WorldWideScience

Sample records for analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation

  1. Tools for the quantitative analysis of sedimentation boundaries detected by fluorescence optical analytical ultracentrifugation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaying Zhao

    Full Text Available Fluorescence optical detection in sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation allows the study of macromolecules at nanomolar concentrations and below. This has significant promise, for example, for the study of systems of high-affinity protein interactions. Here we describe adaptations of the direct boundary modeling analysis approach implemented in the software SEDFIT that were developed to accommodate unique characteristics of the confocal fluorescence detection system. These include spatial gradients of signal intensity due to scanner movements out of the plane of rotation, temporal intensity drifts due to instability of the laser and fluorophores, and masking of the finite excitation and detection cone by the sample holder. In an extensive series of experiments with enhanced green fluorescent protein ranging from low nanomolar to low micromolar concentrations, we show that the experimental data provide sufficient information to determine the parameters required for first-order approximation of the impact of these effects on the recorded data. Systematic deviations of fluorescence optical sedimentation velocity data analyzed using conventional sedimentation models developed for absorbance and interference optics are largely removed after these adaptations, resulting in excellent fits that highlight the high precision of fluorescence sedimentation velocity data, thus allowing a more detailed quantitative interpretation of the signal boundaries that is otherwise not possible for this system.

  2. Variable-Field Analytical Ultracentrifugation: I. Time-Optimized Sedimentation Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jia; Metrick, Michael; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Zhao, Huaying; Schuck, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Sedimentation equilibrium (SE) analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a gold standard for the rigorous determination of macromolecular buoyant molar masses and the thermodynamic study of reversible interactions in solution. A significant experimental drawback is the long time required to attain SE, which is usually on the order of days. We have developed a method for time-optimized SE (toSE) with defined time-varying centrifugal fields that allow SE to be attained in a significantly (up to 10-fold) shorter time than is usually required. To achieve this, numerical Lamm equation solutions for sedimentation in time-varying fields are computed based on initial estimates of macromolecular transport properties. A parameterized rotor-speed schedule is optimized with the goal of achieving a minimal time to equilibrium while limiting transient sample preconcentration at the base of the solution column. The resulting rotor-speed schedule may include multiple over- and underspeeding phases, balancing the formation of gradients from strong sedimentation fluxes with periods of high diffusional transport. The computation is carried out in a new software program called TOSE, which also facilitates convenient experimental implementation. Further, we extend AUC data analysis to sedimentation processes in such time-varying centrifugal fields. Due to the initially high centrifugal fields in toSE and the resulting strong migration, it is possible to extract sedimentation coefficient distributions from the early data. This can provide better estimates of the size of macromolecular complexes and report on sample homogeneity early on, which may be used to further refine the prediction of the rotor-speed schedule. In this manner, the toSE experiment can be adapted in real time to the system under study, maximizing both the information content and the time efficiency of SE experiments. PMID:26287634

  3. Recent Advances in the Analysis of Macromolecular Interactions Using the Matrix-Free Method of Sedimentation in the Analytical Ultracentrifuge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Harding

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation in the analytical ultracentrifuge is a matrix free solution technique with no immobilisation, columns, or membranes required and can be used to study self-association and complex or “hetero”-interactions, stoichiometry, reversibility and interaction strength of a wide variety of macromolecular types and across a very large dynamic range (dissociation constants from 10−12 M to 10−1 M. We extend an earlier review specifically highlighting advances in sedimentation velocity and sedimentation equilibrium in the analytical ultracentrifuge applied to protein interactions and mucoadhesion and to review recent applications in protein self-association (tetanus toxoid, agrin, protein-like carbohydrate association (aminocelluloses, carbohydrate-protein interactions (polysaccharide-gliadin, nucleic-acid protein (G-duplexes, nucleic acid-carbohydrate (DNA-chitosan and finally carbohydrate-carbohydrate (xanthan-chitosan and a ternary polysaccharide complex interactions.

  4. Quantifying Trace Amounts of Aggregates in Biopharmaceuticals Using Analytical Ultracentrifugation Sedimentation Velocity: Bayesian Analyses and F Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafer, Lucas; Kloczewiak, Marek; Luo, Yin

    2016-07-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation-sedimentation velocity (AUC-SV) is often used to quantify high molar mass species (HMMS) present in biopharmaceuticals. Although these species are often present in trace quantities, they have received significant attention due to their potential immunogenicity. Commonly, AUC-SV data is analyzed as a diffusion-corrected, sedimentation coefficient distribution, or c(s), using SEDFIT to numerically solve Lamm-type equations. SEDFIT also utilizes maximum entropy or Tikhonov-Phillips regularization to further allow the user to determine relevant sample information, including the number of species present, their sedimentation coefficients, and their relative abundance. However, this methodology has several, often unstated, limitations, which may impact the final analysis of protein therapeutics. These include regularization-specific effects, artificial "ripple peaks," and spurious shifts in the sedimentation coefficients. In this investigation, we experimentally verified that an explicit Bayesian approach, as implemented in SEDFIT, can largely correct for these effects. Clear guidelines on how to implement this technique and interpret the resulting data, especially for samples containing micro-heterogeneity (e.g., differential glycosylation), are also provided. In addition, we demonstrated how the Bayesian approach can be combined with F statistics to draw more accurate conclusions and rigorously exclude artifactual peaks. Numerous examples with an antibody and an antibody-drug conjugate were used to illustrate the strengths and drawbacks of each technique.

  5. Applying analytical ultracentrifugation to nanocrystal suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, Jennifer A; Krueger, Karl M; Mayo, J T; Yavuz, Cafer T; Redden, Jacina J; Colvin, Vicki L, E-mail: colvin@rice.ed [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, MS-60, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2009-09-02

    While applied frequently in physical biochemistry to the study of protein complexes, the quantitative use of analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) for nanocrystal analysis is relatively rare. Its application in nanoscience is potentially very powerful as it provides a measure of nanocrystal density, size and structure directly in the solution phase. Towards that end, this paper examines the best practices for applying data collection and analysis methods for AUC, geared towards the study of biomolecules, to the unique problems of nanoparticle analysis. Using uniform nanocrystals of cadmium selenide, we compared several schemes for analyzing raw sedimentation data. Comparable values of the mean sedimentation coefficients (s-value) were found using several popular analytical approaches; however, the distribution in sample s-values is best captured using the van Holde-Weischt algorithm. Measured s-values could be reproducibly collected if sample temperature and concentration were controlled; under these circumstances, the variability for average sedimentation values was typically 5%. The full shape of the distribution in s-values, however, is not easily subjected to quantitative interpretation. Moreover, the selection of the appropriate sedimentation speed is crucial for AUC of nanocrystals as the density of inorganic nanocrystals is much larger than that of solvents. Quantitative analysis of sedimentation properties will allow for better agreement between experimental and theoretical models of nanocrystal solution behavior, as well as providing deeper insight into the hydrodynamic size and solution properties of nanomaterials.

  6. Analytical ultracentrifugation of polymers and nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Maechtle, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a powerful method for the characterization of polymers, biopolymers, polyelectrolytes, nanoparticles, dispersions, and other colloidal systems. The method is able to determine the molar mass, the particle size, the particle density and interaction parameters like virial coefficients and association constants. Because AUC is also a fractionation method, the determination of the molar mass distribution, the particle size distribution, and the particle density distribution is possible. A special technique, the density gradient method, allows fractionating heterogeneous samples according to their chemical nature that means being able to detect chemical heterogeneity. The book is divided into chapters concerning instrumentation, sedimentation velocity runs, density gradient runs, application examples and future developments. In particular, the detailed application chapter demonstrates the versatility and power of AUC by means of many interesting and important industrial exam...

  7. 3D-Printing for Analytical Ultracentrifugation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhiksha Desai

    Full Text Available Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC is a classical technique of physical biochemistry providing information on size, shape, and interactions of macromolecules from the analysis of their migration in centrifugal fields while free in solution. A key mechanical element in AUC is the centerpiece, a component of the sample cell assembly that is mounted between the optical windows to allow imaging and to seal the sample solution column against high vacuum while exposed to gravitational forces in excess of 300,000 g. For sedimentation velocity it needs to be precisely sector-shaped to allow unimpeded radial macromolecular migration. During the history of AUC a great variety of centerpiece designs have been developed for different types of experiments. Here, we report that centerpieces can now be readily fabricated by 3D printing at low cost, from a variety of materials, and with customized designs. The new centerpieces can exhibit sufficient mechanical stability to withstand the gravitational forces at the highest rotor speeds and be sufficiently precise for sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity experiments. Sedimentation velocity experiments with bovine serum albumin as a reference molecule in 3D printed centerpieces with standard double-sector design result in sedimentation boundaries virtually indistinguishable from those in commercial double-sector epoxy centerpieces, with sedimentation coefficients well within the range of published values. The statistical error of the measurement is slightly above that obtained with commercial epoxy, but still below 1%. Facilitated by modern open-source design and fabrication paradigms, we believe 3D printed centerpieces and AUC accessories can spawn a variety of improvements in AUC experimental design, efficiency and resource allocation.

  8. Modifiers of radiation action on DNA screened by analytical ultracentrifugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobreros, G.; Lopez Zumel, M.C.; Usobiaga, P.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of daunomycin, chromomycin A 3 , anthramycin, cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) (cisplatin), mitomycin C, and chloroquine on the frequency of radioninduced strand breaks in X-irradiated aqueous solutions of DNA was studied primarily by analytical ultracentrifugation using the sedimentation velocity method. The results show a potent radiosensitizing effect for daunomycin and chromomycin, a protective action for chloroquine and mitomycin, and a nonmodifying effect for anthramycin. Cisplatin forms a highly aggregated complex with DNA which prevents this kind of study

  9. A Multilaboratory Comparison of Calibration Accuracy and the Performance of External References in Analytical Ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Huaying; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Alfonso, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a first principles based method to determine absolute sedimentation coefficients and buoyant molar masses of macromolecules and their complexes, reporting on their size and shape in free solution. The purpose of this multi-laboratory study was to establish...... coefficients obtained for BSA monomer in different instruments and using different optical systems was from 3.655 S to 4.949 S, with a mean and standard deviation of (4.304 ± 0.188) S (4.4%). After the combined application of correction factors derived from the external calibration references for elapsed time...

  10. Interaction between structurally different heteroexopolysaccharides and β-lactoglobulin studied by solution scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Sanaullah; Birch, Johnny; Van Calsteren, Marie-Rose

    2018-01-01

    Despite a very large number of bacterial exopolysaccharides have been reported, detailed knowledge on their molecular structures and associative interactions with proteins is lacking. Small-angle X-ray scattering, dynamic light scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) were used...

  11. Determination of nanoparticle size distribution together with density or molecular weight by 2D analytical ultracentrifugation

    KAUST Repository

    Carney, Randy P.; Kim, Jin Young; Qian, Huifeng; Jin, Rongchao; Mehenni, Hakim; Stellacci, Francesco; Bakr, Osman

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles are finding many research and industrial applications, yet their characterization remains a challenge. Their cores are often polydisperse and coated by a stabilizing shell that varies in size and composition. No single technique can characterize both the size distribution and the nature of the shell. Advances in analytical ultracentrifugation allow for the extraction of the sedimentation (s) and diffusion coefficients (D). Here we report an approach to transform the s and D distributions of nanoparticles in solution into precise molecular weight (M), density (?P) and particle diameter (dp) distributions. M for mixtures of discrete nanocrystals is found within 4% of the known quantities. The accuracy and the density information we achieve on nanoparticles are unparalleled. A single experimental run is sufficient for full nanoparticle characterization, without the need for standards or other auxiliary measurements. We believe that our method is of general applicability and we discuss its limitations. 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of nanoparticle size distribution together with density or molecular weight by 2D analytical ultracentrifugation

    KAUST Repository

    Carney, Randy P.

    2011-06-07

    Nanoparticles are finding many research and industrial applications, yet their characterization remains a challenge. Their cores are often polydisperse and coated by a stabilizing shell that varies in size and composition. No single technique can characterize both the size distribution and the nature of the shell. Advances in analytical ultracentrifugation allow for the extraction of the sedimentation (s) and diffusion coefficients (D). Here we report an approach to transform the s and D distributions of nanoparticles in solution into precise molecular weight (M), density (?P) and particle diameter (dp) distributions. M for mixtures of discrete nanocrystals is found within 4% of the known quantities. The accuracy and the density information we achieve on nanoparticles are unparalleled. A single experimental run is sufficient for full nanoparticle characterization, without the need for standards or other auxiliary measurements. We believe that our method is of general applicability and we discuss its limitations. 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  13. A Multilaboratory Comparison of Calibration Accuracy and the Performance of External References in Analytical Ultracentrifugation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Huaying

    2015-05-21

    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a first principles based method to determine absolute sedimentation coefficients and buoyant molar masses of macromolecules and their complexes, reporting on their size and shape in free solution. The purpose of this multi-laboratory study was to establish the precision and accuracy of basic data dimensions in AUC and validate previously proposed calibration techniques. Three kits of AUC cell assemblies containing radial and temperature calibration tools and a bovine serum albumin (BSA) reference sample were shared among 67 laboratories, generating 129 comprehensive data sets. These allowed for an assessment of many parameters of instrument performance, including accuracy of the reported scan time after the start of centrifugation, the accuracy of the temperature calibration, and the accuracy of the radial magnification. The range of sedimentation coefficients obtained for BSA monomer in different instruments and using different optical systems was from 3.655 S to 4.949 S, with a mean and standard deviation of (4.304 ± 0.188) S (4.4%). After the combined application of correction factors derived from the external calibration references for elapsed time, scan velocity, temperature, and radial magnification, the range of s-values was reduced 7-fold with a mean of 4.325 S and a 6-fold reduced standard deviation of ± 0.030 S (0.7%). In addition, the large data set provided an opportunity to determine the instrument-to-instrument variation of the absolute radial positions reported in the scan files, the precision of photometric or refractometric signal magnitudes, and the precision of the calculated apparent molar mass of BSA monomer and the fraction of BSA dimers. These results highlight the necessity and effectiveness of independent calibration of basic AUC data dimensions for reliable quantitative studies.

  14. A multilaboratory comparison of calibration accuracy and the performance of external references in analytical ultracentrifugation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaying Zhao

    Full Text Available Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC is a first principles based method to determine absolute sedimentation coefficients and buoyant molar masses of macromolecules and their complexes, reporting on their size and shape in free solution. The purpose of this multi-laboratory study was to establish the precision and accuracy of basic data dimensions in AUC and validate previously proposed calibration techniques. Three kits of AUC cell assemblies containing radial and temperature calibration tools and a bovine serum albumin (BSA reference sample were shared among 67 laboratories, generating 129 comprehensive data sets. These allowed for an assessment of many parameters of instrument performance, including accuracy of the reported scan time after the start of centrifugation, the accuracy of the temperature calibration, and the accuracy of the radial magnification. The range of sedimentation coefficients obtained for BSA monomer in different instruments and using different optical systems was from 3.655 S to 4.949 S, with a mean and standard deviation of (4.304 ± 0.188 S (4.4%. After the combined application of correction factors derived from the external calibration references for elapsed time, scan velocity, temperature, and radial magnification, the range of s-values was reduced 7-fold with a mean of 4.325 S and a 6-fold reduced standard deviation of ± 0.030 S (0.7%. In addition, the large data set provided an opportunity to determine the instrument-to-instrument variation of the absolute radial positions reported in the scan files, the precision of photometric or refractometric signal magnitudes, and the precision of the calculated apparent molar mass of BSA monomer and the fraction of BSA dimers. These results highlight the necessity and effectiveness of independent calibration of basic AUC data dimensions for reliable quantitative studies.

  15. A Multilaboratory Comparison of Calibration Accuracy and the Performance of External References in Analytical Ultracentrifugation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Huaying; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Alfonso, Carlos; Arisaka, Fumio; Attali, Ilan; Bain, David L.; Bakhtina, Marina M.; Becker, Donald F.; Bedwell, Gregory J.; Bekdemir, Ahmet; Besong, Tabot M.D.; Birck, Catherine; Brautigam, Chad A.; Brennerman, William; Byron, Olwyn; Bzowska, Agnieszka; Chaires, Jonathan B.; Chaton, Catherine T.; Cö lfen, Helmut; Connaghan, Keith D.; Crowley, Kimberly A.; Curth, Ute; Daviter, Tina; Dean, William L.; Dí ez, Ana I.; Ebel, Christine; Eckert, Debra M.; Eisele, Leslie E.; Eisenstein, Edward; England, Patrick; Escalante, Carlos; Fagan, Jeffrey A.; Fairman, Robert; Finn, Ron M.; Fischle, Wolfgang; de la Torre, José Garcí a; Gor, Jayesh; Gustafsson, Henning; Hall, Damien; Harding, Stephen E.; Cifre, José G. Herná ndez; Herr, Andrew B.; Howell, Elizabeth E.; Isaac, Richard S.; Jao, Shu-Chuan; Jose, Davis; Kim, Soon-Jong; Kokona, Bashkim; Kornblatt, Jack A.; Kosek, Dalibor; Krayukhina, Elena; Krzizike, Daniel; Kusznir, Eric A.; Kwon, Hyewon; Larson, Adam; Laue, Thomas M.; Le Roy, Aline; Leech, Andrew P.; Lilie, Hauke; Luger, Karolin; Luque-Ortega, Juan R.; Ma, Jia; May, Carrie A.; Maynard, Ernest L.; Modrak-Wojcik, Anna; Mok, Yee-Foong; Mü cke, Norbert; Nagel-Steger, Luitgard; Narlikar, Geeta J.; Noda, Masanori; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Nourse, Amanda; Obsil, Tomas; Park, Chad K.; Park, Jin-Ku; Pawelek, Peter D.; Perdue, Erby E.; Perkins, Stephen J.; Perugini, Matthew A.; Peterson, Craig L.; Peverelli, Martin G.; Prag, Gali; Prevelige, Peter E.; Raynal, Bertrand D. E.; Rezabkova, Lenka; Richter, Klaus; Ringel, Alison E.; Rosenberg, Rose; Rowe, Arthur J.; Rufer, Arne C.; Swygert, Sarah G.; Scott, David J.; Seravalli, Javier G.; Solovyova, Alexandra S.; Song, Renjie; Staunton, David; Stoddard, Caitlin; Stott, Katherine; Strauss, Holger M.; Streicher, Werner W.; Sumida, John P.; Szczepanowski, Roman H.; Tessmer, Ingrid; Toth, Ronald T.; Tripathy, Ashutosh; Uchiyama, Susumu; Uebel, Stephan F. W.; Unzai, Satoru; Gruber, Anna Vitlin; von Hippel, Peter H.; null; Wandrey, Christine; Wang, Szu-Huan; Weitzel, Steven E.; Wielgus-Kutrowska, Beata; Wolberger, Cynthia; Wolff, Martin; Wright, Edward; Wu, Yu-Sung; Wubben, Jacinta M.; Schuck, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a first principles based method to determine absolute sedimentation coefficients and buoyant molar masses of macromolecules and their complexes, reporting on their size and shape in free solution. The purpose of this multi-laboratory study was to establish the precision and accuracy of basic data dimensions in AUC and validate previously proposed calibration techniques. Three kits of AUC cell assemblies containing radial and temperature calibration tools and a bovine serum albumin (BSA) reference sample were shared among 67 laboratories, generating 129 comprehensive data sets. These allowed for an assessment of many parameters of instrument performance, including accuracy of the reported scan time after the start of centrifugation, the accuracy of the temperature calibration, and the accuracy of the radial magnification. The range of sedimentation coefficients obtained for BSA monomer in different instruments and using different optical systems was from 3.655 S to 4.949 S, with a mean and standard deviation of (4.304 ± 0.188) S (4.4%). After the combined application of correction factors derived from the external calibration references for elapsed time, scan velocity, temperature, and radial magnification, the range of s-values was reduced 7-fold with a mean of 4.325 S and a 6-fold reduced standard deviation of ± 0.030 S (0.7%). In addition, the large data set provided an opportunity to determine the instrument-to-instrument variation of the absolute radial positions reported in the scan files, the precision of photometric or refractometric signal magnitudes, and the precision of the calculated apparent molar mass of BSA monomer and the fraction of BSA dimers. These results highlight the necessity and effectiveness of independent calibration of basic AUC data dimensions for reliable quantitative studies.

  16. Investigating the early stages of mineral precipitation by potentiometric titration and analytical ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermeier, Matthias; Cölfen, Helmut; Gebauer, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of crystallization for various areas of research, our understanding of the early stages of the mineral precipitation from solution and of the actual mechanism of nucleation is still rather limited. Indeed, detailed insights into the processes underlying nucleation may enable a systematic development of novel strategies for controlling mineralization, which is highly relevant for fields ranging from materials chemistry to medicine. In this work, we describe experimental aspects of a quantitative assay, which relies on pH titrations combined with in situ metal ion potentiometry and conductivity measurements. The assay has originally been designed to study the crystallization of calcium carbonate, one of the most abundant biominerals. However, the developed procedures can also be readily applied to any compound containing cations for which ion-selective electrodes are available. Besides the possibility to quantitatively assess ion association prior to nucleation and to directly determine thermodynamic solubility products of precipitated phases, the main advantage of the crystallization assay is the unambiguous identification of the different stages of precipitation (i.e., prenucleation, nucleation, and early postnucleation) and the characterization of the multiple effects of additives. Furthermore, the experiments permit targeted access to distinct precursor species and intermediate stages, which thus can be analyzed by additional methods such as cryo-electron microscopy or analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC). Regarding ion association in solution, AUC detects entities significantly larger than simple ion pairs, so-called prenucleation clusters. Sedimentation coefficient values and distributions obtained for the calcium carbonate system are discussed in light of recent insights into the structural nature of prenucleation clusters. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Measuring agglomerate size distribution and dependence of localized surface plasmon resonance absorbance on gold nanoparticle agglomerate size using analytical ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zook, Justin M; Rastogi, Vinayak; Maccuspie, Robert I; Keene, Athena M; Fagan, Jeffrey

    2011-10-25

    Agglomeration of nanoparticles during measurements in relevant biological and environmental media is a frequent problem in nanomaterial property characterization. The primary problem is typically that any changes to the size distribution can dramatically affect the potential nanotoxicity or other size-determined properties, such as the absorbance signal in a biosensor measurement. Herein we demonstrate analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) as a powerful method for measuring two critical characteristics of nanoparticle (NP) agglomerates in situ in biological media: the NP agglomerate size distribution, and the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorbance spectrum of precise sizes of gold NP agglomerates. To characterize the size distribution, we present a theoretical framework for calculating the hydrodynamic diameter distribution of NP agglomerates from their sedimentation coefficient distribution. We measure sedimentation rates for monomers, dimers, and trimers, as well as for larger agglomerates with up to 600 NPs. The AUC size distributions were found generally to be broader than the size distributions estimated from dynamic light scattering and diffusion-limited colloidal aggregation theory, an alternative bulk measurement method that relies on several assumptions. In addition, the measured sedimentation coefficients can be used in nanotoxicity studies to predict how quickly the agglomerates sediment out of solution under normal gravitational forces, such as in the environment. We also calculate the absorbance spectra for monomer, dimer, trimer, and larger gold NP agglomerates up to 600 NPs, to enable a better understanding of LSPR biosensors. Finally, we validate a new method that uses these spectra to deconvolute the net absorbance spectrum of an unknown bulk sample and approximate the proportions of monomers, dimers, and trimers in a polydisperse sample of small agglomerates, so that every sample does not need to be measured by AUC. These results

  18. A short-run new analytical ultracentrifugal micromethod for determining low-density lipoprotein sub-fractions using Schlieren refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozóky, Z; Fülöp, L; Köhidai, L

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a new analytical ultracentrifugal micromethod for the determination of serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses directly from ultracentrifugal Schlieren scans. We have used special software for the analysis of this type of single-spin density-gradient ultracentrifugation. The flotation of LDL patterns was obtained by underlayering a physiological salt solution with serum or isolated lipoprotein fractions raised to a density of 1.3 g/mL in the spinning ultracentrifugation capillary band-forming cell. The repeated analysis of Schlieren curves of the same sample from 10 to 100 microL in the 60-100 min full-speed interval time resulted in quite reproducible results. We obtained quantitative results by measuring the Schlieren areas between the sample curves and the reference baseline curve by using computerised numerical and graphic techniques. The decomposition of the integrated curve was carried out using a nonlinear regression program followed by deconvolution algorithm analysis in order to determine the parameters of the composing Gaussian subclasses. The LDL particle concentrations were calculated from the area under the integral of the Gaussian curve using a calibration data constant. The flotation range of the LDL Schlieren curves in the cell was identified with serum from which LDL had been removed by means of precipitation reagents and with centrifugation of isolated LDL aliquots. With this technique, we measured the concentration of LDL and analysed its polydispersity without the need for preceding sequential isolation of the LDL. On the basis of the Schlieren curves, the LDL samples were either physically paucidisperse, having a symmetrical peak within a narrow density range, or were polydisperse, showing an asymmetrical pattern distributed over a broader density region. The described method proved to be useful for a clear and immediate visual presentation of the concentration values of the LDL and for the identification of the

  19. Analysis of the complex formation of heparin with protamine by light scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation: implications for blood coagulation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Jürgen; Haselbach, Stephanie; Klein, Oliver; Baykut, Doan; Vogel, Vitali; Mäntele, Werner

    2011-02-02

    Heparin, a linear glycosaminoglycan, is used in different forms in anticoagulation treatment. Protamine, a highly positive charged peptide containing about 32 amino acids, acts as an antagonist for heparin to restore normal blood coagulation. The complex formation of protamine with heparin was analyzed by a combination of analytical ultracentrifugation and light scattering. Titration of heparin with protamine in blood plasma preparations results in a drastic increase of turbidity, indicating the formation of nanoscale particles. A similar increase of turbidity was observed in physiological saline solution with or without human serum albumin (HSA). Particle size analysis by analytical ultracentrifugation revealed a particle radius of approximately 30 nm for unfractionated heparin and of approximately 60 nm for low molecular weight heparin upon complexation with excess protamine, in agreement with atomic force microscopy data. In the absence of HSA, larger and more heterogeneous particles were observed. The particles obtained were found to be stable for hours. The particle formation kinetics was analyzed by light scattering at different scattering angles and was found to be complete within several minutes. The time course of particle formation suggests a condensation reaction, with sigmoidal traces for low heparin concentrations and quasi-first-order reaction for high heparin concentrations. Under all conditions, the final scattering intensity reached after several minutes was found to be proportional to the amount of heparin in the blood plasma or buffer solution, provided that excess protamine was available and no multiple scattering occurred. On the basis of a direct relation between particle concentration and the heparin concentration present before protaminization, a light scattering assay was developed which permits the quantitative analysis of the heparin concentration in blood plasma and which could complement or even replace the activated clotting time test

  20. Application of novel analytical ultracentrifuge analysis to solutions of fungal mannans

    KAUST Repository

    Gillis, Richard B.; Adams, Gary G.; Besong, Tabot M.D.; Machová , Eva; Ebringerová , Anna; Rowe, Arthur J.; Harding, Stephen E.; Patel, Trushar R.

    2016-01-01

    distributions of these mannans were studied using two recently developed equilibrium approaches: SEDFIT-MSTAR and MULTISIG, resulting in corroboratory distribution profiles. Additionally, sedimentation velocity data for all four mannans, analyzed using ls

  1. Project: Ultracentrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olea C, O.

    1990-07-01

    The trans elastic ultracentrifuge of magnetic suspension, is an instrument that arose of an interdisciplinary group directed by the Dr. James Clark Keith where it was projected, designed and built a centrifuge that didn't exist, to be applied in forced diffusion of uranium, like one of the many application fields. The written present, has as purpose to give to know the fundamental physical principles of this technology, its fundamental characteristics of design, the application of this in the separation process of isotopes, as well as the previous studies and essential control parameters in the experimental processes, the same thing that, the most outstanding results and the detection systems used in the confirmation and finally, the carried out potential applications of the principles of the ultracentrifugation technology. (Author)

  2. Improving the thermal, radial, and temporal accuracy of the analytical ultracentrifuge through external references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Balbo, Andrea; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Brown, Patrick H; Lewis, Marc S; Brautigam, Chad A; Schuck, Peter; Zhao, Huaying

    2013-09-01

    Sedimentation velocity (SV) is a method based on first principles that provides a precise hydrodynamic characterization of macromolecules in solution. Due to recent improvements in data analysis, the accuracy of experimental SV data emerges as a limiting factor in its interpretation. Our goal was to unravel the sources of experimental error and develop improved calibration procedures. We implemented the use of a Thermochron iButton temperature logger to directly measure the temperature of a spinning rotor and detected deviations that can translate into an error of as much as 10% in the sedimentation coefficient. We further designed a precision mask with equidistant markers to correct for instrumental errors in the radial calibration that were observed to span a range of 8.6%. The need for an independent time calibration emerged with use of the current data acquisition software (Zhao et al., Anal. Biochem., 437 (2013) 104-108), and we now show that smaller but significant time errors of up to 2% also occur with earlier versions. After application of these calibration corrections, the sedimentation coefficients obtained from 11 instruments displayed a significantly reduced standard deviation of approximately 0.7%. This study demonstrates the need for external calibration procedures and regular control experiments with a sedimentation coefficient standard. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Application of novel analytical ultracentrifuge analysis to solutions of fungal mannans

    KAUST Repository

    Gillis, Richard B.

    2016-07-21

    Polysaccharides, the most abundant biopolymers, are required for a host of activities in lower organisms, animals, and plants. Their solution characterization is challenging due to their complex shape, heterogeneity, and size. Here, recently developed data analysis approaches were applied for traditional sedimentation equilibrium and velocity methods in order to investigate the molar mass distribution(s) of a subtype of polysaccharide, namely, mannans from four Candida spp. The molecular weight distributions of these mannans were studied using two recently developed equilibrium approaches: SEDFIT-MSTAR and MULTISIG, resulting in corroboratory distribution profiles. Additionally, sedimentation velocity data for all four mannans, analyzed using ls-g*(s) and Extended Fujita approaches, suggest that two of the fungal mannans (FM-1 and FM-3) have a unimodal distribution of molecular species whereas two others (FM-2 and FM-4) displayed bi-modal and broad distributions, respectively: this demonstrates considerable molecular heterogeneity in these polysaccharides, consistent with previous observations of mannans and polysaccharides in general. These methods not only have applications for the characterization of mannans but for other biopolymers such as polysaccharides, DNA, and proteins (including intrinsically disordered proteins).

  4. NMR spectroscopic and analytical ultracentrifuge analysis of membrane protein detergent complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choe Senyon

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural studies of integral membrane proteins (IMPs are hampered by inherent difficulties in their heterologous expression and in the purification of solubilized protein-detergent complexes (PDCs. The choice and concentrations of detergents used in an IMP preparation play a critical role in protein homogeneity and are thus important for successful crystallization. Results Seeking an effective and standardized means applicable to genomic approaches for the characterization of PDCs, we chose 1D-NMR spectroscopic analysis to monitor the detergent content throughout their purification: protein extraction, detergent exchange, and sample concentration. We demonstrate that a single NMR measurement combined with a SDS-PAGE of a detergent extracted sample provides a useful gauge of the detergent's extraction potential for a given protein. Furthermore, careful monitoring of the detergent content during the process of IMP production allows for a high level of reproducibility. We also show that in many cases a simple sedimentation velocity measurement provides sufficient data to estimate both the oligomeric state and the detergent-to-protein ratio in PDCs, as well as to evaluate the homogeneity of the samples prior to crystallization screening. Conclusion The techniques presented here facilitate the screening and selection of the extraction detergent, as well as help to maintain reproducibility in the detergent exchange and PDC concentration procedures. Such reproducibility is particularly important for the optimization of initial crystallization conditions, for which multiple purifications are routinely required.

  5. Assessment of Escherichia coli selenophosphate synthetase oligomeric states by analytical ultracentrifugation and small angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, I.R.; Faim, F.M.; Oliveira Neto, M.; Thiemann, O.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP-SC), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Borges, J.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Selenium is an essential micronutrient for many organisms and is present in selenium-containing proteins as selenocysteine (Sec) and RNAs as selenouridine. Specific selenium incorporation into selenoproteins and RNAs requires the generation of a biologically active selenium donor compound, selenophosphate, which is produced from the activation of selenide with adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) in a reaction catalyzed by Selenophosphate Synthetase (SELD). Therefore, SELD is a key enzyme of the selenium pathway in the cell. The Escherichia coli SELD open reading frame was cloned into pET28a (Novagen) expression vector and the recombinant protein was over expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) strain. In order to purify the protein, we used metal-chelate affinity chromatography followed by a gel filtration step. Analytical Ultracentrifugation (AUC) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) were employed to study the oligomeric states of the soluble protein. The results of AUC revealed dimer-tetramer and tetramer-octamer equilibrium at low concentrations of protein, with dissociation constants of 70 2 and 560 40 M, respectively. Moreover, the SAXS results pointed the oligomeric state of the protein at higher concentrations as predominantly dimeric and the p(r) and the SAXS envelope revealed the SELD as elongated. We also performed initial crystallization trials with protein samples at 7 mg/ml in 96-well sitting-drop crystallization plates at room temperature using a crystallization robot. Needle crystals appeared after some days. X-ray diffraction for these crystals were tested in the MX2 beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Laboratory (LNLS Campinas). We are now working to improve these crystals in order to obtain suitable crystals for structure determination. (author)

  6. The measurement of the molecular weight of humic acid by ultracentrifugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, M.P.

    1989-07-01

    This report is concerned with the application of ultracentrifuge methods to the determination of humic acid molecular weights. The work has been undertaken as part of the Co-Co club intercomparison exercise on humic acid characterisation. Knowledge of the molecular weight distribution of humic acid will be an important parameter in assessing the likely physical and chemical behaviour under the near-field environment. Molecular weights of a sample of purified Aldrich humic acid have been obtained by sedimentation velocity and sedimentation equilibrium studies using an analytical ultracentrifuge. The results have shown the material to be polydisperse with a weight average molecular weight in the region 2700 to 4000. (author)

  7. Solid-state NMR of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid bilayer nanodiscs sedimented by ultracentrifugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yi; Fujimoto, L. Miya; Yao, Yong; Marassi, Francesca M.

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state NMR studies of sedimented soluble proteins has been developed recently as an attractive approach for overcoming the size limitations of solution NMR spectroscopy while bypassing the need for sample crystallization or precipitation (Bertini et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(26):10396–10399, 2011). Inspired by the potential benefits of this method, we have investigated the ability to sediment lipid bilayer nanodiscs reconstituted with a membrane protein. In this study, we show that nanodiscs containing the outer membrane protein Ail from Yersinia pestis can be sedimented for solid-state NMR structural studies, without the need for precipitation or lyophilization. Optimized preparations of Ail in phospholipid nanodiscs support both the structure and the fibronectin binding activity of the protein. The same sample can be used for solution NMR, solid-state NMR and activity assays, facilitating structure–activity correlation experiments across a wide range of timescales

  8. Solid-state NMR of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid bilayer nanodiscs sedimented by ultracentrifugation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yi; Fujimoto, L. Miya; Yao, Yong; Marassi, Francesca M., E-mail: fmarassi@sbmri.org [Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Solid-state NMR studies of sedimented soluble proteins has been developed recently as an attractive approach for overcoming the size limitations of solution NMR spectroscopy while bypassing the need for sample crystallization or precipitation (Bertini et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(26):10396–10399, 2011). Inspired by the potential benefits of this method, we have investigated the ability to sediment lipid bilayer nanodiscs reconstituted with a membrane protein. In this study, we show that nanodiscs containing the outer membrane protein Ail from Yersinia pestis can be sedimented for solid-state NMR structural studies, without the need for precipitation or lyophilization. Optimized preparations of Ail in phospholipid nanodiscs support both the structure and the fibronectin binding activity of the protein. The same sample can be used for solution NMR, solid-state NMR and activity assays, facilitating structure–activity correlation experiments across a wide range of timescales.

  9. Reversible dimer formation and stability of the anti-tumour single-chain Fv antibody MFE-23 by neutron scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation, and NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yie Chia; Boehm, Mark K; Chester, Kerry A; Begent, Richard H J; Perkins, Stephen J

    2002-06-28

    MFE-23 is a single chain Fv (scFv) antibody molecule used to target colorectal cancer through its high affinity for the tumour marker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). ScFv molecules are formed from peptide-linked antibody V(H) and V(L) domains, and many of these form dimers. Our recent crystal structure for MFE-23 showed that this formed an unusual symmetric back-to-back association of two monomers that is consistent with a domain-swapped diabody structure. Neutron scattering and modelling fits showed that MFE-23 existed as compact V(H)-V(L)-linked monomers at therapeutically relevant concentrations below 1 mg/ml. Size-exclusion gel chromatography showed that the monomeric and dimeric forms of MFE-23 could be separated, and that the proportions of these two forms depended on the starting MFE-23 concentration. Sedimentation equilibrium experiments by analytical ultracentrifugation at nine concentrations of MFE-23 indicated a reversible monomer-dimer self-association equilibrium with an association constant of 1.9x10(3)-2.2x10(3) M(-1). Sedimentation velocity experiments using the time derivative g(s(*)) method showed that MFE-23-His has a concentration-dependent weight average sedimentation coefficient that increased from 1.8 S for the monomer to about 3-6 S for the dimer. Both values agreed with those calculated from the MFE-23 crystal structure. In relation to the thermal stability of MFE-23, denaturation experiments by (1)H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy showed that the molecule is stable up to 47 degrees C, after which denaturation was irreversible. MFE-23 dimerisation is discussed in terms of a new model for diabody structures, in which the V(H) and V(L) domains in the monomer are able to dissociate and reassociate to form a dimer, or diabody, but in which symmetric back-to-back contacts between the two monomers are formed. This dimerisation in solution is attributed to the complementary nature of the C-terminal surface of the MFE-23 monomer. Crystal structures for

  10. Project: Ultracentrifuges; Proyecto: Ultracentrifugas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olea C, O

    1990-07-15

    The trans elastic ultracentrifuge of magnetic suspension, is an instrument that arose of an interdisciplinary group directed by the Dr. James Clark Keith where it was projected, designed and built a centrifuge that didn't exist, to be applied in forced diffusion of uranium, like one of the many application fields. The written present, has as purpose to give to know the fundamental physical principles of this technology, its fundamental characteristics of design, the application of this in the separation process of isotopes, as well as the previous studies and essential control parameters in the experimental processes, the same thing that, the most outstanding results and the detection systems used in the confirmation and finally, the carried out potential applications of the principles of the ultracentrifugation technology. (Author)

  11. Project: Ultracentrifuges; Proyecto: Ultracentrifugas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olea C, O

    1990-07-15

    The trans elastic ultracentrifuge of magnetic suspension, is an instrument that arose of an interdisciplinary group directed by the Dr. James Clark Keith where it was projected, designed and built a centrifuge that didn't exist, to be applied in forced diffusion of uranium, like one of the many application fields. The written present, has as purpose to give to know the fundamental physical principles of this technology, its fundamental characteristics of design, the application of this in the separation process of isotopes, as well as the previous studies and essential control parameters in the experimental processes, the same thing that, the most outstanding results and the detection systems used in the confirmation and finally, the carried out potential applications of the principles of the ultracentrifugation technology. (Author)

  12. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    , and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  13. Ultracentrifuge in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This article contains the complete advice which was compiled by a group of energy experts on behalf of the Dutch political party PPR. In their conclusions, the authors state that the expansion of the Ultracentrifuge plant in Almelo means: Dutch support to the furtherance of the proliferation of nuclear weapons by West-Germany; Dutch financial and technical support to the expansion of the nuclear technology of West-Germany; the decrease of the future possibilities of an effective international treaty against the proliferation of nuclear weapons; a stimulation to use nuclear energy as an energy source which is dangerous and unnecessary

  14. Fluvial sediment transport: Analytical techniques for measuring sediment load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    Sediment transport data are often used for the evaluation of land surface erosion, reservoir sedimentation, ecological habitat quality and coastal sediment budgets. Sediment transport by rivers is usually considered to occur in two major ways: (1) in the flow as a suspended load and (2) along the bed as a bed load. This publication provides guidance on selected techniques for the measurement of particles moving in both modes in the fluvial environment. The relative importance of the transport mode is variable and depends on the hydraulic and sedimentary conditions. The potential user is directed in the selection of an appropriate technique through the presentation of operating principles, application guidelines and estimated costs. Techniques which require laboratory analysis are grab sample, pump sample, depth sample, point integrated and radioactive tracers. Techniques which will continuously record data are optical backscattering, nuclear transmission, single frequency acoustic and laser diffraction

  15. Characterization of marine sediments using analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Rosales, G.; Longoria-Gandara, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study deals with the characterization of a marine sediments profile from the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Ten sediment samples obtained from a core of 18.3 m of length were analysed. Although there have been numerous marine sediments studies carried out in Mexico, more are needed to better understand the sea floor formation. Crystallographic, morphologic, physical, chemical and gamma ray activity analysis were carried out on the samples. The analysis results showed a decrease in organic matter content as a function of sea depth; this value is related to the specific surface area. Some hazardous materials as Cr, Mn, Ni, Sr and Hg were also identified by PIXE in some samples, probably due to anthropogenic activity. The presence of uranium a naturally occurring element was found in all the samples, suggesting a migration through all materials of strata, radioactive elements such as 226 Ra, 235 U, 212 Pb, 214 Pb, 228 Ac, 208 Ti, 214 Bi, 228 Ac and 40 K were detected. (author)

  16. Analytic ultracentrifugation of lipoproteins: Some current collaborations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, F.T.

    1987-01-01

    This summary briefly reports on three ongoing studies - the heterogeneity of Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) in the cynomolgus monkey, the domain nature of Apolipoprotein E-3, and the molecular weight of apoB-100 in low density lipoprotein subfractions in normal males. 4 refs

  17. Ultracentrifuge and non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voortman, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The author states that there is no meaningful difference, from the point of view of proliferation between peaceful, civil, scientific application of nuclear fission, and the use of it in nuclear weapons. The proliferation of the nuclear technology for weapons appeared and appears to be closely connected with the spread of peaceful applications of nuclear technology. In connection with this, he discusses the Ultracentrifuge plant at Almelo (Netherlands) and the supply of nuclear technology by West-Germany especially to Brazil. Further the changed American policy and the possibility of an American/Russian deal to prevent the spread of the nuclear enrichment technology is discussed

  18. Ultracentrifugation for ultrafine nanodiamond fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniakhin, S. V.; Besedina, N. A.; Kirilenko, D. A.; Shvidchenko, A. V.; Eidelman, E. D.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method for ultrafine fractionation of nanodiamonds using the differential centrifugation in the fields up to 215000g. The developed protocols yield 4-6 nm fraction giving main contribution to the light scattering intensity. The desired 4-6 nm fraction can be obtained from various types of initial nanodiamonds: three types of detonation nanodiamonds differing in purifying methods, laser synthesis nanodiamonds and nanodiamonds made by milling. The characterization of the obtained hydrosols was conducted with Dynamic Light Scattering, Zeta potential measurements, powder XRD and TEM. According to powder XRD and TEM data ultracentrifugation also leads to a further fractionation of the primary diamond nanocrystallites in the hydrosols from 4 to 2 nm.

  19. A new analytical approach for monitoring microplastics in marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuelle, Marie-Theres; Dekiff, Jens H.; Remy, Dominique; Fries, Elke

    2014-01-01

    A two-step method was developed to extract microplastics from sediments. First, 1 kg sediments was pre-extracted using the air-induced overflow (AIO) method, based on fluidisation in a sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. The original sediment mass was reduced by up to 80%. As a consequence, it was possible to reduce the volume of sodium iodide (NaI) solution used for the subsequent flotation step. Recoveries of the whole procedure for polyethylene, polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene and polyurethane with sizes of approximately 1 mm were between 91 and 99%. After being stored for one week in a 35% H 2 O 2 solution, 92% of selected biogenic material had dissolved completely or had lost its colour, whereas the tested polymers were resistant. Microplastics were extracted from three sediment samples collected from the North Sea island Norderney. Using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, these microplastics were identified as PP, PVC and PET. -- A two-step extraction technique enabled microplastics to be extracted from sediments at an affordable price by decreasing the sediment mass in the first step

  20. Analytical methods for measuring 10Be in marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, I.J.; Ditchburn, R.G.; Sparks, R.J.; Whitehead, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    A suite of marine sediments from the Wanganui Basin (Graham et al. 1995) has provided excellent material to further develop methods for 10 Be analysis at the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences AMS facility. Chemical methods for Be extraction have been streamlined and there has been some reduction of backgrounds and contamination peaks for 1 0Be isotopic analysis. (authors) 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  1. Gram-scale fractionation of nanodiamonds by density gradient ultracentrifugation

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Size is a defining characteristic of nanoparticles; it influences their optical and electronic properties as well as their interactions with molecules and macromolecules. Producing nanoparticles with narrow size distributions remains one of the main challenges to their utilization. At this time, the number of practical approaches to optimize the size distribution of nanoparticles in many interesting materials systems, including diamond nanocrystals, remains limited. Diamond nanocrystals synthesized by detonation protocols-so-called detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs)-are promising systems for drug delivery, photonics, and composites. DNDs are composed of primary particles with diameters mainly <10 nm and their aggregates (ca. 10-500 nm). Here, we introduce a large-scale approach to rate-zonal density gradient ultracentrifugation to obtain monodispersed fractions of nanoparticles in high yields. We use this method to fractionate a highly concentrated and stable aqueous solution of DNDs and to investigate the size distribution of various fractions by dynamic light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation, transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. This fractionation method enabled us to separate gram-scale amounts of DNDs into several size ranges within a relatively short period of time. In addition, the high product yields obtained for each fraction allowed us to apply the fractionation method iteratively to a particular size range of particles and to collect various fractions of highly monodispersed primary particles. Our method paves the way for in-depth studies of the physical and optical properties, growth, and aggregation mechanism of DNDs. Applications requiring DNDs with specific particle or aggregate sizes are now within reach. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Validation of an analytical methodology for the quantitative analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediment samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Yordad Companioni Damas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a validation of an analytical procedure for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediment samples. The proposed protocol is able to measure n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in samples at concentrations as low as 30 ng/g, with a precision better than 15% for most of analytes. The extraction efficiency of fortified sediments varied from 65.1 to 105.6% and 59.7 to 97.8%, for n-alkanes and PAH in the ranges: C16 - C32 and fluoranthene - benzo(apyrene, respectively. The analytical protocol was applied to determine petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments collected from a marine coastal zone.

  3. Feedback between residual circulations and sediment distribution in highly turbid estuaries: an analytical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talke, S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823554; de Swart, H.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073449725; Schuttelaars, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/164035656

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by field studies of the Ems estuary which show longitudinal gradients in bottom sediment concentration as high as O(0.01 kg/m4), we develop an analytical model for estuarine residual circulation based on currents from salinity gradients, turbidity gradients, and freshwater discharge.

  4. An Analytic Equation Partitioning Climate Variation and Human Impacts on River Sediment Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Gao, G.; Fu, B.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial or temporal patterns and process-based equations could co-exist in hydrologic model. Yet, existing approaches quantifying the impacts of those variables on river sediment load (RSL) changes are found to be severely limited, and new ways to evaluate the contribution of these variables are thus needed. Actually, the Newtonian modeling is hardly achievable for this process due to the limitation of both observations and knowledge of mechanisms, whereas laws based on the Darwinian approach could provide one component of a developed hydrologic model. Since that streamflow is the carrier of suspended sediment, sediment load changes are documented in changes of streamflow and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) - water discharge relationships. Consequently, an analytic equation for river sediment load changes are proposed to explicitly quantify the relative contributions of climate variation and direct human impacts on river sediment load changes. Initially, the sediment rating curve, which is of great significance in RSL changes analysis, was decomposed as probability distribution of streamflow and the corresponding SSC - water discharge relationships at equally spaced discharge classes. Furthermore, a proposed segmentation algorithm based on the fractal theory was used to decompose RSL changes attributed to these two portions. Additionally, the water balance framework was utilized and the corresponding elastic parameters were calculated. Finally, changes in climate variables (i.e. precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) and direct human impacts on river sediment load could be figured out. By data simulation, the efficiency of the segmentation algorithm was verified. The analytic equation provides a superior Darwinian approach partitioning climate and human impacts on RSL changes, as only data series of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and SSC - water discharge are demanded.

  5. Recovery of urinary nanovesicles from ultracentrifugation supernatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Luca; Saraswat, Mayank; Ravidà, Alessandra; Byrne, Barry; Holthofer, Harry

    2013-06-01

    Urinary vesicles represent a newly established source of biological material, widely considered to faithfully represent pathological events in the kidneys and the urogenital epithelium. The majority of currently applied isolation protocols involve cumbersome centrifugation steps to enrich vesicles from urine. To date, the efficiency of these approaches has not been investigated with respect to performing quantitative and qualitative analyses of vesicle populations in the pellet and supernatant (SN) fractions. After the series of differential centrifugations, the final SN was reduced to one-twentieth of the original volume by ammonium sulphate precipitation, with the precipitate pellet subjected to another round of differential centrifugations. Electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and western blot analysis were used to characterize the vesicles present in individual fractions of interest. Pellets obtained after the second set of centrifugations at 200 000 g revealed the presence of vesicles which share a common marker profile, but with distinct differences from those seen in the initial 200 000 g pellet used as the reference. This suggests an enrichment of previously uncharacterized urinary vesicles still in solution after the initial centrifugation steps. Analysis of protein yields recovered post-ultracentrifugation revealed an additional 40% of vesicles retained from the SN. Moreover, these structures showed a formidable resistance to harsh treatments (e.g. 95% ammonium sulphate saturation, hypotonic dialysis, 0.3 M sodium hydroxide). Methods which employ differential centrifugations of native urine are remarkably ineffective and may lose a substantial population of biologically important vesicle species.

  6. Hasse diagram as a green analytical metrics tool: ranking of methods for benzo[a]pyrene determination in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigus, Paulina; Tsakovski, Stefan; Simeonov, Vasil; Namieśnik, Jacek; Tobiszewski, Marek

    2016-05-01

    This study presents an application of the Hasse diagram technique (HDT) as the assessment tool to select the most appropriate analytical procedures according to their greenness or the best analytical performance. The dataset consists of analytical procedures for benzo[a]pyrene determination in sediment samples, which were described by 11 variables concerning their greenness and analytical performance. Two analyses with the HDT were performed-the first one with metrological variables and the second one with "green" variables as input data. Both HDT analyses ranked different analytical procedures as the most valuable, suggesting that green analytical chemistry is not in accordance with metrology when benzo[a]pyrene in sediment samples is determined. The HDT can be used as a good decision support tool to choose the proper analytical procedure concerning green analytical chemistry principles and analytical performance merits.

  7. Mathematical theory of sedimentation analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Hiroshi; Van Rysselberghe, P

    1962-01-01

    Mathematical Theory of Sedimentation Analysis presents the flow equations for the ultracentrifuge. This book is organized into two parts encompassing six chapters that evaluate the systems of reacting components, the differential equations for the ultracentrifuge, and the case of negligible diffusion. The first chapters consider the Archibald method for molecular weight determination; pressure-dependent sedimentation; expressions for the refractive index and its gradient; relation between refractive index and concentration; and the analysis of Gaussian distribution. Other chapters deal with th

  8. Analytical method comparisons for the accurate determination of PCBs in sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, M.; Yarita, T.; Aoyagi, Y.; Yamazaki, M.; Takatsu, A. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    National Metrology Institute of Japan in National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST) has been developing several matrix reference materials, for example, sediments, water and biological tissues, for the determinations of heavy metals and organometallic compounds. The matrix compositions of those certified reference materials (CRMs) are similar to compositions of actual samples, and those are useful for validating analytical procedures. ''Primary methods of measurements'' are essential to obtain accurate and SI-traceable certified values in the reference materials, because the methods have the highest quality of measurement. However, inappropriate analytical operations, such as incomplete extraction of analytes or crosscontamination during analytical procedures, will cause error of analytical results, even if one of the primary methods, isotope-dilution, is utilized. To avoid possible procedural bias for the certification of reference materials, we employ more than two analytical methods which have been optimized beforehand. Because the accurate determination of trace POPs in the environment is important to evaluate their risk, reliable CRMs are required by environmental chemists. Therefore, we have also been preparing matrix CRMs for the determination of POPs. To establish accurate analytical procedures for the certification of POPs, extraction is one of the critical steps as described above. In general, conventional extraction techniques for the determination of POPs, such as Soxhlet extraction (SOX) and saponification (SAP), have been characterized well, and introduced as official methods for environmental analysis. On the other hand, emerging techniques, such as microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), give higher recovery yields of analytes with relatively short extraction time and small amount of solvent, by reasons of the high

  9. An approximate analytical solution for describing surface runoff and sediment transport over hillslope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wanghai; Wang, Quanjiu; Lin, Henry

    2018-03-01

    Soil and water loss from farmland causes land degradation and water pollution, thus continued efforts are needed to establish mathematical model for quantitative analysis of relevant processes and mechanisms. In this study, an approximate analytical solution has been developed for overland flow model and sediment transport model, offering a simple and effective means to predict overland flow and erosion under natural rainfall conditions. In the overland flow model, the flow regime was considered to be transitional with the value of parameter β (in the kinematic wave model) approximately two. The change rate of unit discharge with distance was assumed to be constant and equal to the runoff rate at the outlet of the plane. The excess rainfall was considered to be constant under uniform rainfall conditions. The overland flow model developed can be further applied to natural rainfall conditions by treating excess rainfall intensity as constant over a small time interval. For the sediment model, the recommended values of the runoff erosion calibration constant (cr) and the splash erosion calibration constant (cf) have been given in this study so that it is easier to use the model. These recommended values are 0.15 and 0.12, respectively. Comparisons with observed results were carried out to validate the proposed analytical solution. The results showed that the approximate analytical solution developed in this paper closely matches the observed data, thus providing an alternative method of predicting runoff generation and sediment yield, and offering a more convenient method of analyzing the quantitative relationships between variables. Furthermore, the model developed in this study can be used as a theoretical basis for developing runoff and erosion control methods.

  10. Comparability of data for natural radionuclides in marine sediment obtained by different analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojanowski, R.; Fukai, R.; Holm, E.

    1987-01-01

    The results of postassium, uranium, thorium and radium measurements performed on the natural marine sediment sample SD-N-1/2 in the framework of the IAEA-organized worldwide intercomparison excercise are presented. Analytical methods applied in this excercise were evaluated for performance, and significance of the observed discrepancies are discussed in the light of statistical and operative criteria. Possible sources of error were identified in alpha and gamma spectrometric measurements and suggestions are given about how to avoid them. Well characterized reference materials based on natural matrices are shown to be helpful in achieving better data comparability in low level measurements of environmental radioactivity. (author)

  11. Gas ultracentrifuge separative parameters modeling using hybrid neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crus, Maria Ursulina de Lima

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid neural network is developed for the calculation of the separative performance of an ultracentrifuge. A feed forward neural network is trained to estimate the internal flow parameters of a gas ultracentrifuge, and then these parameters are applied in the diffusion equation. For this study, a 573 experimental data set is used to establish the relation between the separative performance and the controlled variables. The process control variables considered are: the feed flow rate F, the cut θ and the product pressure Pp. The mechanical arrangements consider the radial waste scoop dimension, the rotating baffle size D s and the axial feed location Z E . The methodology was validated through the comparison of the calculated separative performance with experimental values. This methodology may be applied to other processes, just by adapting the phenomenological procedures. (author)

  12. Ultracentrifuge separative power modeling with multivariate regression using covariance matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliavacca, Elder

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the least-squares methodology with covariance matrix is applied to determine a data curve fitting to obtain a performance function for the separative power δU of a ultracentrifuge as a function of variables that are experimentally controlled. The experimental data refer to 460 experiments on the ultracentrifugation process for uranium isotope separation. The experimental uncertainties related with these independent variables are considered in the calculation of the experimental separative power values, determining an experimental data input covariance matrix. The process variables, which significantly influence the δU values are chosen in order to give information on the ultracentrifuge behaviour when submitted to several levels of feed flow rate F, cut θ and product line pressure P p . After the model goodness-of-fit validation, a residual analysis is carried out to verify the assumed basis concerning its randomness and independence and mainly the existence of residual heteroscedasticity with any explained regression model variable. The surface curves are made relating the separative power with the control variables F, θ and P p to compare the fitted model with the experimental data and finally to calculate their optimized values. (author)

  13. Use of the TLX ultracentrifuge for the isolation of different density lipoproteins and effects of freeze/thawing of human plasma before ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton-Menys, Valentine; Chobotova, Jelena; Durrington, Paul N

    2008-01-01

    Isolation of different density lipoproteins by ultracentrifugation can require lengthy centrifugation times and freeze/thawing of plasma may influence recovery. We isolated a range of lipoproteins using a preparative ultracentrifuge and the TLX micro-ultracentrifuge and determined the effect of freeze/thawing of plasma beforehand. In fresh plasma, there was no significant difference in results for small-dense low-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B (LDL apoB) (density >1.044 g/mL) or cholesterol at density >1.006 g/mL. Freeze/thawing had no effect on closely correlated results for small-dense LDL apoB (r=0.85; pTLX micro-ultracentrifuge is a reliable alternative to the preparative ultracentrifuge and freeze/thawing has only a small effect on small-dense LDL apoB or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  14. Analytical scale purification of zirconia colloidal suspension using field programmed sedimentation field flow fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van-Quynh, Alexandra; Blanchart, Philippe; Battu, Serge; Clédat, Dominique; Cardot, Philippe

    2006-03-03

    Sedimentation field flow fractionation was used to obtain purified fractions from a polydispersed zirconia colloidal suspension in the potential purpose of optical material hybrid coating. The zirconia particle size ranged from 50/70 nm to 1000 nm. It exhibited a log-Gaussian particle size distribution (in mass or volume) and a 115% polydispersity index (P.I.). Time dependent eluted fractions of the original zirconia colloidal suspension were collected. The particle size distribution of each fraction was determined with scanning electron microscopy and Coulter sub-micron particle sizer (CSPS). These orthogonal techniques generated similar data. From fraction average elution times and granulometry measurements, it was shown that zirconia colloids are eluted according to the Brownian elution mode. The four collected fractions have a Gaussian like distribution and respective average size and polydispersity index of 153 nm (P.I. = 34.7%); 188 nm (P.I. = 27.9%); 228 nm (P.I. = 22.6%), and 276 nm (P.I. = 22.3%). These data demonstrate the strong size selectivity of SdFFF operated with programmed field of exponential profile for sorting particles in the sub-micron range. Using this technique, the analytical production of zirconia of given average size and reduced polydispersity is possible.

  15. Offshore drilling effects in Brazilian SE marine sediments: a meta-analytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Marina Pereira; Farias, Cássia; Hamacher, Cláudia

    2017-01-01

    The exploration and production of oil and gas reserves often result to drill cutting accumulations on the seafloor adjacent to drill locations. In this study, the detection of drilling influence on marine sediments was performed by meta-analytical comparison between data from pre- and post-drilling surveys undertaken in offshore Campos Basin, southeast of Brazil. Besides this overall appraisal on the geochemical variables, a multivariate assessment, considering only the post-drilling data, was performed. Among the variables, fines content, carbonates, total organic carbon, barium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, vanadium, zinc, and total petroleum hydrocarbons, only barium, copper, and hydrocarbons were related to drilling impacts. In relation to the point of discharge, relative elevated levels in the post-drilling campaigns were observed preferentially up to 500 m in the northeast and southwest directions, associated to the Brazil Current-predominant direction. Other distributed concentrations in the surroundings seem to indicate the dilution and dispersion of drilling waste promoted by meteoceanographic factors.

  16. Modification of analytical method for measurement of 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am in sediment and sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syarbaini; Tarigan, C.; Rustam, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    Modification of analytical method for measurement of 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Am in sediment and sea water have been conducted. This study is to develop a method for separation of 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Am from 100-300 g of sediment and 100-200 l of sea water samples. Most of the methods described in the literature are to separation of '2 39 Pu, '2 40 Pu and 241 Am from 20-50 g of sediment and 30-100 l of sea water samples. By this method, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am were concentrated using the coprecipitation of CaC 2 O 4 and Fe (OH) 3 . Plutonium-242 and Curium-244 were used as tracer to determine chemical recovery. The result of analysis of some sediment samples showed that the chemical recoveries were respectively obtained in the range of 59.7 to 72.6% with average of 66.2 % for 242 Pu and 72.0 % to 85.5 % with average 78.8 % for 244 Cm. Analysis of some sea water samples were obtained in the range of 67 % to 78 % with average 73.9 % for 242 Pu and 74.0 % to 90.0 % with average 84.2 % for '2 42 Cm. This method was tested by the IAEA marine sediment, the result was excellent agreement with the IAEA certified sediment. It could be suggested that the developed analytical method is suitable to analyze the low level 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Am in sediment and sea water samples (author)

  17. Thermonuclear dynamo inside ultracentrifuge with supersonic plasma flow stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterberg, F. [University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Einstein's general theory of relativity implies the existence of virtual negative masses in the rotational reference frame of an ultracentrifuge with the negative mass density of the same order of magnitude as the positive mass density of a neutron star. In an ultracentrifuge, the repulsive gravitational field of this negative mass can simulate the attractive positive mass of a mini-neutron star, and for this reason can radially confine a dense thermonuclear plasma placed inside the centrifuge, very much as the positive mass of a star confines its plasma by its own attractive gravitational field. If the centrifuge is placed in an externally magnetic field to act as the seed field of a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the configuration resembles a magnetar driven by the release of energy through nuclear fusion, accelerating the plasma to supersonic velocities, with the magnetic field produced by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect insulating the hot plasma from the cold wall of the centrifuge. Because of the supersonic flow and the high plasma density the configuration is stable.

  18. Thermonuclear dynamo inside ultracentrifuge with supersonic plasma flow stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterberg, F.

    2016-01-01

    Einstein's general theory of relativity implies the existence of virtual negative masses in the rotational reference frame of an ultracentrifuge with the negative mass density of the same order of magnitude as the positive mass density of a neutron star. In an ultracentrifuge, the repulsive gravitational field of this negative mass can simulate the attractive positive mass of a mini-neutron star, and for this reason can radially confine a dense thermonuclear plasma placed inside the centrifuge, very much as the positive mass of a star confines its plasma by its own attractive gravitational field. If the centrifuge is placed in an externally magnetic field to act as the seed field of a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the configuration resembles a magnetar driven by the release of energy through nuclear fusion, accelerating the plasma to supersonic velocities, with the magnetic field produced by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect insulating the hot plasma from the cold wall of the centrifuge. Because of the supersonic flow and the high plasma density the configuration is stable.

  19. Thermonuclear dynamo inside ultracentrifuge with supersonic plasma flow stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    2016-01-01

    Einstein's general theory of relativity implies the existence of virtual negative masses in the rotational reference frame of an ultracentrifuge with the negative mass density of the same order of magnitude as the positive mass density of a neutron star. In an ultracentrifuge, the repulsive gravitational field of this negative mass can simulate the attractive positive mass of a mini-neutron star, and for this reason can radially confine a dense thermonuclear plasma placed inside the centrifuge, very much as the positive mass of a star confines its plasma by its own attractive gravitational field. If the centrifuge is placed in an externally magnetic field to act as the seed field of a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the configuration resembles a magnetar driven by the release of energy through nuclear fusion, accelerating the plasma to supersonic velocities, with the magnetic field produced by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect insulating the hot plasma from the cold wall of the centrifuge. Because of the supersonic flow and the high plasma density the configuration is stable

  20. Ultracentrifugation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for metal-protein equilibrium studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnquist, Isaac J.; Holcombe, James A., E-mail: holcombe@mail.utexas.edu

    2012-10-15

    The coupling of separation by preparative ultracentrifugation and metal detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been explored for metal-protein equilibrium determinations. This study characterizes the stoichiometry as well as apparent (K{sub app}) and intrinsic (K{sub int}) binding affinities of the metal-protein association for a model protein. In particular, the affinity of Cu{sup 2+} for the high affinity binding site in bovine serum albumin (BSA) is determined. Once equilibrium is established between Cu{sup 2+} and BSA, preparative ultracentrifugation moves the metalloprotein away from the meniscus, leaving unbound equilibrium copper in the protein free solution. Since the initial (total) concentrations of purified BSA and Cu{sup 2+} can be determined, the free copper concentration at equilibrium can also be determined by taking a small aliquot above the sedimenting boundary for analysis using ICP-MS. This analysis allows for the determination of free Cu{sup 2+} ion, which is identical to the equilibrium concentration prior to ultracentrifugation. From these data K{sub app} and K{sub int} were determined at two different conditions, 100 mM Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) at pH 9.53 and pH 7.93. log K{sub app} values of 17.6 and 14.6 were determined at pH 9.53 and pH 7.93, respectively. Furthermore, pH-independent log K{sub int} values of - 1.43 and - 1.04 were determined at pH 9.53 and 7.93, respectively. While the log K{sub int} at pH 9.53 was in good agreement with literature values obtained from alternative methods, K{sub int} at pH 7.93 was about 2.5 Multiplication-Sign larger than previously reported. BSA undergoes a structural rearrangement between pH 7-9, and the generally accepted pH-dependency of protein tertiary structure may be responsible for the variations in the 'intrinsic' binding constant. The Cu-BSA binding affinity was also monitored in 100 mM Tris 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution at p

  1. Analytical data and sample locality map for aqua-regia leachates of stream sediments analyzed by ICP, and emission spectrographic and ICP results for many NURE stream sediments from the Killik River Quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motooka, J.M.; Adrian, B.M.; Church, S.E.; McDougal, C.M.; Fife, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey report is presented giving analytical data and sample locality map for aqua-regia leachates of stream sediments analyzed by ICP, and emission spectrographic and ICP results for many NURE stream sediments from the Killik River Quadrangle, Alaska

  2. Development of analytical methods for the determination of trace elements in sediment with Neutron ActivAtion method (NAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Jin; Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha

    2005-01-01

    The analytical methods for the determination of major elements (Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg) in sediment have been investigated with ICP-MS. The analytical results of major elements with Cool ICP-MS were much better than those with normal ICP-MS. The analytical results were compared with those of NAA. NAA were a little superior to ICP-MS for the determination of major elements in sediment, and NAA is a non-destructive analytical method. The analytical methods for the determination of minor elements (Cr, Ce, U, Co, Pb, As, Se) in sediment have been also studied with ICP-MS. The analytical results by standard calibration with ICP-MS were not accurate due to matrix interferences. Thus, internal standard method was applied, then the analytical results for minor element with ICP-MS were greatly improved. The analytical results obtained by ICP-MS were compared with those obtained by NAA. It showed that the two analytical methods have great capabilities for the determination of minor elements in sediments

  3. Extending the analytical window for water-soluble organic matter in sediments by aqueous Soxhlet extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frauke; Koch, Boris P.; Witt, Matthias; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2014-09-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in marine sediments is a complex mixture of thousands of individual constituents that participate in biogeochemical reactions and serve as substrates for benthic microbes. Knowledge of the molecular composition of DOM is a prerequisite for a comprehensive understanding of the biogeochemical processes in sediments. In this study, interstitial water DOM was extracted with Rhizon samplers from a sediment core from the Black Sea and compared to the corresponding water-extractable organic matter fraction (Soxhlet extraction, which mobilizes labile particulate organic matter and DOM. After solid phase extraction (SPE) of DOM, samples were analyzed for the molecular composition by Fourier Transform Ion-Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) with electrospray ionization in negative ion mode. The average SPE extraction yield of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in interstitial water was 63%, whereas less than 30% of the DOC in Soxhlet-extracted organic matter was recovered. Nevertheless, Soxhlet extraction yielded up to 4.35% of the total sedimentary organic carbon, which is more than 30-times the organic carbon content of the interstitial water. While interstitial water DOM consisted primarily of carbon-, hydrogen- and oxygen-bearing compounds, Soxhlet extracts yielded more complex FT-ICR mass spectra with more peaks and higher abundances of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing compounds. The molecular composition of both sample types was affected by the geochemical conditions in the sediment; elevated concentrations of HS- promoted the early diagenetic sulfurization of organic matter. The Soxhlet extracts from shallow sediment contained specific three- and four-nitrogen-bearing molecular formulas that were also detected in bacterial cell extracts and presumably represent proteinaceous molecules. These compounds decreased with increasing sediment depth while one- and two-nitrogen-bearing molecules increased, resulting in a higher

  4. Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff R. Hupp; Michael R. Schening

    2000-01-01

    Sedimentation is arguably the most important water-quality concern in the United States. Sediment trapping is cited frequently as a major function of riverine-forested wetlands, yet little is known about sedimcntation rates at the landscape scale in relation to site parameters, including woody vegetation type, elevation, velocity, and hydraulic connection to the river...

  5. The chemical speciation and analysis of trace elements in sediment with Neutron Activation Analytical method(NAA) and atomic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang-Ho; Kim, Jae-Jin; Chung, Yong-Sam; Kim, Sun-Ha

    2003-01-01

    In this research, first of all, the analytical methods for the determination of major elements in sediment have been developed with ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). The analytical results of major elements (Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg) with Cool ICP-MS were much better than those with normal ICP-MS. The analytical results were compared with those of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis). NAA were a little superior to ICP-MS for the determination of major elements in sediment as a non-destructive trace analytical trace analytical method. The analytical methods for the determination of minor elements (Cr, Ce, U, Co, Pb, As, Se) have been also developed with ICP-MS. The analytical results by standard calibration curve with ICP-MS were not accurate due to the matrix interferences. Thus, the internal standard method was applied, then the analytical results for minor elements with ICP-MS were greatly improved. The analytical results obtained by ICP-MS were compared with those obtained by NAA. It showed that the two analytical methods have great capabilities for the determination of minor elements in sediments. Accordingly, the NAA will plan an important role in analysis of environment sample with complex matrix. ICP-MS also will play an important role because it has a great capability for the determination of Pb that could not be determined by NAA

  6. On the use of ultracentrifugal devices for routine sample preparation in biomolecular magic-angle-spinning NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Abhishek; Boatz, Jennifer C; Wheeler, Travis B; van der Wel, Patrick C A

    2017-03-01

    A number of recent advances in the field of magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR have enabled its application to a range of biological systems of ever increasing complexity. To retain biological relevance, these samples are increasingly studied in a hydrated state. At the same time, experimental feasibility requires the sample preparation process to attain a high sample concentration within the final MAS rotor. We discuss these considerations, and how they have led to a number of different approaches to MAS NMR sample preparation. We describe our experience of how custom-made (or commercially available) ultracentrifugal devices can facilitate a simple, fast and reliable sample preparation process. A number of groups have since adopted such tools, in some cases to prepare samples for sedimentation-style MAS NMR experiments. Here we argue for a more widespread adoption of their use for routine MAS NMR sample preparation.

  7. On the use of ultracentrifugal devices for routine sample preparation in biomolecular magic-angle-spinning NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Abhishek; Boatz, Jennifer C. [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Structural Biology (United States); Wheeler, Travis B. [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Cell Biology (United States); Wel, Patrick C. A. van der, E-mail: vanderwel@pitt.edu [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Structural Biology (United States)

    2017-03-15

    A number of recent advances in the field of magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR have enabled its application to a range of biological systems of ever increasing complexity. To retain biological relevance, these samples are increasingly studied in a hydrated state. At the same time, experimental feasibility requires the sample preparation process to attain a high sample concentration within the final MAS rotor. We discuss these considerations, and how they have led to a number of different approaches to MAS NMR sample preparation. We describe our experience of how custom-made (or commercially available) ultracentrifugal devices can facilitate a simple, fast and reliable sample preparation process. A number of groups have since adopted such tools, in some cases to prepare samples for sedimentation-style MAS NMR experiments. Here we argue for a more widespread adoption of their use for routine MAS NMR sample preparation.

  8. Rapid Late Holocene glacier fluctuations reconstructed from South Georgia lake sediments using novel analytical and numerical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bilt, Willem; Bakke, Jostein; Werner, Johannes; Paasche, Øyvind; Rosqvist, Gunhild

    2016-04-01

    synchronous bi-polar Little Ice Age (LIA). In conclusion, our work shows the potential of novel analytical and numerical tools to improve the robustness and resolution of lake sediment-based paleoclimate reconstructions beyond the current state-of-the-art.

  9. A Simplified Analytic Investigation of the Riverside Effects of Sediment Diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    demonstrated that the river bed consists of a sand layer of variable thickness, underlain by erosion resistant strata (either relict glacial deposits...following analysis. Simplifications and Initial Conditions. Consider a river modeled as a wide rectangular channel of constant width (Figure 1). The...CHETN-VII-13 September 2013 14  Short term effects include the redistribution of sediment by erosion upstream of the diversion to deposition

  10. Suspended sediment assessment by combining sound attenuation and backscatter measurements - analytical method and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Massimo; Di Federico, Vittorio

    2018-03-01

    The use of acoustic techniques has become common for estimating suspended sediment in water environments. An emitted beam propagates into water producing backscatter and attenuation, which depend on scattering particles concentration and size distribution. Unfortunately, the actual particles size distribution (PSD) may largely affect the accuracy of concentration quantification through the unknown coefficients of backscattering strength, ks2, and normalized attenuation, ζs. This issue was partially solved by applying the multi-frequency approach. Despite this possibility, a relevant scientific and practical question remains regarding the possibility of using acoustic methods to investigate poorly sorted sediment in the spectrum ranging from clay to fine sand. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of combining the measurement of sound attenuation and backscatter to determine ζs for the suspended particles and the corresponding concentration. The proposed method is moderately dependent from actual PSD, thus relaxing the need of frequent calibrations to account for changes in ks2 and ζs coefficients. Laboratory tests were conducted under controlled conditions to validate this measurement technique. With respect to existing approaches, the developed method more accurately estimates the concentration of suspended particles ranging from clay to fine sand and, at the same time, gives an indication on their actual PSD.

  11. Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Large Oligomeric Chromatin Complexes Using Interference Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Ryan A; Hansen, Jeffrey C

    2015-01-01

    Sedimentation velocity experiments measure the transport of molecules in solution under centrifugal force. Here, we describe a method for monitoring the sedimentation of very large biological molecular assemblies using the interference optical systems of the analytical ultracentrifuge. The mass, partial-specific volume, and shape of macromolecules in solution affect their sedimentation rates as reflected in the sedimentation coefficient. The sedimentation coefficient is obtained by measuring the solute concentration as a function of radial distance during centrifugation. Monitoring the concentration can be accomplished using interference optics, absorbance optics, or the fluorescence detection system, each with inherent advantages. The interference optical system captures data much faster than these other optical systems, allowing for sedimentation velocity analysis of extremely large macromolecular complexes that sediment rapidly at very low rotor speeds. Supramolecular oligomeric complexes produced by self-association of 12-mer chromatin fibers are used to illustrate the advantages of the interference optics. Using interference optics, we show that chromatin fibers self-associate at physiological divalent salt concentrations to form structures that sediment between 10,000 and 350,000S. The method for characterizing chromatin oligomers described in this chapter will be generally useful for characterization of any biological structures that are too large to be studied by the absorbance optical system. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An analytical procedure for determination of sulphur species and isotopes in boreal acid sulphate soils and sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. BACKLUND

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An analytical scheme suitable for boreal acid sulphate (AS soils and sediments was developed on the basis of existing methods. The presented procedure can be used to quantify and discriminate among acid volatile sulphide, cold chromium reducible sulphur, hot chromium reducible sulphur, elemental sulphur, sulphate sulphur, organic sulphur, total reducible sulphur and total sulphur. The sulphur fractions are recovered as either Ag2S or BaSO4 precipitates and can further be used for isotope analysis. Overlaps between sulphur species are common during speciation, and must be minimized. Some of these overlaps are caused by poor sampling and storage, inappropriate conditions during the distillation, or natural variations in the sample (e.g. Fe3+ interference and grain size. The procedural impact was determined by conducting tests on both artificial and natural samples containing one or several sulphur species. The method is applied on reduced sediment from an AS soil locality (Överpurmo and a brackish lake (Larsmo Lake in western Finland and the results, including S-isotopes, are discussed.;

  13. Comparison of sediment pollution in the rivers of the Hungarian Upper Tisza Region using non-destructive analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osan, Janos; Toeroek, Szabina; Alfoeldy, Balint; Alsecz, Anita; Falkenberg, Gerald; Baik, Soo Yeun; Van Grieken, Rene

    2007-01-01

    The rivers in the Hungarian Upper Tisza Region are frequently polluted mainly due to mining activities in the catchment area. At the beginning of 2000, two major mining accidents occurred in the Romanian part of the catchment area due to the failure of a tailings dam releasing huge amounts of cyanide and heavy metals to the rivers. Surface sediment as well as water samples were collected at six sites in the years 2000-2003, from the northeast-Hungarian section of the Tisza, Szamos and Tur rivers. The sediment pollution of the rivers was compared based on measurements of bulk material and selected single particles, in order to relate the observed compositions and chemical states of metals to the possible sources and weathering of pollution. Non-destructive X-ray analytical methods were applied in order to obtain different kinds of information from the same samples or particles. In order to identify the pollution sources, their magnitude and fate, complementary analyses were carried out. Heterogeneous particulate samples were analyzed from a large geographical territory and a 4-year time period. Individual particles were analyzed only from the 'hot' samples that showed elevated concentrations of heavy metals. Particles that were classified as anthropogenic were finally analyzed to identify trace concentrations and chemical states of heavy metals. Although the Tisza river was affected by water pollution due to the two major mining accidents at the beginning of 2000, the concentration of heavy metals in sediments decreased to the mineral background level 1 year after the pollution event. In the tributaries Szamos and Tur, however, no significant decrease of the heavy metal concentrations was observed in the recent years, indicating a continuous pollution. Among the water suspended particles collected from river Tur, fibers of unknown origin were observed by electron microscopy; these particles were aluminosilicates enriched in Zn and Mn. Cd was also concentrated in

  14. Generation of high-titer viral preparations by concentration using successive rounds of ultracentrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichim Christine V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral vectors provide a method of stably introducing exogenous DNA into cells that are not easily transfectable allowing for the ectopic expression or silencing of genes for therapeutic or experimental purposes. However, some cell types, in particular bone marrow cells, dendritic cells and neurons are difficult to transduce with viral vectors. Successful transduction of such cells requires preparation of highly concentrated viral stocks, which permit a high virus concentration and multiplicity of infection (MOI during transduction. Pseudotyping with the vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSV-G envelope protein is common practice for both lentiviral and retroviral vectors. The VSV-G glycoprotein adds physical stability to retroviral particles, allowing concentration of virus by high-speed ultracentrifugation. Here we describe a method report for concentration of virus from large volumes of culture supernatant by means of successive rounds of ultracentrifugation into the same ultracentrifuge tube. Method Stable retrovirus producer cell lines were generated and large volumes of virus-containing supernatant were produced. We then tested the transduction ability of virus following varying rounds of concentration by ultra-centrifugation. In a second series of experiments lentivirus-containing supernatant was produced by transient transfection of 297T/17 cells and again we tested the transduction ability of virus following multiple rounds of ultra-centrifugation. Results We report being able to centrifuge VSV-G coated retrovirus for as many as four rounds of ultracentrifugation while observing an additive increase in viral titer. Even after four rounds of ultracentrifugation we did not reach a plateau in viral titer relative to viral supernatant concentrated to indicate that we had reached the maximum tolerated centrifugation time, implying that it may be possible to centrifuge VSV-G coated retrovirus even further should it be necessary

  15. Investigations into co-transport phenomena in PUREX relevant solutions by use of an analytical ultracentrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauglitz, R.; Marx, G.

    1991-01-01

    The diffusion of the elements uranium, neodymium, chromium, iron, ruthenium was studied in aqueous and aqueous nitric acid solutions. The diffusion of these elements was measured not only under a concentration gradient but also with respect to simultanious nitric and diffusion. Measurements with schlierenoptics and with uv/vis.-optic were carried out at the same time. Besides the diffusion of metal nitrates and potassium dichromate also nitric acid diffusion was investigated. Also in this case apparent diffusion coefficients were determined under concentration gradients and under the influence of superposing element gradients. The diffusion of the elements uranium, neodymium, ruthenium, neptunium and plutonium was also determined in organic systems. At first the transport of the elements was measured under an element gradient, in presence of various amounts of water and nitric acid. These experiments were followed by those on simultanious diffusion of water of nitric acid and elements in TBP/dodecane mixture. Furthermore TBP/dodecane solutions were oxidized with potassium dichromate. This oxidation was measured using a gaschromatograph. From the obtained results the formation rate for the oxidation products could be calculated which proved that higher nitric acid concentrations increased the rate. (orig.) With 16 refs., 100 tabs., 120 figs [de

  16. NMR spectroscopic and analytical ultracentrifuge analysis of membrane protein detergent complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Choe Senyon; Riek Roland; Johnson Casey; Kefala Georgia; Maslennikov Innokentiy; Kwiatkowski Witek

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Structural studies of integral membrane proteins (IMPs) are hampered by inherent difficulties in their heterologous expression and in the purification of solubilized protein-detergent complexes (PDCs). The choice and concentrations of detergents used in an IMP preparation play a critical role in protein homogeneity and are thus important for successful crystallization. Results Seeking an effective and standardized means applicable to genomic approaches for the characteriza...

  17. The development of the virus purification method without ultracentrifugation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubíčková, Z.; Kubíček, O.; Horká, Marie; Kubesová, Anna; Rosenbergová, K.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2010), s. 179-180 ISSN 1211-4286. [The Czech-Slovak Pharmacological Days /60./. 15.09.2010-17.09.2010, Hradec Králové] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : capillary isoelectric focusing * capillary electrophoresis * influenza swine and equine viruses Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  18. Oxidation mechanisms in real food emulsions : Method for separation of mayonnaise by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    1998-01-01

    With the aim of studying partition coefficients of antioxidants and secondary oxidation products in a real food emulsion a method,for the separation of mayonnaise was developed. The method included freezing and a mild precentrifugation step followed by ultracentrifugation at 197,500 x g...

  19. Exogeneous countercurrent ultracentrifuges. Enrichment of a unitary machine out of a cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, R.

    1977-01-01

    The integration of the equation giving isotope concentrations inside an exogeneous countercurrent ultracentrifuge is presented. The optimization of such a centrifuge, as for as the radius of the internal stream is concerned, is analyzed. The use of this type of centrifuge as part of a separating cascade is discussed

  20. Low density lipoprotein for oxidation and metabolic studies. Isolation from small volumes of plasma using a tabletop ultracentrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himber, J; Bühler, E; Moll, D; Moser, U K

    1995-01-01

    A rapid method is described for the isolation of small volumes of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) free of plasma protein contaminants using the TL-100 Tabletop Ultracentrifuge (Beckman). The isolation of LDL was achieved by a 25 min discontinuous gradient density centrifugation between the density range of 1.006 and 1.21 g/ml, recovery of LDL by tube slicing followed by a 90 min flotation step (d = 1.12 g/ml). The purity of LDL and apolipoprotein B100 (apo B100) were monitored by agarose electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), radial immunodiffusion and micropreparative fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). The ability of LDL oxidation was assessed by following absorbance at 234 nm after addition of copper ions. The functional integrity of the isolated LDL was checked by clearance kinetics after injection of [125I]-labelled LDL in estrogen-treated rats. The additional purification step led to LDL fractions free of protein contamination and left apo B100, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene intact. The LDL prepared in this way was free of albumin, as evident from analytic tests and from its enhanced oxidative modification by copper ions. Used for analytical purposes, this method allows LDL preparations from plasma volumes up to 570 microliters. This method is also convenient for metabolic studies in small animals, especially those relating to the determination of kinetic parameters of LDL in which LDL-apo B100 has to be specifically radiolabelled.

  1. High-throughput characterization of sediment organic matter by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and multivariate curve resolution: A promising analytical tool in (paleo)limnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolu, Julie; Gerber, Lorenz; Boily, Jean-François; Bindler, Richard

    2015-06-23

    Molecular-level chemical information about organic matter (OM) in sediments helps to establish the sources of OM and the prevalent degradation/diagenetic processes, both essential for understanding the cycling of carbon (C) and of the elements associated with OM (toxic trace metals and nutrients) in lake ecosystems. Ideally, analytical methods for characterizing OM should allow high sample throughput, consume small amounts of sample and yield relevant chemical information, which are essential for multidisciplinary, high-temporal resolution and/or large spatial scale investigations. We have developed a high-throughput analytical method based on pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and automated data processing to characterize sedimentary OM in sediments. Our method consumes 200 μg of freeze-dried and ground sediment sample. Pyrolysis was performed at 450°C, which was found to avoid degradation of specific biomarkers (e.g., lignin compounds, fresh carbohydrates/cellulose) compared to 650°C, which is in the range of temperatures commonly applied for environmental samples. The optimization was conducted using the top ten sediment samples of an annually resolved sediment record (containing 16-18% and 1.3-1.9% of total carbon and nitrogen, respectively). Several hundred pyrolytic compound peaks were detected of which over 200 were identified, which represent different classes of organic compounds (i.e., n-alkanes, n-alkenes, 2-ketones, carboxylic acids, carbohydrates, proteins, other N compounds, (methoxy)phenols, (poly)aromatics, chlorophyll and steroids/hopanoids). Technical reproducibility measured as relative standard deviation of the identified peaks in triplicate analyses was 5.5±4.3%, with 90% of the RSD values within 10% and 98% within 15%. Finally, a multivariate calibration model was calculated between the pyrolytic degradation compounds and the sediment depth (i.e., sediment age), which is a function of degradation processes and changes in OM

  2. Multivariate regression applied to the performance optimization of a countercurrent ultracentrifuge - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliavacca, Elder; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the least-squares methodology with covariance matrix is applied to determine a data curve fitting in order to obtain a performance function for the separative power δU of a ultracentrifuge as a function of variables that are experimentally controlled. The experimental data refer to 173 experiments on the ultracentrifugation process for uranium isotope separation. The experimental uncertainties related with these independent variables are considered in the calculation of the experimental separative power values, determining an experimental data input covariance matrix. The process control variables, which significantly influence the δU values, are chosen in order to give information on the ultracentrifuge behaviour when submitted to several levels of feed flow F and cut θ . After the model goodness-of-fit validation, a residual analysis is carried out to verify the assumed basis concerning its randomness and independence and mainly the existence of residual heterocedasticity with any regression model variable. The response curves are made relating the separative power with the control variables F and θ, to compare the fitted model with the experimental data and finally to calculate their optimized values. (author)

  3. A semi-analytical study on the residual transport of salinity and sediment trapping in well-mixed estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, X.; Kumar, M.; Schuttelaars, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Along-channel and cross-channel sediment transport in tidal estuaries is usually driven by tides, density gradients, Coriolis’s force, wind stress, channel curvature and bathymetric variations. Since the water motion is influenced by density-induced gravitational circulation which in turn affects

  4. Laboratory, Field, and Analytical Procedures for Using Passive Sampling in the Evaluation of Contaminated Sediments: User's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regardless of the remedial technology invoked to address contaminated sediments in the environment, there is a critical need to have tools for assessing the effectiveness of the remedy. In the past, these tools have included chemical and biomonitoring of the water column and sedi...

  5. Optimization and development of analytical methods for the determination of new brominated flame retardants and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediments and suspended particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, P. [VU University Amsterdam, Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Retieseweg 111, 2440, Geel (Belgium); Brandsma, S.A.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Boer, J. de [VU University Amsterdam, Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    With more stringent legislation on brominated flame retardants, it is expected that increasing amounts of substitutes would replace polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). Therefore, the development and optimization of analytical methodologies that allow their identification and quantification are of paramount relevance. This work describes the optimization of an analytical procedure to determine pentabromochlorocyclohexane, tetrabromo-o-chlorotoluene, 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-p-xylene, tetrabromophthalic anhydride, 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromotoluene, tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate, decabromodiphenylethane and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane together with PBDEs in sediments and in suspended particulate matter. This method comprises a pressurized liquid extraction followed by three cleanup steps (gel permeation chromatography and solid phase extraction on Oasis trademark HLB and on silica cartridges). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, using electron capture negative chemical ionization, is used for the final analysis. The proposed method provides recoveries >85%. The method was applied to sediment and suspended particulate matter samples from different locations in the Western Scheldt estuary (the Netherlands). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the occurrence of the additive flame retardants 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-p-xylene, 3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-o-chlorotoluene and 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromochlorocyclohexane is reported in the literature. The concentrations of these new flame retardants ranged from 0.05 to 0.30 {mu}g/kg dry weight. (orig.)

  6. Sedimentation equilibrium of a small oligomer-forming membrane protein: effect of histidine protonation on pentameric stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surya, Wahyu; Torres, Jaume

    2015-04-02

    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) can be used to study reversible interactions between macromolecules over a wide range of interaction strengths and under physiological conditions. This makes AUC a method of choice to quantitatively assess stoichiometry and thermodynamics of homo- and hetero-association that are transient and reversible in biochemical processes. In the modality of sedimentation equilibrium (SE), a balance between diffusion and sedimentation provides a profile as a function of radial distance that depends on a specific association model. Herein, a detailed SE protocol is described to determine the size and monomer-monomer association energy of a small membrane protein oligomer using an analytical ultracentrifuge. AUC-ES is label-free, only based on physical principles, and can be used on both water soluble and membrane proteins. An example is shown of the latter, the small hydrophobic (SH) protein in the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), a 65-amino acid polypeptide with a single α-helical transmembrane (TM) domain that forms pentameric ion channels. NMR-based structural data shows that SH protein has two protonatable His residues in its transmembrane domain that are oriented facing the lumen of the channel. SE experiments have been designed to determine how pH affects association constant and the oligomeric size of SH protein. While the pentameric form was preserved in all cases, its association constant was reduced at low pH. These data are in agreement with a similar pH dependency observed for SH channel activity, consistent with a lumenal orientation of the two His residues in SH protein. The latter may experience electrostatic repulsion and reduced oligomer stability at low pH. In summary, this method is applicable whenever quantitative information on subtle protein-protein association changes in physiological conditions have to be measured.

  7. Ultracentrifugal and electrophoretic characteristics of the plasma lipoproteins of miniature schnauzer dogs with idiopathic hyperlipoproteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, M S; Boon, G D; Rebar, A H; Story, J A; Bottoms, G D

    1993-01-01

    To better characterize the idiopathic hyperlipoproteinemia of Miniature Schnauzer dogs, the plasma lipoproteins of 20 Miniature Schnauzers (MS) and 11 dogs of other breeds (DOB) were evaluated by ultracentrifugation, electrophoresis, and biochemical tests. Seventeen MS were healthy; 3 had diabetes mellitus. Plasma from 6 of 17 healthy and all 3 diabetic MS was visibly lipemic. Lipemia was slight to marked in healthy lipemic MS, and marked in diabetic ones. All DOB had clear plasma; 8 were healthy and 3 had diabetes. All healthy lipemic MS and diabetic lipemic MS had hypertriglyceridemia associated with excess very low density lipoproteins. Chylomicronemia was present in 4 of 6 healthy lipemic MS and all 3 diabetic lipemic MS. Lipoproteins with ultracentrifugal and electrophoretic characteristics of normal low density lipoprotein were lacking in 4 of 6 healthy lipemic MS. The lipoprotein patterns of 4 of 11 healthy nonlipemic MS were characterized by mild hypertriglyceridemia associated with increased very low density lipoproteins and a lack of lipoproteins with characteristics of normal low density lipoproteins. Lipoprotein patterns of diabetic DOB closely resembled those of healthy DOB; those of diabetic lipemic MS resembled those of markedly lipemic healthy lipemic MS. In conclusion, the hyperlipoproteinemia of Miniature Schnauzers is characterized by increased very low density lipoproteins with or without accompanying chylomicronemia; some affected dogs may have decreased low density lipoproteins.

  8. Automated Processing of Plasma Samples for Lipoprotein Separation by Rate-Zonal Ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Carl N; Evans, Iain E J

    2016-12-01

    Plasma lipoproteins are the primary means of lipid transport among tissues. Defining alterations in lipid metabolism is critical to our understanding of disease processes. However, lipoprotein measurement is limited to specialized centers. Preparation for ultracentrifugation involves the formation of complex density gradients that is both laborious and subject to handling errors. We created a fully automated device capable of forming the required gradient. The design has been made freely available for download by the authors. It is inexpensive relative to commercial density gradient formers, which generally create linear gradients unsuitable for rate-zonal ultracentrifugation. The design can easily be modified to suit user requirements and any potential future improvements. Evaluation of the device showed reliable peristaltic pump accuracy and precision for fluid delivery. We also demonstrate accurate fluid layering with reduced mixing at the gradient layers when compared to usual practice by experienced laboratory personnel. Reduction in layer mixing is of critical importance, as it is crucial for reliable lipoprotein separation. The automated device significantly reduces laboratory staff input and reduces the likelihood of error. Overall, this device creates a simple and effective solution to formation of complex density gradients. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  9. A Semi-Analytic Model for Estimating Total Suspended Sediment Concentration in Turbid Coastal Waters of Northern Western Australia Using MODIS-Aqua 250 m Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passang Dorji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the concentration of total suspended sediment (TSS in coastal waters is of significance to marine environmental monitoring agencies to determine the turbidity of water that serve as a proxy to estimate the availability of light at depth for benthic habitats. TSS models applicable to data collected by satellite sensors can be used to determine TSS with reasonable accuracy and of adequate spatial and temporal resolution to be of use for coastal water quality monitoring. Thus, a study is presented here where we develop a semi-analytic sediment model (SASM applicable to any sensor with red and near infrared (NIR bands. The calibration and validation of the SASM using bootstrap and cross-validation methods showed that the SASM applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-Aqua band 1 data retrieved TSS with a root mean square error (RMSE and mean averaged relative error (MARE of 5.75 mg/L and 33.33% respectively. The application of the SASM over our study region using MODIS-Aqua band 1 data showed that the SASM can be used to monitor the on-going, post and pre-dredging activities and identify daily TSS anomalies that are caused by natural and anthropogenic processes in coastal waters of northern Western Australia.

  10. Lipoprotein metabolism in familial hypercholesterolemia: Serial assessment using a one-step ultracentrifugation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Tada

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is well known that familial hypercholesterolemia (FH is a common inherited disorder that can markedly elevate the level of plasma LDL cholesterol. However, little data exists regarding the clinical impact of the plasma triglyceride (TG-rich lipoprotein fraction, including VLDL and IDL, in FH. Thus, we assessed the hypothesis that the mutations in the LDL receptor modulate lipoprotein metabolism other than the LDL fraction. Design and methods: We investigated plasma lipoprotein with a one-step ultracentrifugation method for 146 controls (mean age=61.4±17.1 yr, mean LDL cholesterol=92.7±61.2 mg/dl, 213 heterozygous mutation-determined FH subjects (mean age=46.0±18.0 yr, mean LDL cholesterol=225.1±61.2 mg/dl, and 16 homozygous/compound heterozygous mutation-determined FH subjects (mean age=26.9±17.1 yr, mean LDL cholesterol=428.6±86.1 mg/dl. In addition, we evaluated cholesterol/TG ratio in each lipoprotein fraction separated by ultracentrifugation. Results: In addition to total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, VLDL cholesterol (19.5±10.4, 25.2±19.3, 29.5±21.4 mg/dl, respectively and IDL cholesterol (8.3±3.7, 16.8±11.5, 40.0±37.3 mg/dl, respectively exhibited a tri-model distribution according to their status in LDL receptor mutation(s. Moreover, the ratios of cholesterol/TG of each lipoprotein fraction increased significantly in heterozygous FH and homozygous/compound heterozygous FH groups, compared with that of controls, suggesting that the abnormality in LDL receptor modulates the quality as well as the quantity of each lipoprotein fraction. Conclusions: Our results indicate that cholesterol in TG-rich lipoproteins, including VLDL and IDL, are significantly higher in FH subjects, revealing a tri-modal distribution according to the number of LDL receptor mutations. Keywords: LDL cholesterol, Familial hypercholesterolemia, Ultracentrifugation, Lipoprotein

  11. Development and validation of analytical methodology for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in sediments. Assesment of Pedroso Park dam, Santo Andre, SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Carlos Fernando de

    2009-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by being considered persistent contaminants, by their ubiquity in the environment and by the recognition of their genotoxicity, have stimulated research activities in order to determine and evaluate their sources, transport, processing, biological effects and accumulation in compartments of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In this work, the matrix studied was sediment collected at Pedroso Park's dam at Santo Andre, SP. The analytical technique employed was liquid chromatography in reverse phase with a UV/Vis detector. Statistics treatment of the data was established during the process of developing the methodology for which there was reliable results. The steps involved were evaluated using the concept of Validation of Chemical Testing. The parameters selected for the analytical validation were selectivity, linearity, Working Range, Sensitivity, Accuracy, Precision, Limit of Detection, Limit of quantification and robustness. These parameters showed satisfactory results, allowing the application of the methodology, and is a simple method that allows the minimization of contamination and loss of compounds by over-handling. For the PAHs tested were no found positive results, above the limit of detection, in any of the samples collected in the first phase. But, at the second collection, were found small changes mainly acenaphthylene, fluorene and benzo[a]anthracene. Although the area is preserved, it is possible to realize little signs of contamination. (author)

  12. Effect of differences in gas-dynamic behaviour on the separation performance of ultracentrifuges connected in parallel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portoghese, C.C.P.; Buchmann, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the degradation of separation factors occurred when groups of ultracentrifuges having different gas-dynamic behaviour are connected in parallel arrangements. Differences in the gas-dynamic behavior were traduced in terms of different tails pressures for the same operational conditions, that are feed flow rate, product pressure and cut number. A mathematical model describing the ratio of the tails flow rates as a function of the tails pressure ratios and the feed flow rate was developed using experimental data collected from a pair of different ultracentrifuges connected in parallel. The optimization of model parameters was made using Marquardt's algorithm. The model developed was used to simulate the separation factors degradation in some parallel arrangements containing more than two centrifuges. Te obtained results were compared with experimental data collected from different groups of ultracentrifuges. It was observed that the calculated results were in good agreement with experimental data. This mathematical model, which parameters were determined in a two-centrifuges parallel arrangement, is useful to simulate the effect of quantified gas-dynamic differences in the separation factors of groups containing any number of different ultracentrifuges and, consequently, to analyze cascade losses due to this kind of occurrence. (author)

  13. River sediment (S-37)--a new analytical quality control material ensuring comparability of chlorinated hydrocarbon analysis during an international environmental study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik, B M; Martens, D; Henkelmann, B; Schramm, K W; Kettrup, A; Muntau, H

    2000-06-01

    A sediment reference material (S-37) was prepared as analytical quality control material to be used within an international project on polychlorinated hydrocarbon analysis in two Chinese rivers. The raw material was sampled during a cruise on Yangtse River and transported afterwards to the JRC Ispra for further processing. The material was treated according to the general principles applicable for candidate reference material production. After a thorough homogeneity study of the bulk the material was bottled. A total of 1,080 bottles each containing 50 g of dry sediment powder was obtained. Final homogeneity and stability testing proved the material to be fit for the purpose. Isotope dilution GC/MS was used to establish target values for pentachlorobenzene (1.17 +/- 0.08 ng/g), hexachlorobenzene (3.60 +/- 0.17 ng/g), octachlorostyrene (0.19 +/- 0.01 ng/g), pentachloroanisole (0.52 +/- 0.02 ng/g), alpha-HCH (0.70 +/- 0.05 ng/g), beta-HCH (1.38 +/- 0.18 ng/g), gamma-HCH (0.83 +/- 038 ng/g), 2,4'-DDT (0.36 +/- 0.04 ng/g), 2,4'-DDE (0.29 +/- 0.02 ng/g), 2,4'-DDD (0.49 +/- 0.02), 4,4'-DDT (3.42 +/- 0.47 ng/g), 4,4'-DDD (1.29 +/- 0.17 ng/g), PCB 28 (0.11 +/- 0.01 ng/g), PCB 52 (0.09 +/- 0.003 ng/g), PCB 101 (0.07 +/- 0.003 ng/g), PCB 138 (0.06 +/- 0.003 ng/g) and PCB 153 (0.06 +/- 0.003 ng/g). Furthermore, indicative values for major and minor constituents as well as for polychlorinated dibenzodioxines and -furanes were measured.

  14. Kinematics and dynamics of salt movement driven by sub-salt normal faulting and supra-salt sediment accumulation - combined analogue experiments and analytical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsitzka, Michael; Kukowski, Nina; Kley, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    In extensional sedimentary basins, the movement of ductile salt is mainly controlled by the vertical displacement of the salt layer, differential loading due to syn-kinematic deposition, and tectonic shearing at the top and the base of the salt layer. During basement normal faulting, salt either tends to flow downward to the basin centre driven by its own weight or it is squeezed upward due to differential loading. In analogue experiments and analytical models, we address the interplay between normal faulting of the sub-salt basement, compaction and density inversion of the supra-salt cover and the kinematic response of the ductile salt layer. The analogue experiments consist of a ductile substratum (silicone putty) beneath a denser cover layer (sand mixture). Both layers are displaced by normal faults mimicked through a downward moving block within the rigid base of the experimental apparatus and the resulting flow patterns in the ductile layer are monitored and analysed. In the computational models using an analytical approximative solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, the steady-state flow velocity in an idealized natural salt layer is calculated in order to evaluate how flow patterns observed in the analogue experiments can be translated to nature. The analytical calculations provide estimations of the prevailing direction and velocity of salt flow above a sub-salt normal fault. The results of both modelling approaches show that under most geological conditions salt moves downwards to the hanging wall side as long as vertical offset and compaction of the cover layer are small. As soon as an effective average density of the cover is exceeded, the direction of the flow velocity reverses and the viscous material is squeezed towards the elevated footwall side. The analytical models reveal that upward flow occurs even if the average density of the overburden does not exceed the density of salt. By testing various scenarios with different layer thicknesses

  15. Interaction between β-lactoglobulin and structurally different heteroexopolysaccharides investigated by solution scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Sanaullah; Birch, Johnny; Harris, Pernille

    strongly with these HePSs. β-lactoglobulin exists as a dimer at pH 4 in the absence of HePSs. When mixed with HePSs, SAXS analysis showed that β-lactoglobulin formed large aggregates. DLS also showed formation of large aggregates of β-lactoglobulin with HePSs, thus validating SAXS data. Turbidity and AUC...... heteroexopolysaccharides (HePS-1–HePS-4) from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their interactions with β-lactoglobulin. We have previously shown that these HePSs exhibited a compact conformation in solution. Here, SAXS data for HePSs (HePS-1–HePS-4) complexes with β-lactoglobulin showed that β-lactoglobulin aggregated...... data indicated that both soluble and insoluble BLG–HePSs complexes were formed. This study provides new insights into the role of molecular structures in associative interactions between HePSs and BLG which has relevance for various industrial applications....

  16. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-15

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  17. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-01

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  18. Multi-signal sedimentation velocity analysis with mass conservation for determining the stoichiometry of protein complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad A Brautigam

    Full Text Available Multi-signal sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation (MSSV is a powerful tool for the determination of the number, stoichiometry, and hydrodynamic shape of reversible protein complexes in two- and three-component systems. In this method, the evolution of sedimentation profiles of macromolecular mixtures is recorded simultaneously using multiple absorbance and refractive index signals and globally transformed into both spectrally and diffusion-deconvoluted component sedimentation coefficient distributions. For reactions with complex lifetimes comparable to the time-scale of sedimentation, MSSV reveals the number and stoichiometry of co-existing complexes. For systems with short complex lifetimes, MSSV reveals the composition of the reaction boundary of the coupled reaction/migration process, which we show here may be used to directly determine an association constant. A prerequisite for MSSV is that the interacting components are spectrally distinguishable, which may be a result, for example, of extrinsic chromophores or of different abundances of aromatic amino acids contributing to the UV absorbance. For interacting components that are spectrally poorly resolved, here we introduce a method for additional regularization of the spectral deconvolution by exploiting approximate knowledge of the total loading concentrations. While this novel mass conservation principle does not discriminate contributions to different species, it can be effectively combined with constraints in the sedimentation coefficient range of uncomplexed species. We show in theory, computer simulations, and experiment, how mass conservation MSSV as implemented in SEDPHAT can enhance or even substitute for the spectral discrimination of components. This should broaden the applicability of MSSV to the analysis of the composition of reversible macromolecular complexes.

  19. Purification of infectious adenovirus in two hours by ultracentrifugation and tangential flow filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugai, Hideyo; Yamasaki, Takahito; Hirose, Megumi; Inabe, Kumiko; Kujime, Yukari; Terashima, Miho; Liu, Bingbing; Tang, Hong; Zhao, Mujun; Murata, Takehide; Kimura, Makoto; Pan, Jianzhi; Obata, Yuichi; Hamada, Hirofumi; Yokoyama, Kazunari K.

    2005-01-01

    Adenoviruses are excellent vectors for gene transfer and are used extensively for high-level expression of the products of transgenes in living cells. The development of simple and rapid methods for the purification of stable infectious recombinant adenoviruses (rAds) remains a challenge. We report here a method for the purification of infectious adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) that involves ultracentrifugation on a cesium chloride gradient at 604,000g for 15 min at 4 deg C and tangential flow filtration. The entire procedure requires less than two hours and infectious Ad5 can be recovered at levels higher than 64% of the number of plaque-forming units (pfu) in the initial crude preparation of viruses. We have obtained titers of infectious purified Ad5 of 1.35 x 10 10 pfu/ml and a ratio of particle titer to infectious titer of seven. The method described here allows the rapid purification of rAds for studies of gene function in vivo and in vitro, as well as the rapid purification of Ad5

  20. Structure of halophilic malate dehydrogenase in multimolar KCl solutions from neutron scattering and ultracentrifugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmettes, P.

    1987-01-01

    The structure and solvent interactions of malate dehydrogenase from Halobacterium marismortui in multimolar KCl solvents are found to be similar to those in multimolar NaCl solvents reported previously (G. Zaccai, E. Wachtel and H. Eisenberg, J. Mol. Biol. 190 (1986) 97). KCl rather than NaCl is predominant in physiological medium. At salt concentrations up to about 3.0 M, the protein (a dimer of M 87000 g/mol) can be considered to occupy an invariant volume in which it is associated with about 4100 molecules of water and about 520 molecules of salt. At very low resolution, the enzyme particle appears to have a compact protein core and protruding protein parts in interaction with the water and salt components, structural features that are not observed in non-halophilic mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase. The above conclusions were drawn from the analysis of neutron scattering and ultracentrifugation data, and the complementarity of these approaches is discussed extensively. 24 refs.; 7 figs.; 4 tabs

  1. Residual urinary extracellular vesicles in ultracentrifugation supernatants after hydrostatic filtration dialysis enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Luca; Tataruch-Weinert, Dorota; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Holthofer, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Urinary extracellular vesicles (UEVs) appear an ideal source of biomarkers for kidney and urogenital diseases. The majority of protocols designed for their isolation are based on differential centrifugation steps. However, little is still known of the type and amount of vesicles left in the supernatant. Here we used an isolation protocol for UEVs which uses hydrostatic filtration dialysis as first pre-enrichment step, followed by differential centrifugation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), mass spectrometry (MS), western blot, ELISA assays and tuneable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) were used to characterise and quantify UEVs in the ultracentrifugation supernatant. TEM showed the presence of a variety of small size vesicles in the supernatant while protein identification by MS matched accurately with the protein list available in Vesiclepedia. Screening and relative quantification for specific vesicle markers showed that the supernatant was preferentially positive for CD9 and TSG101. ELISA tests for quantification of exosome revealed that 14%, was left in the supernatant with a particle diameter of 110 nm and concentration of 1.54 × 10 10 /ml. Here we show a comprehensive characterisation of exosomes and other small size urinary vesicles which the conventional differential centrifugation protocol may lose.

  2. Intercalibration of analytical methods on marine environmental samples. Results of MEDPOL II exercise for the intercomparison of trace element measurements on mussel tissue homogenate and marine sediment (MA-M-2/TM and SD-N-1/2/TM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    Mussels and coastal sediments are often considered as pollution indicators of the marine environment. These intercalibration exercises were organised in order to check the analytical performances of environmental laboratories. The samples MA-M-2/TM of Mediterranean mussels and SD-N-1/2/TM of surface sediment from the Scheldt Estuary (North Sea) were analysed by 19 laboratories for determination of 15 elements: Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn. The analytical methods of atomic absorption spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis and voltametry were used in this intercomparison. For the mussel MA-M-2/TM, 65% of the reported coefficients of variation lie between 0 and 10%, 25% are between 10 and 20%, 9% between 20 and 30% and only 1% higher than 30%. In the case of the sediment SD-N-1/2/TM, 90% of the reported coefficients of variation lie between 0 and 10% and the remaining 10% are between 10 and 20%. The total number of outliers is moderate (9.2% of all results in the case of MA-M-2/TM and 3.0% in the case of SD-N-1/2/TM)

  3. Understanding Sediment Sources, Pathways, and Sinks in Regional Sediment Management: Application of Wash Load and Bed-Material Load Concept

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biedenham, David S; Hubbard, Lisa C; Thome, Colin R; Watson, Chester C

    2006-01-01

    ... through the fluvial system for sediments derived from various bed, bank, gully, and catchment sources thereby providing a reliable analytical foundation for effective regional sediment management...

  4. Evidence for vivianite formation and its contribution to long-term phosphorus retention in a recent lake sediment: a novel analytical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rothe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vivianite, Fe3(PO42 · 8 H2O, is a ferrous iron phosphate mineral which forms in waterlogged soils and sediments. The phosphorus (P bound in its crystal lattice is considered to be immobilised because vivianite is stable under anoxic, reducing, sedimentary conditions. Thus, vivianite formation can make a major contribution to P retention during early diagenesis. Much remains unknown about vivianite in sediments, because technical challenges have rendered direct identification and quantification difficult. To identify vivianite and assess its significance for P burial during early diagenesis we studied the consequences of a 1992/1993 in-lake application of FeCl3 and Fe(OH3 aimed at restoring Lake Groß-Glienicke (Berlin, Germany. In a novel approach, we firstly applied a heavy-liquid separation to the iron-rich surface sediments which allowed direct identification of vivianite by X-ray diffraction in the high-density (ρ > 2.3 g cm−3 sediment fraction. Secondly, we assessed the contribution of vivianite to P retention, combining results from chemical digestion with magnetic susceptibility data derived from magnetic hysteresis measurements. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the dark blue spherical vivianite nodules were 40–180 μm in diameter, and formed of platy- and needle-shaped crystal aggregates. Although equilibrium calculations indicated supersaturation of vivianite throughout the upper 30 cm of the sediment, the vivianite deposits were homogeneously distributed within, and restricted to, the upper 23 cm only. Thus, supersaturated pore water alone cannot serve as a reliable predictor for the in situ formation of vivianite. In Lake Groß -Glienicke, vivianite formation continues to be triggered by the artificial iron amendment more than 20 yr ago, significantly contributing to P retention in surface sediments.

  5. Micro-focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction (muFUSLE) combined with HPLC and fluorescence detection for PAHs determination in sediments: optimization and linking with the analytical minimalism concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelo, J L; Galesio, M M; Felisberto, G M; Vaz, C; Pessoa, J Costa

    2005-06-15

    Analytical minimalism is a concept that deals with the optimization of all stages of an analytical procedure so that it becomes less time, cost, sample, reagent and energy consuming. The guide-lines provided in the USEPA extraction method 3550B recommend the use of focused ultrasound (FU), i.e., probe sonication, for the solid-liquid extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs, but ignore the principle of analytical minimalism. The problems related with the dead sonication zones, often present when high volumes are sonicated with probe, are also not addressed. In this work, we demonstrate that successful extraction and quantification of PAHs from sediments can be done with low sample mass (0.125g), low reagent volume (4ml), short sonication time (3min) and low sonication amplitude (40%). Two variables are here particularly taken into account for total extraction: (i) the design of the extraction vessel and (ii) the solvent used to carry out the extraction. Results showed PAHs recoveries (EPA priority list) ranged between 77 and 101%, accounting for more than 95% for most of the PAHs here studied, as compared with the values obtained after soxhlet extraction. Taking into account the results reported in this work we recommend a revision of the EPA guidelines for PAHs extraction from solid matrices with focused ultrasound, so that these match the analytical minimalism concept.

  6. Analytical results and sample locality map for rock, stream-sediment, and soil samples, Northern and Eastern Coloado Desert BLM Resource Area, Imperial, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Harley D.; Chaffee, Maurice A.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In 1996-1998 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a geochemical study of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) 5.5 million-acre Northern and Eastern Colorado Desert Resource Area (usually referred to as the NECD in this report), Imperial, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, southeastern California (figure 1). This study was done in support of the BLM's Coordinated Management Plan for the area. This report presents analytical data from this study. To provide comprehensive coverage of the NECD, we compiled and examined all available geochemical data, in digital form, from previous studies in the area, and made sample-site plots to aid in determining where sample-site coverage and analyses were sufficient, which samples should be re-analyzed, and where additional sampling was needed. Previous investigations conducted in parts of the current study area included the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program studies of the Needles and Salton Sea 1? x 2? quadrangles; USGS studies of 12 BLM Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) (Big Maria Mountains, Chemehuevi Mountains, Chuckwalla Mountains, Coxcomb Mountains, Mecca Hills, Orocopia Mountains, Palen-McCoy, Picacho Peak, Riverside Mountains, Sheephole Valley (also known as Sheep Hole/Cadiz), Turtle Mountains, and Whipple Mountains); and USGS studies in the Needles and El Centro 1? x 2? quadrangles done during the early 1990s as part of a project to identify the regional geochemistry of southern California. Areas where we did new sampling of rocks and stream sediments are mainly in the Chocolate Mountain Aerial Gunnery Range and in Joshua Tree National Park, which extends into the west-central part of the NECD, as shown in figure 1 and figure 2. This report contains analytical data for 132 rock samples and 1,245 stream-sediment samples collected by the USGS, and 362 stream-sediment samples and 189 soil samples collected during the NURE program. All samples are from the Northern and Eastern Colorado

  7. Mathematical modeling of the static and dynamic behavior of the operational parameters of isotopic separation cascades composed of ultracentrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portoghese, Celia Christiani Paschoa

    2002-01-01

    Several different mathematical models that make it possible to plan, design and follow the operation of uranium isotopic separation cascades using the gaseous ultracentrifugation process are presented, discussed and tested. Models to be used in the planning and conception phases use theoretical hypothesis, making it possible to calculate approximate values for the flow rate and isotopic composition of the cascade internal streams. Twelve theoretical models developed to perform this task are discussed and compared. The theoretical models that have greater applicability are identified. Models to be used for the complete dimensioning of a cascade, before its construction, called semi-empirical models, use experimental results obtained in ultracentrifuges individual testes combined with theoretical equations, allowing to calculate accurate values for the flow rate, pressure and isotopic composition of the cascade internal streams. Thirteen semi-empirical models developed to perform this task are presented, five of them are widely discussed and one of them is validated through comparison with experimental results. In order to follow the operation of a cascade, it is necessary to develop models to simulate its behavior in operational conditions other than the nominal, defined in the project. Three semi-empirical models to make this kind of simulation are presented and one of them is validated through comparison with experimental results. Finally, it is necessary to have tools that simulate the cascade behavior during transients. Two dynamic models developed to perform this task are presented and compared. The dynamic model capable to simulate results closer ti the real behaviour of a cascade during three different kinds of transient is identified, through comparison between simulated and experimental results. (author)

  8. A one-step separation of human serum high density lipoproteins 2 and 3 by rate-zonal density gradient ultracentrifugation in a swinging bucket rotor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, P.H.E.; Scheek, L.M.; Havekes, L.; Noort, W.L. van; Hooft, F.M. van 't

    1982-01-01

    A method was developed for the separation of the high density lipoprotein subclasses HDL2 and HDL3 from human serum. Six serum samples are fractionated in a single-step ultracentrifugal procedure using the Beckman (SW-40) swinging bucket rotor. The method is based on a difference in flotation rate

  9. Structural and elemental analysis of bottom sediments from the Paraíba do Sul River (SE, Brazil) by analytical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguens, Flávio Costa; Oliveira, Martha Lima de; Ferreira, Amanda de Oliveira; Barbosa, Laís Rodrigues; Melo, Edésio José Tenório de; Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo Veiga de

    2016-03-01

    The Paraíba do Sul River (PSR) is a medium-sized river that flows through the Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro Brazilian states the three most developed states in Brazil. Industrial parks and cities have historically been established along the river basin. The waters of PSR are used in agriculture, industry and human consumption of over 20 million people, including Rio de Janeiro City. Furthermore, the river receives effluent from these activities: agricultural runoff, industrial waste, and domestic sewage. Therefore, PSR has been considered polluted, particularly by heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metals in bottom sediments grains of the PSR, to infer their elemental composition, and to characterize individual sediment grains morphology, a non-destructive methodology - X-ray microanalyses (Scanning Electron Microscope coupled to Energy Dispersive X-rays Spectrometer/SEM/EDS) - was used. Heavy metals - Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Ag, Ba, Au, La, Ce, Nd, Th, Y, Sn, Os and Pb - were detected by SEM/EDS in bottom sediment grains from PSR, predominantly in grains with equivalent diameter ≤10 μm. They occurred as silicates, oxides (hydro-oxides), sulfides, carbonates, sulfates, phosphates and chlorides. All detected heavy metals occurred as, at least, one kind of soluble metal compound, mainly due to ionic exchange from silicates, with the exception of Ag, which was chloride, sulfate or metallic as Os, Au and Pb. These results corroborate heavy metal PSR pollution and food chain risk, considering that near-shore continental shelf is free of heavy metals contamination. Our results also give support to the hypothesis that the PSR estuary can act as a trap for these elements.

  10. Characterization of size, anisotropy, and density heterogeneity of nanoparticles by sedimentation velocity

    KAUST Repository

    Demeler, Borries

    2014-08-05

    A critical problem in materials science is the accurate characterization of the size dependent properties of colloidal inorganic nanocrystals. Due to the intrinsic polydispersity present during synthesis, dispersions of such materials exhibit simultaneous heterogeneity in density ρ, molar mass M, and particle diameter d. The density increments ∂ρ/∂d and ∂ρ/∂M of these nanoparticles, if known, can then provide important information about crystal growth and particle size distributions. For most classes of nanocrystals, a mixture of surfactants is added during synthesis to control their shape, size, and optical properties. However, it remains a challenge to accurately determine the amount of passivating ligand bound to the particle surface post synthesis. The presence of the ligand shell hampers an accurate determination of the nanocrystal diameter. Using CdSe and PbS semiconductor nanocrystals, and the ultrastable silver nanoparticle (M4Ag 44(p-MBA)30), as model systems, we describe a Custom Grid method implemented in UltraScan-III for the characterization of nanoparticles and macromolecules using sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation. We show that multiple parametrizations are possible, and that the Custom Grid method can be generalized to provide high resolution composition information for mixtures of solutes that are heterogeneous in two out of three parameters. For such cases, our method can simultaneously resolve arbitrary two-dimensional distributions of hydrodynamic parameters when a third property can be held constant. For example, this method extracts partial specific volume and molar mass from sedimentation velocity data for cases where the anisotropy can be held constant, or provides anisotropy and partial specific volume if the molar mass is known. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  11. Characterisation of insulin analogues therapeutically available to patients

    KAUST Repository

    Adams, Gary G.; Meal, Andrew; Morgan, Paul S.; Alzahrani, Qushmua E.; Zobel, Hanne; Lithgo, Ryan; Kok, M. Samil; Besong, David T. M.; Jiwani, Shahwar I.; Ballance, Simon; Harding, Stephen E.; Chayen, Naomi; Gillis, Richard B.

    2018-01-01

    , detemir, degludec). Analytical ultracentrifugation, both sedimentation velocity and equilibrium experiments, were employed to yield distributions of both molar mass and sedimentation coefficient of all nine insulins. Size exclusion chromatography, coupled

  12. Enhanced Electrochemical Performance of Ultracentrifugation-Derived nc-Li3VO4/MWCNT Composites for Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Etsuro; Kawabata, Nozomi; Nishio, Nagare; Kisu, Kazuaki; Miyamoto, Junichi; Naoi, Wako; Rozier, Patrick; Simon, Patrice; Naoi, Katsuhiko

    2016-05-24

    Nanocrystalline Li3VO4 dispersed within multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was prepared using an ultracentrifugation (uc) process and electrochemically characterized in Li-containing electrolyte. When charged and discharged down to 0.1 V vs Li, the material reached 330 mAh g(-1) (per composite) at an average voltage of about 1.0 V vs Li, with more than 50% capacity retention at a high current density of 20 A g(-1). This current corresponds to a nearly 500C rate (7.2 s) for a porous carbon electrode normally used in electric double-layer capacitor devices (1C = 40 mA g(-1) per activated carbon). The irreversible structure transformation during the first lithiation, assimilated as an activation process, was elucidated by careful investigation of in operando X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure measurements. The activation process switches the reaction mechanism from a slow "two-phase" to a fast "solid-solution" in a limited voltage range (2.5-0.76 V vs Li), still keeping the capacity as high as 115 mAh g(-1) (per composite). The uc-Li3VO4 composite operated in this potential range after the activation process allows fast Li(+) intercalation/deintercalation with a small voltage hysteresis, leading to higher energy efficiency. It offers a promising alternative to replace high-rate Li4Ti5O12 electrodes in hybrid supercapacitor applications.

  13. Web Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Web Analytics Program collects, analyzes, and provides reports on traffic, quality assurance, and customer satisfaction metrics for EPA’s website. The program uses a variety of analytics tools, including Google Analytics and CrazyEgg.

  14. Analytic trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, William J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N

    1963-01-01

    Analytic Trigonometry details the fundamental concepts and underlying principle of analytic geometry. The title aims to address the shortcomings in the instruction of trigonometry by considering basic theories of learning and pedagogy. The text first covers the essential elements from elementary algebra, plane geometry, and analytic geometry. Next, the selection tackles the trigonometric functions of angles in general, basic identities, and solutions of equations. The text also deals with the trigonometric functions of real numbers. The fifth chapter details the inverse trigonometric functions

  15. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  16. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2......, 4 and 5, respectively. It is not the intention of the book to give a broad review of the literature on this very wide topic. The book tries to pick up information which is of engineering importance. An obstacle to the study of sedimentation is the scale effect in model tests. Whenever small...

  17. Overview of the U.S. EPA/SERDP/ESTCP: Laboratory, Field, and Analytical Procedures for Using Passive Sampling in the Evaluation of Contaminated Sediments: User’s Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive sampling is used for applications at contaminated sediment sites including performing assessments of contaminant bioavailability (i.e., freely dissolved concentration (Cfree)), conducting remedial investigations and feasibility studies, and assessing the potential for con...

  18. Analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Burdette, A C

    1971-01-01

    Analytic Geometry covers several fundamental aspects of analytic geometry needed for advanced subjects, including calculus.This book is composed of 12 chapters that review the principles, concepts, and analytic proofs of geometric theorems, families of lines, the normal equation of the line, and related matters. Other chapters highlight the application of graphing, foci, directrices, eccentricity, and conic-related topics. The remaining chapters deal with the concept polar and rectangular coordinates, surfaces and curves, and planes.This book will prove useful to undergraduate trigonometric st

  19. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-15

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  20. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-01

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  1. Analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, Nivaldo A

    2018-01-01

    Analytical mechanics is the foundation of many areas of theoretical physics including quantum theory and statistical mechanics, and has wide-ranging applications in engineering and celestial mechanics. This introduction to the basic principles and methods of analytical mechanics covers Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics, rigid bodies, small oscillations, canonical transformations and Hamilton–Jacobi theory. This fully up-to-date textbook includes detailed mathematical appendices and addresses a number of advanced topics, some of them of a geometric or topological character. These include Bertrand's theorem, proof that action is least, spontaneous symmetry breakdown, constrained Hamiltonian systems, non-integrability criteria, KAM theory, classical field theory, Lyapunov functions, geometric phases and Poisson manifolds. Providing worked examples, end-of-chapter problems, and discussion of ongoing research in the field, it is suitable for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students studying analyt...

  2. Analytical quadrics

    CERN Document Server

    Spain, Barry; Ulam, S; Stark, M

    1960-01-01

    Analytical Quadrics focuses on the analytical geometry of three dimensions. The book first discusses the theory of the plane, sphere, cone, cylinder, straight line, and central quadrics in their standard forms. The idea of the plane at infinity is introduced through the homogenous Cartesian coordinates and applied to the nature of the intersection of three planes and to the circular sections of quadrics. The text also focuses on paraboloid, including polar properties, center of a section, axes of plane section, and generators of hyperbolic paraboloid. The book also touches on homogenous coordi

  3. Schedule Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Warfare, Naval Sea Systems Command Acquisition Cycle Time : Defining the Problem David Tate, Institute for Defense Analyses Schedule Analytics Jennifer...research was comprised of the following high- level steps :  Identify and review primary data sources 1...research. However, detailed reviews of the OMB IT Dashboard data revealed that schedule data is highly aggregated. Program start date and program end date

  4. Analytical Results for 35 Mine-Waste Tailings Cores and Six Bed-Sediment Samples, and An Estimate of the Volume of Contaminated Material at Buckeye Meadow on Upper Basin Creek, Northern Jefferson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, David L.; Church, Stan E.; Finney, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    Metal-mining related wastes in the Boulder River basin study area in northern Jefferson County, Montana have been implicated in their detrimental effects on water quality with regard to acid-generation and toxic-metal solubilization. Flotation-mill tailings in the meadow below the Buckeye mine, hereafter referred to as the Buckeye mill-tailings site, have been identified as significant contributors to water quality degradation of Basin Creek, Montana. Basin Creek is one of three tributaries to the Boulder River in the study area; bed sediments and waters draining from the Buckeye mine have also been implicated. Geochemical analysis of 35 tailings cores and six bed-sediment samples was undertaken to determine the concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb,and Zn present in these materials. These elements are environmentally significant, in that they can be toxic to fish and/or the invertebrate organisms that constitute their food. A suite of one-inch cores of dispersed flotation-mill tailings and underlying premining material was taken from a large, flat area north of Basin Creek near the site of the Buckeye mine. Thirty-five core samples were taken and divided into 204 subsamples. The samples were analyzed by ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) using a mixed-acid digestion. Results of the core analyses show that the elements listed above are present at moderate to very high concentrations (arsenic to 63,000 ppm, silver to 290 ppm, cadmium to 370 ppm, copper to 4,800 ppm, lead to 93,000 ppm, and zinc to 23,000 ppm). Volume calculations indicate that an estimated 8,400 metric tons of contaminated material are present at the site. Six bed-sediment samples were also subjected to the mixed-acid total digestion, and a warm (50°C) 2M HCl-1% H2O2 leach and analyzed by ICP-AES. Results indicate that bed sediments of Basin Creek are only slightly impacted by past mining above the Buckeye-Enterprise complex, moderately impacted at the upper (eastern

  5. Analytical Plan for Roman Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mueller, Karl T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Roman glasses that have been in the sea or underground for about 1800 years can serve as the independent “experiment” that is needed for validation of codes and models that are used in performance assessment. Two sets of Roman-era glasses have been obtained for this purpose. One set comes from the sunken vessel the Iulia Felix; the second from recently excavated glasses from a Roman villa in Aquileia, Italy. The specimens contain glass artifacts and attached sediment or soil. In the case of the Iulia Felix glasses quite a lot of analytical work has been completed at the University of Padova, but from an archaeological perspective. The glasses from Aquileia have not been so carefully analyzed, but they are similar to other Roman glasses. Both glass and sediment or soil need to be analyzed and are the subject of this analytical plan. The glasses need to be analyzed with the goal of validating the model used to describe glass dissolution. The sediment and soil need to be analyzed to determine the profile of elements released from the glass. This latter need represents a significant analytical challenge because of the trace quantities that need to be analyzed. Both pieces of information will yield important information useful in the validation of the glass dissolution model and the chemical transport code(s) used to determine the migration of elements once released from the glass. In this plan, we outline the analytical techniques that should be useful in obtaining the needed information and suggest a useful starting point for this analytical effort.

  6. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The division for Analytical Chemistry continued to try and develope an accurate method for the separation of trace amounts from mixtures which, contain various other elements. Ion exchange chromatography is of special importance in this regard. New separation techniques were tried on certain trace amounts in South African standard rock materials and special ceramics. Methods were also tested for the separation of carrier-free radioisotopes from irradiated cyclotron discs

  7. Estimating sediment discharge: Appendix D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Simões, Francisco J. M.

    2008-01-01

    different types of bed-load samplers may not be comparable (Gray et al. 1991; Childers 1999; Edwards and Glysson 1999). The total suspended solids (TSS) analytical method tends to produce concentration data from open-channel flows that are biased low with respect to their paired suspended-sediment concentration values, particularly when sand-size material composes more than about a quarter of the material in suspension. Instantaneous sediment-discharge values based on TSS data may differ from the more reliable product of suspended- sediment concentration values and the same water-discharge data by an order of magnitude (Gray et al. 2000; Bent et al. 2001; Glysson et al. 2000; 2001). An assessment of data comparability and reliability is an important first step in the estimation of sediment discharges. There are two approaches to obtaining values describing sediment loads in streams. One is based on direct measurement of the quantities of interest, and the other on relations developed between hydraulic parameters and sediment- transport potential. In the next sections, the most common techniques for both approaches are briefly addressed.

  8. Complexes prepared from protein A and human serum, IgG, or Fc gamma fragments: characterization by immunochemical analysis of ultracentrifugation fractions and studies on their interconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, J J; Das, C; Mainwaring, R; Shearer, W T

    1985-01-01

    Protein A of Staphylococcus aureus is an Fc receptor for IgG that has been used as a therapeutic reagent to treat cancer in humans and experimental animals. We used ultracentrifugation combined with analysis of isolated fractions by radioimmunoprecipitation and competitive radioimmunoassay with chicken antibodies that bind free protein A or protein A in complexes but do bind free immunoglobulin reagents to localize and characterize the types of complexes formed with different molar ratios of 125I-protein A and human 131I-IgG alone or in serum, and 131I-Fc gamma fragments. This approach offers a distinct advantage over direct counting of radioactivity in the fractions because resolution of complexes and free reagents is much improved. With excess 131I-IgG or 131I-Fc, all the 125I-protein A is present only in complexes that contained 4 molecules of immunoglobulin reagent and 2 molecules of protein A (4:2 complexes), whereas with excess 125I-protein A the stoichiometry of the complexes was 1:1. We have also shown the preformed 4:2 and 1:1 complexes will interconvert in the presence of added excess protein A or IgG, respectively, and that fresh IgG will exchange with IgG or Fc gamma in preformed complexes. Because protein A has been found to elute from an immobilized reagent used in serotherapy of human cancer and is present in a large excess of IgG, the 4:2 complexes may play an active role in the tumoricidal or toxic reactions observed.

  9. Analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Helrich, Carl S

    2017-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate textbook begins with the Lagrangian formulation of Analytical Mechanics and then passes directly to the Hamiltonian formulation and the canonical equations, with constraints incorporated through Lagrange multipliers. Hamilton's Principle and the canonical equations remain the basis of the remainder of the text. Topics considered for applications include small oscillations, motion in electric and magnetic fields, and rigid body dynamics. The Hamilton-Jacobi approach is developed with special attention to the canonical transformation in order to provide a smooth and logical transition into the study of complex and chaotic systems. Finally the text has a careful treatment of relativistic mechanics and the requirement of Lorentz invariance. The text is enriched with an outline of the history of mechanics, which particularly outlines the importance of the work of Euler, Lagrange, Hamilton and Jacobi. Numerous exercises with solutions support the exceptionally clear and concise treatment...

  10. Multielement analytical procedure coupling INAA, ICP-MS and ICP-AES: Application to the determination of major and trace elements in sediment samples of the Bouregreg river (Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounouira, H.; CEA - CNRS/UMR, Centre de Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette; Choukri, A.; Hakam, O.K.; Cherkaoui, R.; Gaudry, A.; Delmas, R.; Mariet, C.; Chakiri, S.

    2008-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) were used for the determination of major and trace elements in sediment samples of the Bouregreg river (Morocco). The reliability of the results was checked, by using IAEA Soil-7 certified reference material. Results obtained by the three techniques were compared to control digestions efficiencies. A general good agreement was found between INAA and both ICP-MS and ICP-AES after alkaline fusion (ICPf). The ICP-MS technique used after acid attack (ICPa) was satisfactory for a few elements. A principal component analysis (PCA) has been used for analyzing the variability of concentrations, and defining the most influential sites with respect to the general variation trends. Three groups of elements could be distinguished. For these groups a normalization of concentrations to the central element concentration (that means Mn, Si or Al) is proposed. (author)

  11. Impact of biofluid viscosity on size and sedimentation efficiency of the isolated microvesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh eMomen-Heravi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Microvesicles are nano-sized lipid vesicles released by all cells in vivo and in vitro. They are released physiologically under normal conditions but their rate of release is higher under pathological conditions such as tumors. Once released they end up in the systemic circulation and have been found and characterized in all biofluids such as plasma, serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, breast milk, ascites, and urine. Microvesicles represent the status of the donor cell they are released from and they are currently under intense investigation as a potential source for disease biomarkers. Currently, the gold standard for isolating microvesicles is ultracentrifugation, although alternative techniques such as affinity purification have been explored. Viscosity is the resistance of a fluid to a deforming force by either shear or tensile stress. The different chemical and molecular compositions of biofluids have an effect on its viscosity and this could affect movements of the particles inside the fluid. In this manuscript we addressed the issue of whether viscosity has an effect on sedimentation efficiency of microvesicles using ultracentrifugation. We used different biofluids and spiked them with polystyrene beads and assessed their recovery using the Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis. We demonstrate that MVs recovery inversely correlates with viscosity and as a result, sample dilutions should be considered prior to ultracentifugation when processing any biofluids.

  12. Development and validation of analytical methodology for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in sediments. Assesment of Pedroso Park dam, Santo Andre, SP; Desenvolvimento e validacao de metodologia analitica para determinacao de hidrocarbonetos policiclicos aromaticos (HPAS) em sedimentos. Avaliacao da represa do Parque Pedroso, Santo Andre, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Carlos Fernando de

    2009-07-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by being considered persistent contaminants, by their ubiquity in the environment and by the recognition of their genotoxicity, have stimulated research activities in order to determine and evaluate their sources, transport, processing, biological effects and accumulation in compartments of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In this work, the matrix studied was sediment collected at Pedroso Park's dam at Santo Andre, SP. The analytical technique employed was liquid chromatography in reverse phase with a UV/Vis detector. Statistics treatment of the data was established during the process of developing the methodology for which there was reliable results. The steps involved were evaluated using the concept of Validation of Chemical Testing. The parameters selected for the analytical validation were selectivity, linearity, Working Range, Sensitivity, Accuracy, Precision, Limit of Detection, Limit of quantification and robustness. These parameters showed satisfactory results, allowing the application of the methodology, and is a simple method that allows the minimization of contamination and loss of compounds by over-handling. For the PAHs tested were no found positive results, above the limit of detection, in any of the samples collected in the first phase. But, at the second collection, were found small changes mainly acenaphthylene, fluorene and benzo[a]anthracene. Although the area is preserved, it is possible to realize little signs of contamination. (author)

  13. Assessment of heavy metals concentrations in coastal sediments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Three kinds of analytical method were used for metals determination and quantification: ... such as copper, zinc, manganese, iron and chromium in Nosy Be sediments, were twice as .... Mean sewage of Mahajanga from Vallon de Meitzinger.

  14. Chemistry of marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    Some topics considered are as follows: characterization of sediments in the vicinity of offshore petroleum production; thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis; composition of polluted bottom sediments in Great Lakes harbors; distribution of heavy metals in sediment fractions; recent deposition of lead off the coast of southern California; release of trace constituents from sediments resuspended during dredging operations; and migration of chemical constituents in sediment-seawater interfaces

  15. Fluvial sediment in the environment: a national challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Gellis, Allen C.; Glysson, G. Douglas; Gray, John R.; Horowitz, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment and sediment-associated constituents can contribute substantially to water-quality impairment. In the past, sediment was viewed mainly as an engineering problem that affected reservoir storage capacity, shipping channel maintenance, and bridge scour, as well as the loss of agricultural soil. Sediment is now recognized as a major cause of aquatic system degradation in many rivers and streams as a result of light attenuation, loss of spawning substrate due to fine-grained sediment infilling, reduction in primary productivity, decreases in biotic diversity, and effects from sediment-associated chemical constituents. Recent advances in sediment measurement, assessment, source-identification, and analytical protocols provide new capabilities to quantify sediment and solid-phase chemical fluxes in aquatic systems. Developing, maintaining, and augmenting current sediment- and water-quality-monitoring networks is essential for determining the health of U.S. waterways and for evaluating the effectiveness of management actions in reducing sediment-related problems. The application of new scientific capabilities that address the adverse effects of sediment and sediment- associated constituents represents a major step in managing the Nation’s water quality. A robust Federal, national-scale eff rt, in collaboration with vested stakeholders, is needed to address these sediment-related water-quality issues across the United States.

  16. Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a periodic need to re-evaluate pesticide compounds in terms of priorities for inclusion in monitoring and studies and, thus, must also assess the current analytical capabilities for pesticide detection. To meet this need, a strategy has been developed to prioritize pesticides and degradates for analytical methods development. Screening procedures were developed to separately prioritize pesticide compounds in water and sediment. The procedures evaluate pesticide compounds in existing USGS analytical methods for water and sediment and compounds for which recent agricultural-use information was available. Measured occurrence (detection frequency and concentrations) in water and sediment, predicted concentrations in water and predicted likelihood of occurrence in sediment, potential toxicity to aquatic life or humans, and priorities of other agencies or organizations, regulatory or otherwise, were considered. Several existing strategies for prioritizing chemicals for various purposes were reviewed, including those that identify and prioritize persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds, and those that determine candidates for future regulation of drinking-water contaminants. The systematic procedures developed and used in this study rely on concepts common to many previously established strategies. The evaluation of pesticide compounds resulted in the classification of compounds into three groups: Tier 1 for high priority compounds, Tier 2 for moderate priority compounds, and Tier 3 for low priority compounds. For water, a total of 247 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods for monitoring and studies. Of these, about three-quarters are included in some USGS analytical method; however, many of these compounds are included on research methods that are expensive and for which there are few data on environmental samples. The remaining quarter of Tier 1

  17. OU3 sediment dating and sedimentation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, R.B.; Wolaver, H.A.; Burger, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental Technologies at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFS) investigated the sediment history of Standley Lake, Great Western Reservoir, and Mower Reservoir using 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu global fall-out as dating indicators. These Colorado Front Range reservoirs have been the subject of study by various city, state and national agencies due to suspected Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant impacts. We performed sediment dating as part of the RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for Operable Unit 3. A sediment chronology profile assists scientist in determining the year of sedimentation for a particular peak concentration of contaminants. Radioisotope sediment dating for the three reservoirs indicated sedimentation rates of 0.7 to 0.8 in./yr. for Standley Lake (SL), 0.9 in./yr. for Great Western Reservoir (GWR), and 0.3 in./yr. in Mower Reservoir (MR). RFS sediment dating for Operable Unit 3 compared favorably with the Hardy, Livingston, Burke, and Volchok Standley Lake study. This report describes the cesium/plutonium sediment dating method, estimates sedimentation rates for Operable Unit 3 reservoirs, and compares these results to previous investigations

  18. The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment transport of the Pra River. ... the relative contribution of surface and bank sediments to the fluvial sediment transport. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  19. Let's Talk... Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2012-01-01

    Talk about analytics seems to be everywhere. Everyone is talking about analytics. Yet even with all the talk, many in higher education have questions about--and objections to--using analytics in colleges and universities. In this article, the author explores the use of analytics in, and all around, higher education. (Contains 1 note.)

  20. Analytics for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Sheila; Campbell, Lorna M.; Hawksey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the development and use of analytics in the context of education. Using Buckingham Shum's three levels of analytics, the authors present a critical analysis of current developments in the domain of learning analytics, and contrast the potential value of analytics research and development with real world…

  1. Analytical chemistry instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    In nine sections, 48 chapters cover 1) analytical chemistry and the environment 2) environmental radiochemistry 3) automated instrumentation 4) advances in analytical mass spectrometry 5) fourier transform spectroscopy 6) analytical chemistry of plutonium 7) nuclear analytical chemistry 8) chemometrics and 9) nuclear fuel technology

  2. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  3. Center for Contaminated Sediments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Center for Contaminated Sediments serves as a clearinghouse for technology and expertise concerned with contaminated sediments. The...

  4. Geochemistry of sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    Considering the potential of elemental data in marine sediments as diagnostic tools of various geological and oceanographic processes, sediment geochemical data from the Indian Ocean region has been reviewed in this article. Emphasis is laid...

  5. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  6. Electrodialytic remediation of sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Sediments of harbors and freshwaters are regularly dredged for various reasons: maintenance of navigational depths, recovery of recreational locations, and even environmental recovery. In the past, sediments dredged from harbors have been dumped at sea, however, environmental regulations now, in ...

  7. Effects of low-dose simvastatin on the distribution of plasma cholesterol and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in three ultra-centrifugally separated low-density lipoprotein subfractions: 12- month, open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yasuhiko; Michishita, Ichiro; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Shigematsu, Hiroshi

    2010-10-27

    The effects of statins on the distribution of oxidized LDL in plasma LDL subfractions have not been well defined. Effects of 12-month treatment with low-dose simvastatin on the distribution of cholesterol and oxidized LDL in 3 ultracentrifugally separated plasma LDL subfractions were compared in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Simvastatin was administered to 30 hypercholesterolemic subjects for 12 months at an initial dose of 5 mg/day, which was increased to 20 mg/day via 10mg/day to decrease plasma LDL-cholesterol (C) lower than 130 mg/dL. Simvastatin dose was fixed after 3 months of treatment. The amounts of cholesterol and oxidized LDL in 3 ultracentrifugally separated plasma LDL subfractions were compared between 0 and 12 months of treatment. The distribution of ox-LDL skewed to denser LDL fractions, compared with cholesterol in plasma LDL subfractions. Plasma cholesterol in low-density LDL, medium-density LDL and high-density LDL decreased significantly by 31%, 30%, and 25%, respectively (pLDL was decreased from 70 U/L to 56 U/L in medium-density LDL (p=0.042). Oxidized LDL in low-density LDL and high-density LDL did not change significantly after 12 months of treatment. Treatment with low-dose simvastatin decreased plasma cholesterol in 3 LDL subfractions and oxidized LDL in medium-density LDL. The decrease of oxidized LDL seemed to be not due to the decrease of cholesterol in plasma LDL subfractions because the decreasing patterns of cholesterol and ox-LDL were different in 3 LDL subfractions.

  8. Sediment Transport Model for a Surface Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damodhara R. Mailapalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling irrigation-induced soil erosion is one of the important issues of irrigation management and surface water impairment. Irrigation models are useful in managing the irrigation and the associated ill effects on agricultural environment. In this paper, a physically based surface irrigation model was developed to predict sediment transport in irrigated furrows by integrating an irrigation hydraulic model with a quasi-steady state sediment transport model to predict sediment load in furrow irrigation. The irrigation hydraulic model simulates flow in a furrow irrigation system using the analytically solved zero-inertial overland flow equations and 1D-Green-Ampt, 2D-Fok, and Kostiakov-Lewis infiltration equations. Performance of the sediment transport model was evaluated for bare and cropped furrow fields. The results indicated that the sediment transport model can predict the initial sediment rate adequately, but the simulated sediment rate was less accurate for the later part of the irrigation event. Sensitivity analysis of the parameters of the sediment module showed that the soil erodibility coefficient was the most influential parameter for determining sediment load in furrow irrigation. The developed modeling tool can be used as a water management tool for mitigating sediment loss from the surface irrigated fields.

  9. Deepwater Horizon MC252 analytical data from the Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA) containing sediment chemistry data, tissue chemistry data, environmental quality and monitoring data, sample pre/post oiling analysis data, and Total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (TPAH) contaminants chemistry data from samples collected from 2010-03-07 to 2013-08-28 in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NCEI Accession 0163796)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Archival Information Package (AIP) contains Environmental Resource Management Application (ERMA) GIS layers that represent nearshore tissue and sediment...

  10. Analysis of antibody aggregate content at extremely high concentrations using sedimentation velocity with a novel interference optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Kristian; Krause, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies represent the most important group of protein-based biopharmaceuticals. During formulation, manufacturing, or storage, antibodies may suffer post-translational modifications altering their physical and chemical properties. Such induced conformational changes may lead to the formation of aggregates, which can not only reduce their efficiency but also be immunogenic. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the amount of size variants to ensure consistency and quality of pharmaceutical antibodies. In many cases, antibodies are formulated at very high concentrations > 50 g/L, mostly along with high amounts of sugar-based excipients. As a consequence, all routine aggregation analysis methods, such as size-exclusion chromatography, cannot monitor the size distribution at those original conditions, but only after dilution and usually under completely different solvent conditions. In contrast, sedimentation velocity (SV) allows to analyze samples directly in the product formulation, both with limited sample-matrix interactions and minimal dilution. One prerequisite for the analysis of highly concentrated samples is the detection of steep concentration gradients with sufficient resolution: Commercially available ultracentrifuges are not able to resolve such steep interference profiles. With the development of our Advanced Interference Detection Array (AIDA), it has become possible to register interferograms of solutions as highly concentrated as 150 g/L. The other major difficulty encountered at high protein concentrations is the pronounced non-ideal sedimentation behavior resulting from repulsive intermolecular interactions, for which a comprehensive theoretical modelling has not yet been achieved. Here, we report the first SV analysis of highly concentrated antibodies up to 147 g/L employing the unique AIDA ultracentrifuge. By developing a consistent experimental design and data fit approach, we were able to provide a reliable estimation of the minimum

  11. Analyticity without Differentiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Evgenia; Spindler, Karlheinz

    2008-01-01

    In this article we derive all salient properties of analytic functions, including the analytic version of the inverse function theorem, using only the most elementary convergence properties of series. Not even the notion of differentiability is required to do so. Instead, analytical arguments are replaced by combinatorial arguments exhibiting…

  12. Understanding Business Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-05

    analytics have been used in organizations for a variety of reasons for quite some time; ranging from the simple (generating and understanding business analytics...process. understanding business analytics 3 How well these two components are orchestrated will determine the level of success an organization has in

  13. Sediment supply to beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2014-01-01

    Many beaches have been built by an onshore supply of sand from the shoreface, and future long-term coastal evolution critically depends on cross-shore sediment exchange between the upper and the lower shorefaces. Even so, cross-shore sediment supply remains poorly known in quantitative terms...... and this reduces confidence in predictions of long-term shoreline change. In this paper, field measurements of suspended sediment load and cross-shore transport on the lower shoreface are used to derive a model for sediment supply from the lower to the upper shoreface at large spatial and temporal scales. Data...

  14. Sediment Core Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation and expertise for physical and geoacoustic characterization of marine sediments.DESCRIPTION: The multisensor core logger measures...

  15. The dirt on sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Loren M.; Euliss, Ned H. "Chip"

    2010-01-01

    In the wetland science field, sediment deposition is often thought of as being beneficial especially when one thinks of coastal estuarine systems. For example, sediments deposited from streams and rivers are necessary to naturally build and maintain tidal marshes. These sediments come from eroded upland soils in the interior of the continent. When these sediments are diverted from natural coastal deposition areas, such as occurs from river channelization, we lose marshes through subsidence as is happening throughout coastal Louisiana. However, the value of eroded soils is all a matter of hydrogeomorphic perspective.

  16. Beryllium-10 in Chesapeake Bay sediments: an indicator of sediment provenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helz, G.R.; Valette-Silver, Nathalie

    1992-01-01

    In a plot of 10 Be vs. Fe, central Chesapeake Bay sediments can be segregated into distinct units. This plot reveals an unexpected, statistically significant difference between sediments on the eastern and western flanks of the main channel, implying different origins. Although the 10 Be concentrations in sediments from these two regions span as much as an order of magnitude range, the 10 Be/Fe ratios vary by an amount approximating analytical error alone. The large concentration ranges are ascribed to hydraulic sorting, which can produce variance in composition while not affecting ratios between grain surface components such as Fe and Be. On the basis of 10 Be/Fe signatures, sediments on the western flank of the main channel appear to have been derived from the Susquehanna or another Piedmont/Appalachian river. Sediments on the eastern flank may have been transported from the south, by landward flowing bottom currents, or may be relics of a Pleistocene estuarine system. Conditions under which 10 Be may prove a useful tool in sediment provenance studies elsewhere are discussed. (Author)

  17. Comparison of extraction techniques for isolation of steroid oestrogens in environmentally relevant concentrations from sediment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sadílek, Jan; Spálovská, P.; Vrana, B.; Vávrová, M.; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Šimek, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 11 (2016), s. 1022-1037 ISSN 0306-7319 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : microwave - assisted extraction * estrogens * sediment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2016

  18. The IAEA's programme in analytical quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suschny, O.

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of the Analytical Quality Control Programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency is to help laboratories in the Agency's Member States to assess and, if necessary, to improve the reliability of their analytical work in areas related to nuclear technology and radioisotope utilisation. This is done by the organisation of analytical intercomparisons and by the provision of certified or uncertified reference materials. Recently intercomparisons have been organised of trace element analysis in a soil and a lake sediment sample which have led to the certification of two new reference materials, SOIL-5 and SL-1 (lake sediment). A technique has been developed to recognise and to remove outlying results. Criteria have been established to classify element-concentration values into the categories ''established with a high degree of confidence'', ''established with a reasonable degree of confidence'' and ''information value only''. Four radionuclide intercomparisons have recently been carried out: W-1/1 and W-2/1 of the determination of selected radionuclides in water and Air-1/1 and Air-2/1 of that of selected radionuclides on simulated air filters. Details of the preparation of materials for these intercomparisons, and of data treatment and some results are discussed in the paper

  19. Dynamics of Cohesive Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Claus

    The present thesis considers the transport processes of cohesive sediments. The cohesive sediment used in the laboratory experiments was kaolinite, a clay mineral, in order to be able to reproduce the individual experiments. In the first part of the thesis, the theoretical considerations regarding...

  20. Analytic nuclear scattering theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marzio, F.; University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC

    1999-01-01

    A wide range of nuclear reactions are examined in an analytical version of the usual distorted wave Born approximation. This new approach provides either semi analytic or fully analytic descriptions of the nuclear scattering processes. The resulting computational simplifications, when used within the limits of validity, allow very detailed tests of both nuclear interaction models as well as large basis models of nuclear structure to be performed

  1. Analytical Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Titan 80-300 is a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with spectroscopic detectors to allow chemical, elemental, and other analytical measurements to...

  2. Background radioactivity in sediments near Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLin, Stephen G.

    2004-01-01

    River and reservoir sediments have been collected annually by Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1974 and 1979, respectively. These background samples are collected from five river stations and four reservoirs located throughout northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Analyses include 3 H, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, total U, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, 241 Am, gross alpha, gross beta, and gross gamma radioactivity. Surprisingly, there are no federal or state regulatory standards in the USA that specify how to compute background radioactivity values on sediments. Hence, the sample median (or 0.50 quantile) is proposed for this background because it reflects central data tendency and is distribution-free. Estimates for the upper limit of background radioactivity on river and reservoir sediments are made for sampled analytes using the 0.95 quantile (two-tail). These analyses also show that seven of ten analytes from reservoir sediments are normally distributed, or are normally distributed after a logarithmic or square root transformation. However, only three of ten analytes from river sediments are similarly distributed. In addition, isotope ratios for 137 Cs/ 238 Pu, 137 Cs/ 239,240 Pu, and 239,240 Pu/ 238 Pu from reservoir sediments are independent of clay content, total organic carbon/specific surface area (TOC/SSA) and cation exchange capacity/specific surface area (CEC/SSA) ratios. These TOC/SSA and CEC/SSA ratios reflect sediment organic carbon and surface charge densities that are associated with radionuclide absorption, adsorption, and ion exchange reactions on clay mineral structures. These latter ratio values greatly exceed the availability of background radionuclides in the environment, and insure that measured background levels are a maximum. Since finer-grained reservoir sediments contain larger clay-sized fractions compared to coarser river sediments, they show higher background levels for most analytes. Furthermore, radioactivity values on reservoir sediments have

  3. Sediment transport through self-adjusting, bedrock-walled waterfall plunge pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2016-05-01

    Many waterfalls have deep plunge pools that are often partially or fully filled with sediment. Sediment fill may control plunge-pool bedrock erosion rates, partially determine habitat availability for aquatic organisms, and affect sediment routing and debris flow initiation. Currently, there exists no mechanistic model to describe sediment transport through waterfall plunge pools. Here we develop an analytical model to predict steady-state plunge-pool depth and sediment-transport capacity by combining existing jet theory with sediment transport mechanics. Our model predicts plunge-pool sediment-transport capacity increases with increasing river discharge, flow velocity, and waterfall drop height and decreases with increasing plunge-pool depth, radius, and grain size. We tested the model using flume experiments under varying waterfall and plunge-pool geometries, flow hydraulics, and sediment size. The model and experiments show that through morphodynamic feedbacks, plunge pools aggrade to reach shallower equilibrium pool depths in response to increases in imposed sediment supply. Our theory for steady-state pool depth matches the experiments with an R2 value of 0.8, with discrepancies likely due to model simplifications of the hydraulics and sediment transport. Analysis of 75 waterfalls suggests that the water depths in natural plunge pools are strongly influenced by upstream sediment supply, and our model provides a mass-conserving framework to predict sediment and water storage in waterfall plunge pools for sediment routing, habitat assessment, and bedrock erosion modeling.

  4. Capitalizing Resolving Power of Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation by Freezing and Precisely Slicing Centrifuged Solution: Enabling Identification of Complex Proteins from Mitochondria by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiqing Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Density gradient centrifugation is widely utilized for various high purity sample preparations, and density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU is often used for more resolution-demanding purification of organelles and protein complexes. Accurately locating different isopycnic layers and precisely extracting solutions from these layers play a critical role in achieving high-resolution DGU separations. In this technique note, we develop a DGU procedure by freezing the solution rapidly (but gently after centrifugation to fix the resolved layers and by slicing the frozen solution to fractionate the sample. Because the thickness of each slice can be controlled to be as thin as 10 micrometers, we retain virtually all the resolution produced by DGU. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this method, we fractionate complex V from HeLa mitochondria using a conventional technique and this freezing-slicing (F-S method. The comparison indicates that our F-S method can reduce complex V layer thicknesses by ~40%. After fractionation, we analyze complex V proteins directly on a matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization, time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Twelve out of fifteen subunits of complex V are positively identified. Our method provides a practical protocol to identify proteins from complexes, which is useful to investigate biomolecular complexes and pathways in various conditions and cell types.

  5. Tracers discrimination of sediment provenience in rural catchment through EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melquiades, Fabio L. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Thomaz, Edivaldo L. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geografia

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Sediment dynamics understanding in a drainage system is fundamental for soil and water conservation at hydro graphic basins. This work aim was to discriminate sediment provenance tracers in rural basin. Sediment samples from different points in the headwater (road, forest, riverbank, river sediment deposit) were collected. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was the analytical technique applied, which was efficient to detect the chemical composition of the sediments. The samples were dried for 48h at 50 deg C, ground and sieved for granulometry 1mm. In natura samples (3 g) were placed in cells covered with mylar film for irradiation. Titanium, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Y and Zr were identified. It was concluded that the elements, when analyzed individually or paired, do not allow a clear environment distinction except for yttrium (Y) that indicates distinct characteristics between the riverbank materials related to the other environments. However, the cluster analysis provided discrimination between the different sources of sediment. Also, it was verified that the recent deposited sediment in the river channel displays greater similarity with the materials of the road than with the riverbank. It is probable that the roads has been the mainly sediment source in the studied headwater. The methodology is innovative for tracer determination in soil and erosion quantification. (author)

  6. Tracers discrimination of sediment provenience in rural catchment through EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melquiades, Fabio L.; Thomaz, Edivaldo L.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Sediment dynamics understanding in a drainage system is fundamental for soil and water conservation at hydro graphic basins. This work aim was to discriminate sediment provenance tracers in rural basin. Sediment samples from different points in the headwater (road, forest, riverbank, river sediment deposit) were collected. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was the analytical technique applied, which was efficient to detect the chemical composition of the sediments. The samples were dried for 48h at 50 deg C, ground and sieved for granulometry 1mm. In natura samples (3 g) were placed in cells covered with mylar film for irradiation. Titanium, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Y and Zr were identified. It was concluded that the elements, when analyzed individually or paired, do not allow a clear environment distinction except for yttrium (Y) that indicates distinct characteristics between the riverbank materials related to the other environments. However, the cluster analysis provided discrimination between the different sources of sediment. Also, it was verified that the recent deposited sediment in the river channel displays greater similarity with the materials of the road than with the riverbank. It is probable that the roads has been the mainly sediment source in the studied headwater. The methodology is innovative for tracer determination in soil and erosion quantification. (author)

  7. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  8. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  9. Analytic Moufang-transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paal, Eh.N.

    1988-01-01

    The paper is aimed to be an introduction to the concept of an analytic birepresentation of an analytic Moufang loop. To describe the deviation of (S,T) from associativity, the associators (S,T) are defined and certain constraints for them, called the minimality conditions of (S,T) are established

  10. Quine's "Strictly Vegetarian" Analyticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decock, L.B.

    2017-01-01

    I analyze Quine’s later writings on analyticity from a linguistic point of view. In Word and Object Quine made room for a “strictly vegetarian” notion of analyticity. In later years, he developed this notion into two more precise notions, which I have coined “stimulus analyticity” and “behaviorist

  11. Learning analytics dashboard applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.; Duval, E.; Klerkx, J.; Govaerts, S.; Santos, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces learning analytics dashboards that visualize learning traces for learners and teachers. We present a conceptual framework that helps to analyze learning analytics applications for these kinds of users. We then present our own work in this area and compare with 15 related

  12. Learning Analytics Considered Harmful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dringus, Laurie P.

    2012-01-01

    This essay is written to present a prospective stance on how learning analytics, as a core evaluative approach, must help instructors uncover the important trends and evidence of quality learner data in the online course. A critique is presented of strategic and tactical issues of learning analytics. The approach to the critique is taken through…

  13. Analytical mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  14. Analytical mass spectrometry. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  15. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  16. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: wasoares@sp.gov.br, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2013-07-01

    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  17. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Quinaglia, Gilson A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2013-01-01

    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  18. Maximum Recoverable Gas from Hydrate Bearing Sediments by Depressurization

    KAUST Repository

    Terzariol, Marco

    2017-11-13

    The estimation of gas production rates from hydrate bearing sediments requires complex numerical simulations. This manuscript presents a set of simple and robust analytical solutions to estimate the maximum depressurization-driven recoverable gas. These limiting-equilibrium solutions are established when the dissociation front reaches steady state conditions and ceases to expand further. Analytical solutions show the relevance of (1) relative permeabilities between the hydrate free sediment, the hydrate bearing sediment, and the aquitard layers, and (2) the extent of depressurization in terms of the fluid pressures at the well, at the phase boundary, and in the far field. Close form solutions for the size of the produced zone allow for expeditious financial analyses; results highlight the need for innovative production strategies in order to make hydrate accumulations an economically-viable energy resource. Horizontal directional drilling and multi-wellpoint seafloor dewatering installations may lead to advantageous production strategies in shallow seafloor reservoirs.

  19. Ion migration in ocean sediments: subseafloor radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, H.E.; Ray, A.K.; Davis, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    In this study of seabed disposal, analytical ion transport models were developed and used to elucidate ion migration through ocean sediments and to study the escape of ions from the ocean floor into the water column. An unsteady state isothermal diffusion model was developed for the region far from the canister to examine the effects of ion diffusion, adsorption, radioactive decay, sediment thickness and canister position. Analytical solutions were derived to represent the transient concentration profiles within the sediment, ion flux and the ion discharge rate to the water column for two types of initial conditions: instantaneous dissolution of the canister and constant canister leakage. Generalized graphs showing ion migration and behavior are presented

  20. Measurements of Inertial Torques on Sedimenting Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamati, Rami; Roy, Anubhab; Koch, Don; Voth, Greg

    2017-11-01

    Stokes flow solutions predict that ellipsoids sedimenting in quiescent fluid keep their initial orientation. However, preferential alignment in low Reynolds number sedimentation is easily observed. For example, sun dogs form from alignment of sedimenting ice crystals. The cause of this preferential alignment is a torque due to non-zero fluid inertia that aligns particles with a long axis in the horizontal direction. These torques are predicted analytically for slender fibers with low Reynolds number based on the fiber diameter (ReD) by Khayat and Cox (JFM 209:435, 1989). Despite increasingly widespread use of these expressions, we did not find experimental measurements of these inertial torques at parameters where the theory was valid, so we performed a set of sedimentation experiments using fore-aft symmetric cylinders and asymmetric cylinders with their center of mass offset from their center of drag. Measured rotation rates as a function of orientation using carefully prepared glass capillaries in silicon oil show good agreement with the theory. We quantify the effect of finite tank size and compare with other experiments in water where the low ReD condition is not met. Supported by Army Research Office Grant W911NF1510205.

  1. Sediment Resuspension Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The full report on sediment resuspension in drinking water storage tanks and a link to an animation of results. This dataset is associated with the following...

  2. Sediments and aquatic indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Determinations of 90 Sr, certain gamma emitting nuclides and 239,240 Pu in bottom sediment in the Baltic Sea area and in sedimenting material and biota near the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power stations were continued in 1984 and 1985. In the bottom sediments of the deep Baltic basins, the total amounts of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and Pu were 8.5-80 Bq m -2 , 83-3200 Bq m -2 and 4.7-190 Bq m -2 , respectively. The ranges were about the same as in the earlier reports 1,2 . In sedimenting material and biota the conentrations of 90 Sr and 239,240 Pu were roughly the same as in 1983. The amounts and selection of reactor originated activation products were not changed in the vicinity of the two nuclear power stations. Small amounts of 137 Cs and 134 Cs released from the Loviisa nuclear power station were detected in 1985

  3. Offshore Surficial Sediment

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data layer (PAC_EXT.txt and PAC_PRS.txt) represents two of five point coverages of known sediment samples, inspections, and probes from the usSEABED data...

  4. Google analytics integrations

    CERN Document Server

    Waisberg, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A roadmap for turning Google Analytics into a centralized marketing analysis platform With Google Analytics Integrations, expert author Daniel Waisberg shows you how to gain a more meaningful, complete view of customers that can drive growth opportunities. This in-depth guide shows not only how to use Google Analytics, but also how to turn this powerful data collection and analysis tool into a central marketing analysis platform for your company. Taking a hands-on approach, this resource explores the integration and analysis of a host of common data sources, including Google AdWords, AdSens

  5. Underwater Sediment Sampling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    impacted sediments was found to be directly related to the concentration of crude oil detected in the sediment pore waters . Applying this mathematical...Kurt.A.Hansen@uscg.mil. 16. Abstract (MAXIMUM 200 WORDS ) The USCG R&D Center sought to develop a bench top system to determine the amount of total...scattered. The approach here is to sample the interstitial water between the grains of sand and attempt to determine the amount of oil in and on

  6. Estimating floodplain sedimentation in the Laguna de Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jennifer A.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hupp, Cliff R.

    2013-01-01

    We present a conceptual and analytical framework for predicting the spatial distribution of floodplain sedimentation for the Laguna de Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA. We assess the role of the floodplain as a sink for fine-grained sediment and investigate concerns regarding the potential loss of flood storage capacity due to historic sedimentation. We characterized the spatial distribution of sedimentation during a post-flood survey and developed a spatially distributed sediment deposition potential map that highlights zones of floodplain sedimentation. The sediment deposition potential map, built using raster files that describe the spatial distribution of relevant hydrologic and landscape variables, was calibrated using 2 years of measured overbank sedimentation data and verified using longer-term rates determined using dendrochronology. The calibrated floodplain deposition potential relation was used to estimate an average annual floodplain sedimentation rate (3.6 mm/year) for the ~11 km2 floodplain. This study documents the development of a conceptual model of overbank sedimentation, describes a methodology to estimate the potential for various parts of a floodplain complex to accumulate sediment over time, and provides estimates of short and long-term overbank sedimentation rates that can be used for ecosystem management and prioritization of restoration activities.

  7. Radionuclides in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tousset, J.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of radionuclides in analytical chemistry are reviewed in this article: tracers, radioactive sources and activation analysis. Examples are given in all these fields and it is concluded that these methods should be used more widely [fr

  8. Mobility Data Analytics Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Mobility Data Analytics Center aims at building a centralized data engine to efficiently manipulate : large-scale data for smart decision making. Integrating and learning the massive data are the key to : the data engine. The ultimate goal of underst...

  9. Analytical strategies for phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E; Jensen, Ole N; Larsen, Martin R

    2009-01-01

    sensitive and specific strategies. Today, most phosphoproteomic studies are conducted by mass spectrometric strategies in combination with phospho-specific enrichment methods. This review presents an overview of different analytical strategies for the characterization of phosphoproteins. Emphasis...

  10. Encyclopedia of analytical surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Krivoshapko, S N

    2015-01-01

    This encyclopedia presents an all-embracing collection of analytical surface classes. It provides concise definitions  and description for more than 500 surfaces and categorizes them in 38 classes of analytical surfaces. All classes are cross references to the original literature in an excellent bibliography. The encyclopedia is of particular interest to structural and civil engineers and serves as valuable reference for mathematicians.

  11. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  12. SRL online Analytical Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Co. for the Department of Energy to produce special nuclear materials for defense. R ampersand D support for site programs is provided by the Savannah River Laboratory, which I represent. The site is known primarily for its nuclear reactors, but actually three fourths of the efforts at the site are devoted to fuel/target fabrication, fuel/target reprocessing, and waste management. All of these operations rely heavily on chemical processes. The site is therefore a large chemical plant. There are then many potential applications for process analytical chemistry at SRS. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has an Analytical Development Section of roughly 65 personnel that perform analyses for R ampersand D efforts at the lab, act as backup to the site Analytical Laboratories Department and develop analytical methods and instruments. I manage a subgroup of the Analytical Development Section called the Process Control ampersand Analyzer Development Group. The Prime mission of this group is to develop online/at-line analytical systems for site applications

  13. Croatian Analytical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastelan-Macan; M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of analytical research are necessary in all human activities. They are inevitable in making decisions in the environmental chemistry, agriculture, forestry, veterinary medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and biochemistry. Without analytical measurements the quality of materials and products cannot be assessed, so that analytical chemistry is an essential part of technical sciences and disciplines.The language of Croatian science, and analytical chemistry within it, was one of the goals of our predecessors. Due to the political situation, they did not succeed entirely, but for the scientists in independent Croatia this is a duty, because language is one of the most important features of the Croatian identity. The awareness of the need to introduce Croatian terminology was systematically developed in the second half of the 19th century, along with the founding of scientific societies and the wish of scientists to write their scientific works in Croatian, so that the results of their research may be applied in economy. Many authors of textbooks from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century contributed to Croatian analytical terminology (F. Rački, B. Šulek, P. Žulić, G. Pexidr, J. Domac, G. Janeček , F. Bubanović, V. Njegovan and others. M. DeŢelić published the first systematic chemical terminology in 1940, adjusted to the IUPAC recommendations. In the second half of 20th century textbooks in classic analytical chemistry were written by V. Marjanović-Krajovan, M. Gyiketta-Ogrizek, S. Žilić and others. I. Filipović wrote the General and Inorganic Chemistry textbook and the Laboratory Handbook (in collaboration with P. Sabioncello and contributed greatly to establishing the terminology in instrumental analytical methods.The source of Croatian nomenclature in modern analytical chemistry today are translated textbooks by Skoog, West and Holler, as well as by Günnzler i Gremlich, and original textbooks by S. Turina, Z.

  14. Analytic manifolds in uniform algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonev, T.V.

    1988-12-01

    Here we extend Bear-Hile's result concerning the version of famous Bishop's theorem for one-dimensional analytic structures in two directions: for n-dimensional complex analytic manifolds, n>1, and for generalized analytic manifolds. 14 refs

  15. Sediment impacts on marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James J; McGrath, Emily; Biggerstaff, Andrew; Bates, Tracey; Bennett, Holly; Marlow, Joseph; Shaffer, Megan

    2015-05-15

    Changes in sediment input to marine systems can influence benthic environments in many ways. Sponges are important components of benthic ecosystems world-wide and as sessile suspension feeders are likely to be impacted by changes in sediment levels. Despite this, little is known about how sponges respond to changes in settled and suspended sediment. Here we review the known impacts of sedimentation on sponges and their adaptive capabilities, whilst highlighting gaps in our understanding of sediment impacts on sponges. Although the literature clearly shows that sponges are influenced by sediment in a variety of ways, most studies confer that sponges are able to tolerate, and in some cases thrive, in sedimented environments. Critical gaps exist in our understanding of the physiological responses of sponges to sediment, adaptive mechanisms, tolerance limits, and the particularly the effect of sediment on early life history stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sedimentation problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    Roseires Dam and reservoir are located in Sudan, Africa on the Blue Nile River. The hydropower from the reservoir provides approximately 80% of the power used in Sudan, thus having a tremendous economic impact on the country. The reservoir was first impounded in 1966 and has been filled annually since then. The Blue Nile has historically been known to carry heavy sediment loads which is associated with erosion from overgrazing in Ethiopia, the Blue Nile's headwaters. During the flood season, the dam's turbine intakes become blocked with debris and sediment. After a severe blockage in 1981, which prevented hydropower generation for several days, consultants from USAID were asked to make recommendations on reducing the sediment and debris impacts on reservoir operations. This led to debris clearing and dredging equipment acquisitions in 1982. In 1988, blockage occurred again during the flood season. This writer was asked by the World Bank to travel to Sudan, investigate the sediment and debris problems, examine the USAID recommendations, comment on potential sediment and debris problems associated with a proposed plan to raise the dam, make additional recommendations, and return to Sudan several times to determine the effectiveness of there recommendations. This paper discussed the results of the aforementioned activities and describes the new recommendations made by this writer

  17. The oceanic sediment barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, T.J.G.; Searle, R.C.; Wilson, T.R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Burial within the sediments of the deep ocean floor is one of the options that have been proposed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. An international research programme is in progress to determine whether oceanic sediments have the requisite properties for this purpose. After summarizing the salient features of this programme, the paper focuses on the Great Meteor East study area in the Northeast Atlantic, where most oceanographic effort has been concentrated. The geological geochemical and geotechnical properties of the sediments in the area are discussed. Measurements designed to determine the rate of pore water movement through the sediment column are described. Our understanding of the chemistry of both the solid and pore-water phases of the sediment are outlined, emphasizing the control that redox conditions have on the mobility of, for example, naturally occurring manganese and uranium. The burial of instrumented free-fall penetrators to depths of 30 m beneath the ocean floor is described, modelling one of the methods by which waste might be emplaced. Finally, the nature of this oceanic environment is compared with geological environments on land and attention is drawn to the gaps in our knowledge that must be filled before oceanic burial can be regarded as an acceptable disposal option. (author)

  18. Information theory in analytical chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eckschlager, Karel; Danzer, Klaus

    1994-01-01

    Contents: The aim of analytical chemistry - Basic concepts of information theory - Identification of components - Qualitative analysis - Quantitative analysis - Multicomponent analysis - Optimum analytical...

  19. Collection and preparation of bottom sediment samples for analysis of radionuclides and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    The publication is the first in a series of TECDOCs on sampling and sample handling as part of the IAEA support to improve reliability of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in Member State laboratories. The purpose of the document is to provide information on the methods for collecting sediments, the equipment used, and the sample preparation techniques for radionuclide and elemental analysis. The most appropriate procedures for defining the strategies and criteria for selecting sampling locations, for sample storage and transportation are also given. Elements of QA/QC and documentation needs for sampling and sediment analysis are discussed. Collection and preparation of stream and river bottom sediments, lake bottom sediments, estuary bottom sediments, and marine (shallow) bottom sediments are covered. The document is intended to be a comprehensive manual for the collection and preparation of bottom sediments as a prerequisite to obtain representative and meaningful results using NATs. Quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) is emphasized as an important aspect to ensure proper collection, transportation, preservation, and analysis since it forms the basis for interpretation and legislation. Although there are many approaches and methods available for sediment analyses, the scope of the report is limited to sample preparation for (1) analysis of radionuclides (including sediment dating using radionuclides such as Pb-210 and Cs-137) and (2) analysis of trace, minor and major elements using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as NAA, XRF and PIXE

  20. Collection and preparation of bottom sediment samples for analysis of radionuclides and trace elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The publication is the first in a series of TECDOCs on sampling and sample handling as part of the IAEA support to improve reliability of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in Member State laboratories. The purpose of the document is to provide information on the methods for collecting sediments, the equipment used, and the sample preparation techniques for radionuclide and elemental analysis. The most appropriate procedures for defining the strategies and criteria for selecting sampling locations, for sample storage and transportation are also given. Elements of QA/QC and documentation needs for sampling and sediment analysis are discussed. Collection and preparation of stream and river bottom sediments, lake bottom sediments, estuary bottom sediments, and marine (shallow) bottom sediments are covered. The document is intended to be a comprehensive manual for the collection and preparation of bottom sediments as a prerequisite to obtain representative and meaningful results using NATs. Quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) is emphasized as an important aspect to ensure proper collection, transportation, preservation, and analysis since it forms the basis for interpretation and legislation. Although there are many approaches and methods available for sediment analyses, the scope of the report is limited to sample preparation for (1) analysis of radionuclides (including sediment dating using radionuclides such as Pb-210 and Cs-137) and (2) analysis of trace, minor and major elements using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as NAA, XRF and PIXE.

  1. Petrophysics of Palaeogene sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awadalkarim, Ahmed

    defined and understood this would benefit various areas in petroleum industry. The three studied litholgoies are relatively soft and weak sediments, but they are economically important especially in petroleum industry. Drilling through intervals of shale or siliceous ooze sediments could result in severe...... and very costly borehole instability problems which are closely connected with the "bulk properties" of shale. In practice, the main technological challenge is to keep the borehole sufficiently stable until casing is set. Knowing the real in-situ effective stress is crucial to understand and to predict...... related to borehole stability. This Ph.D. study stressed on the importance of using correct β value in estimation of vertical effective stress especially on deep-sea sediments. To assess the geomechanical stability and the stiffness of the three studied lithologies, their β was found and used to calculate...

  2. Competing on talent analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H; Harris, Jeanne; Shapiro, Jeremy

    2010-10-01

    Do investments in your employees actually affect workforce performance? Who are your top performers? How can you empower and motivate other employees to excel? Leading-edge companies such as Google, Best Buy, Procter & Gamble, and Sysco use sophisticated data-collection technology and analysis to answer these questions, leveraging a range of analytics to improve the way they attract and retain talent, connect their employee data to business performance, differentiate themselves from competitors, and more. The authors present the six key ways in which companies track, analyze, and use data about their people-ranging from a simple baseline of metrics to monitor the organization's overall health to custom modeling for predicting future head count depending on various "what if" scenarios. They go on to show that companies competing on talent analytics manage data and technology at an enterprise level, support what analytical leaders do, choose realistic targets for analysis, and hire analysts with strong interpersonal skills as well as broad expertise.

  3. Advanced business analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Lev, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The book describes advanced business analytics and shows how to apply them to many different professional areas of engineering and management. Each chapter of the book is contributed by a different author and covers a different area of business analytics. The book connects the analytic principles with business practice and provides an interface between the main disciplines of engineering/technology and the organizational, administrative and planning abilities of management. It also refers to other disciplines such as economy, finance, marketing, behavioral economics and risk analysis. This book is of special interest to engineers, economists and researchers who are developing new advances in engineering management but also to practitioners working on this subject.

  4. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Iwaniec, Henryk

    2004-01-01

    Analytic Number Theory distinguishes itself by the variety of tools it uses to establish results, many of which belong to the mainstream of arithmetic. One of the main attractions of analytic number theory is the vast diversity of concepts and methods it includes. The main goal of the book is to show the scope of the theory, both in classical and modern directions, and to exhibit its wealth and prospects, its beautiful theorems and powerful techniques. The book is written with graduate students in mind, and the authors tried to balance between clarity, completeness, and generality. The exercis

  5. An analytic thomism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alejandro Pérez Chamorro.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For 50 years the philosophers of the Anglo-Saxon analytic tradition (E. Anscombre, P. Geach, A. Kenny, P. Foot have tried to follow the Thomas Aquinas School which they use as a source to surpass the Cartesian Epistemology and to develop the virtue ethics. Recently, J. Haldane has inaugurated a program of “analytical thomism” which main result until the present has been his “theory of identity mind/world”. Nevertheless, none of Thomás’ admirers has still found the means of assimilating his metaphysics of being.

  6. Social network data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2011-01-01

    Social network analysis applications have experienced tremendous advances within the last few years due in part to increasing trends towards users interacting with each other on the internet. Social networks are organized as graphs, and the data on social networks takes on the form of massive streams, which are mined for a variety of purposes. Social Network Data Analytics covers an important niche in the social network analytics field. This edited volume, contributed by prominent researchers in this field, presents a wide selection of topics on social network data mining such as Structural Pr

  7. News for analytical chemists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Karlberg, Bo

    2009-01-01

    welfare. In conjunction with the meeting of the steering committee in Tallinn, Estonia, in April, Mihkel Kaljurand and Mihkel Koel of Tallinn University of Technology organised a successful symposium attended by 51 participants. The symposium illustrated the scientific work of the steering committee...... directed to various topics of analytical chemistry. Although affected by the global financial crisis, the Euroanalysis Conference will be held on 6 to 10 September in Innsbruck, Austria. For next year, the programme for the analytical section of the 3rd European Chemistry Congress is in preparation...

  8. Foundations of predictive analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, James

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the authors' two decades of experience in applied modeling and data mining, Foundations of Predictive Analytics presents the fundamental background required for analyzing data and building models for many practical applications, such as consumer behavior modeling, risk and marketing analytics, and other areas. It also discusses a variety of practical topics that are frequently missing from similar texts. The book begins with the statistical and linear algebra/matrix foundation of modeling methods, from distributions to cumulant and copula functions to Cornish--Fisher expansion and o

  9. Supercritical fluid analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.; Kalinoski, H.T.; Wright, B.W.; Udseth, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Supercritical fluids are providing the basis for new and improved methods across a range of analytical technologies. New methods are being developed to allow the detection and measurement of compounds that are incompatible with conventional analytical methodologies. Characterization of process and effluent streams for synfuel plants requires instruments capable of detecting and measuring high-molecular-weight compounds, polar compounds, or other materials that are generally difficult to analyze. The purpose of this program is to develop and apply new supercritical fluid techniques for extraction, separation, and analysis. These new technologies will be applied to previously intractable synfuel process materials and to complex mixtures resulting from their interaction with environmental and biological systems

  10. Suspended sediment concentration and optical property observations of mixed-turbidity, coastal waters through multispectral ocean color inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multispectral satellite ocean color data from high-turbidity areas of the coastal ocean contain information about the surface concentrations and optical properties of suspended sediments and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Empirical and semi-analytical inversion algorit...

  11. Soft-sediment mullions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution I describe the appearance, formation and significance of soft-sediment mullions. I use several examples from synorogenic turbidites of the Alps and the Pyrenees to show their appearance in the field. Soft-sediment mullions are elongate, slightly irregular bulges at the base of coarse-grained clastic beds (sand to conglomerate), separated by narrow, elongate flames of fine-grained material (mud) protruding into the coarse-grained bed. Various processes may lead to the formation of such structures: (1) longitudinal furrows parallel to the sediment transport direction may form by spiral motion in flow rolls during sediment transport (Dzulinski, 1966; Dzulinski & Simpson, 1966). (2) Loading combined with downslope movement can produce elongate structures parallelling the dowslope direction (Anketell et al., 1970). (3) Soft-sediment mullions are oriented perpendicular or oblique to the downslope direction, and show evidence of bedding-parallel shortening. Thus, they resemble cuspate-lobate folds or mullions, which are well-known in ductile structural geology (e.g. Urai et al., 2001). Soft-sediment mullions have been observed in two cases: Either bedding-parallel shortening can be achieved by slump processes, or by active tectonic shortening. Slumping is characterized by an alternation of stretching and shortening (e.g. Ortner, 2007; Alsop & Marco 2014), and therefore mullions do overprint or are overprinted by normal faults. In active depositional systems that are subject to tectonic shortening growth strata will form, but sediments already deposited will be shortened during lithification. In some cases, the formation of soft-sediment mullions predates folding, but the most widespread expression of syn-lithification shortening seems to be soft-sediment mullions, that form in the inner arcs of fold hinges. In the examples documented so far, the size of soft-sediment mullions is dependent on the grain-size of the coarse-grained layer, in which the

  12. Interplay between spatially explicit sediment sourcing, hierarchical river-network structure, and in-channel bed material sediment transport and storage dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Gran, Karen B.; Belmont, Patrick; Wilcock, Peter R.

    2017-05-01

    Understanding how sediment moves along source to sink pathways through watersheds—from hillslopes to channels and in and out of floodplains—is a fundamental problem in geomorphology. We contribute to advancing this understanding by modeling the transport and in-channel storage dynamics of bed material sediment on a river network over a 600 year time period. Specifically, we present spatiotemporal changes in bed sediment thickness along an entire river network to elucidate how river networks organize and process sediment supply. We apply our model to sand transport in the agricultural Greater Blue Earth River Basin in Minnesota. By casting the arrival of sediment to links of the network as a Poisson process, we derive analytically (under supply-limited conditions) the time-averaged probability distribution function of bed sediment thickness for each link of the river network for any spatial distribution of inputs. Under transport-limited conditions, the analytical assumptions of the Poisson arrival process are violated (due to in-channel storage dynamics) where we find large fluctuations and periodicity in the time series of bed sediment thickness. The time series of bed sediment thickness is the result of dynamics on a network in propagating, altering, and amalgamating sediment inputs in sometimes unexpected ways. One key insight gleaned from the model is that there can be a small fraction of reaches with relatively low-transport capacity within a nonequilibrium river network acting as "bottlenecks" that control sediment to downstream reaches, whereby fluctuations in bed elevation can dissociate from signals in sediment supply.

  13. Quantifying trail erosion and stream sedimentation with sediment tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark S. Riedel

    2006-01-01

    Abstract--The impacts of forest disturbance and roads on stream sedimentation have been rigorously investigated and documented. While historical research on turbidity and suspended sediments has been thorough, studies of stream bed sedimentation have typically relied on semi-quantitative measures such as embeddedness or marginal pool depth. To directly quantify the...

  14. Geochemical variability of copper and iron in Oman margin sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alagarsamy, R.

    ] below the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) during RRS Discovery cruise 211/94 (Fig.1; Table 1). Sediment samples were immediately frozen (-20 ˚ C) on board prior to transport to the laboratory where they were freeze-dried and stored at -20 ˚ C prior... in the laboratory. 2.1. Analytical Methods Sediment grain size distribution in each section of cores collected below the OMZ was determined with a Coulter Counter (Model LS 130). Water content in each section of cores collected below the OMZ was determined...

  15. Progress in ultra-centrifuge enrichment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul Dawson

    2006-01-01

    Urenco have undertaken a continuous development programme in centrifuge technology for over 35 years. This has seen development from sub-critical machines in the mid 1970's through to the company's world leading TC12 supercritical centrifuge, which has been deployed on a large-scale basis over the last decade. The latest centrifuge to emerge from this programme is Urenco's sixth generation centrifuge, the TC21, which will be commercially deployed from mid-2007 onwards. In recent times Urenco has vested its centrifuge technology in Enrichment Technology Company (ETC) as a vehicle to enable the use of this advanced technology by other operators for commercial purposes. This paper reviews why Urenco and ETC believe this technology represents the best choice for creating new global commercial enrichment capacity and its future development prospects. (author)

  16. Applications of ICP-MS in marine analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, J W; Siu, K W.M.; Lam, J W; Willie, S N; Maxwell, P S; Palepu, A; Koether, M; Berman, S S [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Analytical Chemistry Section

    1990-07-01

    The versatility of ICP-MS in marine analytical chemistry is illustrated with applications to the multielement trace analysis of two recently released marine reference materials, the coastal seawater CASS-2 and the non-defatted lobster hepatopancreas tissue LUTS-1, and to the determination of tributyltin and dibutyltin in the harbour sediment reference material PACS-1 by HPLC-ICP-MS. Seawater analyses were performed after separation of the trace elements either by adsorption on immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline or by reductive coprecipitation with iron and palladium. Simultaneous determination of seven trace elements in LUTS-1, including mercury, by isotope dilution ICP-MS, was achieved after dissolution by microwave digestion with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Butyltin species in PACS-1 were separated by cation exchange HPLC of an extract of the sediment; method detection limits for tributyltin and dibutyltin in sediment samples are estimated to be 5 ng Sn/g and 12 ng Sn/g, respectively. (orig.).

  17. Reference material for radionuclides in sediment IAEA-384 (Fangataufa Lagoon sediment)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povinec, P.P.; Pham, M.K.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    A reference material designed for the determination of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in sediment, IAEA-384 (Fangataufa Lagoon sediment), is described and the results of certification are presented. The material has been certified for 8 radionuclides (K-40, Co-60, Eu-155, Th-230, U-238, ...... management of radioanalytical laboratories engaged in the analysis of radionuclides in the environment, as well as for the development and validation of analytical methods and for training purposes. The material is available from IAEA in 100 g units.......A reference material designed for the determination of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in sediment, IAEA-384 (Fangataufa Lagoon sediment), is described and the results of certification are presented. The material has been certified for 8 radionuclides (K-40, Co-60, Eu-155, Th-230, U-238, Pu......-238, Pu239+240 and Am-241). Information values are given for 12 radionuclides (Sr-90, Cs-137, Pb-210 (Po-210), Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-232, U-234, U-235, Pu-239, Pu-240 and Pu-241). Less reported radionuclides include Th-228, U-236, Np-239 and Pu-242. The reference material may be used for quality...

  18. Analytical system availability techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.J.H.; Verbeek, P.H.J.; Thomson, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Analytical techniques are presented to assess the probability distributions and related statistical parameters of loss of production from equipment networks subject to random failures and repairs. The techniques are based on a theoretical model for system availability, which was further developed

  19. Explanatory analytics in OLAP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caron, E.A.M.; Daniëls, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe a method to integrate explanatory business analytics in OLAP information systems. This method supports the discovery of exceptional values in OLAP data and the explanation of such values by giving their underlying causes. OLAP applications offer a support tool for

  20. Analytical procedures. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G.

    1985-01-01

    In analytical procedures (Boole procedures) there is certain to be a close relationship between the safety assessment and reliability assessment of technical facilities. The paper gives an overview of the organization of models, fault trees, the probabilistic evaluation of systems, evaluation with minimum steps or minimum paths regarding statistically dependent components and of systems liable to suffer different kinds of outages. (orig.) [de

  1. Ada & the Analytical Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Elisabeth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a brief history of Ada Byron King, Countess of Lovelace, focusing on her primary role in the development of the Analytical Engine--the world's first computer. Describes the Ada Project (TAP), a centralized World Wide Web site that serves as a clearinghouse for information related to women in computing, and provides a Web address for…

  2. User Behavior Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, Melissa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Juston Shane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-28

    User Behaviour Analytics is the tracking, collecting and assessing of user data and activities. The goal is to detect misuse of user credentials by developing models for the normal behaviour of user credentials within a computer network and detect outliers with respect to their baseline.

  3. Of the Analytical Engine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cloth will be woven all of one colour; but there will be a damask pattern upon it ... mathematical view of the Analytical Engine, and illustrate by example some of its .... be to v~rify the number of the card given it by subtracting its number from 2 3 ...

  4. Limitless Analytic Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, O. D. L.

    2018-02-01

    We present equations for new limitless analytic line elements. These elements possess a virtually unlimited number of degrees of freedom. We apply these new limitless analytic elements to head-specified boundaries and to problems with inhomogeneities in hydraulic conductivity. Applications of these new analytic elements to practical problems involving head-specified boundaries require the solution of a very large number of equations. To make the new elements useful in practice, an efficient iterative scheme is required. We present an improved version of the scheme presented by Bandilla et al. (2007), based on the application of Cauchy integrals. The limitless analytic elements are useful when modeling strings of elements, rivers for example, where local conditions are difficult to model, e.g., when a well is close to a river. The solution of such problems is facilitated by increasing the order of the elements to obtain a good solution. This makes it unnecessary to resort to dividing the element in question into many smaller elements to obtain a satisfactory solution.

  5. Social Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Ferguson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We propose that the design and implementation of effective "Social Learning Analytics (SLA)" present significant challenges and opportunities for both research and enterprise, in three important respects. The first is that the learning landscape is extraordinarily turbulent at present, in no small part due to technological drivers.…

  6. History of analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Carl B

    2012-01-01

    Designed as an integrated survey of the development of analytic geometry, this study presents the concepts and contributions from before the Alexandrian Age through the eras of the great French mathematicians Fermat and Descartes, and on through Newton and Euler to the "Golden Age," from 1789 to 1850.

  7. Analytics for Customer Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Block, Frank; Eisenbeiss, Maik; Hardie, Bruce G. S.; Lemmens, Aurelie; Saffert, Peter

    In this article, we discuss the state of the art of models for customer engagement and the problems that are inherent to calibrating and implementing these models. The authors first provide an overview of the data available for customer analytics and discuss recent developments. Next, the authors

  8. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...

  9. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  10. SULFIDE MINERALS IN SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The formation processes of metal sulfides in sediments, especially iron sulfides, have been the subjects of intense scientific research because of linkages to the global biogeochemical cycles of iron, sulfur, carbon, and oxygen. Transition metal sulfides (e.g., NiS, CuS, ZnS, Cd...

  11. Soils and organic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The organic component of soils is basically made up of substances of an individual nature (fats, waxes, resins, proteins, tannic substances, and many others), and humic substances (Kononova, 1966). These are complex polymers formed from breakdown products of the chemical and biological degradation of plant and animal residues. They are dark coloured, acidic, predominantly aromatic compounds ranging in molecular weight from less than one thousand to tens of thousands (Schnitzer, 1977). They can be partitioned into three main fractions:(i) Humic acid, which is soluble in dilute alkaline solution, but can be precipitated by acidification of the alkaline extract.(ii) Fulvic acid, which is soluble in alkaline solution, but is also soluble on acidification.(iii) Humin that cannot be extracted from the soil or sediment by dilute acid or alkaline solutions. It has mostly been assumed that the humic and fulvic acid components of the soil are part of the mobile, or 'active' component, and the humin component is part of the 'passive' component. Other types of organic sediments are likely to contain chemical breakdown products of plant material, plant fragments and material brought in from outside sources. The outside material can be contemporaneous with sediment deposition, can be older material, or younger material incorporated into the sediment long after deposition. Recognition of 'foreign' material is essential for dating, but is not an easy task. Examples of separation techniques for humic and non humic components are evaluated for their efficiency

  12. Multispectral analytical image fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbings, T.C.

    2000-04-01

    With new and advanced analytical imaging methods emerging, the limits of physical analysis capabilities and furthermore of data acquisition quantities are constantly pushed, claiming high demands to the field of scientific data processing and visualisation. Physical analysis methods like Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) or Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and others are capable of delivering high-resolution multispectral two-dimensional and three-dimensional image data; usually this multispectral data is available in form of n separate image files with each showing one element or other singular aspect of the sample. There is high need for digital image processing methods enabling the analytical scientist, confronted with such amounts of data routinely, to get rapid insight into the composition of the sample examined, to filter the relevant data and to integrate the information of numerous separate multispectral images to get the complete picture. Sophisticated image processing methods like classification and fusion provide possible solution approaches to this challenge. Classification is a treatment by multivariate statistical means in order to extract analytical information. Image fusion on the other hand denotes a process where images obtained from various sensors or at different moments of time are combined together to provide a more complete picture of a scene or object under investigation. Both techniques are important for the task of information extraction and integration and often one technique depends on the other. Therefore overall aim of this thesis is to evaluate the possibilities of both techniques regarding the task of analytical image processing and to find solutions for the integration and condensation of multispectral analytical image data in order to facilitate the interpretation of the enormous amounts of data routinely acquired by modern physical analysis instruments. (author)

  13. Quantifying the provenance of aeolian sediments using multiple composite fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benli; Niu, Qinghe; Qu, Jianjun; Zu, Ruiping

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a new fingerprinting method that uses multiple composite fingerprints for studies of aeolian sediment provenance. We used this method to quantify the provenance of sediments on both sides of the Qinghai-Tibetan Railway (QTR) in the Cuona Lake section of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), in an environment characterized by aeolian and fluvial interactions. The method involves repeatedly solving a linear mixing model based on mass conservation; the model is not limited to spatial scale or transport types and uses all the tracer groups that passed the range check, Kruskal-Wallis H-test, and a strict analytical solution screening. The proportional estimates that result from using different composite fingerprints are highly variable; however, the average of these fingerprints has a greater accuracy and certainty than any single fingerprint. The results show that sand from the lake beach, hilly surface, and gullies contribute, respectively, 48%, 31% and 21% to the western railway sediments and 43%, 33% and 24% to the eastern railway sediments. The difference between contributions from various sources on either side of the railway, which may increase in the future, was clearly related to variations in local transport characteristics, a conclusion that is supported by grain size analysis. The construction of the QTR changed the local cycling of materials, and the difference in provenance between the sediments that are separated by the railway reflects the changed sedimentary conditions on either side of the railway. The effectiveness of this method suggests that it will be useful in other studies of aeolian sediments.

  14. Occurrence and spatial distribution of microplastics in sediments from Norderney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekiff, Jens H.; Remy, Dominique; Klasmeier, Jörg; Fries, Elke

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of small potential microplastics (SPM) ( 1 mm) was also examined. Small microparticles were extracted from 36 one kg sediment samples and analysed by visual microscopic inspection and partly by thermal desorption pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The smallest particle size that could be analysed with this method was estimated to be 100 μm. The mean number of SPM at the three sampling sites (n = 12) was 1.7, 1.3 and 2.3 particles per kg dry sediment, respectively. SPM were identified as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polyvinylchloride, polystyrene and polyamide. The organic plastic additives found were benzophenone, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl phthalate, diethylhexyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, phenol and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. Particles were distributed rather homogenously and the occurrence of SPM did not correlate with that of VPD. -- Highlights: • The small-scale variability of small potential microplastics (<1 mm) occurrence in beach sediments was studied. • Within 500 m, small potential microplastics (<1 mm) were distributed rather homogeneously in investigated beach sediments. • The occurrence of small potential microplastics (<1 mm) did not correlate with that of visible plastic debris. • Procedural contamination of sediments by fibres (blank) constitutes an analytical problem. • These findings must be considered when setting up standardized monitoring protocols. -- On a small scale within 500 m, small microplastics are distributed rather homogeneously in sediments from the North Sea island of Norderney

  15. Developments in analytical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, G.

    The situation regarding photogrammetric instrumentation has changed quite dramatically over the last 2 or 3 years with the withdrawal of most analogue stereo-plotting machines from the market place and their replacement by analytically based instrumentation. While there have been few new developments in the field of comparators, there has been an explosive development in the area of small, relatively inexpensive analytical stereo-plotters based on the use of microcomputers. In particular, a number of new instruments have been introduced by manufacturers who mostly have not been associated previously with photogrammetry. Several innovative concepts have been introduced in these small but capable instruments, many of which are aimed at specialised applications, e.g. in close-range photogrammetry (using small-format cameras); for thematic mapping (by organisations engaged in environmental monitoring or resources exploitation); for map revision, etc. Another innovative and possibly significant development has been the production of conversion kits to convert suitable analogue stereo-plotting machines such as the Topocart, PG-2 and B-8 into fully fledged analytical plotters. The larger and more sophisticated analytical stereo-plotters are mostly being produced by the traditional mainstream photogrammetric systems suppliers with several new instruments and developments being introduced at the top end of the market. These include the use of enlarged photo stages to handle images up to 25 × 50 cm format; the complete integration of graphics workstations into the analytical plotter design; the introduction of graphics superimposition and stereo-superimposition; the addition of correlators for the automatic measurement of height, etc. The software associated with this new analytical instrumentation is now undergoing extensive re-development with the need to supply photogrammetric data as input to the more sophisticated G.I.S. systems now being installed by clients, instead

  16. Sediment problems in reservoirs. Control of sediment deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Tom

    1997-12-31

    When a reservoir is formed on a river, sediment will deposit in the reservoir. Such processes are unfortunate, for instance, for the implementation of hydroelectric energy. This thesis studies the problem of reservoir sedimentation and discusses methods of removing the sediments. Various aspects of reservoir sedimentation are discussed. Anthropogenic impacts seem to greatly affect the erosion processes. Temporal distribution is uneven, mainly because of the very large flood events. A world map showing the Reservoir Capacity: Annual Sediment Inflow ratio for reservoirs with volume equal to 10% of annual inflow has been prepared. The map shows that sedimentation is severe in the western parts of North and South America, eastern, southern and northern Africa, parts of Australia and most of Asia. The development of medium-sized reservoirs is difficult, as they are too large for conventional flushing technique and too small to store the sediment that accumulates during their economic lifetime. A computer model, SSIIM, was used with good results in a case study of two flood drawdown trials in Lake Roxburg, New Zealand. Two techniques have been developed that permits controlled suction of sediment and water into a pipe: the Slotted Pipe Sediment Sluicer (SPSS) and the Saxophone Sediment Sluicer (SSS). The techniques exploit the inflow pattern in through a slot in a pipe. An equation describing this inflow pattern was derived and verified experimentally. The SPSS is fixed near the reservoir bed, and sediment that deposits on top of it is removed in the sluicing process. The SSS sluices sediment from the surface of the sediment deposits. Some technical and economic conditions affecting the economics of sediment removal from reservoirs have been identified and studied. 79 refs., 112 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Multifunctional nanoparticles: Analytical prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dios, Alejandro Simon de; Diaz-Garcia, Marta Elena

    2010-01-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticles are among the most exciting nanomaterials with promising applications in analytical chemistry. These applications include (bio)sensing, (bio)assays, catalysis and separations. Although most of these applications are based on the magnetic, optical and electrochemical properties of multifunctional nanoparticles, other aspects such as the synergistic effect of the functional groups and the amplification effect associated with the nanoscale dimension have also been observed. Considering not only the nature of the raw material but also the shape, there is a huge variety of nanoparticles. In this review only magnetic, quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, carbon and inorganic nanotubes as well as silica, titania and gadolinium oxide nanoparticles are addressed. This review presents a narrative summary on the use of multifuncional nanoparticles for analytical applications, along with a discussion on some critical challenges existing in the field and possible solutions that have been or are being developed to overcome these challenges.

  18. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  19. Analytical chemists and dinosaurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The role of the analytical chemist in the development of the extraterrestrial impact theory for mass extinctions at the terminal Cretaceous Period is reviewed. High iridium concentrations in Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clays have been linked to a terrestrial impact from an iridium-rich asteroid or large meteorite som 65 million years ago. Other evidence in favour of the occurrence of such an impact has been provided by the detection of shocked quartz grains originating from impact and of amorphous carbon particles similar to soot, derived presumably from wordwide wildfires at the terminal Cretaceous. Further evidence provided by the analytical chemist involves the determination of isotopic ratios such as 144 Nd/ 143 Nd, 187 Os/ 186 Os, and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr. Countervailing arguments put forward by the gradualist school (mainly palaeontological) as opposed to the catastrophists (mainly chemists and geochemists) are also presented and discussed

  20. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection

  1. Hermeneutical and analytical jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaić Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main strands of development in jurisprudence in the last few decades from the standpoint of the metatheoretical differentiation between analytical and hermeneutical perspective in the study of law. The author claims that recent jurisprudent accounts can rarely be positioned within the traditional dichotomy natural law theories - legal positivism, and that this dichotomy is not able to account for the differences between contemporary conceptions of law. As an alternative the difference between the analytical and hermeneutical traditions in philosophy are explained, as they have crucially influenced posthartian strands in Anglo-American philosophy and postkelsenian strands in continental philosophy of law. Finally, the influence of hermeneutical philosophy and legal theory is examined in regards of the development of a hermeneutical theory of law and the development of legal hermeneutics.

  2. Analytical chemists and dinosaurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, R R

    1987-05-01

    The role of the analytical chemist in the development of the extraterrestrial impact theory for mass extinctions at the terminal Cretaceous Period is reviewed. High iridium concentrations in Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clays have been linked to a terrestrial impact from an iridium-rich asteroid or large meteorite som 65 million years ago. Other evidence in favour of the occurrence of such an impact has been provided by the detection of shocked quartz grains originating from impact and of amorphous carbon particles similar to soot, derived presumably from wordwide wildfires at the terminal Cretaceous. Further evidence provided by the analytical chemist involves the determination of isotopic ratios such as /sup 144/Nd//sup 143/Nd, /sup 187/Os//sup 186/Os, and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr. Countervailing arguments put forward by the gradualist school (mainly palaeontological) as opposed to the catastrophists (mainly chemists and geochemists) are also presented and discussed.

  3. Analytical chemistry of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollet, H.; Marty, P.

    2001-01-01

    Different characterization methods specifically applied to the actinides are presented in this review such as ICP/OES (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry), ICP/MS (inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy-mass spectrometry), TIMS (thermal ionization-mass spectrometry) and GD/OES (flow discharge optical emission). Molecular absorption spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis are also available to complete the excellent range of analytical tools at our disposal. (authors)

  4. Communication Theoretic Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kwang-Cheng; Huang, Shao-Lun; Zheng, Lizhong; Poor, H. Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Widespread use of the Internet and social networks invokes the generation of big data, which is proving to be useful in a number of applications. To deal with explosively growing amounts of data, data analytics has emerged as a critical technology related to computing, signal processing, and information networking. In this paper, a formalism is considered in which data is modeled as a generalized social network and communication theory and information theory are thereby extended to data analy...

  5. Social Data Analytics Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Abid; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design, development and demonstrative case studies of the Social Data Analytics Tool, SODATO. Adopting Action Design Framework [1], the objective of SODATO [2] is to collect, store, analyze, and report big social data emanating from the social media engagement of and social...... media conversations about organizations. We report and discuss results from two demonstrative case studies that were conducted using SODATO and conclude with implications and future work....

  6. Analytic chemistry of molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Electrochemical, colorimetric, gravimetric, spectroscopic, and radiochemical methods for the determination of molybdenum are summarized in this book. Some laboratory procedures are described in detail while literature citations are given for others. The reader is also referred to older comprehensive reviews of the analytical chemistry of molybdenum. Contents, abridged: Gravimetric methods. Titrimetric methods. Colorimetric methods. X-ray fluorescence. Voltammetry. Catalytic methods. Molybdenum in non-ferrous alloys. Molydbenum compounds

  7. Competing on analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    We all know the power of the killer app. It's not just a support tool; it's a strategic weapon. Companies questing for killer apps generally focus all their firepower on the one area that promises to create the greatest competitive advantage. But a new breed of organization has upped the stakes: Amazon, Harrah's, Capital One, and the Boston Red Sox have all dominated their fields by deploying industrial-strength analytics across a wide variety of activities. At a time when firms in many industries offer similar products and use comparable technologies, business processes are among the few remaining points of differentiation--and analytics competitors wring every last drop of value from those processes. Employees hired for their expertise with numbers or trained to recognize their importance are armed with the best evidence and the best quantitative tools. As a result, they make the best decisions. In companies that compete on analytics, senior executives make it clear--from the top down--that analytics is central to strategy. Such organizations launch multiple initiatives involving complex data and statistical analysis, and quantitative activity is managed atthe enterprise (not departmental) level. In this article, professor Thomas H. Davenport lays out the characteristics and practices of these statistical masters and describes some of the very substantial changes other companies must undergo in order to compete on quantitative turf. As one would expect, the transformation requires a significant investment in technology, the accumulation of massive stores of data, and the formulation of company-wide strategies for managing the data. But, at least as important, it also requires executives' vocal, unswerving commitment and willingness to change the way employees think, work, and are treated.

  8. Introduction to analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gamalath, KAILW

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO ANALYTICAL MECHANICS is an attempt to introduce the modern treatment of classical mechanics so that transition to many fields in physics can be made with the least difficulty. This book deal with the formulation of Newtonian mechanics, Lagrangian dynamics, conservation laws relating to symmetries, Hamiltonian dynamics Hamilton's principle, Poisson brackets, canonical transformations which are invaluable in formulating the quantum mechanics and Hamilton-Jacobi equation which provides the transition to wave mechanics.

  9. Analytical and physical electrochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Girault, Hubert H

    2004-01-01

    The study of electrochemistry is pertinent to a wide variety of fields, including bioenergetics, environmental sciences, and engineering sciences. In addition, electrochemistry plays a fundamental role in specific applications as diverse as the conversion and storage of energy and the sequencing of DNA.Intended both as a basic course for undergraduate students and as a reference work for graduates and researchers, Analytical and Physical Electrochemistry covers two fundamental aspects of electrochemistry: electrochemistry in solution and interfacial electrochemistry. By bringing these two subj

  10. Inorganic Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W,...

  11. Algal stabilisation of estuarine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The presence of benthic microalgae can increase the stability of intertidal sediments and influence sediment fluxes within an estuarine environment. Therefore the relative importance of algal stabilisation needs to be understood to help predict the effects of a tidal barrage. The objectives of this study are: to assess the significance of stabilisation of sediments by algae, in relation to the changes in hydrodynamic and sedimentological regimes arising from the construction of tidal power barrages; to identify a reliable and meaningful method of measuring the effectiveness, including duration, of algal binding on sediment stability, and to relate this method to other methods of measuring critical erosion velocity and sediment shear strength; to undertake a series of field experiments investigating the effect of algae on binding sediments and the parameters which could potentially influence such binding and to develop a predictive method for the assessment of sediment stabilisation by algal binding. This report contains plates, figures and tables. (author)

  12. Algal stabilisation of estuarine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The presence of benthic microalgae can increase the stability of intertidal sediments and influence sediment fluxes within an estuarine environment. Therefore the relative importance of algal stabilisation needs to be understood to help predict the effects of a tidal barrage. The biogenic stabilisation of intertidal estuarine sediments by epipelic diatom films and the macrophyte Vaucheria was studied at three sites on the Severn Estuary. The cohesive strength meter (CSM) was developed to measure surface critical shear stress with varied algal density. A number of techniques have been used to determine the general in situ erodibility of cohesive estuarine sediments. The measurements of sediment shear strength and critical erosion velocity were investigated. Field experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of algae on binding sediments, and a predictive method for the assessment of sediment stabilisation by algal binding was developed. (author)

  13. Evaluation of scission and crosslinking yields in γ-irradiated poly(acrylic acid) and poly(methacrylic acid) from weight- and Ζ-average molecular weights determined by sedimentation equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.J.T.; O'Donnell, J.H.; Winzor, C.L.; Winzor, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Weight- and Ζ-average molecular weights, M-bar W (D) and M-bar Ζ (D), of poly(methacrylic acid) (PMMA) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) have been determined by sedimentation equilibrium in the ultracentrifuge after various doses D of γ-radiation in vacuum. Relationships between [M i (0)/M i (D)-1]/D and D (i=w or Ζ), derived recently by O'Donnell and coworkers, have been used to determine radiation chemical yields for scission and crosslinking of G(S)=6.0, G(X)=0 for PMAA and G(S)=0, G(X)=0.44 for PAA. Allowance was necessary for the effects of COOH decomposition on the average values of the molecular weight and partial specific volume for irradiated PAA. (author)

  14. Business analytics a practitioner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a guide to businesses on how to use analytics to help drive from ideas to execution. Analytics used in this way provides "full lifecycle support" for business and helps during all stages of management decision-making and execution.The framework presented in the book enables the effective interplay of business, analytics, and information technology (business intelligence) both to leverage analytics for competitive advantage and to embed the use of business analytics into the business culture. It lays out an approach for analytics, describes the processes used, and provides gu

  15. Cyclic Sediment Trading Between Channel and River Bed Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadchi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Much of the previous work on sediment tracing has focused on determining either the initial sources of the sediment (soils derive from a particular rock type) or the erosion processes generating the sediment. However, alluvial stores can be both a source and sink for sediment transported by streams. Here geochemical and fallout radionuclide tracing of river-bed and alluvial sediments are used to determine the role of secondary sources, sediment stores, as potential sources of sediment leaving Emu Creek catchment, southeastern Queensland, Australia. Activity concentrations of 137Cs on the river sediments are consistent with channel erosion being the dominant source at all sites sampled along the river. To characterise the deposition and remobilisation cycles in the catchment, a novel geochemical tracing approach was used. Successive pockets of alluvium were treated as discrete sink terms within geochemical mixing models and their source contributions compared with those of river bed sediments collected adjacent to each alluvial pocket. Three different size fractions were examined; silts and clays (banks indicates a high degree of 'trading' between the fluvial space and the alluvial space. Hence, management works aimed at primarily reducing the supply of sediments to the outlet of Emu Creek should focus on rehabilitation of channel banks in the lower catchment.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in stormwater detention pond sediments in coastal South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, John E; Crawford, Kevin D; Garner, Thomas R

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of stormwater detention ponds in coastal South Carolina. Levels of the sum of PAH analytes were significantly higher in the sediments of commercial ponds compared to that of reference, golf course, low-density residential, and high-density residential ponds. Isomer ratio analysis suggested that the predominant source of PAHs were pyrogenic; however, many ponds had a PAH signature consistent with mixed uncombusted and combusted PAH sources. PAH levels in these sediments could be modeled using both pond drainage area and pond surface area. These results demonstrate that the sediment from most commercial ponds, and a few residential and golf course ponds, were moderately contaminated with PAHs. PAH levels in these contaminated ponds exceeded between 42% and 75% of the ecological screening values for individual PAH analytes established by US EPA Region IV, suggesting that they may pose a toxicological risk to wildlife.

  17. Mars Analytical Microimager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batory, Krzysztof J.; Govindjee; Andersen, Dale; Presley, John; Lucas, John M.; Sears, S. Kelly; Vali, Hojatollah

    Unambiguous detection of extraterrestrial nitrogenous hydrocarbon microbiology requires an instrument both to recognize potential biogenic specimens and to successfully discriminate them from geochemical settings. Such detection should ideally be in-situ and not jeopardize other experiments by altering samples. Taken individually most biomarkers are inconclusive. For example, since amino acids can be synthesized abiotically they are not always considered reliable biomarkers. An enantiomeric imbalance, which is characteristic of all terrestrial life, may be questioned because chirality can also be altered abiotically. However, current scientific understanding holds that aggregates of identical proteins or proteinaceous complexes, with their well-defined amino acid residue sequences, are indisputable biomarkers. Our paper describes the Mars Analytical Microimager, an instrument for the simultaneous imaging of generic autofluorescent biomarkers and overall morphology. Autofluorescence from ultraviolet to near-infrared is emitted by all known terrestrial biology, and often as consistent complex bands uncharacteristic of abiotic mineral luminescence. The MAM acquires morphology, and even sub-micron morphogenesis, at a 3-centimeter working distance with resolution approaching a laser scanning microscope. Luminescence is simultaneously collected via a 2.5-micron aperture, thereby permitting accurate correlation of multi-dimensional optical behavior with specimen morphology. A variable wavelength excitation source and photospectrometer serve to obtain steady-state and excitation spectra of biotic and luminescent abiotic sources. We believe this is the first time instrumentation for detecting hydrated or desiccated microbiology non-destructively in-situ has been demonstrated. We have obtained excellent preliminary detection of biota and inorganic matrix discrimination from terrestrial polar analogues, and perimetric morphology of individual magnetotactic bacteria. Proposed

  18. MERRA Analytic Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, J. L.; Duffy, D. Q.; McInerney, M. A.; Tamkin, G. S.; Thompson, J. H.; Gill, R.; Grieg, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    MERRA Analytic Services (MERRA/AS) is a cyberinfrastructure resource for developing and evaluating a new generation of climate data analysis capabilities. MERRA/AS supports OBS4MIP activities by reducing the time spent in the preparation of Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data used in data-model intercomparison. It also provides a testbed for experimental development of high-performance analytics. MERRA/AS is a cloud-based service built around the Virtual Climate Data Server (vCDS) technology that is currently used by the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) to deliver Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) data to the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). Crucial to its effectiveness, MERRA/AS's servers will use a workflow-generated realizable object capability to perform analyses over the MERRA data using the MapReduce approach to parallel storage-based computation. The results produced by these operations will be stored by the vCDS, which will also be able to host code sets for those who wish to explore the use of MapReduce for more advanced analytics. While the work described here will focus on the MERRA collection, these technologies can be used to publish other reanalysis, observational, and ancillary OBS4MIP data to ESGF and, importantly, offer an architectural approach to climate data services that can be generalized to applications and customers beyond the traditional climate research community. In this presentation, we describe our approach, experiences, lessons learned,and plans for the future.; (A) MERRA/AS software stack. (B) Example MERRA/AS interfaces.

  19. Background Radioactivity in River and Reservoir Sediments near Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.G.McLin; D.W. Lyons

    2002-05-05

    As part of its continuing Environmental Surveillance Program, regional river and lake-bottom sediments have been collected annually by Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) since 1974 and 1979, respectively. These background samples are collected from three drainage basins at ten different river stations and five reservoirs located throughout northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Radiochemical analyses for these sediments include tritium, strontium-90, cesium-137, total uranium, plutonium-238, plutonium-239,-240, americium-241, gross alpha, gross beta, and gross gamma radioactivity. Detection-limit radioactivity originates as worldwide fallout from aboveground nuclear weapons testing and satellite reentry into Earth's atmosphere. Spatial and temporal variations in individual analyte levels originate from atmospheric point-source introductions and natural rate differences in airborne deposition and soil erosion. Background radioactivity values on sediments reflect this variability, and grouped river and reservoir sediment samples show a range of statistical distributions that appear to be analyte dependent. Traditionally, both river and reservoir analyte data were blended together to establish background levels. In this report, however, we group background sediment data according to two criteria. These include sediment source (either river or reservoir sediments) and station location relative to the Laboratory (either upstream or downstream). These grouped data are statistically evaluated through 1997, and background radioactivity values are established for individual analytes in upstream river and reservoir sediments. This information may be used to establish the existence and areal extent of trace-level environmental contamination resulting from historical Laboratory research activities since the early 1940s.

  20. Investigation of the transfer of radionuclides in water and marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guegueniat, P.

    1977-01-01

    The investigation of the behavior of radioactive isotopes in the system sea water-sediments has been carried out at various distances from a release radioactive waste locality. The analytical procedure for the measurement of radioactivity and stable isotopes in sea water, the difficulties arising for the sampling of sediments have been discussed. The dispersion of 125 Sb - good tracer for displacements of water - was explained by very slow hydrolysis speed and by the possible existence of synergy phenomena [fr

  1. Analytical elements of mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Analytical Elements of Mechanics, Volume 1, is the first of two volumes intended for use in courses in classical mechanics. The books aim to provide students and teachers with a text consistent in content and format with the author's ideas regarding the subject matter and teaching of mechanics, and to disseminate these ideas. The book opens with a detailed exposition of vector algebra, and no prior knowledge of this subject is required. This is followed by a chapter on the topic of mass centers, which is presented as a logical extension of concepts introduced in connection with centroids. A

  2. Analytical chemistry in space

    CERN Document Server

    Wainerdi, Richard E

    1970-01-01

    Analytical Chemistry in Space presents an analysis of the chemical constitution of space, particularly the particles in the solar wind, of the planetary atmospheres, and the surfaces of the moon and planets. Topics range from space engineering considerations to solar system atmospheres and recovered extraterrestrial materials. Mass spectroscopy in space exploration is also discussed, along with lunar and planetary surface analysis using neutron inelastic scattering. This book is comprised of seven chapters and opens with a discussion on the possibilities for exploration of the solar system by

  3. Analysis and analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batuecas Rodriguez, T [Department of Chemistry and Isotopes, Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    1967-01-01

    The technology associated with the use of organic coolants in nuclear reactors depends to a large extent on the determination and control of their physical and chemical properties, and particularly on the viability, speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy (depending on the intended usage) of the methods employed in detection and analytical determination. This has led to the study and development of numerous techniques, some specially designed for the extreme conditions involved in working with the types of product in question and others adapted from existing techniques. In the specific case of polyphenyl and hydropolyphenyl mixtures, which have been the principal subjects of study to date and offer greatest promise, the analytical problems are broadly as follows: Composition of initial product or virgin coolant composition of macro components and amounts of organic and inorganic impurities; Coolant during and after operation. Determination of gases and organic compounds produced by pyrolysis and radiolysis (degradation and polymerization products); Control of systems for purifying and regenerating the coolant after use. Dissolved pressurization gases; Detection of intermediate products during decomposition; these are generally very unstable (free radicals); Degree of fouling and film formation. Tests to determine potential formation of films; Corrosion of structural elements and canning materials; Health and safety. Toxicity, inflammability and impurities that can be activated. Although some of the above problems are closely interrelated and entail similar techniques, they vary as to degree of difficulty. Another question is the difficulty of distinguishing clearly between techniques for determining physical and physico-chemical properties, on one hand, and analytical techniques on the other. Any classification is therefore somewhat arbitrary (for example, in the case of dosimetry and techniques for determining mean molecular weights or electrical conductivity

  4. Analytical chemistry experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Jo; Paeng, Seong Gwan; Jang, Cheol Hyeon

    1992-08-01

    This book deals with analytical chemistry experiment with eight chapters. It explains general matters that require attention on experiment, handling of medicine with keep and class, the method for handling and glass devices, general control during experiment on heating, cooling, filtering, distillation and extraction and evaporation and dry, glass craft on purpose of the craft, how to cut glass tube and how to bend glass tube, volumetric analysis on neutralization titration and precipitation titration, gravimetric analysis on solubility product, filter and washing and microorganism experiment with necessary tool, sterilization disinfection incubation and appendixes.

  5. Analytic aspects of convexity

    CERN Document Server

    Colesanti, Andrea; Gronchi, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the international conference Analytic Aspects in Convexity, which was held in Rome in October 2016. It offers a collection of selected articles, written by some of the world’s leading experts in the field of Convex Geometry, on recent developments in this area: theory of valuations; geometric inequalities; affine geometry; and curvature measures. The book will be of interest to a broad readership, from those involved in Convex Geometry, to those focusing on Functional Analysis, Harmonic Analysis, Differential Geometry, or PDEs. The book is a addressed to PhD students and researchers, interested in Convex Geometry and its links to analysis.

  6. Local analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Abhyankar, Shreeram Shankar

    1964-01-01

    This book provides, for use in a graduate course or for self-study by graduate students, a well-motivated treatment of several topics, especially the following: (1) algebraic treatment of several complex variables; (2) geometric approach to algebraic geometry via analytic sets; (3) survey of local algebra; (4) survey of sheaf theory. The book has been written in the spirit of Weierstrass. Power series play the dominant role. The treatment, being algebraic, is not restricted to complex numbers, but remains valid over any complete-valued field. This makes it applicable to situations arising from

  7. Advanced analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrochek, J.E.; Shumate, S.E.; Genung, R.K.; Bahner, C.T.; Lee, N.E.; Dinsmore, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    The development of several new analytical techniques for use in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research is reported. These include: high-resolution liquid chromatographic systems for the early detection of pathological molecular constituents in physiologic body fluids; gradient elution chromatography for the analysis of protein-bound carbohydrates in blood serum samples, with emphasis on changes in sera from breast cancer patients; electrophoretic separation techniques coupled with staining of specific proteins in cellular isoenzymes for the monitoring of genetic mutations and abnormal molecular constituents in blood samples; and the development of a centrifugal elution chromatographic technique for the assay of specific proteins and immunoglobulins in human blood serum samples

  8. Biosensors: Future Analytical Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors offer considerable promises for attaining the analytic information in a faster, simpler and cheaper manner compared to conventional assays. Biosensing approach is rapidly advancing and applications ranging from metabolite, biological/ chemical warfare agent, food pathogens and adulterant detection to genetic screening and programmed drug delivery have been demonstrated. Innovative efforts, coupling micromachining and nanofabrication may lead to even more powerful devices that would accelerate the realization of large-scale and routine screening. With gradual increase in commercialization a wide range of new biosensors are thus expected to reach the market in the coming years.

  9. Framework for pedagogical learning analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Heilala, Ville

    2018-01-01

    Learning analytics is an emergent technological practice and a multidisciplinary scientific discipline, which goal is to facilitate effective learning and knowledge of learning. In this design science research, I combine knowledge discovery process, a concept of pedagogical knowledge, ethics of learning analytics and microservice architecture. The result is a framework for pedagogical learning analytics. The framework is applied and evaluated in the context of agency analytics. The framework ...

  10. Division of Analytical Chemistry, 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1999-01-01

    The article recounts the 1998 activities of the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC- formerly the Working Party on Analytical Chemistry, WPAC), which body is a division of the Federation of European Chemical Societies (FECS). Elo Harald Hansen is the Danish delegate, representing The Danish...... Chemical Society/The Society for Analytical Chemistry....

  11. Learning Analytics: Readiness and Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Norm

    2013-01-01

    This position paper introduces the relatively new field of learning analytics, first by considering the relevant meanings of both "learning" and "analytics," and then by looking at two main levels at which learning analytics can be or has been implemented in educational organizations. Although integrated turnkey systems or…

  12. Quality Indicators for Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Stoyanov, Slavi; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a framework of quality indicators for learning analytics that aims to standardise the evaluation of learning analytics tools and to provide a mean to capture evidence for the impact of learning analytics on educational practices in a standardised manner. The criteria of the framework and its quality indicators are based on…

  13. The analytic renormalization group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Ferrari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Finite temperature Euclidean two-point functions in quantum mechanics or quantum field theory are characterized by a discrete set of Fourier coefficients Gk, k∈Z, associated with the Matsubara frequencies νk=2πk/β. We show that analyticity implies that the coefficients Gk must satisfy an infinite number of model-independent linear equations that we write down explicitly. In particular, we construct “Analytic Renormalization Group” linear maps Aμ which, for any choice of cut-off μ, allow to express the low energy Fourier coefficients for |νk|<μ (with the possible exception of the zero mode G0, together with the real-time correlators and spectral functions, in terms of the high energy Fourier coefficients for |νk|≥μ. Operating a simple numerical algorithm, we show that the exact universal linear constraints on Gk can be used to systematically improve any random approximate data set obtained, for example, from Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results are illustrated on several explicit examples.

  14. Smart city analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper; Hansen, Christian; Alstrup, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    We present an ensemble learning method that predicts large increases in the hours of home care received by citizens. The method is supervised, and uses different ensembles of either linear (logistic regression) or non-linear (random forests) classifiers. Experiments with data available from 2013 ...... is very useful when full records are not accessible or available. Smart city analytics does not necessarily require full city records. To our knowledge this preliminary study is the first to predict large increases in home care for smart city analytics.......We present an ensemble learning method that predicts large increases in the hours of home care received by citizens. The method is supervised, and uses different ensembles of either linear (logistic regression) or non-linear (random forests) classifiers. Experiments with data available from 2013...... to 2017 for every citizen in Copenhagen receiving home care (27,775 citizens) show that prediction can achieve state of the art performance as reported in similar health related domains (AUC=0.715). We further find that competitive results can be obtained by using limited information for training, which...

  15. Secondary waste minimization in analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S.; Schilling, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The characterization phase of site remediation is an important and costly part of the process. Because toxic solvents and other hazardous materials are used in common analytical methods, characterization is also a source of new waste, including mixed waste. Alternative analytical methods can reduce the volume or form of hazardous waste produced either in the sample preparation step or in the measurement step. The authors are examining alternative methods in the areas of inorganic, radiological, and organic analysis. For determining inorganic constituents, alternative methods were studied for sample introduction into inductively coupled plasma spectrometers. Figures of merit for the alternative methods, as well as their associated waste volumes, were compared with the conventional approaches. In the radiological area, the authors are comparing conventional methods for gross α/β measurements of soil samples to an alternative method that uses high-pressure microwave dissolution. For determination of organic constituents, microwave-assisted extraction was studied for RCRA regulated semivolatile organics in a variety of solid matrices, including spiked samples in blank soil; polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in soils, sludges, and sediments; and semivolatile organics in soil. Extraction efficiencies were determined under varying conditions of time, temperature, microwave power, moisture content, and extraction solvent. Solvent usage was cut from the 300 mL used in conventional extraction methods to about 30 mL. Extraction results varied from one matrix to another. In most cases, the microwave-assisted extraction technique was as efficient as the more common Soxhlet or sonication extraction techniques

  16. Numerical and experimental analysis of the sedimentation of spherical colloidal suspensions under centrifugal force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou, Evangelia; Rohmann-Shaw, Connor F.; Sykes, Thomas C.; Cayre, Olivier J.; Hunter, Timothy N.; Jimack, Peter K.

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the sedimentation behaviour of colloidal suspensions is crucial in determining their stability. Since sedimentation rates are often very slow, centrifugation is used to expedite sedimentation experiments. The effect of centrifugal acceleration on sedimentation behaviour is not fully understood. Furthermore, in sedimentation models, interparticle interactions are usually omitted by using the hard-sphere assumption. This work proposes a one-dimensional model for sedimentation using an effective maximum volume fraction, with an extension for sedimentation under centrifugal force. A numerical implementation of the model using an adaptive finite difference solver is described. Experiments with silica suspensions are carried out using an analytical centrifuge. The model is shown to be a good fit with experimental data for 480 nm spherical silica, with the effects of centrifugation at 705 rpm studied. A conversion of data to Earth gravity conditions is proposed, which is shown to recover Earth gravity sedimentation rates well. This work suggests that the effective maximum volume fraction accurately captures interparticle interactions and provides insights into the effect of centrifugation on sedimentation.

  17. HPLC-PFD determination of priority pollutant PAHs in water, sediment, and semipermeable membrane devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, K.S.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Lebo, J.A.; Kaiser, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography coupled with programmable fluorescence detection was employed for the determination of 15 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPPAHs) in water, sediment, and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). Chromatographic separation using this analytical method facilitates selectivity, sensitivity (ppt levels), and can serve as a non-destructive technique for subsequent analysis by other chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Extraction and sample cleanup procedures were also developed for water, sediment, and SPMDs using various chromatographic and wet chemical methods. The focus of this publication is to examine the enrichment techniques and the analytical methodologies used in the isolation, characterization, and quantitation of 15 PPPAHs in different sample matrices.

  18. Sediment management for reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.

    2005-01-01

    All natural lakes and reservoirs whether on rivers, tributaries or off channel storages are doomed to be sited up. Pakistan has two major reservoirs of Tarbela and Managla and shallow lake created by Chashma Barrage. Tarbela and Mangla Lakes are losing their capacities ever since first impounding, Tarbela since 1974 and Mangla since 1967. Tarbela Reservoir receives average annual flow of about 62 MAF and sediment deposits of 0.11 MAF whereas Mangla gets about 23 MAF of average annual flows and is losing its storage at the rate of average 34,000 MAF annually. The loss of storage is a great concern and studies for Tarbela were carried out by TAMS and Wallingford to sustain its capacity whereas no study has been done for Mangla as yet except as part of study for Raised Mangla, which is only desk work. Delta of Tarbala reservoir has advanced to about 6.59 miles (Pivot Point) from power intakes. In case of liquefaction of delta by tremor as low as 0.12g peak ground acceleration the power tunnels I, 2 and 3 will be blocked. Minimum Pool of reservoir is being raised so as to check the advance of delta. Mangla delta will follow the trend of Tarbela. Tarbela has vast amount of data as reservoir is surveyed every year, whereas Mangla Reservoir survey was done at five-year interval, which has now been proposed .to be reduced to three-year interval. In addition suspended sediment sampling of inflow streams is being done by Surface Water Hydrology Project of WAPDA as also some bed load sampling. The problem of Chasma Reservoir has also been highlighted, as it is being indiscriminately being filled up and drawdown several times a year without regard to its reaction to this treatment. The Sediment Management of these reservoirs is essential and the paper discusses pros and cons of various alternatives. (author)

  19. Matrix effects on organic pollutants analysis in marine sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azis, M. Y.; Asia, L.; Piram, A.; Buchari, B.; Doumenq, P.; Setiyanto, H.

    2018-05-01

    Interference from the matrix sample can influence of the accurate analytical method. Accelerated Solvent Extraction and their purification methods were tried to separate the organic micropollutants respectively in marine sediment. Those matrix were as organic pollutants evaluation in marine environment. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are two examples organic pollutant in environment which are carcinogenic and mutagenic. Marine sediments are important matrices of information regarding the human activities in coastal areas as well as the fate and behavior of organic pollutants, which are persistent in long-term. This research purpose to evaluate the matrice effect and the recovery from marine sediment spiking with several standar solution and deuterium of molecular target from organic pollutants in not polluted sample of sediment. Matrice samples was tested from indicate in unpolluted location. The methods were evaluated with standard calibration curve (linearity LOQ). Recovery (YE) relative, Matrice Effect (ME) relative correction with deuteriated standar were evaluated the interference the matrix. Interference effect for OCPs compounds were higher than PCBs in marine sediment.

  20. Ill-posedness in modeling mixed sediment river morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarrías, Víctor; Stecca, Guglielmo; Blom, Astrid

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we analyze the Hirano active layer model used in mixed sediment river morphodynamics concerning its ill-posedness. Ill-posedness causes the solution to be unstable to short-wave perturbations. This implies that the solution presents spurious oscillations, the amplitude of which depends on the domain discretization. Ill-posedness not only produces physically unrealistic results but may also cause failure of numerical simulations. By considering a two-fraction sediment mixture we obtain analytical expressions for the mathematical characterization of the model. Using these we show that the ill-posed domain is larger than what was found in previous analyses, not only comprising cases of bed degradation into a substrate finer than the active layer but also in aggradational cases. Furthermore, by analyzing a three-fraction model we observe ill-posedness under conditions of bed degradation into a coarse substrate. We observe that oscillations in the numerical solution of ill-posed simulations grow until the model becomes well-posed, as the spurious mixing of the active layer sediment and substrate sediment acts as a regularization mechanism. Finally we conduct an eigenstructure analysis of a simplified vertically continuous model for mixed sediment for which we show that ill-posedness occurs in a wider range of conditions than the active layer model.

  1. Hydrate-Bearing Clayey Sediments: Morphology, Physical Properties, Production and Engineering/Geological Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Sheng [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Santamarina, J. Carlos [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-12-30

    Fine-grained sediments host more than 90 percent of global gas hydrate accumulation. However, hydrate formation in clay-dominated sediments is less understood and characterized than other types of hydrate occurrence. There is an inadequate understanding of hydrate formation mechanisms, segregation structures, hydrate lens topology, system connectivity, and physical macro-scale properties of clay-dominated hydrate-bearing sediments. This situation hinders further analyses of the global carbon budget as well as engineering challenges/solutions related to hydrate instability and production. This project studies hydrate-bearing clay-dominated sediments with emphasis on the enhanced fundamental understanding of hydrate formation and resulting morphology, the development laboratory techniques to emulate natural hydrate formations, the assessment of analytical tools to predict physical properties, the evaluation of engineering and geological implications, and the advanced understanding of gas production potential from finegrained sediments.

  2. Actinide occurrences in sediments following ground disposal of acid wastes at 216-Z-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ames, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    Liquid acid wastes from a Pu recovery facility at Hanford were released to the ground via structures collectively termed trenches from 1955 through 1962. Data are presented from a study of the microdistribution of Am and Pu in samples from the 216-Z-9 trench. Solution sediment relationships and associated actinide removal mechanisms under acid conditions were studied. Core wells were drilled into the sediments in which this covered trench is located and in the immediate vicinity to obtain samples for quantitative mineralogical analysis and comparison of sediments from various depths of contaminated and noncontaminated areas. Analytical techniques are described and results are reported

  3. Sediment problems in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Harold P.

    1970-01-01

    A recognition of and solution to sediment problems in urban areas is necessary if society is to have an acceptable living environment. Soil erosion and sediment deposition in urban areas are as much an environmental blight as badly paved and littered streets, dilapidated buildings, billboard clutter, inept land use, and air, water, and noise pollution. In addition, sediment has many direct and indirect effects on streams that may be either part of or very remote from the urban environment. Sediment, for example, is widely recognized as a pollutant of streams and other water bodies.

  4. Sediment Geo-Probe System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides wideband in situ measurement capability of compressional wave speed and attenuation and their spatial variability in marine sediments.DESCRIPTION:...

  5. Glacimarine environments: processes and sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dowdeswell, J. A; Scourse, James D

    1990-01-01

    .... Sediments released from glaciers grounded in tidewater, floating ice shelves, ice tongues, icebergs and sea ice form complex sequences governed by glaciological, oceanographic, sedimentary and biogenic controls...

  6. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  7. Analytic Summability Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-01-01

    The theory of summability of divergent series is a major branch of mathematical analysis that has found important applications in engineering and science. It addresses methods of assigning natural values to divergent sums, whose prototypical examples include the Abel summation method, the Cesaro means, and the Borel summability method. As will be established in subsequent chapters, the theory of summability of divergent series is intimately connected to the theory of fractional finite sums. In this chapter, we introduce a generalized definition of series as well as a new summability method for computing the value of series according to such a definition. We show that the proposed summability method is both regular and linear, and that it arises quite naturally in the study of local polynomial approximations of analytic functions. The materials presented in this chapter will be foundational to all subsequent chapters.

  8. Analytic Summability Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-03-07

    The theory of summability of divergent series is a major branch of mathematical analysis that has found important applications in engineering and science. It addresses methods of assigning natural values to divergent sums, whose prototypical examples include the Abel summation method, the Cesaro means, and the Borel summability method. As will be established in subsequent chapters, the theory of summability of divergent series is intimately connected to the theory of fractional finite sums. In this chapter, we introduce a generalized definition of series as well as a new summability method for computing the value of series according to such a definition. We show that the proposed summability method is both regular and linear, and that it arises quite naturally in the study of local polynomial approximations of analytic functions. The materials presented in this chapter will be foundational to all subsequent chapters.

  9. Generalized analytic continuation

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, William T

    2002-01-01

    The theory of generalized analytic continuation studies continuations of meromorphic functions in situations where traditional theory says there is a natural boundary. This broader theory touches on a remarkable array of topics in classical analysis, as described in the book. This book addresses the following questions: (1) When can we say, in some reasonable way, that component functions of a meromorphic function on a disconnected domain, are "continuations" of each other? (2) What role do such "continuations" play in certain aspects of approximation theory and operator theory? The authors use the strong analogy with the summability of divergent series to motivate the subject. In this vein, for instance, theorems can be described as being "Abelian" or "Tauberian". The introductory overview carefully explains the history and context of the theory. The authors begin with a review of the works of Poincaré, Borel, Wolff, Walsh, and Gončar, on continuation properties of "Borel series" and other meromorphic func...

  10. Analytical applications of spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creaser, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    This book provides an up to date overview of recent developments in analytical spectroscopy, with a particular emphasis on the common themes of chromatography - spectroscopy combinations, Fourier transform methods, and data handling techniques, which have played an increasingly important part in the development of all spectroscopic techniques. The book contains papers originally presented at a conference entitled 'Spectroscopy Across The Spectrum' held jointly with the first 'International Near Infrared Spectroscopy Conference' at the University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK, in July 1987, which have been edited and rearranged with some additional material. Each section includes reviews of key areas of current research as well as short reports of new developments. The fields covered are: Near Infrared Spectroscopy; Infrared Spectroscopy; Mass Spectroscopy; NMR Spectroscopy; Atomic and UV/Visible Spectroscopy; Chemometrics and Data Analysis. (author)

  11. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  12. Improved steamflood analytical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, S.; Mamora, D.D. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Texas A and M Univ., TX (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Predicting the performance of steam flooding can help in the proper execution of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. The Jones model is often used for analytical steam flooding performance prediction, but it does not accurately predict oil production peaks. In this study, an improved steam flood model was developed by modifying 2 of the 3 components of the capture factor in the Jones model. The modifications were based on simulation results from a Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) comparative project case model. The production performance of a 5-spot steamflood pattern unit was simulated and compared with results obtained from the Jones model. Three reservoir types were simulated through the use of 3-D Cartesian black oil models. In order to correlate the simulation and the Jones analytical model results for the start and height of the production peak, the dimensionless steam zone size was modified to account for a decrease in oil viscosity during steam flooding and its dependence on the steam injection rate. In addition, the dimensionless volume of displaced oil produced was modified from its square-root format to an exponential form. The modified model improved results for production performance by up to 20 years of simulated steam flooding, compared to the Jones model. Results agreed with simulation results for 13 different cases, including 3 different sets of reservoir and fluid properties. Reservoir engineers will benefit from the improved accuracy of the model. Oil displacement calculations were based on methods proposed in earlier research, in which the oil displacement rate is a function of cumulative oil steam ratio. The cumulative oil steam ratio is a function of overall thermal efficiency. Capture factor component formulae were presented, as well as charts of oil production rates and cumulative oil-steam ratios for various reservoirs. 13 refs., 4 tabs., 29 figs.

  13. Sediment Trapping in Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Hans; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Ralston, David K.

    2018-01-01

    Estuarine turbidity maxima (ETMs) are generated by a large suite of hydrodynamic and sediment dynamic processes, leading to longitudinal convergence of cross-sectionally integrated and tidally averaged transport of cohesive and noncohesive suspended particulate matter (SPM). The relative importance of these processes for SPM trapping varies substantially among estuaries depending on topography, fluvial and tidal forcing, and SPM composition. The high-frequency dynamics of ETMs are constrained by interactions with the low-frequency dynamics of the bottom pool of easily erodible sediments. Here, we use a transport decomposition to present processes that lead to convergent SPM transport, and review trapping mechanisms that lead to ETMs at the landward limit of the salt intrusion, in the freshwater zone, at topographic transitions, and by lateral processes within the cross section. We use model simulations of example estuaries to demonstrate the complex concurrence of ETM formation mechanisms. We also discuss how changes in SPM trapping mechanisms, often caused by direct human interference, can lead to the generation of hyperturbid estuaries.

  14. Geomorphology-based interpretation of sedimentation rates from radiodating, lower Passaic River, New Jersey, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Michael J; Barnes, Charles R; Henderson, Matthew R; Romagnoli, Robert; Firstenberg, Clifford E

    2007-04-01

    Analysis of site geomorphology and sedimentation rates as an indicator of long-term bed stability is central to the evaluation of remedial alternatives for depositional aquatic environments. In conjunction with various investigations of contaminant distribution, sediment dynamics, and bed stability in the Passaic River Estuary, 121 sediment cores were collected in the early 1990s from the lower 9.7 km of the Passaic River and analyzed for lead-210 (210Pb), cesium-137 (137Cs), and other analytes. This paper opportunistically uses the extensive radiochemical dataset to examine the spatial patterns of long-term sedimentation rates in, and associated geomorphic aspects of, this area of the river. For the purposes of computing sedimentation rates, the utility of the 210Pb and 137Cs depositional profiles was assessed to inform appropriate interpretation. Sedimentation rates were computed for 90 datable cores by 3 different methods, depending on profile utility. A sedimentation rate of 0 was assigned to 17 additional cores that were not datable and for which evidence of no deposition exists. Sedimentation patterns were assessed by grouping results within similar geomorphic areas, delineated through inspection of bathymetric data. On the basis of channel morphology, results reflect expected patterns, with the highest sedimentation rates observed along point bars and channel margins. The lowest rates of sedimentation (and the largest percentage of undatable cores) were observed in the areas along the outer banks of channel bends. Increasing sedimentation rates from upstream to downstream were noted. Average and median sedimentation rates were estimated to be 3.8 and 3.7 cm/y, respectively, reflecting the highly depositional nature of the Passaic River estuary. This finding is consistent with published descriptions of long-term geomorphology for Atlantic Coastal Plain estuaries.

  15. Luminescence dating of Netherland's sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, J.; Davids, F.; Dijkmans, J.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades luminescence dating techniques have been developed that allow earth scientists to determine the time of deposition of sediments. In this contribution we revity: 1) the development of the methodology, 2) tests of the reliability of luminescence dating on Netherlands' sediments;

  16. Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on

  17. Intensive landfarming of contaminated sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieggers, H.J.J.; Bezemer, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    The biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and mineral oil was investigated in heavily and normally polluted sediments. The aims of the research were: to improve the knowledge of dewatering and ripening of sediments in an open land-farm, to quantify the biodegradation in two

  18. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS (PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  19. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  20. Sediment-accumulatie in transportleidingen af waterproductiebedrijven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beverloo, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Zwaga, A.

    2014-01-01

    In drinkwatertransportleidingen hoopt zich sediment op, ondanks het feit dat de maximale stroomsnelheid hoger is dan de snelheid die voor distributieleidingen zelfreinigend is. Opwervelend sediment zorgt voor klachten over de kwaliteit van het drinkwater. Het sediment accumuleert vooral dicht bij

  1. Rorty, Pragmatism, and Analytic Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Misak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of Richard Rorty's legacies is to have put a Jamesian version of pragmatism on the contemporary philosophical map. Part of his argument has been that pragmatism and analytic philosophy are set against each other, with pragmatism almost having been killed off by the reigning analytic philosophy. The argument of this paper is that there is a better and more interesting reading of both the history of pragmatism and the history of analytic philosophy.

  2. Targeting sediment management strategies using sediment quantification and fingerprinting methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie; Rowan, John; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Phil; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.

    2016-04-01

    Cost-effective sediment management is required to reduce excessive delivery of fine sediment due to intensive land uses such as agriculture, resulting in the degradation of aquatic ecosystems. Prioritising measures to mitigate dominant sediment sources is, however, challenging, as sediment loss risk is spatially and temporally variable between and within catchments. Fluctuations in sediment supply from potential sources result from variations in land uses resulting in increased erodibility where ground cover is low (e.g., cultivated, poached and compacted soils), and physical catchment characteristics controlling hydrological connectivity and transport pathways (surface and/or sub-surface). Sediment fingerprinting is an evidence-based management tool to identify sources of in-stream sediments at the catchment scale. Potential sediment sources are related to a river sediment sample, comprising a mixture of source sediments, using natural physico-chemical characteristics (or 'tracers'), and contributions are statistically un-mixed. Suspended sediment data were collected over two years at the outlet of three intensive agricultural catchments (approximately 10 km2) in Ireland. Dominant catchment characteristics were grassland on poorly-drained soils, arable on well-drained soils and arable on moderately-drained soils. High-resolution (10-min) calibrated turbidity-based suspended sediment and discharge data were combined to quantify yield. In-stream sediment samples (for fingerprinting analysis) were collected at six to twelve week intervals, using time-integrated sediment samplers. Potential sources, including stream channel banks, ditches, arable and grassland field topsoils, damaged road verges and tracks were sampled, oven-dried (account for particle size and organic matter selectivity processes. Contributions from potential sources type groups (channel - ditches and stream banks, roads - road verges and tracks, fields - grassland and arable topsoils) were

  3. Analytic solution of pseudocolloid migration in fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.; Chambre, P.L.

    1989-06-01

    A form of colloid migration that can enhance or retard the migration of a dissolved contaminant in ground water is the sorption of the contaminant on the moving colloidal particulate to form pseudocolloids. In this paper we develop analytical solutions for the interactive migration of radioactive species dissolved in ground water and sorbed as pseudocolloids. The solute and pseudocolloids are assumed to undergo advection and dispersion in a one-dimensional flow field in planar fractures in porous rock. Interaction between pseudocolloid and dissolved species is described by equilibrium sorption. Sorbed species on the pseudocolloids undergo radioactive decay, and pseudocolloids can sorb on fracture surfaces and sediments. Filtration is neglected. The solute can decay and sorb on pseudocolloids, on the fracture surfaces, and on sediments and can diffuse into the porous rock matrix. 1 fig

  4. Dating of sediments and determination of sedimentation rate. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illus, E [ed.

    1998-08-01

    The Second NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research)/EKO-1 Seminar was held at the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) on April 2-3, 1997. The work of the NKS is based on 4-year programmes; the current programme having been planned for the years 1994-1997. The programme comprises 3 major fields, one of them being environmental effects (EKO). Under this umbrella there are 4 main projects. The EKO-1 project deals with marine radioecology, in particular bottom sediments and sediment processes. The programme of the second seminar consisted of 8 invited lecturers and 6 other scientific presentations. Dating of sediments and determination of sedimentation rate are important in all types of sedimentological study and model calculations of fluxes of substances in the aquatic environment. In many cases these tasks have been closely related to radioecological studies undertaken in marine and fresh water environments, because they are often based on measured depth profiles of certain natural or artificial radionuclides present in the sediments. During recent decades Pb-210 has proved to be very useful in dating of sediments, but some other radionuclides have also been successfully used, e.g. Pu-239,240, Am-241 and Cs-137. The difficulties existing and problems involved in dating of sediments, as well as solutions for resolving these problems are discussed in the presentations

  5. Dating of sediments and determination of sedimentation rate. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illus, E.

    1998-01-01

    The Second NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research)/EKO-1 Seminar was held at the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) on April 2-3, 1997. The work of the NKS is based on 4-year programmes; the current programme having been planned for the years 1994-1997. The programme comprises 3 major fields, one of them being environmental effects (EKO). Under this umbrella there are 4 main projects. The EKO-1 project deals with marine radioecology, in particular bottom sediments and sediment processes. The programme of the second seminar consisted of 8 invited lecturers and 6 other scientific presentations. Dating of sediments and determination of sedimentation rate are important in all types of sedimentological study and model calculations of fluxes of substances in the aquatic environment. In many cases these tasks have been closely related to radioecological studies undertaken in marine and fresh water environments, because they are often based on measured depth profiles of certain natural or artificial radionuclides present in the sediments. During recent decades Pb-210 has proved to be very useful in dating of sediments, but some other radionuclides have also been successfully used, e.g. Pu-239,240, Am-241 and Cs-137. The difficulties existing and problems involved in dating of sediments, as well as solutions for resolving these problems are discussed in the presentations

  6. Hanford transuranic analytical capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    With the current DOE focus on ER/WM programs, an increase in the quantity of waste samples that requires detailed analysis is forecasted. One of the prime areas of growth is the demand for DOE environmental protocol analyses of TRU waste samples. Currently there is no laboratory capacity to support analysis of TRU waste samples in excess of 200 nCi/gm. This study recommends that an interim solution be undertaken to provide these services. By adding two glove boxes in room 11A of 222S the interim waste analytical needs can be met for a period of four to five years or until a front end facility is erected at or near the 222-S facility. The yearly average of samples is projected to be approximately 600 samples. The figure has changed significantly due to budget changes and has been downgraded from 10,000 samples to the 600 level. Until these budget and sample projection changes become firmer, a long term option is not recommended at this time. A revision to this document is recommended by March 1996 to review the long term option and sample projections

  7. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  8. Analytical procedures. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rackwitz, R.

    1985-01-01

    The semi-analytical procedures are summarized under the heading 'first or second-order reliability method'. The asymptotic aggravation of the theory was repeatedly hinted at. In supporting structures the probability of outage of components always is also a function of the condition of all other components. It depends moreover on the stress affecting mostly all components. This fact causes a marked reduction of the effect of redundant component arrangements in the system. It moreover requires very special formulations. Although theoretically interesting and practically important developments will leave their mark on the further progress of the theory, the statements obtained by those approaches will continue to depend on how closely the chosen physical relationships and stoachstic models can come to the scatter quantities. Sensitivity studies show that these are partly aspects of substantially higher importance with a view to decision criteria than the refinement of the (probabilistic) method. Questions of relevance and reliability of data and their adequate treatment in reliability analyses seem to rank higher in order of sequence than exaggerated demands on methodics. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Analytics for managers with Excel

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    Analytics is one of a number of terms which are used to describe a data-driven more scientific approach to management. Ability in analytics is an essential management skill: knowledge of data and analytics helps the manager to analyze decision situations, prevent problem situations from arising, identify new opportunities, and often enables many millions of dollars to be added to the bottom line for the organization.The objective of this book is to introduce analytics from the perspective of the general manager of a corporation. Rather than examine the details or attempt an encyclopaedic revie

  10. Analytical methodology for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to briefly describe the analytical methodologies available and also highlight some of the challenges, expectations from nuclear material accounting and control (NUMAC) point of view

  11. Three-Dimensional Sediment Dynamics in Well-Mixed Estuaries : Importance of the Internally Generated Overtide, Spatial Settling Lag, and Gravitational Circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, X.; Kumar, M.; Schuttelaars, H.M.

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the dominant sediment transport and trapping mechanisms, a semi-analytical three-dimensional model is developed resolving the dynamic effects of salt intrusion on sediment in well-mixed estuaries in morphodynamic equilibrium. As a study case, a schematized estuary with a converging

  12. Sediment Evaluation Framework for the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sediment Evaluation Framework provides a regional framework for assessment, characterization and management of sediments in the Pacific Northwest to determine suitability for unconfined in-water disposal.

  13. A Synopsis of Technical Issues for Monitoring Sediment in Highway and Urban Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Gardner C.; Gray, John R.; Smith, Kirk P.; Glysson, G. Douglas

    2000-01-01

    processing raw sediment samples (including homogenization and subsampling) for subsequent analysis for total suspended solids or suspended-sediment concentration often increase variance and may introduce bias. Processing artifacts can be substantial if the methods used are not appropriate for the concentrations and particle-size distributions present in the samples collected. Analytical methods for determining sediment concentrations include the suspended-sediment concentration and the total suspended solids methods. Although the terms suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended solids are often used interchangeably to describe the total concentration of suspended solid-phase material, the analytical methods differ and can produce substantially different results. The total suspended solids method, which commonly is used to produce highway- and urban-runoff sediment data, may not be valid for studies of runoff water quality. Studies of fluvial and highway-runoff sediment data indicate that analyses of samples by the total suspended solids method tends to under represent the true sediment concentration, and that relations between total suspended solids and suspended-sediment concentration are not transferable from site to site even when grain-size distribution information is available. Total suspended solids data used to calculate suspended-sediment loads in highways and urban runoff may be fundamentally unreliable. Consequently, use of total suspended solids data may have adverse consequences for the assessment, design, and maintenance of sediment-removal best management practices. Therefore, it may be necessary to analyze water samples using the suspended-sediment concentration method. Data quality, comparability, and utility are important considerations in collection, processing, and analysis of sediment samples and interpretation of sediment data for highway- and urban-runoff studies. Results from sediment studies must be comparable and readily transf

  14. Chemical composition of sediments from White Sea, Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamza, Olga; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Novigatsky, Aleksandr

    2010-05-01

    The White Sea, the only Russian inland sea, is located on the north of outlying districts of the European part of Russia, belongs to Arctic Ocean. Area of water of sea occupies about 90 tousend square kilometers. The sea can be divided into some general parts: neck, funnel, basin and 4 Bays: Dvina Bay, Kandalaksha Bay, Mezen Bay and Onega Bay. The purpose of this work was geochemical mapping of the surface sediments of this area. The main tasks were: compilation data base of element composition of the surface sediments, geochemical mapping of each element, research of the anormal concentration of elements on the surface. To detect the content of chemical elements several methods were used: atomic absorption spectrometry (P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology); neutron activation analysis (Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry), total and organic carbon analysis, photometric method to detection Si, Al, P (P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology). Bulk composition is one of the fundamental characteristics of sediments and bottom deposites of modern basins. Coarse-grained sediments with portion of pelitic component 80%). Character of elements distribution correlates with facial distribution of sediments from White Sea. According to litologic description, bottom surface of Dvina Bay is practically everywhere covered by layer of fine-grained sand. In the border area between Dvina Bay and White Sea basin on terraced subwater slope aleurite politic silts are abundant. They tend to exhange down the slope to clay silts. In Onega Bay fractions of non-deposition are observed. They are characterized by wide spread of thin blanket poorgraded sediments, which are likely to be relic. Relief of Kandalakscha Bay bottom is presented as alternation of abyssal fosses (near 300 m) with silles and elevations (roof owning to diagenetic contraction. Authors thank academic Lisitsyn for encourage, Andrey Apletalin for valuable help, and everybody, who helped in field

  15. Human-associated fungi in deep subseafloor sediment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulfer, V. M.; Kirkpatrick, J. B.; D'Hondt, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have reported fungi in marine sediment samples from depths as great as 1740 meters below seafloor (mbsf) (Rédou et al., 2014). Such studies have utilized a variety of techniques to identify fungi, including cultivation of isolates, amplicon sequencing, and metagenomics. Six recent studies of marine sediment collectively identify nearly 100 fungal taxa at the genus and species levels (Damare et al., 2006; Lai et al., 2007; Edgcomb et al., 2010; Singh et al., 2010; Orsi et al., 2013; Rédou et al., 2014). Known marine taxa are rarely identified by these studies. For individual studies with more than two taxa, between 16% and 57% of the fungal taxa are human microflora or associated with human environments (e.g., human skin or indoor air). For example, three of the six studies identified Malassezia species that are common skin inhabitants of humans and dogs. Although human-associated taxa have been identified in both shallow and deep sediment, they pose a particularly acute problem for deep subseafloor samples, where claims of a eukaryotic deep biosphere are most striking; depending on the study, 25% to 38% of species identified in sediment taken at depths greater than 40 meters are human-associated. Only one to three species have been reported from each of the four samples taken at depths greater than one km (eight species total; Rédou et al., 2014). Of these eight species, three are human-associated. This ubiquity of human-associated microflora is very problematic for interpretations of an indigenous deep subseafloor fungal community; either human-associated taxa comprise a large fraction of marine sedimentary fungi, or sample and analytical contamination is so widespread that the extent and ubiquity of a deep subseafloor fungal community remains uncertain. This highlights the need for stringent quality control measures throughout coring, sampling, and recovery of marine sediment, and when cultivating, extracting, and/or sequencing fungi from

  16. Instantaneous sediment transport model for asymmetric oscillatory sheet flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    Full Text Available On the basis of advanced concentration and velocity profiles above a mobile seabed, an instantaneous analytical model is derived for sediment transport in asymmetric oscillatory flow. The applied concentration profile is obtained from the classical exponential law based on mass conservation, and asymmetric velocity profile is developed following the turbulent boundary layer theory and the asymmetric wave theory. The proposed model includes two parts: the basic part that consists of erosion depth and free stream velocity, and can be simplified to the total Shields parameter power 3/2 in accordance with the classical empirical models, and the extra vital part that consists of phase-lead, boundary layer thickness and erosion depth. The effects of suspended sediment, phase-lag and asymmetric boundary layer development are considered particularly in the model. The observed instantaneous transport rate proportional to different velocity exponents due to phase-lag is unified and summarised by the proposed model. Both instantaneous and half period empirical formulas are compared with the developed model, using extensive data on a wide range of flow and sediment conditions. The synchronous variation in instantaneous transport rate with free stream velocity and its decrement caused by increased sediment size are predicted correctly. Net transport rates, especially offshore transport rates with large phase-lag under velocity skewed flows, which existing instantaneous type formulas failed to predict, are predicted correctly in both direction and magnitude by the proposed model. Net sediment transport rates are affected not only by suspended sediment and phase-lag, but also by the boundary layer difference between onshore and offshore.

  17. Effect of Suez Canal Marine Sediment on Sorption of Cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.B.

    2016-01-01

    Suez Canal is surrounded by navigation, industrial, agricultural activities and suffers from high rate of population growth that discharging waste into Suez Canal. The Suez Canal coastal waters are influenced by a complex variety of physical, geochemical and biological processes, which influence the behavior, transport and fate of containments released into the marine environment. Sorption of releasing containment such as cesium in Suez Canal water is investigated because of its toxic effect on the marine environment. The object of present study is to determine the effects some of physical and chemical characteristics of collected sediment samples from the three important locations on Suez Canal (Suez Bay, Bitter Lakes and El- Temsah Lake beaches) on sorption behavior of cesium by using batch experiment. Batch experiment was used to study the sorption of the cesium ion. The sorption process is dependent on mineral constituents of Suez Canal sediment and their characteristics. Analytical methods which included particle size and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses found that particle size of Suez Canal sediment samples is characterized by sand to fine sand and quartz is the main mineralogical species. Distribution coefficient (K d ) which represent geochemical processes and particle size of these sediment samples effect on the degree of cesium sorption to the sediment. Also (K d ) increase with increase cation exchangeable capacity (CEC). The Suez Canal sediment samples have low (K d ) values which effected by their physical and chemical properties. Sample (2) has highest distribution coefficient (K d ) between measured samples due to containing ratio 30% of fine sand and high ratio of organic matter.

  18. Wood and Sediment Dynamics in River Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, E.; Scott, D.

    2015-12-01

    Large wood along rivers influences entrainment, transport, and storage of mineral sediment and particulate organic matter. We review how wood alters sediment dynamics and explore patterns among volumes of instream wood, sediment storage, and residual pools for dispersed pieces of wood, logjams, and beaver dams. We hypothesized that: volume of sediment per unit area of channel stored in association with wood is inversely proportional to drainage area; the form of sediment storage changes downstream; sediment storage correlates most strongly with wood load; and volume of sediment stored behind beaver dams correlates with pond area. Lack of data from larger drainage areas limits tests of these hypotheses, but analyses suggest a negative correlation between sediment volume and drainage area and a positive correlation between wood and sediment volume. The form of sediment storage in relation to wood changes downstream, with wedges of sediment upstream from jammed steps most prevalent in small, steep channels and more dispersed sediment storage in lower gradient channels. Use of a published relation between sediment volume, channel width, and gradient predicted about half of the variation in sediment stored upstream from jammed steps. Sediment volume correlates well with beaver pond area. Historically more abundant instream wood and beaver populations likely equated to greater sediment storage within river corridors. This review of the existing literature on wood and sediment dynamics highlights the lack of studies on larger rivers.

  19. Curriculum Innovation for Marketing Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Elizabeth J.; McCabe, Catherine; Smith, Robert S.

    2018-01-01

    College graduates need better preparation for and experience in data analytics for higher-quality problem solving. Using the curriculum innovation framework of Borin, Metcalf, and Tietje (2007) and case study research methods, we offer rich insights about one higher education institution's work to address the marketing analytics skills gap.…

  20. The machine in multimedia analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zahálka, J.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the role of the machine in multimedia analytics, a discipline that combines visual analytics with multimedia analysis algorithms in order to unlock the potential of multimedia collections as sources of knowledge in scientific and applied domains. Specifically, the central

  1. Learning Analytics: Challenges and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna; Watson, Cate; Thompson, Terrie Lynn; Drew, Valerie; Doyle, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Learning analytic implementations are increasingly being included in learning management systems in higher education. We lay out some concerns with the way learning analytics--both data and algorithms--are often presented within an unproblematized Big Data discourse. We describe some potential problems with the often implicit assumptions about…

  2. Formative assessment and learning analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, D.T.; Heck, A.; Cuypers, H.; van der Kooij, H.; van de Vrie, E.; Suthers, D.; Verbert, K.; Duval, E.; Ochoa, X.

    2013-01-01

    Learning analytics seeks to enhance the learning process through systematic measurements of learning related data, and informing learners and teachers of the results of these measurements, so as to support the control of the learning process. Learning analytics has various sources of information,

  3. Large-scale data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2014-01-01

    Provides cutting-edge research in large-scale data analytics from diverse scientific areas Surveys varied subject areas and reports on individual results of research in the field Shares many tips and insights into large-scale data analytics from authors and editors with long-term experience and specialization in the field

  4. New research at Paisley Caves:applying new integrated analytical approaches to understanding stratigraphy, taphonomy, and site formation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Shillito, Lisa-Marie; Blong, John C; Jenkins, Dennis L; Stafford Jr, Thomas W; Whelton, Helen; McDonough, Katelyn; Bull, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Paisley Caves in Oregon has become well known due to early dates, and human presence in the form of coprolites, found to contain ancient human DNA. Questions remain over whether the coprolites themselves are human, or whether the DNA is mobile in the sediments. This brief introduces new research applying an integrated analytical approach combining sediment micromorphology and lipid biomarker analysis, which aims to resolve these problems.

  5. Coastal sediment dynamics in Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloffre, J.; Lafite, R.; Baltzer, A.; Marlin, C.; Delangle, E.; Dethleff, D.; Petit, F.

    2010-12-01

    In arctic knowledge on coastal sediment dynamics and sedimentary processes is limited. The studied area is located in the microtidal Kongsfjorden glacial fjord on the North-western coast of Spitsbergen in the Artic Ocean (79°N). In this area sediment contributions to the coastal zone is provided by small temporary rivers that flows into the fjord. The objectives of this study are to (i) assess the origin and fate of fine-grained particles (sea ice cover on sediment dynamics. The sampling strategy is based on characterization of sediment and SPM (grain-size, X-rays diffraction, SEM images, carbonates and organic matter contents) from the glacier to the coastal zone completed by a bottom-sediment map on the nearshore using side-scan sonar validated with Ekman binge sampling. River inputs (i.e. river plumes) to the coastal zone were punctually followed using CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity) profiles. OBS (water level, temperature and turbidity) operating at high-frequency and during at least 1 years (including under sea ice cover) was settled at the mouth of rivers at 10m depth. In the coastal zone the fine-grained sediment deposit is limited to mud patches located at river mouths that originate the piedmont glacier. However a significant amount of sediment originates the coastal glacier located in the eastern part of the fjord via two processes: direct transfer and ice-drop. Results from turbidity measurements show that the sediment dynamics is controlled by river inputs in particular during melting period. During winter sediment resuspension can occurs directly linked to significant wind-events. When the sea ice cover is present (January to April) no sediment dynamics is observed. Sediment processes in the coastal zone of arctic fjords is significant however only a small amount of SPM that originates the river plume settles in the coastal zone; only the coarser material settles at the mouth of the river while the finer one is deposited further

  6. Sediment transport under breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Mayer, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    The sediment transport in the surf zone is modelled by combining a Navier-Stokes solver, a free surface model, a turbulence model, and a sediment transport model. The flow solver is based on the finite volume technique for non-orthogonal grids. The model is capable of simulating the turbulence...... generated at the surface where the wave breaks as well as the turbulence generated near the bed due to the wave-motion and the undertow. In general, the levels of turbulent kinetic energy are found to be higher than experiments show. This results in an over prediction of the sediment transport. Nevertheless...

  7. 105-N Basin sediment disposition phase-one sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for Phase 1 of the 105-N Basin sediment disposition project defines the sampling and analytical activities that will be performed for the engineering assessment phase (phase 1) of the project. A separate SAP defines the sampling and analytical activities that will be performed for the characterization phase (Phase 2) of the 105-N sediment disposition project. The Phase-1 SAP is presented in the introduction (Section 1.0), in the field sampling plan (FSP) (Section 2.0), and in the quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) (Section 3.0). The FSP defines the sampling and analytical methodologies to be performed. The QAPjP provides information on the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) parameters related to the sampling and analytical methodologies. This SAP defines the strategy and the methods that will be used to sample and analyze the sediment on the floor of the 105-N Basin. The resulting data will be used to develop and evaluate engineering designs for collecting and removing sediment from the basin

  8. ACOUSTIC TECHNIQUES FOR THE MAPPING OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of the last 30 years of analytical research into the acoustic properties of harbor marine sediments has allowed the extension of the original work of Hamilton (1970) into a production system for classifying the density and bulk physical properties of standard marine s...

  9. Group Analytic Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Carla; Castanho, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    Group analytic practice in Brazil began quite early. Highly influenced by the Argentinean Pichon-Rivière, it enjoyed a major development from the 1950s to the early 1980s. Beginning in the 1970s, different factors undermined its development and eventually led to its steep decline. From the mid 1980s on, the number of people looking for either group analytic psychotherapy or group analytic training decreased considerably. Group analytic psychotherapy societies struggled to survive and most of them had to close their doors in the 1990s and the following decade. Psychiatric reform and the new public health system have stimulated a new demand for groups in Brazil. Developments in the public and not-for-profit sectors, combined with theoretical and practical research in universities, present promising new perspectives for group analytic psychotherapy in Brazil nowadays.

  10. SCS-CN based time-distributed sediment yield model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, J. V.; Mishra, S. K.; Singh, Ranvir; Singh, V. P.

    2008-05-01

    SummaryA sediment yield model is developed to estimate the temporal rates of sediment yield from rainfall events on natural watersheds. The model utilizes the SCS-CN based infiltration model for computation of rainfall-excess rate, and the SCS-CN-inspired proportionality concept for computation of sediment-excess. For computation of sedimentographs, the sediment-excess is routed to the watershed outlet using a single linear reservoir technique. Analytical development of the model shows the ratio of the potential maximum erosion (A) to the potential maximum retention (S) of the SCS-CN method is constant for a watershed. The model is calibrated and validated on a number of events using the data of seven watersheds from India and the USA. Representative values of the A/S ratio computed for the watersheds from calibration are used for the validation of the model. The encouraging results of the proposed simple four parameter model exhibit its potential in field application.

  11. Microplastics in the environment: Challenges in analytical chemistry - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana B; Bastos, Ana S; Justino, Celine I L; da Costa, João P; Duarte, Armando C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P

    2018-08-09

    Microplastics can be present in the environment as manufactured microplastics (known as primary microplastics) or resulting from the continuous weathering of plastic litter, which yields progressively smaller plastic fragments (known as secondary microplastics). Herein, we discuss the numerous issues associated with the analysis of microplastics, and to a less extent of nanoplastics, in environmental samples (water, sediments, and biological tissues), from their sampling and sample handling to their identification and quantification. The analytical quality control and quality assurance associated with the validation of analytical methods and use of reference materials for the quantification of microplastics are also discussed, as well as the current challenges within this field of research and possible routes to overcome such limitations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An intercomparison exercise on radionuclides in sediment samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P.

    1996-07-01

    An intercomparison exercise on artificial and natural radionuclides in two sediment samples, one from the Baltic Sea and one from the Kattegat, has been carried out under the EKO-1 project or the Nordic Safety Research Programme (NKS) for the period 1996-97. The measurement techniques have included direct gamma-ray spectrometry with Ge and NaI detectors, and radiochemical procedures followed by beta counting and alpha spectrometry. The participants have 21 laboratories. Results were submitted for Cs-137, Cs-134, Co-60, Sb-125, Pu-239,240, Pu-238, Am-241, Sr-90, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40, Pb-210, Po-210 and U-235. The analytical performance of the participants was evaluated for those radionuclides where six or more data sets were received. Statistical tests were made to see if individual results agreed with overall average radionuclide concentrations in the two sediment materials within target standard deviations. The results of these tests show that for Cs-137, Cs-134, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 the analytical performance criteria were not met for 20-40% of the data sets. For plutonium isotopes the tests show that the performance criteria were not met for 13% of the data sets. Tests of overall analytical performance show that 61% of the data sets do not meet the combined performance criteria. This shows that there is room for considerable improvement of analytical quality for most of the laboratories that have participated in this intercomparison. The intercomparison exercise has furthermore demonstrated several elementary problems in analytical work. (au) 57 tabs., 16 ills., 1 ref.

  13. An intercomparison exercise on radionuclides in sediment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.

    1996-07-01

    An intercomparison exercise on artificial and natural radionuclides in two sediment samples, one from the Baltic Sea and one from the Kattegat, has been carried out under the EKO-1 project or the Nordic Safety Research Programme (NKS) for the period 1996-97. The measurement techniques have included direct gamma-ray spectrometry with Ge and NaI detectors, and radiochemical procedures followed by beta counting and alpha spectrometry. The participants have 21 laboratories. Results were submitted for Cs-137, Cs-134, Co-60, Sb-125, Pu-239,240, Pu-238, Am-241, Sr-90, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40, Pb-210, Po-210 and U-235. The analytical performance of the participants was evaluated for those radionuclides where six or more data sets were received. Statistical tests were made to see if individual results agreed with overall average radionuclide concentrations in the two sediment materials within target standard deviations. The results of these tests show that for Cs-137, Cs-134, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 the analytical performance criteria were not met for 20-40% of the data sets. For plutonium isotopes the tests show that the performance criteria were not met for 13% of the data sets. Tests of overall analytical performance show that 61% of the data sets do not meet the combined performance criteria. This shows that there is room for considerable improvement of analytical quality for most of the laboratories that have participated in this intercomparison. The intercomparison exercise has furthermore demonstrated several elementary problems in analytical work. (au) 57 tabs., 16 ills., 1 ref

  14. Fluctuations and Instability in Sedimentation

    KAUST Repository

    Guazzelli, É lisabeth; Hinch, John

    2011-01-01

    This review concentrates on the fluctuations of the velocities of sedimenting spheres, and on the structural instability of a suspension of settling fibers. For many years, theoretical estimates and numerical simulations predicted the fluctuations

  15. Paleosecular variations from lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, S.P.; Banerjee, S.K.

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented on the secular variations of the magnetization of wet and dry lake sediments for 17 North American locations. The usefullness of this data in terms of the geomagnetic field is discussed

  16. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable...... bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures...... marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary...

  17. Glacimarine environments: processes and sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dowdeswell, J. A; Scourse, James D

    1990-01-01

    This volume examines the processes responsible for sedimentation in modern glaciomarine environments, and how such modern studies can be used as analogues in the interpretation of ancient glaciomarine sequences...

  18. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Lewistown NTMS Quadrangle, Montana, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 758 water and 1170 sediment samples were collected from 1649 locations in the Levistown quadrangle. Water samples were collected at streams, springs, wells, ponds, and marshes; sediment samples were obtained from streams, springs, and ponds. Histograms and statistical data for uranium concentrations in water and sediment samples and thorium concentrations in sediment samples are given. All samples were collected at the nominal reconnaissance density of one sample location per 10 km 2 . Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters and for sediments. Uranium to thorium (U/Th) ratios for sediment samples are included. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 ppB U were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting. Sediments were analyzed for U and Th as well as Al, Sb, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ca, Ce, Cs, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Dy, Eu, Au, Hf, Fe, La, Pb, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Nb, K, Rb, Sa, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, Ta, Tb, Sn, Ti, W, V, Yb, and Zn. All sediments were analyzed for U by delayed neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 9 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results are reported as parts per million. Descriptions of procedures used for analysis of water and sediments samples as well as analytical precisions and detection limits are given

  19. Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Pocevičius, Matas

    2016-01-01

    Matas Pocevičius, Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments, bachelor thesis, Vilnius University, Faculty of Physics, Department of General Physics and Spectroscopy, physics, Vilnius, 45 p., 2016. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of radiocarbon dating application for Tapeliai lake bottom sediments. The literature review discusses topics related to accelerator mass spectrometry, principles of radiocarbon formation, importance of nuclear fallout for 14C, possible applications of ...

  20. Artificial radionuclides in an intertidal sediment from northwest England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, K.; Keith-Roach, M.J.; Butterworth, J.C.; Livens, L.K.; Day, J.P.; Hursthouse, A.S.; Fifield, L.K.; Bardgett, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    An intertidal sediment core has been analysed for the principal transuranium elements present in the BNFL Sellafield radioactive waste discharges (Np, Pu, Am) and the high yield fission products 99 Tc and 137 Cs. Interstitial water samples were collected using porous cup samplers and early results from these analyses show that there is a pronounced seasonality in the pattern of dissolved Pu, which apparently relates to changes in dissolved Fe and Mn. More recent work has concentrated on the characterization of changes in the sediment microbial community and on the development of analytical methods for the analysis of dissolved Np, apparently the most readily mobilized of the transuranic elements, which is present at concentrations of the order of 10 8 atoms/litre

  1. Characterization of sediment and sediment cores in harbour and shelf areas from the viewpoint of environmental changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Duy Hien; Pham Ngoc Chuong; Nguyen Dieu Minh; Nguyen Kien Chinh

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of 35 elements in the sediment samples were determined by INAA, RNAA, PGNAA and polarography methods at the Dalat nuclear research reactor. The elemental compositions of the samples have been assesses taking into account the data on mineral compositions and grain size distributions. In general, the trace elements compositions of the collected bottom sediments are still of geochemical origin and rather similar to those of the alluvium (suspended matters) transported by rivers Red and Mekong. The concentrations of some ecologically relevant heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Pb, etc.) are more lower than those in some polluted estuaries in industrialized countries. Thus, the obtained data can be considered as a background reference allowing the assessment of any elemental concentration variations of anthropogenic origin in the future. The obtained analytical data shows that the cores drilled out at a distance 120 km from the estuaries of r. Mekong (9 o 34'N, 107 o 52'E) and under 50 m depth of water consist mostly of classic sediments (terrigenous origin). C-14 dating shows a sedimentation rate 0.5 m/1000 y. (author)

  2. Analytical spectroscopy. Analytical Chemistry Symposia Series, Volume 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains papers covering several fields in analytical chemistry including lasers, mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma, activation analysis and emission spectroscopy. Separate abstracting and indexing was done for 64 papers in this book

  3. Sediment dynamics in Alpine basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habersack, Helmut; Liébault, Fred; Comiti, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    In rivers and streams and of the European Alps, sediment transport processes are of great relevance due to their ecological (e.g. aquatic habitats), energy (e.g. reservoir sedimentation) and risk-related (floods and debris flows) consequences. In fact, sediment fluxes are crucial to maintain a good ecological status of watercourses (required by the EU ;Water Framework Directive;, WFD, 2000), as they provide the hydromorphological conditions supporting dynamic aquatic ecosystems (Fryirs and Brierley, 2013; Wohl et al., 2015; Gurnell et al., 2016). Indeed, the key issue to ameliorate river hydrogeomorphological - and thus ecological - status and to comply with WFD provisions lies in allowing the natural processes of sediment and wood supply and transport to take place as much as possible, given the constraints imposed by the non-eliminable uses of each river (Comiti, 2012; Liébault et al., 2013). Specifically river continuity is mentioned in the WFD not only for biota but also sediments, which is hardly discussed in river management so far and almost no concrete measures to improve sediment continuity have been implemented so far (Habersack et al., 2016).

  4. Second International Workshop on Teaching Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatrapu, Ravi; Reimann, Peter; Halb, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Teaching Analytics is conceived as a subfield of learning analytics that focuses on the design, development, evaluation, and education of visual analytics methods and tools for teachers in primary, secondary, and tertiary educational settings. The Second International Workshop on Teaching Analytics...... (IWTA) 2013 seeks to bring together researchers and practitioners in the fields of education, learning sciences, learning analytics, and visual analytics to investigate the design, development, use, evaluation, and impact of visual analytical methods and tools for teachers’ dynamic diagnostic decision...

  5. Nuclear techniques in analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, Alfred J; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Nuclear Techniques in Analytical Chemistry discusses highly sensitive nuclear techniques that determine the micro- and macro-amounts or trace elements of materials. With the increasingly frequent demand for the chemical determination of trace amounts of elements in materials, the analytical chemist had to search for more sensitive methods of analysis. This book accustoms analytical chemists with nuclear techniques that possess the desired sensitivity and applicability at trace levels. The topics covered include safe handling of radioactivity; measurement of natural radioactivity; and neutron a

  6. Final report for 105-N Basin sediment disposition task, phase 2 samples BOMPC8 and BOMPC9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    This document is the final report deliverable for Phase 2 analytical work for the 105-N Basin Sediment Disposition Task. On December 23, 1997, ten samples were received at the 222-S Laboratory as follows: two (2) bottles of potable water, six (6) samples for process control testing and two (2) samples for characterization. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Letter of Instruction for Phase 2 Analytical Work for the 105-N Basin Sediment Disposition Task (Logan and Kessner, 1997) (Attachment 7) and 105-N Basin Sediment Disposition Phase-Two Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) (Smith, 1997). The analytical results are included in Table 1. This document provides the values of X/Qs for the onsite and offsite receptors, taking into account the building wake and the atmospheric stability effects. X/Qs values for the potential fire accident were also calculated. In addition, the unit dose were calculated for the mixtures of isotopes

  7. Trace element distribution in different chemical fractions of False Bay sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosental, R.

    1984-05-01

    Trace metals in the aquatic environment are generally concentrated on solid geochemical phases which eventually become incorporated into estuarine and marine sediments. The mechanism of trace metal concentration is believed to be adsorption on various geochemical phases, such as hydrous metal oxides, clays and organic matter. Metals in estuarine sediments can thus be expected to be partitioned between different phases, depending on the concentration of the phase and the strength of the adsorption bond. The bioavailability of sediment-bound metals to deposit-feeding organisms will depend on trace metal partitioning and the kinetics of biological metal uptake from each geochemical phase. The major objective of this study was to establish an analytical procedure involving sequential chemical extractions for the partitioning of particulate trace metals in sediment samples, collected from False Bay. Eight metals were examined, i.e. Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. X-ray diffraction was also used in the study

  8. World wide intercomparison of trace element measurements in marine sediments SD-M-2/TM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, L.D.; Oregioni, B.

    1991-09-01

    The accurate and precise determination of trace elements in marine sediments is an important aspect of geochemical studies of the marine environment and for assessing the levels and pathways of marine pollutants. Past intercomparison studies conducted by the Marine Environment Laboratory of IAEA (formerly the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity) have focussed upon near-shore marine sediments where trace metal contamination is frequently observed. The present exercise was designed to study a typical oxidised deep-sea sediment characterized by a preponderance of fine particle clays. Analysis of such material is a routine matter for most geochemists but represents a ''baseline sample'' for marine pollution chemists. The present exercise represented a unique opportunity for chemists worldwide to intercompare their analytical methodologies for deep-sea sediments. By statistically examining the data from this study, the material can be certified for future use as a reference material - apparently the only one of its kind available throughout the world. 6 refs, figs and tabs

  9. Butyltin speciation in sediments from Todos os Santos Bay (Bahia, Brazil by GC-PFPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Feitosa Felizzola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Butyltin compounds were investigated in surface sediments from 17 stations in Todos os Santos Bay. Analytical conditions for organotin determination in marine sediments were optimized for GC with pulsed flame photometric detection. Detection limits were: 5.4 µg kg-1 for TBT; 0.2 µg kg-1 for DBT; and 2.1 µg kg-1 for MBT, using a 610-nm filter. In general, TBT concentrations were low and in the range of

    sediments. The presence of paint particles in the sediments and degradation in the water column during resuspension events followed by removal of the more soluble DBT and MBT may explain these observations.

  10. Performance testing of the sediment-contaminant transport model, SERATRA, at different rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.

    1982-04-01

    Mathematical models of sediment-contaminant migration in surface water must account for transport, intermedia transfer, decay and degradation, and transformation processes. The unsteady, two dimensional, sediment-contaminant transport code, SERATRA (Onishi, Schreiber and Codell 1980) includes these mechanisms. To assess the accuracy of SERATRA to simulate the sediment-contaminant transport and fate processes, the code was tested against one-dimensional analytical solutions, checked for its mass balance, and applied to field sites. The field application cases ranged from relatively simple, steady conditions to unsteady, nonuniform conditions for large, intermediate, and small rivers. It was found that SERATRA is capable of simulating sediment-contaminant transport under a wide range of conditions

  11. Investigation of the radioactive and heavy metal pollution of the danube Delta lacustrine sediments and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinescu, L.C.; Ciortea, C.; Fluerasu, D.; Stoica, P.; Duliu, O.G.; Stoica, P.

    2005-01-01

    Results obtained for five lacustrine sediment cores and three soil samples, collected in 1996 from Danube Delta, by using INAA, ICP-MS, and TTPIXE analytical methods, are presented. The measured vertical profiles identified as possible pollutants the following elements: Al, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl, Pb, and Bi. In the sediment cores, the determined elements, except V and Ni, show near-surface enrichment relative to the lower part (1.3-3 enrichment factor, except 5 - 7 for Cd and Hg). In some few cases, As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, and Pb exceeded the minimum threshold of safety defined by the Romanian legislation. For soil samples, increased (1.5-3 times) values at surface in comparison with the 30 cm depth was also found, but values much lower compared to lacustrine sediments, indicating the riverine transport as the main source of heavy-metal near-surface contamination of the lacustrine sediments

  12. High resolution microprofiling, fractionation and speciation at sediment water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricius, Anne-Lena; Duester, Lars; Ecker, Dennis; Ternes, Thomas A.

    2016-04-01

    Within aquatic environments, the exchange between the sediment and the overlaying water is often driven by steep gradients of, e.g., the oxygen concentration, the redox potential or the pH value at the sediment water interface (SWI). Important transport processes at the SWI are sedimentation and resuspension of particulate matter and diffusional fluxes of dissolved substances. To gain a better understanding of the key factors and processes determining the fate of substances at the SWI, methods with a spatial high resolution are required that enable the investigation of several sediment parameters in parallel to different analytes of interest in the sediment pore water. Moreover, beside the total content, questions concerning the speciation and fractionation are of concern in studying the different (transport) processes. Due to the availability of numerous micro-sensors and -electrodes (e.g., O2, redox potential, pH value, H2S, N2O) and the development of methods for pore water sampling [1], the toolbox to study the heterogeneous and often dynamic conditions at the SWI at a sub-millimetre scale were considerably improved. Nevertheless, the methods available for pore water sampling often require the installation of the sampling devices at the sampling site and/or intensive preparation procedures that may influence the conditions at the area studied and/or the characteristics of the samples taken. By combination of a micro profiling system with a new micro filtration probe head connected to a pump and a fraction collector, a micro profiling and micro sampling system ("missy") was developed that enables for the first time a direct, automate and low invasive sampling of small volumes (content of metal(loid)s, but also their fractionation (size dependent and micelle mediated) or speciation related distributions along sediment depth profiles in parallel to different sediment parameters (O2, redox and pH). Together with the results of missy-experiments, the results of

  13. Climate Change on Discharge and Sedimentation of River Awara, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipa O. Idogho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of variation in effect of climate change on discharges and sedimentation mechanism of River Awara is investigated using 14-year data of rainfall (mm, discharges (m 3 /s, temperature ( 0 c and sediment load (t. Surface runoff (mm was computed using Water Balance Equation and some other empirical iteration based on the observed rainfall and temperature over a period of time. Analysis of Paired Sample reveals the relationship between tested hydrological variables: Rainfall-Runoff; Runoff-Sediment load; and DischargeSediment load are significant at 0.95 level of confidence interval. Logarithm calibration curve further illustrates that Rainfall-Runoff and Runoff-Sediment have coefficient values (R 2 of 0.996 and 0.822 respectively. Analytical iteration shows that the intensity and duration of precipitation determine the magnitude of river, generation of surface runoff and sedimentation rate. Increase in rainfall depth by 100 mm within the 14-year has resulted to serious erodobility and erositivity around River Awara. Cumulative average sediment load ratio of 0.46 has significantly reduced the reservoir capacity of the river by 10%. 78% of total annual surface runoff is lost to ocean; since reservoir capacity has been silted up which in turns reduces the volume of water that could be held for storage, treatment and distribution for its intended purposes. Comparative physics-based output indicates that temperature increase of 0.7 0 c between 1997 and 2004, due to internal processes of the Earth and some human activities. It is however projected that temperature will rise by 0.9 0 c by the end of 2015. Projected rise in temperature will adversely affect hydrological cycle and complicate already scarce-water resources due to intensive evapotranspiration, infiltration and reduction in stream flow. Holistic integration using bottom-up mechanism needs to be applied to address this constraint. Dredging of river Awara is very important to enhance

  14. An Analytical Cost Estimation Procedure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayachandran, Toke

    1999-01-01

    Analytical procedures that can be used to do a sensitivity analysis of a cost estimate, and to perform tradeoffs to identify input values that can reduce the total cost of a project, are described in the report...

  15. Labour market driven learning analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobayashi, V.; Mol, S.T.; Kismihók, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly outlines a project about integrating labour market information in a learning analytics goal-setting application that provides guidance to students in their transition from education to employment.

  16. Labour Market Driven Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Vladimer; Mol, Stefan T.; Kismihók, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly outlines a project about integrating labour market information in a learning analytics goal-setting application that provides guidance to students in their transition from education to employment.

  17. An Overview of Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilvinskis, John; Willis, James, III; Borden, Victor M. H.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide administrators and faculty with an understanding of learning analytics and its relationship to existing roles and functions so better institutional decisions can be made about investments and activities related to these technologies.

  18. Analytic functionals on the sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Morimoto, Mitsuo

    1998-01-01

    This book treats spherical harmonic expansion of real analytic functions and hyperfunctions on the sphere. Because a one-dimensional sphere is a circle, the simplest example of the theory is that of Fourier series of periodic functions. The author first introduces a system of complex neighborhoods of the sphere by means of the Lie norm. He then studies holomorphic functions and analytic functionals on the complex sphere. In the one-dimensional case, this corresponds to the study of holomorphic functions and analytic functionals on the annular set in the complex plane, relying on the Laurent series expansion. In this volume, it is shown that the same idea still works in a higher-dimensional sphere. The Fourier-Borel transformation of analytic functionals on the sphere is also examined; the eigenfunction of the Laplacian can be studied in this way.

  19. Developing a learning analytics tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Christian; Belle, Gianna; Clemmensen, Anita Lykke

    This poster describes how learning analytics and collective intelligence can be combined in order to develop a tool for providing support and feedback to learners and teachers regarding students self-initiated learning activities.......This poster describes how learning analytics and collective intelligence can be combined in order to develop a tool for providing support and feedback to learners and teachers regarding students self-initiated learning activities....

  20. Analytic approaches to relativistic hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatta, Yoshitaka

    2016-12-15

    I summarize our recent work towards finding and utilizing analytic solutions of relativistic hydrodynamic. In the first part I discuss various exact solutions of the second-order conformal hydrodynamics. In the second part I compute flow harmonics v{sub n} analytically using the anisotropically deformed Gubser flow and discuss its dependence on n, p{sub T}, viscosity, the chemical potential and the charge.

  1. Analytical evaluation of actinide sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, A.

    1977-01-01

    The analytical evaluation of the sensitivities of actinides to various parameters such as cross sections, decay constants, flux and time is presented. The formulae are applied to isotopes of the Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium series. The agreement between analytically obtained and computer evaluated sensitivities being always good, it is throught that the formulation includes all the important parameters entering in the evaluation of sensitivities. A study of the published data is made

  2. Analytic Potentials for Realistic Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, Stephan E.; Taylor, Aimee E.; Swanson, Kenneth R.

    2002-01-01

    Finite difference algorithms are widely used to numerically solve Laplace's equation for electrode structures that are not amendable to analytic treatment. This includes essentially all real situations. However, in many cases, it is desirable to have the solution in an analytic form. A common practice is to 'fit' the numerical solution either by least squares or cubic spline approach. Neither of these approaches is really accurate, nor do they produce unique results. These limitations are avoided by our approach.

  3. Analytic Theology as Systematic Theology

    OpenAIRE

    Crisp Oliver D.

    2017-01-01

    It is often said that analytic theology is not really systematic theology; it is something else entirely. However, specifying what this “something else” amounts to has proven a little more difficult. In this article I argue that analytic theology may be a species of systematic theology. I show that there is no agreed view on the nature of systematic theology amongst several leading practitioners of systematic theology by comparing the work of John Webster, Brian Gerrish, and Gordon Kaufman. I...

  4. Determination of 210Pb in marine sediment core- A comparison between alpha and gamma techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Yii Mei Wo; Zaharudin Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The most commonly used techniques of alpha and gamma spectrometry were performed to measure 210 Pb activity in marine sediment core as a comparison. Alpha analytical technique measured the activity of 210 Pb from its in-grow grand-daughter 210 Po after a chemical separation, assuming radioactive equilibrium between the two radionuclides. Meanwhile, gamma analysis technique allows direct measurement, non-destructive and no preliminary chemical separation. Through the comparison, it is found that both alpha and gamma analysis techniques were slightly difference. Overall, the results from alpha analytical technique were basically higher than those from the gamma analytical techniques. Some logical argument had been discussed to explain this situation. In routine analysis, the analytical technique used should be chosen carefully based on advantages and disadvantages of the each technique and analysis requirements. Therefore, it is recommended to determine exactly the needs and purpose of analysis and to know the sample history before decide the appropriate analytical technique. (author)

  5. Organizational Models for Big Data and Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Grossman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we introduce a framework for determining how analytics capability should be distributed within an organization. Our framework stresses the importance of building a critical mass of analytics staff, centralizing or decentralizing the analytics staff to support business processes, and establishing an analytics governance structure to ensure that analytics processes are supported by the organization as a whole.

  6. Screening-level ecological and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater detention pond sediments of Coastal South Carolina, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, John E., E-mail: john.weinstein@citadel.edu [Department of Biology, The Citadel, Charleston, SC (United States); Crawford, Kevin D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, Oshkosh, WI (United States); Garner, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Clemson University, Pendleton, SC (United States); Flemming, Alan J. [South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Screening-level ecological and human health assessments were performed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of 19 stormwater detention ponds located in coastal South Carolina. For ecological screening benchmarks, we used threshold and probable effect concentrations (TEC and PEC) derived from consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for individual PAH analytes and equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmarks-toxic units ({Sigma}ESB-TU) derived for PAH mixtures. For human health benchmarks, we used preliminary remediation goals (PRGs). Sediments of five stormwater ponds (four commercial ponds and one residential pond with a large drainage area) exceeded PEC values for several PAH analytes and the {Sigma}ESB-TU safe value of 1 for PAH mixtures. These same five stormwater ponds also exceeded the PRG values for five carcinogenic PAH analytes. These results suggest that the PAH levels in sediments from certain commercial and residential ponds have the potential to pose moderate to high risks for adverse, chronic effects to benthic organisms in situ and an increased risk of cancer to humans ex situ following excavation and on-site disposal. We recommend that sediment from these stormwater ponds be tested prior to excavation to determine the appropriate method of disposal. We also recommend that regulatory agencies enforce guidelines for periodic sediment removal as this should reduce both in situ and ex situ risks resulting from sediment PAH exposure.

  7. Screening-level ecological and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater detention pond sediments of Coastal South Carolina, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, John E.; Crawford, Kevin D.; Garner, Thomas R.; Flemming, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Screening-level ecological and human health assessments were performed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of 19 stormwater detention ponds located in coastal South Carolina. For ecological screening benchmarks, we used threshold and probable effect concentrations (TEC and PEC) derived from consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for individual PAH analytes and equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmarks-toxic units (ΣESB-TU) derived for PAH mixtures. For human health benchmarks, we used preliminary remediation goals (PRGs). Sediments of five stormwater ponds (four commercial ponds and one residential pond with a large drainage area) exceeded PEC values for several PAH analytes and the ΣESB-TU safe value of 1 for PAH mixtures. These same five stormwater ponds also exceeded the PRG values for five carcinogenic PAH analytes. These results suggest that the PAH levels in sediments from certain commercial and residential ponds have the potential to pose moderate to high risks for adverse, chronic effects to benthic organisms in situ and an increased risk of cancer to humans ex situ following excavation and on-site disposal. We recommend that sediment from these stormwater ponds be tested prior to excavation to determine the appropriate method of disposal. We also recommend that regulatory agencies enforce guidelines for periodic sediment removal as this should reduce both in situ and ex situ risks resulting from sediment PAH exposure.

  8. Sediment Capping and Natural Recovery, Contaminant Transport Fundamentals With Applications to Sediment Caps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrovski, David M; Corcoran, Maureen K; May, James H; Patrick, David M

    2005-01-01

    Engineered sediment caps and natural recovery are in situ remedial alternatives for contaminated sediments, which consist of the artificial or natural placement of a layer of material over a sediment...

  9. The relative contribution of near-bed vs. intragravel horizontal transport to fine sediment accumulation processes in river gravel beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Mulet, Roser; Lakhanpal, Garima; Stewardson, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding flow-sediment interactions is important for comprehending river functioning. Fine sediment accumulation processes, in particular, have key implications for ecosystem health. However, the amount of fines generated by intragravel flows and later accumulated in gravel streambeds may have been underestimated, as the hydraulic-related driving transport mechanisms in play are not clearly identified. Specifically, the relative contribution of fines from upper vs. lower sediment layers in gravel beds is not well understood. By recreating flooded and dewatered conditions in an experimental flume filled with natural sediment, we estimated such contributions by observing and collecting intragravel transported fines that were later accumulated into a void in the middle of the sediment matrix. Near-bed transport in the upper sediment layers (named Brinkman load) during flooded conditions accounted for most (90%) of the accumulated fines. Intragravel transport in the lower sediment layers (named Interstitial load) was the sole source of transport and accumulation during dewatered conditions with steeper hydraulic gradients. Interstitial load accounted for 10% of the total transport during flooded conditions. Although small, such estimations demonstrate that hydraulic-gradient transport in the lower sediment layers occurs in spite of the contradicting analytical assessments. We provide a case study to challenge the traditional approaches of assessing intragravel transport, and a useful framework to understand the origin and relative contribution of fine sediment accumulation in gravel beds. Such knowledge will be highly useful for the design of monitoring programs aiding river management, particularly in regulated rivers.

  10. Hawaii Regional Sediment Management (RSM): Regional Sediment Budget for the West Maui Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 6- 5 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Hawaii Regional Sediment Management (RSM): Regional Sediment Budget...acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program ERDC/CHL TR-16-5 June 2016 Hawaii Regional Sediment Management...distribution is unlimited. Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project 454632, “ Hawaii Regional Sediment Management

  11. Finite element analysis of thermal convection in deep ocean sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartling, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    Of obvious importance to the study and engineering of a seabed disposal is the determination of the temperature and fluid flow fields existing in the sediment layer and the perturbation of these fields due to the implantation of localized heat sources. The fluid mechanical and heat transfer process occurring in oceanic sediments may be characterized as free (or natural) convection in a porous material. In the case of an undisturbed sediment layer, the driving force for the natural circulation of pore water comes from the geothermal heat flux. Current theories for heat flow from the sea floor suggest the possibility of large scale hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust (see e.g., Ribando, et al. 1976) which is in turn coupled with a convection process in the overlying sediment layer (Anderson 1980, Anderson, et al. 1979). The introduction of a local heat source, such as a waste canister, into a saturated sediment layer would by itself initiate a convection process due to buoyancy forces. Since the mathematical description of natural convection in a porous medium is of sufficient complexity to preclude the use of most analytic methods of analysis, approximate numerical procedures are often employed. In the following sections, a particular type of numerical method is described that has proved useful in the solution of a variety of porous flow problems. However, rather than concentrate on the details of the numerical algorithm the main emphasis of the presentation will be on the types of problems and results that are encountered in the areas of oceanic heat flow and seabed waste disposal

  12. Continuous-flow centrifugation to collect suspended sediment for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Dinicola, Richard S.; Black, Robert W.; Cox, Stephen E.; Sheibley, Richard W.; Foreman, James R.; Senter, Craig A.; Peterson, Norman T.

    2016-12-22

    Recent advances in suspended-sediment monitoring tools and surrogate technologies have greatly improved the ability to quantify suspended-sediment concentrations and to estimate daily, seasonal, and annual suspended-sediment fluxes from rivers to coastal waters. However, little is known about the chemical composition of suspended sediment, and how it may vary spatially between water bodies and temporally within a single system owing to climate, seasonality, land use, and other natural and anthropogenic drivers. Many water-quality contaminants, such as organic and inorganic chemicals, nutrients, and pathogens, preferentially partition in sediment rather than water. Suspended sediment-bound chemical concentrations may be undetected during analysis of unfiltered water samples, owing to small water sample volumes and analytical limitations. Quantification of suspended sediment‑bound chemical concentrations is needed to improve estimates of total chemical concentrations, chemical fluxes, and exposure levels of aquatic organisms and humans in receiving environments. Despite these needs, few studies or monitoring programs measure the chemical composition of suspended sediment, largely owing to the difficulty in consistently obtaining samples of sufficient quality and quantity for laboratory analysis.A field protocol is described here utilizing continuous‑flow centrifugation for the collection of suspended sediment for chemical analysis. The centrifuge used for development of this method is small, lightweight, and portable for the field applications described in this protocol. Project scoping considerations, deployment of equipment and system layout options, and results from various field and laboratory quality control experiments are described. The testing confirmed the applicability of the protocol for the determination of many inorganic and organic chemicals sorbed on suspended sediment, including metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and

  13. Characterization of sediments laid on Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plains, using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Ana E.V.; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. do

    1997-01-01

    This paper proposes sediment analysis with high light elements fraction using dispersive energy X-ray fluorescence technique with radioisotopic excitation, The proposed procedure is based on the Fundamental Parameters for analytical elements (Z ≥ 13) evaluation, and coherent and incoherent scattered radiation for quantification of the light fraction of the matrix (Z < 13). Laid sediments samples on Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plains were analyzed, determining simultaneously the Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sc, V, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Zr element concentrations, thus allowing chemical characterization and spatial variability, and some mineralogical and weathering sediments aspects. (author). 15 refs., 11 tabs

  14. Regional Sediment Analysis of Mississippi River Sediment Transport and Hydrographic Survey Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thorne, Colin

    2002-01-01

    ...s. Sediments generated through channel instability are carried downstream to cause sedimentation problems in flood control channels, destroy wetlands and lakes, adversely impact fish and wildlife...

  15. Future analytical provision - Relocation of Sellafield Ltd Analytical Services Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, B.

    2015-01-01

    Sellafield Ltd Analytical Services provide an essential view on the environmental, safety, process and high hazard risk reduction performances by analysis of samples. It is the largest and most complex analytical services laboratory in Europe, with 150 laboratories (55 operational) and 350 staff (including 180 analysts). Sellafield Ltd Analytical Services Main Laboratory is in need of replacement. This is due to the age of the facility and changes to work streams. This relocation is an opportunity to -) design and commission bespoke MA (Medium-Active) cells, -) modify HA (High-Active) cell design to facilitate an in-cell laboratory, -) develop non-destructive techniques, -) open light building for better worker morale. The option chosen was to move the activities to the NNL Central laboratory (NNLCL) that is based at Sellafield and is the UK's flagship nuclear research and development facility. This poster gives a time schedule

  16. Data Evaluation Report for the Lower Rouge River Sediment Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes a study of contaminated sediment, analyzes results, and makes recommendations for sediment remediation. Includes aerial views of study locations, photo log, data tables of sediment analysis.

  17. Accounting for thermodynamic non-ideality in the Guinier region of small-angle scattering data of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David J

    2016-12-01

    Hydrodynamic studies of the solution properties of proteins and other biological macromolecules are often hard to interpret when the sample is present at a reasonably concentrated solution. The reason for this is that solutions exhibit deviations from ideal behaviour which is manifested as thermodynamic non-ideality. The range of concentrations at which this behaviour typically is exhibited is as low as 1-2 mg/ml, well within the range of concentrations used for their analysis by techniques such as small-angle scattering. Here we discuss thermodynamic non-ideality used previously used in the context of light scattering and sedimentation equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation and apply it to the Guinier region of small-angle scattering data. The results show that there is a complementarity between the radially averaged structure factor derived from small-angle X-ray scattering/small-angle neutron scattering studies and the second virial coefficient derived from sedimentation equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation experiments.

  18. Assessment of metal concentrations in sediment samples from Billings Reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostelmann, Eleine

    2006-01-01

    The present study chemically characterized sediment samples from the Billings reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, in the Metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, by determining metal concentration and other elements of interest. The chosen chemical parameters for this characterization were Aluminum, Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Selenium and Zinco. These parameters are also used in the water quality index, with the exception of Selenium. The concentrations were determined through different analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, GFAAS and CVAAS), optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and neutron activation analysis. These analytical methodologies were assessed for precision, accuracy and detection and/or quantification limits for the sediment elements in question. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique for each element and its concentration were also discussed. From these assessments the most adequate technique was selected for the routine analysis of sediment samples for each element concentration determination. This assessment verified also that digestion in a closed microwave system with nitric acid is efficient for the evaluation of extracted metals of environmental interest. The analytical techniques chosen were equally efficient for metals determination. In the case of Cd and Pb, the FAAS technique was selected due to better results than ICP OES, as it does not present matrix interference. The concentration values obtained for metals As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) TEL and PEL values. (author)

  19. Assessment of metal concentrations in sediment samples from Billings reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostelmann, Eleine

    2006-01-01

    The present study chemically characterized sediment samples from the Billings reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, in the Metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, by determining metal concentration and other elements of interest. The chosen chemical parameters for this characterization were Aluminum, Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Selenium and Zinc. These parameters are also used in the water quality index, with the exception of Selenium. The concentrations were determined through different analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, GFAAS and CVAAS), optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and neutron activation analysis. These analytical methodologies were assessed for precision, accuracy and detection and/or quantification limits for the sediment elements in question. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique for each element and its concentration were also discussed. From these assessment the most adequate technique was selected for the routine analysis of sediment samples for each element concentration determination. This assessment verified also that digestion in a closed microwave system with nitric acid is efficient for the evaluation of extracted metals of environmental interest. The analytical techniques chosen were equally efficient for metals determination. In the case of Cd and Pb, the FAAS technique was selected due to better results than ICP OES, as it does not present matrix interference. The concentration values obtained for metals As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) TEL and PEL values. (author)

  20. Ancient aqueous sedimentation on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldspiel, J.M.; Squyres, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    Viking orbiter images are presently used to calculate approximate volumes for the inflow valleys of the ancient cratered terrain of Mars; a sediment-transport model is then used to conservatively estimate the amount of water required for the removal of this volume of debris from the valleys. The results obtained for four basins with well-developed inflow networks indicate basin sediment thicknesses of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. The calculations further suggest that the quantity of water required to transport the sediment is greater than that which could be produced by a single discharge of the associated aquifer, unless the material of the Martian highlands was very fine-grained and noncohesive to depths of hundreds of meters. 48 refs

  1. Radionuclide interactions with marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.

    1987-09-01

    A critical review of the literature on the subject of the interactions of radionuclides with marine sediments has been carried out. On the basis of the information available, an attempt has been made to give ranges and 'best estimates' for the distribution ratios between seawater and sediments. These estimates have been based on an understanding of the sediment seawater system and the porewater chemistry and mineralogy. Field measurements, laboratory measurements and estimates based on stable-element geochemical data are all taken into account. Laboratory measurements include distribution-ratio and diffusion-coefficient determinations. The elements reviewed are carbon, chlorine, calcium, nickel, selenium, strontium, zirconium, niobium, technetium, tin, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium. (author)

  2. Contaminated sediment transport during floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 48 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of parts of the White Oak Creek catchment. The contaminants presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in the White Oak Creek drainage system. The erosion of these sediments during floods can result in the transport of contaminants both within the catchment and off-site into the Clinch River. A data collection program and a modeling investigation are being used to evaluate the probability of contaminated sediment transport during floods and to develop strategies for controlling off-site transport under present and future conditions

  3. Analytical Sociology: A Bungean Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Poe Yu-ze

    2012-10-01

    Analytical sociology, an intellectual project that has garnered considerable attention across a variety of disciplines in recent years, aims to explain complex social processes by dissecting them, accentuating their most important constituent parts, and constructing appropriate models to understand the emergence of what is observed. To achieve this goal, analytical sociologists demonstrate an unequivocal focus on the mechanism-based explanation grounded in action theory. In this article I attempt a critical appreciation of analytical sociology from the perspective of Mario Bunge's philosophical system, which I characterize as emergentist systemism. I submit that while the principles of analytical sociology and those of Bunge's approach share a lot in common, the latter brings to the fore the ontological status and explanatory importance of supra-individual actors (as concrete systems endowed with emergent causal powers) and macro-social mechanisms (as processes unfolding in and among social systems), and therefore it does not stipulate that every causal explanation of social facts has to include explicit references to individual-level actors and mechanisms. In this sense, Bunge's approach provides a reasonable middle course between the Scylla of sociological reification and the Charybdis of ontological individualism, and thus serves as an antidote to the untenable "strong program of microfoundations" to which some analytical sociologists are committed.

  4. Development of a sample preparation method for the analysis of current-use pesticides in sediment using gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongli; Weston, Donald P; Ding, Yuping; Lydy, Michael J

    2010-02-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides have been implicated as the cause of sediment toxicity to Hyalella azteca in both agricultural and urban areas of California; however, for a subset of these toxic sediments (approximately 30%), the cause of toxicity remains unidentified. This article describes the analytical method development for seven additional pesticides that are being examined to determine if they might play a role in the unexplained toxicity. A pressurized liquid extraction method was optimized to simultaneously extract diazinon, methyl parathion, oxyfluorfen, dicofol, fenpropathrin, pyraclostrobin, and indoxacarb from sediment, and the extracts were cleaned using a two-step solid-phase extraction procedure. The final extract was analyzed for the target pesticides by gas chromatography/nitrogen-phosphorus detector (GC/NPD), and gas chromatography/electron capture detector (GC/ECD), after sulfur was removed by shaking with copper and cold crystallization. Three sediments were used as reference matrices to assess method accuracy and precision. Method detection limits were 0.23-1.8 ng/g dry sediment using seven replicates of sediment spiked at 1.0 ng/g dry sediment. Recoveries ranged from 61.6 to 118% with relative standard deviations of 2.1-17% when spiked at 5.0 and 50 ng/g dry sediment. The three reference sediments, spiked with 50 ng/g dry weight of the pesticide mixture, were aged for 0.25, 1, 4, 7, and 14 days. Recoveries of the pesticides in the sediments generally decreased with increased aging time, but the magnitude of the decline was pesticide and sediment dependent. The developed method was applied to field-collected sediments from the Central Valley of California.

  5. Radiotracer Imaging of Sediment Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, W. W.; O'Neil, J. P.; Boutchko, R.; Nico, P. S.; Druhan, J. L.; Vandehey, N. T.

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear medical PET and SPECT cameras routinely image radioactivity concentration of gamma ray emitting isotopes (PET - 511 keV; SPECT - 75-300 keV). We have used nuclear medical imaging technology to study contaminant transport in sediment columns. Specifically, we use Tc-99m (T1/2 = 6 h, Eγ = 140 keV) and a SPECT camera to image the bacteria mediated reduction of pertechnetate, [Tc(VII)O4]- + Fe(II) → Tc(IV)O2 + Fe(III). A 45 mL bolus of Tc-99m (32 mCi) labeled sodium pertechnetate was infused into a column (35cm x 10cm Ø) containing uranium-contaminated subsurface sediment from the Rifle, CO site. A flow rate of 1.25 ml/min of artificial groundwater was maintained in the column. Using a GE Millennium VG camera, we imaged the column for 12 hours, acquiring 44 frames. As the microbes in the sediment were inactive, we expected most of the iron to be Fe(III). The images were consistent with this hypothesis, and the Tc-99m pertechnetate acted like a conservative tracer. Virtually no binding of the Tc-99m was observed, and while the bolus of activity propagated fairly uniformly through the column, some inhomogeneity attributed to sediment packing was observed. We expect that after augmentation by acetate, the bacteria will metabolically reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), leading to significant Tc-99m binding. Imaging sediment columns using nuclear medicine techniques has many attractive features. Trace quantities of the radiolabeled compounds are used (micro- to nano- molar) and the half-lives of many of these tracers are short (Image of Tc-99m distribution in a column containing Rifle sediment at four times.

  6. Hydroxyatrazine in soils and sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, R.N.; Thurman, E.M.; Blanchard, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    Hydroxyatrazine (HA) is the major metabolite of atrazine in most surface soils. Knowledge of HA sorption to soils, and its pattern of stream water contamination suggest that it is persistent in the environment. Soils with different atrazine use histories were collected from four sites, and sediments were collected from an agricultural watershed. Samples were exhaustively extracted with a mixed-mode extractant, and HA was quantitated using high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Atrazine, deethylatrazine (DEA), and deisopropylatrazine (DIA) were also measured in all samples. Concentrations of HA were considerably greater than concentrations of atrazine, DEA, and DIA in all soils and sediments studied. Soil concentrations of HA ranged from 14 to 640 ??g/kg with a median concentration of 84 ??g/kg. Sediment concentrations of HA ranged from 11 to 96 ??g/kg, with a median concentration of 14 ??g/kg. Correlations of HA and atrazine concentrations to soil properties indicated that HA levels in soils were controlled by sorption of atrazine. Because atrazine hydrolysis is known to be enhanced by sorption and pH extremes, soils with high organic matter (OM) and clay content and low pH will result in greater atrazine sorption and subsequent hydrolysis. Significant correlation of HA concentrations to OM, pH, and cation exchange capacity of sediments indicated that mixed-mode sorption (i.e., binding by cation exchange and hydrophobic interactions) was the mechanism controlling HA levels in sediment. The presence of HA in soils and stream sediments at the levels observed support existing hypotheses regarding its transport in surface runoff. These results also indicated that persistence of HA in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems is an additional risk factor associated with atrazine usage.

  7. Beryllium-10 in continental sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Sacks, I.S.; Tera, F.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1981-01-01

    The concentration of 10 Be has been measured in 10 samples taken from a transect of surface sediments beginning in the Atchafalaya River and extending across the Bay 136 km into the Gulf of Mexico. If corrected for a lower retentivity of sand for Be, they have a concentration that is constant within 13%. This concentration is about an order of magnitude smaller than that of deep ocean sediments. For comparison, measurements of 10 Be in rainwater, in a sample of soil and in a deep ocean core were made. (orig.)

  8. Methodological practicalities in analytical generalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente

    2011-01-01

    generalization. Theoretically, the argumentation in the article is based on practice theory. The main part of the article describes three different examples of ways of generalizing on the basis of the same qualitative data material. There is a particular focus on describing the methodological strategies......In this article, I argue that the existing literature on qualitative methodologies tend to discuss analytical generalization at a relatively abstract and general theoretical level. It is, however, not particularly straightforward to “translate” such abstract epistemological principles into more...... operative methodological strategies for producing analytical generalizations in research practices. Thus, the aim of the article is to contribute to the discussions among qualitatively working researchers about generalizing by way of exemplifying some of the methodological practicalities in analytical...

  9. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S M Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined.

  10. Analytic solutions of hydrodynamics equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggeshall, S.V.

    1991-01-01

    Many similarity solutions have been found for the equations of one-dimensional (1-D) hydrodynamics. These special combinations of variables allow the partial differential equations to be reduced to ordinary differential equations, which must then be solved to determine the physical solutions. Usually, these reduced ordinary differential equations are solved numerically. In some cases it is possible to solve these reduced equations analytically to obtain explicit solutions. In this work a collection of analytic solutions of the 1-D hydrodynamics equations is presented. These can be used for a variety of purposes, including (i) numerical benchmark problems, (ii) as a basis for analytic models, and (iii) to provide insight into more complicated solutions

  11. Analytic continuation in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, Irinel

    2002-01-01

    We discuss some attempts to improve standard perturbative expansion in QCD by using the analytic continuation in the momentum and the Borel complex planes. We first analyse the momentum-plane analyticity properties of the Borel-summed Green functions in perturbative QCD and the connection between the Landau singularities and the infrared renormalons. By using the analytic continuation in the Borel complex plane, we propose a new perturbative series replacing the standard expansion in powers of the normalized coupling constant a. The new expansion functions have branch point and essential singularities at the origin of the complex a-plane and divergent Taylor expansions in powers of a. On the other hand the modified expansion of the QCD correlators is convergent under rather conservative conditions. (author)

  12. Making Decisions by Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    . These discrepancies are very unfortunate because erroneous conclusions may arise from an otherwise meticulous and dedicated effort of research staff. This may eventually lead to unreliable conclusions thus jeopardizing investigations of environmental monitoring, climate changes, food safety, clinical chemistry......It has been long recognized that results of analytical chemistry are not flawless, owing to the fact that professional laboratories and research laboratories analysing the same type of samples by the same type of instruments are likely to obtain significantly different results. The European......, forensics and other fields of science where analytical chemistry is the key instrument of decision making. In order to elucidate the potential origin of the statistical variations found among laboratories, a major program was undertaken including several analytical technologies where the purpose...

  13. Semi-analytical MBS Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom-Poulsen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-factor valuation model for fixed-rate callable mortgage backed securities (MBS). The model yields semi-analytic solutions for the value of MBS in the sense that the MBS value is found by solving a system of ordinary differential equations. Instead of modelling the cond......This paper presents a multi-factor valuation model for fixed-rate callable mortgage backed securities (MBS). The model yields semi-analytic solutions for the value of MBS in the sense that the MBS value is found by solving a system of ordinary differential equations. Instead of modelling...... interest rate model. However, if the pool size is specified in a way that makes the expectations solvable using transform methods, semi-analytic pricing formulas are achieved. The affine and quadratic pricing frameworks are combined to get flexible and sophisticated prepayment functions. We show...

  14. Collaborative Visual Analytics: A Health Analytics Approach to Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hajj, Samar; Fisher, Brian; Smith, Jennifer; Pike, Ian

    2017-09-12

    Background : Accurate understanding of complex health data is critical in order to deal with wicked health problems and make timely decisions. Wicked problems refer to ill-structured and dynamic problems that combine multidimensional elements, which often preclude the conventional problem solving approach. This pilot study introduces visual analytics (VA) methods to multi-stakeholder decision-making sessions about child injury prevention; Methods : Inspired by the Delphi method, we introduced a novel methodology-group analytics (GA). GA was pilot-tested to evaluate the impact of collaborative visual analytics on facilitating problem solving and supporting decision-making. We conducted two GA sessions. Collected data included stakeholders' observations, audio and video recordings, questionnaires, and follow up interviews. The GA sessions were analyzed using the Joint Activity Theory protocol analysis methods; Results : The GA methodology triggered the emergence of ' common g round ' among stakeholders. This common ground evolved throughout the sessions to enhance stakeholders' verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as coordination of joint activities and ultimately collaboration on problem solving and decision-making; Conclusion s : Understanding complex health data is necessary for informed decisions. Equally important, in this case, is the use of the group analytics methodology to achieve ' common ground' among diverse stakeholders about health data and their implications.

  15. Collaborative Visual Analytics: A Health Analytics Approach to Injury Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Al-Hajj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate understanding of complex health data is critical in order to deal with wicked health problems and make timely decisions. Wicked problems refer to ill-structured and dynamic problems that combine multidimensional elements, which often preclude the conventional problem solving approach. This pilot study introduces visual analytics (VA methods to multi-stakeholder decision-making sessions about child injury prevention; Methods: Inspired by the Delphi method, we introduced a novel methodology—group analytics (GA. GA was pilot-tested to evaluate the impact of collaborative visual analytics on facilitating problem solving and supporting decision-making. We conducted two GA sessions. Collected data included stakeholders’ observations, audio and video recordings, questionnaires, and follow up interviews. The GA sessions were analyzed using the Joint Activity Theory protocol analysis methods; Results: The GA methodology triggered the emergence of ‘common ground’ among stakeholders. This common ground evolved throughout the sessions to enhance stakeholders’ verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as coordination of joint activities and ultimately collaboration on problem solving and decision-making; Conclusions: Understanding complex health data is necessary for informed decisions. Equally important, in this case, is the use of the group analytics methodology to achieve ‘common ground’ among diverse stakeholders about health data and their implications.

  16. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J

    1966-01-01

    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  17. Analytic observables in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely, I.

    1980-05-01

    The analytical dependence of quantum mechanical observables on their variables is discussed by using the assumption that the corresponding probability amplitudes are analytic functions. The properties of the cross section in the energy plane for spinless particles as well as the properties of the most general polarization observables in the cosdelta plane are considered in detail. In particular, the strength of the transfer pole for polarization observables is given. The practical possibilities to extract the different orbital momentum components of nuclei by extrapolation techniques are briefly outlined. (author)

  18. Bell inequality, nonlocality and analyticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socolovsky, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Bell and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities are shown to hold for both the cases of complex and real analytic nonlocality in the setting parameters of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments for spin ((1)/(2)) particles and photons, in both the deterministic and stochastic cases. Therefore, the theoretical and experimental violation of the inequalities by quantum mechanics excludes all hidden variables theories with that kind of nonlocality. In particular, real analyticity leads to negative definite correlations, in contradiction with quantum mechanics

  19. Bell inequality, nonlocality and analyticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socolovsky, M

    2003-09-15

    The Bell and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities are shown to hold for both the cases of complex and real analytic nonlocality in the setting parameters of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments for spin ((1)/(2)) particles and photons, in both the deterministic and stochastic cases. Therefore, the theoretical and experimental violation of the inequalities by quantum mechanics excludes all hidden variables theories with that kind of nonlocality. In particular, real analyticity leads to negative definite correlations, in contradiction with quantum mechanics.

  20. Dynamics of suspended sediment concentration, flow discharge and sediment particle size interdependency to identify sediment source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza; Singh, Vijay P.

    2017-11-01

    Spatiotemporal behavior of sediment yield is a key for proper watershed management. This study analyzed statistical characteristics and trends of suspended sediment concentration (SCS), flow discharge (FD) and sediment particle sizes using data from 24 gage stations scattered throughout the United States. Analysis showed significant time- and location-specific differences of these variables. The median values of SSC, FD and percentage of particle sizes smaller than 63 μm (P63) for all 24 gage stations were found to be 510.236 mg l-1 (right skewed), 45.406 m3 s-1 (left skewed) and 78.648% (right skewed), respectively. Most of the stations exhibited significant trends (P practices which may call for local or regional planning based on natural (i.e., precipitation amount, type and erosivity, watershed area, and soil erodibility) and human-affected (i.e., land use and hydraulic structures and water resources management) factors governing the study variables.

  1. Top down arsenic uncertainty measurement in water and sediments from Guarapiranga dam (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, M. G.; Lange, C. N.; Monteiro, L. R.; Furusawa, H. A.; Marques, J. R.; Stellato, T. B.; Soares, S. M. V.; da Silva, T. B. S. C.; da Silva, D. B.; Cotrim, M. E. B.; Pires, M. A. F.

    2018-03-01

    Total arsenic measurements assessment regarding legal threshold demands more than average and standard deviation approach. In this way, analytical measurement uncertainty evaluation was conducted in order to comply with legal requirements and to allow the balance of arsenic in both water and sediment compartments. A top-down approach for measurement uncertainties was applied to evaluate arsenic concentrations in water and sediments from Guarapiranga dam (São Paulo, Brazil). Laboratory quality control and arsenic interlaboratory tests data were used in this approach to estimate the uncertainties associated with the methodology.

  2. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in intertidal wetland sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGenity, Terry J

    2014-06-01

    Intertidal wetlands, primarily salt marsh, mangrove and mudflats, which provide many essential ecosystem services, are under threat on numerous fronts; a situation that is made worse by crude-oil pollution. Microbes are the main vehicle for remediation of such sediments, and new discoveries, such as novel biodegradation pathways, means of accessing oil, multi-species interactions, and community-level responses to oil addition, are helping us to understand, predict and monitor the fate of oil. Despite this, there are many challenges, not least because of the heterogeneity of these ecosystems and the complexity of crude oil. For example, there is growing awareness about the toxicity of the oxygenated products that result from crude-oil weathering, which are difficult to degrade. This review highlights how developments in areas as diverse as systems biology, microbiology, ecology, biogeochemistry and analytical chemistry are enhancing our understanding of hydrocarbon biodegradation and thus bioremediation of oil-polluted intertidal wetlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Staphylococcus aureus extracellular adherence protein (Eap) adopts an elongated but structured conformation in solution

    OpenAIRE

    Hammel, Michal; Němeček, Daniel; Keightley, J. Andrew; Thomas, George J.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.

    2007-01-01

    The extracellular adherence protein (Eap) of Staphylococcus aureus participates in a wide range of protein–protein interactions that facilitate the initiation and dissemination of Staphylococcal disease. In this report, we describe the use of a multidisciplinary approach to characterize the solution structure of full-length Eap. In contrast to previous reports suggesting that a six-domain isoform of Eap undergoes multimerization, sedimentation equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation data r...

  4. Mercury enrichment in sediments of Amba estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    of anthropogenic metal to the estuary. Geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor support Hg contamination of the estuarine sediment to a varying degree. Hg is not significantly correlated with TOC, Al, Fe and Mn in these sediments...

  5. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor contains approximately 20,000 biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) from 20 locations (mostly Superfund sites) for...

  6. Assessing the environmental availability of uranium in soils and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, J.E.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Krupa, K.M.; Lindenmeier, C.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Soils and sediments contaminated with uranium pose certain environmental and ecological risks. At low to moderate levels of contamination, the magnitude of these risks depends not only on the absolute concentrations of uranium in the material but also on the availability of the uranium to drinking water supplies, plants, or higher organisms. Rational approaches for regulating the clean-up of sites contaminated with uranium, therefore, should consider the value of assessing the environmental availability of uranium at the site before making decisions regarding remediation. The purpose of this work is to review existing approaches and procedures to determine their potential applicability for assessing the environmental availability of uranium in bulk soils or sediments. In addition to making the recommendations regarding methodology, the authors have tabulated data from the literature on the aqueous complexes of uranium and major uranium minerals, examined the possibility of predicting environmental availability of uranium based on thermodynamic solubility data, and compiled a representative list of analytical laboratories capable of performing environmental analyses of uranium in soils and sediments.

  7. Assessing the environmental availability of uranium in soils and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amonette, J.E.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Krupa, K.M.; Lindenmeier, C.W.

    1994-06-01

    Soils and sediments contaminated with uranium pose certain environmental and ecological risks. At low to moderate levels of contamination, the magnitude of these risks depends not only on the absolute concentrations of uranium in the material but also on the availability of the uranium to drinking water supplies, plants, or higher organisms. Rational approaches for regulating the clean-up of sites contaminated with uranium, therefore, should consider the value of assessing the environmental availability of uranium at the site before making decisions regarding remediation. The purpose of this work is to review existing approaches and procedures to determine their potential applicability for assessing the environmental availability of uranium in bulk soils or sediments. In addition to making the recommendations regarding methodology, the authors have tabulated data from the literature on the aqueous complexes of uranium and major uranium minerals, examined the possibility of predicting environmental availability of uranium based on thermodynamic solubility data, and compiled a representative list of analytical laboratories capable of performing environmental analyses of uranium in soils and sediments

  8. Data reduction in cascade impactor and sedimentation battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulaud, Denis; Diouri, Mohamed.

    1982-07-01

    The determination of the mass distribution of an aerosol from data collected by a cascade impactor or a sedimentation battery implies the size characterization of each impactor stage or each battery length. In the case of the impactor four data reduction methods were compared. Preinning and Picknett's methods, a simulation method and the wellknown effective cut off size method. A theoretical simulation showed that both the simulation and Picknett's methods were the best adapted to restituting a mass distribution with an uncertainty not exceeding 5% for the mass median diameter and 10% for the standard deviation. In the case of the sedimentation battery a new method was developed allowing data reduction when the analytical shape of the size distribution is known. A theoretical simulation was carried out in order to test our method. The test showed that this method was also adapted to restituting the distribution shape, however the size range covered by the sedimentation battery was generally smaller than that of the impactor [fr

  9. Sediments of a retting yard

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Remani, K.N.; Venugopal, P.; Devi, K.S.; Unnithan, R.V.

    (av. 46.8 and 92.3 mg/g respectively) compared to the reference station (20.6 and 48.9 mg/g) and published data on estuarine sediments.C/N ratios were consistently higher in the retting yard. Organic nitrogen, however,did not show this trend. Annual...

  10. Intercomparison of transuranics in sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, K.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a recent intercomparison of transuranic analyses in Nordic sediments undertaken by five laboratories. Five different samplers were tested to determine their consistency and utility. Plutonium and americium were determined in all the samples and the analysis of variance is discussed. (author)

  11. Identification of carotenals in sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array UV–Vis detection and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry was used to analyze sediment samples from the meromictic Ace Lake (Antarctica), as well as a Pliocene sapropel from the Mediterranean Sea and a Miocene marl

  12. Flocculation Dynamics of cohesive sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, F.

    2005-01-01

    Cohesive sediment suspended in natural waters is subject not only to transport and deposition processes but also to reactions of flocculation, \\textit{i.e.} aggregation of fine particles, and breakup of aggregates. Although aggregation and breakup occur at small and very small length scales compared

  13. Bacterial chemoautotrophy in coastal sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasquez Cardenas, D.

    2016-01-01

    A key process in the biogeochemistry of coastal sediments is the reoxidation of reduced intermediates formed during anaerobic mineralization which in part is performed by chemoautotrophic bacteria. These bacteria fix inorganic carbon using the energy derived from reoxidation reactions. However the

  14. Surface sedimentation at permeable pavement systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Jan; Dam, Torben; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2018-01-01

    Newly installed permeable pavement (PP) systems provide high surface infiltration capacity, but the accumulation of sediments causes a decrease in capacity over time, eventually leading to surface clogging. With the aim of investigating local sedimentation processes and the importance of restorat......Newly installed permeable pavement (PP) systems provide high surface infiltration capacity, but the accumulation of sediments causes a decrease in capacity over time, eventually leading to surface clogging. With the aim of investigating local sedimentation processes and the importance...

  15. Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 13 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Co as ta...ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 August 2017 Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Kevin B. Conner U.S. Army Engineer District, Wilmington P...Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project 454632, “Sediment Budget Analysis, Masonboro Inlet, NC” ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 ii Abstract A

  16. Prediction of bedload sediment transport for heterogeneous sediments in shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durafour, Marine; Jarno, Armelle; Le Bot, Sophie; Lafite, Robert; Marin, François

    2015-04-01

    Key words: Particle shape, in-situ measurements, bedload transport, heterogeneous sediments Bedload sediment transport in the coastal area is a dynamic process mainly influenced by the type of hydrodynamic forcings involved (current and/or waves), the flow properties (velocity, viscosity, depth) and sediment heterogeneity (particle size, density, shape). Although particle shape is recognized to be a significant factor in the hydrodynamic behavior of grains, this parameter is not currently implemented in bedload transport formulations: firstly because the mechanisms of initiation of motion according to particle shape are still not fully understood, and secondly due to the difficulties in defining common shape parameters. In March 2011, a large panel of in-situ instruments was deployed on two sites in the Eastern English Channel, during the sea campaign MESFLUX11. Samples of the sediment cover available for transport are collected, during a slack period, per 2cm thick strata by divers and by using a Shipeck grab. Bedload discharges along a tidal cycle are also collected with a Delft Nile Sampler (DNS; Gaweesh and Van Rijn, 1992, 1994) on both sites. The first one is characterized by a sandy bed with a low size dispersion, while the other study area implies graded sediments from fine sands to granules. A detailed analysis of the data is performed to follow the evolution of in-situ bedload fluxes on the seabed for a single current. In-situ measurements are compared to existing formulations according to a single fraction approach, using the median diameter of the mixture, and a fractionwise approach, involving a discretization of the grading curve. Results emphasize the interest to oscillate between these two methods according to the dispersion in size of the site considered. The need to apply a hiding/exposure coefficient (Egiazaroff, 1965) and a hindrance factor (Kleinhans and Van Rijn, 2002) for size heterogeneous sediments is also clearly highlighted. A really good

  17. Upstream sediment input effects on experimental dune trough scour in sediment mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding causes of dune irregularity, especially dune trough scour, is important for the modeling of vertical sorting of sediment mixtures in morphological models of rivers with sediment mixtures. Sediment in dunes is generally sorted in a fining-upward manner, which affects the sediment

  18. Faculty Workload: An Analytical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discussions of practices in higher education have tended toward muck-raking and self-styled exposure of cynical self-indulgence by faculty and administrators at the expense of students and their families, as usually occurs during periods of economic duress, rather than toward analytical studies designed to foster understanding This article…

  19. Analytical purpose electron backscattering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desdin, L.; Padron, I.; Laria, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this work an analytical purposes electron backscattering system improved at the Center of Applied Studies for Nuclear Development is described. This system can be applied for fast, exact and nondestructive testing of binary and AL/Cu, AL/Ni in alloys and for other applications

  20. Exploratory Analysis in Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, David; de Freitas, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods, observations, challenges and implications for exploratory analysis drawn from two learning analytics research projects. The cases include an analysis of a games-based virtual performance assessment and an analysis of data from 52,000 students over a 5-year period at a large Australian university. The complex…

  1. Editorial: Datasets for Learning Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietze, Stefan; George, Siemens; Davide, Taibi; Drachsler, Hendrik

    2018-01-01

    The European LinkedUp and LACE (Learning Analytics Community Exchange) project have been responsible for setting up a series of data challenges at the LAK conferences 2013 and 2014 around the LAK dataset. The LAK datasets consists of a rich collection of full text publications in the domain of

  2. Causality and analyticity in optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussenzveig, H.M.

    In order to provide an overall picture of the broad range of optical phenomena that are directly linked with the concepts of causality and analyticity, the following topics are briefly reviewed, emphasizing recent developments: 1) Derivation of dispersion relations for the optical constants of general linear media from causality. Application to the theory of natural optical activity. 2) Derivation of sum rules for the optical constants from causality and from the short-time response function (asymptotic high-frequency behavior). Average spectral behavior of optical media. Applications. 3) Role of spectral conditions. Analytic properties of coherence functions in quantum optics. Reconstruction theorem.4) Phase retrieval problems. 5) Inverse scattering problems. 6) Solution of nonlinear evolution equations in optics by inverse scattering methods. Application to self-induced transparency. Causality in nonlinear wave propagation. 7) Analytic continuation in frequency and angular momentum. Complex singularities. Resonances and natural-mode expansions. Regge poles. 8) Wigner's causal inequality. Time delay. Spatial displacements in total reflection. 9) Analyticity in diffraction theory. Complex angular momentum theory of Mie scattering. Diffraction as a barrier tunnelling effect. Complex trajectories in optics. (Author) [pt

  3. Analytical chemistry of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed an enormous development in chemical analysis. The rapid progress of nuclear energy, of solid-state physics and of other fields of modern industry has extended the concept of purity to limits previously unthought of, and to reach the new dimensions of these extreme demands, entirely new techniques have been invented and applied and old ones have been refined. Recognizing these facts, the International Atomic Energy Agency convened a Panel on Analytical Chemistry of Nuclear Materials to discuss the general problems facing the analytical chemist engaged in nuclear energy development, particularly in newly developing centre and countries, to analyse the represent situation and to advise as to the directions in which research and development appear to be most necessary. The Panel also discussed the analytical programme of the Agency's laboratory at Seibersdorf, where the Agency has already started a programme of international comparison of analytical methods which may lead to the establishment of international standards for many materials of interest. Refs and tabs

  4. The isfet in analytical chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoot, B.H.; Bergveld, Piet; Bousse, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    The fast chemical response of the pH-ISFET makes the device an excellent detector in analytical chemistry. The time response of ISFETs, with Al2O3 at the pH-sensitive gate insulator, is determined in a flow injection analysis system. Application of an ISFET and a glass electrode are compared in

  5. Microplastic particles in sediments from Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob; Lassen, Pia; Shashoua, Yvonne

    . In some samples, several hundred particles consisting of fibres, flakes, spherules, and/or granules were identified per 100 g sediment, and also in sediments from open waters. Relationships to sediment characteristics (e.g. dry weight, TOC, grain size) and inorganic and organic contaminants including...

  6. Regional Models for Sediment Toxicity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper investigates the use of empirical models to predict the toxicity of sediment samples within a region to laboratory test organisms based on sediment chemistry. In earlier work, we used a large nationwide database of matching sediment chemistry and marine amphipod sedim...

  7. Estimation of suspended sediment concentration by acoustic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concentration of sediments such as glass spheres or sand. However, the acoustic properties of natural sediments vary and depend on many parameters such as particle size, shape, mineralogy and distribution of those parameters in sample. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the possibility of soil sediment ...

  8. On the precision of sedimentation balance measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1991-01-01

    The settling velocities of fine sediments can be determined using a sedimentation balance essentially consisting of a settling tube at the bottom of which the weight of the sediment deposited is measured as a function of time. The distribution of settling velocities then is calculated from an

  9. Thermal, chemical, and mass transport processes induced in abyssal sediments by the emplacement of nuclear wastes: Experimental and modelling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, D.F.; Erickson, K.L.; Seyfried, W.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    In this chapter the authors discuss the current status of heat and mass transport studies in the marine red clay sediments that are being considered as a nuclear waste isolation medium and review analytical and experimental studies. Calculations based on numerical models indicate that for a maximum allowable sediment-canister interface temperatures of 200 0 to 250 0 C, the sediment can absorb about 1.5kW initial power from waste buried 30 m in the sediment in a canister that is 3 m long and 0.3 m in diameter. The resulting fluid displacement due to convections is found to be small, less than 1 m. Laboratory studies of the geochemical effects induced by heating sediment-seawater mixtures indicate that the canister and waste form should be designed to resist a hot, relatively acidic oxidizing environment. Since the thermally altered sediment volume of about 5.5 m/sup 3/ is small relative to the sediment volume overlying the canister, the acid and oxidizing conditions should significantly affect the properties of the far field only if thermodiffusional process (Soret effect) prove to be significant. If thermodiffusional effects are important, however, near-field chemistry will differ considerably from that predicted from results of constant temperature sediment-seawater interaction experiments

  10. Numerical Simulation of Plume Transport in Channel Bend with Different Sediment Diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. S.; Chen, H. C.

    2017-12-01

    The flow and transport of suspended sediment particles, in the form of plume, were simulated using an in-house Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver FANS3D (Finite Analytic Navier-Stokes code for 3D flow). The motivation for this investigation is to provide a means to simulate and visualize dispersal systems in a complex flow environment. The physical domain considered is a 90-degrees channel bend with wingwall abutments, which induces complex, three-dimensional flow characteristics. At the inlet of the channel, a sediment plume with the volumetric concentration of 1,000 parts per million (ppm) was constantly supplied. For simplicity, it was assumed that neither deposition nor erosion takes place inside the channel and settling sediment was made to pass through the bed surface. The effect of the sediment particle size was also analyzed using two different median diameters: 0.10 mm and 0.20 mm. It was shown that flow acceleration and vortices cause strong mixing inside the channel. The three-dimensional time series from the simulation captured increasing suspended sediment concentration downstream of the abutments, along the outer bank. When the median diameter was varied, the sediment concentration at certain locations differed by orders of magnitude, indicating that the settling velocity dominates the transport process for larger diameters.

  11. Waste minimization in analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S. Schilling, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) will require a large number of waste characterizations over a multi-year period to accomplish the Department's goals in environmental restoration and waste management. Estimates vary, but two million analyses annually are expected. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is a significant source of new DOE waste. Success in reducing the volume of secondary waste and the costs of handling this waste would significantly decrease the overall cost of this DOE program. Selection of appropriate analytical methods depends on the intended use of the resultant data. It is not always necessary to use a high-powered analytical method, typically at higher cost, to obtain data needed to make decisions about waste management. Indeed, for samples taken from some heterogeneous systems, the meaning of high accuracy becomes clouded if the data generated are intended to measure a property of this system. Among the factors to be considered in selecting the analytical method are the lower limit of detection, accuracy, turnaround time, cost, reproducibility (precision), interferences, and simplicity. Occasionally, there must be tradeoffs among these factors to achieve the multiple goals of a characterization program. The purpose of the work described here is to add waste minimization to the list of characteristics to be considered. In this paper the authors present results of modifying analytical methods for waste characterization to reduce both the cost of analysis and volume of secondary wastes. Although tradeoffs may be required to minimize waste while still generating data of acceptable quality for the decision-making process, they have data demonstrating that wastes can be reduced in some cases without sacrificing accuracy or precision

  12. Identifying the cause of sediment toxicity in agricultural sediments: the role of pyrethroids and nine seldom-measured hydrophobic pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Donald P; Ding, Yuping; Zhang, Minghua; Lydy, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Few currently used agricultural pesticides are routinely monitored for in the environment. Even if concentrations are known, sediment LC(50) values are often lacking for common sediment toxicity testing species. To help fill this data gap, sediments in California's Central Valley were tested for nine hydrophobic pesticides seldom analyzed: abamectin, diazinon, dicofol, fenpropathrin, indoxacarb, methyl parathion, oxyfluorfen, propargite, and pyraclostrobin. Most were detected, but rarely at concentrations acutely toxic to Hyalella azteca or Chironomus dilutus. Only abamectin, fenpropathrin, and methyl parathion were found at concentrations of potential concern, and only in one or two samples. One-quarter of over 100 samples from agriculture-affected waterways exhibited toxicity, and in three-fourths of the toxic samples, pyrethroids exceeded concentrations expected to cause toxicity. The pyrethroid Bi-fen-thrin in particular, as well as lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, esfenvalerate, permethrin, and the organophosphate chlorpyrifos, were primarily responsible for the observed toxicity, rather than the more novel analytes, despite the fact that much of the sampling targeted areas of greatest use of the novel pesticides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of total Hg results in sediment samples from Rio Grande reservoir determine by NAA and CV AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, Robson L.

    2011-01-01

    The Rio Grande reservoir is located in the Metropolitan area of Sao Paulo and it is used for recreation purposes and as source water for drinking water production. During the last decades has been detected mercury contamination in the sediments of this reservoir, mainly in the eastern part, near the main affluent of the reservoir, in the Rio Grande da Serra and Ribeirao Pires counties. In the present study bottom sediment samples were collected in four different sites into four sampling campaigns during the period of September 2008 to January 2010. The samples were dried at room temperature, ground and passed through a 2 mm sieve. Total Hg determination in the sediment samples was carried out by two different analytical techniques: neutron activation analysis (NAA) and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS). The methodology validation, in terms of precision and accuracy, was performed by reference materials, and presented a recovery of 83 to 108%. The total Hg results obtained by both analytical techniques ranged from 3 to 71 mg kg-1 and were considered similar by statistical analysis, even though NAA technique furnishes the total concentration while CV AAS using the 3015 digestion procedure characterizes only the bioavailable Hg. These results confirm that both analytical techniques were suitable to detect the Hg concentration levels in the Rio Grande sediments studied. The Hg levels in the sediment of the Rio Grande reservoir confirm the anthropogenic origin for this element in this ecosystem. (author)

  14. Determination of multi-element in marine sediment samples collected in Angola by the k0-NAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, M.C.P.; Ho Manh Dung; Cao Dong Vu; Nguyen Thi Sy; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Vuong Huu Tan

    2006-01-01

    The marine sediment samples were designed to collect in Angola for marine environmental pollution study. The k 0 -standardization method of neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) on Dalat research reactor has been developed to determine of multi-element in the Angola marine sediment samples. The samples were irradiated in cell 7-1 for short- and middle-lived nuclides and rotary specimen rack for long-lived nuclides. The irradiation facilities were characterized for neutron spectrum parameters and post-activated samples were measured on the calibrated gamma-ray spectrometers using HPGe detectors. The analytical results for 9 marine sediment samples with 27 elements: Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce,Cl, Co, Cs, Dy, Fe, Hf, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, U, V and Zn in term of mean concentration, standard deviation and their content range are shown in the report. The analytical quality assurance was done by analysis of a Japan's certified reference material namely marine sediment NMIJ-CRM-7302a. These preliminary results revealed that the k 0 -NAA technique on the Dalat research reactor is a good analytical technique for determination of multi-element in the marine sediment samples. Some heavy metals and trace elements determined in this work possibly connected to the human activities at the sampling region. (author)

  15. FEASIBILITY OF INVESTMENT IN BUSINESS ANALYTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Varga

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Trends in data processing for decision support show that business users need business analytics, i.e. analytical applications which incorporate a variety of business oriented data analysis techniques and task-specific knowledge. The paper discusses the feasibility of investment in two models of implementing business analytics: custom development and packed analytical applications. The consequences of both models are shown on two models of business analytics implementation in Croatia.

  16. A characterization of dilation-analytic operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balslev, E.; Grossmann, A.; Paul, T.

    1986-01-01

    Dilation analytic vectors and operators are characterized in a new representation of quantum mechanical states through functions analytic on the upper half-plane. In this space H o -bounded operators are integral operators and criteria for dilation analyticity are given in terms of analytic continuation outside of the half-plane for functions and for kernels. A sufficient condition is given for an integral operator in momentum space to be dilation-analytic

  17. Characterization of dilation-analytic operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balslev, E; Grossmann, A; Paul, T

    1986-01-01

    Dilation analytic vectors and operators are characterized in a new representation of quantum mechanical states through functions analytic on the upper half-plane. In this space H/sub o/-bounded operators are integral operators and criteria for dilation analyticity are given in terms of analytic continuation outside of the half-plane for functions and for kernels. A sufficient condition is given for an integral operator in momentum space to be dilation-analytic.

  18. Investigation of Composition of Particle Size in Sediments of Stormwater Sedimentation Tank

    OpenAIRE

    Daiva Laučytė; Regimantas Dauknys

    2011-01-01

    The main object for the storm water runoff treatment is to remove suspended solids before the storm water runoff is discharged into surface waters. Therefore the sedimentation tank is the most often used treatment facility. In order to optimise the sedimentation, the tendency of particle size distribution in bottom sediments must be known. Two similar size storm water runoff sedimentation tanks in Vilnius city were selected for the analysis of the particle size distribution in sediments. The ...

  19. Three-Dimensional Sediment Dynamics in Well-Mixed Estuaries: Importance of the Internally Generated Overtide, Spatial Settling Lag, and Gravitational Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoyan; Kumar, Mohit; Schuttelaars, Henk M.

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the dominant sediment transport and trapping mechanisms, a semi-analytical three-dimensional model is developed resolving the dynamic effects of salt intrusion on sediment in well-mixed estuaries in morphodynamic equilibrium. As a study case, a schematized estuary with a converging width and a channel-shoal structure representative for the Delaware estuary is considered. When neglecting Coriolis effects, sediment downstream of the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) is imported into the estuary through the deeper channel and exported over the shoals. Within the ETM region, sediment is transported seaward through the deeper channel and transported landward over the shoals. The largest contribution to the cross-sectionally integrated seaward residual sediment transport is attributed to the advection of tidally averaged sediment concentrations by river-induced flow and tidal return flow. This contribution is mainly balanced by the residual landward sediment transport due to temporal correlations between the suspended sediment concentrations and velocities at the M2 tidal frequency. The M2 sediment concentration mainly results from spatial settling lag effects and asymmetric bed shear stresses due to interactions of M2 bottom velocities and the internally generated M4 tidal velocities, as well as the salinity-induced residual currents. Residual advection of tidally averaged sediment concentrations also plays an important role in the landward sediment transport. Including Coriolis effects hardly changes the cross-sectionally integrated sediment balance, but results in a landward (seaward) sediment transport on the right (left) side of the estuary looking seaward, consistent with observations from literature. The sediment transport/trapping mechanisms change significantly when varying the settling velocity and river discharge.

  20. Transverse structure of tidal flow, residual flow and sediment concentration in estuaries: sensitivity to tidal forcing and water depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijts, K.M.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831867; de Swart, H.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073449725; Schramkowski, G.P.; Schuttelaars, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    An analytical and a numerical model are used to understand the response of velocity and sediment distributions over Gaussian-shaped estuarine cross-sections to changes in tidal forcing and water depth. The estuaries considered here are characterized by strong mixing and a relatively weak

  1. Caustic envelopes and cusp coordinates due to the reflection of a spherical wave from a layered sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ainslie, M.A.; Robins, A.J.; Simons, D.G.

    2004-01-01

    A compilation of analytical formulas is presented, describing ray properties of a family of sediment sound speed profiles. The profiles are described as "generalized power law" profiles because they are generalizations of a similar family of simpler power law profiles considered in earlier work [M.

  2. Unraveling the Illgraben sediment cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Georgie; Molnar, Peter; McArdell, Brian; Schlunegger, Fritz; Burlando, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    Quantification of the volumes of sediment removed by rock-slope failure and debris flows and identification of their coupling and controls are pertinent to understanding mountain basin sediment yield and landscape evolution. This study captures a multi-decadal period of hillslope erosion and channel change following an extreme rock avalanche in 1961 in the Illgraben, a catchment of high scientific interest in the Swiss Alps due to its extremely high debris-flow dominated sediment yield. We analyzed photogrammetrically-derived datasets of hillslope and channel erosion and deposition along with climatic and seismic variables for a 43-year period from 1963 to 2005. Based on these analyses we identify and discuss (1) patterns of hillslope production, channel transfer and catchment sediment yield, (2) their dominant interactions with climatic and seismic variables, and (3) the nature of hillslope-channel coupling and implications for sediment yield and landscape evolution in this mountain basin. Our results show an increase in the mean hillslope erosion rate in the 1980s from 0.24±0.01 m yr-1 to 0.42±0.03 m yr-1 that coincided with a significant increase in air temperature and decrease in snow cover depth and duration, which we presume led to an increase in the exposure of the slopes to thermal weathering processes. This is indicated by a significant increase in the number of days of subzero air temperature and no snow cover. Conversely, there was no increase in precipitation or seismic activity that would explain the increase in erosion rate. However, the combination of highly fractured slopes close to the threshold angle for failure, and multiple potential triggering mechanisms, means that it is difficult to identify an individual control on slope failure. This is illustrated by our analysis of the 1961 rockfall event, which failed to reveal an individual trigger of the failure given both extreme meteorological conditions and seismic activity in the weeks leading up

  3. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Bozeman NTMS quadrangle, Montana, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, S.L.; Hensley, W.K.; Van Haaften, I.J.; Pirtle, J.; George, W.E.; Gallimore, D.; Apel, C.; Hansel, J.

    1980-07-01

    This report contains uranium analyses for 1251 water samples and multielement analyses for 1536 sediment samples. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium, rubidium, samarium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, and zinc. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 ppB uranium were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting (DNC). All sediments were analyzed for uranium by DNC. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 9 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million. Descriptions of procedures used for analysis of water and sediment samples as well as analytical precisions and detection limits are given

  4. Estimating Western U.S. Reservoir Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensching, L.; Livneh, B.; Greimann, B. P.

    2017-12-01

    Reservoir sedimentation is a long-term problem for water management across the Western U.S. Observations of sedimentation are limited to reservoir surveys that are costly and infrequent, with many reservoirs having only two or fewer surveys. This work aims to apply a recently developed ensemble of sediment algorithms to estimate reservoir sedimentation over several western U.S. reservoirs. The sediment algorithms include empirical, conceptual, stochastic, and processes based approaches and are coupled with a hydrologic modeling framework. Preliminary results showed that the more complex and processed based algorithms performed better in predicting high sediment flux values and in a basin transferability experiment. However, more testing and validation is required to confirm sediment model skill. This work is carried out in partnership with the Bureau of Reclamation with the goal of evaluating the viability of reservoir sediment yield prediction across the western U.S. using a multi-algorithm approach. Simulations of streamflow and sediment fluxes are validated against observed discharges, as well as a Reservoir Sedimentation Information database that is being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Specific goals of this research include (i) quantifying whether inter-algorithm differences consistently capture observational variability; (ii) identifying whether certain categories of models consistently produce the best results, (iii) assessing the expected sedimentation life-span of several western U.S. reservoirs through long-term simulations.

  5. The kinetics of denitrification in permeable sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evrard, Victor; Glud, Ronnie N.; Cook, Perran L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Permeable sediments comprise the majority of shelf sediments, yet the rates of denitrification remain highly uncertain in these environments. Computational models are increasingly being used to understand the dynamics of denitrification in permeable sediments, which are complex environments...... on sediments taken from six shallow coastal sites in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. The results showed that denitrification commenced rapidly (within 30 min) after the onset of anoxia and the kinetics could be well described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with half saturation constants (apparent K...... in cohesive sediments despite organic carbon contents one order of magnitude lower for the sediments studied here. The ratio of sediment O-2 consumption to V-max was in the range of 0.02-0.09, and was on average much lower than the theoretical ratio of 0.8. As a consequence, models implemented...

  6. Investigation into spore coat properties for the rapid identification of endospores in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, J. E.; Chakraborty, A.; Bernard, B. B.; Brooks, J.; Hubert, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the sediment biogeography of dormant marine thermophilic bacterial endospores (thermospores) has the potential to assist locating and characterising working petroleum systems. The presence of thermospores in cold ocean environments suggests that distribution occurs via hydrocarbon seepage from thermally active reservoirs. Low abundance and endospore coat physiology mean nucleic acid based techniques have limited success for in situ detection of thermospores. Alternative rapid analytical methods are needed so we investigated using the Schaeffer-Fulton (malachite green and safranin) and DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining techniques on thermospores from cultures and marine sediments. Sediment samples from 111 locations in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico (100 to 3300 m water depth; 6 to 600 km apart) were incubated at high temperature, followed by construction of 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries (V3-V4 region; Illumina MiSeq) revealing enrichment of species-level thermospore OTUs. A sulfate reducing bacterium from site EGM080 was purified and classified based on its rRNA gene sequence as Desulfotomaculum geothermicum. Prior to thermospore staining the culture was kept in the death/ decline phase for 16 weeks to promote sporulation. Samples of D. geothermicum and the source marine sediment were fixed, stained then analysed using brightfield, phase contrast or fluorescence microscopy. Thermospores in pure culture were identified using phase contrast but were difficult to observe in the sediment sample due to particle aggregation. The Schaeffer-Fulton technique aided thermospore identification in a complex sediment sample matrix as thermospores were stained bright green, and also revealed that there were only spores and no (red stained) vegetative cells in the culture. Treatment with DAPI gave dull fluorescing cells but also provided insight into the behaviour of thermospores in sediment suspensions. Spores in the culture medium were free floating but

  7. Dynamics of sediment carbon stocks across intertidal wetland habitats of Moreton Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Matthew A; Jesse, Amber; Hawke, Bruce; Baldock, Jeff; Tabet, Basam; Lockington, David; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2017-10-01

    Coastal wetlands are known for high carbon storage within their sediments, but our understanding of the variation in carbon storage among intertidal habitats, particularly over geomorphological settings and along elevation gradients, is limited. Here, we collected 352 cores from 18 sites across Moreton Bay, Australia. We assessed variation in sediment organic carbon (OC) stocks among different geomorphological settings (wetlands within riverine settings along with those with reduced riverine influence located on tide-dominated sand islands), across elevation gradients, with distance from shore and among habitat and vegetation types. We used mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy combined with analytical data and partial least squares regression to quantify the carbon content of ~2500 sediment samples and provide fine-scale spatial coverage of sediment OC stocks to 150 cm depth. We found sites in river deltas had larger OC stocks (175-504 Mg/ha) than those in nonriverine settings (44-271 Mg/ha). Variation in OC stocks among nonriverine sites was high in comparison with riverine and mixed geomorphic settings, with sites closer to riverine outflow from the east and south of Moreton Bay having higher stocks than those located on the sand islands in the northwest of the bay. Sediment OC stocks increased with elevation within nonriverine settings, but not in riverine geomorphic settings. Sediment OC stocks did not differ between mangrove and saltmarsh habitats. OC stocks did, however, differ between dominant species across the research area and within geomorphic settings. At the landscape scale, the coastal wetlands of the South East Queensland catchments (17,792 ha) are comprised of approximately 4,100,000-5,200,000 Mg of sediment OC. Comparatively high variation in OC storage between riverine and nonriverine geomorphic settings indicates that the availability of mineral sediments and terrestrial derived OC may exert a strong influence over OC storage potential across

  8. Library improvement through data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, Lesley S J

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how to act on and make sense of data in libraries. Using a range of techniques, tools and methodologies it explains how data can be used to help inform decision making at every level. Sound data analytics is the foundation for making an evidence-based case for libraries, in addition to guiding myriad organizational decisions, from optimizing operations for efficiency to responding to community needs. Designed to be useful for beginners as well as those with a background in data, this book introduces the basics of a six point framework that can be applied to a variety of library settings for effective system based, data-driven management. Library Improvement Through Data Analytics includes: - the basics of statistical concepts - recommended data sources for various library functions and processes, and guidance for using census, university, or - - government data in analysis - techniques for cleaning data - matching data to appropriate data analysis methods - how to make descriptive statistics m...

  9. Visual Analytics for MOOC Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Huamin; Chen, Qing

    2015-01-01

    With the rise of massive open online courses (MOOCs), tens of millions of learners can now enroll in more than 1,000 courses via MOOC platforms such as Coursera and edX. As a result, a huge amount of data has been collected. Compared with traditional education records, the data from MOOCs has much finer granularity and also contains new pieces of information. It is the first time in history that such comprehensive data related to learning behavior has become available for analysis. What roles can visual analytics play in this MOOC movement? The authors survey the current practice and argue that MOOCs provide an opportunity for visualization researchers and that visual analytics systems for MOOCs can benefit a range of end users such as course instructors, education researchers, students, university administrators, and MOOC providers.

  10. The Spectrum of Learning Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Kortemeyer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available "Learning Analytics" became a buzzword during the hype surrounding the advent of "big data" MOOCs, however, the concept has been around for over two decades. When the first online courses became available it was used as a tool to increase student success in particular courses, frequently combined with the hope of conducting educational research. In recent years, the same term started to be used on the institutional level to increase retention and decrease time-to-degree. These two applications, within particular courses on the one hand and at the institutional level on the other, are at the two extremes of the spectrum of Learning Analytics – and they frequently appear to be worlds apart. The survey describes affordances, theories and approaches in these two categories.

  11. Discrete dynamics versus analytic dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren

    2014-01-01

    For discrete classical Molecular dynamics obtained by the “Verlet” algorithm (VA) with the time increment h there exists a shadow Hamiltonian H˜ with energy E˜(h) , for which the discrete particle positions lie on the analytic trajectories for H˜ . Here, we proof that there, independent...... of such an analytic analogy, exists an exact hidden energy invariance E * for VA dynamics. The fact that the discrete VA dynamics has the same invariances as Newtonian dynamics raises the question, which of the formulations that are correct, or alternatively, the most appropriate formulation of classical dynamics....... In this context the relation between the discrete VA dynamics and the (general) discrete dynamics investigated by Lee [Phys. Lett. B122, 217 (1983)] is presented and discussed....

  12. Analytical control in metallurgical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coedo, A.G.; Dorado, M.T.; Padilla, I.

    1998-01-01

    This paper illustrates the role of analysis in enabling metallurgical industry to meet quality demands. For example, for the steel industry the demands by the automotive, aerospace, power generation, tinplate packaging industries and issue of environment near steel plants. Although chemical analysis technology continues to advance, achieving improved speed, precision and accuracy at lower levels of detection, the competitiveness of manufacturing industry continues to drive property demands at least at the same rate. Narrower specification ranges, lower levels of residual elements and economic pressures prescribe faster process routes, all of which lead to increased demands on the analytical function. These damands are illustrated by examples from several market sectors in which customer issues are considered together with ther analytical implications. (Author) 5 refs

  13. Spatial Game Analytics and Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Schubert, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    , techniques for spatial analysis had their share in these developments. However, the methods for analyzing and visualizing spatial and spatio-temporal patterns in player behavior being used by the game industry are not as diverse as the range of techniques utilized in game research, leaving room...... for a continuing development. This paper presents a review of current work on spatial and spatio-temporal game analytics across industry and research, describing and defining the key terminology, outlining current techniques and their application. We summarize the current problems and challenges in the field......The recently emerged field of game analytics and the development and adaptation of business intelligence techniques to support game design and development has given data-driven techniques a direct role in game development. Given that all digital games contain some sort of spatial operation...

  14. Video Analytics for Business Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Porikli, Fatih; Xiang, Tao; Gong, Shaogang

    2012-01-01

    Closed Circuit TeleVision (CCTV) cameras have been increasingly deployed pervasively in public spaces including retail centres and shopping malls. Intelligent video analytics aims to automatically analyze content of massive amount of public space video data and has been one of the most active areas of computer vision research in the last two decades. Current focus of video analytics research has been largely on detecting alarm events and abnormal behaviours for public safety and security applications. However, increasingly CCTV installations have also been exploited for gathering and analyzing business intelligence information, in order to enhance marketing and operational efficiency. For example, in retail environments, surveillance cameras can be utilised to collect statistical information about shopping behaviour and preference for marketing (e.g., how many people entered a shop; how many females/males or which age groups of people showed interests to a particular product; how long did they stay in the sho...

  15. Optical trapping for analytical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Praveen C; Dholakia, Kishan

    2012-02-01

    We describe the exciting advances of using optical trapping in the field of analytical biotechnology. This technique has opened up opportunities to manipulate biological particles at the single cell or even at subcellular levels which has allowed an insight into the physical and chemical mechanisms of many biological processes. The ability of this technique to manipulate microparticles and measure pico-Newton forces has found several applications such as understanding the dynamics of biological macromolecules, cell-cell interactions and the micro-rheology of both cells and fluids. Furthermore we may probe and analyse the biological world when combining trapping with analytical techniques such as Raman spectroscopy and imaging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A primer of analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Strocchi, Franco

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the basic elements of Analytical Mechanics, starting from the physical motivations that favor it with respect to the Newtonian Mechanics in Cartesian coordinates. Rather than presenting Analytical Mechanics mainly as a formal development of Newtonian Mechanics, it highlights its effectiveness due to the following five important achievements: 1) the most economical description of time evolution in terms of the minimal set of coordinates, so that there are no constraint forces in their evolution equations; 2) the form invariance of the evolution equations, which automatically solves the problem of fictitious forces; 3) only one scalar function encodes the formulation of the dynamics, rather than the full set of vectors which describe the forces in Cartesian Newtonian Mechanics; 4) in the Hamiltonian formulation, the corresponding evolution equations are of first order in time and are fully governed by the Hamiltonian function (usually corresponding to the energy); 5) the emergence of the Hami...

  17. Analysis of intracellular and extracellular microcystin variants in sediments and pore waters by accelerated solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zastepa, Arthur; Pick, Frances R.; Blais, Jules M.; Saleem, Ammar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • First analytical method for intracellular microcystins (MCs) in sediment. • Includes a suite of variants (LR, 7dm LR, RR, YR, WR, LA, LF, LY, LW) and nodularin. • Reports the first measurements of MCs in sediment pore waters. • MCs detected in >100 year old lake sediments suggesting long-term preservation. • Sediment-pore water distribution (K d ) differed between variants suggesting differences in environmental fate. - Abstract: The fate and persistence of microcystin cyanotoxins in aquatic ecosystems remains poorly understood in part due to the lack of analytical methods for microcystins in sediments. Existing methods have been limited to the extraction of a few extracellular microcystins of similar chemistry. We developed a single analytical method, consisting of accelerated solvent extraction, hydrophilic–lipophilic balance solid phase extraction, and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, suitable for the extraction and quantitation of both intracellular and extracellular cyanotoxins in sediments as well as pore waters. Recoveries of nine microcystins, representing the chemical diversity of microcystins, and nodularin (a marine analogue) ranged between 75 and 98% with one, microcystin-RR (MC-RR), at 50%. Chromatographic separation of these analytes was achieved within 7.5 min and the method detection limits were between 1.1 and 2.5 ng g −1 dry weight (dw). The robustness of the method was demonstrated on sediment cores collected from seven Canadian lakes of diverse geography and trophic states. Individual microcystin variants reached a maximum concentration of 829 ng g −1 dw on sediment particles and 132 ng mL −1 in pore waters and could be detected in sediments as deep as 41 cm (>100 years in age). MC-LR, -RR, and -LA were more often detected while MC-YR, -LY, -LF, and -LW were less common. The analytical method enabled us to estimate sediment-pore water distribution coefficients (K d

  18. Analysis of intracellular and extracellular microcystin variants in sediments and pore waters by accelerated solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zastepa, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.zastepa@gmail.com; Pick, Frances R.; Blais, Jules M.; Saleem, Ammar

    2015-05-04

    Highlights: • First analytical method for intracellular microcystins (MCs) in sediment. • Includes a suite of variants (LR, {sup 7dm}LR, RR, YR, WR, LA, LF, LY, LW) and nodularin. • Reports the first measurements of MCs in sediment pore waters. • MCs detected in >100 year old lake sediments suggesting long-term preservation. • Sediment-pore water distribution (K{sub d}) differed between variants suggesting differences in environmental fate. - Abstract: The fate and persistence of microcystin cyanotoxins in aquatic ecosystems remains poorly understood in part due to the lack of analytical methods for microcystins in sediments. Existing methods have been limited to the extraction of a few extracellular microcystins of similar chemistry. We developed a single analytical method, consisting of accelerated solvent extraction, hydrophilic–lipophilic balance solid phase extraction, and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, suitable for the extraction and quantitation of both intracellular and extracellular cyanotoxins in sediments as well as pore waters. Recoveries of nine microcystins, representing the chemical diversity of microcystins, and nodularin (a marine analogue) ranged between 75 and 98% with one, microcystin-RR (MC-RR), at 50%. Chromatographic separation of these analytes was achieved within 7.5 min and the method detection limits were between 1.1 and 2.5 ng g{sup −1} dry weight (dw). The robustness of the method was demonstrated on sediment cores collected from seven Canadian lakes of diverse geography and trophic states. Individual microcystin variants reached a maximum concentration of 829 ng g{sup −1} dw on sediment particles and 132 ng mL{sup −1} in pore waters and could be detected in sediments as deep as 41 cm (>100 years in age). MC-LR, -RR, and -LA were more often detected while MC-YR, -LY, -LF, and -LW were less common. The analytical method enabled us to estimate sediment-pore water

  19. Streaming Visual Analytics Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Kristin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burtner, Edwin R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kritzstein, Brian P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brisbois, Brooke R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitson, Anna E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    How can we best enable users to understand complex emerging events and make appropriate assessments from streaming data? This was the central question addressed at a three-day workshop on streaming visual analytics. This workshop was organized by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for a government sponsor. It brought together forty researchers and subject matter experts from government, industry, and academia. This report summarizes the outcomes from that workshop. It describes elements of the vision for a streaming visual analytic environment and set of important research directions needed to achieve this vision. Streaming data analysis is in many ways the analysis and understanding of change. However, current visual analytics systems usually focus on static data collections, meaning that dynamically changing conditions are not appropriately addressed. The envisioned mixed-initiative streaming visual analytics environment creates a collaboration between the analyst and the system to support the analysis process. It raises the level of discourse from low-level data records to higher-level concepts. The system supports the analyst’s rapid orientation and reorientation as situations change. It provides an environment to support the analyst’s critical thinking. It infers tasks and interests based on the analyst’s interactions. The system works as both an assistant and a devil’s advocate, finding relevant data and alerts as well as considering alternative hypotheses. Finally, the system supports sharing of findings with others. Making such an environment a reality requires research in several areas. The workshop discussions focused on four broad areas: support for critical thinking, visual representation of change, mixed-initiative analysis, and the use of narratives for analysis and communication.

  20. Analytical methods under emergency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlet, J.

    1983-01-01

    This lecture discusses methods for the radiochemical determination of internal contamination of the body under emergency conditions, here defined as a situation in which results on internal radioactive contamination are needed quickly. The purpose of speed is to determine the necessity for medical treatment to increase the natural elimination rate. Analytical methods discussed include whole-body counting, organ counting, wound monitoring, and excreta analysis. 12 references

  1. Analytical chemistry of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The second panel on the Analytical Chemistry of Nuclear Materials was organized for two purposes: first, to advise the Seibersdorf Laboratory of the Agency on its future programme, and second, to review the results of the Second International Comparison of routine analysis of trace impurities in uranium and also the action taken as a result of the recommendations of the first panel in 1962. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. SAF line analytical chemistry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, E.W.; Sherrell, D.L.

    1983-10-01

    An analytical chemistry system dedicated to supporting the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line is discussed. Several analyses are required prior to the fuel pellets being loaded into cladding tubes to assure certification requirements will be met. These analyses, which will take less than 15 minutes, are described. The automated sample transport system which will be used to move pellets from the fabriction line to the chemistry area is also described

  3. Review of sediment stabilisation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The best sites for tidal power schemes are found in estuaries with high tidal ranges which have complex ecosystems and include a wide and diverse range of habitats. If the tidal power is to be developed, therefore, it is important to determine the likely effect on the environment and any ameliorative measures which may be necessary. One possible change is likely to be the erosion of material from the bed or shoreline of the estuary, and possibly the adjacent coast. This is of particular concern if intertidal sandflats, mudflats and saltmarsh are affected, as these are important wildlife habitats. Moreover, largescale movement of sediments would be undesirable. Results of a desk study of methods of preventing the erosion of sediment deposits in or near an estuary in the conditions that may occur following the construction of a tidal power barrage are presented. (author)

  4. Analytic Reflected Lightcurves for Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Hal M.; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2018-04-01

    The disk-integrated reflected brightness of an exoplanet changes as a function of time due to orbital and rotational motion coupled with an inhomogeneous albedo map. We have previously derived analytic reflected lightcurves for spherical harmonic albedo maps in the special case of a synchronously-rotating planet on an edge-on orbit (Cowan, Fuentes & Haggard 2013). In this letter, we present analytic reflected lightcurves for the general case of a planet on an inclined orbit, with arbitrary spin period and non-zero obliquity. We do so for two different albedo basis maps: bright points (δ-maps), and spherical harmonics (Y_l^m-maps). In particular, we use Wigner D-matrices to express an harmonic lightcurve for an arbitrary viewing geometry as a non-linear combination of harmonic lightcurves for the simpler edge-on, synchronously rotating geometry. These solutions will enable future exploration of the degeneracies and information content of reflected lightcurves, as well as fast calculation of lightcurves for mapping exoplanets based on time-resolved photometry. To these ends we make available Exoplanet Analytic Reflected Lightcurves (EARL), a simple open-source code that allows rapid computation of reflected lightcurves.

  5. Analytical chemistry: Principles and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargis, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    Although this text seems to have been intended for use in a one-semester course in undergraduate analytical chemistry, it includes the range of topics usually encountered in a two-semester introductory course in chemical analysis. The material is arranged logically for use in a two-semester course: the first 12 chapters contain the subjects most often covered in the first term, and the next 10 chapters pertain to the second (instrumental) term. Overall breadth and level of treatment are standards for an undergraduate text of this sort, and the only major omission is that of kinetic methods (which is a common omission in analytical texts). In the first 12 chapters coverage of the basic material is quite good. The emphasis on the underlying principles of the techniques rather than on specifics and design of instrumentation is welcomed. This text may be more useful for the instrumental portion of an analytical chemistry course than for the solution chemistry segment. The instrumental analysis portion is appropriate for an introductory textbook

  6. Learning Analytics: opportunities for schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Fulantelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La valutazione delle esperienze di apprendimento che avvengono in ambienti in cui le interazioni sono mediate dalle tecnologie è una sfida ardua che deve essere affrontata con approcci adeguati. Le tecniche di Learning Analytics si sono sviluppate recentemente con l’obiettivo di fornire gli strumenti necessari per ottimizzare le esperienze di apprendimento. Queste tecniche supportano i docenti nel prendere tempestivamente quelle decisioni che rendono il processo didattico più efficace, permettendo di intervenire sull’intero processo o sui singoli studenti in modo personalizzato. Sebbene le tecniche di Learning Analytics si siano sviluppate principalmente nei contesti di alta formazione online, questo articolo mette in evidenza come l’impiego di tali tecniche può portare benefici anche nei contesti scolastici. Di fatto, in questi contesti, le tecnologie sono sempre più utilizzate per supportare le esperienze di apprendimento formali e informali, come quelle basate su dispositivi mobili, serious game e social network, e i dati generati sono sempre più numerosi, richiedendo nuovi approcci di analisi che traggono vantaggio dall’impiego delle tecniche di Learning Analytics.

  7. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of marine sediment in-house reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Mohd Suhaimi Elias; Siong, W.B.; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Azian Hashim; Shakirah Abdul Shukor

    2013-01-01

    Reference materials play an important role in demonstrating the quality and reliability of analytical data. The advantage of using in-house reference materials is that they provide a relatively cheap option as compared to using commercially available certified reference material (CRM) and can closely resemble the laboratory routine test sample. A marine sediment sample was designed as an in-house reference material, in the framework of quality assurance and control (QA/QC) program of the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Laboratory at Nuclear Malaysia. The NAA technique was solely used for the homogeneity test of the marine sediment sample. The CRM of IAEA- Soil 7 and IAEA- SL1 (Lake Sediment) were applied in the analysis as compatible matrix based reference materials for QA purposes. (Author)

  8. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Valdez NTMS Quadrangle, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Valdez NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form through the Grand Junction Office Information System (GJOIS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A to D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream sediment, lake sediment, stream water, lake water, and ground water samples.

  9. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment sampling for uranium in the sandstone environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenrich, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    Sandstone terranes commonly host uranium occurrences in the western United States. In addition, because sedimentary terranes, particularly shales and immature, not well cemented sandstone, contribute more sediment and soluble material than do plutonic, volcanic, or metamorphic terranes they are an excellent regime for hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment prospecting. Because of higher conductivity, and hence higher uranium content, of waters draining such environments the sampling need not be as precise nor the analytical detection limit as low as in other terranes to yield a successful survey. Nevertheless, reasonable preparation and care of the samples is recommended: (1) The water samples should be filtered through 0.45 μm membranes and acidified to a pH of less than 1. (2) Because the adsorption of uranium by organic material is so significant it is recommended that the reasonable finest stream-sediment fraction, 4 , conductivity, etc.) are useful in the data reduction towards the elimination of false anomalies. (author)

  10. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Healy NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    Results of a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Healy NTMS quadrangle, Alaska are presented. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. In this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A to D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs into groups of stream sediment, lake sediment, stream water, lake water, and ground water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements multivariate statistical analyses have been included

  11. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Seldovia NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    Results of a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Seldovia NTMS quadrangle, Alaska are presented. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. In this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A to D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs into groups of stream sediment, lake sediment, stream water, lake water, and ground water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report

  12. Screening of the persistent organic pollutants in sediments of almendares river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanno, Zoila; Depauw, E.; Focant, J.; Micaela, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Heydrich, Mayra

    2006-01-01

    The Almendares river the most important river of the city, show a critic situation due to the contamination of water and sediments with non treated or inefficient treatment of the domestic and industrial residues (Y. Nunnez). Previous studies performed in Cuba investigated the contamination of this river (R. Marsan), those studies describe the determination of heavy metals in water as well as in sediments and also have been tested the nutrient content (A. Rodriguez et all), physic-chemicals properties and microbiological analysis. However, there is not available information about levels of concentration and spatial distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Taking into consideration these antecedents, the purpose of this work was the application of analytical methods for the detection of these organic compounds in the sediment of Almendares river

  13. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Philip Smith Mountains NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Results of a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Philip Smith Mountains NTMS quadrangle, Alaska are presented. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. In this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs into groups of stream sediment and lake sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report

  14. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Philip Smith Mountains NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    Results of a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Philip Smith Mountains NTMS quadrangle, Alaska are presented. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. In this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs into groups of stream sediment and lake sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report.

  15. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Mt. Hayes NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    Results of a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Mt. Hayes quadrangle, Alaska, are presented. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. In this data release are location data, field analyses, and Laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A to D describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs into groups of stream sediment, lake sediment, stream water, lake water, and ground water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report

  16. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Chandalar NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Results of a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Chandalar NTMS quadrangle, Alaska are presented. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. In this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, may field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs into groups of stream sediment and lake sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report

  17. River bottom sediment from the Vistula as matrix of candidate for a new reference material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełbasa, Anna; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2017-08-01

    Bottom sediments are very important in aquatic ecosystems. The sediments accumulate heavy metals and compounds belonging to the group of persistent organic pollutants. The accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was used for extraction of 16 compounds from PAH group from bottom sediment of Vistula. For the matrix of candidate of a new reference material, moisture content, particle size, loss on ignition, pH, and total organic carbon were determined. A gas chromatograph with a selective mass detector (GC/MS) was used for the final analysis. The obtained recoveries were from 86% (SD=6.9) for anthracene to 119% (SD=5.4) for dibenzo(ah)anthracene. For the candidate for a new reference material, homogeneity and analytes content were determined using a validated method. The results are a very important part of the development and certification of a new reference materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of proposed marine sediment reference material (IAEA-158)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, N.; Waheed, S.

    2009-01-01

    IAEA-158, sediment prepared by the International Atomic Energy Agency -Marine Environmental Laboratory (IAEA-MEL), Monaco was received under the IAEA Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) Intercomparison Programme. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to determine AI, As, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, V, Vb and Zn in this proposed reference material (RM). Four different irradiation protocols were adopted using a miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR) by varying the irradiation, cooling and counting times. IAEA-405 (Estuarine Sediment) and IAEA-SLI (Lake Sediment) were used as compatible matrix reference materials for quality assurance (QA) purposes. Good agreement between our data and lAEA certified values was obtained providing confidence in the reported data. (author)

  19. Technical Note: Stability of a Levee Made of Bottom Sediments From a Dam Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Stability analysis of a levee made of the bottom sediments from Czorsztyn-Niedzica Reservoir is presented in the paper. These sediments were classified as silty sands and, based on the authors' own research, their geotechnical parameters were beneficial, so the possibility of using this material for the hydraulic embankments was considered. Stability and filtration calculations were carried out for a levee that had the same top width - 3 m, slope inclinations 1:2 and different heights: 4, 6 and 8 m. Two methods were used: analytical and numerical. Calculations were carried out without and with a steady and unsteady seepage filtration. Based on the analysis carried out it was stated that the levee made of the bottom sediments is stable even at the height of 8.0 m, although because of the seepage on the downstream side it is recommended to use a drainage at the toe of the slope.

  20. Piracicaba River Basin: evaluation of chemical elements in deep sediment profile by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    França, Elvis J. de; Santos, Robson A.; Santos, Katarine M. Barbosa; Silva, Gleyce K. A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (DIAMB/CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Div, de Monitoração Ambiental; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O., E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Many hydrographic basins have been impacted by anthropogenic sources, the Piracicaba River Basin of the State of São Paulo, is one of that. The total concentrations of chemical elements in deep sediments of basin may be indicate those available in ecosystem. Therefore, in this research concentration of chemical elements on deep sediment profile sampled of Piracicaba River Basin was determined by k0-Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. After collecting the 60 cm depth profile, samples were obtained by sectioning the sediment profile in 5 cm layers, totalizing 12 samples. Analytical portions were transferred to polyethylene vials for neutron irradiation at the Nuclear Research Reactor IEA-R1 from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN. After waiting for radiation safe levels, irradiated samples were transported to the Radioisotopes Laboratory from the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura CENA/USP. High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry using HPGe detectors was applied to measure the induced radioactivity. The chemical element mass fractions and their respective expanded analytical uncertainties (95% confidence level) were determined by k0-INAA using the in-house software Quantu. Geological reference materials were analyzed with samples to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. Results indicated the presence of enriched surface sediments (0-10 cm depth) for As, Ba, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, Sb, Sc, Sr, Yb and Zn, despite no alteration was observed for Eu, Ta and Tb. Therefore, the evaluation of deep sediment profile afford the chemical element dynamics for the Piracicaba Basin. (author)

  1. Piracicaba River Basin: evaluation of chemical elements in deep sediment profile by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Elvis J. de; Santos, Robson A.; Santos, Katarine M. Barbosa; Silva, Gleyce K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Many hydrographic basins have been impacted by anthropogenic sources, the Piracicaba River Basin of the State of São Paulo, is one of that. The total concentrations of chemical elements in deep sediments of basin may be indicate those available in ecosystem. Therefore, in this research concentration of chemical elements on deep sediment profile sampled of Piracicaba River Basin was determined by k0-Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. After collecting the 60 cm depth profile, samples were obtained by sectioning the sediment profile in 5 cm layers, totalizing 12 samples. Analytical portions were transferred to polyethylene vials for neutron irradiation at the Nuclear Research Reactor IEA-R1 from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN. After waiting for radiation safe levels, irradiated samples were transported to the Radioisotopes Laboratory from the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura CENA/USP. High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry using HPGe detectors was applied to measure the induced radioactivity. The chemical element mass fractions and their respective expanded analytical uncertainties (95% confidence level) were determined by k0-INAA using the in-house software Quantu. Geological reference materials were analyzed with samples to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. Results indicated the presence of enriched surface sediments (0-10 cm depth) for As, Ba, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, Sb, Sc, Sr, Yb and Zn, despite no alteration was observed for Eu, Ta and Tb. Therefore, the evaluation of deep sediment profile afford the chemical element dynamics for the Piracicaba Basin. (author)

  2. Chesapeake Bay Sediment Flux Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    1988; Van der Molen , -88- 1991; Yoshida, 1981.) The model developed below is based on both of these approaches. It incorporates the diagenetic...288: pp. 289-333. Van der Molen , D.T. (1991): A simple, dynamic model for the simulation of the release of phosphorus from sediments in shallow...1974; Berner, 1980; van Cappellen and Berner, 1988). These relate the diagenetic production of phosphate to the resulting pore water concentration

  3. Monitoring of pollution in sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee I. Abdallah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs were analyzed in surface sediments collected from Suez till Hurgharda coasts to establish baseline levels for various types of organic pollutants before the anticipated identification of anthropogenic activities, petrogenic and biogenic. AHs for all samples were dominated by unresolved complex mixture (UCM, and petrogenic mixed with biogenic sources. Results also revealed that sedimentary PAHs mainly originated from pyrolysis sources.

  4. Sediment unmixing using detrital geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Glenn R.; Johnstone, Samuel A.

    2017-11-01

    Sediment mixing within sediment routing systems can exert a strong influence on the preservation of provenance signals that yield insight into the effect of environmental forcing (e.g., tectonism, climate) on the Earth's surface. Here, we discuss two approaches to unmixing detrital geochronologic data in an effort to characterize complex changes in the sedimentary record. First, we summarize 'top-down' mixing, which has been successfully employed in the past to characterize the different fractions of prescribed source distributions ('parents') that characterize a derived sample or set of samples ('daughters'). Second, we propose the use of 'bottom-up' methods, previously used primarily for grain size distributions, to model parent distributions and the abundances of these parents within a set of daughters. We demonstrate the utility of both top-down and bottom-up approaches to unmixing detrital geochronologic data within a well-constrained sediment routing system in central California. Use of a variety of goodness-of-fit metrics in top-down modeling reveals the importance of considering the range of allowable that is well mixed over any single best-fit mixture calculation. Bottom-up modeling of 12 daughter samples from beaches and submarine canyons yields modeled parent distributions that are remarkably similar to those expected from the geologic context of the sediment-routing system. In general, mixture modeling has the potential to supplement more widely applied approaches in comparing detrital geochronologic data by casting differences between samples as differing proportions of geologically meaningful end-member provenance categories.

  5. Analytical data of holocene sediments in the Miyazaki Plain, Southern Kyushu, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Masafumi; Niwa, Masakazu; Takatori, Ryoichi; Kamataki, Takanobu; Kurosawa, Hideki

    2014-06-01

    Since the devastated tsunami induced by the Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011, a lot of geologists have started to focus on the study of subduction-zone giant earthquakes using tsunami deposits. After the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, a lot of geologists studying tsunami deposits suggest the importance of the study concerning the tsunamis in the eastern coastal side of Kyushu. On the other hand, the Miyazaki Plain, facing the Hyuga-nada, had been attacked repeatedly by historical tsunami events induced by the giant earthquakes whose hypocenters were located in the Hyuga-nada or Nankai Trough. However, scientific studies concerning the tsunami events are still poor in this area. We are studying paleo-tsunami deposits in the Miyazaki Plain to develop investigation methods of tsunami deposits and elucidate the process of uplift and erosion for several thousand years in regional area. This data set shows the result of this study. A DVD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  6. Coastal hypoxia and sediment biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Middelburg

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The intensity, duration and frequency of coastal hypoxia (oxygen concentration <63 μM are increasing due to human alteration of coastal ecosystems and changes in oceanographic conditions due to global warming. Here we provide a concise review of the consequences of coastal hypoxia for sediment biogeochemistry. Changes in bottom-water oxygen levels have consequences for early diagenetic pathways (more anaerobic at expense of aerobic pathways, the efficiency of re-oxidation of reduced metabolites and the nature, direction and magnitude of sediment-water exchange fluxes. Hypoxia may also lead to more organic matter accumulation and burial and the organic matter eventually buried is also of higher quality, i.e. less degraded. Bottom-water oxygen levels also affect the organisms involved in organic matter processing with the contribution of metazoans decreasing as oxygen levels drop. Hypoxia has a significant effect on benthic animals with the consequences that ecosystem functions related to macrofauna such as bio-irrigation and bioturbation are significantly affected by hypoxia as well. Since many microbes and microbial-mediated biogeochemical processes depend on animal-induced transport processes (e.g. re-oxidation of particulate reduced sulphur and denitrification, there are indirect hypoxia effects on biogeochemistry via the benthos. Severe long-lasting hypoxia and anoxia may result in the accumulation of reduced compounds in sediments and elimination of macrobenthic communities with the consequences that biogeochemical properties during trajectories of decreasing and increasing oxygen may be different (hysteresis with consequences for coastal ecosystem dynamics.

  7. Characterization of Direct-Push Vadose Zone Sediments from the 241-B and 241-BX Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Um, Wooyong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Iovin, Cristian; Lanigan, David C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Clayton, Eric T.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Orr, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    derived from the bismuth phosphate separation process. Elements typically mobile in the geosphere, such as technetium-99, are present at either low concentrations or are below the analytical detection limit. However, we expect that the mobile elements would be present mainly along a narrow plume front, and if this front had passed deeper into the sediment profile than depths sampled, the retention of these elements would be minor. On the other hand for the direct push sediments from around BX Tank Farm, uranium-238 was detected in nearly all sediment specimens (by acid extract experiments) at concentrations above the natural crustal average (0.763 pCi/g), and we also detected the presence of several anthropogenic radioisotopes, such as cobalt-60, cesium-137, europium-154, and europium-155 (by gamma energy analysis). These data are direct confirmation of contamination of the sediments

  8. Characterization of Direct-Push Vadose Zone Sediments from the 241-B and 241-BX Tank Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Um, Wooyong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Iovin, Cristian; Lanigan, David C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Clayton, Eric T.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Orr, Robert D.

    2007-12-21

    derived from the bismuth phosphate separation process. Elements typically mobile in the geosphere, such as technetium-99, are present at either low concentrations or are below the analytical detection limit. However, we expect that the mobile elements would be present mainly along a narrow plume front, and if this front had passed deeper into the sediment profile than depths sampled, the retention of these elements would be minor. On the other hand for the direct push sediments from around BX Tank Farm, uranium-238 was detected in nearly all sediment specimens (by acid extract experiments) at concentrations above the natural crustal average (0.763 pCi/g), and we also detected the presence of several anthropogenic radioisotopes, such as cobalt-60, cesium-137, europium-154, and europium-155 (by gamma energy analysis). These data are direct confirmation of contamination of the sediments.

  9. In vitro screening of organotin compounds and sediment extracts for cytotoxicity to fish cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltrap, Michelle; Macken, Ailbhe; McHugh, Brendan; McGovern, Evin; Foley, Barry; Davoren, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports an in vitro screening method for contaminants in sediment samples utilizing an RTG-2 cell line. This technique integrates cytotoxicity testing with analytical chemistry with the aim of achieving a toxicity evaluation of the sediment sample. The toxic effect of individual organotin (OT) compounds and their presence in the sediment sample is the focus of the present study; however, other contaminants are also discussed. The following OT compounds: tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), monobutyltin (MBT), triphenyltin (TPT), diphenyltin (DPT), and a sediment solvent extract are exposed to the RTG-2 fish cell line. Both the alamar blue (AB) and neutral red (NR) assays are used to assess cytotoxicity after 24-h and 96-h exposure. Methodology for preparation of a sediment solvent extract suitable for biological testing and analytical determination is also described. With the RTG-2 cells, the AB and NR assays had comparable sensitivity for each individual OT compound exposure after 24 h, with TPT being the most toxic compound tested. The individual OT compound concentrations required to induce a 50% toxic effect on the cells (369 ng ml⁻¹ TBT, 1,905 ng ml⁻¹ DBT) did not equate to the concentrations of these contaminants present in the sediment extract that induced a 50% effect on the cells (294 ng ml⁻¹ TBT, 109 ng ml⁻¹ DBT). The solvent extract therefore exhibited a greater toxicity, and this suggests that the toxic effects observed were not due to OT compounds alone. The presence of other contaminants in the solvent extract is confirmed with chemical analysis, warranting further toxicity testing of contaminant mixtures and exposure to the cell line to further elucidate a complete toxicity evaluation. © 2010 SETAC.

  10. A New Measure for Transported Suspended Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Non-uniform suspended sediment plays an important role in many geographical and biological processes. Despite extensive study, understanding to it seems to stagnate when times to consider non-uniformity and non-equilibrium scenarios comes. Due to unsatisfactory reproducibility, large-scaled flume seems to be incompetent to conduct more fundamental research in this area. To push the realm a step further, experiment to find how suspended sediment exchanges is conducted in a new validated equipment, in which turbulence is motivated by oscillating grids. Analysis shows that 1) suspended sediment exchange is constrained by ωS invariance, 2) ωS of the suspended sediment that certain flow regime could support is unique regardless of the sediment gradation and 3) the more turbulent the flow, the higher ωS of the suspension the flow could achieve. A new measure for suspended sediment ωS, the work required to sustain sediment in suspension transport mode if multiplied by gravitational acceleration, is thus proposed to better describe the dynamics of transported suspended sediment. Except for the further understanding towards suspended sediment transportation mechanics, with this energy measure, a strategy to distribute total transport capacity to different fractions could be derived and rational calculation of non-uniform sediment transport capacity under non-equilibrium conditions be possible.

  11. Quantification of Gravel Rural Road Sediment Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, B. A.; Myers Toman, E.

    2014-12-01

    Unbound rural roads are thought to be one of the largest anthropogenic sources of sediment reaching stream channels in small watersheds. This sediment deposition can reduce water quality in the streams negatively impacting aquatic habitat as well as impacting municipal drinking water sources. These roads are thought to see an increase in construction and use in southeast Ohio due to the expansion of shale gas development in the region. This study set out to quantify the amount of sediment these rural roads are able to produce. A controlled rain event of 12.7 millimeters of rain over a half hour period was used to drive sediment production over a 0.03 kilometer section of gravel rural road. These 8 segments varied in many characteristics and produced from 2.0 to 8.4 kilograms of sediment per 0.03 kilometers of road with the average production over the 8 segments being 5.5 kilograms of sediment. Sediment production was not strongly correlated with road segment slope but traffic was found to increase sediment production from 1.1 to 3.9 times as much sediment after traffic use. These results will help inform watershed scale sediment budgeting, and inform best management practices for road maintenance and construction. This study also adds to the understanding of the impacts of rural road use and construction associated with the changing land use from agricultural to natural gas extraction.

  12. Nearshore sediment thickness, Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, Stanley D.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Buster, Noreen A.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Wadman, Heidi M.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Forde, Arnell S.; Stalk, Chelsea A.

    2017-04-03

    Investigations of coastal change at Fire Island, New York (N.Y.), sought to characterize sediment budgets and determine geologic framework controls on coastal processes. Nearshore sediment thickness is critical for assessing coastal system sediment availability, but it is largely unquantified due to the difficulty of conducting geological or geophysical surveys across the nearshore. This study used an amphibious vessel to acquire chirp subbottom profiles. These profiles were used to characterize nearshore geology and provide an assessment of nearshore sediment volume. Two resulting sediment-thickness maps are provided: total Holocene sediment thickness and the thickness of the active shoreface. The Holocene sediment section represents deposition above the maximum flooding surface that is related to the most recent marine transgression. The active shoreface section is the uppermost Holocene sediment, which is interpreted to represent the portion of the shoreface thought to contribute to present and future coastal behavior. The sediment distribution patterns correspond to previously defined zones of erosion, accretion, and stability along the island, demonstrating the importance of sediment availability in the coastal response to storms and seasonal variability. The eastern zone has a thin nearshore sediment thickness, except for an ebb-tidal deposit at the wilderness breach caused by Hurricane Sandy. Thicker sediment is found along a central zone that includes shoreface-attached sand ridges, which is consistent with a stable or accretional coastline in this area. The thickest overall Holocene section is found in the western zone of the study, where a thicker lower section of Holocene sediment appears related to the westward migration of Fire Island Inlet over several hundred years.

  13. Sediment supply versus local hydraulic controls on sediment transport and storage in a river with large sediment loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David; Topping, David; Schmidt, John C.; Griffiths, Ronald; Sabol, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Rio Grande in the Big Bend region of Texas, USA, and Chihuahua and Coahuila, Mexico, undergoes rapid geomorphic changes as a result of its large sediment supply and variable hydrology; thus, it is a useful natural laboratory to investigate the relative importance of flow strength and sediment supply in controlling alluvial channel change. We analyzed a suite of sediment transport and geomorphic data to determine the cumulative influence of different flood types on changing channel form. In this study, physically based analyses suggest that channel change in the Rio Grande is controlled by both changes in flow strength and sediment supply over different spatial and temporal scales. Channel narrowing is primarily caused by substantial deposition of sediment supplied to the Rio Grande during tributary-sourced flash floods. Tributary floods have large suspended-sediment concentrations, occur for short durations, and attenuate rapidly downstream in the Rio Grande, depositing much of their sediment in downstream reaches. Long-duration floods on the mainstem have the capacity to enlarge the Rio Grande, and these floods, released from upstream dams, can either erode or deposit sediment in the Rio Grande depending upon the antecedent in-channel sediment supply and the magnitude and duration of the flood. Geomorphic and sediment transport analyses show that the locations and rates of sand erosion and deposition during long-duration floods are most strongly controlled by spatial changes in flow strength, largely through changes in channel slope. However, spatial differences in the in-channel sediment supply regulate sediment evacuation or accumulation over time in long reaches (greater than a kilometer).

  14. Using Linked Data in Learning Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Aquin, Mathieu; Dietze, Stefan; Drachsler, Hendrik; Herder, Eelco

    2013-01-01

    d'Aquin, M., Dietze, S., Drachsler, H., & Herder, E. (2013, April). Using Linked Data in Learning Analytics. Tutorial given at LAK 2013, the Third Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge, Leuven, Belgium.

  15. Analytical quality, performance indices and laboratory service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilden, Jørgen; Magid, Erik

    1999-01-01

    analytical error, bias, cost effectiveness, decision-making, laboratory techniques and procedures, mass screening, models, statistical, quality control......analytical error, bias, cost effectiveness, decision-making, laboratory techniques and procedures, mass screening, models, statistical, quality control...

  16. Some analytical aspects of the Moessbauer spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, W.

    1975-01-01

    Analytical applications of Moessbauer spectrometry are reviewed. Various methods of analysis (qualitative, semiquantitative and quantitative) using the Moessbauer effect are dealt with. Sensitivity and accuracy of Moessbauer spectrometry in analytical applications are discussed. (Z.S.)

  17. Group Concept Mapping on Learning Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Drachsler, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Stoyanov, S., & Drachsler, H. (2013, 5 July). Group Concept Mapping on Learning Analytics. Presentation given at Learning Analytics Summer School Institute (LASI) to kickoff the national GCM study on LA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

  18. Process analytical technology (PAT) for biopharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glassey, Jarka; Gernaey, Krist; Clemens, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Process analytical technology (PAT), the regulatory initiative for building in quality to pharmaceutical manufacturing, has a great potential for improving biopharmaceutical production. The recommended analytical tools for building in quality, multivariate data analysis, mechanistic modeling, novel...

  19. Combining sediment fingerprinting and a conceptual model for erosion and sediment transfer to explore sediment sources in an Alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A.; Stutenbecker, L.; Anghileri, D.; Bakker, M.; Lane, S. N.; Molnar, P.; Schlunegger, F.

    2017-12-01

    In Alpine basins, sediment production and transfer is increasingly affected by climate change and human activities, specifically hydropower exploitation. Changes in sediment sources and pathways significantly influence basin management, biodiversity and landscape evolution. We explore the dynamics of sediment sources in a partially glaciated and highly regulated Alpine basin, the Borgne basin, by combining geochemical fingerprinting with the modelling of erosion and sediment transfer. The Borgne basin in southwest Switzerland is composed of three main litho-tectonic units, which we characterised following a tributary-sampling approach from lithologically characteristic sub-basins. We analysed bulk geochemistry using lithium borate fusion coupled with ICP-ES, and we used it to discriminate the three lithologic sources using statistical methods. Finally, we applied a mixing model to estimate the relative contributions of the three sources to the sediment sampled at the outlet. We combine results of the sediment fingerprinting with simulations of a spatially distributed conceptual model for erosion and transport of fine sediment. The model expresses sediment erosion by differentiating the contributions of erosional processes driven by erosive rainfall, snowmelt, and icemelt. Soil erodibility is accounted for as function of land-use and sediment fluxes are linearly convoluted to the outlet by sediment transfer rates for hillslope and river cells, which are a function of sediment connectivity. Sediment connectivity is estimated on the basis of topographic-hydraulic connectivity, flow duration associated with hydropower flow abstraction and permanent storage in hydropower reservoirs. Sediment fingerprinting at the outlet of the Borgne shows a consistent dominance (68-89%) of material derived from the uppermost, highly glaciated reaches, while contributions of the lower part (10-25%) and middle part (1-16%), where rainfall erosion is predominant, are minor. This result is

  20. Suspended sediment and sediment-associated contaminants in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, D.H.; Mumley, T.E.; Leatherbarrow, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Water-quality managers desire information on the temporal and spatial variability of contaminant concentrations and the magnitudes of watershed and bed-sediment loads in San Francisco Bay. To help provide this information, the Regional Monitoring Program for Trace Substances in the San Francisco Estuary (RMP) takes advantage of the association of many contaminants with sediment particles by continuously measuring suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), which is an accurate, less costly, and more easily measured surrogate for several trace metals and organic contaminants. Continuous time series of SSC are collected at several sites in the Bay. Although semidiurnal and diurnal tidal fluctuations are present, most of the variability of SSC occurs at fortnightly, monthly, and semiannual tidal time scales. A seasonal cycle of sediment inflow, wind-wave resuspension, and winnowing of fine sediment also is observed. SSC and, thus, sediment-associated contaminants tend to be greater in shallower water, at the landward ends of the Bay, and in several localized estuarine turbidity maxima. Although understanding of sediment transport has improved in the first 10 years of the RMP, determining a simple mass budget of sediment or associated contaminants is confounded by uncertainties regarding sediment flux at boundaries, change in bed-sediment storage, and appropriate modeling techniques. Nevertheless, management of sediment-associated contaminants has improved greatly. Better understanding of sediment and sediment-associated contaminants in the Bay is of great interest to evaluate the value of control actions taken and the need for additional controls. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.