; Falcón, Carles; Bargalló, Nuria; Nenadic, Igor; Deco, Gustavo; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2015-10-01

    Recent findings indicate that alterations of the amygdalar resting-state fMRI connectivity play an important role in the etiology of depression. While both depression and resting-state brain activity are shaped by genes and environment, the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors mediating the relationship between amygdalar resting-state connectivity and depression remain largely unexplored. Likewise, novel neuroimaging research indicates that different mathematical representations of resting-state fMRI activity patterns are able to embed distinct information relevant to brain health and disease. The present study analyzed the influence of genes and environment on amygdalar resting-state fMRI connectivity, in relation to depression risk. High-resolution resting-state fMRI scans were analyzed to estimate functional connectivity patterns in a sample of 48 twins (24 monozygotic pairs) informative for depressive psychopathology (6 concordant, 8 discordant and 10 healthy control pairs). A graph-theoretical framework was employed to construct brain networks using two methods: (i) the conventional approach of filtered BOLD fMRI time-series and (ii) analytic components of this fMRI activity. Results using both methods indicate that depression risk is increased by environmental factors altering amygdalar connectivity. When analyzing the analytic components of the BOLD fMRI time-series, genetic factors altering the amygdala neural activity at rest show an important contribution to depression risk. Overall, these findings show that both genes and environment modify different patterns the amygdala resting-state connectivity to increase depression risk. The genetic relationship between amygdalar connectivity and depression may be better elicited by examining analytic components of the brain resting-state BOLD fMRI signals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. PhosphoSiteAnalyzer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Martin V; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    an algorithm to retrieve kinase predictions from the public NetworKIN webpage in a semiautomated way and applies hereafter advanced statistics to facilitate a user-tailored in-depth analysis of the phosphoproteomic data sets. The interface of the software provides a high degree of analytical flexibility......Phosphoproteomic experiments are routinely conducted in laboratories worldwide, and because of the fast development of mass spectrometric techniques and efficient phosphopeptide enrichment methods, researchers frequently end up having lists with tens of thousands of phosphorylation sites...... and is designed to be intuitive for most users. PhosphoSiteAnalyzer is a freeware program available at http://phosphosite.sourceforge.net ....

  19. Electrodynamic thermogravimetric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spjut, R.E.; Bar-Ziv, E.; Sarofim, A.F.; Longwell, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The design and operation of a new device for studying single-aerosol-particle kinetics at elevated temperatures, the electrodynamic thermogravimetric analyzer (EDTGA), was examined theoretically and experimentally. The completed device consists of an electrodynamic balance modified to permit particle heating by a CO 2 laser, temperature measurement by a three-color infrared-pyrometry system, and continuous weighing by a position-control system. In this paper, the position-control, particle-weight-measurement, heating, and temperature-measurement systems are described and their limitations examined

  20. Analyzing Chinese Financial Reporting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SABRINA; ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    If the world’s capital markets could use a harmonized accounting framework it would not be necessary for a comparison between two or more sets of accounting standards. However,there is much to do before this becomes reality.This article aims to pres- ent a general overview of China’s General Accepted Accounting Principles(GAAP), U.S.General Accepted Accounting Principles and International Financial Reporting Standards(IFRS),and to analyze the differ- ences among IFRS,U.S.GAAP and China GAAP using fixed assets as an example.

  1. Inductive dielectric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agranovich, Daniel; Popov, Ivan; Ben Ishai, Paul; Feldman, Yuri; Polygalov, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    One of the approaches to bypass the problem of electrode polarization in dielectric measurements is the free electrode method. The advantage of this technique is that, the probing electric field in the material is not supplied by contact electrodes, but rather by electromagnetic induction. We have designed an inductive dielectric analyzer based on a sensor comprising two concentric toroidal coils. In this work, we present an analytic derivation of the relationship between the impedance measured by the sensor and the complex dielectric permittivity of the sample. The obtained relationship was successfully employed to measure the dielectric permittivity and conductivity of various alcohols and aqueous salt solutions. (paper)

  2. Brain connectivity measures: computation and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aleksandar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article computation and comparison of causality measures which are used in determination of brain connectivity patterns is investigated. Main analyzed examples included published computation and comparisons of Directed Transfer Function ‐ DTF and Partial Directed Coherence ‐ PDC. It proved that serious methodology mistakes were involved in measure computations and comparisons. It is shown that the neighborhood of zero is of accented importance in such evaluations and that the issues of semantic stability have to be treated with more attention. Published results on the relationship of these two important measures are partly unstable with small changes of zero threshold and pictures of involved brain structures deduced from the cited articles have to be corrected. Analysis of the operators involved in evaluation and comparisons is given with suggestions for their improvement and complementary additional actions.

  3. Plutonium solution analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded)

  4. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  5. Plutonium solution analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  6. Structural Connectivity Asymmetry in the Neonatal Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnarajah, Nagulan; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Fortier, Marielle V.; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D.; Meaney, Michael J.; Qiu, Anqi

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetry of the neonatal brain is not yet understood at the level of structural connectivity. We utilized DTI deterministic tractography and structural network analysis based on graph theory to determine the pattern of structural connectivity asymmetry in 124 normal neonates. We tracted white matter axonal pathways characterizing interregional connections among brain regions and inferred asymmetry in left and right anatomical network properties. Our findings revealed that in neonates, small-...

  7. On Non-Universality of Solar-Terrestrial Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustilnik, Lev; Yom Din, Gregory

    The discussion on the principal possibility of a causal chain from solar activity and space weather to the earth weather and agriculture price dynamics continues over 200 years from the first publication of Herschel (1801) up to the current time. We analyze main arguments of the two sides and show that the root of the critics of this possibility lies in the wide accepted conception of the universality of the solar-terrestrial connection (that can appear, for example, in daily and seasonal variations) what suggest that the effect can be observed in any historical period and in any region. We show that this expectation is not correct because of the solar-terrestrial connections generated by different sides of solar activity with different agents of solar magnetic dynamo process that have different and non-stable phase patterns. We remind that the realization of the causal chain “solar activity/space weather” - “earth weather” - “crops” -“market reaction” may have a place only in specific historical periods and in specific zones where and when the three necessary conditions hold true. This limitation leads to one of four possible scenarios of the market reaction. We show that the critical arguments used for rejecting a principal possibility of the causal connection “solar activity” - Earth agriculture markets” are based on neglecting the three necessary conditions for realization of this connection, and on analyzing periods and regions when and where the necessary conditions are not hold.

  8. Trace impurity analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.J.; Edwards, D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The desirability for long-term reliability of large scale helium refrigerator systems used on superconducting accelerator magnets has necessitated detection of impurities to levels of a few ppM. An analyzer that measures trace impurity levels of condensable contaminants in concentrations of less than a ppM in 15 atm of He is described. The instrument makes use of the desorption temperature at an indicated pressure of the various impurities to determine the type of contaminant. The pressure rise at that temperature yields a measure of the contaminant level of the impurity. A LN 2 cryogenic charcoal trap is also employed to measure air impurities (nitrogen and oxygen) to obtain the full range of contaminant possibilities. The results of this detector which will be in use on the research and development helium refrigerator of the ISABELLE First-Cell is described

  9. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  10. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at http://www.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/%7Ecsjfann/first%20flow/pda.htm.

  11. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    In the present paper we consider the allocation of cost in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to be connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection demands...

  12. A neutron activation analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Lemmel, H.; Grass, F.; De Regge, P.P.; Burns, K.; Markowicz, A.

    2005-01-01

    Dubbed 'Analyzer' because of its simplicity, a neutron activation analysis facility for short-lived isomeric transitions is based on a low-cost rabbit system and an adaptive digital filter which are controlled by a software performing irradiation control, loss-free gamma-spectrometry, spectra evaluation, nuclide identification and calculation of concentrations in a fully automatic flow of operations. Designed for TRIGA reactors and constructed from inexpensive plastic tubing and an aluminum in-core part, the rabbit system features samples of 5 ml and 10 ml with sample separation at 150 ms and 200 ms transport time or 25 ml samples without separation at a transport time of 300 ms. By automatically adapting shaping times to pulse intervals the preloaded digital filter gives best throughput at best resolution up to input counting rates of 10 6 cps. Loss-free counting enables quantitative correction of counting losses of up to 99%. As a test of system reproducibility in sample separation geometry, K, Cl, Mn, Mg, Ca, Sc, and V have been determined in various reference materials at excellent agreement with consensus values. (author)

  13. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon; Pan, Lei; Zhai, Chengxing; Tang, Benyang; Kubar, Terry; Zhang, Zia; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with newly available global observations is critically needed for the improvement of climate model current-state representation and future-state predictability. A climate model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable analyses that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computation- and data-intensive. With an exploratory nature of climate data analyses and an explosive growth of datasets and service tools, scientists are struggling to keep track of their datasets, tools, and execution/study history, let alone sharing them with others. In response, we have developed a cloud-enabled, provenance-supported, web-service system called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA). CMDA enables the physics-based, multivariable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. At the same time, CMDA provides a crowd-sourcing space where scientists can organize their work efficiently and share their work with others. CMDA is empowered by many current state-of-the-art software packages in web service, provenance, and semantic search.

  14. Analyzing Visibility Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachsbacher, C

    2011-04-01

    Many algorithms, such as level of detail rendering and occlusion culling methods, make decisions based on the degree of visibility of an object, but do not analyze the distribution, or structure, of the visible and occluded regions across surfaces. We present an efficient method to classify different visibility configurations and show how this can be used on top of existing methods based on visibility determination. We adapt co-occurrence matrices for visibility analysis and generalize them to operate on clusters of triangular surfaces instead of pixels. We employ machine learning techniques to reliably classify the thus extracted feature vectors. Our method allows perceptually motivated level of detail methods for real-time rendering applications by detecting configurations with expected visual masking. We exemplify the versatility of our method with an analysis of area light visibility configurations in ray tracing and an area-to-area visibility analysis suitable for hierarchical radiosity refinement. Initial results demonstrate the robustness, simplicity, and performance of our method in synthetic scenes, as well as real applications.

  15. DISSECTING HABITAT CONNECTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    abstractConnectivity is increasingly recognized as an important element of a successful reserve design. Connectivity matters in reserve design to the extent that it promotes or hinders the viability of target populations. While conceptually straightforward, connectivity i...

  16. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed connective tissue disease Overview Mixed connective tissue disease has signs and symptoms of a combination of disorders — primarily lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis. For this reason, mixed connective tissue disease ...

  17. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Conditions Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... by Barbara Goldstein, MD (February 01, 2016) Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease. This ...

  18. Digital Microfluidics Sample Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Michael G.; Srinivasan, Vijay; Eckhardt, Allen; Paik, Philip Y.; Sudarsan, Arjun; Shenderov, Alex; Hua, Zhishan; Pamula, Vamsee K.

    2010-01-01

    Three innovations address the needs of the medical world with regard to microfluidic manipulation and testing of physiological samples in ways that can benefit point-of-care needs for patients such as premature infants, for which drawing of blood for continuous tests can be life-threatening in their own right, and for expedited results. A chip with sample injection elements, reservoirs (and waste), droplet formation structures, fluidic pathways, mixing areas, and optical detection sites, was fabricated to test the various components of the microfluidic platform, both individually and in integrated fashion. The droplet control system permits a user to control droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. Also, the programming system allows a user to develop software routines for controlling droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. A chip is incorporated into the system with a controller, a detector, input and output devices, and software. A novel filler fluid formulation is used for the transport of droplets with high protein concentrations. Novel assemblies for detection of photons from an on-chip droplet are present, as well as novel systems for conducting various assays, such as immunoassays and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The lab-on-a-chip (a.k.a., lab-on-a-printed-circuit board) processes physiological samples and comprises a system for automated, multi-analyte measurements using sub-microliter samples of human serum. The invention also relates to a diagnostic chip and system including the chip that performs many of the routine operations of a central labbased chemistry analyzer, integrating, for example, colorimetric assays (e.g., for proteins), chemiluminescence/fluorescence assays (e.g., for enzymes, electrolytes, and gases), and/or conductometric assays (e.g., for hematocrit on plasma and whole blood) on a single chip platform.

  19. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

  20. Analyzing Interaction Patterns to Verify a Simulation/Game Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Rodney Dean

    2012-01-01

    In order for simulations and games to be effective for learning, instructional designers must verify that the underlying computational models being used have an appropriate degree of fidelity to the conceptual models of their real-world counterparts. A simulation/game that provides incorrect feedback is likely to promote misunderstanding and…

  1. Analyzing stakeholders' workshop dialogue for evidence of social learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Bentley Brymer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available After much debate and synthesis, social learning scholarship is entering an era of empirical research. Given the range across individual-, network-, and systems-level perspectives and scales, clear documentation of social learning processes is critical for making claims about social learning outcomes and their impacts. Past studies have relied on participant recall and concept maps to document perceptions of social learning process and outcome. Using an individual-centric perspective and importing ideas from communication and psychology on question-answer learning through conversational agents, we contribute an expanded conceptual framework and qualitative analytical strategy for assessing stakeholder dialogue for evidence of social learning. We observed stakeholder dialogue across five workshops coordinated for the Bruneau-Owyhee Sage-Grouse Habitat Project (BOSH in Owyhee County, Idaho, USA. Participants' dialogue was audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for cross-case patterns. Deductive and inductive coding techniques were applied to illuminate cognitive, relational, and epistemic dimensions of learning and topics of learning. A key finding supports our inclusion of the epistemic dimension and highlights a need for future research: although some participants articulated epistemic positions, they did not challenge each other to share sources or justify factual claims. These findings align with previous research suggesting that, in addition to considering diversity and representation (who is at the table, we should pay more attention to how participants talk, perhaps prompting specific patterns of speech as we endeavor to draw causal connections between social learning processes and outcomes.

  2. Using Petri nets for modeling enterprise integration patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahland, D.; Gierds, C.

    2012-01-01

    Enterprise Integration Patterns are a collection of widely used patterns for integrating enterprise applications and business processes. These patterns informally represent typical design decisions for connecting enterprise applications. For the set of patterns collected by Hohpe and Woolf in

  3. Changes of functional connectivity in the left frontoparietal network following aphasic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eZhu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Language is an essential higher cognitive function supported by large-scale brain networks. In this study, we investigated functional connectivity changes in the left frontoparietal network (LFPN, a language-cognition related brain network in aphasic patients. We enrolled thirteen aphasic patients who had undergone a stroke in the left hemisphere and age-, gender-, educational level-matched controls and analyzed the data by integrating independent component analysis (ICA with a network connectivity analysis method. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and clinical evaluation of language function were assessed at two stages: one and two months after stroke onset. We found reduced functional connectivity between the LFPN and the right middle frontal cortex, medial frontal cortex and right inferior frontal cortex in aphasic patients as compared to controls. Correlation analysis showed that stronger functional connectivity between the LFPN and the right middle frontal cortex and medial frontal cortex coincided with more preserved language comprehension ability after stroke. Network connectivity analysis showed reduced LFPN connectivity as indicated by the mean network connectivity index of key regions in the LFPN of aphasic patients. The decreased LFPN connectivity in stroke patients was significantly associated with the impairment of language function in their comprehension ability. We also found significant association between recovery of comprehension ability and the mean changes in intrinsic LFPN connectivity. Our findings suggest that brain lesions may influence language comprehension by altering functional connectivity between regions and that the patterns of abnormal functional connectivity may contribute to the recovery of language deficits.

  4. Brain Connectivity and Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Emily L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Emerging hypotheses suggest that efficient cognitive functioning requires the integration of separate, but interconnected cortical networks in the brain. Although task-related measures of brain activity suggest that a frontoparietal network is associated with the control of attention, little is known regarding how components within this distributed network act together or with other networks to achieve various attentional functions. This review considers both functional and structural studies of brain connectivity, as complemented by behavioral and task-related neuroimaging data. These studies show converging results: The frontal and parietal cortical regions are active together, over time, and identifiable frontoparietal networks are active in relation to specific task demands. However, the spontaneous, low-frequency fluctuations of brain activity that occur in the resting state, without specific task demands, also exhibit patterns of connectivity that closely resemble the task-related, frontoparietal attention networks. Both task-related and resting-state networks exhibit consistent relations to behavioral measures of attention. Further, anatomical structure, particularly white matter pathways as defined by diffusion tensor imaging, places constraints on intrinsic functional connectivity. Lastly, connectivity analyses applied to investigate cognitive differences across individuals in both healthy and diseased states suggest that disconnection of attentional networks is linked to deficits in cognitive functioning, and in extreme cases, to disorders of attention. Thus, comprehensive theories of visual attention and their clinical translation depend on the continued integration of behavioral, task-related neuroimaging, and brain connectivity measures. PMID:23597177

  5. Schaffer collateral inputs to CA1 excitatory and inhibitory neurons follow different connectivity rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Osung; Feng, Linqing; Druckmann, Shaul; Kim, Jinhyun

    2018-05-04

    Neural circuits, governed by a complex interplay between excitatory and inhibitory neurons, are the substrate for information processing, and the organization of synaptic connectivity in neural network is an important determinant of circuit function. Here, we analyzed the fine structure of connectivity in hippocampal CA1 excitatory and inhibitory neurons innervated by Schaffer collaterals (SCs) using mGRASP in male mice. Our previous study revealed spatially structured synaptic connectivity between CA3-CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs). Surprisingly, parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVs) showed a significantly more random pattern spatial structure. Notably, application of Peters' Rule for synapse prediction by random overlap between axons and dendrites enhanced structured connectivity in PCs, but, by contrast, made the connectivity pattern in PVs more random. In addition, PCs in a deep sublayer of striatum pyramidale appeared more highly structured than PCs in superficial layers, and little or no sublayer specificity was found in PVs. Our results show that CA1 excitatory PCs and inhibitory PVs innervated by the same SC inputs follow different connectivity rules. The different organizations of fine scale structured connectivity in hippocampal excitatory and inhibitory neurons provide important insights into the development and functions of neural networks. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding how neural circuits generate behavior is one of the central goals of neuroscience. An important component of this endeavor is the mapping of fine-scale connection patterns that underlie, and help us infer, signal processing in the brain. Here, using our recently developed synapse detection technology (mGRASP and neuTube), we provide detailed profiles of synaptic connectivity in excitatory (CA1 pyramidal) and inhibitory (CA1 parvalbumin-positive) neurons innervated by the same presynaptic inputs (CA3 Schaffer collaterals). Our results reveal that these two types of CA1 neurons follow

  6. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we consider the allocation of costs in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to have connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection...... demands. We use a few axioms to characterize allocation rules that truthfully implement cost minimizing networks satisfying all connection demands in a game where: (1) a central planner announces an allocation rule and a cost estimation rule; (2) every agent reports her own connection demand as well...... as all connection costs; (3) the central planner selects a cost minimizing network satisfying reported connection demands based on the estimated costs; and, (4) the planner allocates the true costs of the selected network. It turns out that an allocation rule satisfies the axioms if and only if relative...

  7. Multivariate pattern dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Anzellotti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available When we perform a cognitive task, multiple brain regions are engaged. Understanding how these regions interact is a fundamental step to uncover the neural bases of behavior. Most research on the interactions between brain regions has focused on the univariate responses in the regions. However, fine grained patterns of response encode important information, as shown by multivariate pattern analysis. In the present article, we introduce and apply multivariate pattern dependence (MVPD: a technique to study the statistical dependence between brain regions in humans in terms of the multivariate relations between their patterns of responses. MVPD characterizes the responses in each brain region as trajectories in region-specific multidimensional spaces, and models the multivariate relationship between these trajectories. We applied MVPD to the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS and to the fusiform face area (FFA, using a searchlight approach to reveal interactions between these seed regions and the rest of the brain. Across two different experiments, MVPD identified significant statistical dependence not detected by standard functional connectivity. Additionally, MVPD outperformed univariate connectivity in its ability to explain independent variance in the responses of individual voxels. In the end, MVPD uncovered different connectivity profiles associated with different representational subspaces of FFA: the first principal component of FFA shows differential connectivity with occipital and parietal regions implicated in the processing of low-level properties of faces, while the second and third components show differential connectivity with anterior temporal regions implicated in the processing of invariant representations of face identity.

  8. Structural Connectivity of the Developing Human Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Zeynep M.; Osher, David E.; Koldewyn, Kami; Martin, Rebecca E.; Finn, Amy; Saxe, Rebecca; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Sheridan, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    A large corpus of research suggests that there are changes in the manner and degree to which the amygdala supports cognitive and emotional function across development. One possible basis for these developmental differences could be the maturation of amygdalar connections with the rest of the brain. Recent functional connectivity studies support this conclusion, but the structural connectivity of the developing amygdala and its different nuclei remains largely unstudied. We examined age related changes in the DWI connectivity fingerprints of the amygdala to the rest of the brain in 166 individuals of ages 5-30. We also developed a model to predict age based on individual-subject amygdala connectivity, and identified the connections that were most predictive of age. Finally, we segmented the amygdala into its four main nucleus groups, and examined the developmental changes in connectivity for each nucleus. We observed that with age, amygdalar connectivity becomes increasingly sparse and localized. Age related changes were largely localized to the subregions of the amygdala that are implicated in social inference and contextual memory (the basal and lateral nuclei). The central nucleus’ connectivity also showed differences with age but these differences affected fewer target regions than the basal and lateral nuclei. The medial nucleus did not exhibit any age related changes. These findings demonstrate increasing specificity in the connectivity patterns of amygdalar nuclei across age. PMID:25875758

  9. Connecting Leadership and Learning: Do Versatile Learners make Connective Leaders?

    OpenAIRE

    Jill L. Robinson

    2016-01-01

    Recent failures in leadership, suggest that creating better-quality leadership development programs is critical. In moving from theory to practice, this paper examined the relationship between learning style and leadership style which may enable us to move away from one-size-fits-all leadership development programs. Utilizing Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model and Connective Leadership theory, approximately 3600 college students were analyzed to discover whether versatility in learning styles...

  10. Connecting leadership and learning: Do versatile learners make connective leaders?

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jill L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent failures in leadership, suggest that creating better-quality leadership development programs is critical. In moving from theory to practice, this paper examined the relationship between learning style and leadership style which may enable us to move away from one-size-fits-all leadership development programs. Utilizing Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model and Connective Leadership theory, approximately 3600 college students were analyzed to discover whether versatility in learning styles...

  11. Connecting Leadership and Learning: Do Versatile Learners make Connective Leaders?

    OpenAIRE

    Jill L. Robinson

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent failures in leadership, suggest that creating better-quality leadership development programs is critical. In moving from theory to practice, this paper examined the relationship between learning style and leadership style which may enable us to move away from one-size-fits-all leadership development programs. Utilizing Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model and Connective Leadership theory, approximately 3600 college students were analyzed to discover whether versatility in le...

  12. Multichannel analyzer development in CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, J.Z.; Zarandy, A.

    1988-01-01

    The data acquisition in TOKAMAK experiments some CAMAC modules have been developed. The modules are the following: 64 K analyzer memory, 32 K analyzer memory, 6-channel pulse peak analyzer memory which contains the 32 K analyzer memory and eight AD-converters

  13. Methylphenidate Modulates Functional Network Connectivity to Enhance Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Monica D.; Zhang, Sheng; Hsu, Wei-Ting; Scheinost, Dustin; Finn, Emily S.; Shen, Xilin; Constable, R. Todd; Li, Chiang-Shan R.; Chun, Marvin M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that human whole-brain functional connectivity patterns measured with fMRI contain information about cognitive abilities, including sustained attention. To derive behavioral predictions from connectivity patterns, our group developed a connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM) approach (Finn et al., 2015; Rosenberg et al., 2016). Previously using CPM, we defined a high-attention network, comprising connections positively correlated with performance on a sustained...

  14. Connected vehicle standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicles have the potential to transform the way Americans travel by : allowing cars, buses, trucks, trains, traffic signals, smart phones, and other devices to : communicate through a safe, interoperable wireless network. A connected vehic...

  15. Connecting to Everyday Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    construction and reproduction of cultural heritage creating novel connections between self and others and between past, present and future. We present experiences from a current research project, the Digital Natives exhibition, in which social media was designed as an integral part of the exhibition to connect...... focusing on the connections between audiences practices and the museum exhibition....

  16. Hyponymy Patterns in Romanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verginica Barbu Mititelu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyponymy is a lexical-semantic relation that has been studied in Romanian linguistics only occasionally and almost exclusively in connection to other relations. However, for computational engineers it offers a very effective way of organizing the lexical material useful in many applications involving Natural Language Processing. In this paper we present two methods of identifying Romanian hyponymy patterns, their results and evaluation; we also envisage the applicability of these patterns and future work

  17. Brain-Wide Analysis of Functional Connectivity in First-Episode and Chronic Stages of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Rolls, Edmund T; Yang, Wei; Palaniyappan, Lena; Zhang, Lu; Cheng, Wei; Yao, Ye; Liu, Zhaowen; Gong, Xiaohong; Luo, Qiang; Tang, Yanqing; Crow, Timothy J; Broome, Matthew R; Xu, Ke; Li, Chunbo; Wang, Jijun; Liu, Zhening; Lu, Guangming; Wang, Fei; Feng, Jianfeng

    2017-03-01

    Published reports of functional abnormalities in schizophrenia remain divergent due to lack of staging point-of-view and whole-brain analysis. To identify key functional-connectivity differences of first-episode (FE) and chronic patients from controls using resting-state functional MRI, and determine changes that are specifically associated with disease onset, a clinical staging model is adopted. We analyze functional-connectivity differences in prodromal, FE (mostly drug naïve), and chronic patients from their matched controls from 6 independent datasets involving a total of 789 participants (343 patients). Brain-wide functional-connectivity analysis was performed in different datasets and the results from the datasets of the same stage were then integrated by meta-analysis, with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Prodromal patients differed from controls in their pattern of functional-connectivity involving the inferior frontal gyri (Broca's area). In FE patients, 90% of the functional-connectivity changes involved the frontal lobes, mostly the inferior frontal gyrus including Broca's area, and these changes were correlated with delusions/blunted affect. For chronic patients, functional-connectivity differences extended to wider areas of the brain, including reduced thalamo-frontal connectivity, and increased thalamo-temporal and thalamo-sensorimoter connectivity that were correlated with the positive, negative, and general symptoms, respectively. Thalamic changes became prominent at the chronic stage. These results provide evidence for distinct patterns of functional-dysconnectivity across FE and chronic stages of schizophrenia. Importantly, abnormalities in the frontal language networks appear early, at the time of disease onset. The identification of stage-specific pathological processes may help to understand the disease course of schizophrenia and identify neurobiological markers crucial for early diagnosis. © The Author 2016. Published by

  18. A low power Multi-Channel Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.A.; Brackenbush, L.W.

    1993-06-01

    The instrumentation used in nuclear spectroscopy is generally large, is not portable, and requires a lot of power. Key components of these counting systems are the computer and the Multi-Channel Analyzer (MCA). To assist in performing measurements requiring portable systems, a small, very low power MCA has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This MCA is interfaced with a Hewlett Packard palm top computer for portable applications. The MCA can also be connected to an IBM/PC for data storage and analysis. In addition, a real-time time display mode allows the user to view the spectra as they are collected

  19. An information theory framework for dynamic functional domain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Victor M; Miller, Robyn; Calhoun, Vince

    2017-06-01

    Dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) analyzes time evolution of coherent activity in the brain. In this technique dynamic changes are considered for the whole brain. This paper proposes an information theory framework to measure information flowing among subsets of functional networks call functional domains. Our method aims at estimating bits of information contained and shared among domains. The succession of dynamic functional states is estimated at the domain level. Information quantity is based on the probabilities of observing each dynamic state. Mutual information measurement is then obtained from probabilities across domains. Thus, we named this value the cross domain mutual information (CDMI). Strong CDMIs were observed in relation to the subcortical domain. Domains related to sensorial input, motor control and cerebellum form another CDMI cluster. Information flow among other domains was seldom found. Other methods of dynamic connectivity focus on whole brain dFNC matrices. In the current framework, information theory is applied to states estimated from pairs of multi-network functional domains. In this context, we apply information theory to measure information flow across functional domains. Identified CDMI clusters point to known information pathways in the basal ganglia and also among areas of sensorial input, patterns found in static functional connectivity. In contrast, CDMI across brain areas of higher level cognitive processing follow a different pattern that indicates scarce information sharing. These findings show that employing information theory to formally measured information flow through brain domains reveals additional features of functional connectivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Abnormal synchrony and effective connectivity in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia-Vaya, Maria; Escartí, Maria José; Molina-Mateo, Jose; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Gadea, Marien; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Aguilar García-Iturrospe, Eduardo J.; Robles, Montserrat; Biswal, Bharat B.; Sanjuan, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Auditory hallucinations (AH) are the most frequent positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Hallucinations have been related to emotional processing disturbances, altered functional connectivity and effective connectivity deficits. Previously, we observed that, compared to healthy controls, the limbic network responses of patients with auditory hallucinations differed when the subjects were listening to emotionally charged words. We aimed to compare the synchrony patterns and effective connectivity of task-related networks between schizophrenia patients with and without AH and healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients with AH (n = 27) and without AH (n = 14) were compared with healthy participants (n = 31). We examined functional connectivity by analyzing correlations and cross-correlations among previously detected independent component analysis time courses. Granger causality was used to infer the information flow direction in the brain regions. The results demonstrate that the patterns of cortico-cortical functional synchrony differentiated the patients with AH from the patients without AH and from the healthy participants. Additionally, Granger-causal relationships between the networks clearly differentiated the groups. In the patients with AH, the principal causal source was an occipital–cerebellar component, versus a temporal component in the patients without AH and the healthy controls. These data indicate that an anomalous process of neural connectivity exists when patients with AH process emotional auditory stimuli. Additionally, a central role is suggested for the cerebellum in processing emotional stimuli in patients with persistent AH. PMID:25379429

  1. Differences in interregional brain connectivity in children with unilateral hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Matthew E; Colletta, Miranda; Coalson, Rebecca; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Lieu, Judith E C

    2017-11-01

    To identify functional network architecture differences in the brains of children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) using resting-state functional-connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI). Prospective observational study. Children (7 to 17 years of age) with severe to profound hearing loss in one ear, along with their normal hearing (NH) siblings, were recruited and imaged using rs-fcMRI. Eleven children had right UHL; nine had left UHL; and 13 had normal hearing. Forty-one brain regions of interest culled from established brain networks such as the default mode (DMN); cingulo-opercular (CON); and frontoparietal networks (FPN); as well as regions for language, phonological, and visual processing, were analyzed using regionwise correlations and conjunction analysis to determine differences in functional connectivity between the UHL and normal hearing children. When compared to the NH group, children with UHL showed increased connectivity patterns between multiple networks, such as between the CON and visual processing centers. However, there were decreased, as well as aberrant connectivity patterns with the coactivation of the DMN and FPN, a relationship that usually is negatively correlated. Children with UHL demonstrate multiple functional connectivity differences between brain networks involved with executive function, cognition, and language comprehension that may represent adaptive as well as maladaptive changes. These findings suggest that possible interventions or habilitation, beyond amplification, might be able to affect some children's requirement for additional help at school. 3b. Laryngoscope, 127:2636-2645, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Network connectivity value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragicevic, Arnaud; Boulanger, Vincent; Bruciamacchie, Max; Chauchard, Sandrine; Dupouey, Jean-Luc; Stenger, Anne

    2017-04-21

    In order to unveil the value of network connectivity, we formalize the construction of ecological networks in forest environments as an optimal control dynamic graph-theoretic problem. The network is based on a set of bioreserves and patches linked by ecological corridors. The node dynamics, built upon the consensus protocol, form a time evolutive Mahalanobis distance weighted by the opportunity costs of timber production. We consider a case of complete graph, where the ecological network is fully connected, and a case of incomplete graph, where the ecological network is partially connected. The results show that the network equilibrium depends on the size of the reception zone, while the network connectivity depends on the environmental compatibility between the ecological areas. Through shadow prices, we find that securing connectivity in partially connected networks is more expensive than in fully connected networks, but should be undertaken when the opportunity costs are significant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Independent working place on the base of the DVK-2M computer and UNO-4096 analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, M.Yu.; Balandin, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    Independent working place on the base of the DVK-2M microcomputer and UNO-4096-90 analyzer, designated for investigations of the field of reactor and protection physics is described. Two ways of the analyzer connection with the DVK-2M microcomputer are suggested : by means of CAMAC system or direct connection of UNO-analyzer with the DVK-2M processor

  4. A new automatic analyzer for uranium determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Buyun; Zhu Yaokun; Wang Bin; Cong Peiyan; Zhang Lan

    1992-08-01

    An intellectual automatic analyzer for uranium based on the principle of flow injection analysis (FIA) has been developed. It can directly determine the uranium solution in range of 0.02 to 500 mg/L without any pre-process. A chromatographic column with extractant, in which the trace uranium is concentrated and separated, has special ability to enrich uranium, is connected to the manifold of the analyzer. The analyzer is suited for trace uranium determination in varies samples. The 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethyl-aminophenol (Br-PADAP) is used as color reagent. Uranium is determined in aqueous solution by adding cation surfactant, cetyl-pyridinium bromide (PCB). The rate of analysis is 30 to 90 samples per hour. The relative standard deviation of determination is 1% ∼ 2%. The analyzer has been used in factories and laboratory, and the results are satisfied. The determination range can easily be changed by using a multi-function auto-injection valve that changes the injection volume of the sample and channels. So, it could adopt varies FIA operation modes to meet the needs of FIA determination for other substance. The analyzer has universal functions

  5. A tandem parallel plate analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Y.; Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Nishizawa, A.; Kawasumi, Y.

    1996-11-01

    By a new modification of a parallel plate analyzer the second-order focus is obtained in an arbitrary injection angle. This kind of an analyzer with a small injection angle will have an advantage of small operational voltage, compared to the Proca and Green analyzer where the injection angle is 30 degrees. Thus, the newly proposed analyzer will be very useful for the precise energy measurement of high energy particles in MeV range. (author)

  6. Mathematical Modeling of Column-Base Connections under Monotonic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Some considerable damage to steel structures during the Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake occurred. Among them, many exposed-type column bases failed in several consistent patterns, such as brittle base plate fracture, excessive bolt elongation, unexpected early bolt failure, and inferior construction work, etc. The lessons from these phenomena led to the need for improved understanding of column base behavior. Joint behavior must be modeled when analyzing semi-rigid frames, which is associated with a mathematical model of the moment–rotation curve. The most accurate model uses continuous nonlinear functions. This article presents three areas of steel joint research: (1 analysis methods of semi-rigid joints; (2 prediction methods for the mechanical behavior of joints; (3 mathematical representations of the moment–rotation curve. In the current study, a new exponential model to depict the moment–rotation relationship of column base connection is proposed. The proposed nonlinear model represents an approach to the prediction of M–θ curves, taking into account the possible failure modes and the deformation characteristics of the connection elements. The new model has three physical parameters, along with two curve-fitted factors. These physical parameters are generated from dimensional details of the connection, as well as the material properties. The M–θ curves obtained by the model are compared with published connection tests and 3D FEM research. The proposed mathematical model adequately comes close to characterizing M–θ behavior through the full range of loading/rotations. As a result, modeling of column base connections using the proposed mathematical model can give crucial beforehand information, and overcome the disadvantages of time consuming workmanship and cost of experimental studies.

  7. Function-specific and Enhanced Brain Structural Connectivity Mapping via Joint Modeling of Diffusion and Functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shu-Hsien; Parhi, Keshab K; Lenglet, Christophe

    2018-03-16

    A joint structural-functional brain network model is presented, which enables the discovery of function-specific brain circuits, and recovers structural connections that are under-estimated by diffusion MRI (dMRI). Incorporating information from functional MRI (fMRI) into diffusion MRI to estimate brain circuits is a challenging task. Usually, seed regions for tractography are selected from fMRI activation maps to extract the white matter pathways of interest. The proposed method jointly analyzes whole brain dMRI and fMRI data, allowing the estimation of complete function-specific structural networks instead of interactively investigating the connectivity of individual cortical/sub-cortical areas. Additionally, tractography techniques are prone to limitations, which can result in erroneous pathways. The proposed framework explicitly models the interactions between structural and functional connectivity measures thereby improving anatomical circuit estimation. Results on Human Connectome Project (HCP) data demonstrate the benefits of the approach by successfully identifying function-specific anatomical circuits, such as the language and resting-state networks. In contrast to correlation-based or independent component analysis (ICA) functional connectivity mapping, detailed anatomical connectivity patterns are revealed for each functional module. Results on a phantom (Fibercup) also indicate improvements in structural connectivity mapping by rejecting false-positive connections with insufficient support from fMRI, and enhancing under-estimated connectivity with strong functional correlation.

  8. Connectivity Measures in EEG Microstructural Sleep Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Dimitris; Koupparis, Andreas M; Kokkinos, Vasileios; Koutroumanidis, Michalis; Kostopoulos, George K

    2016-01-01

    During Non-Rapid Eye Movement sleep (NREM) the brain is relatively disconnected from the environment, while connectedness between brain areas is also decreased. Evidence indicates, that these dynamic connectivity changes are delivered by microstructural elements of sleep: short periods of environmental stimuli evaluation followed by sleep promoting procedures. The connectivity patterns of the latter, among other aspects of sleep microstructure, are still to be fully elucidated. We suggest here a methodology for the assessment and investigation of the connectivity patterns of EEG microstructural elements, such as sleep spindles. The methodology combines techniques in the preprocessing, estimation, error assessing and visualization of results levels in order to allow the detailed examination of the connectivity aspects (levels and directionality of information flow) over frequency and time with notable resolution, while dealing with the volume conduction and EEG reference assessment. The high temporal and frequency resolution of the methodology will allow the association between the microelements and the dynamically forming networks that characterize them, and consequently possibly reveal aspects of the EEG microstructure. The proposed methodology is initially tested on artificially generated signals for proof of concept and subsequently applied to real EEG recordings via a custom built MATLAB-based tool developed for such studies. Preliminary results from 843 fast sleep spindles recorded in whole night sleep of 5 healthy volunteers indicate a prevailing pattern of interactions between centroparietal and frontal regions. We demonstrate hereby, an opening to our knowledge attempt to estimate the scalp EEG connectivity that characterizes fast sleep spindles via an "EEG-element connectivity" methodology we propose. The application of the latter, via a computational tool we developed suggests it is able to investigate the connectivity patterns related to the occurrence

  9. Handbook of networking & connectivity

    CERN Document Server

    McClain, Gary R

    1994-01-01

    Handbook of Networking & Connectivity focuses on connectivity standards in use, including hardware and software options. The book serves as a guide for solving specific problems that arise in designing and maintaining organizational networks.The selection first tackles open systems interconnection, guide to digital communications, and implementing TCP/IP in an SNA environment. Discussions focus on elimination of the SNA backbone, routing SNA over internets, connectionless versus connection-oriented networks, internet concepts, application program interfaces, basic principles of layering, proto

  10. Network based approaches reveal clustering in protein point patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joshua; Barr, Valarie; Aldridge, Joshua; Samelson, Lawrence E.; Losert, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in super-resolution imaging have allowed for the sub-diffraction measurement of the spatial location of proteins on the surfaces of T-cells. The challenge is to connect these complex point patterns to the internal processes and interactions, both protein-protein and protein-membrane. We begin analyzing these patterns by forming a geometric network amongst the proteins and looking at network measures, such the degree distribution. This allows us to compare experimentally observed patterns to models. Specifically, we find that the experimental patterns differ from heterogeneous Poisson processes, highlighting an internal clustering structure. Further work will be to compare our results to simulated protein-protein interactions to determine clustering mechanisms.

  11. Looking for hotspots of marine metacommunity connectivity: a methodological framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melià, Paco; Schiavina, Marcello; Rossetto, Marisa; Gatto, Marino; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Casagrandi, Renato

    2016-03-01

    Seascape connectivity critically affects the spatiotemporal dynamics of marine metacommunities. Understanding how connectivity patterns emerge from physically and biologically-mediated interactions is therefore crucial to conserve marine ecosystem functions and biodiversity. Here, we develop a set of biophysical models to explore connectivity in assemblages of species belonging to a typical Mediterranean community (Posidonia oceanica meadows) and characterized by different dispersing traits. We propose a novel methodological framework to synthesize species-specific results into a set of community connectivity metrics and show that spatiotemporal variation in magnitude and direction of the connections, as well as interspecific differences in dispersing traits, are key factors structuring community connectivity. We eventually demonstrate how these metrics can be used to characterize the functional role of each marine area in determining patterns of community connectivity at the basin level and to support marine conservation planning.

  12. 78 FR 55684 - ConnectED Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... tools move everything from homework assignments to testing into the cloud. The workshop will explore possible strategies to connect virtually all of our students to next-generation broadband in a timely, cost-effective way. It will also share promising practices, from NTIA's Broadband Technology Opportunities...

  13. Digital Multi Channel Analyzer Enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, E.; Marcus, E.; Wengrowicz, U.; Beck, A.; Nir, J.; Sheinfeld, M.; Broide, A.; Tirosh, D.

    2002-01-01

    A cement analyzing system based on radiation spectroscopy had been developed [1], using novel digital approach for real-time, high-throughput and low-cost Multi Channel Analyzer. The performance of the developed system had a severe problem: the resulted spectrum suffered from lack of smoothness, it was very noisy and full of spikes and surges, therefore it was impossible to use this spectrum for analyzing the cement substance. This paper describes the work carried out to improve the system performance

  14. PM 3655 PHILIPS Logic analyzer

    CERN Multimedia

    A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuit. A logic analyzer may convert the captured data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or may correlate assembly with source-level software. Logic Analyzers have advanced triggering capabilities, and are useful when a user needs to see the timing relationships between many signals in a digital system.

  15. The Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Stanley

    2017-04-24

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing energy efficient travel behavior.

  16. Connections: All Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management Plateau, and more... Connections Newsletter December 2016 December 2016 Science-themed gifts available at

  17. Topography of Striate-Extrastriate Connections in Neonatally Enucleated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn J. Laing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that retinal input is necessary for the normal development of striate cortex and its corticocortical connections, but there is little information on the role that retinal input plays in the development of retinotopically organized connections between V1 and surrounding visual areas. In nearly all lateral extrastriate areas, the anatomical and physiological representation of the nasotemporal axis of the visual field mirrors the representation of this axis in V1. To determine whether the mediolateral topography of striate-extrastriate projections is preserved in neonatally enucleated rats, we analyzed the patterns of projections resulting from tracer injections placed at different sites along the mediolateral axis of V1. We found that the correlation between the distance from injection sites to the lateral border of V1 and the distance of the labeling patterns in area 18a was strong in controls and much weaker in enucleates. Data from pairs of injections in the same animal revealed that the separation of area 18a projection fields for a given separation of injection sites was more variable in enucleated than in control rats. Our analysis of single and double tracer injections suggests that neonatal bilateral enucleation weakens, but not completely abolishes, the mediolateral topography in area 18a.

  18. A Building Connecting Separated Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    Producing something for general use involves the designers' anticipation of the use of the object. Personal as well as professional experience is involved in the design anticipations of the process. Using an object means exploring it as a concrete arrangement for our everyday conduct of life....... in no systematic sequence. This, among other things, separates design and use, which is worth investigating in order to understand the problems involved in connecting the design of a house and analyzing the experience of a user. We undertook a preliminary investigation of how a dormitory for visiting students from...... with students from other dormitories, and connect with the Danes from other sections of the building isolating themselves. The janitor was surprised at the supposed function of the washing machines. Since other dormitories at the campus did not provide washing machines, the ones at the house investigated were...

  19. Clinical applicability of quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy in differential diagnosis of connective tissue diseases with Raynaud's phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Po-Chang; Huang, Min-Nung; Kuo, Yu-Min; Hsieh, Song-Chou; Yu, Chia-Li

    2013-08-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy is a useful tool to distinguish primary from secondary Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) by examining the morphology of nailfold capillaries but its role in disease diagnosis is not clearly established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the roles of quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy in differential diagnosis of connective tissue diseases (CTDs) with RP. The data between the year 2005 and 2009 were retrieved from the nailfold capillaroscopic database of National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). Only the data from the patients with RP were analyzed. The criteria for interpretation of capillaroscopic findings were predefined. The final diagnoses of the patients were based on the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for individual diseases, independent of nailfold capillaroscopic findings. The sensitivity and the specificity of each capillaroscopic pattern to the diseases were determined. The data from a total of 67 patients were qualified for the current study. We found the sensitivity and specificity of scleroderma pattern for systemic sclerosis (SSc) were 89.47% and 80%, and the specificity of the early, active, and late scleroderma patterns for SSc reached 87.5%, 97.5%, and 95%, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pattern for SLE and polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) pattern for PM/DM were 33.33%/95.45% and 60%/96.3%, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) pattern for MCTD were 20%/100%. The nailfold capillaroscopic (NC) patterns may be useful in the differential diagnosis of CTDs with RP. The NC patterns for SSc and PM/DM are both sensitive and specific to the diseases, while the SLE and MCTD patterns exhibit high specificity but relatively low sensitivity. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Altered Insula Connectivity under MDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpola, Ishan C; Nest, Timothy; Roseman, Leor; Erritzoe, David; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2017-10-01

    Recent work with noninvasive human brain imaging has started to investigate the effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on large-scale patterns of brain activity. MDMA, a potent monoamine-releaser with particularly pronounced serotonin- releasing properties, has unique subjective effects that include: marked positive mood, pleasant/unusual bodily sensations and pro-social, empathic feelings. However, the neurobiological basis for these effects is not properly understood, and the present analysis sought to address this knowledge gap. To do this, we administered MDMA-HCl (100 mg p.o.) and, separately, placebo (ascorbic acid) in a randomized, double-blind, repeated-measures design with twenty-five healthy volunteers undergoing fMRI scanning. We then employed a measure of global resting-state functional brain connectivity and follow-up seed-to-voxel analysis to the fMRI data we acquired. Results revealed decreased right insula/salience network functional connectivity under MDMA. Furthermore, these decreases in right insula/salience network connectivity correlated with baseline trait anxiety and acute experiences of altered bodily sensations under MDMA. The present findings highlight insular disintegration (ie, compromised salience network membership) as a neurobiological signature of the MDMA experience, and relate this brain effect to trait anxiety and acutely altered bodily sensations-both of which are known to be associated with insular functioning.

  1. Multichannel analyzer type CMA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czermak, A.; Jablonski, J.; Ostrowicz, A.

    1978-01-01

    Multichannel analyzer CMA-3 is designed for two-parametric analysis with operator controlled logical windows. It is implemented in CAMAC standard. A single crate contains all required modules and is controlled by the PDP-11/10 minicomputer. Configuration of CMA-3 is shown. CMA-3 is the next version of the multichannel analyzer described in report No 958/E-8. (author)

  2. Analyzing data files in SWAN

    CERN Document Server

    Gajam, Niharika

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally analyzing data happens via batch-processing and interactive work on the terminal. The project aims to provide another way of analyzing data files: A cloud-based approach. It aims to make it a productive and interactive environment through the combination of FCC and SWAN software.

  3. Patterns of Knowledge Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bo

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify knowledge construction patterns in a local learning community. Observation, documents, and semistructured interviews were employed to collect data. Twenty learners were interviewed. Data were analyzed inductively using the constant comparative method. Five major patterns--radiation, circulation,…

  4. Sensing coral reef connectivity pathways from space

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, Dionysios E.; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Zhan, Peng; Dreano, Denis; Pradhan, Yaswant; Nanninga, Gerrit B.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Coral reefs rely on inter-habitat connectivity to maintain gene flow, biodiversity and ecosystem resilience. Coral reef communities of the Red Sea exhibit remarkable genetic homogeneity across most of the Arabian Peninsula coastline, with a genetic break towards the southern part of the basin. While previous studies have attributed these patterns to environmental heterogeneity, we hypothesize that they may also emerge as a result of dynamic circulation flow; yet, such linkages remain undemonstrated. Here, we integrate satellite-derived biophysical observations, particle dispersion model simulations, genetic population data and ship-borne in situ profiles to assess reef connectivity in the Red Sea. We simulated long-term (>20 yrs.) connectivity patterns driven by remotely-sensed sea surface height and evaluated results against estimates of genetic distance among populations of anemonefish, Amphiprion bicinctus, along the eastern Red Sea coastline. Predicted connectivity was remarkably consistent with genetic population data, demonstrating that circulation features (eddies, surface currents) formulate physical pathways for gene flow. The southern basin has lower physical connectivity than elsewhere, agreeing with known genetic structure of coral reef organisms. The central Red Sea provides key source regions, meriting conservation priority. Our analysis demonstrates a cost-effective tool to estimate biophysical connectivity remotely, supporting coastal management in data-limited regions.

  5. Empirical validation of directed functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, Ravi D; Bagic, Anto; Bostan, Andreea; Schneider, Walter; Cole, Michael W

    2017-02-01

    Mapping directions of influence in the human brain connectome represents the next phase in understanding its functional architecture. However, a host of methodological uncertainties have impeded the application of directed connectivity methods, which have primarily been validated via "ground truth" connectivity patterns embedded in simulated functional MRI (fMRI) and magneto-/electro-encephalography (MEG/EEG) datasets. Such simulations rely on many generative assumptions, and we hence utilized a different strategy involving empirical data in which a ground truth directed connectivity pattern could be anticipated with confidence. Specifically, we exploited the established "sensory reactivation" effect in episodic memory, in which retrieval of sensory information reactivates regions involved in perceiving that sensory modality. Subjects performed a paired associate task in separate fMRI and MEG sessions, in which a ground truth reversal in directed connectivity between auditory and visual sensory regions was instantiated across task conditions. This directed connectivity reversal was successfully recovered across different algorithms, including Granger causality and Bayes network (IMAGES) approaches, and across fMRI ("raw" and deconvolved) and source-modeled MEG. These results extend simulation studies of directed connectivity, and offer practical guidelines for the use of such methods in clarifying causal mechanisms of neural processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensing coral reef connectivity pathways from space

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, Dionysios E.

    2017-08-18

    Coral reefs rely on inter-habitat connectivity to maintain gene flow, biodiversity and ecosystem resilience. Coral reef communities of the Red Sea exhibit remarkable genetic homogeneity across most of the Arabian Peninsula coastline, with a genetic break towards the southern part of the basin. While previous studies have attributed these patterns to environmental heterogeneity, we hypothesize that they may also emerge as a result of dynamic circulation flow; yet, such linkages remain undemonstrated. Here, we integrate satellite-derived biophysical observations, particle dispersion model simulations, genetic population data and ship-borne in situ profiles to assess reef connectivity in the Red Sea. We simulated long-term (>20 yrs.) connectivity patterns driven by remotely-sensed sea surface height and evaluated results against estimates of genetic distance among populations of anemonefish, Amphiprion bicinctus, along the eastern Red Sea coastline. Predicted connectivity was remarkably consistent with genetic population data, demonstrating that circulation features (eddies, surface currents) formulate physical pathways for gene flow. The southern basin has lower physical connectivity than elsewhere, agreeing with known genetic structure of coral reef organisms. The central Red Sea provides key source regions, meriting conservation priority. Our analysis demonstrates a cost-effective tool to estimate biophysical connectivity remotely, supporting coastal management in data-limited regions.

  7. Phase synchronization in train connection timetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fretter, Christoph; Mueller-Hannemann, Matthias [Martin Luther Universitaet, Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Krumov, Lachezar; Weihe, Karsten [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Huett, Marc-Thorsten [Jacobs University, Bremen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Train connection timetables are an important research topic in algorithmics. Finding optimal or near-optimal timetables under the subsidiary conditions of minimizing travel times and other criteria is an important contribution to the functioning of public transportation. In addition to efficiency (given, e.g. by minimal average travel times), the robustness of the timetable, i.e. a minimization of delay propagation, is an important criterion. Here we study the balance of efficiency and robustness in train connection timetables from the perspective of synchronization, exploiting the fact that a major part of the trains run nearly periodically. We find that synchronization is highest at intermediate-sized stations. We argue that this synchronization perspectives opens a new avenue towards an understanding of train connection timetables by representing them as spatiotemporal phase patterns. Robustness and efficiency can then be viewed as properties of this phase pattern.

  8. Archives: Mathematics Connection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 9 of 9 ... Archives: Mathematics Connection. Journal Home > Archives: Mathematics Connection. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 9 of 9 Items. 2011 ...

  9. Connective Tissue Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of connective tissue. Over 200 disorders that impact connective tissue. There are different types: Genetic disorders, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and scleroderma Cancers, like some types of soft tissue sarcoma Each ...

  10. Generalized connectivity of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xueliang

    2016-01-01

    Noteworthy results, proof techniques, open problems and conjectures in generalized (edge-) connectivity are discussed in this book. Both theoretical and practical analyses for generalized (edge-) connectivity of graphs are provided. Topics covered in this book include: generalized (edge-) connectivity of graph classes, algorithms, computational complexity, sharp bounds, Nordhaus-Gaddum-type results, maximum generalized local connectivity, extremal problems, random graphs, multigraphs, relations with the Steiner tree packing problem and generalizations of connectivity. This book enables graduate students to understand and master a segment of graph theory and combinatorial optimization. Researchers in graph theory, combinatorics, combinatorial optimization, probability, computer science, discrete algorithms, complexity analysis, network design, and the information transferring models will find this book useful in their studies.

  11. Handbook of Brain Connectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Jirsa, Viktor K

    2007-01-01

    Our contemporary understanding of brain function is deeply rooted in the ideas of the nonlinear dynamics of distributed networks. Cognition and motor coordination seem to arise from the interactions of local neuronal networks, which themselves are connected in large scales across the entire brain. The spatial architectures between various scales inevitably influence the dynamics of the brain and thereby its function. But how can we integrate brain connectivity amongst these structural and functional domains? Our Handbook provides an account of the current knowledge on the measurement, analysis and theory of the anatomical and functional connectivity of the brain. All contributors are leading experts in various fields concerning structural and functional brain connectivity. In the first part of the Handbook, the chapters focus on an introduction and discussion of the principles underlying connected neural systems. The second part introduces the currently available non-invasive technologies for measuring struct...

  12. [Automated analyzer of enzyme immunoassay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, S

    1995-09-01

    Automated analyzers for enzyme immunoassay can be classified by several points of view: the kind of labeled antibodies or enzymes, detection methods, the number of tests per unit time, analytical time and speed per run. In practice, it is important for us consider the several points such as detection limits, the number of tests per unit time, analytical range, and precision. Most of the automated analyzers on the market can randomly access and measure samples. I will describe the recent advance of automated analyzers reviewing their labeling antibodies and enzymes, the detection methods, the number of test per unit time and analytical time and speed per test.

  13. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui; Tang, Chengcheng; Vaxman, Amir; Wonka, Peter; Pottmann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical

  14. Reconsidering connectivity in the sub-Antarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Katherine L; Chown, Steven L; Fraser, Ceridwen I

    2017-11-01

    Extreme and remote environments provide useful settings to test ideas about the ecological and evolutionary drivers of biological diversity. In the sub-Antarctic, isolation by geographic, geological and glaciological processes has long been thought to underpin patterns in the region's terrestrial and marine diversity. Molecular studies using increasingly high-resolution data are, however, challenging this perspective, demonstrating that many taxa disperse among distant sub-Antarctic landmasses. Here, we reconsider connectivity in the sub-Antarctic region, identifying which taxa are relatively isolated, which are well connected, and the scales across which this connectivity occurs in both terrestrial and marine systems. Although many organisms show evidence of occasional long-distance, trans-oceanic dispersal, these events are often insufficient to maintain gene flow across the region. Species that do show evidence of connectivity across large distances include both active dispersers and more sedentary species. Overall, connectivity patterns in the sub-Antarctic at intra- and inter-island scales are highly complex, influenced by life-history traits and local dynamics such as relative dispersal capacity and propagule pressure, natal philopatry, feeding associations, the extent of human exploitation, past climate cycles, contemporary climate, and physical barriers to movement. An increasing use of molecular data - particularly genomic data sets that can reveal fine-scale patterns - and more effective international collaboration and communication that facilitates integration of data from across the sub-Antarctic, are providing fresh insights into the processes driving patterns of diversity in the region. These insights offer a platform for assessing the ways in which changing dispersal mechanisms, such as through increasing human activity and changes to wind and ocean circulation, may alter sub-Antarctic biodiversity patterns in the future. © 2017 Cambridge

  15. Development of a Portable Water Quality Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán COMINA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A portable water analyzer based on a voltammetric electronic tongue has been developed. The system uses an electrochemical cell with two working electrodes as sensors, a computer controlled potentiostat, and software based on multivariate data analysis for pattern recognition. The system is suitable to differentiate laboratory made and real in-situ river water samples contaminated with different amounts of Escherichia coli. This bacteria is not only one of the main indicators for water quality, but also a main concern for public health, affecting especially people living in high-burden, resource-limiting settings.

  16. Study of rectenna array connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, T.; Shinohara, N.; Matsumoto, H. [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Engineering Research Inst.

    1997-11-01

    A study was conducted in which a new rectenna working at 2.45 GHz microwave was developed for ground-to-ground microwave power transmission. The new rectenna consists of an antenna section and a rectifying section. The new design is simple and therefore more accurate than a micro-strip type patch antenna. The efficiency of conversion of microwave power to direct current depends on the mutual dependence of antenna elements and circuit conditions of rectifying sections. A series of experiments were conducted to analyze the rectenna characteristics and a method for efficiently connecting rectenna arrays was proposed. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  17. DEMorphy, German Language Morphological Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Altinok, Duygu

    2018-01-01

    DEMorphy is a morphological analyzer for German. It is built onto large, compactified lexicons from German Morphological Dictionary. A guesser based on German declension suffixed is also provided. For German, we provided a state-of-art morphological analyzer. DEMorphy is implemented in Python with ease of usability and accompanying documentation. The package is suitable for both academic and commercial purposes wit a permissive licence.

  18. A Categorization of Dynamic Analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Michelle R.

    1997-01-01

    Program analysis techniques and tools are essential to the development process because of the support they provide in detecting errors and deficiencies at different phases of development. The types of information rendered through analysis includes the following: statistical measurements of code, type checks, dataflow analysis, consistency checks, test data,verification of code, and debugging information. Analyzers can be broken into two major categories: dynamic and static. Static analyzers examine programs with respect to syntax errors and structural properties., This includes gathering statistical information on program content, such as the number of lines of executable code, source lines. and cyclomatic complexity. In addition, static analyzers provide the ability to check for the consistency of programs with respect to variables. Dynamic analyzers in contrast are dependent on input and the execution of a program providing the ability to find errors that cannot be detected through the use of static analysis alone. Dynamic analysis provides information on the behavior of a program rather than on the syntax. Both types of analysis detect errors in a program, but dynamic analyzers accomplish this through run-time behavior. This paper focuses on the following broad classification of dynamic analyzers: 1) Metrics; 2) Models; and 3) Monitors. Metrics are those analyzers that provide measurement. The next category, models, captures those analyzers that present the state of the program to the user at specified points in time. The last category, monitors, checks specified code based on some criteria. The paper discusses each classification and the techniques that are included under them. In addition, the role of each technique in the software life cycle is discussed. Familiarization with the tools that measure, model and monitor programs provides a framework for understanding the program's dynamic behavior from different, perspectives through analysis of the input

  19. CSTT Update: Fuel Quality Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lujan, Roger W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Stefan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilson, Mahlon S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-06

    These are slides from a presentation. The following topics are covered: project background (scope and approach), developing the prototype (timeline), update on intellectual property, analyzer comparisons (improving humidification, stabilizing the baseline, applying clean-up strategy, impact of ionomer content and improving clean-up), proposed operating mode, considerations for testing in real-world conditions (Gen 1 analyzer electronics development, testing partner identified, field trial planning), summary, and future work.

  20. Cerebral functional connectivity and Mayer waves in mice: Phenomena and separability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumstead, Jonathan R; Bauer, Adam Q; Wright, Patrick W; Culver, Joseph P

    2017-02-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity is a growing neuroimaging approach that analyses the spatiotemporal structure of spontaneous brain activity, often using low-frequency (Mayer waves. Despite how close in frequency these phenomena exist, there is little research on how vasomotion and Mayer waves are related to or affect resting-state functional connectivity. In this study, we analyze spontaneous hemodynamic fluctuations over the mouse cortex using optical intrinsic signal imaging. We found spontaneous occurrence of oscillatory hemodynamics ∼0.2 Hz consistent with the properties of Mayer waves reported in the literature. Across a group of mice (n = 19), there was a large variability in the magnitude of Mayer waves. However, regardless of the magnitude of Mayer waves, functional connectivity patterns could be recovered from hemodynamic signals when filtered to the lower frequency band, 0.01-0.08 Hz. Our results demonstrate that both Mayer waves and resting-state functional connectivity patterns can co-exist simultaneously, and that they can be separated by applying bandpass filters.

  1. Altered interhemispheric functional connectivity in patients with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia: a resting-state fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Minglong; Xie, Bing; Yin, Xuntao; Wang, Jian [Third Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, 30 Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing (China); Yang, Hong; Wang, Hao [Third Military Medical University, Ophthalmology Research Center, Southwest Eye Hospital/Southwest Hospital, Chongqing (China); Yu, Longhua [Third Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, 30 Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing (China); 401st Hospital of PLA, Department of Radiology, Qingdao (China); He, Sheng [University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Department of Psychology, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Altered brain functional connectivity has been reported in patients with amblyopia by recent neuroimaging studies. However, relatively little is known about the alterations in interhemispheric functional connectivity in amblyopia. The present study aimed to investigate the functional connectivity patterns between homotopic regions across hemispheres in patients with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia under resting state. Nineteen monocular anisometropic amblyopia (AA), 18 strabismic amblyopia (SA), and 20 normal-sight controls (NC) were enrolled in this study. After a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination, resting-state fMRI scanning was performed in all participants. The pattern of the interhemispheric functional connectivity was measured with the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) approach. VMHC values differences within and between three groups were compared, and correlations between VMHC values and each the clinical variable were also analyzed. Altered VMHC was observed in AA and SA patients in lingual gyrus and fusiform gyrus compared with NC subjects. The altered VMHC of lingual gyrus showed a pattern of AA > SA > NC, while the altered VMHC of fusiform gyrus showed a pattern of AA > NC > SA. Moreover, the VMHC values of lingual gyrus were positively correlated with the stereoacuity both in AA and SA patients, and the VMHC values of fusiform gyrus were positively correlated with the amount of anisometropia just in AA patients. These findings suggest that interhemispheric functional coordination between several homotopic visual-related brain regions is impaired both in AA and SA patients under resting state and revealed the similarities and differences in interhemispheric functional connectivity between the anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia. (orig.)

  2. Altered interhemispheric functional connectivity in patients with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia: a resting-state fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Minglong; Xie, Bing; Yin, Xuntao; Wang, Jian; Yang, Hong; Wang, Hao; Yu, Longhua; He, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Altered brain functional connectivity has been reported in patients with amblyopia by recent neuroimaging studies. However, relatively little is known about the alterations in interhemispheric functional connectivity in amblyopia. The present study aimed to investigate the functional connectivity patterns between homotopic regions across hemispheres in patients with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia under resting state. Nineteen monocular anisometropic amblyopia (AA), 18 strabismic amblyopia (SA), and 20 normal-sight controls (NC) were enrolled in this study. After a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination, resting-state fMRI scanning was performed in all participants. The pattern of the interhemispheric functional connectivity was measured with the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) approach. VMHC values differences within and between three groups were compared, and correlations between VMHC values and each the clinical variable were also analyzed. Altered VMHC was observed in AA and SA patients in lingual gyrus and fusiform gyrus compared with NC subjects. The altered VMHC of lingual gyrus showed a pattern of AA > SA > NC, while the altered VMHC of fusiform gyrus showed a pattern of AA > NC > SA. Moreover, the VMHC values of lingual gyrus were positively correlated with the stereoacuity both in AA and SA patients, and the VMHC values of fusiform gyrus were positively correlated with the amount of anisometropia just in AA patients. These findings suggest that interhemispheric functional coordination between several homotopic visual-related brain regions is impaired both in AA and SA patients under resting state and revealed the similarities and differences in interhemispheric functional connectivity between the anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia. (orig.)

  3. Directional connectivity in hydrology and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Choi, Jungyill; Nungesser, Martha K.; Harvey, Judson W.

    2012-01-01

    subtle differences in the physical-biological feedbacks driving pattern formation. Case-study application of the DCI to the Everglades in south Florida revealed that loss of directional hydrologic connectivity occurs more rapidly and is a more sensitive indicator of declining ecosystem function than other metrics (e.g., habitat area) used previously. Here and elsewhere, directional connectivity can provide insight into landscape drivers and processes, act as an early-warning indicator of environmental degradation, and serve as a planning tool or performance measure for conservation and restoration efforts.

  4. Directional connectivity in hydrology and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G; Choi, Jungyill; Nungesser, Martha K; Harvey, Judson W

    2012-12-01

    subtle differences in the physical-biological feedbacks driving pattern formation. Case-study application of the DCI to the Everglades in south Florida revealed that loss of directional hydrologic connectivity occurs more rapidly and is a more sensitive indicator of declining ecosystem function than other metrics (e.g., habitat area) used previously. Here and elsewhere, directional connectivity can provide insight into landscape drivers and processes, act as an early-warning indicator of environmental degradation, and serve as a planning tool or performance measure for conservation and restoration efforts.

  5. Analyzing the multilevel structure of the European airport network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Lordan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The multilayered structure of the European airport network (EAN, composed of connections and flights between European cities, is analyzed through the k-core decomposition of the connections network. This decomposition allows to identify the core, bridge and periphery layers of the EAN. The core layer includes the best-connected cities, which include important business air traffic destinations. The periphery layer includes cities with lesser connections, which serve low populated areas where air travel is an economic alternative. The remaining cities form the bridge of the EAN, including important leisure travel origins and destinations. The multilayered structure of the EAN affects network robustness, as the EAN is more robust to isolation of nodes of the core, than to the isolation of a combination of core and bridge nodes.

  6. Connected versus Mainstreamed. Politicized or de-politicized?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iria Puyosa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In our research line about changes in the Venezuelans' political culture in the context of the information society, we are progressing on the characterization of the mass media and the Internet usage dynamics. The model hypothesize the existence of four political culture types, 1 citizens integrated by personal or familial bonds; 2 citizens integrated by ideology ; 3 citizens instrumentally rational ; and 4 citizens socially rational. The current study focuses on the usage of mass media and Internet in relationship with political views. Data come from a survey conducted using a telephone database to collect responses from a representative sample of the Venezuelan registered for vote population. Data was analyzed using the 2-step cluster analysis technique. Results are consistent with the hypothesis of the four political culture types, on regard as mass media and the Internet usage patterns. Cases grouped into four clusters defined by Internet connection and politics information preferences.

  7. Prefrontal-limbic Functional Connectivity during Acquisition and Extinction of Conditioned Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Douglas W; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2018-04-15

    This study is a new analysis to obtain novel metabolic data on the functional connectivity of prefrontal-limbic regions in Pavlovian fear acquisition and extinction of tone-footshock conditioning. Mice were analyzed with the fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) autoradiographic method to metabolically map regional brain activity. New FDG data were sampled from the nuclei of the habenula and other regions implicated in aversive conditioning, such as infralimbic cortex, amygdala and periaqueductal gray regions. The activity patterns among these regions were inter-correlated during acquisition, extinction or pseudorandom training to develop a functional connectivity model. Two subdivisions of the habenular complex showed increased activity after acquisition relative to extinction, with the pseudorandom group intermediate between the other two groups. Significant acquisition activation effects were also found in centromedial amygdala, dorsomedial and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray. FDG uptake increases during extinction were found only in dorsal and ventral infralimbic cortex. The overall pattern of activity correlations between these regions revealed extensive but differential functional connectivity during acquisition and extinction training, with less functional connectivity found after pseudorandom training. Interestingly, habenula nuclei showed a distinct pattern of inter-correlations with amygdala nuclei during extinction. The functional connectivity model revealed changing interactions among infralimbic cortex, amygdala, habenula and periaqueductal gray regions through the stages of Pavlovian fear acquisition and extinction. This study provided new data on the contributions of the habenula to fear conditioning, and revealed previously unreported infralimbic-amygdala-habenula-periaqueductal gray interactions implicated in acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An extended OpenSim knee model for analysis of strains of connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marieswaran, M; Sikidar, Arnab; Goel, Anu; Joshi, Deepak; Kalyanasundaram, Dinesh

    2018-04-17

    OpenSim musculoskeletal models provide an accurate simulation environment that eases limitations of in vivo and in vitro studies. In this work, a biomechanical knee model was formulated with femoral articular cartilages and menisci along with 25 connective tissue bundles representing ligaments and capsules. The strain patterns of the connective tissues in the presence of femoral articular cartilage and menisci in the OpenSim knee model was probed in a first of its kind study. The effect of knee flexion (0°-120°), knee rotation (- 40° to 30°) and knee adduction (- 15° to 15°) on the anterior cruciate, posterior cruciate, medial collateral, lateral collateral ligaments and other connective tissues were studied by passive simulation. Further, a new parameter for assessment of strain namely, the differential inter-bundle strain of the connective tissues were analyzed to provide new insights for injury kinematics. ACL, PCL, LCL and PL was observed to follow a parabolic strain pattern during flexion while MCL represented linear strain patterns. All connective tissues showed non-symmetric parabolic strain variation during rotation. During adduction, the strain variation was linear for the knee bundles except for FL, PFL and TL. Strains higher than 0.1 were observed in most of the bundles during lateral rotation followed by abduction, medial rotation and adduction. In the case of flexion, highest strains were observed in aACL and aPCL. A combination of strains at a flexion of 0° with medial rotation of 30° or a flexion of 80° with rotation of 30° are evaluated as rupture-prone kinematics.

  9. Connected motorcycle system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This project characterized the performance of Connected Vehicle Systems (CVS) on motorcycles based on two key components: global positioning and wireless communication systems. Considering that Global Positioning System (GPS) and 5.9 GHz Dedicated Sh...

  10. Connected vehicle applications : environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation has developed a number of connected vehicle environmental applications, including the Applications for the Environment Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) research program applications and road weather applic...

  11. Connected vehicle applications : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure, vehicle-to-vehicle, : and vehicle-to-pedestrian data transmissions. Applications support advisor...

  12. IDRC Connect User Guide

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kristina Kamichaitis

    Once an account has been created by IDRC staff, you will receive .... content label in the table to access additional information. Table 3: ... One of the primary functions of IDRC Connect is to enable efficient and automated submission of final.

  13. Connected vehicles and cybersecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicles are a next-generation technology in vehicles and in infrastructure that will make travel safer, cleaner, and more efficient. The advanced wireless technology enables vehicles to share and communicate information with each other and...

  14. Hydrologically Connected Road Segments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Link it ArcGIS Item is HERE.The connectivity layer was created to assist municipalities in preparing for the forthcoming DEC Municipal Roads General Permit in 2018....

  15. IDRC Connect User Guide

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kristina Kamichaitis

    IDRC Extranet home page, which is an umbrella for a number of applications available to IDRC external users. ... IDRC Connect is not formatted for mobile users. ..... Thesis. • Training Material. • Website. • Working Paper. • Workshop Report.

  16. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  17. Device for analyzing a solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, Joseph.

    1978-01-01

    The device enables a solution containing an antigen to be analyzed by the radio-immunology technique without coming up against the problems of antigen-antibody complex and free antigen separation. This device, for analyzing a solution containing a biological compound capable of reacting with an antagonistic compound specific of the biological compound, features a tube closed at its bottom end and a component set and immobilized in the bottom of the tube so as to leave a capacity between the bottom of the tube and its lower end. The component has a large developed surface and is so shaped that it allows the solution to be analyzed to have access to the bottom of the tube; it is made of a material having some elastic deformation and able to take up a given quantity of the biological compound or of the antagonistic compound specific of the biological compound [fr

  18. Multichannel analyzer embedded in FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia D, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Ordaz G, O. O.; Bravo M, I.

    2017-10-01

    Ionizing radiation has different applications, so it is a very significant and useful tool, which in turn can be dangerous for living beings if they are exposed to uncontrolled doses. However, due to its characteristics, it cannot be perceived by any of the senses of the human being, so that in order to know the presence of it, radiation detectors and additional devices are required to quantify and classify it. A multichannel analyzer is responsible for separating the different pulse heights that are generated in the detectors, in a certain number of channels; according to the number of bits of the analog to digital converter. The objective of the work was to design and implement a multichannel analyzer and its associated virtual instrument, for nuclear spectrometry. The components of the multichannel analyzer were created in VHDL hardware description language and packaged in the Xilinx Vivado design suite, making use of resources such as the ARM processing core that the System on Chip Zynq contains and the virtual instrument was developed on the LabView programming graphics platform. The first phase was to design the hardware architecture to be embedded in the FPGA and for the internal control of the multichannel analyzer the application was generated for the ARM processor in C language. For the second phase, the virtual instrument was developed for the management, control and visualization of the results. The data obtained as a result of the development of the system were observed graphically in a histogram showing the spectrum measured. The design of the multichannel analyzer embedded in FPGA was tested with two different radiation detection systems (hyper-pure germanium and scintillation) which allowed determining that the spectra obtained are similar in comparison with the commercial multichannel analyzers. (Author)

  19. Analyzing negative ties in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankirat Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks are a source of sharing information and maintaining personal contacts with other people through social interactions and thus forming virtual communities online. Social networks are crowded with positive and negative relations. Positive relations are formed by support, endorsement and friendship and thus, create a network of well-connected users whereas negative relations are a result of opposition, distrust and avoidance creating disconnected networks. Due to increase in illegal activities such as masquerading, conspiring and creating fake profiles on online social networks, exploring and analyzing these negative activities becomes the need of hour. Usually negative ties are treated in same way as positive ties in many theories such as balance theory and blockmodeling analysis. But the standard concepts of social network analysis do not yield same results in respect of each tie. This paper presents a survey on analyzing negative ties in social networks through various types of network analysis techniques that are used for examining ties such as status, centrality and power measures. Due to the difference in characteristics of flow in positive and negative tie networks some of these measures are not applicable on negative ties. This paper also discusses new methods that have been developed specifically for analyzing negative ties such as negative degree, and h∗ measure along with the measures based on mixture of positive and negative ties. The different types of social network analysis approaches have been reviewed and compared to determine the best approach that can appropriately identify the negative ties in online networks. It has been analyzed that only few measures such as Degree and PN centrality are applicable for identifying outsiders in network. For applicability in online networks, the performance of PN measure needs to be verified and further, new measures should be developed based upon negative clique concept.

  20. Analyzing endocrine system conservation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing variation in rates of evolution can provide important insights into the factors that constrain trait evolution, as well as those that promote diversification. Metazoan endocrine systems exhibit apparent variation in evolutionary rates of their constituent components at multiple levels, yet relatively few studies have quantified these patterns and analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. This may be in part due to historical and current data limitations for many endocrine components and taxonomic groups. However, recent technological advancements such as high-throughput sequencing provide the opportunity to collect large-scale comparative data sets for even non-model species. Such ventures will produce a fertile data landscape for evolutionary analyses of nucleic acid and amino acid based endocrine components. Here I summarize evolutionary rate analyses that can be applied to categorical and continuous endocrine traits, and also those for nucleic acid and protein-based components. I emphasize analyses that could be used to test whether other variables (e.g., ecology, ontogenetic timing of expression, etc.) are related to patterns of rate variation and endocrine component diversification. The application of phylogenetic-based rate analyses to comparative endocrine data will greatly enhance our understanding of the factors that have shaped endocrine system evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Loviisa nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkholm, K.; Nurmilaukas, P.; Tiihonen, O.; Haenninen, M.; Puska, E.

    1992-12-01

    The APROS Simulation Environment has been developed since 1986 by Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). It provides tools, solution algorithms and process components for use in different simulation systems for design, analysis and training purposes. One of its main nuclear applications is the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant Analyzer (LPA). The Loviisa Plant Analyzer includes all the important plant components both in the primary and in the secondary circuits. In addition, all the main control systems, the protection system and the high voltage electrical systems are included. (orig.)

  2. [Connective tissue and inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Lajos

    2014-03-23

    The author summarizes the structure of the connective tissues, the increasing motion of the constituents, which determine the role in establishing the structure and function of that. The structure and function of the connective tissue are related to each other in the resting as well as inflammatory states. It is emphasized that cellular events in the connective tissue are part of the defence of the organism, the localisation of the damage and, if possible, the maintenance of restitutio ad integrum. The organism responds to damage with inflammation, the non specific immune response, as well as specific, adaptive immunity. These processes are located in the connective tissue. Sterile and pathogenic inflammation are relatively similar processes, but inevitable differences are present, too. Sialic acids and glycoproteins containing sialic acids have important roles, and the role of Siglecs is also highlighted. Also, similarities and differences in damages caused by pathogens and sterile agents are briefly summarized. In addition, the roles of adhesion molecules linked to each other, and the whole event of inflammatory processes are presented. When considering practical consequences it is stressed that the structure (building up) of the organism and the defending function of inflammation both have fundamental importance. Inflammation has a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and the unimpaired somato-psychological state of the organism. Thus, inflammation serves as a tool of organism identical with the natural immune response, inseparably connected with the specific, adaptive immune response. The main events of the inflammatory processes take place in the connective tissue.

  3. Quick connect fastener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A quick connect fastener and method of use is presented wherein the quick connect fastener is suitable for replacing available bolts and screws, the quick connect fastener being capable of installation by simply pushing a threaded portion of the connector into a member receptacle hole, the inventive apparatus being comprised of an externally threaded fastener having a threaded portion slidably mounted upon a stud or bolt shaft, wherein the externally threaded fastener portion is expandable by a preloaded spring member. The fastener, upon contact with the member receptacle hole, has the capacity of presenting cylindrical threads of a reduced diameter for insertion purposes and once inserted into the receiving threads of the receptacle member hole, are expandable for engagement of the receptacle hole threads forming a quick connect of the fastener and the member to be fastened, the quick connect fastener can be further secured by rotation after insertion, even to the point of locking engagement, the quick connect fastener being disengagable only by reverse rotation of the mated thread engagement.

  4. Connectivity in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, P.; Hiatt, M. R.; Sendrowski, A.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas host approximately half a billion people and are rich in ecosystem diversity and economic resources. However, human-induced activities and climatic shifts are significantly impacting deltas around the world; anthropogenic disturbance, natural subsidence, and eustatic sea-level rise are major causes of threat to deltas and in many cases have compromised their safety and sustainability, putting at risk the people that live on them. In this presentation, I will introduce a framework called Delta Connectome for studying connectivity in river deltas based on different representations of a delta as a network. Here connectivity indicates both physical connectivity (how different portions of the system interact with each other) as well as conceptual (pathways of process coupling). I will explore several network representations and show how quantifying connectivity can advance our understanding of system functioning and can be used to inform coastal management and restoration. From connectivity considerations, the delta emerges as a leaky network that evolves over time and is characterized by continuous exchanges of fluxes of matter, energy, and information. I will discuss the implications of connectivity on delta functioning, land growth, and potential for nutrient removal.

  5. The security analyzer: A security analyzer program written in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.; Densley, P.J.

    1986-09-01

    The Security Analyzer is a software tool capable of analyzing the effectiveness of a facility's security system. It is written in the Prolog logic programming computer language, using entity-relationship data modeling techniques. The program performs the following functions: (1) provides descriptive, locational and operational status information about intrusion detectors and assessment devices (i.e., ''sensors'' and ''cameras'') upon request; (2) provides for storage and retrieval of maintenance history information for various components of the security system (including intrusion detectors), and allows for changing that information as desired; (3) provides a ''search'' mode, wherein all paths are found from any specified physical location to another specified location which satisfy user chosen ''intruder detection'' probability and elapsed time criteria (i.e., the program finds the ''weakest paths'' from a security point of view). The first two of these functions can be provided fairly easily with a conventional database program; the third function could be provided using Fortran or some similar language, though with substantial difficulty. In the Security Analyzer program, all these functions are provided in a simple and straight-forward manner. This simplicity is possible because the program is written in the symbolic (as opposed to numeric) processing language Prolog, and because the knowledge base is structured according to entity-relationship modeling principles. Also, the use of Prolog and the entity-relationship modeling technique allows the capabilities of the Security analyzer program, both for knowledge base interrogation and for searching-type operations, to be easily expanded in ways that would be very difficult for a numeric and more algorithmically deterministic language such as Fortran to duplicate. 4 refs

  6. Scale of habitat connectivity and colonization in fragmented nuthatch populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.

    2000-01-01

    Studies of effects of landscape pattern on population dynamics should consider the spatial scale at which habitat connectivity varies relative to the spatial scale of the species' behavioral response. In this paper, I investigate the relationship between the degree of connectivity of wooded patches

  7. The Chess and Mathematics Connection: More than Just a Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes connections between chess and mathematics, including examples of activities that connect chess with set theory, patterns, algebra, geometry, combinatorics, and Pascal's triangle. The author observes that competitive games play a dual purpose in advancing the work of mathematics educators: to reinforce a specific skill and to…

  8. Progressively Disrupted Brain Functional Connectivity Network in Subcortical Ischemic Vascular Cognitive Impairment Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Linqiong; Chen, Lin; Wang, Li; Zhang, Jingna; Zhang, Ye; Li, Pengyue; Li, Chuanming; Qiu, Mingguo

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive impairment caused by subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) has been elucidated by many neuroimaging studies. However, little is known regarding the changes in brain functional connectivity networks in relation to the severity of cognitive impairment in SIVD. In the present study, 20 subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment no dementia patients (SIVCIND) and 20 dementia patients (SIVaD) were enrolled; additionally, 19 normal controls were recruited. Each participant underwent a resting-state functional MRI scan. Whole-brain functional networks were analyzed with graph theory and network-based statistics (NBS) to study the functional organization of networks and find alterations in functional connectivity among brain regions. After adjustments for age, gender, and duration of formal education, there were significant group differences for two network functional organization indices, global efficiency and local efficiency, which decreased (NC > SIVCIND > SIVaD) as cognitive impairment worsened. Between-group differences in functional connectivity (NBS corrected, p  impairment worsened, with an increased number of decreased connections between brain regions. We also observed more reductions in nodal efficiency in the prefrontal and temporal cortices for SIVaD than for SIVCIND. These findings indicated a progressively disrupted pattern of the brain functional connectivity network with increased cognitive impairment and showed promise for the development of reliable biomarkers of network metric changes related to cognitive impairment caused by SIVD.

  9. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.

    2017-08-15

    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  10. Therapy Talk: Analyzing Therapeutic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Margaret M.

    2004-01-01

    Therapeutic discourse is the talk-in-interaction that represents the social practice between clinician and client. This article invites speech-language pathologists to apply their knowledge of language to analyzing therapy talk and to learn how talking practices shape clinical roles and identities. A range of qualitative research approaches,…

  11. The Convertible Arbitrage Strategy Analyzed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loncarski, I.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Veld, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes convertible bond arbitrage on the Canadian market for the period 1998 to 2004.Convertible bond arbitrage is the combination of a long position in convertible bonds and a short position in the underlying stocks. Convertible arbitrage has been one of the most successful strategies

  12. Analyzing the complexity of nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.J.; Schummer, J.; Baird, D.

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a highly complex technological development due to many uncertainties in our knowledge about it. The Dutch philosopher Herman Dooyeweerd has developed a conceptual framework that can be used (1) to analyze the complexity of technological developments and (2) to see how priorities

  13. Proton-beam energy analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belan, V.N.; Bolotin, L.I.; Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Uskov, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe a magnetic analyzer for measurement of proton-beam energy in the range from 100 keV to 25 MeV. The beam is deflected in a uniform transverse magnetic field and is registered by photographing a scintillation screen. The energy spectrum of the beam is constructed by microphotometry of the photographic film

  14. Food web complexity and stability across habitat connectivity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCraw, Robin M; Kratina, Pavel; Srivastava, Diane S

    2014-12-01

    The effects of habitat connectivity on food webs have been studied both empirically and theoretically, yet the question of whether empirical results support theoretical predictions for any food web metric other than species richness has received little attention. Our synthesis brings together theory and empirical evidence for how habitat connectivity affects both food web stability and complexity. Food web stability is often predicted to be greatest at intermediate levels of connectivity, representing a compromise between the stabilizing effects of dispersal via rescue effects and prey switching, and the destabilizing effects of dispersal via regional synchronization of population dynamics. Empirical studies of food web stability generally support both this pattern and underlying mechanisms. Food chain length has been predicted to have both increasing and unimodal relationships with connectivity as a result of predators being constrained by the patch occupancy of their prey. Although both patterns have been documented empirically, the underlying mechanisms may differ from those predicted by models. In terms of other measures of food web complexity, habitat connectivity has been empirically found to generally increase link density but either reduce or have no effect on connectance, whereas a unimodal relationship is expected. In general, there is growing concordance between empirical patterns and theoretical predictions for some effects of habitat connectivity on food webs, but many predictions remain to be tested over a full connectivity gradient, and empirical metrics of complexity are rarely modeled. Closing these gaps will allow a deeper understanding of how natural and anthropogenic changes in connectivity can affect real food webs.

  15. Analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oramas Polo, I.; Osorio Deliz, J. F.; Diaz Garcia, A.

    2013-01-01

    This research work was carried out to develop an analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic. It is composed of an electronic system that includes hardware and software capabilities, and operates from the acquisition of the 4 head position signals of a gamma camera detector. The result is the spectrum of the energy delivered by nuclear radiation coming from the camera detector head. This system includes analog processing of position signals from the camera, digitization and the subsequent processing of the energy signal in a multichannel analyzer, sending data to a computer via a standard USB port and processing of data in a personal computer to obtain the final histogram. The circuits are composed of an analog processing board and a universal kit with micro controller and programmable gate array. (Author)

  16. Methods for Analyzing Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Linaa

    2013-01-01

    Social media is becoming increasingly attractive for users. It is a fast way to communicate ideas and a key source of information. It is therefore one of the most influential mediums of communication of our time and an important area for audience research. The growth of social media invites many...... new questions such as: How can we analyze social media? Can we use traditional audience research methods and apply them to online content? Which new research strategies have been developed? Which ethical research issues and controversies do we have to pay attention to? This book focuses on research...... strategies and methods for analyzing social media and will be of interest to researchers and practitioners using social media, as well as those wanting to keep up to date with the subject....

  17. New approach to analyzing vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.B.; Carlson, R.L.; Riedeman, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has recently completed construction of the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at Richland, Washington. At start-up the facility will fabricate driver fuel for the Fast Flux Test Facility in the Secure Automated Fabrication line. After construction completion, but before facility certification, the Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operation Office requested that a vulnerability analysis be performed which assumed multiple insiders as a threat to the security system. A unique method of analyzing facility vulnerabilities was developed at the Security Applications Center (SAC), which is managed by WHC for DOE. The method that was developed verifies a previous vulnerability assessment, as well as introducing a modeling technique which analyzes security alarms in relation to delaying factors and possible insider activities. With this information it is possible to assess the relative strength or weakness of various possible routes to and from a target within a facility

  18. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  19. Estimating time-dependent connectivity in marine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defne, Zafer; Ganju, Neil K.; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Hydrodynamic connectivity describes the sources and destinations of water parcels within a domain over a given time. When combined with biological models, it can be a powerful concept to explain the patterns of constituent dispersal within marine ecosystems. However, providing connectivity metrics for a given domain is a three-dimensional problem: two dimensions in space to define the sources and destinations and a time dimension to evaluate connectivity at varying temporal scales. If the time scale of interest is not predefined, then a general approach is required to describe connectivity over different time scales. For this purpose, we have introduced the concept of a “retention clock” that highlights the change in connectivity through time. Using the example of connectivity between protected areas within Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, we show that a retention clock matrix is an informative tool for multitemporal analysis of connectivity.

  20. Network structure shapes spontaneous functional connectivity dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kelly; Hutchison, R Matthew; Bezgin, Gleb; Everling, Stefan; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2015-04-08

    The structural organization of the brain constrains the range of interactions between different regions and shapes ongoing information processing. Therefore, it is expected that large-scale dynamic functional connectivity (FC) patterns, a surrogate measure of coordination between brain regions, will be closely tied to the fiber pathways that form the underlying structural network. Here, we empirically examined the influence of network structure on FC dynamics by comparing resting-state FC (rsFC) obtained using BOLD-fMRI in macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to structural connectivity derived from macaque axonal tract tracing studies. Consistent with predictions from simulation studies, the correspondence between rsFC and structural connectivity increased as the sample duration increased. Regions with reciprocal structural connections showed the most stable rsFC across time. The data suggest that the transient nature of FC is in part dependent on direct underlying structural connections, but also that dynamic coordination can occur via polysynaptic pathways. Temporal stability was found to be dependent on structural topology, with functional connections within the rich-club core exhibiting the greatest stability over time. We discuss these findings in light of highly variable functional hubs. The results further elucidate how large-scale dynamic functional coordination exists within a fixed structural architecture. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355579-10$15.00/0.

  1. Resting-state functional connectivity of orthographic networks in acquired dysgraphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gali Ellenblum

    2015-05-01

    The NTA findings indicate that the relationship between orthographic and default-mode networks is characterized by greater within- vs. across-network connectivity. Furthermore, we show for the first time a pattern of increasing within/across network “coherence normalization” following spelling rehabilitation. Additional dysgraphic participants and other networks (language, sensory-motor, etc. will be analyzed to develop a better understanding of the RS orthographic network and its response to damage and recovery. Acknowledgements. The work is part of a multi-site, NIDCD-supported project examining language recovery neurobiology in aphasia (DC006740. We thank Melissa Greenberger and Xiao-Wei Song.

  2. Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, Stephen R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  3. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheller, T.A.; Huestis, G.M.; Bolton, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified off-the-shelf classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a hot cell (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable - making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives

  4. A new uranium automatic analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Buyun; Zhu Yaokun; Wang Bin; Cong Peiyuan; Zhang Lan

    1993-01-01

    A new uranium automatic analyzer based on the flow injection analysis (FIA) principle has been developed. It consists of a multichannel peristaltic pump, an injection valve, a photometric detector, a single-chip microprocessor system and electronic circuit. The new designed multifunctional auto-injection valve can automatically change the injection volume of the sample and the channels so that the determination ranges and items can easily be changed. It also can make the instrument vary the FIA operation modes that it has functions of a universal instrument. A chromatographic column with extractant-containing resin was installed in the manifold of the analyzer for the concentration and separation of trace uranium. The 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethyl-aminophenol (Br-PADAP) was used as colour reagent. Uranium was determined in the aqueous solution by adding cetyl-pyridium bromide (CPB). The uranium in the solution in the range 0.02-500 mg · L -1 can be directly determined without any pretreatment. A sample throughput rate of 30-90 h -1 and reproducibility of 1-2% were obtained. The analyzer has been satisfactorily applied to the laboratory and the plant

  5. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

    2000-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified ''off-the-shelf'' classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a ''hot cell'' (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable--making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives

  6. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike W.-L. Cheung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists – and probably the most crucial one – is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  7. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W-L; Jak, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists-and probably the most crucial one-is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  8. Connectivity and superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Jacob

    2000-01-01

    The motto of connectivity and superconductivity is that the solutions of the Ginzburg--Landau equations are qualitatively influenced by the topology of the boundaries, as in multiply-connected samples. Special attention is paid to the "zero set", the set of the positions (also known as "quantum vortices") where the order parameter vanishes. The effects considered here usually become important in the regime where the coherence length is of the order of the dimensions of the sample. It takes the intuition of physicists and the awareness of mathematicians to find these new effects. In connectivity and superconductivity, theoretical and experimental physicists are brought together with pure and applied mathematicians to review these surprising results. This volume is intended to serve as a reference book for graduate students and researchers in physics or mathematics interested in superconductivity, or in the Schrödinger equation as a limiting case of the Ginzburg--Landau equations.

  9. The security analyzer, a security analyzer program written in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.; Densley, P.J.; Carlson, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A technique has been developed to characterize a nuclear facility and measure the strengths and weaknesses of the physical protection system. It utilizes the artificial intelligence capabilities available in the prolog programming language to probe a facility's defenses and find potential attack paths that meet designated search criteria. As sensors or barriers become inactive due to maintenance, failure, or inclement weather conditions, the protection system can rapidly be reanalyzed to discover weaknesses that would need to be strengthened by alternative means. Conversely, proposed upgrades and enhancements can be easily entered into the database and their effect measured against a variety of potential adversary attacks. Thus the security analyzer is a tool that aids the protection planner as well as the protection operations staff

  10. A super soliton connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurses, M.; Oguz, O.

    1985-07-01

    Integrable super non-linear classical partial differential equations are considered. A super s1(2,R) algebra valued connection 1-form is constructed. It is shown that curvature 2-form of this super connection vanishes by virtue of the integrable super equations of motion. A super extension of the AKNS scheme is presented and a class of super extension of the Lax hierarchy and super non-linear Schroedinger equation are found. O(N) extension and the Baecklund transformations of the above super equations are also considered. (author)

  11. Connecting textual segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2017-01-01

    history than just the years of the emergence of the web, the chapter traces the history of how segments of text have deliberately been connected to each other by the use of specific textual and media features, from clay tablets, manuscripts on parchment, and print, among others, to hyperlinks on stand......In “Connecting textual segments: A brief history of the web hyperlink” Niels Brügger investigates the history of one of the most fundamental features of the web: the hyperlink. Based on the argument that the web hyperlink is best understood if it is seen as another step in a much longer and broader...

  12. Best connected rectangular arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendra Shekhawat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It can be found quite often in the literature that many well-known architects have employed either the golden rectangle or the Fibonacci rectangle in their works. On contrary, it is rare to find any specific reason for using them so often. Recently, Shekhawat (2015 proved that the golden rectangle and the Fibonacci rectangle are one of the best connected rectangular arrangements and this may be one of the reasons for their high presence in architectural designs. In this work we present an algorithm that generates n-4 best connected rectangular arrangements so that the proposed solutions can be further used by architects for their designs.

  13. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, Charles

    2015-04-01

    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  14. Vertical and horizontal genetic connectivity in Chromis verater, an endemic damselfish found on shallow and mesophotic reefs in the Hawaiian Archipelago and adjacent Johnston Atoll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenggardjaja, Kimberly A; Bowen, Brian W; Bernardi, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Understanding vertical and horizontal connectivity is a major priority in research on mesophotic coral ecosystems (30-150 m). However, horizontal connectivity has been the focus of few studies, and data on vertical connectivity are limited to sessile benthic mesophotic organisms. Here we present patterns of vertical and horizontal connectivity in the Hawaiian Islands-Johnston Atoll endemic threespot damselfish, Chromis verater, based on 319 shallow specimens and 153 deep specimens. The mtDNA markers cytochrome b and control region were sequenced to analyze genetic structure: 1) between shallow (shallow and mesophotic populations. There was no significant genetic differentiation by depth, indicating high levels of vertical connectivity between shallow and deep aggregates of C. verater. Consequently, shallow and deep samples were combined by location for analyses of horizontal connectivity. We detected low but significant population structure across the Hawaiian Archipelago (overall cytochrome b: ΦST = 0.009, P = 0.020; control region: ΦST = 0.012, P = 0.009) and a larger break between the archipelago and Johnston Atoll (cytochrome b: ΦST = 0.068, P deep reefs may constitute a population reservoir for species depleted in shallow reef habitats. These findings represent the first connectivity study on a mobile organism that spans shallow and mesophotic depths and provide a reference point for future connectivity studies on mesophotic fishes.

  15. Increased precuneus connectivity during propofol sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolin; Li, Shi-Jiang; Hudetz, Anthony G

    2014-02-21

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in human participants, we show that sedation by propofol to the point of lost overt responsiveness during the performance of an auditory verbal memory task unexpectedly increases functional connectivity of the precuneus with cortical regions, particularly the dorsal prefrontal and visual cortices. After recovery of consciousness, functional connectivity returns to a pattern similar to that observed during the wakeful baseline. In the context of a recent proposal that highlights the uncoupling of consciousness, connectedness, and responsiveness in general anesthesia, the increased precuneus functional connectivity under propofol sedation may reflect disconnected endogenous mentation or dreaming that continues at a reduced level of metabolic activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Altered temporal features of intrinsic connectivity networks in boys with combined type of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xun-Heng; Li, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Temporal patterns within ICNs provide new way to investigate ADHD brains. • ADHD exhibits enhanced temporal activities within and between ICNs. • Network-wise ALFF influences functional connectivity between ICNs. • Univariate patterns within ICNs are correlated to behavior scores. - Abstract: Purpose: Investigating the altered temporal features within and between intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) for boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); and analyzing the relationships between altered temporal features within ICNs and behavior scores. Materials and methods: A cohort of boys with combined type of ADHD and a cohort of age-matched healthy boys were recruited from ADHD-200 Consortium. All resting-state fMRI datasets were preprocessed and normalized into standard brain space. Using general linear regression, 20 ICNs were taken as spatial templates to analyze the time-courses of ICNs for each subject. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) were computed as univariate temporal features within ICNs. Pearson correlation coefficients and node strengths were computed as bivariate temporal features between ICNs. Additional correlation analysis was performed between temporal features of ICNs and behavior scores. Results: ADHD exhibited more activated network-wise ALFF than normal controls in attention and default mode-related network. Enhanced functional connectivities between ICNs were found in ADHD. The network-wise ALFF within ICNs might influence the functional connectivity between ICNs. The temporal pattern within posterior default mode network (pDMN) was positively correlated to inattentive scores. The subcortical network, fusiform-related DMN and attention-related networks were negatively correlated to Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores. Conclusion: The temporal low frequency oscillations of ICNs in boys with ADHD were more activated than normal controls during resting state; the temporal features within ICNs could

  17. Altered temporal features of intrinsic connectivity networks in boys with combined type of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xun-Heng, E-mail: xhwang@hdu.edu.cn [College of Life Information Science and Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Li, Lihua [College of Life Information Science and Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Temporal patterns within ICNs provide new way to investigate ADHD brains. • ADHD exhibits enhanced temporal activities within and between ICNs. • Network-wise ALFF influences functional connectivity between ICNs. • Univariate patterns within ICNs are correlated to behavior scores. - Abstract: Purpose: Investigating the altered temporal features within and between intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) for boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); and analyzing the relationships between altered temporal features within ICNs and behavior scores. Materials and methods: A cohort of boys with combined type of ADHD and a cohort of age-matched healthy boys were recruited from ADHD-200 Consortium. All resting-state fMRI datasets were preprocessed and normalized into standard brain space. Using general linear regression, 20 ICNs were taken as spatial templates to analyze the time-courses of ICNs for each subject. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) were computed as univariate temporal features within ICNs. Pearson correlation coefficients and node strengths were computed as bivariate temporal features between ICNs. Additional correlation analysis was performed between temporal features of ICNs and behavior scores. Results: ADHD exhibited more activated network-wise ALFF than normal controls in attention and default mode-related network. Enhanced functional connectivities between ICNs were found in ADHD. The network-wise ALFF within ICNs might influence the functional connectivity between ICNs. The temporal pattern within posterior default mode network (pDMN) was positively correlated to inattentive scores. The subcortical network, fusiform-related DMN and attention-related networks were negatively correlated to Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores. Conclusion: The temporal low frequency oscillations of ICNs in boys with ADHD were more activated than normal controls during resting state; the temporal features within ICNs could

  18. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in disorders of consciousness: preliminary results of an innovative analysis of brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pasquale, Francesco; Caravasso, Chiara Falletta; Péran, Patrice; Catani, Sheila; Tuovinen, Noora; Sabatini, Umberto; Formisano, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to present a new approach for connectivity analysis in patients with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) that overcomes some of the difficulties created by anatomical abnormalities due to the brain injury. Using a data-driven approach, resting-state structural MRI (sMRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) data from three severe ABI patients - two with disorders of consciousness (DOC) and one who had recovered consciousness (non-DOC) - were integrated and analyzed. Parameters extracted from the distribution of the connectivity values, such as mean, standard deviation and skeweness, were considered. The distribution parameters estimated seem to provide an accurate multivariate classification of the considered cases that can be summarized as follows: connectivity in the severe ABI patients with DOC was on average lower than in the severe ABI non-DOC patient and healthy subjects. The dispersion of connectivity values of the severe ABI patients, non-DOC and DOC, was comparable, however the shape of the distribution was different in the non-DOC patient. Eventually, seed-based connectivity maps of the default mode Functional magnetic resonance imaging in disorders of consciousness: preliminary results of an innovative analysis of brain connectivity network show a pattern of increasing disruption of this network from the healthy subjects to non-DOC and DOC patients. Consistent results are obtained using an ICA-based approach..

  19. Connections among quantum logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, P.F.; Hardegree, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the major areas of work in quantum event logics: manuals (Foulis and Randall) and semi-Boolean algebras (Abbott). The two theories are compared, and the connection between quantum event logics and quantum propositional logics is made explicit. In addition, the work on manuals provides us with many examples of results stated in Part I. (author)

  20. Connectivity measures: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Burel, F.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2008), s. 879-890 ISSN 0921-2973 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6087301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Conservation biology * Habitat fragmentation * Landscape connectivity * Measures * Species extinction Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.453, year: 2008

  1. Clip, connect, clone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujima, Jun; Lunzer, Aran; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    using three mechanisms: clipping of input and result elements from existing applications to form cells on a spreadsheet; connecting these cells using formulas, thus enabling result transfer between applications; and cloning cells so that multiple requests can be handled side by side. We demonstrate...

  2. A Connective Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goral, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Our increasingly hurried lifestyle, changes in family structure, and intense economic pressures place stress on children and families. Waldorf education provides an educational environment that alleviates this stress through a connective pedagogy that encompasses continuity of people, curriculum, and instruction; a reverence and respect for the…

  3. Connected vehicle application : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), and vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) data transmissions. Applications...

  4. Mathematics Connection: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. MATHEMATICS CONNECTION aims at providing a forum to promote the development of Mathematics Education in Ghana. Articles that seek to enhance the teaching and/or learning of mathematics at all levels of the educational system are welcome ...

  5. Making the Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Mark C.

    2006-01-01

    Enrollment marketing is not just about enrollment; it is about creating relationships and serving one's community or target audience for many years. In this article, the author states that the first step in building such relationships is making a connection, and that is what effective marketing is all about. Administrators, teachers and critical…

  6. Connecting numeric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caremoli, C.; Erhard, P.

    1996-01-01

    Computerized simulation uses calculation codes whose validation is reliable. Reactor simulators should take greater advantage of latest computer technology impact, in particular in the field of parallel processing. Instead of creating more global simulation codes whose validation might be a problem, connecting several existing codes should be a promising solution. (D.L.). 3 figs

  7. From connection to customer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milatz, H.; Soeters, R.

    2001-01-01

    Energy companies can no longer be certain that a customer today will remain a customer tomorrow. They have to work hard to achieve that. They are going from thinking in terms of connections to pampering their customers. Good Customer Relationship Management is a way to achieve a competitive advantage. The whole organisation has to adapt, particularly the customer orientation of employees

  8. IDRC Connect User Guide

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kristina Kamichaitis

    2 Jul 2015 ... IDRC Connect contribuye a la aplicación de la Política de Acceso abierto de IDRC facilitando ..... Tesis. • Material de capacitación. • Sitio web. • Documento de trabajo ..... incluir planes de estudios, metodologías y manuales.

  9. Harmonic Patterns in Forex Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Nemček, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis is committed to examination of validity of Harmonic Patterns in Forex trading. Scott Carney described existing and introduced new Harmonic Patterns in 1999 in his book Harmonic Trader. These patterns use the Fibonacci principle to analyze price action and to provide both bullish and bearish trading signals. The goal of this thesis is to find out whether harmonic trading strategy on selected pairs is profitable in FX market, which patterns are the most profitable and what i...

  10. A review of variables of urban street connectivity for spatial connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, W S N W; Said, I

    2014-01-01

    Several studies on street connectivity in cities and towns have been modeled on topology, morphology, technology and psychology of people living in the urban environment. Street connectivity means the connection of streets that offers people alternative routes. However, there emerge difficulties to determine the suitable variables and analysis to be chosen in defining the accurate result for studies street connectivity. The aim of this paper is to identify variables of street connectivity by applying GIS and Space Syntax. This paper reviews the variables of street connectivity from 15 past articles done in 1990s to early 2000s from journals of nine disciplines on Environment and Behavior, Planning and Design, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Applied Earth Observation and Geo-information, Environment and Planning, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Environmental Psychology, Social Science and Medicine and Building and Environment. From the review, there are four variables found for street connectivity: link (streets-streets, street-nodes or node-streets, nodes-nodes), accessibility, least-angle, and centrality. Space syntax and GIS are suitable tools to analyze the four variables relating to systematic street systems for pedestrians. This review implies that planners of the street systems, in the aspect of street connectivity in cities and towns, should consider these four variables

  11. A review of variables of urban street connectivity for spatial connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, W. S. N. W.; Said, I.

    2014-02-01

    Several studies on street connectivity in cities and towns have been modeled on topology, morphology, technology and psychology of people living in the urban environment. Street connectivity means the connection of streets that offers people alternative routes. However, there emerge difficulties to determine the suitable variables and analysis to be chosen in defining the accurate result for studies street connectivity. The aim of this paper is to identify variables of street connectivity by applying GIS and Space Syntax. This paper reviews the variables of street connectivity from 15 past articles done in 1990s to early 2000s from journals of nine disciplines on Environment and Behavior, Planning and Design, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Applied Earth Observation and Geo-information, Environment and Planning, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Environmental Psychology, Social Science and Medicine and Building and Environment. From the review, there are four variables found for street connectivity: link (streets-streets, street-nodes or node-streets, nodes-nodes), accessibility, least-angle, and centrality. Space syntax and GIS are suitable tools to analyze the four variables relating to systematic street systems for pedestrians. This review implies that planners of the street systems, in the aspect of street connectivity in cities and towns, should consider these four variables.

  12. Patterns - "A crime solver".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasupriya, A; Dhanapal, Raghu; Reena, K; Saraswathi, Tr; Ramachandran, Cr

    2011-01-01

    This study is intended to analyze the predominant pattern of lip and finger prints in males and females and to correlate lip print and finger print for gender identity. The study sample comprised of 200 students of Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, 100 males and 100 females aged between 18 to 27 years. Brown/pink colored lip stick was applied on the lips and the subject was asked to spread it uniformly over the lips. Lip prints were traced in the normal rest position of the lips with the help of cellophane tape. The imprint of the left thumb was taken on a white chart sheet and visualized using magnifying lens. While three main types of finger prints are identified, the classification of lip prints is simplified into branched, reticular, and vertical types. Association between lip prints and finger prints was statistically tested using Chi-square test. This study showed that lip and finger patterns did not reveal statistically significant results within the gender. The correlation between lip and finger patterns for gender identification, was statistically significant. In males, branched type of lip pattern associated with arch, loop, and whorl type of finger pattern was most significant. In females, vertical lip pattern associated with arch finger pattern and reticular lip pattern associated with whorl finger patterns were most significant. We conclude that a correlative study between the lip print and finger print will be very useful in forensic science for gender identification.

  13. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND PERFORMANCE OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM WITH GRID CONNECTED POWER SUPPLY

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Bharti; Dr. A.K.Sharma

    2017-01-01

    In this paper , we are analyzed about the solar power with grid connection using of various component such as PV Cells battery inverter, and grid power connection , in this way we are connected the grid power and solar power , after that finally we are analyzed the power quality of output with the help of various devices.

  15. Altered intrinsic and extrinsic connectivity in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Zeidman, Peter; Wu, Shihao; Razi, Adeel; Chen, Cheng; Yang, Liuqing; Zou, Jilin; Wang, Gaohua; Wang, Huiling; Friston, Karl J

    2018-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by functional dysconnectivity among distributed brain regions. However, it is unclear how causal influences among large-scale brain networks are disrupted in schizophrenia. In this study, we used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to assess the hypothesis that there is aberrant directed (effective) connectivity within and between three key large-scale brain networks (the dorsal attention network, the salience network and the default mode network) in schizophrenia during a working memory task. Functional MRI data during an n-back task from 40 patients with schizophrenia and 62 healthy controls were analyzed. Using hierarchical modeling of between-subject effects in DCM with Parametric Empirical Bayes, we found that intrinsic (within-region) and extrinsic (between-region) effective connectivity involving prefrontal regions were abnormal in schizophrenia. Specifically, in patients (i) inhibitory self-connections in prefrontal regions of the dorsal attention network were decreased across task conditions; (ii) extrinsic connectivity between regions of the default mode network was increased; specifically, from posterior cingulate cortex to the medial prefrontal cortex; (iii) between-network extrinsic connections involving the prefrontal cortex were altered; (iv) connections within networks and between networks were correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms and impaired cognition beyond working memory. In short, this study revealed the predominance of reduced synaptic efficacy of prefrontal efferents and afferents in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  16. Economy, energy and environment - Methods to analyze connections; Ekonomi, energi och miljoe - metoder att analysera samband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlroth, Sofia; Finnveden, Goeran; Hochschorner Elisabeth [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Ecology; Ekvall, Thomas [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Systems Technology; Wadeskog, Anders; Palm, Viveka [Statistics Sweden, Stockholm (Sweden). Environmental Accounts

    2003-12-01

    This report gives a review of instruments that can be used for finding economic, structural and environmental effects of decisions in the environmental area, and describe what is possible to achieve, economically and technically. Twelve different aspects are used for characterizing the instruments. Applications and limitations of the instruments are discussed. For many instruments there exists a lively discussion on their weaknesses and limitations. We focus on system analytical instruments, i.e. environment-economic methods, energy and energy-economic modelling and environment-system-analytical tools In the economic area we discuss I/O-analyses, CGE-models and econometric models as well as a few descriptive analytica tools: Cost-benefit analysis, CBA and Life Cycle Analyses.

  17. Age-Related Difference in Functional Brain Connectivity of Mastication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-shu; Wu, Ching-yi; Wu, Shih-yun; Lin, Hsiao-Han; Cheng, Dong-hui; Lo, Wen-liang

    2017-01-01

    The age-related decline in motor function is associated with changes in intrinsic brain signatures. Here, we investigated the functional connectivity (FC) associated with masticatory performance, a clinical index evaluating general masticatory function. Twenty-six older adults (OA) and 26 younger (YA) healthy adults were recruited and assessed using the masticatory performance index (MPI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). We analyzed the rs-fMRI FC network related to mastication, which was constructed based on 12 bilateral mastication-related brain regions according to the literature. For the OA and the YA group, we identified the mastication-related hubs, i.e., the nodes for which the degree centrality (DC) was positively correlated with the MPI. For each pair of nodes, we identified the inter-nodal link for which the FC was positively correlated with the MPI. The network analysis revealed that, in the YA group, the FC between the sensorimotor cortex, the thalamus (THA) and the cerebellum was positively correlated with the MPI. Consistently, the cerebellum nodes were defined as the mastication-related hubs. In contrast, in the OA group, we found a sparser connection within the sensorimotor regions and cerebellum and a denser connection across distributed regions, including the FC between the superior parietal lobe (SPL), the anterior insula (aINS) and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Compared to the YA group, the network of the OA group also comprised more mastication-related hubs, which were spatially distributed outside the sensorimotor regions, including the right SPL, the right aINS, and the bilateral dACC. In general, the findings supported the hypothesis that in OA, higher masticatory performance is associated with a widespread pattern of mastication-related hubs. Such a widespread engagement of multiple brain regions associated with the MPI may reflect an increased demand in sensorimotor integration, attentional

  18. Charge Analyzer Responsive Local Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Linda Habash; Thornton, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The first transatlantic radio transmission, demonstrated by Marconi in December of 1901, revealed the essential role of the ionosphere for radio communications. This ionized layer of the upper atmosphere controls the amount of radio power transmitted through, reflected off of, and absorbed by the atmospheric medium. Low-frequency radio signals can propagate long distances around the globe via repeated reflections off of the ionosphere and the Earth's surface. Higher frequency radio signals can punch through the ionosphere to be received at orbiting satellites. However, any turbulence in the ionosphere can distort these signals, compromising the performance or even availability of space-based communication and navigations systems. The physics associated with this distortion effect is analogous to the situation when underwater images are distorted by convecting air bubbles. In fact, these ionospheric features are often called 'plasma bubbles' since they exhibit some of the similar behavior as underwater air bubbles. These events, instigated by solar and geomagnetic storms, can cause communication and navigation outages that last for hours. To help understand and predict these outages, a world-wide community of space scientists and technologists are devoted to researching this topic. One aspect of this research is to develop instruments capable of measuring the ionospheric plasma bubbles. Figure 1 shows a photo of the Charge Analyzer Responsive to Local Oscillations (CARLO), a new instrument under development at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It is a frequency-domain ion spectrum analyzer designed to measure the distributions of ionospheric turbulence from 1 Hz to 10 kHz (i.e., spatial scales from a few kilometers down to a few centimeters). This frequency range is important since it focuses on turbulence scales that affect VHF/UHF satellite communications, GPS systems, and over-the-horizon radar systems. CARLO is based on the flight-proven Plasma Local

  19. Global imprint of historical connectivity on freshwater fish biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, M. S.; Oberdorff, Thierry; Hugueny, Bernard; Leprieur, F.; Jézéquel, Céline; Cornu, Jean-François; Brosse, S.; Grenouillet, G.; Tedesco, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The relative importance of contemporary and historical processes is central for understanding biodiversity patterns. While several studies show that past conditions can partly explain the current biodiversity patterns, the role of history remains elusive. We reconstructed palaeo-drainage basins under lower sea level conditions (Last Glacial Maximum) to test whether the historical connectivity between basins left an imprint on the global patterns of freshwater fish biodiversity. After controll...

  20. Organization of Anti-Phase Synchronization Pattern in Neural Networks: What are the Key Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Zhou, Changsong

    2011-01-01

    Anti-phase oscillation has been widely observed in cortical neural network. Elucidating the mechanism underlying the organization of anti-phase pattern is of significance for better understanding more complicated pattern formations in brain networks. In dynamical systems theory, the organization of anti-phase oscillation pattern has usually been considered to relate to time delay in coupling. This is consistent to conduction delays in real neural networks in the brain due to finite propagation velocity of action potentials. However, other structural factors in cortical neural network, such as modular organization (connection density) and the coupling types (excitatory or inhibitory), could also play an important role. In this work, we investigate the anti-phase oscillation pattern organized on a two-module network of either neuronal cell model or neural mass model, and analyze the impact of the conduction delay times, the connection densities, and coupling types. Our results show that delay times and coupling types can play key roles in this organization. The connection densities may have an influence on the stability if an anti-phase pattern exists due to the other factors. Furthermore, we show that anti-phase synchronization of slow oscillations can be achieved with small delay times if there is interaction between slow and fast oscillations. These results are significant for further understanding more realistic spatiotemporal dynamics of cortico-cortical communications. PMID:22232576

  1. Patterns of anomalous pulmonary venous connection as seen at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supra-cardiac and intra-cardiac anomalous were the commonest type of TAPVC representing 43.6% and 35.9% respectively. Among all patients with TAPVC 51.35% were associated with ostium secundum atrial septal defect, 74.4% had moderate to severe pulmonary hypertension. Overall mortality was 9.25%. Mortality ...

  2. Radiation energy detector and analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detector array and a method for measuring the spectral content of radiation. The radiation sensor or detector is an array or stack of thin solid-electrolyte batteries. The batteries, arranged in a stack, may be composed of independent battery cells or may be arranged so that adjacent cells share a common terminal surface. This common surface is possible since the polarity of the batteries with respect to an adjacent battery is unrestricted, allowing a reduction in component parts of the assembly and reducing the overall stack length. Additionally, a test jig or chamber for allowing rapid measurement of the voltage across each battery is disclosed. A multichannel recorder and display may be used to indicate the voltage gradient change across the cells, or a small computer may be used for rapidly converting these voltage readings to a graph of radiation intensity versus wavelength or energy. The behavior of the batteries when used as a radiation detector and analyzer are such that the voltage measurements can be made at leisure after the detector array has been exposed to the radiation, and it is not necessary to make rapid measurements as is now done

  3. Nuclear plant analyzer desktop workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beelman, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1983 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) commissioned the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA). The NPA was envisioned as a graphical aid to assist reactor safety analysts in comprehending the results of thermal-hydraulic code calculations. The development was to proceed in three distinct phases culminating in a desktop reactor safety workstation. The desktop NPA is now complete. The desktop NPA is a microcomputer based reactor transient simulation, visualization and analysis tool developed at INEL to assist an analyst in evaluating the transient behavior of nuclear power plants by means of graphic displays. The NPA desktop workstation integrates advanced reactor simulation codes with online computer graphics allowing reactor plant transient simulation and graphical presentation of results. The graphics software, written exclusively in ANSI standard C and FORTRAN 77 and implemented over the UNIX/X-windows operating environment, is modular and is designed to interface to the NRC's suite of advanced thermal-hydraulic codes to the extent allowed by that code. Currently, full, interactive, desktop NPA capabilities are realized only with RELAP5

  4. Comparing Structural Brain Connectivity by the Infinite Relational Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosen, Karen Marie Sandø; Herlau, Tue; Dyrby, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The growing focus in neuroimaging on analyzing brain connectivity calls for powerful and reliable statistical modeling tools. We examine the Infinite Relational Model (IRM) as a tool to identify and compare structure in brain connectivity graphs by contrasting its performance on graphs from...

  5. Connecting the Production Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichen, Alex Yu; Mouritsen, Jan

    &OP process itself is a fluid object, but there is still possibility to organise the messy Production. There are connections between the Production multiple and the managerial technology fluid. The fluid enacted the multiplicity of Production thus making it more difficult to be organised because there were...... in opposite directions. They are all part of the fluid object. There is no single chain of circulating references that makes the object a matter of fact. Accounting fluidity means that references drift back and forth and enact new realities also connected to the chain. In this setting future research may......This paper is about objects. It follows post ANT trajectories and finds that objects are multiple and fluid. Extant classic ANT inspired accounting research largely sees accounting inscriptions as immutable mobiles. Although multiplicity of objects upon which accounting acts has been explored...

  6. Attractor neural networks with resource-efficient synaptic connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlevan, Cengiz; Sengupta, Anirvan

    Memories are thought to be stored in the attractor states of recurrent neural networks. Here we explore how resource constraints interplay with memory storage function to shape synaptic connectivity of attractor networks. We propose that given a set of memories, in the form of population activity patterns, the neural circuit choses a synaptic connectivity configuration that minimizes a resource usage cost. We argue that the total synaptic weight (l1-norm) in the network measures the resource cost because synaptic weight is correlated with synaptic volume, which is a limited resource, and is proportional to neurotransmitter release and post-synaptic current, both of which cost energy. Using numerical simulations and replica theory, we characterize optimal connectivity profiles in resource-efficient attractor networks. Our theory explains several experimental observations on cortical connectivity profiles, 1) connectivity is sparse, because synapses are costly, 2) bidirectional connections are overrepresented and 3) are stronger, because attractor states need strong recurrence.

  7. Evaluation of 604 Connect

    OpenAIRE

    Ladner, S.; Ihnat, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Vancouver Community Network (VCN) is a not-for-profit Internet Service Provider (ISP), based on the “freenet” model of public Internet access. As a VolNet delivery agency, VCN committed to providing participating organizations with the following: (1) A communications protocol, (2) Internet Access, (3) Computer Equipment, (4) Training, and (5) Technical Support. In April 1999, VCN began receiving applications from non-profit organizations for its 604 Connect program, so named for the 604 t...

  8. Energy storage connection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  9. Cutter Connectivity Bandwidth Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how much bandwidth is required for cutters to meet emerging data transfer requirements. The Cutter Connectivity Business Solutions Team with guidance front the Commandant's 5 Innovation Council sponsored this study. Today, many Coast Guard administrative and business functions are being conducted via electronic means. Although our larger cutters can establish part-time connectivity using commercial satellite communications (SATCOM) while underway, there are numerous complaints regarding poor application performance. Additionally, smaller cutters do not have any standard means of underway connectivity. The R&D study shows the most important factor affecting web performance and enterprise applications onboard cutters was latency. Latency describes the time it takes the signal to reach the satellite and come back down through space. The latency due to use of higher orbit satellites is causing poor application performance and inefficient use of expensive SATCOM links. To improve performance, the CC must, (1) reduce latency by using alternate communications links such as low-earth orbit satellites, (2) tailor applications to the SATCOM link and/or (3) optimize protocols used for data communication to minimize time required by present applications to establish communications between the user and the host systems.

  10. Specialization Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz , Ulrik Pagh; Lawall , Julia ,; Consel , Charles

    1999-01-01

    Design patterns offer numerous advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the finished program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose to consider program specialization and design patterns as complementary concepts. On the one hand, program specialization can optimize object-oriented programs written using design patterns. On the other hand, design pat...

  11. Crosstalk performance of integrated optical cross-connects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herben, C.G.P.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Maat, D.H.P.; Blok, H.; Smit, M.K.

    1999-01-01

    Crosstalk performance of monolithically integrated multiwavelength optical cross-connects (OXC's) depends strongly on their architecture. In this paper, a semiquantitative analysis of crosstalk in 11 different architectures is presented. Two architectures are analyzed numerically in more detail and

  12. Repetitive tactile stimulation changes resting-state functional connectivity – implications for treatment of sensorimotor decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eFreyer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders and physiological aging can lead to a decline of perceptual abilities. In contrast to the conventional therapeutic approach that comprises intensive training and practicing, passive repetitive sensory stimulation (RSS has recently gained increasing attention as an alternative to countervail the sensory decline by improving perceptual abilities without the need of active participation. A particularly effective type of high-frequency RSS, utilizing Hebbian learning principles, improves perceptual acuity as well as sensorimotor functions and has been successfully applied to treat chronic stroke patients and elderly subjects. High-frequency RSS has been shown to induce plastic changes of somatosensory cortex such as representational map reorganization, but its impact on the brain’s ongoing network activity and resting-state functional connectivity has not been investigated so far. Here, we applied high-frequency RSS in healthy human subjects and analyzed resting state Electroencephalography (EEG functional connectivity patterns before and after RSS by means of imaginary coherency (ImCoh, a frequency-specific connectivity measure which is known to reduce overestimation biases due to volume conduction and common reference. Thirty minutes of passive high-frequency RSS lead to significant ImCoh-changes of the resting state mu-rhythm in the individual upper alpha frequency band within distributed sensory and motor cortical areas. These stimulation induced distributed functional connectivity changes likely underlie the previously observed improvement in sensorimotor integration.

  13. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  14. X-ray chemical analyzer for field applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamba, O.O.M.

    1977-01-01

    A self-supporting portable field multichannel x-ray chemical analyzer system is claimed. It comprises a lightweight, flexibly connected, remotely locatable, radioisotope-excited sensing probe utilizing a cryogenically-cooled solid state semi-conductor crystal detector for fast in situ non-destructive, qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements in solid, powder, liquid or slurried form, utilizing an x-ray energy dispersive spectrometry technique

  15. Wideband energy harvesting based on mixed connection of piezoelectric oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P. H.; Chen, Y. J.; Li, B. Y.; Shu, Y. C.

    2017-09-01

    An approach for wideband energy harvesting together with power enhancement is proposed by integrating multiple piezoelectric oscillators with mixed parallel-series connection. This gives rise to the feasibility of shifting the operation frequency band to the dominant frequency domain of ambient excitations. There are two types of connection patterns discussed here: the p-type (s-type) is the parallel (series) connection of all sets of oscillators where some of them may be connected in series (parallel). In addition, the standard interface circuit used for electric rectification is adopted here. The analytic estimates of output power are derived and explicitly expressed in terms of different matrix formulations for these two connection patterns. They are subsequently validated and are found in good agreement with numerical simulations and experimental observations. Finally, the experimental results from the mixed connection of 4 piezoelectric oscillators show that the peak power of each array is about 3.4 times higher than that generated by a single piezoelectric oscillator. In addition, the bandwidth of the array capable of switching connection patterns is around 2.8 times wider than that based on a single array configuration. Hence, the effective bandwidth is enlarged without the loss of peak power.

  16. Zebrafish Expression Ontology of Gene Sets (ZEOGS): a tool to analyze enrichment of zebrafish anatomical terms in large gene sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Marsico, Annalisa; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H

    2013-09-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an established model organism for developmental and biomedical research. It is frequently used for high-throughput functional genomics experiments, such as genome-wide gene expression measurements, to systematically analyze molecular mechanisms. However, the use of whole embryos or larvae in such experiments leads to a loss of the spatial information. To address this problem, we have developed a tool called Zebrafish Expression Ontology of Gene Sets (ZEOGS) to assess the enrichment of anatomical terms in large gene sets. ZEOGS uses gene expression pattern data from several sources: first, in situ hybridization experiments from the Zebrafish Model Organism Database (ZFIN); second, it uses the Zebrafish Anatomical Ontology, a controlled vocabulary that describes connected anatomical structures; and third, the available connections between expression patterns and anatomical terms contained in ZFIN. Upon input of a gene set, ZEOGS determines which anatomical structures are overrepresented in the input gene set. ZEOGS allows one for the first time to look at groups of genes and to describe them in terms of shared anatomical structures. To establish ZEOGS, we first tested it on random gene selections and on two public microarray datasets with known tissue-specific gene expression changes. These tests showed that ZEOGS could reliably identify the tissues affected, whereas only very few enriched terms to none were found in the random gene sets. Next we applied ZEOGS to microarray datasets of 24 and 72 h postfertilization zebrafish embryos treated with beclomethasone, a potent glucocorticoid. This analysis resulted in the identification of several anatomical terms related to glucocorticoid-responsive tissues, some of which were stage-specific. Our studies highlight the ability of ZEOGS to extract spatial information from datasets derived from whole embryos, indicating that ZEOGS could be a useful tool to automatically analyze gene expression

  17. Zebrafish Expression Ontology of Gene Sets (ZEOGS): A Tool to Analyze Enrichment of Zebrafish Anatomical Terms in Large Gene Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsico, Annalisa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an established model organism for developmental and biomedical research. It is frequently used for high-throughput functional genomics experiments, such as genome-wide gene expression measurements, to systematically analyze molecular mechanisms. However, the use of whole embryos or larvae in such experiments leads to a loss of the spatial information. To address this problem, we have developed a tool called Zebrafish Expression Ontology of Gene Sets (ZEOGS) to assess the enrichment of anatomical terms in large gene sets. ZEOGS uses gene expression pattern data from several sources: first, in situ hybridization experiments from the Zebrafish Model Organism Database (ZFIN); second, it uses the Zebrafish Anatomical Ontology, a controlled vocabulary that describes connected anatomical structures; and third, the available connections between expression patterns and anatomical terms contained in ZFIN. Upon input of a gene set, ZEOGS determines which anatomical structures are overrepresented in the input gene set. ZEOGS allows one for the first time to look at groups of genes and to describe them in terms of shared anatomical structures. To establish ZEOGS, we first tested it on random gene selections and on two public microarray datasets with known tissue-specific gene expression changes. These tests showed that ZEOGS could reliably identify the tissues affected, whereas only very few enriched terms to none were found in the random gene sets. Next we applied ZEOGS to microarray datasets of 24 and 72 h postfertilization zebrafish embryos treated with beclomethasone, a potent glucocorticoid. This analysis resulted in the identification of several anatomical terms related to glucocorticoid-responsive tissues, some of which were stage-specific. Our studies highlight the ability of ZEOGS to extract spatial information from datasets derived from whole embryos, indicating that ZEOGS could be a useful tool to automatically analyze gene

  18. State-Dependent Differences in Functional Connectivity in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashura W. Buckley

    2015-12-01

    Interpretation: Functional connectivity is distinctly different in children with autism compared to samples with typical development and developmental delay without autism. Differences in connectivity in autism are state and region related. In this study, children with autism were characterized by a dynamically evolving pattern of altered connectivity.

  19. Finding significantly connected voxels based on histograms of connection strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Pedersen, Morten Vester; Darkner, Sune

    2016-01-01

    We explore a new approach for structural connectivity based segmentations of subcortical brain regions. Connectivity based segmentations are usually based on fibre connections from a seed region to predefined target regions. We present a method for finding significantly connected voxels based...... on the distribution of connection strengths. Paths from seed voxels to all voxels in a target region are obtained from a shortest-path tractography. For each seed voxel we approximate the distribution with a histogram of path scores. We hypothesise that the majority of estimated connections are false-positives...... and that their connection strength is distributed differently from true-positive connections. Therefore, an empirical null-distribution is defined for each target region as the average normalized histogram over all voxels in the seed region. Single histograms are then tested against the corresponding null...

  20. Functional and effective whole brain connectivity using magnetoencephalography to identify monozygotic twin pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuru, M.; Gouw, A.; Hillebrand, A.; Stam, C J; van Dijk, B W; Scheltens, P.; Tijms, B.M.; Konijnenberg, E.; ten Kate-Booij, M.J.; den Braber, A; Smit, D J A; Boomsma, D I; Visser, P J

    2017-01-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity patterns are highly stable over time within subjects. This suggests that such 'functional fingerprints' may have strong genetic component. We investigated whether the functional (FC) or effective (EC) connectivity patterns of one monozygotic twin could be used

  1. No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Steven R; Raber, George T; Roberts, Jason J; Treml, Eric A; Brenner, Jorge; Halpin, Patrick N

    2015-01-01

    We integrated coral reef connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA) network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional coral reef data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008-2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. Coral larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between coral reefs across jurisdictional marine zones to identify spatial relationships between larval sources and destinations within countries and territories across the region. We applied our results in Marxan, a conservation planning software tool, to identify a regional coral reef MPA network design that meets conservation goals, minimizes underlying threats, and maintains coral reef connectivity. Our results suggest that approximately 77% of coral reefs identified as having a high regional connectivity value are not included in the existing MPA network. This research is unique because we quantify and report coral larval connectivity data by marine ecoregions and Exclusive Economic Zones (EZZ) and use this information to identify gaps in the current Caribbean-wide MPA network by integrating asymmetric connectivity information in Marxan to design a regional MPA network that includes important reef network connections. The identification of important reef connectivity metrics guides the selection of priority conservation areas and supports resilience at the whole system level into the future.

  2. No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R Schill

    Full Text Available We integrated coral reef connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional coral reef data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008-2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. Coral larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between coral reefs across jurisdictional marine zones to identify spatial relationships between larval sources and destinations within countries and territories across the region. We applied our results in Marxan, a conservation planning software tool, to identify a regional coral reef MPA network design that meets conservation goals, minimizes underlying threats, and maintains coral reef connectivity. Our results suggest that approximately 77% of coral reefs identified as having a high regional connectivity value are not included in the existing MPA network. This research is unique because we quantify and report coral larval connectivity data by marine ecoregions and Exclusive Economic Zones (EZZ and use this information to identify gaps in the current Caribbean-wide MPA network by integrating asymmetric connectivity information in Marxan to design a regional MPA network that includes important reef network connections. The identification of important reef connectivity metrics guides the selection of priority conservation areas and supports resilience at the whole system level into the future.

  3. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut; Huang, Qixing; Deng, Bailin; Schiftner, Alexander; Kilian, Martin; Guibas, Leonidas J.; Wallner, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  4. Foam patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  5. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-07-26

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  6. The adversative connectives aber and but in conversational corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülzow, Insa; Bartlitz, Victoria; Kuehnast, Milena; Golcher, Felix; Bittner, Dagmar

    2018-03-09

    We analyzed the conversational corpora of two German and two English children to investigate how the different use types of the adversative connectives aber and but influence the probability of monologically versus dialogically constructed utterances in the first year of use. Our findings show that children produce adversative connectives mainly in dialogic structures for illocutionary and theme-management purposes, but that the use types of adversative connectives lead to a different distribution of monologic and dialogic clause combinations. The results suggest that monologic and dialogic realizations as a function of text type must be considered when describing the developmental trajectory of the different use types of adversative connectives.

  7. The Berry's connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tourneux, J.

    1989-01-01

    A course on the Berry's connection is presented. The main steps leading to the Berry's discovery are reviewed and the obtained equations are examined. Some applications of Berry's formulation are presented. They include diatomic molecules, dipole-quadrupole interaction in spherical mucleus and diabolic pair transfer. The experimental results presented are the spectrum of the Na 3 molecule, the propagation of photons in an helical optical fiber and the neutron spin rotation. Non-abelian problems and the Aharonow-Anandan phase are discussed [fr

  8. The CONNECT project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, Yaniv; Alexander, Daniel C; Jones, Derek K

    2013-01-01

    Of Neuroimagers for the Non-invasive Exploration of brain Connectivity and Tracts) project aimed to combine tractography and micro-structural measures of the living human brain in order to obtain a better estimate of the connectome, while also striving to extend validation of these measurements. This paper...... summarizes the project and describes the perspective of using micro-structural measures to study the connectome.......In recent years, diffusion MRI has become an extremely important tool for studying the morphology of living brain tissue, as it provides unique insights into both its macrostructure and microstructure. Recent applications of diffusion MRI aimed to characterize the structural connectome using...

  9. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

    in the structure of fibrous collagen and myofibers at high-resolution. The results demonstrate that the collagen composition in the extra cellular matrix of Gadus morhua fish muscle is much more complex than previously anticipated, as it contains type III, IV, V  and VI collagen in addition to type I. The vascular....... Consequently, functional structures, ensuring "tissue maintenance" must form a major role of connective tissue, in addition that is to the force transmitting structures one typically finds in muscle. Vascular structures have also been shown to change their mechanical properties with age and it has been shown...

  10. Conformally connected universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantor, M.; Piran, T.

    1983-01-01

    A well-known difficulty associated with the conformal method for the solution of the general relativistic Hamiltonian constraint is the appearance of an aphysical ''bag of gold'' singularity at the nodal surface of the conformal factor. This happens whenever the background Ricci scalar is too large. Using a simple model, it is demonstrated that some of these singular solutions do have a physical meaning, and that these can be considered as initial data for Universe containing black holes, which are connected, in a conformally nonsingular way with each other. The relation between the ADM mass and the horizon area in this solution supports the cosmic censorship conjecture. (author)

  11. A Study Analyzing the Career Path of Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to identify the career movement patterns of librarians, analyze factors influencing their career movements, and compare differences in such factors between librarians and chief librarians. Findings showed that the jobs with the highest retention rate were those in public libraries, that library automation system developers showed…

  12. Multivariate Heteroscedasticity Models for Functional Brain Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Seiler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional brain connectivity is the co-occurrence of brain activity in different areas during resting and while doing tasks. The data of interest are multivariate timeseries measured simultaneously across brain parcels using resting-state fMRI (rfMRI. We analyze functional connectivity using two heteroscedasticity models. Our first model is low-dimensional and scales linearly in the number of brain parcels. Our second model scales quadratically. We apply both models to data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP comparing connectivity between short and conventional sleepers. We find stronger functional connectivity in short than conventional sleepers in brain areas consistent with previous findings. This might be due to subjects falling asleep in the scanner. Consequently, we recommend the inclusion of average sleep duration as a covariate to remove unwanted variation in rfMRI studies. A power analysis using the HCP data shows that a sample size of 40 detects 50% of the connectivity at a false discovery rate of 20%. We provide implementations using R and the probabilistic programming language Stan.

  13. Four integration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygstad, Bendik; Nielsen, Peter Axel; Munkvold, Bjørn Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to a theory of integration within the field of IS project management. Integration is a key IS project management issue when new systems are developed and implemented into an increasingly integrated information infrastructure in corporate and governmental organizations....... Expanding the perspective of traditional project management research, we draw extensively on central insights from IS research. Building on socio-technical IS research and Software Engineering research we suggest four generic patterns of integration: Big Bang, Stakeholder Integration, Technical Integration...... and Socio-Technical Integration. We analyze and describe the advantages and disadvantages of each pattern. The four patterns are ideal types. To explore the forces and challenges in these patterns three longitudinal case studies were conducted. In particular we investigate the management challenges for each...

  14. Connecting Network Properties of Rapidly Disseminating Epizoonotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Ariel L.; Fasina, Folorunso O.; Hoogesteyn, Almira L.; Konah, Steven N.; Febles, José L.; Perkins, Douglas J.; Hyman, James M.; Fair, Jeanne M.; Hittner, James B.; Smith, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background To effectively control the geographical dissemination of infectious diseases, their properties need to be determined. To test that rapid microbial dispersal requires not only susceptible hosts but also a pre-existing, connecting network, we explored constructs meant to reveal the network properties associated with disease spread, which included the road structure. Methods Using geo-temporal data collected from epizoonotics in which all hosts were susceptible (mammals infected by Foot-and-mouth disease virus, Uruguay, 2001; birds infected by Avian Influenza virus H5N1, Nigeria, 2006), two models were compared: 1) ‘connectivity’, a model that integrated bio-physical concepts (the agent’s transmission cycle, road topology) into indicators designed to measure networks (‘nodes’ or infected sites with short- and long-range links), and 2) ‘contacts’, which focused on infected individuals but did not assess connectivity. Results The connectivity model showed five network properties: 1) spatial aggregation of cases (disease clusters), 2) links among similar ‘nodes’ (assortativity), 3) simultaneous activation of similar nodes (synchronicity), 4) disease flows moving from highly to poorly connected nodes (directionality), and 5) a few nodes accounting for most cases (a “20∶80″ pattern). In both epizoonotics, 1) not all primary cases were connected but at least one primary case was connected, 2) highly connected, small areas (nodes) accounted for most cases, 3) several classes of nodes were distinguished, and 4) the contact model, which assumed all primary cases were identical, captured half the number of cases identified by the connectivity model. When assessed together, the synchronicity and directionality properties explained when and where an infectious disease spreads. Conclusions Geo-temporal constructs of Network Theory’s nodes and links were retrospectively validated in rapidly disseminating infectious diseases. They distinguished

  15. Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Topics English Español Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF ... they? Points To Remember About Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue There are more than 200 heritable disorders that ...

  16. YANA – a software tool for analyzing flux modes, gene-expression and enzyme activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engels Bernd

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of algorithms for steady state analysis of metabolic networks have been developed over the years. Of these, Elementary Mode Analysis (EMA has proven especially useful. Despite its low user-friendliness, METATOOL as a reliable high-performance implementation of the algorithm has been the instrument of choice up to now. As reported here, the analysis of metabolic networks has been improved by an editor and analyzer of metabolic flux modes. Analysis routines for expression levels and the most central, well connected metabolites and their metabolic connections are of particular interest. Results YANA features a platform-independent, dedicated toolbox for metabolic networks with a graphical user interface to calculate (integrating METATOOL, edit (including support for the SBML format, visualize, centralize, and compare elementary flux modes. Further, YANA calculates expected flux distributions for a given Elementary Mode (EM activity pattern and vice versa. Moreover, a dissection algorithm, a centralization algorithm, and an average diameter routine can be used to simplify and analyze complex networks. Proteomics or gene expression data give a rough indication of some individual enzyme activities, whereas the complete flux distribution in the network is often not known. As such data are noisy, YANA features a fast evolutionary algorithm (EA for the prediction of EM activities with minimum error, including alerts for inconsistent experimental data. We offer the possibility to include further known constraints (e.g. growth constraints in the EA calculation process. The redox metabolism around glutathione reductase serves as an illustration example. All software and documentation are available for download at http://yana.bioapps.biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de. Conclusion A graphical toolbox and an editor for METATOOL as well as a series of additional routines for metabolic network analyses constitute a new user

  17. LHCb connects its pipes

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Two weeks ago the first beryllium section of the LHCb beam vacuum chamber was installed. This three-day operation, after requiring lengthy preparation work, demanded patience and precision as the first of four sections of the beampipe was connected to the vertex locator (VeLo) vacuum vessel. The AT-VAC Group with the collaboration of PH/LBD, including Gloria Corti, Tatsuya Nakada, Patrice Mermet, Delios Ramos, Frans Mul, Bruno Versollato, Bernard Corajod, and Raymond Veness. (Not pictured: Adriana Rossi and Laurent Bouvet) This first installed section is composed of a nearly two-metre long conical tube of one-millimetre thick beryllium and of a thin spherical-shaped window, 800 millimeter diameter, made of an aluminum alloy, and has the appearance of a mushroom lying on its side. The window is connected to the conical part of the beampipe through an aluminum alloy bellow, which is needed to allow for mechanical alignment once the assembly is installed. Beryllium was chosen as the material for 12 m of the 19...

  18. Connective tissue activation. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.J.; Donakowski, C.; Anderson, B.; Meyers, S.; Castor, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    The platelet-derived connective tissue activating peptide (CTAP-III) has been shown to be an important factor stimulating the metabolism and proliferation of human connective tissue cell strains, including synovial tissue cells. The quantities of CTAP-III affecting the cellular changes and the amounts in various biologic fluids and tissues are small. The objectives of this study were to develop a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for CTAP-III and to ascertain the specificities of the anti-CTAP-III sera reagents. The antisera were shown not to cross-react with a number of polypeptide hormones. However, two other platelet proteins β-thromboglobulin and low affinity platelet factor-4, competed equally as well as CTAP-III for anti-CTAP-III antibodies in the RIA system. Thus, the three platelet proteins are similar or identical with respect to those portions of the molecules constituting the reactive antigenic determinants. The levels of material in normal human platelet-free plasma that inhibited anti-CTAP-III- 125 I-CTAP-III complex formation were determined to be 34+-13 (S.D.) ng/ml. (Auth.)

  19. Perfiles Latinoamericanos: Regional sociology, connected sociologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Arteaga Botello

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The landscape of sociology published in the 48 numbers of the Perfiles Latinoamericanos magazineis analyzed. The diversity of topics, perspectives, and methodologies of the articles define aseries of fields of reflection around civil society, collective action, subjectivities and social identities,cities, media, violence, and theory. The essay suggests how the sociology that is producedin Latin America is not isolated but connected with international debates. It converges forms ofdoing theory and research with resonances on a global scale.

  20. Criminal law and psychology: Connection points

    OpenAIRE

    Drakić Dragiša

    2014-01-01

    In the paper the author discovers and analyzes areas which represent points of connection between criminal law and psychology, the areas in which cooperation between these two fields of science is possible and desirable. This article is divided into several sections. Firstly, the author talks about the emergence of psychology as a science and its definition. In the sections that follow the author offers analysis of initial contact between ways of thinking in primeval criminal law and psycholo...

  1. CONNECTION BETWEEN ANIMAL CRUELTY AND INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Horvat

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes animal torture and other crimes and misdemeanors that sanction animal cruelty and torture. It displays the prevalence of violations of the provisions of Article 260 of the Croatian Penal Code. In addition it shows the current world researches that indicate a relationship between animal cruelty and violence among people in order to emphasize the connection between these seemingly different forms of violence and to explain the social danger of animal cruelty. Separately it ...

  2. Connecting multimodality in human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenbogen, Christina; Habel, Ute; Kellermann, Thilo

    2013-01-01

    A successful reciprocal evaluation of social signals serves as a prerequisite for social coherence and empathy. In a previous fMRI study we studied naturalistic communication situations by presenting video clips to our participants and recording their behavioral responses regarding empathy and its components. In two conditions, all three channels transported congruent emotional or neutral information, respectively. Three conditions selectively presented two emotional channels and one neutral channel and were thus bimodally emotional. We reported channel-specific emotional contributions in modality-related areas, elicited by dynamic video clips with varying combinations of emotionality in facial expressions, prosody, and speech content. However, to better understand the underlying mechanisms accompanying a naturalistically displayed human social interaction in some key regions that presumably serve as specific processing hubs for facial expressions, prosody, and speech content, we pursued a reanalysis of the data. Here, we focused on two different descriptions of temporal characteristics within these three modality-related regions [right fusiform gyrus (FFG), left auditory cortex (AC), left angular gyrus (AG) and left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC)]. By means of a finite impulse response (FIR) analysis within each of the three regions we examined the post-stimulus time-courses as a description of the temporal characteristics of the BOLD response during the video clips. Second, effective connectivity between these areas and the left dmPFC was analyzed using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) in order to describe condition-related modulatory influences on the coupling between these regions. The FIR analysis showed initially diminished activation in bimodally emotional conditions but stronger activation than that observed in neutral videos toward the end of the stimuli, possibly by bottom-up processes in order to compensate for a lack of emotional information. The

  3. Search Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Morville, Peter

    2010-01-01

    What people are saying about Search Patterns "Search Patterns is a delight to read -- very thoughtful and thought provoking. It's the most comprehensive survey of designing effective search experiences I've seen." --Irene Au, Director of User Experience, Google "I love this book! Thanks to Peter and Jeffery, I now know that search (yes, boring old yucky who cares search) is one of the coolest ways around of looking at the world." --Dan Roam, author, The Back of the Napkin (Portfolio Hardcover) "Search Patterns is a playful guide to the practical concerns of search interface design. It cont

  4. Connectivity-oriented urban projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philibert Petit, E.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is about connections in the built environment, networked connections for the mobility of people at the smallest scale of the urban realm: the pedestrian scale. It deals with applications of the new science of networks as a tool for observation and assessment of connectivity in the urban

  5. Airport industry connectivity report: 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, T.; Lieshout, R.; Burghouwt, G.

    2015-01-01

    This report is an update of the 'Airport Industry Connectivity Report 2004-2014'. It's focused on more recent developments and charting how Europe’s connectivity has evolved over the past 12 months. Airport connectivity is an increasingly discussed topic in European policy circles. With good reason.

  6. Designing connected marine reserves in the face of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Munguía-Vega, Adrián; Beger, Maria; Del Mar Mancha-Cisneros, Maria; Suárez-Castillo, Alvin N; Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Gerber, Leah R; Morzaria-Luna, Hem Nalini; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor; Adams, Vanessa M; Kolb, Melanie; Graham, Erin M; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Castillo-López, Alejandro; Hinojosa-Arango, Gustavo; Petatán-Ramírez, David; Moreno-Baez, Marcia; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R; Torre, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    Marine reserves are widely used to protect species important for conservation and fisheries and to help maintain ecological processes that sustain their populations, including recruitment and dispersal. Achieving these goals requires well-connected networks of marine reserves that maximize larval connectivity, thus allowing exchanges between populations and recolonization after local disturbances. However, global warming can disrupt connectivity by shortening potential dispersal pathways through changes in larval physiology. These changes can compromise the performance of marine reserve networks, thus requiring adjusting their design to account for ocean warming. To date, empirical approaches to marine prioritization have not considered larval connectivity as affected by global warming. Here, we develop a framework for designing marine reserve networks that integrates graph theory and changes in larval connectivity due to potential reductions in planktonic larval duration (PLD) associated with ocean warming, given current socioeconomic constraints. Using the Gulf of California as case study, we assess the benefits and costs of adjusting networks to account for connectivity, with and without ocean warming. We compare reserve networks designed to achieve representation of species and ecosystems with networks designed to also maximize connectivity under current and future ocean-warming scenarios. Our results indicate that current larval connectivity could be reduced significantly under ocean warming because of shortened PLDs. Given the potential changes in connectivity, we show that our graph-theoretical approach based on centrality (eigenvector and distance-weighted fragmentation) of habitat patches can help design better-connected marine reserve networks for the future with equivalent costs. We found that maintaining dispersal connectivity incidentally through representation-only reserve design is unlikely, particularly in regions with strong asymmetric patterns of

  7. Disruption of an Evolutionarily Novel Synaptic Expression Pattern in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xi; Hu, Haiyang; Guijarro, Patricia; Mitchell, Amanda; Ely, John J.; Sherwood, Chet C.; Hof, Patrick R.; Qiu, Zilong; Pääbo, Svante; Akbarian, Schahram; Khaitovich, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive defects in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include socialization and communication: key behavioral capacities that separate humans from other species. Here, we analyze gene expression in the prefrontal cortex of 63 autism patients and control individuals, as well as 62 chimpanzees and macaques, from natal to adult age. We show that among all aberrant expression changes seen in ASD brains, a single aberrant expression pattern overrepresented in genes involved synaptic-related pathways is enriched in nucleotide variants linked to autism. Furthermore, only this pattern contains an excess of developmental expression features unique to humans, thus resulting in the disruption of human-specific developmental programs in autism. Several members of the early growth response (EGR) transcription factor family can be implicated in regulation of this aberrant developmental change. Our study draws a connection between the genetic risk architecture of autism and molecular features of cortical development unique to humans. PMID:27685936

  8. Disruption of an Evolutionarily Novel Synaptic Expression Pattern in Autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiling Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive defects in autism spectrum disorder (ASD include socialization and communication: key behavioral capacities that separate humans from other species. Here, we analyze gene expression in the prefrontal cortex of 63 autism patients and control individuals, as well as 62 chimpanzees and macaques, from natal to adult age. We show that among all aberrant expression changes seen in ASD brains, a single aberrant expression pattern overrepresented in genes involved synaptic-related pathways is enriched in nucleotide variants linked to autism. Furthermore, only this pattern contains an excess of developmental expression features unique to humans, thus resulting in the disruption of human-specific developmental programs in autism. Several members of the early growth response (EGR transcription factor family can be implicated in regulation of this aberrant developmental change. Our study draws a connection between the genetic risk architecture of autism and molecular features of cortical development unique to humans.

  9. County business patterns, 1996 : Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  10. County business patterns, 1997 : Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  11. County business patterns, 1997 : Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  12. County business patterns, 1997 : Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  13. County business patterns, 1997 : Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  14. County business patterns, 1996 : Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  15. County business patterns, 1996 : Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  16. County business patterns, 1996 : Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  17. County business patterns, 1996 : Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  18. County business patterns, 1996 : Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  19. County business patterns, 1997 : Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  20. County business patterns, 1997 : Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...