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Sample records for analytical techniques perfeccionamiento

  1. Analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper concerns the physical principles behind the analytical techniques employing high energy ion microbeams, with special attention to features that affect their use with microbeams. Particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXIE) is discussed with respect to X-ray production, thick-target PIXIE, a microbeam PIXIE system, sensitivity, and microbeam PIXIE applications. An explanation of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) is given for NRA with charged particle detection, NRA with neutron detection and NRA with gamma detection. The essentials of Rutherford back scattering (RBS) are given, along with the elastic recoil detection analysis, which has very close connections with RBS but was introduced much more recently. Finally a comparison of the microbeam's capability with those of its main competitors is presented. (UK)

  2. Advanced analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of several new analytical techniques for use in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research is reported. These include: high-resolution liquid chromatographic systems for the early detection of pathological molecular constituents in physiologic body fluids; gradient elution chromatography for the analysis of protein-bound carbohydrates in blood serum samples, with emphasis on changes in sera from breast cancer patients; electrophoretic separation techniques coupled with staining of specific proteins in cellular isoenzymes for the monitoring of genetic mutations and abnormal molecular constituents in blood samples; and the development of a centrifugal elution chromatographic technique for the assay of specific proteins and immunoglobulins in human blood serum samples

  3. Nuclear techniques in analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, Alfred J; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Nuclear Techniques in Analytical Chemistry discusses highly sensitive nuclear techniques that determine the micro- and macro-amounts or trace elements of materials. With the increasingly frequent demand for the chemical determination of trace amounts of elements in materials, the analytical chemist had to search for more sensitive methods of analysis. This book accustoms analytical chemists with nuclear techniques that possess the desired sensitivity and applicability at trace levels. The topics covered include safe handling of radioactivity; measurement of natural radioactivity; and neutron a

  4. Analytical applications of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contributions from some of the world's leading nuclear analysts included in this book describe a variety of nuclear techniques and applications, such as those in the fields of environment and health, industrial processes, non-destructive testing, forensic and archaeological investigations and cosmochemistry, and in method validation. The descriptive articles demonstrate the advantages of nuclear techniques in, for example, analysing trace elements in submilligram samples in a single strand of hair or in kilogram samples of municipal waste. Halogenated organic compounds as well as major and trace inorganic constituents are analysed in a variety of solid and liquid matrices. Several different techniques are applied to investigate the authenticity of art objects and the origin of extraterrestrial material. Many applications of nuclear analytical techniques in industrial process control or in the production of high-tech materials are described, highlighting the socioeconomic benefit of these techniques in our daily lives. The book is intended to stimulate students, teachers and non-nuclear scientists to take the 'nuclear' option into consideration when deciding on a new field of study or an alternative analytical technique

  5. Analytical techniques in radiation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    case and sampling is quite a sophisticated procedure. Stable isotope tracers are utilized to investigate process mechanism as well. Wastewater pollutants treatment plant using electron accelerator as a source of radiation has been constructed as well. HCLP/MS and other techniques are used to record performance of the plant. Solutions presented in the paper are the example of the role which analytical techniques play in modern technology development. (author)

  6. ARPEFS as an analytic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schach von Wittenau, A.E.

    1991-04-01

    Two modifications to the ARPEFS technique are introduced. These are studied using p(2 {times} 2)S/Cu(001) as a model system. The first modification is the obtaining of ARPEFS {chi}(k) curves at temperatures as low as our equipment will permit. While adding to the difficulty of the experiment, this modification is shown to almost double the signal-to-noise ratio of normal emission p(2 {times} 2)S/Cu(001) {chi}(k) curves. This is shown by visual comparison of the raw data and by the improved precision of the extracted structural parameters. The second change is the replacement of manual fitting of the Fourier filtered {chi}(k) curves by the use of the simplex algorithm for parameter determination. Again using p(2 {times} 2)S/Cu(001) data, this is shown to result in better agreement between experimental {chi}(k) curves and curves calculated based on model structures. The improved ARPEFS is then applied to p(2 {times} 2)S/Ni(111) and ({radical}3 {times} {radical}3) R30{degree}S/Ni(111). For p(2 {times} 2)S/Cu(001) we find a S-Cu bond length of 2.26 {Angstrom}, with the S adatom 1.31 {Angstrom} above the fourfold hollow site. The second Cu layer appears to be corrugated. Analysis of the p(2 {times} 2)S/Ni(111) data indicates that the S adatom adatom adsorbs onto the FCC threefold hollow site 1.53 {Angstrom} above the Ni surface. The S-Ni bond length is determined to be 2.13 {Angstrom}, indicating an outwards shift of the first layer Ni atoms. We are unable to assign a unique structure to ({radical}3 {times} {radical}3)R30{degree}S/Ni(111). An analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of ARPEFS as an experimental and analytic technique is presented, along with a summary of problems still to be addressed.

  7. ARPEFS as an analytic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two modifications to the ARPEFS technique are introduced. These are studied using p(2 x 2)S/Cu(001) as a model system. The first modification is the obtaining of ARPEFS χ(k) curves at temperatures as low as our equipment will permit. While adding to the difficulty of the experiment, this modification is shown to almost double the signal-to-noise ratio of normal emission p(2 x 2)S/Cu(001) χ(k) curves. This is shown by visual comparison of the raw data and by the improved precision of the extracted structural parameters. The second change is the replacement of manual fitting of the Fourier filtered χ(k) curves by the use of the simplex algorithm for parameter determination. Again using p(2 x 2)S/Cu(001) data, this is shown to result in better agreement between experimental χ(k) curves and curves calculated based on model structures. The improved ARPEFS is then applied to p(2 x 2)S/Ni(111) and (√3 x √3) R30 degree S/Ni(111). For p(2 x 2)S/Cu(001) we find a S-Cu bond length of 2.26 Angstrom, with the S adatom 1.31 Angstrom above the fourfold hollow site. The second Cu layer appears to be corrugated. Analysis of the p(2 x 2)S/Ni(111) data indicates that the S adatom adatom adsorbs onto the FCC threefold hollow site 1.53 Angstrom above the Ni surface. The S-Ni bond length is determined to be 2.13 Angstrom, indicating an outwards shift of the first layer Ni atoms. We are unable to assign a unique structure to (√3 x √3)R30 degree S/Ni(111). An analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of ARPEFS as an experimental and analytic technique is presented, along with a summary of problems still to be addressed

  8. HYPHENATED TECHNIQUE- A BOON TO ANALYTICAL WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    Rachana R. Joshi* Krishna R. Gupta and Shitalkumar S. Patil

    2012-01-01

    Traditional analytical approaches including HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatograph), GC (Gas Chromatograph), UV (Ultraviolet) detection, etc., have become insufficient to effectively handle the growing number of challenges in analyses of species- specificity and sensitivity. Modern analytical technique referred to as hyphenated techniques, originate from the traditional use of molecule or element specific detection in electrophoresis or chromatography. Currently the most common technique...

  9. HYPHENATED TECHNIQUE- A BOON TO ANALYTICAL WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana R. Joshi* Krishna R. Gupta and Shitalkumar S. Patil

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional analytical approaches including HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatograph, GC (Gas Chromatograph, UV (Ultraviolet detection, etc., have become insufficient to effectively handle the growing number of challenges in analyses of species- specificity and sensitivity. Modern analytical technique referred to as hyphenated techniques, originate from the traditional use of molecule or element specific detection in electrophoresis or chromatography. Currently the most common techniques for trace element speciation include a combination of separation technique coupled with a detection technique that is more sensitive. Earlier such hyphenated techniques were the coupling of separation of a special sample preparation off-line and later adding a detection technique. Presently, the hyphenated technique is developed from the coupling of a separation technique (Chromatography and an on-line spectroscopic detection technology. Hyphenated techniques combine chromatographic and spectral methods to exploit the advantages of both. Chromatography produces pure or nearly pure fractions of chemical components in a mixture. Spectroscopy produces selective information for identification using standards or library spectra. These hyphenated techniques offer shorter analysis time, higher degree of automation, higher sample throughput, better reproducibility, reduction of contamination because it is a closed system, Enhanced combined selectivity and therefore higher degree of information. The remarkable improvements in hyphenated analytical methods over the last two decades have significantly broadened their applications in the analysis of biomaterials, especially natural products. In this article, recent advances in the applications of various hyphenated techniques, e.g., GC-MS, LC-MS, LC-FTIR, LC-NMR, CE-MS, etc. in the context of pre-isolation analyses of crude extracts or fraction from various natural sources, isolation and on-line detection of natural

  10. Nuclear analytical techniques in archaeological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is presented of the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Nuclear Analytical Techniques in Archaeological Investigations organized by the IAEA. A particularly successful combination of analytical expertise and a field of common interest in the Latin American region was created through this Project. The first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) of the CRP was held in June 1997 at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC, where the participants were introduced to the concept of the project and the preliminary work plans were outlined. Emphasis was given to a close collaboration between analytical scientists and archaeologists - from the definition of the problem, selection of sampling sites and samples to interpretation of analytical results using multifunctional statistical analysis. Also highlighted was the validation of analytical techniques using several certified reference materials. In April 1999 a second RCM was held in Cuzco, Peru, to present and discuss preliminary results of the individual projects and to refine the methods used. The final RCM, which was held in Santiago, Chile, from 6-10 November 2000, revealed extensive information obtained by the participating research groups during the CRP, which is described in detail in the report. As the research objectives of each group were very particular, i.e. related to each country's specific situation, the range of results is exceptionally broad. The results demonstrated the great potential of the combination of nuclear analysis and archaeological research

  11. Nuclear forensics: strategies and analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of nuclear forensics as a field of science arose in response to international demand for methods to investigate the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. After being seized, unknown nuclear material is collected and analyzed by a set of analytical methods. The fingerprints of these materials can be identified and further used during the investigations. Data interpretation is an extensive process aiming to validate the hypotheses made by the experts, and can help confirm the origin of seized nuclear materials at the end of the process or investigation. This work presents the set of measures and analytical methods that have been inherited by nuclear forensics from several fields of science. The main characteristics of these methods are evaluated and the analytical techniques employed to determine the fingerprint of nuclear materials are described. (author)

  12. Nuclear applications of modern analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference surveyed a range of modern analytical techniques and their applicability to nuclear technology. The initial papers described problems and techniques relevant to the fast reactor, and then moved on to the application of neutron methods. Next various probe methods were described, including the nuclear microprobe, computer control of the electron microprobe and the laser microprobe. Then followed papers which described applications of scanning electron microscopy, and finally papers which dealt with the study of surfaces, and the application and behaviour of protective coatings on materials. (author)

  13. Quality system implementation for nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    techniques. The methodology provided is appropriate for: (a) Analysis of radionuclides as in alpha, beta, and gamma spectrometry for environmental and human-made radioactivity investigations; (b) Analysis of trace, minor and major elements using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as neutron activation analysis, X ray fluorescence, PIXE, etc. This training guidebook can be used by staff of analytical laboratories as a starting kit to better understand the quality assurance and quality control principles as prescribed in the ISO 17025 standard. It follows a logical order related to practical laboratory work rather than the formal clauses as given by the standard. It can be used as a stand alone textbook. However, in some cases, cross-reference is given to the ISO 17025 clauses hence it is recommended to consult the ISO standard for exact wording of specific requirements

  14. Prediction of Stock Performance Using Analytical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Hargreaves

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With an easy access to share information and data nowadays, many investors worldwide are interested in predicting stock prices. The prediction of stock prices using data mining techniques applied to technical variables has been widely researched but not much research to date has been done in applying data mining techniques to both technical and fundamental information. This paper is based on a personal approach to stock selection, using both technical and fundamental information. In this paper we construct a framework that enables us to make class predictions about industrial stock performances. In order to have a systemized approach for the selection of stocks and a high likelihood of the performance of the stock price increasing, several analytical techniques are applied. A trading strategy is also designed and the performance of the stocks evaluated. Our two goals are to validate our stock selection methodology and to determine whether our trading strategy allows us to outperform the Australian market. Simulation results show that our selected stock portfolios outperform the Australian All-Ordinaries Index. Our findings justify the use of analytics for classification and prediction purposes. Further, in conclusion, we can safely say that our stock selection and trading strategy outperformed the Australian Ordinary index.

  15. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban Sugar Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a review concerning the applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements ) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processes has been performed by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elements sugar cane soil plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (rawr, blanco directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in other applications are given

  16. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to forensic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gun shot residues produced by firing guns are mainly composed by visible particles. The individual characterization of these particles allows distinguishing those ones containing heavy metals, from gun shot residues, from those having a different origin or history. In this work, the results obtained from the study of gun shot residues particles collected from hands are presented. The aim of the analysis is to establish whether a person has shot a firing gun has been in contact with one after the shot has been produced. As reference samples, particles collected hands of persons affected to different activities were studied to make comparisons. The complete study was based on the application of nuclear analytical techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X Ray Electron Probe Microanalysis and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The essays allow to be completed within time compatible with the forensic requirements. (author)

  17. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a review concerning the application of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processe4s has been performed by means of instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elemental sugar cane soill-plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (raw, blanco-directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in the other applications are given. (author). 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  18. New analytical techniques for cuticle chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1) The analytical methodology of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) and direct pyrolysis-mass spectrometry (Py-MS) using soft ionization techniques by high electric fields (FL) are briefly described. Recent advances of Py-GC/MS and Py-FIMS for the analyses of complex organic matter such as plant materials, humic substances, dissolved organic matter in water (DOM) and soil organic matter (SOM) in agricultural and forest soils are given to illustrate the potential and limitations of the applied methods. 2) Novel applications of Py-GC/MS and Py-MS in combination with conventional analytical data in an integrated, chemometric approach to investigate the dynamics of plant lipids are reported. This includes multivariate statistical investigations on maturation, senescence, humus genesis, and environmental damages in spruce ecosystems. 3) The focal point is the author's integrated investigations on emission-induced changes of selected conifer plant constituents. Pattern recognition of Py-MS data of desiccated spruce needles provides a method for distinguishing needles damaged in different ways and determining the cause. Spruce needles were collected from both controls and trees treated with sulphur dioxide (acid rain), nitrogen dioxide, and ozone under controlled conditions. Py-MS and chemometric data evaluation are employed to characterize and classify leaves and their epicuticular waxes. Preliminary mass spectrometric evaluations of isolated cuticles of different plants such as spruce, ivy, holly, and philodendron, as well as ivy cuticles treated in vivo with air pollutants such as surfactants and pesticides are given. (orig.)

  19. Nuclear analytical techniques for nanotoxicology studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.Y.; Zhao, Y.L.; Chai, Z.F. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety

    2011-07-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology and its applications, a wide variety of nanomaterials are now used in commodities, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, biomedical products, and industries. The potential interactions of nanomaterials with living systems and the environment have attracted increasing attention from the public, as well as from manufacturers of nanomaterial-based products, academic researchers and policymakers. It is important to consider the environmental, health and safety aspects at an early stage of nanomaterial development and application in order to more effectively identify and manage potential human and environmental health impacts from nanomaterial exposure. This will require research in a range of areas, including detection and characterization, environmental fate and transport, ecotoxicology and toxicology. Nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) can play an important role in such studies due to their intrinsic merits such as high sensitivity, good accuracy, high space resolution, ability to distinguish the endogenous or exogenous sources of materials, and ability of in situ and in vivo analysis. In this paper, the applications of NATs in nanotoxicological and nano-ecotoxicological studies are outlined, and some recent results obtained in our laboratory are reported. (orig.)

  20. Nuclear analytical techniques for nanotoxicology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology and its applications, a wide variety of nanomaterials are now used in commodities, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, biomedical products, and industries. The potential interactions of nanomaterials with living systems and the environment have attracted increasing attention from the public, as well as from manufacturers of nanomaterial-based products, academic researchers and policymakers. It is important to consider the environmental, health and safety aspects at an early stage of nanomaterial development and application in order to more effectively identify and manage potential human and environmental health impacts from nanomaterial exposure. This will require research in a range of areas, including detection and characterization, environmental fate and transport, ecotoxicology and toxicology. Nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) can play an important role in such studies due to their intrinsic merits such as high sensitivity, good accuracy, high space resolution, ability to distinguish the endogenous or exogenous sources of materials, and ability of in situ and in vivo analysis. In this paper, the applications of NATs in nanotoxicological and nano-ecotoxicological studies are outlined, and some recent results obtained in our laboratory are reported. (orig.)

  1. 40 CFR 141.27 - Alternate analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternate analytical techniques. 141... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Monitoring and Analytical Requirements § 141.27 Alternate analytical techniques. (a) With the written permission of the State, concurred in...

  2. Analytical Electrochemistry: Methodology and Applications of Dynamic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, William R.; Kissinger, Peter T.

    1980-01-01

    Reports developments involving the experimental aspects of finite and current analytical electrochemistry including electrode materials (97 cited references), hydrodynamic techniques (56), spectroelectrochemistry (62), stripping voltammetry (70), voltammetric techniques (27), polarographic techniques (59), and miscellany (12). (CS)

  3. Analytical Techniques in the Pharmaceutical Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leurs, Ulrike; Mistarz, Ulrik Hvid; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) offers the capability to identify, characterize and quantify a target molecule in a complex sample matrix and has developed into a premier analytical tool in drug development science. Through specific MS-based workflows including customized sample preparation, coupling to l...

  4. Development of health-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Related to the programme based on Nuclear Methods for Health-Related Monitoring of Trace Element Pollutants in Man initiated by I.A.E.A. in 1978, our laboratory (L.A.R.N.) has developed and optimized samples preparation techniques for hair analysis without dissolution and preconcentration or chemical separation, and PIXE non vacuum technique for measurement of biological samples such as liquids. The results obtained at L.A.R.N. have been compared with results obtained by the other techniques, and it is found that PIXE can be used with reliability to analyse in a short time a lot of biological samples. (author)

  5. Analytical detection techniques for droplet microfluidics—A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •This is the first review paper focused on the analytical techniques for droplet-based microfluidics. •We summarized the analytical methods used in droplet-based microfluidic systems. •We discussed the advantage and disadvantage of each method through its application. •We also discuss the future development direction of analytical methods for droplet-based microfluidic systems. -- Abstract: In the last decade, droplet-based microfluidics has undergone rapid progress in the fields of single-cell analysis, digital PCR, protein crystallization and high throughput screening. It has been proved to be a promising platform for performing chemical and biological experiments with ultra-small volumes (picoliter to nanoliter) and ultra-high throughput. The ability to analyze the content in droplet qualitatively and quantitatively is playing an increasing role in the development and application of droplet-based microfluidic systems. In this review, we summarized the analytical detection techniques used in droplet systems and discussed the advantage and disadvantage of each technique through its application. The analytical techniques mentioned in this paper include bright-field microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, laser induced fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, electrochemistry, capillary electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, absorption detection, chemiluminescence, and sample pretreatment techniques. The importance of analytical detection techniques in enabling new applications is highlighted. We also discuss the future development direction of analytical detection techniques for droplet-based microfluidic systems

  6. Analytical detection techniques for droplet microfluidics—A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ying [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Institute of Cyber-Systems and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Fang, Qun, E-mail: fangqun@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China)

    2013-07-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •This is the first review paper focused on the analytical techniques for droplet-based microfluidics. •We summarized the analytical methods used in droplet-based microfluidic systems. •We discussed the advantage and disadvantage of each method through its application. •We also discuss the future development direction of analytical methods for droplet-based microfluidic systems. -- Abstract: In the last decade, droplet-based microfluidics has undergone rapid progress in the fields of single-cell analysis, digital PCR, protein crystallization and high throughput screening. It has been proved to be a promising platform for performing chemical and biological experiments with ultra-small volumes (picoliter to nanoliter) and ultra-high throughput. The ability to analyze the content in droplet qualitatively and quantitatively is playing an increasing role in the development and application of droplet-based microfluidic systems. In this review, we summarized the analytical detection techniques used in droplet systems and discussed the advantage and disadvantage of each technique through its application. The analytical techniques mentioned in this paper include bright-field microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, laser induced fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, electrochemistry, capillary electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, absorption detection, chemiluminescence, and sample pretreatment techniques. The importance of analytical detection techniques in enabling new applications is highlighted. We also discuss the future development direction of analytical detection techniques for droplet-based microfluidic systems.

  7. Internet promotion tools and techniques: analytical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Illiashenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is an analysis and systematization of modern communication Internet marketing tools, development of recommendations for their management to promote products in a virtual environment and maintaining the highest level of communication with their economic partners and contact groups. The results of the analysis. The systematic analysis and systematization of the known Internet marketing tools were made. Authors divide them into 8 categories of the use functionality: Search Engine Marketing, Internet advertising, Social Relationship Marketing, Viral Marketing, Video Marketing, E-mail Marketing, Innovative Marketing and Analytical Marketing. The recommendations for this tools use by various size companies were proposed and the most popular Internet-instruments for products promotion were noted. By the results of analysis, the communication instruments of Internet-marketing are divided into 4 groups, which are closely interrelated. Their complex use leads to synergistic effect that appears at profit growth, consumer interest and creating of company’s positive image. Today the forgotten method of communication – E-mail Marketing, interactive infographics, communications in the form of stories, Marketing in social networks and Analytical Marketing have acquired unexpected development. These instruments satisfy needs of companies (the possibility of solid presentation, active communication link and its precise measurements and consumers (interesting content, supported by visual image and information on request. Conclusions and directions for future research. The results can be used as methodological assistance in choosing rational sets of Internet marketing instruments that would take into account the specificity of a production company (seller and its products, market, target audience. The future research must be directed to detection of inexpensive but effective Internet-communication tools, detection

  8. Implementation of an analytical technique for Samarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Samarium presents the same chemical properties that the plutonium, it has been used as homologous in studies that allow us to know the behavior that the plutonium presents in solution, with the advantage of working with an inactive and not very dangerous element. At the moment studies of sorption of plutonium or samarium are made on some mineral matrices that present certain surface properties. Due to the low concentrations that are used in the studies of sorption of samarium on those reagent substrates, their detection becomes very difficult for the conventional analysis media. The luminescence is a technique that can detect lower concentrations, smaller at 1 X 10-2 M, but when fluorofors are used this limit of detection increases in several orders of magnitude. In this work it has been used the arsenazo-III as fluorofor agent since it reacts in a specific way with the samarium, forming a complex that presents a proportional luminescence to the concentration of the present samarium. The advantage of making the quantification of samarium by luminescence is that it can use the same instrumental equipment to determine the speciation of the samarium sipped in the zircon. (Author)

  9. Role of nuclear analytical techniques in environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear analytical techniques play an important role in the protection of human health from biological, chemical and radiological hazards in the environment. They are highly useful in the areas of environmental sciences such as air pollution, environmental chemistry, environmental management, environmental toxicology, industrial hygiene, marine pollution and water quality. The socio-economic needs of all nations are closely linked to its industrial activities, with energy sector as the driving force, making it sustainable without causing much constraints to the nature's ability to meet the present and future needs. At the same time it should be realized that most of the industrial production options are accrued with some degree of environmental impacts in the form of increased concentrations in air, soil, vegetation, surface and ground water resources, marine coastal zones, sediment etc., which inter alia can lead to potential health and environmental risks through inhalation and ingestion pathways. In the nuclear facilities, most of its harmful effects have been minimized by control measures like shielding, engineered safety systems, environmental surveillance etc., and remain under check due to the strict implementation of the comprehensive, continuous and stringent regulatory system. The development of nuclear analytical techniques is based on utilization of certain properties of nucleus and associated with the phenomena of ionizing radiations. The analytical techniques that use nuclear instrumentation are also called nuclear analytical techniques. Nuclear analytical techniques are basically divided in two categories i.e. those are based on direct methods and those based on indirect methods. Direct methods include beta counting, gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry, emanometry etc. while Indirect methods include Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis, Prompt Gamma Analysis, Charged Particle Activation Analysis

  10. Advanced analytical techniques for boiling water reactor chemistry control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytical techniques applied can be divided into 5 classes: OFF-LINE (discontinuous, central lab), AT-LINE (discontinuous, analysis near loop), ON-LINE (continuous, analysis in bypass). In all cases pressure and temperature of the water sample are reduced. In a strict sense only IN-LINE (continuous, flow disturbance) and NON-INVASIVE (continuous, no flow disturbance) techniques are suitable for direct process control; - the ultimate goal. An overview of the analytical techniques tested in the pilot loop is given. Apart from process and overall water quality control, standard for BWR operation, the main emphasis is on water impurity characterization (crud particles, hot filtration, organic carbon); on stress corrosion crackling control for materials (corrosion potential, oxygen concentration) and on the characterization of the oxide layer on austenites (impedance spectroscopy, IR-reflection). The above mentioned examples of advanced analytical techniques have the potential of in-line or non-invasive application. They are different stages of development and are described in more detail. 28 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  11. A future for nuclear analytical techniques? Why not?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bode, P. [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2004-05-01

    The choices of universities and national research institutions in supporting scientific research are increasingly justified on the basis of, amongst others, the relevance that has to be reflected by external, preferably sustainable funding of the research programs. Many traditional fields of application such as environmental sciences do not offer a promising outlook in this respect. As a consequence, university research reactors face closure because of reallocations of university funds to more contemporary sciences such as molecular biology and nanotechnology. Therefore, laboratories operating nuclear analytical techniques (NAA, (TR)XRF, and PIXE) need to use their creativity in finding ways for participation in, for example, nanotechnology, cancer research, or genomics. This requires an open mind in terms of the opportunities, strengths, and weaknesses of the techniques, and a departure of technique-oriented research towards problem-oriented research in which other nuclear techniques can be used. The unique features of radiotracers, nuclear imaging, and nuclear beam techniques are discussed in view of the new areas mentioned above. Some examples of opportunities for nuclear analytical techniques in the above-mentioned fields are given. (orig.)

  12. Determination of uranium in ground water using different analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concern over presence of natural radionuclides like uranium in drinking water is growing recently. The contamination of aquifers with radionuclides depends on number of factors. The geology of an area is the most important factor along with anthropogenic activities like mining, coal ash disposal from thermal power plants, use of phosphate fertilizers etc. Whatever may be the source, the presence of uranium in drinking waters is a matter of great concern for public health. Studies show that uranium is a chemo-toxic and nephrotoxic heavy metal. This chemotoxicity affects the kidneys and bones in particular. Seeing the potential health hazards from natural radionuclides in drinking water, many countries worldwide have adopted the guideline activity concentration for drinking water quality recommended by the WHO (2011). For uranium, WHO has set a limit of 30μgL-1 in drinking water. The geological distribution of uranium and its migration in environment is of interest because the element is having environmental and exposure concerns. It is of great interest to use an analytical technique for uranium analysis in water which is highly sensitive especially at trace levels, specific and precise in presence of other naturally occurring major and trace metals and needs small amount of sample. Various analytical methods based on the use of different techniques have been developed in the past for the determination of uranium in the geological samples. The determination of uranium requires high selectivity due to its strong association with other elements. Several trace level wet chemistry analytical techniques have been reported for uranium determination, but most of these involve tedious and pain staking procedures, high detection limits, interferences etc. Each analytical technique has its own merits and demerits. Comparative assessment by different techniques can provide better quality control and assurance. In present study, uranium was analysed in ground water samples

  13. A graphical technique for post-analytical quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No matter how great the effort, some errors will slip past quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC) and total quality management (TQM) into the analytical results. When older data or data whose QC procedures are unknown are used, the problem may be even worse. The paper demonstrates a graphical approach to 'post-analytical quality control' in elemental data for atmospheric aerosol and precipitation that relies on the chemical regularities of their three major sources, crust, sea and pollution, to display the underlying patterns of composition and to allow the analyst to visually identify data points that deviate far enough to warrant a closer look. The basic technique uses log-log scatter diagrams whose vertical axis is X/Al and whose horizontal axis is Se/Al or Na/Al. When large data sets are plotted in this way, asymptotes of either or both sources (crust/pollution or crust/marine) appear, from which elemental ratios X/Al, X/Se and X/Na in the pure crustal, pollution, and marine sources can be read directly from the plots. With practice, normal environmental variations can be distinguished from analytical errors, thus allowing various types of analytical problems to be revealed and preventing them from leading to incorrect conclusions. The paper shows several cases of analytical problems discovered in this way for aerosol and precipitation in Narragansett, Rhode Island, problems that would probably have otherwise gone unnoticed. (author)

  14. Linear circuit transfer functions an introduction to fast analytical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Basso, Christophe P

    2016-01-01

    Linear Circuit Transfer Functions: An introduction to Fast Analytical Techniques teaches readers how to determine transfer functions of linear passive and active circuits by applying Fast Analytical Circuits Techniques. Building on their existing knowledge of classical loop/nodal analysis, the book improves and expands their skills to unveil transfer functions in a swift and efficient manner. Starting with simple examples, the author explains step-by-step how expressing circuits time constants in different configurations leads to writing transfer functions in a compact and insightful way. By learning how to organize numerators and denominators in the fastest possible way, readers will speed-up analysis and predict the frequency resp nse of simple to complex circuits. In some cases, they will be able to derive the final expression by inspection, without writing a line of algebra. Key features: * Emphasizes analysis through employing time constant-based methods discussed in other text books but not widely us...

  15. Evaluation of analytical techniques to determine matals in Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of some instrumental parameters on the analysis of CA, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, and Ni in Sodium solutions, by means of Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS), is evaluated. The best operating parameters are established and the possibility of application of this analytical technique to the detection of the metallic impurities in Sodium is evaluated, considering the concentration values of nuclear interest

  16. Applications of nuclear analytical techniques in environmental research. Plenary lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbu, B; Steinnes, E

    1992-03-01

    Among nuclear analytical techniques, neutron activation analysis (NAA) is particularly useful for environmental studies. It affords low detection limits for many elements, high specificity and few sources of systematic error, which means that high accuracy is attainable. Neutron activation analysis is particularly useful for trace and ultra-trace analysis of environmental samples (water, soils, rocks and biological material). In trace element work associated with pollution, instrumental NAA is a powerful technique for multi-element surveys, in particular when combined with other spectroscopic techniques. Nuclear techniques, as with most analytical techniques, cannot be used to distinguish between different physico-chemical forms of an element per se. When used in combination with appropriate separation techniques, however, nuclear techniques can provide valuable information about trace element speciation in environmental and biological systems. From dynamic tracer experiments, i.e., addition of chemically well defined labelled compounds to environmental systems, valuable information can be obtained on the distribution of species and on microchemical processes influencing the physico-chemical forms. In these laboratories, speciation studies on trace elements in natural waters have been carried out by using instrumental NAA in combination with physical separation techniques, such as dialysis and ultrafiltration, in situ and in the laboratory. Dynamic radiotracer experiments have provided important information about processes influencing the speciation of trace elements in aquatic systems. Sequential extraction techniques have proved to be useful in studies on sediments and soils when combined with NAA. Sequential extractions also provide significant information about the physico-chemical behaviour of radionuclides supplied to natural soils from the Chernobyl accident. PMID:1580364

  17. Analytical techniques for wine analysis: An African perspective; a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villiers, Andre de, E-mail: ajdevill@sun.ac.za [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Alberts, Phillipus [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Tredoux, Andreas G.J.; Nieuwoudt, Helene H. [Institute for Wine Biotechnology, Department of Viticulture and Oenology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical techniques developed for grape and wine analysis in Africa are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The utility of infrared spectroscopic methods is demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An overview of separation of wine constituents by GC, HPLC, CE is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel LC and GC sample preparation methods for LC and GC are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emerging methods for grape and wine analysis in Africa are discussed. - Abstract: Analytical chemistry is playing an ever-increasingly important role in the global wine industry. Chemical analysis of wine is essential in ensuring product safety and conformity to regulatory laws governing the international market, as well as understanding the fundamental aspects of grape and wine production to improve manufacturing processes. Within this field, advanced instrumental analysis methods have been exploited more extensively in recent years. Important advances in instrumental analytical techniques have also found application in the wine industry. This review aims to highlight the most important developments in the field of instrumental wine and grape analysis in the African context. The focus of this overview is specifically on the application of advanced instrumental techniques, including spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Recent developments in wine and grape analysis and their application in the African context are highlighted, and future trends are discussed in terms of their potential contribution to the industry.

  18. Conference on Nuclear and Conventional Analytical Techniques and their Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : A panoply analytic techniques methods has emerged in recent decades due to the challenges of society in quality of products and the increasing demand of chemical analysis services. The industrial progress which came along with an instrumental perfection of devices with analytical use, led to the development of new techniques more and more advanced in this field. These come as well, to answer the disturbing effects of this industrialization and the wishes of a public increasingly conscious and requiring globally. The leaders in this field of analysis and material characterization are more than ever confronted with problems of identification and quantification of different chemical forms of a multitude of products in varied circles; Industrial pollutants, soil, water, air, food, medicines, ceramics, concrete, plants etc. It was from that perspective that the unifying theme ''geomaterials: characterization to applications '' of the conference on nuclear and conventional analytical techniques and their applications (TANCA 2010) was chosen. It contributes to the debate of these subjects and builds relationships between stakeholders in this field, both technically and practically

  19. Analytical techniques for wine analysis: An African perspective; a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Analytical techniques developed for grape and wine analysis in Africa are reviewed. ► The utility of infrared spectroscopic methods is demonstrated. ► An overview of separation of wine constituents by GC, HPLC, CE is presented. ► Novel LC and GC sample preparation methods for LC and GC are presented. ► Emerging methods for grape and wine analysis in Africa are discussed. - Abstract: Analytical chemistry is playing an ever-increasingly important role in the global wine industry. Chemical analysis of wine is essential in ensuring product safety and conformity to regulatory laws governing the international market, as well as understanding the fundamental aspects of grape and wine production to improve manufacturing processes. Within this field, advanced instrumental analysis methods have been exploited more extensively in recent years. Important advances in instrumental analytical techniques have also found application in the wine industry. This review aims to highlight the most important developments in the field of instrumental wine and grape analysis in the African context. The focus of this overview is specifically on the application of advanced instrumental techniques, including spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Recent developments in wine and grape analysis and their application in the African context are highlighted, and future trends are discussed in terms of their potential contribution to the industry.

  20. Characterization of gold plated jewellery by nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that plating defects are unavoidable in most noble metal plating processes. Our motivation was to make a feasibility measurement of how nuclear techniques can be applied for the characterisation of quality of the gold plating. The primary intention of the work was to use those nuclear techniques which are also available in the Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Centre, Egypt, for later studies. The applied analytical methods are Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) and Rutherford-backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). (R.P.)

  1. Quality measurement of gold plated jewellery by nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear techniques were introduced for quality control of gold plating using analytical methods: Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA), X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) and micro-Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS). Experiment was made using a 200 keV home made neutron generator at the Institute of Experimental Physics of Debrecen University. The thickness of the Au film, its homogeneity and uniformity was measured by micro-RBS technique at the scanning nuclear microprobe facility of the ATOMKI using finally focussed 2 MeV He+ ion beam

  2. Instrumental analytical techniques in geochemistry: Requirements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochemists must analyse an extremely wide range of terrestrial and planetary materials. The instrumental techniques necessary to cope with this difficult task are considered. The most important analytical techniques in use by the geochemist today are AAS, ICP-OES, INAA, MSID and XRFS, and the electron microscope for in situ mineral analysis. Some applications of these techniques to solving major problems in geochemistry are discussed. The importance of certified reference materials and of high quality geochemical data are emphasized. It is concluded that the general quality of trace element data has improved over the past 25 years, as a direct result of the application of modern instrumental techniques. Surprisingly, the quality of data reported for certain major elements has deteriorated over that time, when compared with data obtainable by classical chemical methods. Predictions are made concerning the instrumentation needs of the next generation of geochemists. (orig.)

  3. A future for nuclear analytical techniques? Why not?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: NAA and XRF are not anymore the only techniques for trace element determination in solid materials. Laser ablation high resolution ICP-MS and solid-state sampling AAS are now commercially available, which makes these techniques valuable work-horses in many fields of science. Laser-ablation ICP-MS has similar position-sensitive capabilities as most PIXE set-ups. In general, sensitivities with these techniques are often much better than with NAA and XRF, which enhances their attractiveness. And there are more dark clouds above nuclear analytical techniques. University research reactors face the closing of their facilities because of reallocations of university funds to more contemporary sciences such as molecular biology and nano technology. Several pioneers in NAA have already publicly turned their back to technique as being mature, without scientific challenges and for loosing ground even for routine applications. Their view can not entirely be denied since the scientific creativity of many groups operating NAA, XRF and PIXE do not bring them further than applications in the same fields as in which these pioneers demonstrated these techniques long ago: air pollution studies, sediment analyses, hair analysis, etc. The social-economical impact of these fields is in general too low to obtain respect and sufficient financial resources for survival. Moreover, scientific publications on these applications are mostly in journals with low science citation impact factors. Laboratories operating nuclear analytical techniques (NAA, (TR)XRF, PIXE) need to use their creativity in finding ways for participation in the scientific areas that are booming at the beginning of this 21st century such as nano technology, cancer research or genomics. It requires an open mind on the strengths and weaknesses of the techniques, and a departure of traditional views on measurement, analysis and even (for NAA) on other sources for activation. The unique features of using

  4. Applications of surface analytical techniques in Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Gujie; Li, Yubiao; Gerson, Andrea R.

    2015-03-01

    This review covers a wide range of surface analytical techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning photoelectron microscopy (SPEM), photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), dynamic and static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), atomic force microscopy (AFM). Others that are relatively less widely used but are also important to the Earth Sciences are also included: Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). All these techniques probe only the very top sample surface layers (sub-nm to several tens of nm). In addition, we also present several other techniques i.e. Raman microspectroscopy, reflection infrared (IR) microspectroscopy and quantitative evaluation of minerals by scanning electron microscopy (QEMSCAN) that penetrate deeper into the sample, up to several μm, as all of them are fundamental analytical tools for the Earth Sciences. Grazing incidence synchrotron techniques, sensitive to surface measurements, are also briefly introduced at the end of this review. (Scanning) transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) is a special case that can be applied to characterisation of mineralogical and geological sample surfaces. Since TEM/STEM is such an important technique for Earth Scientists, we have also included it to draw attention to the capability of TEM/STEM applied as a surface-equivalent tool. While this review presents most of the important techniques for the Earth Sciences, it is not an all-inclusive bibliography of those analytical techniques. Instead, for each technique that is discussed, we first give a very brief introduction about its principle and background, followed by a short section on approaches to sample preparation that are important for researchers to appreciate prior to the actual sample analysis. We then use examples from publications (and also some of our known unpublished results) within the Earth Sciences

  5. Regression techniques and analytical solutions to demonstrate intrinsic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now generally recognized that a major factor responsible for the attenuation and mass reduction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in groundwater plumes is hydrocarbon biodegradation by indigenous microorganisms in aquifer material. Their objective is to apply well-known regression techniques and analytical solutions to estimate the contribution of advection, dispersion, sorption, and biodecay to the overall attenuation of petroleum hydrocarbons. These calculations yield an apparent biodecay rate based on field data. This biodecay rate is a significant portion of the overall attenuation in stable, dissolved hydrocarbon plumes

  6. Ion beam analytical techniques in atmospheric aerosol studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ion beam analytical facility has been developed for application to atmospheric aerosol samples. It combines Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Particle Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA). Elemental concentrations for elements heavier than silicon are determined with PIXE, with minimum detection limits of the order of 1 ng/cm2. Hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are determined with PESA. Minimum detection limits are 100, 15, 10 and 350 ng/cm2, respectively. Evaporative losses during analysis were investigated. The problem mainly applies to the light elements, such as elements present in organic compounds of relatively high saturation vapour pressure. The analytical facility, an external beam setup, allows a helium atmosphere to surround the sample. Quantitative analysis for compounds with saturation vapour pressure below about 10-5 torr (room temperature) is possible. A method for chemical speciation using multi-elemental ion beam techniques and thermography is presented; Ion Beam Thermography (IBT). Utilizing elemental thermal data and stoichiometry, chemical speciation is obtained. The influence of distant aerosol sources in southern Sweden was investigated using a three-station network. Multivariate statistical evaluation, based on SIMCA, revealed an elemental composition size dependence in the accumulation mode. The results indicate that transformation processes are more important than emission sources for the covariation of sulphur. A technique for the identification of outliers in a data set is presented, which is based on a three-step multivariate statistical evaluation. (author)

  7. Optimization of analytical techniques to characterize antibiotics in aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibiotics are considered as pollutants when they are present in aquatic ecosystems, ultimate receptacles of anthropogenic substances. These compounds are studied as their persistence in the environment or their effects on natural organisms. Numerous efforts have been made worldwide to assess the environmental quality of different water resources for the survival of aquatic species, but also for human consumption and health risk related. Towards goal, the optimization of analytical techniques for these compounds in aquatic systems remains a necessity. Our objective is to develop extraction and detection methods for 12 molecules of aminoglycosides and colistin in sewage treatment plants and hospitals waters. The lack of analytical methods for analysis of these compounds and the deficiency of studies for their detection in water is the reason for their study. Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) in classic mode (offline) or online followed by Liquid Chromatography analysis coupled with Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is the most method commonly used for this type of analysis. The parameters are optimized and validated to ensure the best conditions for the environmental analysis. This technique was applied to real samples of wastewater treatment plants in Bordeaux and Lebanon. (author)

  8. The use of decision analytic techniques in energy policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report reviews decision analytic techniques and their applications to energy policy decision making. Decision analysis consists in techniques for structuring the essential elements of a decision problem and mathematical methods for ranking the alternatives from a set of simple judgments. Because modeling subjective judgments is characteristic of decision analysis, the models can incorporate qualitative factors and values, which escape traditional energy modeling. Decision analysis has been applied to choices among energy supply alternatives, siting energy facilities, selecting nuclear waste repositories, selecting research and development projects, risk analysis and prioritizing alternative energy futures. Many applications are done in universities and research institutions, but during the 70's the use of decision analysis has spread both to the public and the private sector. The settings where decision analysis has been applied range from aiding a single decision maker to clarifying opposing points of view. Decision analytic methods have also been linked with energy models. The most valuable result of decision analysis is the clarification of the problem at hand. Political decisions cannot be made solely on the basis of models, but models can be used to gain insight of the decision situation. Models inevitably simplify reality, so they must be regarded only as aids to judgment. So far there has been only one decision analysis of energy policy issues in Finland with actual political decision makers as participants. The experiences of this project and numerous foreign applications do however suggest that the decision analytic approach is useful in energy policy questions. The report presents a number of Finnish energy policy decisions where decision analysis might prove useful. However, the applicability of the methods depends crucially on the actual circumstances at hand

  9. Waste minimization in analytical chemistry through innovative sample preparation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    water samples. In this SPME technique, a fused-silica fiber coated with a polymeric film is exposed to the sample, extraction is allowed to take place, and then the analytes are thermally desorbed for GC analysis. Unlike liquid-liquid extraction or solid-phase extraction, SPME consumes all of the extracted sample in the analysis, significantly reducing the required sample volume

  10. Nuclear Analytical Techniques for Commercial Applications in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the establishment of the first Chinese nuclear reactor and accelerator in 1958, the nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in China have dramatically developed in past half century. Nowadays 10 research nuclear reactors and over 100 small accelerators are available in China. Roughly, about 50 % of the machine time is applied for commercial purpose at the moment. The versatile nuclear analytical methods, mainly NAA, PIXE, XRF, etc., in China have been and are being applied widely and extensively in the following three fields: scientific, training, and commercial. This paper will briefly describe the past experience and present status about NATs for commercial applications. Some practical examples to demonstrate the role of NATs in this aspect will be given as well. Basically, the NATs used for the commercial applications in China can be divided into two types, i.e. off-line and on-line. The former mainly includes instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for compositional determination, particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) also for compositional analysis, accelerator-based mass-spectrometry (AMS) for analysis of C-14, Be-7, Cl-36 and other long-lived radioactive nuclides, solid state nuclear track detector

  11. Application of multivariate techniques to analytical data on Aegean ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general problems of data collection and handling for multivariate elemental analyses of ancient pottery are considered including such specific questions as the level of analytical precision required, the number and type of elements to be determined and the need for comprehensive multivariate statistical analysis of the collected data in contrast to element by element statistical analysis. The multivariate statistical procedures of clustering in a multidimensional space and determination of the numerical probabilities of specimens belonging to a group through calculation of the Mahalanobis distances for these specimens in multicomponent space are described together with supporting univariate statistical procedures used at Brookhaven. The application of these techniques to the data on Late Bronze Age Aegean pottery (largely previously analysed at Oxford and Brookhaven with some new specimens considered) have resulted in meaningful subdivisions of previously established groups. (author)

  12. Improvement of the obtention process of phosphorus-32 of the ININ through the application of nuclear analytical techniques; Perfeccionamiento del proceso de obtencion de fosforo-32 del ININ, mediante la aplicacion de tecnicas analiticas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zepeda R, C.P. [UMSNH, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The phosphorus-32, is radioisotope emitting pure {beta}{sup -}, of maximum energy 1.71 MeV with an average life of 14.28 days, and that has application in the industry, agriculture, medicine and biology. The {sup 32} P, produced by means of two nuclear reactions {sup 32} S(n,p){sup 32} P and {sup 31} P (n,{gamma}){sup 32} P; by the facility of handling of sulfur, his low cost and its fast acquisition in the market. I selected the reaction {sup 32} S(n,p){sup 32} P. To produce {sup 32} P it is necessary to prepare and to characterize the target (S-{alpha}) that is obtained from the purification of the raw material, make the mathematical calculations of irradiation, irradiation of the target in the nuclear reactor TRIGA Mark III, radiochemical separation of {sup 32} P of {sup 32} S by a dry distillation method and an hydrolysis of {sup 32} P with diluted HCl obtaining H{sub 3}{sup 32}PO{sub 4} and finally quality control. In the order to make the radiochemistry separation it was necessary to make previous modifications to the process guarantee the quality of product ({sup 32} P), and security of the operator. (Author)

  13. Analytical techniques for thin films treatise on materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, K N

    1988-01-01

    Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 27: Analytical Techniques for Thin Films covers a set of analytical techniques developed for thin films and interfaces, all based on scattering and excitation phenomena and theories. The book discusses photon beam and X-ray techniques; electron beam techniques; and ion beam techniques. Materials scientists, materials engineers, chemical engineers, and physicists will find the book invaluable.

  14. Nuclear analytical techniques for mineral exploration, mining and processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is the final report from the Coordinated Research Programme and consists primarily of the research reports presented at the third meeting of the participants. The participants of the meeting considered and discussed progress and achievements made during the last three years: systems for in-stream analysis of mineral slurries, on-line determination of ash in coal using low energy gamma rays transmission and pair production techniques, in-stream determination of solids weight fraction and ash content of coal in slurries, on-line determination of moisture in coal, iron in high grade iron ores and sulfur in lead sinter, developed and tested a borehole logging system based on the spectrometric gamma-gamma method in coal, iron ore and manganese deposits, the results from the NAA and XRF analysis of the tailings and slurries exhibit the potentiality of nuclear analytical techniques in the various stages of the mining industry. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 12 papers in this volume

  15. Analytical Study of Pre-Congestion Notification (PCN Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwah Almasri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining the quality of service (QOS and controlling the network congestion are quite complicated tasks. They cause degrading the performance of the network, and disturbing the continuous communication process. To overcome these issues, one step towards this dilemma has been taken in form of Pre-congestion notification (PCN technique. PCN uses a packet marking technique within a PCN domain over IP networks. It is notified by egress node that works as guard at entry point of network. Egress node gives feedback to communicating servers whether rate on the link is exceeded than configured admissible threshold or within the limit. Based on this feedback, admission decisions are taken to determine whether to allow/block new coming flows or terminate already accepted. The actual question is about selection of right algorithm for PCN domain. In this paper, we investigate the analytical behavior of some known PCN algorithms. We make slide modifications in originality of PCN algorithms without disquieting working process in order to employ those within similar types of scenarios. Our goal is to simulate them either in highly congested or less congested realistic scenarios. On the basis of simulation done in ns2, we are able to recommend each PCN algorithm for specific conditions. Finally, we develop a benchmark that helps researchers and scientific communities to pick the right algorithm. Furthermore, the benchmark is designed to achieve specific objectives according to the users’ requirements without congesting the network.

  16. Using simple instrumentation to solve complex analytical problems: advanced AAS atomizers for volatile compounds and analyte trapping techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dědina, Jiří; de Moraes, D. P.; Dessuy, M. B.; Kratzer, Jan; Řezáčová, Olga; Svoboda, Milan; Matoušek, Tomáš; de Moraes Flores, E. M.; Vale, M. G. R.

    2010. s. 59. [Rio Symposium on Atomic Spectrometry /11./. 24.10.2010-29.10.2010, Mar del Plata] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1783 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : AAS * volatile compounds * analyte trapping techniques Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://www.11thriosymposium.com.ar/index.htm

  17. Quality assurance and quality control of nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test and analytical laboratories in East and Central European countries need to prove the reliability and credibility of their economic, environmental, medical and legal decisions and their capacity of issuing reliable, verifiable reports. These demands imposed by the European Union aimed at avoiding a possible barrier to trade for the developing countries. In June 1999, in order to help Member States to develop according to EU objectives and the overall situation of the European market, IAEA launched a new co-operation programme designed to help the nuclear analytical laboratories in nuclear institutions and universities of Member States by training in the use of some Nuclear Analytical Techniques (NAT) that include: alpha, beta and gamma-ray spectrometry, radiochemical and neutron activation analysis, total reflection X-ray fluorescence. The Regional IAEA Project, named 'Quality Assurance/Quality Control of Nuclear Analytical Techniques' (NAT) aims at implementing the QA principles via a system of defined consecutive steps leading to a level on which the QA system is self-sustainable for formal accreditation or certification and satisfies the EU technical performance criteria; the requirements are in accordance with the new ISO/IEC 17025 Standard/Dec.1999 'General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories' - First edition. The Horia Hulubei National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering, IFIN-HH, was admitted for participation in the IAEA Project in June 1999 account taken of its experience in the QA and metrology fields and its performance in the fields of beta and gamma-ray spectrometry, and radiochemical and neutron activation analysis, employed in both basic research and applications for external clients. Two working groups of specialists with the QA and Standardization and Metrology Departments and six analytical groups with the departments of Nuclear Applied Physics, Life Physics and Ionising Radiation Metrology are

  18. Applications of nuclear analytical techniques to environmental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, M. C.; Pacheco, A. M. G.; Marques, A. P.; Barros, L. I. C.; Reis, M. A.

    2001-07-01

    A few examples of application of nuclear-analytical techniques to biological monitors—natives and transplants—are given herein. Parmelia sulcata Taylor transplants were set up in a heavily industrialized area of Portugal—the Setúbal peninsula, about 50 km south of Lisbon—where indigenous lichens are rare. The whole area was 10×15 km around an oil-fired power station, and a 2.5×2.5 km grid was used. In north-western Portugal, native thalli of the same epiphytes (Parmelia spp., mostly Parmelia sulcata Taylor) and bark from olive trees (Olea europaea) were sampled across an area of 50×50 km, using a 10×10 km grid. This area is densely populated and features a blend of rural, urban-industrial and coastal environments, together with the country's second-largest metro area (Porto). All biomonitors have been analyzed by INAA and PIXE. Results were put through nonparametric tests and factor analysis for trend significance and emission sources, respectively.

  19. Characterization of pre-hispanic pigments by modern analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the study of mural painting pigments from two archaeological sites (The Great Temple in Mexico city and Cacaxtla) was performed to know their materials composition, identify their structural characteristics and properties by using modern analytical techniques. Blue, ochre, red and black pigments of Mexica culture (1325-1521 a.C. / late Post Classic period); blue, ochre, red, brown, pink, green and white of Olmeca- Xicalanca culture (700-900 a.C. / Epiclassic period) were studied. Data about materials used, technological evolution, mineralogical background, cultural interchange and origin was obtained. Environmental exposition of these paintings since their discovering has produced changes and damage on their materials. Therefore, stability of some pigments has been notorious, ''Maya Blue'' specially presents extraordinary resistance to diluted and concentrated acids and alkalis including boiling condition, acqua regia, solvents, oxidant and reducing agents, moderate heat and biocorrosi6n; for that reason its study was emphasized. ''Maya Blue'' pigment was synthesized in laboratory using the processes described by historic sources (with indigophera suffruticosa leaves and synthetic indigo) up to obtain a stable pigment including acqua regia action. Clay matrix sorbs nearly 0.4 weight percent of organic dye, which cover 79% of palygorskita surface area. (Author)

  20. Degradation of glass artifacts: application of modern surface analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Michael; Wiesinger, Rita; Schreiner, Manfred

    2010-06-15

    A detailed understanding of the stability of glasses toward liquid or atmospheric attack is of considerable importance for preserving numerous objects of our cultural heritage. Glasses produced in the ancient periods (Egyptian, Greek, or Roman glasses), as well as modern glass, can be classified as soda-lime-silica glasses. In contrast, potash was used as a flux in medieval Northern Europe for the production of window panes for churches and cathedrals. The particular chemical composition of these potash-lime-silica glasses (low in silica and rich in alkali and alkaline earth components), in combination with increased levels of acidifying gases (such as SO(2), CO(2), NO(x), or O(3)) and airborne particulate matter in today's urban or industrial atmospheres, has resulted in severe degradation of important cultural relics, particularly over the last century. Rapid developments in the fields of microelectronics and computer sciences, however, have contributed to the development of a variety of nondestructive, surface analytical techniques for the scientific investigation and material characterization of these unique and valuable objects. These methods include scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy- or wavelength-dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDX or SEM/WDX), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In this Account, we address glass analysis and weathering mechanisms, exploring the possibilities (and limitations) of modern analytical techniques. Corrosion by liquid substances is well investigated in the glass literature. In a tremendous number of case studies, the basic reaction between aqueous solutions and the glass surfaces was identified as an ion-exchange reaction between hydrogen-bearing species of the attacking liquid and the alkali and alkaline earth ions in the glass, causing a depletion of the latter in the outermost surface layers. Although mechanistic analogies to liquid corrosion are obvious, atmospheric

  1. Structural level characterization of base oils using advanced analytical techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Hourani, Nadim

    2015-05-21

    Base oils, blended for finished lubricant formulations, are classified by the American Petroleum Institute into five groups, viz., groups I-V. Groups I-III consist of petroleum based hydrocarbons whereas groups IV and V are made of synthetic polymers. In the present study, five base oil samples belonging to groups I and III were extensively characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. First, the capabilities and limitations of each analytical technique were evaluated, and then the availed information was combined to reveal compositional details on the base oil samples studied. HPLC showed the overwhelming presence of saturated over aromatic compounds in all five base oils. A similar trend was further corroborated using GC×GC, which yielded semiquantitative information on the compound classes present in the samples and provided further details on the carbon number distributions within these classes. In addition to chromatography methods, FT-ICR MS supplemented the compositional information on the base oil samples by resolving the aromatics compounds into alkyl- and naphtheno-subtituted families. APCI proved more effective for the ionization of the highly saturated base oil components compared to APPI. Furthermore, for the detailed information on hydrocarbon molecules FT-ICR MS revealed the presence of saturated and aromatic sulfur species in all base oil samples. The results presented herein offer a unique perspective into the detailed molecular structure of base oils typically used to formulate lubricants. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  2. Recent Developments in the Speciation and Determination of Mercury Using Various Analytical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Narayana Suvarapu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry, voltammetry, inductively coupled plasma techniques, spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography. Approximately 126 research papers on the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical techniques published in international journals since 2013 are reviewed.

  3. Analytical Electrochemistry: Theory and Instrumentation of Dynamic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dennis C.

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes trends in the development of six topics concerning analytical electrochemistry, including books and reviews (34 references cited), mass transfer (59), charge transfer (25), surface effects (33), homogeneous reactions (21), and instrumentation (31). (CS)

  4. Analytical techniques and quality control in biomedical trace element research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, K.

    1994-01-01

    The small number of analytical results in trace element research calls for special methods of quality control. It is shown that when the analytical methods are in statistical control, only small numbers of duplicate or replicate results are needed to ascertain the absence of systematic errors....../kg. Measurement compatibility is obtained by control of traceability to certified reference materials, (C) 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc....

  5. Development of analytical orbit propagation technique with drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Two orbit computation methods were used: (1) numerical method- The solution to the satellite differential equations were solved in a step-by-step manner, using a mathematical algorithm taken from numerical analysis; and (2) analytical method - The solution was expressed by explicit functions of the independent variable. Analytical drag modules, tesseral terms initialization module, second order and long period terms module, and verification testing of the ASOP program were also considered.

  6. Applied predictive analytics principles and techniques for the professional data analyst

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Learn the art and science of predictive analytics - techniques that get results Predictive analytics is what translates big data into meaningful, usable business information. Written by a leading expert in the field, this guide examines the science of the underlying algorithms as well as the principles and best practices that govern the art of predictive analytics. It clearly explains the theory behind predictive analytics, teaches the methods, principles, and techniques for conducting predictive analytics projects, and offers tips and tricks that are essential for successful predictive mode

  7. ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR POLYELECTROLYTES IN WASTEWATER: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest has been increasing regarding development of methods for the analysis of water soluble polyelectrolytes at trace levels in wastewater effluents and ambient waters. To that end a literature search was undertaken. The effort resulted in a total of 22 polyelectrolyte analyt...

  8. Challenges of Using Learning Analytics Techniques to Support Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Marco; Fulantelli, Giovanni; Taibi, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of Mobile Learning remains an open research issue, especially as regards the activities that take place outside the classroom. In this context, Learning Analytics can provide answers, and offer the appropriate tools to enhance Mobile Learning experiences. In this poster we introduce a task-interaction framework, using learning analytics…

  9. On numerical-analytic techniques for boundary value problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rontó, András; Rontó, M.; Shchobak, N.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2012), s. 5-10. ISSN 1335-8243 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : numerical-analytic method * periodic successive approximations * Lyapunov-Schmidt method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/aeei.2012.12.issue-3/v10198-012-0035-1/v10198-012-0035-1.xml?format=INT

  10. Predictive Analytics in Healthcare System Using Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basma Boukenze

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The health sector has witnessed a great evolution f ollowing the development of new computer technologies, and that pushed this area to produce more medical data, which gave birth to multiple fields of research. Many efforts are done to cope with the explosion of medical data on one hand, and to obtain useful knowledge from it on the other hand. This prompted researchers to apply all the technical innovations like big dat a analytics, predictive analytics, machine learning and learning algorithms in order to extrac t useful knowledge and help in making decisions. With the promises of predictive analytic s in big data, and the use of machine learning algorithms, predicting future is no longer a diffic ult task, especially for medicine because predicting diseases and anticipating the cure becam e possible. In this paper we will present an overview on the evolution of big data in healthcare system, and we will apply a learning algorithm on a set of medical data. The objective i s to predict chronic kidney diseases by using Decision Tree (C4.5 algorithm.

  11. Analytical Study of Feature Extraction Techniques in Opinion Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Kumar Singh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although opinion mining is in a nascent stage of de velopment but still the ground is set for dense growth of researches in the field. One of the important activities of opinion mining is to extract opinions of people based on characteristics of the object under study. Feature extraction in opinion mining can be done by various ways like that of clustering, support vector machines etc. This paper is an attempt to appraise the vario us techniques of feature extraction. The first part discusses various techniques and second part m akes a detailed appraisal of the major techniques used for feature extraction.

  12. Fluvial sediment transport: Analytical techniques for measuring sediment load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment transport data are often used for the evaluation of land surface erosion, reservoir sedimentation, ecological habitat quality and coastal sediment budgets. Sediment transport by rivers is usually considered to occur in two major ways: (1) in the flow as a suspended load and (2) along the bed as a bed load. This publication provides guidance on selected techniques for the measurement of particles moving in both modes in the fluvial environment. The relative importance of the transport mode is variable and depends on the hydraulic and sedimentary conditions. The potential user is directed in the selection of an appropriate technique through the presentation of operating principles, application guidelines and estimated costs. Techniques which require laboratory analysis are grab sample, pump sample, depth sample, point integrated and radioactive tracers. Techniques which will continuously record data are optical backscattering, nuclear transmission, single frequency acoustic and laser diffraction

  13. Opportunity of nuclear analytical techniques in environmental sciences at the 21 st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several frontier fields in environmental sciences at the 21 st century were successively outlined, including: (1) economic analysis and risk assessment; (2) environmental monitoring and ecology; (3) chemicals and environment; (4) energy system and environment; (5) industrial ecology; and (6) population and health. Afterwards, opportunity and challenge of nuclear analytical techniques in the mentioned-above environmental fields were explored. It was stated that (1) the inherent features of nuclear analytical techniques should be fully used and exploited; (2) the role of nuclear analytical techniques in quantitative and scientific risk assessment of environmental pollutants should be strengthened; (3) the position of nuclear analytical techniques in quality assurance system of environmental monitoring should be clearly recognized; (4) the ability of nuclear analytical techniques in study of chemical speciation and its effects of pollutant should be made of use; (5) the nuclear analytical techniques for study of new molecular bio-marker and environmental toxicology should be established; and (6) the application of nuclear analytical techniques in identification of new pollutants and their sources should be emphasized

  14. Applications of nuclear analytical techniques to the Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is applied the PIXE technique for to measure the ratio Sr/Ca in different stages of the stalactite growth. As the ratio depends of the temperature, information about the variations of atmospheric temperature along thousand of years is obtained. (Author)

  15. Activities at Forschungszentrum Jülich in Safeguards AnalyticalTechniques and Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Dürr, Martin; Knott, A; Middendorp, Ronald; NIEMEYER Irmgard; Küppers, Stephan; Zoriy, Myroslav; Froning, Martina; Bosbach, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The application of safeguards by the IAEA involves analytical measurements of samples taken during inspections. The development and advancement of analytical techniques with support from the Member States contributes to strengthened and more efficient verification of compliance with non-proliferation obligations. Since recently, a cooperation agreement was established between Forschungszentrum Jülich and the IAEA in the field of analytical services. The current working areas of the Forschungs...

  16. An Analytical Study of Tools and Techniques for Movie Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Maik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Bollywood or Hindi movie industry is one of the fastest growing sector in the media and entertainment space creating numerous business and employment opportunities. Movies in India are a major source of entertainment for all sects of society. They not only face competition from other movie industries and movies but from other source of entertainment such as adventure sports, amusement parks, theatre and drama, pubs and discothèques. A lot of man power, man hours, creative brains, and money are put in to build a quality feature film. Bollywood is the industry which continuously works towards providing the 7 billion population with something new always. So it is important for the movie and production team to stand out, to grab the due attention of the maximum audience. Movie makers employ various tools and techniques today to market their movies. They leave no stone unturned. They roll out teasers, First look, Theatrical trailer release, Music launch, City tours, Producer’s and director’s interview, Movie premier, Movie release, post release follow up and etc. to pull the viewers to the Cineplex. The audience today which comprises mainly of youth requires photos, videos, meet ups, gossip, debate, collaboration and content creation. These requirements of today’s generation are most fulfilled through digital platforms. However, the traditional media like newspapers, radio, and television are not old school. They reach out to mass audience and play an upper role in effective marketing. This study aims at analysing these tools for their effectiveness. The objectives are fulfilled through a consumer survey. This study will bring out the effectiveness and relational importance of various tools which are employed by movie marketers to generate maximum returns on the investments by using various data reduction techniques like factor analysis and statistical techniques like chi-square test with data visualization using pie charts

  17. Solid waste and leaching studies using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the awareness of the potential hazards that solid wastes may pose to the environment, many countries have instituted research agendas and regulations to address these issues issues. During the past fifteen years there has been a plethora of leaching studies proposed to ascertain the potential impact that solid wastes may have on water quality. Regulatory laboratory leaching procedures should be applicable to a variety of waste types while providing useful data for the prediction of leachate quality generated by the wastes in a landfill environment. Although it is unrealistic to expect a single laboratory leaching procedure to reliably assess all wastes, an ideal procedure would include the following features: (a) use a leaching medium to be encountered in a landfill (b) include procedures to estimate the intensity and dynamics of Teachable constituents; (c) minimize sample particle size alteration; (d) optimize the liquid to solid ratio to minimize leachate dilution and experimental variability; (e) avoid exotic laboratory apparatus; and (f) restrict procedures used to those conveniently performed by laboratory personnel. In the University of Illinois laboratories, the focus is on assessing the short and long term hazards from municipal solid waste, incinerator ash and coal fly ash through the elemental analysis of heavy metals in ash and leachates using a variety of multi-elemental techniques. Other studies have included the identification of heavy metals in household plastics and the characterization of contaminated soils in urban environments. These techniques included neutron activation analysis, X ray fluorescence spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The leaching tests have included the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, water batch extraction, sequential extraction and column tests. The philosophy of leaching procedures, the strength of non-destructive multi-elemental techniques, and results from

  18. Function of nuclear analytical techniques in Interuniverinteruniversity research cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interuniversity institute was established in 1957 with the instruction to use its major research tool - the nuclear research reactor - in cooperation with and for the benefit of all universities in the Netherlands. Developments in the institute have resulted in two forms of neutron activation analysis currently applied on routine basis. A highly sophisticated automated instrumental multi-element analysis is mostly applied to samples containing elements in the ppm-range and in which no strongly dominating activity is formed. These conditions are fulfilled in general for silicous materials as encountered in geological and archeological samples and in soils and sediments. An automated destructive multi-element analysis involving chemical separations is used for samples with element concentrations in the ppb-range containing some type of dominating activities. This occurs in biological and environmental samples where Na, Fe and Br are mostly available in high concentrations. The institute has been asked many times to help in setting up radio-tracer experiments in various fields including analytical chemistry (isotope dilution, radio immuno assay), physical chemistry (adsorption, diffusion and exchange reactions between solids and liquids during crystallization, corrosion), chemical engineering (determination of contact times and their distribution), biomedical engineering (diffusion processes in membranes for artificial kidneys), biology (uptake of chemical by fish, measurement of displacement habits of animals) etc. Special attention is being paid to the behaviour of trace-elements in metabolic processes, which has been initiated by the medical interest in pathological deviations of copper metabolism in Wilson's and Menkes' diseases. (T.G.)

  19. New analytical techniques for mycotoxins in complex organic matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicking, M.K.L.

    1982-01-01

    Air samples are collected for analysis from the Ames Solid Waste Recovery System. The high level of airborne fungi within the processing area is of concern due to the possible presence of toxic mycotoxins, and carcinogenic fungal metabolites. An analytical method has been developed to determine the concentration of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in the air of the plant which produces Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF). After extraction with methanol, some components in the matrix are precipitated by dissolving the samples in 30% acetonitrile/chloroform. An aliquot of this solution is injected onto a Styragel column where the sample components undergo simultaneous size exclusion and reverse phase partitioning. The Styragel column appears to have a useable lifetime of more than six months. After elution from Styragel, the sample is diverted to a second column containing Florisil which has been modified with oxalic acid and deactivated with water. Aflatoxins are eluted with 5% water/acetone. After removal of this solvent, the sample is dissolved in 150 ..mu..L of a spotting solvent and the entire sample applied to a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plate using a unique sample applicator developed here. The aflatoxins on the TLC plate are analyzed by laser fluorescence. A detection limit of 10 pg is possible for aflatoxin standards using a nitrogen laser as the excitation source. Sample concentrations are determined by comparing with an internal standard, a specially synthesized aflatoxin derivative. In two separate RDF samples, aflatoxin B1 was found at levels of 6.5 and 17.0 ppB. In a separate study, the spore pigment in Aspergillus flavus was isolated. The mass spectrum indicates a molecular weight in excess of 700. Only aliphatic hydrocarbons have been identified in the mass spectrum of products from a permanganate oxidation.

  20. Analytical techniques applied to study cultural heritage objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, M.A.; Curado, J.F.; Bernardes, S.; Campos, P.H.O.V.; Kajiya, E.A.M.; Silva, T.F.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Moro, M.; Tabacniks, M.; Added, N., E-mail: rizzutto@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2015-07-01

    The scientific study of artistic and cultural heritage objects have been routinely performed in Europe and the United States for decades. In Brazil this research area is growing, mainly through the use of physical and chemical characterization methods. Since 2003 the Group of Applied Physics with Particle Accelerators of the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo (GFAA-IF) has been working with various methodologies for material characterization and analysis of cultural objects. Initially using ion beam analysis performed with Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and recently Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL), for the determination of the elements and chemical compounds in the surface layers. These techniques are widely used in the Laboratory of Materials Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI-USP). Recently, the GFAA expanded the studies to other possibilities of analysis enabled by imaging techniques that coupled with elemental and compositional characterization provide a better understanding on the materials and techniques used in the creative process in the manufacture of objects. The imaging analysis, mainly used to examine and document artistic and cultural heritage objects, are performed through images with visible light, infrared reflectography (IR), fluorescence with ultraviolet radiation (UV), tangential light and digital radiography. Expanding more the possibilities of analysis, new capabilities were added using portable equipment such as Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) and Raman Spectroscopy that can be used for analysis 'in situ' at the museums. The results of these analyzes are providing valuable information on the manufacturing process and have provided new information on objects of different University of Sao Paulo museums. Improving the arsenal of cultural heritage analysis it was recently constructed an 3D robotic stage for the precise positioning of samples in the external beam setup

  1. Analytical techniques applied to study cultural heritage objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific study of artistic and cultural heritage objects have been routinely performed in Europe and the United States for decades. In Brazil this research area is growing, mainly through the use of physical and chemical characterization methods. Since 2003 the Group of Applied Physics with Particle Accelerators of the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo (GFAA-IF) has been working with various methodologies for material characterization and analysis of cultural objects. Initially using ion beam analysis performed with Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and recently Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL), for the determination of the elements and chemical compounds in the surface layers. These techniques are widely used in the Laboratory of Materials Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI-USP). Recently, the GFAA expanded the studies to other possibilities of analysis enabled by imaging techniques that coupled with elemental and compositional characterization provide a better understanding on the materials and techniques used in the creative process in the manufacture of objects. The imaging analysis, mainly used to examine and document artistic and cultural heritage objects, are performed through images with visible light, infrared reflectography (IR), fluorescence with ultraviolet radiation (UV), tangential light and digital radiography. Expanding more the possibilities of analysis, new capabilities were added using portable equipment such as Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) and Raman Spectroscopy that can be used for analysis 'in situ' at the museums. The results of these analyzes are providing valuable information on the manufacturing process and have provided new information on objects of different University of Sao Paulo museums. Improving the arsenal of cultural heritage analysis it was recently constructed an 3D robotic stage for the precise positioning of samples in the external beam setup

  2. Modern trends: analytical chemistry - techniques and application to biodetection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microorganism isolated from specimens are usually identified by conventional bacterial identification procedures of morphological evaluation and cultural techniques. These complex methods of studying organisms are extremely tedious and time consuming. This causes serious problems by delaying the decision concerning the presence of pathogens and therefore the adequate drug therapy. Frequently, the decision about the presence of pathogens has to be made prior to the results of microbiological tests. In order to overcome these conditions, workers explored new instrumental methods for characterization, rapid acquisition, high reproducibility, computer aided data recording and interpretation of microorganisms. This article brief reviews application of these modern instrumental approaches such as Infrared Spectroscopy (IR), Gas Chromatography (GC), Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Bioluminescence, Chemiluminescence, FLow Cytometry, Micro calorimetry, GC-MASS Spectrometry, Electrical Impedance, Bio sensors and Radiometry. These techniques have increased the capacity of doing basic research with a major impact on both the clinical laboratories and industry. The radiometric procedure is being used for research and biological quality control of radiopharmaceuticals in our laboratory at PINSTECH. (author)

  3. A Simplified Analytical Technique for High Frequency Characterization of Resonant Tunneling Diode

    OpenAIRE

    DESSOUKI, A. A. S.; ABDALLAH, R. M.; Aly, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    his paper proposes a simplified analytical technique for high frequency characterization of the resonant tunneling diode (RTD). An equivalent circuit of the RTD that consists of a parallel combination of conductance, G (V, f), and capacitance, C (V, f) is formulated. The proposed approach uses the measured DC current versus voltage characteristic of the RTD to extract the equivalent circuit elements parameters in the entire bias range. Using the proposed analytical technique, ...

  4. Some novel applications of instrumental analytical techniques to the brewing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Brian

    1996-01-01

    Modem instrumental analytical techniques play an important role in the brewing industry today. They are extensively used for both a quality control/quality assurance function and for research purposes. At all stages of the production process, from the assessment of raw materials, through the brewing process, fermentation, maturation, blending of finished beer, packaging and shelf life studies instrumental analytical techniques provide critical data which allow the brewer to understand and kee...

  5. Real-time analytics techniques to analyze and visualize streaming data

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Byron

    2014-01-01

    Construct a robust end-to-end solution for analyzing and visualizing streaming data Real-time analytics is the hottest topic in data analytics today. In Real-Time Analytics: Techniques to Analyze and Visualize Streaming Data, expert Byron Ellis teaches data analysts technologies to build an effective real-time analytics platform. This platform can then be used to make sense of the constantly changing data that is beginning to outpace traditional batch-based analysis platforms. The author is among a very few leading experts in the field. He has a prestigious background in research, development,

  6. Analytical vs. Simulation Solution Techniques for Pulse Problems in Non-linear Stochastic Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    Advantages and disadvantages of available analytical and simulation techniques for pulse problems in non-linear stochastic dynamics are discussed. First, random pulse problems, both those which do and do not lead to Markov theory, are presented. Next, the analytical and analytically-numerical tec......Advantages and disadvantages of available analytical and simulation techniques for pulse problems in non-linear stochastic dynamics are discussed. First, random pulse problems, both those which do and do not lead to Markov theory, are presented. Next, the analytical and analytically......-numerical techniques suitable for Markov response problems such as moments equation, Petrov-Galerkin and cell-to-cell mapping techniques are briefly discussed. Usefulness of these techniques is limited by the fact that effectiveness of each of them depends on the mean rate of impulses. Another limitation is the size...... of the problem, i.e. the number of state variables of the dynamical systems. In contrast, the application of the simulation techniques is not limited to Markov problems, nor is it dependent on the mean rate of impulses. Moreover their use is straightforward for a large class of point processes, at...

  7. Procedimiento para el Perfeccionamiento de la Gestión del Capital Humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixania Reyes Jardinez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un procedimiento para diseñar estrategias que permitan el perfeccionamiento de la Gestión del Capital Humano (GCH para garantizar el logro de la eficacia y eficiencia en la organización. Se argumenta esta propuesta a través de la revisión bibliográfica de autores de temas relacionados, consultas a especialistas y la utilización de métodos y herramientas conformes a las ciencias empresariales.

  8. International conference on isotopic and nuclear analytical techniques for health and environment. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decision makers and stakeholders are becoming increasingly dependent on reliable chemical measurements that serve as a basis for decisions related to health, consumer safety, commerce, environment protection and compliance to regulations. Several millions of analytical results are produced annually, thus consuming appreciable amounts of resources. Reliability of these data is of major concern if cost-benefit figures are applied. Nuclear and isotopic analytical techniques (NATs) have been supported by the IAEA as part of their mandate to foster the peaceful use of nuclear energy for many years. Nuclear analytical laboratories have been installed and upgraded through Technical Co-operation assistance in many Member State laboratories. These techniques, including INAA, XRF, PIXE, stable and radioisotopes, spectrometroscopy, etc. have been applied to a wide range of subjects with varying success. Nuclear analytical techniques, featuring some intrinsic quality control aspects, such as multi-nuclide analysis, frequently serve as 'reference methods' to cross-check critical results. As nuclear properties of elements are targeted, matrix problems seem to be negligible to a great extent. The International Conference on Isotopic and Nuclear Analytical Techniques for Health and Environment was held 10-13 June 2003 in Vienna, Austria. The main purpose of this Conference was to bring together scientists, technologists, representatives of industry and regulatory authorities to exchange information and review the status of current developments and applications of isotopic and nuclear analytical techniques, and to discuss future trends and developments. A further objective is to identify potential opportunities for developing countries for applying isotopic and nuclear analytical techniques in health and environmental studies, and to consider the promotion and transfer of such technology. International developments and trends in health care, nutrition, and environmental monitoring

  9. Air pollution in Thailand using nuclear-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods of neutron activation, both instrumental and radiochemical, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry are used in a study of the concentrations of Al, As, Br, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, V, Zn and Pb in airborne particulate matter collected from 7 permanent and 9 temporary air quality monitoring stations. The location of the stations are urban residential, suburban residential, mixed (commercial and residential), commercial and industrial areas and near major roads in Bangkok Metropolitan areas. Air sampling is performed once a month for 24 hours continuously using the high volume air sampler (GMW 2000 H) and for 5, 10, and 15 days continuously using an Anderson Air Sampler (SIBATA AN-200). The elements As, Cd and Cu are determined destructively using ion exchange chromatography while Hg and Se are determined by the dry combustion technique. The determination of Pb was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results of Pb concentrations in airborne particulate matters, collected during 1987 to 1991, were reported by the Office of the National Environment Board. Levels of Pb content were found to be lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. (author). 3 refs, 4 tabs

  10. Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of 'Montella' chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

  11. Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangiacotti, Michele [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, Foggia (Italy)], E-mail: izsfgchimica@infinito.it; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Marchesani, Giuliana [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, Foggia (Italy); De Sio, Antonio [La Dolce Irpinia Srl - Montella (AV) (Italy); Boniglia, Concetta [Department of Public Veterinary Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Bortolin, Emanuela; Onori, Sandro [Department of Technology and Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of 'Montella' chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

  12. Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiacotti, Michele; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Marchesani, Giuliana; De Sio, Antonio; Boniglia, Concetta; Bortolin, Emanuela; Onori, Sandro

    2009-07-01

    Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [ European Parliament and Council Directive, 1999/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of "Montella" chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

  13. Comparison of commercial analytical techniques for measuring chlorine dioxide in urban desalinated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, T A; Abid, K Y; El-Bindary, A A; El-Sonbati, A Z

    2015-12-01

    Most drinking water industries are closely examining options to maintain a certain level of disinfectant residual through the entire distribution system. Chlorine dioxide is one of the promising disinfectants that is usually used as a secondary disinfectant, whereas the selection of the proper monitoring analytical technique to ensure disinfection and regulatory compliance has been debated within the industry. This research endeavored to objectively compare the performance of commercially available analytical techniques used for chlorine dioxide measurements (namely, chronoamperometry, DPD (N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine), Lissamine Green B (LGB WET) and amperometric titration), to determine the superior technique. The commonly available commercial analytical techniques were evaluated over a wide range of chlorine dioxide concentrations. In reference to pre-defined criteria, the superior analytical technique was determined. To discern the effectiveness of such superior technique, various factors, such as sample temperature, high ionic strength, and other interferences that might influence the performance were examined. Among the four techniques, chronoamperometry technique indicates a significant level of accuracy and precision. Furthermore, the various influencing factors studied did not diminish the technique's performance where it was fairly adequate in all matrices. This study is a step towards proper disinfection monitoring and it confidently assists engineers with chlorine dioxide disinfection system planning and management. PMID:26608759

  14. An Example of a Hakomi Technique Adapted for Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a model of therapy that lends itself to integration with other therapy models. This paper aims to provide an example to assist others in assimilating techniques from other forms of therapy into FAP. A technique from the Hakomi Method is outlined and modified for FAP. As, on the whole, psychotherapy…

  15. Applying Analytical Derivative and Sparse Matrix Techniques to Large-Scale Process Optimization Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The performance of analytical derivative and sparse matrix techniques applied to a traditional densesequential quadratic programming(SQP) is studied, and the strategy utilizing those techniques is also presented. Computational results on two typicalchemical optimization problems demonstrate significant enhancement in efficiency, which shows this strategy ispromising and suitable for large-scale process optimization problems.

  16. Applying Analytical Derivative and Sparse Matrix Techniques to Large-Scale Process Optimization Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟卫涛; 邵之江; 张余岳; 钱积新

    2000-01-01

    The performance of analytical derivative and sparse matrix techniques applied to a traditional dense sequential quadratic programming (SQP) is studied, and the strategy utilizing those techniques is also presented.Computational results on two typical chemical optimization problems demonstrate significant enhancement in efficiency, which shows this strategy is promising and suitable for large-scale process optimization problems.

  17. Analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical emission spectroscopy was conducted on 20,000 biological specimens for metallic trace elements. Determinations of 13C in biological tissues were made by charged particle activation, and carrier-free 123I was isolated from proton irradiated 124Te

  18. Toward greener analytical techniques for the absolute quantification of peptides in pharmaceutical and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eeckhaut, Ann; Mangelings, Debby

    2015-09-10

    Peptide-based biopharmaceuticals represent one of the fastest growing classes of new drug molecules. New reaction types included in the synthesis strategies to reduce the rapid metabolism of peptides, along with the availability of new formulation and delivery technologies, resulted in an increased marketing of peptide drug products. In this regard, the development of analytical methods for quantification of peptides in pharmaceutical and biological samples is of utmost importance. From the sample preparation step to their analysis by means of chromatographic or electrophoretic methods, many difficulties should be tackled to analyze them. Recent developments in analytical techniques emphasize more and more on the use of green analytical techniques. This review will discuss the progresses in and challenges observed during green analytical method development for the quantification of peptides in pharmaceutical and biological samples. PMID:25864956

  19. Industrial and environmental applications of nuclear analytical techniques. Report of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has programme the utilisation of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs), in particular for industrial and environmental applications. A major purpose is to help the developing Member States apply their analytical capabilities optimally for socio-economic progress and development. A large number of institutions in Europe, Africa, Latin America and Asia have established X ray fluorescence (XRF) and gamma ray measurement techniques and facilities for neutron activation analysis (NAA) have been initiated in institutions in these regions. Moreover, there is a growing interest among many institutes in applying more advanced analytical techniques, such as particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) and microanalytical techniques based on X ray emission induced by conventional sources or synchrotron radiation to the analysis of environmental and biological materials and industrial products. In order to define new areas of application of NATs and to extend the range of these techniques, a number of initiatives have recently been taken. It includes a workshop on industrial and environmental applications of nuclear analytical techniques, organized by the IAEA in Vienna, 7-11 September 1998. The main objectives of the workshop were as follows: (1) to review recent applications of NATs in industrial and environmental studies; (2) to identify emerging trends in methodologies and applications of NATs; (3) to demonstrate analytical capabilities of selected NATs. The following topics were reviewed during the workshop: (1) XRF and accelerator based analytical techniques; (2) portable XRF systems and their applications in industry, mineral prospecting and processing, (3) portable gamma ray spectrometers; and (4) NAA and its applications in industry and environmental studies. Micro-XRF and micro-PIXE methods and their applications in the above fields were also discussed, including aspects of synchrotron radiation induced X ray emission

  20. Optical microscopy as a comparative analytical technique for single-particle dissolution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanbäck, Sami; Ehlers, Henrik; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2014-07-20

    Novel, simple and cost effective methods are needed to replace advanced chemical analytical techniques, in small-scale dissolution studies. Optical microscopy of individual particles could provide such a method. The aim of the present work was to investigate and verify the applicability of optical microscopy as an analytical technique for drug dissolution studies. The evaluation was performed by comparing image and chemical analysis data of individual dissolving particles. It was shown that the data obtained by image analysis and UV-spectrophotometry produced practically identical dissolution curves, with average similarity and difference factors above 82 and below 4, respectively. The relative standard deviation for image analysis data, of the studied particle size range, varied between 1.9% and 3.8%. Consequently, it is proposed that image analysis can be used, on its own, as a viable analytical technique in single-particle dissolution studies. The possibility for significant reductions in sample preparation, operational cost, time and substance consumption gives optical detection a clear advantage over chemical analytical methods. Thus, image analysis could be an ideal and universal analytical technique for rapid small-scale dissolution studies. PMID:24751345

  1. Role of thermo-analytical techniques in compositional characterization of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of heat effects on different materials has a long history. Extraction of metals from the ores, pottery production, glasses making etc. are the examples, where the performance of products obtained from raw materials depends on the processing temperatures. Concrete, pottery, bricks etc., are severely damaged due to uncontrolled high temperatures. Therefore, the heating of raw materials in controlled manner is of pivotal importance to get products of the desired quality. Thermo-analytical techniques provide the information on the effect of heat under controlled heating conditions. In thermo-analytical techniques, physical properties of materials are measured as a function of temperature. Simultaneous thermo-analytical techniques are beneficial in comparison to any single thermo-analytical technique. Simultaneous techniques refer to the measurement of two or more signals on the same sample at the same time in the same instrument. Nowadays, simultaneous thermo-analytical technique are extensively in use for the analysis of materials. Ammonium diuranate (ADU) and magnesium diuranate (MDU), also known as yellowcake, are intermediate precursors in fuel fabrication process, with stringent specifications along with the need to understand its thermal behavior. In the processing of lowgrade ores, higher levels of impurities are being encountered in the leach solution that affects the properties of ADU/MDU. In order to meet the fuel specifications, quality assurance of these nuclear materials is essential. Current studies describe the application of simultaneous Thermogravimetry (TG) - differential thermal analysis (DTA) - evolved gas analysis (EGA) techniques for the compositional characterization of ADU/MDU with respect to the impurities present in the matrices

  2. Field analytical techniques for mercury in soils technology evaluation. Topical report, November 1994--March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solc, J.; Harju, J.A.; Grisanti, A.A.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents the evaluation of the four field analytical techniques for mercury detection in soils, namely (1) an anodic stripping voltametry technique (ASV) developed and tested by General Electric Corporation; (2) a static headspace analysis (SHSA) technique developed and tested by Dr. Ralph Turner of Oak Ridge National Laboratory; (3) the BiMelyze{reg_sign} Mercury Immunoassay (Bio) developed and tested by BioNebraska, Inc.; and (4) a transportable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument/technique developed and tested by Spectrace, Inc.

  3. Nuclear analytical techniques for on-line elemental analysis in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the result of an advisory group meeting held in Espoo, Finland, 1-5 June, 1987. The purpose of the meeting was to assess the present status and development of nuclear analytical techniques used for industrial process control. The report gives an overview of the different nuclear techniques used for process control and the most important applications. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 7 papers presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Application gives the technique the analytic tree in the evaluation the effectiveness programs to radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the work we develop the IAEA recommendations in the application the analytic tree as instrument for the evaluation the effectiveness the occupational radiological protection programs. Is reflected like it has been assimilated and converted that technique in daily work istruments in the evaluation process the security conditions in the institutions that apply the nuclear techniques with a view to its autorization on the part of the regulatory organ

  5. A Novel Analytic Technique for the Service Station Reliability in a Discrete-Time Repairable Queue

    OpenAIRE

    Renbin Liu; Yinghui Tang

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a decomposition technique for the service station reliability in a discrete-time repairable ${\\text{Geom}}^{X}$ /G/1 queueing system, in which the server takes exhaustive service and multiple adaptive delayed vacation discipline. Using such a novel analytic technique, some important reliability indices and reliability relation equations of the service station are derived. Furthermore, the structures of the service station indices are also found. Finally, special cases and ...

  6. A review of analytical techniques for the determination of carbon-14 in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief summary of analytical techniques commonly used for the determination of radiocarbon in a variety of environmental samples. Details of the applicable procedures developed and tested in the Environmental Research Branch at Chalk River Laboratories are appended

  7. Analytical techniques for characterization of cyclodextrin complexes in the solid state: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Paola

    2015-09-10

    Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides able to form inclusion complexes with a variety of hydrophobic guest molecules, positively modifying their physicochemical properties. A thorough analytical characterization of cyclodextrin complexes is of fundamental importance to provide an adequate support in selection of the most suitable cyclodextrin for each guest molecule, and also in view of possible future patenting and marketing of drug-cyclodextrin formulations. The demonstration of the actual formation of a drug-cyclodextrin inclusion complex in solution does not guarantee its existence also in the solid state. Moreover, the technique used to prepare the solid complex can strongly influence the properties of the final product. Therefore, an appropriate characterization of the drug-cyclodextrin solid systems obtained has also a key role in driving in the choice of the most effective preparation method, able to maximize host-guest interactions. The analytical characterization of drug-cyclodextrin solid systems and the assessment of the actual inclusion complex formation is not a simple task and involves the combined use of several analytical techniques, whose results have to be evaluated together. The objective of the present review is to present a general prospect of the principal analytical techniques which can be employed for a suitable characterization of drug-cyclodextrin systems in the solid state, evidencing their respective potential advantages and limits. The applications of each examined technique are described and discussed by pertinent examples from literature. PMID:25743620

  8. Critical review of analytical techniques for safeguarding the thorium-uranium fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.

    1978-10-01

    Conventional analytical methods applicable to the determination of thorium, uranium, and plutonium in feed, product, and waste streams from reprocessing thorium-based nuclear reactor fuels are reviewed. Separations methods of interest for these analyses are discussed. Recommendations concerning the applicability of various techniques to reprocessing samples are included. 15 tables, 218 references.

  9. Fingerprinting of ivory and horn through the application of nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of fingerprinting elephant ivory and rhino horn to establish the origin and accordingly promote the sale of legally stockpiled reserves from South Africa into the (closed) world markets have been investigated in the past, and preliminary studies with non-nuclear techniques look promising. The Research Reactor programme within the framework of AFRA is currently becoming bent on applications of nuclear analytical techniques for socio-economic development. It is as part of this AFRA programme, that instrumental neutron activation analysis can possibly be used as a powerful and reliable fingerprinting technique for the determination of the origin of ivory. (author)

  10. Combining analytical techniques for trace elements in Uranium Oxide (U3O8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally XRF is used to analyse the major elements in a solid high purity product and ICP to analyse the trace elements in the dissolved solid, hence different sample preparation techniques are required Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) as a technique can be used in parallel with X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) with the same analytical methodology Trace elements present in U3O8 are investigated using LA-ICP-MS as these are below detection limits of XRF instruments A certified reference material and an in-house processed yellow cake were investigated using the two techniques

  11. Analytical techniques for the determination of radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals prepared from kits. Pt. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of efficacy of commercially available kits used for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals is one aspect of the Radiation Protection Bureau's radiopharmaceutical quality control program. This report describes some of the analytical methodology employed in the program. The techniques may be of interest to hospital radiopharmacy personnel since many of the tests can be performed rapidly and with a minimum of special equipment, thus enabling the confirmation of radiopharmaceutical purity prior to patient administration. Manufacturers of kits may also be interested in learning of the analytical methods used in the assessment of their products

  12. Analytical techniques for the determination of radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals prepared from kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of efficacy of commercially available kits used for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals is one aspect of the Radiation Protection Bureau's radiopharmaceutical quality control program. This report describes some of the analytical methodology employed in the program. The techniques may be of interest to hospital radiopharmacy personnel as many of the tests can be performed rapidly and with a minimum of special equipment, thus enabling the confirmation of radiopharmaceutical purity prior to patient administration. Manufacturers of kits may also be interested in learning of the analytical methods used in the assessment of their products. (auth)

  13. The analytical investigations of ancient pottery from Kaveripakkam, Vellore dist, Tamilnadu by spectroscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravisankar, R; Naseerutheen, A; Annamalai, G Raja; Chandrasekaran, A; Rajalakshmi, A; Kanagasabapathy, K V; Prasad, M V R; Satpathy, K K

    2014-01-01

    Analytical investigations using Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD), Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRF) were carried out on ancient pottery fragments from Kaveripakkam, in order to outline manufacturing skills, technology information, firing condition and temperature of potteries. The whole set of data showed the firing temperature in the range of 800-900°C. The analytical characterization of the potsherds, by different complimentary techniques has allowed to identifying the raw materials and technology applied by the ancient artisans. PMID:24287055

  14. International conference on isotopic and nuclear analytical techniques for health and environment. Unedited papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has been supporting nuclear and isotopic analytical techniques as part of its mandate to foster the peaceful uses of nuclear energy for many years. Nuclear analytical laboratories have been installed and upgraded through technical co-operation assistance in many laboratories of Member States. These techniques, including INAA, CRF, PIXE, stable isotopes and radioisotopes, α, β, γ spectrometry, Moessbauer spectrometry, etc., have been applied to a wide range of subjects with varying success. Nuclear analytical techniques, featuring some intrinsic quality control aspects, such as multi-nuclide analysis, frequently serve as 'reference methods' to crosscheck critical results. As nuclear properties of elements are targeted, matrix problems seem to be negligible. In light of its continued commitment and support, the IAEA organized the International Conference on Isotopic and Nuclear Analytical Techniques for Health and Environment. Out of 220 from 61 countries who applied for participation, 155 official participants and five observers from 47 countries were in attendance, with 67 from 32 developing countries and 21 from international organizations, including the World Health Organization. Eleven plenary sessions were held. Also conducted was a panel discussion on Human Capacity Development Needs in the Areas of Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS), Radiochemistry and Nutrition. The scientific sessions were divided into several topics, which reflect some of the important activities of the IAEA's Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications (NA): - Isotopic and nuclear techniques (general); - Metrology and quality assurance in nuclear measurements; - Nuclear analytical techniques for environmental monitoring; - Radioecology; - Environmental monitoring; - Radiological safety of food and water; - Methodological aspects of stable isotope techniques in health and environment; - Applications of isotopic techniques in health and environment; - New

  15. Recent developments in analytical techniques for characterization of ultra pure materials—An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Balaram

    2005-07-01

    With continual decrease of geometries used in modern IC devices, the trace metal impurities of process materials and chemicals used in their manufacture are moving to increasingly lower levels, i.e. ng/g and pg/g levels. An attempt is made to give a brief overview of the use of different analytical techniques in the analysis of trace metal impurities in ultrapure materials, such as, high-purity tellurium (7N), high purity quartz, high-purity copper (6N), and high purity water and mineral acids. In recent times mass spectrometric techniques such as ICP–MS, GD–MS and HR–ICP–MS with their characteristic high sensitivity and less interference effects were proved to be extremely useful in this field. A few examples of such application studies using these techniques are outlined. The usefulness of other analytical techniques such as F–AAS, GF–AAS, XRF, ICP–AES and INAA was also described. Specific advantages of ICP–MS and HR–ICP–MS such as high sensitivity, limited interference effects, element coverage and speed would make them powerful analytical tools for the characterization of ultrapure materials in future.

  16. A Simplified Analytical Technique for High Frequency Characterization of Resonant Tunneling Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DESSOUKI, A. A. S.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available his paper proposes a simplified analytical technique for high frequency characterization of the resonant tunneling diode (RTD. An equivalent circuit of the RTD that consists of a parallel combination of conductance, G (V, f, and capacitance, C (V, f is formulated. The proposed approach uses the measured DC current versus voltage characteristic of the RTD to extract the equivalent circuit elements parameters in the entire bias range. Using the proposed analytical technique, the frequency response - including the high frequency range - of many characteristic aspects of the RTD is investigated. Also, the maximum oscillation frequency of the RTD is calculated. The results obtained have been compared with those concluded and reported in the literature. The reported results in literature were obtained through simulation of the RTD at high frequency using either a computationally complicated quantum simulator or through difficult RF measurements. A similar pattern of results and highly concordant conclusion are obtained. The proposed analytical technique is simple, correct, and appropriate to investigate the behavior of the RTD at high frequency. In addition, the proposed technique can be easily incorporated into SPICE program to simulate circuits containing RTD.

  17. Trace element air pollution monitoring studies in Slovenia using nuclear analytical techniques. Appendix 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to now, only a few investigations have been performed in Slovenia involving comprehensive studies of trace elements, toxic elements, heavy metals and radionuclides in the atmosphere. The aim of the project is development and application of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for air pollution studies, leading to formation of a database concerning the trace element air pollution of Slovenia. In this report, the emphasis is on the methodology and analytical development (neutron activation analysis and X-ray spectrometry), and to a lesser extent on the results obtained up to now. Analytical results for several certified reference materials of similar matrix as the real samples investigated are presented and discussed. (author)

  18. Ultra-trace analytical techniques for internal dosimetry of actinides: an appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly reviews and summarises the currently available analytical techniques employed in internal dosimetry for the determination of important actinides 232Th, 238U and 239,240Pu in bio-assay samples. The techniques covered are neutron activation analysis (NAA), delayed neutron activation analysis (DNAA), alpha spectrometry, spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, kinetic phosphorescence, solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD), fission track analysis (FTA), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and anodic/adsorptive striping voltametry (ASV). A comparison is made for the detection limits of various techniques for individual actinides in terms of the fraction/multiple of the derived urinary excretion levels such as DRL and DIL. Advantages and limitations of each technique have been discussed and conclusions regarding the most suitable technique for each actinide are reported. (author). 20 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Assessment of analytical techniques for characterization of crystalline clopidogrel forms in patent applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Marcelo Lira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate two important aspects of patent applications of crystalline forms of drugs: (i the physicochemical characterization of the crystalline forms; and (ii the procedure for preparing crystals of the blockbuster drug clopidogrel. To this end, searches were conducted using online patent databases. The results showed that: (i the majority of patent applications for clopidogrel crystalline forms failed to comply with proposed Brazilian Patent Office guidelines. This was primarily due to insufficient number of analytical techniques evaluating the crystalline phase. In addition, some patent applications lacked assessment of chemical/crystallography purity; (ii use of more than two analytical techniques is important; and (iii the crystallization procedure for clopidogrel bisulfate form II were irreproducible based on the procedure given in the patent application.

  20. Gestión de la Propiedad Intelectual en las Empresas de Proyectos que aplican el Perfeccionamiento Empresarial

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Hernández Delgado; Antonio M. Navarro López; Dolores l. Alemañy Vega

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo expone las experiencias de la Empresa de Proyectos de Arquitectura e Ingeniería de Matanzas (EMPAI), Empresa que aplica el Perfeccionamiento Empresarial desde el año 1999, con relación a la Propiedad Intelectual y dichas experiencias pueden ser de gran utilidad para las Empresas de Proyectos, sirviéndole de metodología para elaborar su propio reglamento de Propiedad Intelectual.

  1. Gestión de la Propiedad Intelectual en las Empresas de Proyectos que aplican el Perfeccionamiento Empresarial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hernández Delgado

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo expone las experiencias de la Empresa de Proyectos de Arquitectura e Ingeniería de Matanzas (EMPAI, Empresa que aplica el Perfeccionamiento Empresarial desde el año 1999, con relación a la Propiedad Intelectual y dichas experiencias pueden ser de gran utilidad para las Empresas de Proyectos, sirviéndole de metodología para elaborar su propio reglamento de Propiedad Intelectual.

  2. Proceedings of the national seminar on recent developments in electro analytical techniques: souvenir and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of deliberations on 'Recent Developments in Electro Analytical Techniques' with special emphasis on batteries, fuel cells, biosensors, chemical sensors modified electrodes, nano electrodes, electrode synthesis and co-ordination compounds, go a long way in creating the necessary awareness and enthusiasm amongst students, young scholars and industrialists to lay their attention on the subject. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  3. Applications of nuclear analytical techniques for multielement determination in reference materials and archaeological artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents applications of four nuclear analytical techniques namely INAA, PGNAA, PIGE and PIXE to ancient potteries as well as soil or sediment reference materials (RMs) obtained from IAEA. The methods are non-destructive in nature and capable of determining multi-elements at major to trace concentration levels. Methods have been applied to three clay potteries and two IAEA RMs namely Soil-7 and SL-3. (author)

  4. Development of analytical techniques for the characterization of natural and anthropogenic compounds in fine particulate matter

    OpenAIRE

    Piazzalunga,

    2007-01-01

    Aerosol is of central importance for atmospheric chemistry and physics, for the biosphere, the climate and public health. The primary parameters that determine the environmental and health effects of aerosol particles are their concentration and chemical composition. In this work we have developed the analytical techniques to study particulate matter composition. The knowledge of PM composition can be useful to identify the main PM sources, the health risk and the formation or depositio...

  5. Studies of aerosol particle formation from various sources using ion and electron beam analytical techniques.

    OpenAIRE

    Gharibi, Arash

    2006-01-01

    The thesis presents the results of studies of aerosol particle formation using ion and electron beam analytical techniques. The sources of aerosol particle formation studied are the following: 1. production of primary aerosol particles in the high Arctic region during summers 2. emission of ultrafine aerosol particles from wear on the road-tire interface 3. emission of aerosol particles from district heating units operating on three commonly-used biofuels. A source...

  6. High-performance thin layer chromatography: A powerful analytical technique in pharmaceutical drug discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Attimarad, Mahesh; Ahmed, K. K. Mueen; Aldhubaib, Bandar E.; Harsha, Sree

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of pharmaceutical and natural compounds and newer drugs is commonly used in all the stages of drug discovery and development process. High-performance thin layer chromatography is one of the sophisticated instrumental techniques based on the full capabilities of thin layer chromatography. The advantages of automation, scanning, full optimization, selective detection principle, minimum sample preparation, hyphenation, and so on enable it to be a powerful analytical tool for chromatogr...

  7. Application of analytical techniques of nuclear geology in the test for shale gas exploration and exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past 50 years, the nuclear geoanalysis methods are developed for analysis of elements, nuclides, isotopes, microzone and organic compounds. Those methods may also be applied to the test for shale gas exploration. The main testing parameters, analytical techniques and the instruments for shale gas exploration are reviewed. The stated parameters include TOC, gas storage contents, gas composition, stable isotopes (C, H, He), thermal maturity (Ro), Langmuir isotherm, porosity, permeability, mineral composition, and 3D microstructure imaging. (authors)

  8. The Development of Bio-Analytical Techniques for the Treatment of Psoriasis and Related Skin Disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Hollywood, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    AbstractThe University of ManchesterKatherine Anne Hollywood: June 2010Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Engineering and Physical SciencesThe Development of Bio-Analytical Techniques for the Treatment of Psoriasis and Related Skin Disorders.In this investigation a number of post-genomic technologies have be applied to study the dermatological disorders of psoriasis and keloid disease. In spite of considerable research focus on these diseases the pathogenesis remains unclear an...

  9. An Overview of Analytical Determination of Diltiazem, Cimetidine, Ranitidine, and Famotidine by UV Spectrophotometry and HPLC Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Akbar Sial; Azhar Hussain; Arif Zubair; Huma Naseem; Nawab Sher; Farhan Ahmed Siddiqui; Mirza Tasawer Baig; Nighat Shafi

    2013-01-01

    This review article recapitulates the analytical methods for the quantitative determinations of diltiazem and three H2 receptor antagonists (cimetidine, ranitidine, and famotidine) by one of the spectroscopic technique (UV spectrophotometery) and separation technique such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The clinical and pharmaceutical analysis of these drugs requires effective analytical procedures for quality control, pharmaceutical dosage formulations, and biological fluid...

  10. Development and evaluation of analytical techniques for total chlorine in used oils and oil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A current EPA regulation prohibits the sale for burning in nonindustrial boilers of used oils and oil fuels. This paper discusses how analytical techniques for determining total chlorine were evaluated to provide regulatory agencies and the regulated community with appropriate chlorine test methods. The techniques evaluated included oxygen bomb combustion followed by chemical titration or ion chromatography, instrumental microcoulometry, field test kits, and instrumental furnace/specific ion electrode determinator, a device based on the Beilstein reaction, and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. These techniques were subjected to interlaboratory testing to estimate their precision, accuracy, and sensitivity. Virgin and used crankcase oils, hydraulic and metalworking oils, oil fuels and oil fuel blends with used oils were tested. The bomb techniques, one of the test kits, microcoulometry and all but one x-ray analyzer were found to be suitable for this application. The chlorine furnace and the Beilstein device were found to be inapplicable at the levels of interest

  11. Application of X-ray fluorescence analytical techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Necemer, Marijan [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: marijan.necemer@ijs.si; Kump, Peter; Scancar, Janez; Jacimovic, Radojko; Simcic, Jurij; Pelicon, Primoz; Budnar, Milos; Jeran, Zvonka [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Vogel-Mikus, Katarina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-11-15

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs the use of higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Progress in the field is however handicapped by limited knowledge of the biological processes involved in plant metal uptake, translocation, tolerance and plant-microbe-soil interactions; therefore a better understanding of the basic biological mechanisms involved in plant/microbe/soil/contaminant interactions would allow further optimization of phytoremediation technologies. In view of the needs of global environmental protection, it is important that in phytoremediation and plant biology studies the analytical procedures for elemental determination in plant tissues and soil should be fast and cheap, with simple sample preparation, and of adequate accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this study was therefore to present the main characteristics, sample preparation protocols and applications of X-ray fluorescence-based analytical techniques (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry-EDXRF, total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry-TXRF and micro-proton induced X-ray emission-micro-PIXE). Element concentrations in plant leaves from metal polluted and non-polluted sites, as well as standard reference materials, were analyzed by the mentioned techniques, and additionally by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of X-ray fluorescence-based techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies. It is the EDXRF, which is recommended as suitable to be used in the analyses of a large number of samples, because it is multi-elemental, requires only simple preparation of sample material, and it is analytically comparable to the most frequently used instrumental chemical techniques. The TXRF is compatible to FAAS in sample preparation, but relative to AAS it is fast, sensitive and

  12. Application of X-ray fluorescence analytical techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs the use of higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Progress in the field is however handicapped by limited knowledge of the biological processes involved in plant metal uptake, translocation, tolerance and plant-microbe-soil interactions; therefore a better understanding of the basic biological mechanisms involved in plant/microbe/soil/contaminant interactions would allow further optimization of phytoremediation technologies. In view of the needs of global environmental protection, it is important that in phytoremediation and plant biology studies the analytical procedures for elemental determination in plant tissues and soil should be fast and cheap, with simple sample preparation, and of adequate accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this study was therefore to present the main characteristics, sample preparation protocols and applications of X-ray fluorescence-based analytical techniques (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry-EDXRF, total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry-TXRF and micro-proton induced X-ray emission-micro-PIXE). Element concentrations in plant leaves from metal polluted and non-polluted sites, as well as standard reference materials, were analyzed by the mentioned techniques, and additionally by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of X-ray fluorescence-based techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies. It is the EDXRF, which is recommended as suitable to be used in the analyses of a large number of samples, because it is multi-elemental, requires only simple preparation of sample material, and it is analytically comparable to the most frequently used instrumental chemical techniques. The TXRF is compatible to FAAS in sample preparation, but relative to AAS it is fast, sensitive and

  13. Application of X-ray fluorescence analytical techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nečemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Ščančar, Janez; Jaćimović, Radojko; Simčič, Jurij; Pelicon, Primož; Budnar, Miloš; Jeran, Zvonka; Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina

    2008-11-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs the use of higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Progress in the field is however handicapped by limited knowledge of the biological processes involved in plant metal uptake, translocation, tolerance and plant-microbe-soil interactions; therefore a better understanding of the basic biological mechanisms involved in plant/microbe/soil/contaminant interactions would allow further optimization of phytoremediation technologies. In view of the needs of global environmental protection, it is important that in phytoremediation and plant biology studies the analytical procedures for elemental determination in plant tissues and soil should be fast and cheap, with simple sample preparation, and of adequate accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this study was therefore to present the main characteristics, sample preparation protocols and applications of X-ray fluorescence-based analytical techniques (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry—EDXRF, total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry—TXRF and micro-proton induced X-ray emission—micro-PIXE). Element concentrations in plant leaves from metal polluted and non-polluted sites, as well as standard reference materials, were analyzed by the mentioned techniques, and additionally by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of X-ray fluorescence-based techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies. It is the EDXRF, which is recommended as suitable to be used in the analyses of a large number of samples, because it is multi-elemental, requires only simple preparation of sample material, and it is analytically comparable to the most frequently used instrumental chemical techniques. The TXRF is compatible to FAAS in sample preparation, but relative to AAS it is fast

  14. Services as provided to customer by nuclear analytical techniques at Dalat Nuclear Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dalat Nuclear Research Institute (DNRI) of Vietnam has become an important R and D centre in the country for researches and applications of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs). The DNRI is in cooperation with various organizations, having growing needs for NATs, geological departments, mineral exploration companies, national environment agency, province's departments of science and technology, medical-nutritional-occupational health sectors and agricultural research institutes and centers, etc. Recently, the NATs at DNRI are challenged by a strong competition from non-nuclear analytical techniques (e.g. AAS, GC, IC, ICP-MS, etc.). Therefore, in order to develop a strategy for sustainable operation, the improvements in aspects of method equipment and in particular of the implementation of quality system for NATs laboratories have been carried out. By these improvements, the annual analysis capability reaching to several thousands samples with tens thousands constituents analysed, the reliability of results ensured, thereof the customers are being expanded to also private and joint venture companies for mineral exploration in the country as well. The status of analytical services as provided to customer by the NATs at DNRI are presented and discussed. (author)

  15. Nuclear analytical techniques for quantification of uranium for its recovery from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear analytical techniques namely fission track technique using solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) have been standardized and applied for quantification of low uranium concentrations in liquid samples such as feed, elute and brine and solid sorbent samples respectively. The quantification of uranium is required for its recovery study from seawater, which is one of the potential sources of uranium. The uranium concentration of a liquid sample obtained by SSNTD method was compared with the other well established conventional techniques like ICP-MS, ICP-AES, adsorptive stripping voltametry and alpha spectrometry. INAA was applied for uranium concentration determination in the radiation grafted polyamidoxime sorbent samples. (author)

  16. Programación de una unidad didáctica: Perfeccionamiento en baloncesto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción García Rivero

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es diseñar una unidad didáctica contextualizada en las características del alumnado y del propio currículo educativo, que pueda servir para mejorar la metodología del proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje en el perfeccionamiento deportivo en baloncesto, un deporte colectivo de invasión de gran complejidad. Esta unidad se lleva a cabo con alumnos de primero de bachillerato. El desarrollo de la misma se basa en la normativa vigente en la Comunidad Autónoma de Galicia. Tendremos en cuenta a su vez las necesidades de los alumnos y alumnas y sus diferencias individuales. Incidimos en los aspectos interdisciplinares del baloncesto, así como, en el desarrollo de las nuevas tecnologías de la comunicación y de la información (TICs, para la consecución de los objetivos y las competencias básicas, trabajando paralelamente en la atención al alumnado con necesidades educativas especiales (NEE.

  17. Technical meeting on commercial applications of nuclear analytical techniques. Meeting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the findings of the Technical Meeting on the Commercial Applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques held in Vienna on 23-26 November 2004, where an assessment was initiated of the world capacity and market potentials for neutron activation analysis and nuclear spectroscopy, including an estimation of economic revenues. Industry and governmental agencies were identified as stakeholders for these laboratories. Examples are given of potential benefits of these techniques to the stakeholders. The potentials for commercial applications of neutron activation analysis and nuclear spectroscopy (measurement of alpha, beta and gamma ray emitting radionuclides) are addressed. First estimates are given of the worldwide capacity of these laboratories, suggestions and examples are given for potential markets and the typical organizational and technical constraints are discussed. Two case studies of commercial neutron activation analysis laboratories at a small and a medium-size reactor are given in the 'individual contributions' section of this document. An assessment of other nuclear analytical techniques such as X ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, Particle Induced X ray Emission Spectrometry or Ion Beam Analysis Spectrometry has been completed after a comprehensive collection of background information

  18. Applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A co-ordinated research programme (CRP) on applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related techniques is a global CRP which will run from 1992-1996, and will build upon the experience gained by the Agency from the laboratory support that it has been providing for several years to BAPMoN - the Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network programme organized under the auspices of the World Meterological Organization. The purpose of this CRP is to promote the use of nuclear analytical techniques in air pollution studies, e.g. NAA, XFR, and PIXE for the analysis of toxic and other trace elements in suspended particulate matter (including air filter samples), rainwater and fog-water samples, and in biological indicators of air pollution (e.g. lichens and mosses). The main purposes of the core programme are i) to support the use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for practically-oriented research and monitoring studies on air pollution ii) to identify major sources of air pollution affecting each of the participating countries with particular reference to toxic heavy metals, and iii) to obtain comparative data on pollution levels in areas of high pollution (e.g. a city centre or a populated area downwind of a large pollution source) and low pollution (e.g. rural areas). This document reports the discussions held during the first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for the CRP which took place at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Analytical techniques for determination and control of silica content in the water in thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Nataša R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrapure water with minimum contents of impurities is used for the preparation of steam in thermal power plants. More recently it has been found that the corrosion process is also influenced by sodium ions, chloride ions, and all forms of silicon in water. At higher temperatures and under high pressure the less soluble compounds of silicon are extracted, which form deposits on the walls of the boiler, the piping system and the turbine blades. Silicon is found in water in the form of different types (species which are characterized by specific physical and chemical properties. Distinctions can be made between highly reactive species of ionic (silicate anions and molecular forms (silicic acid and relatively inert types (suspended, colloidal, and polymerized silicon. The determination of various forms of silicon in water is a complex analytical task. This paper covers relevant research in the field of silicon specification analysis. Maintaining the unchanged, original composition of silicon species during various stages of analysis (sample collection, storage, and conservation has been given special attention. A large number of methods and procedures have been developed for the analysis of species of silicon, including chromatographic, spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques and combinations thereof. The techniques used for determining both the total amount and individual forms of silicon have been singled out. There is also an overview of the coupled techniques used most frequently in practice by using the methodology which involves preliminary separation of species and then individual specification. The paper offers an overview of analytical properties, advantages and disadvantages of the most representative analytical methods developed specifically for the analysis of silicon species in ultrapure water. The most important studies focusing on the silicon species in water have been highlighted and presented in detail. The determination of

  20. Commissioning of the laboratory of Atucha II NPP. Implementation and optimization of analytical techniques, quality aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atucha II NPP is a Pressurized Vessel Heavy Water Reactor (PVHWR) of 740 MWe designed by SIEMENSKWU. After some years of delay, this NPP is in advanced construction state, being the beginning of commercial operation expected for 2013. Nucleoelectrica Argentina (N.A.S.A.) is the company in charge of the finalization of this project and the future operation of the plant. The Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (C.N.E.A.) is the R and D nuclear institution in the country that, among many other topics, provides technical support to the stations. The Commissioning Chemistry Division of CNAII is in charge of the commissioning of the demineralization water plant and the organization of the chemical laboratory. The water plant started operating successfully in July 2010 and is providing the plant with nuclear grade purity water. Currently, in the conventional ('cold') laboratory several activities are taking place. On one hand, analytical techniques for the future operation of the plant are being tested and optimized. On the other hand, the laboratory is participating in the cleaning and conservation of the different components of the plant, providing technical support and the necessary analysis. To define the analytical techniques for the normal operation of the plant, the parameters to be measured and their range were established in the Chemistry Manual. The necessary equipment and reagents were bought. In this work, a summary of the analytical techniques that are being implemented and optimized is presented. Common anions (chloride, sulfate, fluoride, bromide and nitrate) are analyzed by ion chromatography. Cations, mainly sodium, are determined by absorption spectrometry. A UV-Vis spectrometer is used to determine silicates, iron, ammonia, DQO, total solids, true color and turbidity. TOC measurements are performed with a TOC analyzer. To optimize the methods, several parameters are evaluated: linearity, detection and quantification limits, precision and

  1. Black pigments of rock art: identification of inorganic and organic components by combining analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeological samples are complex in composition since they generally comprise a mixture of materials submitted to deterioration factors largely dependent on the environmental conditions. Therefore, the integration of analytical tools such as TXRF, FT-IR and GC-MS can maximize the amount of information provided by the sample. Recently, two black rock art samples of camelid figures at Alero Hornillos 2, an archaeological site located near the town of Susques (Jujuy Province, Argentina), were investigated. TXRF technique, selected for inorganic information, as well as FT-IR and GC-MS were employed in order to discover inorganic and organic composition of the black pigments. (author)

  2. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to characterization of atmospheric aerosols in Amazon Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the atmospheric aerosols characterization that exist in different regions of Amazon basin. The biogenic aerosol emission by forest, as well as the atmospheric emissions of particulate materials due to biomass burning, were analyzed. Samples of aerosol particles were collected during three years in two different locations of Amazon region using Stacked Unit Filters. In order to study these samples some analytical nuclear techniques were used. The high concentrations of aerosols as a result of biomass burning process were observed in the period of june-september

  3. Analytical techniques for mixed oxide fuel (MOX) post-irradiation examination (PIE) at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PSI Hot laboratory is a unique infrastructure in Switzerland for handling and analysis of highly radioactive materials like irradiated nuclear fuels. A large range of the investigation methods used currently for post irradiation study of LWR fuel are available including some very powerful analytical tools like electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). For the most important techniques, a short description of the tools and analysis methods is given followed by some typical results obtained at PSI. (author) 10 figs., 14 refs

  4. Analytical quality assurance/quality control of nuclear techniques within RER/2/004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Quality assurance and quality control system was established to generate reliable results for research and routine service of nuclear analytical laboratories in Ankara. The technical and management requirements of international standard ISO 17025 was used to introduce and implement the quality system principles for self-sustainable formal accreditation. Methods for α/β,γand X ray florescence laboratories were improved and validated, uncertainties defined, and performance criteria tested. The importance of some characteristics for measurement such as repeatability, reproducibility, detection limits, control charts for critical technical variables and environmental variables were verified. In one frame of this project, to evaluate the participants performance in the determination of selected radionuclides of environmental importance and to validate the accuracy and precision of the measurements, two proficiency tests were carried out. Radionuclides in a spiked soil sample and in a standard solution were determined results of proficiency test are mostly compatible. Previous experience of nuclear analytical laboratories (γ, XRF and α/β) in center were focused on research and application of environmental topics. The present study is a part of model project of the IAEA, RER/2/004 entitled 'QA/QC of nuclear analytical techniques' and expected to have economic and scientific impacts on trade, industry, environmental protection and life sciences. (author)

  5. Nuclear analytical techniques for control of important technological elements for extraction of ammonium perrhenate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the important issues for insuring efficiency of technological process for production of chemical substances is analytical control. For passing extraction of rhenium in ammonium perrhenate form from waste sulphate solutions of copper-smelting process at Almalyk Mining and Metallurgical Complex (AMMC), elemental analysis is required at various stages of technology. In this work the results of researches on developing nuclear analytical techniques and devices for content control of some important elements for extraction of ammonium perrhenate from wastes of copper-smelting process at AMMC are presented. The use of instrumental nuclear analytical methods (Neutron Activation Analyses - NAA and Prompt Gamma Activation Analyses - PGAA) allows monitoring process parameters and promptly taking required measures. Whereas chemical analysis methods commonly used in plant laboratories cannot meet the requirements due to their long duration and they are not instrumental. The possibility of analysis of important elements (Re, Cu, Mo, Fe, F, Ti, Ca) in waste sulphate solutions (before and after sorption column), solid extragent and strippants has been studied. NAA method with use of the nuclear reactor WWR-SM, INP, Tashkent) and PGAA method with use radionuclide 252Cf - neutron source were used. It is shown that the use of these methods allows determining concentration of Re, Cu, Mo, Fe, F, Ti and Ca in waste solutions from which ammonium perrhenate is extracted, as well as in solid extragents in extraction columns for rhenium extraction and strippants. (author)

  6. Analytical techniques for characterization of cyclodextrin complexes in aqueous solution: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Paola

    2014-12-01

    Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides endowed with a hydrophilic outer surface and a hydrophobic inner cavity, able to form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of guest molecules, positively affecting their physicochemical properties. In particular, in the pharmaceutical field, cyclodextrin complexation is mainly used to increase the aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs, and to enhance their bioavailability and stability. Analytical characterization of host-guest interactions is of fundamental importance for fully exploiting the potential benefits of complexation, helping in selection of the most appropriate cyclodextrin. The assessment of the actual formation of a drug-cyclodextrin inclusion complex and its full characterization is not a simple task and often requires the use of different analytical methods, whose results have to be combined and examined together. The purpose of the present review is to give, as much as possible, a general overview of the main analytical tools which can be employed for the characterization of drug-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes in solution, with emphasis on their respective potential merits, disadvantages and limits. Further, the applicability of each examined technique is illustrated and discussed by specific examples from literature. PMID:24680374

  7. Studies on Pt–Mo phases using analytical techniques with high resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topic, M., E-mail: mtopic@tlabs.ac.za [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Khumalo, Z. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); University of Cape Town, Physics Department, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Belville (South Africa)

    2014-01-01

    Pt–Mo coated system annealed at 1050 °C for 24 h was investigated using several analytical techniques with high resolution (SEM/EDX, μ-PIXE, RBS and XRD). These techniques provide structural and compositional data throughout the material depth and probing area. The results depend on the applied beam, its energy and size. They contribute to a better understanding of thermal annealing effects on the solid-state phase transformation and morphological changes in Pt–Mo coatings. The results indicate the presence of Pt- and Mo-solid solutions and two Pt–Mo phases (PtMo and Pt{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}), changes in the coating morphology, such as increased surface roughness and formation of “lace morphology”, as well as an increase in coating thickness.

  8. Visual analytics techniques for large multi-attribute time series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ming C.; Dayal, Umeshwar; Keim, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Time series data commonly occur when variables are monitored over time. Many real-world applications involve the comparison of long time series across multiple variables (multi-attributes). Often business people want to compare this year's monthly sales with last year's sales to make decisions. Data warehouse administrators (DBAs) want to know their daily data loading job performance. DBAs need to detect the outliers early enough to act upon them. In this paper, two new visual analytic techniques are introduced: The color cell-based Visual Time Series Line Charts and Maps highlight significant changes over time in a long time series data and the new Visual Content Query facilitates finding the contents and histories of interesting patterns and anomalies, which leads to root cause identification. We have applied both methods to two real-world applications to mine enterprise data warehouse and customer credit card fraud data to illustrate the wide applicability and usefulness of these techniques.

  9. Applications of nuclear analytical techniques for identifying the origin and composition of found radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials and sources have been used worldwide for the last 100 years - for medical diagnosis and therapy, industrial imaging and process monitoring, consumer applications, materials and biological research, and for generating nuclear energy - among other peaceful purposes. Many of the radioactive materials have been produced, and the associated nuclear science and technology developed, at major research sites such as the Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario, Canada. Sometimes undocumented radioactive materials associated with production, development or use are found, usually in the context of a legacy setting, and their composition and origin needs to be determined in order for these materials to be safely handled and securely dispositioned. The novel applications of nuclear analytical techniques, including mass spectroscopy, gamma and x-ray spectroscopy and neutron beam irradiation techniques, is presented in the context of some recent investigations. (author)

  10. Recent trends in analytical methods and separation techniques for drugs of abuse in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, T; Borrull, F; Aguilar, C; Calull, M

    2015-01-26

    Hair analysis of drugs of abuse has been a subject of growing interest from a clinical, social and forensic perspective for years because of the broad time detection window after intake in comparison to urine and blood analysis. Over the last few years, hair analysis has gained increasing attention and recognition for the retrospective investigation of drug abuse in a wide variety of contexts, shown by the large number of applications developed. This review aims to provide an overview of the state of the art and the latest trends used in the literature from 2005 to the present in the analysis of drugs of abuse in hair, with a special focus on separation analytical techniques and their hyphenation with mass spectrometry detection. The most recently introduced sample preparation techniques are also addressed in this paper. The main strengths and weaknesses of all of these approaches are critically discussed by means of relevant applications. PMID:25542354

  11. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Thai Monazite by Inductively Coupled Plasma and Nuclear Analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) for the determination of individual rare-earth elements (REE) was evaluated by comparison with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The accuracy and precision of INAA and ICP-AES were evaluated by using standard reference material IGS-36, a monazite concentrate. For INAA, the results were close to the certified value while ICP-AES were in good agreement except for some low concentration rare earth. The techniques were applied for the analysis of some rare earth elements in two Thai monazite samples preparing as the in-house reference material for the Rare Earth Research and Development Center, Chemistry Division, Office of Atoms for Peace. The analytical results obtained by these techniques were in good agreement with each other

  12. Contribution of analytical techniques coupled to the knowledge of the uranium speciation in natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the transport mechanisms and the radionuclides behaviour in the bio-geosphere is necessary to evaluate healthy and environmental risks of nuclear industry. These mechanisms are monitored by radioelements speciation, namely the distribution between their different physico-chemical forms in the environment. From this perspective, this PhD thesis deals with uranium speciation in a natural background. A detailed summary of uranium biogeochemistry has been written, which enables to restrict the PhD issue to uranium complexation with oxalic acid, a hydrophilic organic acid with good binding properties, ubiquitous in soil waters. Analytical conditions have been established by means of speciation diagrams. The speciation diagrams building by means of literature stability constants has allowed to define the analytical conditions of complex formation. The chosen analytical technique is the hyphenation of a separative technique (liquid chromatography LC or capillary electrophoresis CE) with mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The studied complexes presence in the synthetic samples has been confirmed with UV/visible spectrophotometry. LC-ICPMS analyses have proved the lability of the uranyl-organic acid complexes, namely their tendency to dissociate during analysis, which prevents from studying uranium speciation. CE-ICPMS study of labile complexes from a metal-ligand system has been made possible by employing affinity capillary electrophoresis, which enables to determine stability constants and electrophoretic mobilities. This PhD thesis has allowed to compare the different mathematical treatments of binding isotherm and to take into account ionic strength and real ligand concentration. Affinity CE has been applied successfully to lanthanum-oxalate (model system) and uranium-oxalate systems. The obtained results have been applied to a real system (situated in Le Bouchet). This shows the contribution of the developed method to the modelling of uranium speciation. (author)

  13. Uncovering category specificity of genital sexual arousal in women: The critical role of analytic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulverman, Carey S; Hixon, J Gregory; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-10-01

    Based on analytic techniques that collapse data into a single average value, it has been reported that women lack category specificity and show genital sexual arousal to a large range of sexual stimuli including those that both match and do not match their self-reported sexual interests. These findings may be a methodological artifact of the way in which data are analyzed. This study examined whether using an analytic technique that models data over time would yield different results. Across two studies, heterosexual (N = 19) and lesbian (N = 14) women viewed erotic films featuring heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male couples, respectively, as their physiological sexual arousal was assessed with vaginal photoplethysmography. Data analysis with traditional methods comparing average genital arousal between films failed to detect specificity of genital arousal for either group. When data were analyzed with smoothing regression splines and a within-subjects approach, both heterosexual and lesbian women demonstrated different patterns of genital sexual arousal to the different types of erotic films, suggesting that sophisticated statistical techniques may be necessary to more fully understand women's genital sexual arousal response. Heterosexual women showed category-specific genital sexual arousal. Lesbian women showed higher arousal to the heterosexual film than the other films. However, within subjects, lesbian women showed significantly different arousal responses suggesting that lesbian women's genital arousal discriminates between different categories of stimuli at the individual level. Implications for the future use of vaginal photoplethysmography as a diagnostic tool of sexual preferences in clinical and forensic settings are discussed. PMID:26118962

  14. Development of analytical technique of alteration minerals formed in bentonite by the reaction with alkaline solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    analytical techniques of small quantity of secondary minerals in the bentonite is a key issue to improve the understanding of the alteration phenomena. This paper describes the analytical technique of C-S-H gel developed based on the separation of C-S-H gel from Kunigel V1, focusing on the difference in specific gravities between crystalline minerals in Kunigel V1 and C-S-H gel formed as a secondary mineral. (authors)

  15. El perfeccionamiento de las estrategias de aprendizaje en estudiantes de la Licenciatura en Psicología.

    OpenAIRE

    Edith Enélida Fariñas Barrios

    2014-01-01

      El presente artículo trata sobre una estrategia didáctica para el perfeccionamiento de las estrategias de aprendizaje en estudiantes de la Licenciatura en Psicología en la Filial Universitaria Municipal para asumir de forma activa una actitud responsable ante el estudio, asimilar de forma activa los contenidos, tener la posibilidad de disponer de saberes variados y aprendizajes perdurables. Se enfatiza en el rol del profesor en la dirección del proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje, considerar l...

  16. Modelo para la Gestión de la Innovación por Proyectos para Empresas que aplican el Perfeccionamiento Empresarial en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio M. Navarro López

    2008-01-01

    Las Empresas que aplican el Perfeccionamiento Empresarial, no cuentan con un Modelo para la Gestión de la Innovación para el desarrollo Empresarial. Por lo que se propone éste Modelo para las mismas y generalizándose de esta forma el conocimiento de Gestión de la Innovación de la Empresa de Proyectos de Arquitectura e Ingeniería de Matanzas, Cuba, lo que permite el desarrollo Empresarial y la Implantación del Sub Sistema de Innovación para estas Empresas en Perfeccionamiento Empresarial. Se p...

  17. Contribution of nuclear analytical techniques to the rescue of Brazilian history through the analysis of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prehistory of the last two millennia in Brazil has been characterized by the coexistence of several cultures in each region. Some were competing - specialized agricultural societies in the alluvial plains - but other groups lived in a more isolated and probably peaceful way in the upper interfluvial region. It is difficult to determine what the level of integration was between the different tribes of the Proto-Ge, Proto-Tupi, Proto-Aruaque and Carib populations. Archaeologists wanted to obtain more information concerning social behaviour through the chemical analysis of the ceramics. To provide some clues to help the archaeologists find the answers, k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine element concentrations in the ceramics. The k0 INAA technique was chosen to be applied to the determination of elements because it can determine several elements in the same sample almost simultaneously, with a low detection limit and without any chemical procedure, as is required in the majority of non-nuclear techniques. This technique was the most suitable for this study because it did not entail the destruction of these important items of historical ceramics, it required only a very small piece of the materials to be analysed, and it was able to give the element concentration of more than 20 elements from just one small piece of precious ceramic. The k0 method was applied to all samples, demonstrating its quality as a versatile technique, and it was confirmed to be one of the most advantageous and suitable nuclear analytical techniques

  18. Estimation of environmental situation in the Tashkent district using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Generalized information of territories contamination is extremely important for the inhabitants' health protection. Anthropogenic contamination of the environment by heavy metals may be the reason for negative impact on the inhabitants' health status. It is connected with disbalance of elements in soil, water, air, which may impact on human elemental status. It is known that elevated intake of some elements as well as deficient intake impact on elemental homeostasis and health. Task of the present study was elaboration of strategy and methodology for creation of medico-environmental 'portrait' of Tashkent district. There was prepared a list of bioenvironmental samples to be analyzed, geography of sampling and analytical procedures to be used. This task is very complicated and application of the nuclear analytical techniques has serious advantages by its multi elemental pattern, high sensitivity and independence on type of analyzed materials. Carried out analyzes of air, soil, drinking water and human hair as an indicator of human elemental status allowed us to estimate the environmental situation in the Tashkent district, to find unfavorable areas, to draw maps of elements distribution and to compare results obtained with medical statistics. (authors)

  19. Estimation of environmental situation in the Tashkent city using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Generalized information of territories contamination is extremely important for the inhabitants health protection. Antropogenous contamination of the environment by heavy metals may be reason for negative impact on the inhabitants health status. It is connected with disbalance of elements in soil, water, air which may impact on human elemental status. It is known that elevated intake of some elements as well as deficient intake impacts on elemental homeostasis and health. Task of the present study was elaboration of strategy and methodology for creation of medico-environmental 'portrait' of the Tashkent city. There was prepared list of bioenvironmental samples to be analyzed, geography of sampling and analytical procedures to be used. This task is very complicated and application of the nuclear analytical techniques as serious advantages by the multi elemental pattern, high sensitivity and independence on type of samples to be analyzed. Carried out analyzes of air, soil, drinking water and human hair as an indicator of human elemental status allowed to estimate the environmental situation in the Tashkent city, to find unfavorable areas, to draw maps of elements distribution and to compare results obtained with medical statistics. (author)

  20. Study of the analytic quality in the determinations of Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg through conventional and nuclear analytical techniques in mosses of the MATV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the environmental risks of air pollution and to facilitate the decision-making for control, is necessary to have the capacity to generate data with analytical quality. A comparison between nuclear (Neutron activation analysis and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and no nuclear analytical techniques (atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) for simultaneous determination of metal content (Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn) in mosses from Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (MATV) was performed. Epiphytic mosses (Fabriona ciliaris and Leskea angustata) were sampled in two campaigns, 16 sites (urban, transition and natural) and were prepared for each technique. The biological certified reference materials were used for the quality control and to evaluate accuracy, precision, linearity, detection and quantification limits. Results show that nuclear analytical techniques and no nuclear applied in chemical analysis of Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn in moss from MATV are comparable and therefore all of these can potentially be used for this purpose. However, if its considered both, the performance parameters and economic/operational characteristics is widely recommended inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, conventional analytical technique, which showed the highest analytical grade quality. Also were observed spatial and temporal variations in the concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn in mosses from MATV and was discussed its potential origin. The urban sites had the highest concentration of anthropogenic elements as Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn because are strongly impacted by roads with high vehicle traffic. (Author)

  1. Preparation of uranium targets and application of analytical techniques for its evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to establish a method to produce uranium targets. The method selected for this purpose was the molecular plating. The first part of this work is devoted to the proper selection of an analytical technique to evaluate the different steps of the molecular plating method. Neutron Activation Analysis was chosen, because its high sensitivity and can be adapted easily to follow the whole procedure. The second part presents the experimental procedure and the study of the different parameters involved in the molecular plating and the evaluation of its uniformity was made using plastic track detectors. The results obtained are presented and a procedure is suggested to produce uranium targets. (Author)

  2. Development of statistical and analytical techniques for use in national quality control schemes for steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adopting the rationale that the improvement of intra-laboratory performance of immunometric assays will enable the assessment of national QC schemes to become more meaningful, the group of participating laboratories has developed statistical and analytical techniques for the improvement of accuracy, precision and monitoring of error for the determination of steroid hormones. These developments are now described and their relevance to NQC schemes discussed. Attention has been focussed on some of the factors necessary for improving standards of quality in immunometric assays and their relevance to laboratories participating in NQC schemes as described. These have included the 'accuracy', precision and robustness of assay procedures as well as improved methods for internal quality control. (Auth.)

  3. Use of the analytical tree technique to develop a radiological protection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results obtained by the Cuban Center for Radiological Protection and Hygiene by using an analytical tree technique to develop its general operational radiation protection program are presented. By the application of this method, some factors such as the organization of the radiation protection services, the provision of administrative requirements, the existing general laboratories requirements, the viability of resources and the current documentation was evaluated. Main components were considered such as: complete normative and regulatory documentation; automatic radiological protection data management; scope of 'on the-job'and radiological protection training for the personnel; previous radiological appraisal for the safety performance of the works and application of dose constrains for the personnel and the public. The detailed development of the program allowed to identify the basic aims to be achieved in its maintenance and improvement. (authors). 3 refs

  4. Soft Real-Time Guarantee for Control Applications Using Both Measurement and Analytical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baek-Young Choi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a probabilistic admission control algorithm over switched Ethernet to support soft real-time control applications with heterogeneous periodic flows. Our approach is purely end host based, and it enables real-time application-to-application QoS management over switched Ethernet without sophisticated packet scheduling or resource reservation mechanisms in Ethernet switches or middleware on end hosts. In designing the probabilistic admission control algorithm, we employ both measurement and analytical techniques. In particular, we provide a new and efficient method to identify and estimate the queueing delay probability inside Ethernet switches for heterogeneous periodic flows with variable message size and period. We implement the probabilistic admission control algorithm on the Windows operating system, and validated its efficacy through extensive experiments.

  5. Applications of surface analytical techniques for study of the interactions between mercury and fluorescent lamp materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Twan A; Frisk, T A; Grossman, M W

    2002-08-01

    Several surface analytical techniques, including electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA)(X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and sputtered neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS), were used to study the interaction between Hg and other components of fluorescent lamps, a very critical issue in lighting industries. Active sites, responsible for Hg interaction/deposition, can be successfully identified by comparing the x- y distribution (obtained by ESCA mapping) and depth distribution (available through SNMS) of respective lamp components with that of Hg. A correlation in both depth and x- y distribution is strong evidence of site preference for Hg interaction/deposition. A burial mechanism is, however, proposed when only depth distribution, not x- y, is correlated. Other modes of ESCA (high resolution, angle-resolved, etc.) were also helpful. Information about the valence states of the interacted Hg species would help to define the nature of the interaction. PMID:12185568

  6. Production of candidate natural matrix reference materials for micro-analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homogeneity is considered to be the most vital prerequisite for a certified reference material (CRM); more stringent requirements exist for the analysis of small subsamples. Many of the natural matrix CRMs are prepared from bulk samples by grinding and milling them to a certain particle size, which is expected to provide a more homogenous material; however recommended sample sizes for biological and environmental reference materials are found to be more than 100 mg. Since the milling of materials is costly and has some drawbacks, natural materials that already occur as small particles such as air particulate matter, certain sediments, and cellular biological materials may form the basis of the required reference materials. The nature of these materials, i.e. naturally occurring particles, may provide ideal model reference material. We describe here the production of the materials and preliminary tests, the evaluation for the micro-analytical techniques

  7. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to forensic chemistry; Aplicacion de tecnicas analiticas nucleares en quimica forense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, Veronica; Montoro, Silvia [Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica; Pratta, Nora; Giandomenico, Angel Di [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro Regional de Investigaciones y Desarrollo de Santa Fe

    1999-11-01

    Gun shot residues produced by firing guns are mainly composed by visible particles. The individual characterization of these particles allows distinguishing those ones containing heavy metals, from gun shot residues, from those having a different origin or history. In this work, the results obtained from the study of gun shot residues particles collected from hands are presented. The aim of the analysis is to establish whether a person has shot a firing gun has been in contact with one after the shot has been produced. As reference samples, particles collected hands of persons affected to different activities were studied to make comparisons. The complete study was based on the application of nuclear analytical techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X Ray Electron Probe Microanalysis and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The essays allow to be completed within time compatible with the forensic requirements. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.; e-mail: csedax e adigian at arcride.edu.ar

  8. Role of nuclear analytical probe techniques in biological trace element research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many biomedical experiments require the qualitative and quantitative localization of trace elements with high sensitivity and good spatial resolution. The feasibility of measuring the chemical form of the elements, the time course of trace elements metabolism, and of conducting experiments in living biological systems are also important requirements for biological trace element research. Nuclear analytical techniques that employ ion or photon beams have grown in importance in the past decade and have led to several new experimental approaches. Some of the important features of these methods are reviewed here along with their role in trace element research, and examples of their use are given to illustrate potential for new research directions. It is emphasized that the effective application of these methods necessitates a closely integrated multidisciplinary scientific team. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Study of temperature profile in nuclear fuel element end cap resistance upset welding using analytical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature distribution in solid-state end cap welding process is predicted using analytical heat transfer study and the results are verified using thermal imaging technique. The predicted and actual temperature rise with welding time showed similar trends. The temperature rise occurs at much faster rate in the initial phase due to high initial contact resistance between cladding tube and end cap. The peak temperature in the welding process for the current ranges of welding variables reaches around 850°C-900°C under normal operating conditions, which supports the presence of Widmanstaetten or martensitic structures at the heat affected zones in end cap welding. However, more accurate measurements of the temperature are possible in future with the use of photo-sensors with very low response time. (author)

  10. Screening of synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors and their analogues as adulterants: analytical techniques and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhavalkumar Narendrabhai; Li, Lin; Kee, Chee-Leong; Ge, Xiaowei; Low, Min-Yong; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) enzyme inhibitors for the treatment of erectile dysfunction has led to the increase in prevalence of illicit sexual performance enhancement products. PDE-5 inhibitors, namely sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil, and their unapproved designer analogues are being increasingly used as adulterants in the herbal products and health supplements marketed for sexual performance enhancement. To date, more than 50 unapproved analogues of prescription PDE-5 inhibitors were found as adulterants in the literature. To avoid detection of such adulteration by standard screening protocols, the perpetrators of such illegal products are investing time and resources to synthesize exotic analogues and devise novel means for adulteration. A comprehensive review of conventional and advance analytical techniques to detect and characterize the adulterants is presented. The rapid identification and structural elucidation of unknown analogues as adulterants is greatly enhanced by the wide myriad of analytical techniques employed, including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy, liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (LC-FT-ICR-MS), liquid chromatograph-hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer with information dependent acquisition, ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TOF-MS), ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS) and immunoassay methods. The many challenges in detecting and characterizing such adulterants, and the need for concerted effort to curb adulteration in order to safe guard public safety and interest are discussed. PMID:23721687

  11. Characterization and source identification of hydrocarbons in water samples using multiple analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted in which several analytical techniques were used to identify and characterize trace petroleum-related hydrocarbons and other volatile organic compounds in groundwater samples that were collected from a bedrock aquifer used for drinking water. A previous study had confirmed the presence of chlorinated compounds in the groundwater. The study presented in this paper was aimed at confirming the presence or absence of gasoline or other petroleum products in those samples. A service station was operated on this site for about 10 years and the adjacent property was owned by a chemicals handling company. Both operations were considered to be potentially responsible parties to the contamination of the aquifer. The difference in contaminants at different depths of the aquifer was examined using a variety of analytical techniques such as gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, flame-ionization detection, solid-phase-micro-extractor and head space. Chemical characterization results showed that the hydrocarbons found in the water samples near the surface were either gasoline or heavy petroleum products. The significant distribution of 5 target petroleum-characteristic alkylated polyaromatic hydrocarbon homologues and biomarkers confirmed the presence of another heavy petroleum product. The concentrations of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and BTEX were found to be 1070 and 155 μg/kg of water for the samples near the surface. Results also showed that the deep groundwater samples collected at a depths ranging between 15 to 60 metres were also contaminated but to a much lesser degree. The concentrations of the TPH and BTEX were found to be only 130 and 2.6 μg/kg of water for the deep groundwater samples. The study also revealed that the groundwater was contaminated by a variety of volatile chlorinated compounds. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  12. Integration of datasets from different analytical techniques to assess the impact of nutrition on human metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eVernocchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria colonizing the human intestinal tract exhibit a high phylogenetic diversity that reflects their immense metabolic potentials. The catalytic activity of gut microbes has an important impact on gastrointestinal (GI functions and host health. The microbial conversion of carbohydrates and other food components leads to the formation of a large number of compounds that affect the host metabolome and have beneficial or adverse effects on human health. Meabolomics is a metabolic-biology system approach focused on the metabolic responses understanding of living systems to physio-pathological stimuli by using multivariate statistical data on human body fluids obtained by different instrumental techniques. A metabolomic approach based on an analytical platform could be able to separate, detect, characterize and quantify a wide range of metabolites and its metabolic pathways. This approach has been recently applied to study the metabolic changes triggered in the gut microbiota by specific diet components and diet variations, specific diseases, probiotic and synbiotic food intake.This review describes the metabolomic data obtained by analyzing human fluids by using different techniques and particularly Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Solid-phase Micro Extraction (GC-MS/SPME, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy. This instrumental approach have a good potential in the identification and detection of specific food intake and diseases biomarkers.

  13. Novel Analytical Techniques Based on a Enhanced Electron Attachment Process - Final Report - 10/01/1996 - 09/2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present analytical methodologies for the detection of chlorinated compounds important to DOE's environmental restoration program, such as DNAPLs [dense non-aqueous phase liquids - such as carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE)], polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and others, involve detection by negative-ion-based analytical techniques. These techniques exploit electron attachment to analyte molecules in their ground electronic states, and are limited to particular compounds with appropriate electron capture cross sections. For example, PCB contamination is detected by analysis of mixtures of chlorinated homologues of these biphenyls. Homologues with lower numbers of chlorines do not efficiently attach thermal electrons and thus are not detected by either electron capture chromatographic detectors or by negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. We proposed three novel analytical techniques based on enhanced negative-ion formation via electron attachment to highly-excited electronic states of molecules. In one of the proposed techniques, the excited states of the (analyte) molecules are populated via laser excitation; the resulting negative ions are mass analyzed for identification. The other two proposed techniques utilize a specialized gas discharge for the formation of excited species (and low-energy electrons for attachment), and thus will provide a cost-effective method if successful. In one version, the negative ions will be mass analyzed -as in the laser-based technique- and in the other, the decrease in electron density due to excited state attachment will be monitored (electron capture detector mode). A plasma mixing scheme will be employed to excite the analyte molecules so that the excited states of the analyte molecules will not be destroyed by the discharge

  14. Combined use of surface and micro-analytical techniques for the study of ancient coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingo, G. M.; Angelini, E.; de Caro, T.; Bultrini, G.

    By means of the combined use of surface and micro-analytical techniques the surface chemical composition of ancient coins and some aspects of their manufacturing techniques and of degradation mechanisms have been elucidated. Two case histories are described concerning silver Roman Republican coins and some coins plated with thin films of silver and gold. In particular, the coinage methods, the silvering and gilding techniques and the origin of the embrittlement of these selected Roman coins have been studied by means of the combined use of selected-area X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SA-XPS) and scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM+EDS). This innovative approach has been utilised in order to gain further insight into the microchemical structure of the external regions of the coins as well as of the bulk features. The results show the use of mercury to coat a copper or silver core with a thin film of precious metals that could be considered the most important advance in the technology of gilding to be made in antiquity. Furthermore, the microchemical investigation of brittle Roman silver coins has allowed us to identify the origin of this troublesome problem. The microchemical results indicate that brittleness is induced by the presence of a low amount of lead that is retained in supersaturated solution when the cast blank was produced. This latter element segregates at the grain boundaries during the coin production and the subsequent long-term ageing at room temperature, thus inducing the alloy fracturing along the weakened grain boundaries.

  15. Employing socially driven techniques for framing, contextualization, and collaboration in complex analytical threads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollocko, Arthur; Danczyk, Jennifer; Farry, Michael; Jenkins, Michael; Voshell, Martin

    2015-05-01

    The proliferation of sensor technologies continues to impact Intelligence Analysis (IA) work domains. Historical procurement focus on sensor platform development and acquisition has resulted in increasingly advanced collection systems; however, such systems often demonstrate classic data overload conditions by placing increased burdens on already overtaxed human operators and analysts. Support technologies and improved interfaces have begun to emerge to ease that burden, but these often focus on single modalities or sensor platforms rather than underlying operator and analyst support needs, resulting in systems that do not adequately leverage their natural human attentional competencies, unique skills, and training. One particular reason why emerging support tools often fail is due to the gap between military applications and their functions, and the functions and capabilities afforded by cutting edge technology employed daily by modern knowledge workers who are increasingly "digitally native." With the entry of Generation Y into these workplaces, "net generation" analysts, who are familiar with socially driven platforms that excel at giving users insight into large data sets while keeping cognitive burdens at a minimum, are creating opportunities for enhanced workflows. By using these ubiquitous platforms, net generation analysts have trained skills in discovering new information socially, tracking trends among affinity groups, and disseminating information. However, these functions are currently under-supported by existing tools. In this paper, we describe how socially driven techniques can be contextualized to frame complex analytical threads throughout the IA process. This paper focuses specifically on collaborative support technology development efforts for a team of operators and analysts. Our work focuses on under-supported functions in current working environments, and identifies opportunities to improve a team's ability to discover new information and

  16. PERFECCIONAMIENTO DE LA GESTIÓN DE INVENTARIOS MEDIANTE LA APLICACIÓN DE MODELOS ECONÓMICOS MATEMÁTICOS

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Nápoles Peña; Emilio Fonseca Álvarez

    2010-01-01

    La presente investigación titulada “Perfeccionamiento de la gestión de inventarios mediante la aplicación de modelos económicos matemáticos” tiene como objetivo, aplicar los modelos matemáticos de inventarios que posibiliten la gestión eficiente del subsistema contable de inventario.

  17. Transferrin and Its Isoforms from Normal Human Serum Revealed by Several Analytical Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Transferrin(TF) and its isoforms have been widely reported via various analytical techniques, including a noticeable increased number of isoforms with low content of sialic acid(asialo-, monosialo-, and disialo-transferrin) and asialo-TF as well as disialo-TF, with one or several oligosaccharides released in human serum transferrin(hTf). Here,hTf has been purified by native gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(PAGENG) before use. The hTf extracted with the electron-transfer approach showed a single subunit band(77.1 Da) in the SDS-PAGE gel, but it exhibited two bands in the native and denatured isoelectric focusing(IEF) gels, namely, hTf-2Fe3+ and apo-hTf, without finding any other transferrin isoforms. A reversed phase HPLC(RP-HPLC) equipped with a C18 column effectively separated hTf and its polymers and combined off-line techniques, including peptide mass fingerprinting(PMF), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry(MALDI-TOF-MS) and database search, and identified the high homology among hTf, apo-hTf, and their isoforms. Moreover, the elution solution consisting of acetonitrile and formic acid could easily denature both hTf and apo-hTf to form various isoforms during separation with HPLC, indicating that chemical factors lead to the formation of various isoforms in transferrin, artificially, during extraction and separation.The authors claimed that only two transferrin isoforms existed in the NHS, namely, hTf-2Fe3+ and apo-hTf, which could be employed in biomarkers, to distinguish the healthy population from many disease sufferers, such as,carbohydrate-deficient transferrin(CDT).

  18. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to the large scale measurements of atmospheric aerosols in the amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the characterization of the atmosphere aerosol collected in different places of the Amazon Basin. We studied both the biogenic emission from the forest and the particulate material which is emitted to the atmosphere due to the large scale man-made burning during the dry season. The samples were collected during a three year period at two different locations in the Amazon, namely the Alta Floresta (MT) and Serra do Navio (AP) regions, using stacked unit filters. These regions represent two different atmospheric compositions: the aerosol is dominated by the forest natural biogenic emission at Serra do Navio, while at Alta Floresta it presents an important contribution from the man-made burning during the dry season. At Alta Floresta we took samples in gold in order to characterize mercury emission to the atmosphere related to the gold prospection activity in Amazon. Airplanes were used for aerosol sampling during the 1992 and 1993 dry seasons to characterize the atmospheric aerosol contents from man-made burning in large Amazonian areas. The samples were analyzed using several nuclear analytic techniques: Particle Induced X-ray Emission for the quantitative analysis of trace elements with atomic number above 11; Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission for the quantitative analysis of Na; and Proton Microprobe was used for the characterization of individual particles of the aerosol. Reflectancy technique was used in the black carbon quantification, gravimetric analysis to determine the total atmospheric aerosol concentration and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of mercury in the particulate from the Alta Floresta gold shops. Ionic chromatography was used to quantify ionic contents of aerosols from the fine mode particulate samples from Serra do Navio. Multivariate statistical analysis was used in order to identify and characterize the sources of the atmospheric aerosol present in the sampled regions. (author)

  19. Development of sensitive analytical technique by Laser-Induced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A LIPAS (Laser-Induced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy) system has been developed for sensitive and remote analysis of neptunium which diffuse in low concentration range in reprocessing. The correction technique of background which disturbs sensitive analysis has been studied in visible to infrared range. And optical fiber system which is important for light operation has been also investigated for remote analysis in PUREX process. In visible range, the double-cell system, which has two photoacoustic cells in series, has been studied. The detection limit absorptivity was 4.47 x 10-5cm-1, this system has two orders higher sensitivity than that of absorption spectroscopy. This system was applied to measure photoacoustic spectrum of Pr(III), Nd(III), Er(III) and Np(V) in low concentration range in water. On photoacoustic spectrum of Np(V), the absorption peak at 614nm, which was not observed in low pH range, was identified. In near infrared range, analytical system which has parallel cells using alexandrite laser has been investigated. It was obtained that detection limit concentration of Np(V) is one order lower than that in visible range. The optical fiber system for application of LIPAS to reprocessing has been examined. The sensitivity of fiber-PAS is two times higher than that of absorption spectroscopy. However it is necessary to develop a beam operation system and a photoacoustic cell optimized for optical fiber system. (author)

  20. Heat and mass transfer in combustion - Fundamental concepts and analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    Fundamental combustion phenomena and the associated flame structures in laminar gaseous flows are discussed on physical bases within the framework of the three nondimensional parameters of interest to heat and mass transfer in chemically-reacting flows, namely the Damkoehler number, the Lewis number, and the Arrhenius number which is the ratio of the reaction activation energy to the characteristic thermal energy. The model problems selected for illustration are droplet combustion, boundary layer combustion, and the propagation, flammability, and stability of premixed flames. Fundamental concepts discussed include the flame structures for large activation energy reactions, S-curve interpretation of the ignition and extinctin states, reaction-induced local-similarity and non-similarity in boundary layer flows, the origin and removal of the cold boundary difficulty in modeling flame propagation, and effects of flame stretch and preferential diffusion on flame extinction and stability. Analytical techniques introduced include the Shvab-Zeldovich formulation, the local Shvab-Zeldovich formulation, flame-sheet approximation and the associated jump formulation, and large activation energy matched asymptotic analysis. Potentially promising research areas are suggested.

  1. Reflection high resolution analytical electron microscopy: a technique for studying crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reflection electron microscopy (REM), reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy (REELS), and energy dispersion x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) have been comprehensively used as a technique, termed reflection high resolution analytical electron microscopy (RHRAEM), for studying the structures of the bulk crystal GaAs (110) surfaces by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The simultaneous observations of surface topography imaging, the surface diffraction mechanism with RHEED, surface atomic inner-shell excitations with REELS, and surface chemical compositions with EDX provide a systematic description of the atomic structure and chemical structure of the surface. The surface channelling effect has been observed in GaAs (110) with REELS, which may provide a basis for localizing surface foreign atoms with ALCHEMI. The theoretically predicted surface-resonance wave has been observed directly in the RHEED pattern; the surface-captured Bragg reflection wave have been identified. It is shown that surface chemical compositions can be determined by analyzing the EDX spectra obtained in the REM case. Finally, the surface monolayer resonance characteristic of the RHRAEM has been confirmed by calculations with dynamical RHEED theory

  2. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  3. Chemical and mineralogical characterizations of LD converter steel slags: A multi-analytical techniques approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of LD converter steel slags (coming from Linz-Donawitz steelmaking process) as aggregates in road construction can in certain cases lead to dimensional damage due to a macroscopic swelling that is the consequence of chemical reactions. The aim of this study was to couple several analytical techniques in order to carefully undertake chemical and mineralogical characterizations of LD steel slags and identify the phases that are expected to be responsible for their instability. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalyses revealed that LD steel slags mainly contain calcium silicates, dicalcium ferrites, iron oxides and lime. However, as a calcium silicate phase is heterogeneous, Raman microspectrometry and transmitted electron microscopy had to be used to characterize it more precisely. Results showed that lime is present under two forms in slag grains: some nodules observed in the matrix whose size ranges from 20 to 100 μm and some micro-inclusions, enclosed in the heterogeneous calcium silicate phase whose size ranges from 1 to 3 μm. It was also established that without the presence of magnesia, lime is expected to be the only phase responsible for LD steel slags instability. Nevertheless, the distribution of lime between nodules and micro-inclusions may play a major role and could explain that similar amounts of lime can induce different instabilities. Thus, it appears that lime content of LD steel slags is not the only parameter to explain their instability.

  4. Discrimination between biologically relevant calcium phosphate phases by surface-analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatially resolved phase identification of biologically relevant calcium phosphate phases (CPPs) in bone tissue is essential for the elucidation of bone remodeling mechanisms and for the diagnosis of bone diseases. Analytical methods with high spatial resolution for the discrimination between chemically quite close phases are rare. Therefore the applicability of state-of-the-art ToF-SIMS, XPS and EDX as chemically specific techniques was investigated. The eight CPPs hydroxyapatite (HAP), β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP), octacalcium phosphate (OCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), dicalcium phosphate (DCP), monocalcium phosphate (MCP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) were either commercial materials in high purity or synthesized by ourselves. The phase purity was proven by XRD analysis. All of the eight CPPs show different mass spectra and the phases can be discriminated by applying the principal component analysis method to the mass spectrometric data. The Ca/P ratios of all phosphates were determined by XPS and EDX. With both methods some CPPs can be distinguished, but the obtained Ca/P ratios deviate systematically from their theoretical values. It is necessary in any case to determine a calibration curve, respectively the ZAF values, from appropriate standards. In XPS also the O(1s)-satellite signals are correlated to the CPPs composition. Angle resolved and long-term XPS measurements of HAP clearly prove that there is no phosphate excess at the surface. Decomposition due to X-ray irradiation has not been observed.

  5. Discrimination between biologically relevant calcium phosphate phases by surface-analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleine-Boymann, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.kleine-boymann@phys.chemie.uni-giessen.de; Rohnke, Marcus, E-mail: marcus.rohnke@phys.chemie.uni-giessen.de; Henss, Anja, E-mail: anja.henss@phys.chemie.uni-giessen.de; Peppler, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.peppler@phys.chemie.uni-giessen.de; Sann, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.sann@phys.chemie.uni-giessen.de; Janek, Juergen, E-mail: juergen.janek@phys.chemie.uni-giessen.de

    2014-08-01

    The spatially resolved phase identification of biologically relevant calcium phosphate phases (CPPs) in bone tissue is essential for the elucidation of bone remodeling mechanisms and for the diagnosis of bone diseases. Analytical methods with high spatial resolution for the discrimination between chemically quite close phases are rare. Therefore the applicability of state-of-the-art ToF-SIMS, XPS and EDX as chemically specific techniques was investigated. The eight CPPs hydroxyapatite (HAP), β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP), octacalcium phosphate (OCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), dicalcium phosphate (DCP), monocalcium phosphate (MCP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) were either commercial materials in high purity or synthesized by ourselves. The phase purity was proven by XRD analysis. All of the eight CPPs show different mass spectra and the phases can be discriminated by applying the principal component analysis method to the mass spectrometric data. The Ca/P ratios of all phosphates were determined by XPS and EDX. With both methods some CPPs can be distinguished, but the obtained Ca/P ratios deviate systematically from their theoretical values. It is necessary in any case to determine a calibration curve, respectively the ZAF values, from appropriate standards. In XPS also the O(1s)-satellite signals are correlated to the CPPs composition. Angle resolved and long-term XPS measurements of HAP clearly prove that there is no phosphate excess at the surface. Decomposition due to X-ray irradiation has not been observed.

  6. Standardization of Chemical Analytical Techniques for Pyrolysis Bio-Oil: History, Challenges, and Current Status of Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, Jack R., III; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Christensen, Earl D.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Connatser, Raynella M.; Stankovikj, Filip; Meier, Dietrich; Paasikallio, Ville

    2016-09-01

    In this perspective, we discuss the standardization of analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oils, including the current status of methods, and our opinions on future directions. First, the history of past standardization efforts is summarized, and both successful and unsuccessful validation of analytical techniques highlighted. The majority of analytical standardization studies to-date has tested only physical characterization techniques. Here, we present results from an international round robin on the validation of chemical characterization techniques for bio-oils. Techniques tested included acid number, carbonyl titrations using two different methods (one at room temperature and one at 80 degrees C), 31P NMR for determination of hydroxyl groups, and a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Both carbonyl titration and acid number methods have yielded acceptable inter-laboratory variabilities. 31P NMR produced acceptable results for aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups, but not for carboxylic hydroxyl groups. As shown in previous round robins, GC-MS results were more variable. Reliable chemical characterization of bio-oils will enable upgrading research and allow for detailed comparisons of bio-oils produced at different facilities. Reliable analytics are also needed to enable an emerging bioenergy industry, as processing facilities often have different analytical needs and capabilities than research facilities. We feel that correlations in reliable characterizations of bio-oils will help strike a balance between research and industry, and will ultimately help to determine metrics for bio-oil quality. Finally, the standardization of additional analytical methods is needed, particularly for upgraded bio-oils.

  7. Characterization by FTIR and nuclear analytical techniques of CNx films elaborated by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time the technique of deposit of laser ablation is used to produce different types of thin films. At the moment in the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it is carried out an investigation on the thermoluminescent response of thin films of CNx with possible application in dosimetry of electromagnetic radiation. Under this context, the present work is part of this investigation and has as objective to characterize thin films of CNx by means of Infrared spectrometry and nuclear analytical techniques. The deposits were elaborated by laser ablation under different such experimental conditions as: pressure of Nitrogen in the system (3 x 10-3 and 7.5 X 10-2 Torr), Distance target-substrate (3 and 5 cm) and density of incident energy in the target (from 17.5 up to 23.8 J/cm2). Graphite of high purity was used like target and the deposits were made on their substrates of intrinsic silicon (100). By means of infrared spectrometry by Fourier Transform (Ftir) the type of bonds which are in the structure of the films of CNx were determined. The spectra of this type of samples present in general four characteristic bands related with different types of bonds among the elements C, O, H, N such as: C-C, C-N, C-H, N-H, O-H, C=N, C≡N, among others. It was carried out a semi quantitative study of the samples isolating each band of the total infrared spectra and making a comparison between their intensities and forms. This study allowed to observe that there is a dependence of the structure of the films with regard to the time, since mainly bonds of the type Sp3 between Hydrogen and Carbon (C-H) they presented a remarkable variation in intensity, increasing as it lapsed the time until reaching to a stabilization where the bonds already not varying. This increase probably is due to the absorption of water of the atmosphere, although one has seen in the literature that the incorporation of this compound in this type of samples affects mainly to the bonds of

  8. A Hybrid Analytic Element Universal Kriging Interpolation Technique Built in the Open Source R Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, M. J.; Kennel, J.; Huber, W.; Lambie, J.

    2013-12-01

    A hybrid interpolation technique based on universal kriging (UK), originally developed in Fortran for computational expediency, has recently been translated into the open source R environment. The hybrid code was designed for water level mapping using elements common to the analytic element method (AEM) community such as point sink/sources, line sink/sources and hydraulic barriers (Karanovic et al, 2009). Translation to the R environment brought numerous advantages, including the ability to employ the object-oriented structure to extend UK to interpolate multiple datasets simultaneously. This extension of UK, referred to as Multi-Event Universal Kriging (MEUK; Tonkin et al, in review), was developed specifically to produce a sequence of maps using sample data obtained on multiple occasions that are separated in time (events). Unlike UK, which computes interpolation weights for each event by constructing and solving a system of kriging equations for each event using data obtained only from that event, independently of all other events, MEUK computes the interpolation weights required for all events simultaneously by constructing and solving a single system of kriging equations using the data obtained from all events. The most significant advantage of MEUK over UK is that the analyst can condition trend (drift) coefficients on either a subset or the entirety of the multi-event sample dataset, according to conceptual understanding of the site. Here, this particular advantage is illustrated by applying MEUK to undertake multi-event spatio-temporal water level data interpolation and generate a capture frequency map (CFM: Karanovic et al, 2009). MEUK has been implemented in the R package 'MEUK' which employs the R gstat geostatistical package (Pebesma, E.J., 2004).

  9. Novel analytical technique to study nucleobase influence on DNA strand breaks caused by direct ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Analysis of the reactions involved in the direct effect of ionizing radiation on DNA is crucial to assessing the risks related with exposure at low dose. The direct interaction of ionizing radiation with DNA initially results in free radicals situated on bases and the backbone, which eventually lead to stable end products that include strand breaks (sb) and free nucleobase release (fbr). The yields of these two products are thought to be related because ejection of an electron from the DNA backbone produces a radical cation that deprotonates to yield a neutral carbon-centered deoxyribose radical. These neutral radicals react when dissolved to produce one strand break and one free base each. Therefore fbr can be used as an indicator of sb. It is commonly presumed that that sb occur independent of the surrounding base context. However recent studies have indicated that a base may indeed have influence over the probability of sb at its backbone unit. In one such study, films prepared from 10- to 30-mer DNA duplexes were irradiated at RT under air using X-rays generated by a tungsten tube operated at 70 kV. The films were dissolved in nuclease free water and stored at 277 K. Unaltered free base release was measured using HPLC, and the yields determined for each base were not strictly proportionate to their presence in the DNA sequence. In fact, this study indicated that strand breaks may be influenced by a number of factors including position within the oligomer as well as the base and its base context. The current study involves further analysis of these factors; instead of using HPLC to separate and measure fbr, which is time consuming and expensive, a novel analytical technique is being used to determine the amount and ratio of fbr for each of the four bases. This technique involves separation of free bases from bulk DNA using filters followed by decomposition of the UV spectra of mixtures of bases at different pH. Decomposition

  10. A review on analytical techniques for natural convection investigation in a heated closed enclosure: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minea Alina Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical analysis of a few convection problems. The investigations were started from the geometry of a classic muffle manufactured furnace. During this analytical study, different methodologies have been carefully chosen in order to compare and evaluate the effects of applying different analytical methods of the convection heat transfer processes. In conclusion, even if there are available a lot of analytical methods, natural convection in enclosed enclosures can be studied correctly only with numerical analysis. Also, in this article is presented a case study on natural convection application in a closed heated enclosure.

  11. Performance Marketing with Google Analytics Strategies and Techniques for Maximizing Online ROI

    CERN Document Server

    Tonkin, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    An unparalleled author trio shares valuable advice for using Google Analytics to achieve your business goals. Google Analytics is a free tool used by millions of Web site owners across the globe to track how visitors interact with their Web sites, where they arrive from, and which visitors drive the most revenue and sales leads. This book offers clear explanations of practical applications drawn from the real world. The author trio of Google Analytics veterans starts with a broad explanation of performance marketing and gets progressively more specific, closing with step-by-step analysis and a

  12. Analytical chemistry in semiconductor manufacturing: Techniques, role of nuclear methods and need for quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the result of a consultants meeting held in Gaithersburg, USA, 2-3 October 1987. The meeting was hosted by the National Bureau of Standards and Technology, and it was attended by 18 participants from Denmark, Finland, India, Japan, Norway, People's Republic of China and the USA. The purpose of the meeting was to assess the present status of analytical chemistry in semiconductor manufacturing, the role of nuclear analytical methods and the need for internationally organized quality control of the chemical analysis. The report contains the three presentations in full and a summary report of the discussions. Thus, it gives an overview of the need of analytical chemistry in manufacturing of silicon based devices, the use of nuclear analytical methods, and discusses the need for quality control. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. A pirólise como técnica analítica Pyrolysis as an analytical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviano Oliveira Silvério

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper historical aspects of analytical pyrolysis, the equipment used, the fundamentals and the mechanisms of pyrolysis of different polymeric materials are discussed. The latest work on analytical pyrolysis applied to various types of synthetic and natural samples is reviewed. Current applications of this technique that are discussed include identification of microorganisms, analysis of trace compounds by forensic laboratories, investigation of food and agricultural products, study of the chemical composition of wood, authentication and conservation of artworks, and the study of environmental and geochemical samples.

  14. Biomimetic polymers in analytical chemistry. Part 1: preparation and applications of MIP (Molecularly Imprinted Polymers) in extraction and separation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MIPs are synthetic polymers that are used as biomimetic materials simulating the mechanism verified in natural entities such as antibodies and enzymes. Although MIPs have been successfully used as an outstanding tool for enhancing the selectivity or different analytical approaches, such as separation science and electrochemical and optical sensors, several parameters must be optimized during their synthesis. Therefore, the state-of-the-art of MIP production as well as the different polymerization methods are discussed. The potential selectivity of MIPs in the extraction and separation techniques focusing mainly on environmental, clinical and pharmaceutical samples as applications for analytical purposes is presented. (author)

  15. Use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in environmental research as exemplified by selected air pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among nuclear and nuclear related analytical techniques, neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry proved to be particularly useful for environmental studies owing to their nondestructive character and multi element capability. This paper emphasizes their importance among other multielement analytical methods by discussing their specific role due to specific physics basis, quite different to other destructive non-nuclear methods, and by summarizing results obtained in several studies related to air pollution research, including analyses of airborne particulate matter, water samples, lichens and mosses. (author)

  16. Radioactive particles in the environment: sources, particle characterization and analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the years, radioactive particles have been released to the environment from nuclear weapons testing and nuclear fuel cycle operations. However, measurements of environmental radioactivity and any associated assessments are often based on the average bulk mass or surface concentration, assuming that radionuclides are homogeneously distributed as simple ionic species. It has generally not been recognised that radioactive particles present in the environment often contain a significant fraction of the bulk sample activity, leading to sample heterogeneity problems and false and/or erratic measurement data. Moreover, the inherent differences in the transport and bioavailability of particle bound radionuclides compared with those existing as molecules or ions have largely been ignored in dose assessments. To date, most studies regarding radionuclide behaviour in the soil-plant system have dealt with soluble forms of radionuclides. When radionuclides are deposited in a less mobile form, or in case of a superposition of different physico-chemical forms, the behaviour of radionuclides becomes much more complicated and extra efforts are required to provide information about environmental status and behaviour of radioactive particles. There are currently no documents or international guides covering this aspect of environmental impact assessments. To fill this gap, between 2001 and 2008 the IAEA performed a Coordinated Research Programme (CRP- G4.10.03) on the 'Radiochemical, Chemical and Physical Characterization of Radioactive Particles in the Environment' with the objective of development, adoption and application of standardized analytical techniques for the comprehensive study of radioactive particles. The CRP was in line with the IAEA project intended to assist the Member States in building capacity for improving environmental assessments and for management of sites contaminated with radioactive particles. This IAEA-TECDOC presents the findings and achievements of

  17. Advanced techniques for analytic liquid wastes management in the Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JNFS Rokkasho reprocessing plant is a large scale commercial reprocessing plant. Liquid waste treatment relies on concentration by evaporation. The management of liquid wastes is rather sophisticated and implies, beside the organic wastes, sorting out between process and non-process, acidic and salt-bearing, tritiated and low tritiated streams and also according to their level of activity. A particular attention had to be paid to the analytical wastes, as their particularity is to contain not only a significant amount of radioactivity but also some fissile material and exotic chemicals which are useful for analytical purpose but unwanted in the main process mainly because of their corrosive and chelating properties. The analytical wastes are sorted out according to their activity level and fissile material content. On the one hand, a specific process has been developed to recover the bulk of plutonium from the analytical wastes. On the other hand, the foreseeable amount of unwanted chemicals (such as chloride ions) has been drastically reduced by carefully selecting all the analytical methods either by modification of already known methods or in some cases by working out new methods

  18. Modelo para la Gestión de la Innovación por Proyectos para Empresas que aplican el Perfeccionamiento Empresarial en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Navarro López

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Empresas que aplican el Perfeccionamiento Empresarial, no cuentan con un Modelo para la Gestión de la Innovación para el desarrollo Empresarial. Por lo que se propone éste Modelo para las mismas y generalizándose de esta forma el conocimiento de Gestión de la Innovación de la Empresa de Proyectos de Arquitectura e Ingeniería de Matanzas, Cuba, lo que permite el desarrollo Empresarial y la Implantación del Sub Sistema de Innovación para estas Empresas en Perfeccionamiento Empresarial. Se propone además un ciclo de vida para estos proyectos de Desarrollo Empresarial que cuenta con problema, aprobación, planificación, seguimiento, control cierre, archivo y comercialización.

  19. Loading of red blood cells with an analyte-sensitive dye for development of a long-term monitoring technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sarah C.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2012-03-01

    Measurement of blood analytes, such as pH and glucose, provide crucial information about a patient's health. Some such analytes, such as glucose in the case of diabetes, require long-term or near-continuous monitoring for proper disease management. However, current monitoring techniques are far from ideal: multiple-per-day finger stick tests are inconvenient and painful for the patient; implantable sensors have short functional life spans (i.e., 3-7 days). Red blood cells serve as an attractive alternative for carriers of analyte sensors. Once reintroduced to the blood stream, these carriers may continue to live for the remainder of their life span (120 days for humans). They are also biodegradable and biocompatible, thereby eliminating the immune system response common for many implanted devices. The proposed carrier system takes advantage of the ability of the red blood cells to swell in response to a decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular solution. Just before the membranes lyse, they develop small pores on the scale of tens of nanometers. Analyte-sensitive dyes in the extracellular solution may then diffuse into the perforated red blood cells and become entrapped upon restoration of physiological temperature and osmolarity. Because the membranes contain various analyte transporters, intracellular analyte levels rapidly equilibrate to those of the extracellular solution. A fluorescent dye has been loaded inside of red blood cells using a preswelling technique. Alterations in preparation parameters have been shown to affect characteristics of the resulting dye-loaded red blood cells (e.g., intensity of fluorescence).

  20. Perfeccionamiento institucional en el sector salud. Proyección del director

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Beltrán Hernández

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios ocurridos a finales del pasado milenio tanto en Ciencia y Tecnología como en globalización y política económica no excluyen a las ciencias médicas, lo que obliga a una utilización más adecuada de los recursos para satisfacer las expectativas de los usuarios, médicos y pacientes que a la vez son más exigentes. En este artículo, se propone la misión, visión y proyección estratégica del director y su equipo de dirección en su papel de líderes de las entidades objeto del estudio, así como su estrategia para la dirección por objetivos, con el fin de implementar el perfeccionamiento institucional utilizando como herramientas los principios de la gestión por la mejoría continua de la calidad total o excelencia demostrable, la Resolución Económica del V Congreso del Partido Comunista de Cuba y la Ley 187 de agosto de 1998. Lo primordial resulta el cumplimiento de la misión de las instituciones de una manera eficiente, prestando una atención especial a la selección de cuadros de dirección, científicos, técnicos y personal en general, así como su motivación, superación, permanencia, estimulación material y moral, premiando los resultados, lo que permitirá impulsar la innovación tecnológica y dar un mayor valor agregado a los productos y servicios con una disminución de los costos. Se analiza el papel del sindicato y otras organizaciones políticas y de masas en la lucha por la mejoría continua de la calidad sobre las bases del respeto mutuo y la cooperación y el análisis de los problemas con filosofía colectiva, con el fin de lograr una dirección participativa con la intervención activa de los trabajadores en el cumplimiento de la visión y misión de las instituciones. El autofinanciamiento de los proyectos de investigación, producciones, servicios, el control económico de los recursos con implantación de un sistema de costo, la creación de bienes intangibles derivados de la protecci

  1. The use of different analytical techniques as a backup to mineral resources assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. (NUCLEBRAS) has implemented and improved, since their foundation in 1974, several laboratories at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), in Belo Horizonte (MG, Brazil), in order to develop capabilities in the analytical chemistry field. Skillful personnel, using a large spectrum of equipment and procedures, is already able to determine, fast and accurately, almost any chemical element in any matrix. About 340.000 analytical determinations have been performed during the last seven years, concerning mostly chemical elements of great importance in the mineral technology programs. This considerable amount of results has been used, specially, as a backup to assess Brazilian uranium resources. (Author)

  2. Biomonitoring of air pollution in Jamaica through trace-element analysis of epiphytic plants using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of the Coordinated Research Project (No:9937/R0), entitled 'Biomonitoring of Air Pollution in Jamaica Through Trace-Element Analysis of Epiphytic Plants Using Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques', is to identify and validate site specific epiphytic plants for biomonitoring the atmospheric pollution in Jamaica using nuclear analytical techniques at the International Centre for Environmental and Nuclear Sciences (ICENS). The specific objectives for the second year of the project were: Development of HOP for sampling epiphytic plants in Jamaica; Sampling design and sample collection; Sample preparation and analysis; Development of an in-house SRM and participation in the NAT-5 inter-laboratory study; Data analysis and interpretation of the results; Development of a work plan of the third year of the project

  3. Workplace and occupational health: The first metal evaluation using nuclear and analytical techniques in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belo Horizonte, the capital of the State of Minas Gerais and its neighbourhood are the second industrial center of Brazil, concentrating many industries in several areas mainly metal refining and transformation. There are no registers about the level of metal concentration in the environmental air in the industry, nor even of the level of workers' contamination. The overall objective of this Project is to make a survey of the exposures to metals related to occupational diseases in galvanizing industry, which is responsible for the majority of occurrences of occupational diseases. The survey will be accomplished using as bio-indicators hair, nails, blood, urine, and individual air filters. These matrixes will indicate the incorporation of metals and the exposure level. The analytical techniques that will be applied are the neutron activation joined to related non nuclear analytical techniques, such as atomic absorption. (author)

  4. Analytical techniques for the determination of radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals prepared from kits. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of efficacy of commercially available kits used for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals is one aspect of the Radiation Protection Bureau's radiopharmaceutical quality control program. This report describes some of the analytical methodology employed in the program. Many of the tests can be performed rapidly and with a minimum of special equipment, thus enabling the confirmation of radiopharmaceutical purity prior to patient administration

  5. Capillary electromigration techniques for studying interactions between analytes and lipid dispersions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedmer, S. K.; Lokajová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2013), s. 37-51. ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02010760 Grant ostatní: Helsinki Research Funds(FI) 2105060 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : electrokinetic chromatography * frontal analysis * liposome * microchips * partial filling Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.594, year: 2013

  6. Contactless conductivity detection for analytical techniques — Developments from 2012 to 2014

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Hauser, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2015), s. 195-211. ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : contactless conductivity detection * capillary electrophoresis * microchip electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.028, year: 2014

  7. The earrings of Pancas treasure: Analytical study by X-ray based techniques – A first approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tissot, I., E-mail: isabel.tissot@archeofactu.pt [Archeofactu – Rua do Cerrado das Oliveiras, No. 14, 2°Dto., 2610-035 Alfragide (Portugal); Tissot, M., E-mail: matthias.tissot@archeofactu.pt [Archeofactu – Rua do Cerrado das Oliveiras, No. 14, 2°Dto., 2610-035 Alfragide (Portugal); Museu Nacional de Arqueologia – Praça do Império, 1400-206 Lisboa (Portugal); Manso, M., E-mail: marta974@gmail.com [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av., Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, L.C., E-mail: luisa@cii.fc.ul.pt [IST/ITN, Univ. Técnica de Lisboa, E.N. 10, UFA-LFI, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Barreiros, M.A., E-mail: alexandra.barreiros@lneg.pt [LNEG, I.P., Estrada do Paço do Lumiar 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Marcelo, T., E-mail: teresa.marcelo@lneg.pt [LNEG, I.P., Estrada do Paço do Lumiar 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, M.L., E-mail: lcalves@itn.pt [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av., Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Corregidor, V., E-mail: vicky.corregidor@itn.pt [IST/ITN, Univ. Técnica de Lisboa, E.N. 10, UFA-LFI, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Guerra, M.F., E-mail: maria.guerra@culture.gouv.fr [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France and UMR8220 CNRS - 14, quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    The development of new metallurgical technologies in the Iberian Peninsula during the Iron Age is well represented by the 10 gold earrings from the treasure of Pancas. This work presents a first approach to the analytical study of these earrings and contributes to the construction of a typological evolution of the Iberian earrings. The manufacture techniques and the alloys composition were studied with three complementary X-ray spectroscopy techniques: portable EDXRF, μ-PIXE and SEM–EDS. The results were compared with earrings from the same and previous periods.

  8. The earrings of Pancas treasure: Analytical study by X-ray based techniques – A first approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of new metallurgical technologies in the Iberian Peninsula during the Iron Age is well represented by the 10 gold earrings from the treasure of Pancas. This work presents a first approach to the analytical study of these earrings and contributes to the construction of a typological evolution of the Iberian earrings. The manufacture techniques and the alloys composition were studied with three complementary X-ray spectroscopy techniques: portable EDXRF, μ-PIXE and SEM–EDS. The results were compared with earrings from the same and previous periods

  9. Storing Matter: A new quantitative and sensitive analytical technique based on sputtering and collection of sample material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Storing Matter technique, which is a new analytical technique for both organic and inorganic materials, consists in decoupling the sputtering of the specimen from the subsequent analysis step. The surface of the specimen to be analysed is sputtered by means of an ion beam. The particles emitted under the impact of these primary ions are deposited at a sub-monolayer level on a dedicated collector under UHV conditions. It is only in a second step that the deposited matter is analysed in analytical instruments (mainly dynamic and static SIMS). Depositing the matter sputtered from different samples or from different layers of a sample on a same collector makes Storing Matter a powerful tool to circumvent the well-known matrix effect in SIMS. Moreover, enhanced secondary ion emission can be obtained in the different SIMS analysis modes as the collector surface and thus the matrix is chosen with respect to the elements to be analysed and the analysis mode (M+, M-, cationisation for organic information, etc.). In order to allow for the different steps of the Storing Matter technique to be performed under optimized conditions, a dedicated prototype instrument has been developed at SAM. This paper presents the Storing Matter technique and the dedicated prototype instrument with a special focus on the sputter-deposition process used in this new technique.

  10. Storing Matter: A new quantitative and sensitive analytical technique based on sputtering and collection of sample material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtz, T. [Department ' Science and Analysis of Materials' (SAM), Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)], E-mail: wirtz@lippmann.lu; Mansilla, C.; Verdeil, C.; Migeon, H.-N. [Department ' Science and Analysis of Materials' (SAM), Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2009-08-15

    The Storing Matter technique, which is a new analytical technique for both organic and inorganic materials, consists in decoupling the sputtering of the specimen from the subsequent analysis step. The surface of the specimen to be analysed is sputtered by means of an ion beam. The particles emitted under the impact of these primary ions are deposited at a sub-monolayer level on a dedicated collector under UHV conditions. It is only in a second step that the deposited matter is analysed in analytical instruments (mainly dynamic and static SIMS). Depositing the matter sputtered from different samples or from different layers of a sample on a same collector makes Storing Matter a powerful tool to circumvent the well-known matrix effect in SIMS. Moreover, enhanced secondary ion emission can be obtained in the different SIMS analysis modes as the collector surface and thus the matrix is chosen with respect to the elements to be analysed and the analysis mode (M{sup +}, M{sup -}, cationisation for organic information, etc.). In order to allow for the different steps of the Storing Matter technique to be performed under optimized conditions, a dedicated prototype instrument has been developed at SAM. This paper presents the Storing Matter technique and the dedicated prototype instrument with a special focus on the sputter-deposition process used in this new technique.

  11. A Comparison of Tow Nuclear Analytical Techniques for determination of 210PB Specific Activity in Solid Environmental Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two nuclear analytical techniques for determination of 210Pb-specific activity in solid environmental samples have been validated and compared. The first technique depends on determination of 210Pb via its alpha emitting daughter 210Po using alpha-particle spectrometry, while the second technique is based on direct determination of 210Pb by measuring its activity at the 46-keV gamma line by low-energy gamma-ray spectrometry. Detection limits, repeatability, reproducibility, and surrogate recovery were the main validation parameters. Measurement uncertainties were estimated and compared for both techniques. Results of this study have shown that the expected activity of 210Pb in the environmental samples and the required measurement uncertainty are the main factors influencing a selection of the appropriate method for the application. (author)

  12. Utility of the molecular biology techniques to the analytical control of the microbiological quality of waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular biology techniques made accessible to the water industry the ability to detect and quantify, in a few hours, any organism known. given this scenario, it is important to realize the strengths and weaknesses of these techniques to get a better picture of the scope of its implementation and its most that probably usefulness. We must be familiar with these techniques to understand the results and properly evaluate its detection limit. (Author) 4 refs.

  13. The role of nuclear analytical techniques in the study of aqueous corrosion of glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct observation of resonant nuclear reactions, backscattering spectrometry and X ray microanalysis with a nuclear microprobe were used to determine elementary depth profiles in the near surface region of leached glasses. Some computing programs required to interpretate the analytical information detected were built. Experimental conditions to characterize glass samples without secondary effects were defined; and the influence of some leaching parameters was studied to describe the first stages of aqueous corrosion of borosilicate glasses

  14. A New Analytical Technique to Solve Some Equations Involving Trigonometric Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad GHANBARI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An analytical approximate method for non-linear problems in heat transfer, namely the Homotopy Analysis Method, is employed to propose a new approach for the problem arising in heat transfer with a trigonometric nonlinearity. Numerical example is presented to illustrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed approach. The results reveal that the method is very effective, straightforward and simple.

  15. Short-Term Forecasting Models for Photovoltaic Plants: Analytical versus Soft-Computing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Claudio; Fernandez-Jimenez, L. Alfredo; Ignacio J. Ramirez-Rosado; Muñoz-Jimenez, Andres; Lara-Santillan, Pedro M.

    2013-01-01

    We present and compare two short-term statistical forecasting models for hourly average electric power production forecasts of photovoltaic (PV) plants: the analytical PV power forecasting model (APVF) and the multiplayer perceptron PV forecasting model (MPVF). Both models use forecasts from numerical weather prediction (NWP) tools at the location of the PV plant as well as the past recorded values of PV hourly electric power production. The APVF model consists of an original modeling for adj...

  16. A combined analytical-experimental tensile test technique for brittle materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, M. L.; Scavuzzo, R. J.; Srivatsan, T. S.

    1992-01-01

    A semiconventional tensile test technique is developed for impact ices and other brittle materials. Accurate results have been obtained on ultimate strength and modulus of elasticity in a refrigerated ice test. It is noted that the technique can be used to determine the physical properties of impact ices accreted inside icing wind tunnels or other brittle materials.

  17. Determination and identification of synthetic cannabinoids and their metabolites in different matrices by modern analytical techniques – a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Synthetic cannabinoids from analytical point of view. • Determination and identification methods of synthetic cannabinoids in different matrices. • Analytical techniques used from thin layer chromatography to high resolution mass spectrometry. • Detailed survey of gas and liquid chromatography methods for synthetic cannabinoids analysis. - Abstract: Synthetic cannabinoids have gained popularity due to their easy accessibility and psychoactive effects. Furthermore, they cannot be detected in urine by routine drug monitoring. The wide range of active ingredients in analyzed matrices hinders the development of a standard analytical method for their determination. Moreover, their possible side effects are not well known which increases the danger. This review is focused on the sample preparation and the determination of synthetic cannabinoids in different matrices (serum, urine, herbal blends, oral fluid, hair) published since 2004. The review includes separation and identification techniques, such as thin layer chromatography, gas and liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis, mostly coupled with mass spectrometry. The review also includes results by spectral methods like infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance or direct-injection mass spectrometry

  18. Determination and identification of synthetic cannabinoids and their metabolites in different matrices by modern analytical techniques – a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Znaleziona, Joanna; Ginterová, Pavlína; Petr, Jan [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. Listopadu 12, Olomouc CZ-77146 (Czech Republic); Ondra, Peter; Válka, Ivo [Department of Forensic Medicine and Medical Law Faculty Hospital, Hněvotínská 3, Olomouc CZ-77146 (Czech Republic); Ševčík, Juraj [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. Listopadu 12, Olomouc CZ-77146 (Czech Republic); Chrastina, Jan [Institute of Special Education Studies, Faculty of Education, Palacký University, Žižkovo náměsti 5, Olomouc CZ-77146 (Czech Republic); Maier, Vítězslav, E-mail: vitezslav.maier@upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. Listopadu 12, Olomouc CZ-77146 (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-18

    Highlights: • Synthetic cannabinoids from analytical point of view. • Determination and identification methods of synthetic cannabinoids in different matrices. • Analytical techniques used from thin layer chromatography to high resolution mass spectrometry. • Detailed survey of gas and liquid chromatography methods for synthetic cannabinoids analysis. - Abstract: Synthetic cannabinoids have gained popularity due to their easy accessibility and psychoactive effects. Furthermore, they cannot be detected in urine by routine drug monitoring. The wide range of active ingredients in analyzed matrices hinders the development of a standard analytical method for their determination. Moreover, their possible side effects are not well known which increases the danger. This review is focused on the sample preparation and the determination of synthetic cannabinoids in different matrices (serum, urine, herbal blends, oral fluid, hair) published since 2004. The review includes separation and identification techniques, such as thin layer chromatography, gas and liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis, mostly coupled with mass spectrometry. The review also includes results by spectral methods like infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance or direct-injection mass spectrometry.

  19. Meeting report on third regional workshop on quality assurance and quality control of nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last 20 years, the Agency, through its Technical Co-operation Programme, has helped to establish many nuclear analytical laboratories in nuclear institutions and universities of Member States. The project RER/2/004 has been approved in 1999 for a period of two years aiming at the implementation of a comprehensive QA/QC protocol in laboratories of Member States following the ISO guide 17025. The project involved 13 laboratories from 12 countries. This report presents the project setup, intended outputs and outcomes, achievements and conclusions. It also contains reports from participating laboratories. Each of the reports has been provided with an abstract and indexed separately

  20. FACTORES DEL DISEÑO O PERFECCIONAMIENTO DE LOS SISTEMAS ORGANIZATIVOS DE COMERCIALIZACIÓN O MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Martínez Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available

    En el trabajo se presentan los factores fundamentales a considerar en el diseño o perfeccionamiento de las estructuras organizativas en las unidades empresariales de comercialización o marketing. En el mismo se valoran los distintos factores tanto internos como externos que inciden en todo este proceso, así como las particularidades que caracterizan a esta actividad y que es preciso considerar a los efectos de diseñar sistemas a la medida, lo suficientemente flexibles, dinámicos y eficientes que garanticen el cumplimiento de la misión y objetivos de la entidad y que sean capaces de adaptarse a los cambios y brindar las respuestas adecuadas que demande el entorno en cada momento. También se valoran los modelos organizativos más recomendables, analizando los campos de aplicación de cada uno de ellos, así como sus ventajas y principales limitaciones.

  1. Analytical techniques for in-line/on-line monitoring of uranium and plutonium in process solutions : a brief literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-line/on-line monitoring of various parameters such as uranium-plutonium-fission product concentration, acidity, density etc. plays an important role in quickly understanding the efficiency of processes in a reprocessing plant. Efforts in studying and installation of such analytical instruments are going on since more than three decades with adaptation of newer methods and technologies. A review on the developement of in-line analytical instrumentation was carried out in this laboratory about two decades ago. This report presents a very short literature survey of the work in the last two decades. The report includes an outline of principles of the main techniques employed in the in-line/on-line monitoring. (author). 77 refs., 6 tabs

  2. Evaluation and standardisation of fast analytical techniques for destructive radwaste control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document describes the work programme carried out by the Laboratorio Nazionale per la 'Caratterizzazione dei Refit Radioattivi', in the frame of the European research project Destructive Radwaste Control. The main tasks of the research work were the evaluation of fast sample pre-treatment procedures and the development of chromatographic methods coupled to fast nuclide detection by Liquid Scintillation Counting. In order to test the High Performance Ion Chromatograph (HPIC) coupled to the Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) on high salt content solutions, synthetic cement solutions have been prepared and spiked with several β-emitters hard to be measured with non-destructive analyses, along with other radionuclides important for the determination of the radiological inventory in radwastes. As the validation tests for the new analytical methods involved the manipulation of radioactive solutions, a remote area for HPIC-LSC apparatus has been designed and performed, in order to operate in safe conditions. According to the research programme, fast analytical methods for the chemical separation and radionuclide detection of the radioactive elements of interest, have been developed and qualified. From the results of the work, some protocols of analysis have been defined: they contain all information about operative conditions for HPIC-LSC apparatus, field of applicability, chemical and radioactive detection limits

  3. Regional technical cooperation model project, IAEA - RER/2/2004 ''quality control and quality assurance for nuclear analytical techniques'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical laboratory should produce high quality analytical data through the use of analytical measurements that is accurate, reliable and adequate for the intended purpose. This objective can be accomplished in a cost-effective manner under a planned and documented quality system of activities. It is well-known that serious deficiencies can occur in laboratory operations when insufficient attention is given to the quality of the work. It requires not only a thorough knowledge of the laboratory's purpose and operation, but also the dedication of the management and operating staff to standards of excellence. Laboratories employing nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques are sometimes confronted with performance problems which prevent them from becoming accepted and respected by clients, such as industry, government and regulatory bodies, and from being eligible for contracts. The International Standard ISO 17025 has been produced as the result of extensive experience in the implementation of ISO/IEC Guide 25:1990 and EN 45001:1989, which replaces both of them now. It contains all of the requirements that testing and calibration laboratories must meet if they wish to demonstrate that they operate a quality system that is technically competent, and are able to generate technically valid results. The use of ISO 17025 should facilitate cooperation between laboratories and other bodies to assist in the exchange of information and experience, and in the harmonization of standards and procedures. IAEA model project RER/2/004 entitled 'Quality Assurance/Quality Control in Nuclear Analytical Techniques' was initiated in 1999 as a Regional TC project in East European countries to assist Member State laboratories in the region to install a complete quality system according to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard. 12 laboratories from 11 countries plus the Agency's Laboratories in Seibersdorf have been selected as participants to undergo exercises and training with the

  4. Reliable screening of various foodstuffs with respect to their irradiation status: A comparative study of different analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost-effective and time-efficient analytical techniques are required to screen large food lots in accordance to their irradiation status. Gamma-irradiated (0–10 kGy) cinnamon, red pepper, black pepper, and fresh paprika were investigated using photostimulated luminescence (PSL), direct epifluorescent filter technique/the aerobic plate count (DEFT/APC), and electronic-nose (e-nose) analyses. The screening results were also confirmed with thermoluminescence analysis. PSL analysis discriminated between irradiated (positive, >5000 PCs) and non-irradiated (negative, <700 PCs) cinnamon and red peppers. Black pepper had intermediate results (700–5000 PCs), while paprika had low sensitivity (negative results) upon irradiation. The DEFT/APC technique also showed clear screening results through the changes in microbial profiles, where the best results were found in paprika, followed by red pepper and cinnamon. E-nose analysis showed a dose-dependent discrimination in volatile profiles upon irradiation through principal component analysis. These methods can be used considering their potential applications for the screening analysis of irradiated foods. - Highlights: • Detection of irradiated food is important to enforce the applied regulations. • Gamma-irradiated spices were investigated to confirm their irradiation status. • Screening techniques such as PSL, DEFT/APC, and E-nose were tested. • Specificity and potential applications of screening techniques were evaluated. • The screening results were confirmed by promising thermoluminescence technique

  5. Applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related analytical techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A co-ordinated research programme (CRP) on applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related techniques is a global CRP which started in 1992, and is scheduled to run until early 1997. The purpose of this CRP is to promote the use of nuclear analytical techniques in air pollution studies, e.g. NAA, XRF, and PIXE for the analysis of toxic and other trace elements in air particulate matter. The main purposes of the core programme are i) to support the use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution, ii) to identify major sources of air pollution affecting each of the participating countries with particular reference to toxic heavy metals, and iii) to obtain comparative data on pollution levels in areas of high pollution (e.g. a city centre or a populated area downwind of a large pollution source) and low pollution (e.g. rural area). This document reports the discussions held during the second Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for the CRP which took place at ANSTO in Menai, Australia. (author)

  6. Clinical evaluation of analytical variations in serum creatinine measurements: why laboratories should abandon Jaffe techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drion Iefke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-equivalence in serum creatinine (SCr measurements across Dutch laboratories and the consequences hereof on chronic kidney disease (CKD staging were examined. Methods National data from the Dutch annual external quality organization of 2009 were used. 144 participating laboratories examined 11 pairs of commutable, value-assigned SCr specimens in the range 52–262 μmol/L, using Jaffe or enzymatic techniques. Regression equations were created for each participating laboratory (by regressing values as measured by participating laboratories on the target values of the samples sent by the external quality organization; area under the curves were examined and used to rank laboratories. The 10th and 90th percentile regression equation were selected for each technique separately. To evaluate the impact of the variability in SCr measurements and its eventual clinical consequences in a real patient population, we used a cohort of 82424 patients aged 19–106 years. The SCr measurements of these 82424 patients were introduced in the 10th and 90th percentile regression equations. The newly calculated SCr values were used to calculate an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR using the 4-variable Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry traceable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Differences in CKD staging were examined, comparing the stratification outcomes for Jaffe and enzymatic SCr techniques. Results Jaffe techniques overestimated SCr: 21%, 12%, 10% for SCr target values 52, 73 and 94 μmol/L, respectively. For enzymatic assay these values were 0%, -1%, -2%, respectively. eGFR using the MDRD formula and SCr measured by Jaffe techniques, staged patients in a lower CKD category. Downgrading to a lower CKD stage occurred in 1-42%, 2-37% and 12–78.9% of patients for the 10th and 90th percentile laboratories respectively in CKD categories 45–60, 60–90 and >90 ml/min/1.73 m2. Using enzymatic techniques, downgrading

  7. Introduction to analytical techniques of beam-target interactions and resolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several years, new analysis and observation techniques have been developed, which have considerably improved material research. Almost all these techniques are based on the interaction of a beam of 'primary particles' (electrons, photons, ions, particles, etc) with target. Correct and appropriate use of these techniques requires a good knowledge of these interactions and their consequences (emissions of 'secondary particles', modifications of the primary beam and target, etc). The first part of this report deals with the radiation/material interactions according to the nature of the radiation and its energy. The nature and consequences of the interaction of an electromagnetic wave, a beam of electrons, ions and neutrons are examined over an extended range of energy from MeV to MeV. Certain notions such as the analysis area, spatial resolutions or limits of detection can also be defined. In the second part, some of the most important and widespread techniques of analysis and observation are compared in terms of properties and performance. In particular, there is a brief principle of the technique, nature of the data obtained, spatial resolution, and the limits of detection with today's methods permit. (author). 5 refs., 23 figs., 9 tabs

  8. Elemental composition of dental biologic tissues. Study by means of different analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study determined the organic and inorganic composition of human enamel and dentin. The instrumental neutron activation analysis, inductively-coupled plasma spectrometer, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis applied were and performed in the Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN) and Elemental Analysis in the Department of Chemistry of the Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil. The coronal dentin and enamel were separated from dentin mechanically and by wear. The analyses were effective and led to the identification of the main elements present in enamel and dentin: Ca, Na, Cl, Zn, P, Mg, N, C, H, O. There was no contamination of samples of enamel or dentin in either separation technique; however, with separation technique 1, lower percentages of mainly Ca (7.25%) and O (15.16%) components were detected in dentin compared with technique 2. (author)

  9. Judgments in the selection of path generation techniques: a meta-analytic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    In the context of modeling route choice behavior, modelers generate objective choice sets by selecting a path generation technique and its parameters according to personal judgments. The current paper proposes an experimental setting and a methodological approach to provide indications about...... objective judgments for effective route choice set generation. Initially, path generation techniques are implemented within a synthetic network to generate possible subjective choice sets considered by travelers. Next, “true model estimates” and “postulated predicted routes” are assumed from the simulation...... synthesizing the effect of judgments on the implementation of path generation techniques, since a large number of models generate a large amount of results that are otherwise difficult to summarize and to process. Meta-analysis estimates suggest that modelers should apply stochastic approaches with the...

  10. Modern analytical techniques in the assessment of the authenticity of Serbian honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojković Opsenica, Dušanka; Lušić, Dražen; Tešić, Živoslav

    2015-12-01

    Food authenticity in a broader sense means fulfilling chemical and physical criteria prescribed by the proposed legislation. In the case of honey authenticity, two aspects are of major concern: the manufacturing process and the labelling of final products in terms of their geographical and botanical origin. A reliable assessment of honey authenticity has been a longterm preoccupation of chemists-analysts and it usually involves the use of several criteria and chemical markers, as well as a combination of analytical and statistical (chemometric) methods. This paper provides an overview of different criteria and modern methods for the assessment of honey authenticity in the case of a statistically significant number of authentic honey samples of several botanical types from various regions of Serbia. PMID:26751854

  11. Analytical-scale separations of lanthanides : a review of techniques and fundamentals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K. L.; Jensen, M. P.

    1999-10-27

    Separations chemistry is at the heart of most analytical procedures to determine the rare earth content of both man-made and naturally occurring materials. Such procedures are widely used in mineral exploration, fundamental geology and geochemistry, material science, and in the nuclear industry. Chromatographic methods that rely on aqueous solutions containing complexing agents sensitive to the lanthanide cationic radius and cation-exchange phase transfer reactions (using a variety of different solid media) have enjoyed the greatest success for these procedures. In this report, they will briefly summarize the most important methods for completing such analyses. they consider in some detail the basic aqueous (and two-phase) solution chemistry that accounts for separations that work well and offer explanations for why others are less successful.

  12. Analytical-scale separations of lanthanides : a review of techniques and fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separations chemistry is at the heart of most analytical procedures to determine the rare earth content of both man-made and naturally occurring materials. Such procedures are widely used in mineral exploration, fundamental geology and geochemistry, material science, and in the nuclear industry. Chromatographic methods that rely on aqueous solutions containing complexing agents sensitive to the lanthanide cationic radius and cation-exchange phase transfer reactions (using a variety of different solid media) have enjoyed the greatest success for these procedures. In this report, they will briefly summarize the most important methods for completing such analyses. they consider in some detail the basic aqueous (and two-phase) solution chemistry that accounts for separations that work well and offer explanations for why others are less successful

  13. Multielement determination in Cuban red mangrove samples using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work the contents of Al; K; Ca; Mn; Fe; Ni; Cu; Zn; Sr; Cd and Pb in red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) from different Cuban regions are determined, using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (Emission-Transmission (Et) and I/C methods), Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS), and Polarography (Anodic Stripping Voltametry method). Biological Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are employed for the tracing of the tracing of the curves of the relative I/C method and for the evaluation of the analytical results accuracy. The reliability of the results is also checked by statistical means. Standard deviations and the detection limits of each method are reported. Finally, the obtained values for the concentration of the different elements in each studied ecosystem are presented; a detailed discussion about their significance will be performed in a further paper

  14. A splitting technique for analytical modelling of two-phase multicomponent flow in porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, A.P.; Bedrikovetsky, P.G.; Shapiro, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    introduction of a potential associated with one of the conservation laws and its use as a new independent coordinate reduces the number of equations by one. The (n)x(n) conservation law model for two-phase n-component EOR flows in new coordinates is transformed into a reduced (n-1)x(n-1) auxiliary system...... problem, solution of one lifting hyperbolic equation and inversion of the coordinate transformation. The splitting allows proving the independence of phase transitions occurring during displacement of phase relative permeabilities and viscosities. For example, the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) and...... containing just thermodynamical variables (equilibrium fractions of components, sorption isotherms) and one lifting equation containing just hydrodynamical parameters (phase relative permeabilities and viscosities). The algorithm to solve analytically the problem includes solution of the reduced auxiliary...

  15. Optimization technique as a tool for implementing analytical quality by Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. MOHAN REDDY

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A process is well understood when all critical sources of variability are identified and explained, variability is managed by the process, and product quality attributes can be accurately and reliably predicted over the design space. Quality by Design (QbD is a systematic approach to development of products and processes that begins with predefined objectives and emphasizes product and process understanding and process control based on sound science, statistical methods and quality risk management. In an attempt to curb rising development costs and regulatory barriers to innovation and creativity, the FDA and ICH have recently started promoting QbD in the pharmaceutical industry. QbD is partially based on the application of statistical Design of Experiments strategy to the development of both analytical methods and pharmaceutical formulations. The present work describes the development of robust HPLC method for analysis of Eplerenone formulation under QbD approach using Design of Experiments.

  16. Application of nuclear analytical techniques in research and preservation of cultural heritage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan

    Rabat: Centre national de l´energie, des sciences et des techniques nucléaires (CNESTEN), 2012, s. 5-6. [Quatrième Conférence sur les Techniques Analytiques Nucléaires et Conventionnelles et leurs Applications (TANCA 2012). Rabat (MA), 22.10.2012-23.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : neutron activation analysis * rentgenfluorescence analysis * luminescence dating * radiocarbon dating Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  17. Analysis of simulation technique for steady shock waves in materials with analytical equations of state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Evan J; Fried, Laurence E; Henshaw, William D; Tarver, Craig M

    2006-11-01

    We calculate and analyze a thermodynamic limit of a multiscale molecular dynamics based scheme that we have developed previously for simulating shock waves. We validate and characterize the performance of the former scheme for several simple cases. Using model equations of state for chemical reactions and kinetics in a gas and a condensed phase explosive, we show that detonation wave profiles computed using the computational scheme are in good agreement with the steady state wave profiles of hydrodynamic direct numerical simulations. We also characterize the stability of the technique when applied to detonation waves and describe a technique for determining the detonation shock speed. PMID:17280020

  18. Atomic and Nuclear Analytical Methods XRF, Mössbauer, XPS, NAA and Ion-Beam Spectroscopic Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, H R

    2007-01-01

    This book is a blend of analytical methods based on the phenomenon of atomic and nuclear physics. It comprises comprehensive presentations about X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Neutron- Activation Analysis (NAA), Particle Induced X-ray Emission Analysis (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Analysis (RBS), Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission Analysis (PIGE), and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). These techniques are commonly applied in the fields of medicine, biology, environmental studies, archaeology or geology et al. and pursued in major international research laboratories.

  19. Characterization of thin films and surfaces by ion-beam analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimization of Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) at the tandetron facility of J. Stefan Inst.e is reported. The most recent applications of these techniques for the analysis of thin films and surfaces are presented. The construction of the isotope - resolved Time-Of-Flight ERDA telescope for depth profiling of light elements is reviewed.(author)

  20. An uncovered XIII century icon: Particular use of organic pigments and gilding techniques highlighted by analytical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daveri, Alessia; Doherty, Brenda; Moretti, Patrizia; Grazia, Chiara; Romani, Aldo; Fiorin, Enrico; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Vagnini, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    The restoration of a panel painting depicting a Madonna and Child listed as an unknown Tuscan artist of the nineteenth century, permitted the hidden original version, a XIII century Medieval icon to be uncovered. It is discovery provided the opportunity for an extensive in situ campaign of non-invasive analytical investigations by portable imaging and spectroscopic techniques (infrared, X-ray fluorescence and diffraction, UV-Vis absorption and emission), followed by aimed micro-destructive investigations (Raman and SEM-EDS). This approach permitted characterization of the original ground and paint layers by complementary techniques. Furthermore, this protocol allowed supplementary particularities of great interest to be highlighted. Namely, numerous original gilding techniques have been accentuated in diverse areas and include the use of surrogate gold (disulphur tin), orpiment as a further false gold and an area with an original silver rich layer. Moreover, pigments including azurite mixed with indigo have been non-invasively identified. Micro-invasive analyses also allowed the diagnosis of organic colorants, namely, an animal anthraquinone lake, kermes and an unusual vegetal chalcone pigment, possibly safflower. The identification of the latter is extremely rare as a painting pigment and has been identified using an innovative adaption to surface enhanced Raman techniques on a cross-section. The resulting data contributes new hypotheses to the historic and artistic knowledge of materials and techniques utilized in XIII century icon paintings and ultimately provides scientific technical support of the recent restoration.

  1. Analytic technique for measuring hydrogen production during in-pile severe nuclear fuel damage experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique has been developed to measure the hydrogen production during in-pile severe nuclear fuel damage experiments. The method involves both thermal measurements and analysis of experimental data and is analogous to a continuous calorimetry method. This report presents results from the hydrogen calibration portion of an in-pile severe fuel damage experiment conducted at Sandia National Laboratories. A known quantity of calibration hydrogen was injected into the normal steam flow path of the experimental system. The hydrogen recombined with oxygen in copper oxide recombiner tubes instrumented with thermocouples at regular intervals. Highly exothermic reduction resulted, leaving a clear thermal signature in the tubes. An energy balance was used to determine the fraction of energy attributable to hydrogen recombination reactions. The COPOX (COPper OXide recombiner analysis) code was written to solve the semi-implicit, time dependent energy balance described above. The measurement technique accurately predicted the amount of injected hydrogen to within a few percent. (orig.)

  2. Mapping of different structures on large area of granite sample using laser-ablation based analytical techniques, an exploratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-ablation based analytical techniques represent a simple way for fast chemical analysis of different materials. In this work, an exploratory study of multi-element (Ca, Al, Fe, Mn) mappings of a granite sample surface was performed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and subsequently by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis. The operating parameters (e.g. pulse energy, ablation-crater size) were optimized for both techniques in order to achieve the appropriate conditions for two-dimensional high-resolution compositional mappings of mineral microstructures in large sample areas. The sample was scanned with 100 x 100 individual sample points to map an area of 20 x 20 mm2. The normalized signals were used for construct of contour plots which were colored according local distribution of the selected elements. The results of two laser-based methods were compared and found to be similar

  3. Mapping of different structures on large area of granite sample using laser-ablation based analytical techniques, an exploratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, K. [Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: codl@sci.muni.cz; Kaiser, J. [Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Galiova, M.; Konecna, V. [Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Novotny, J.; Malina, R.; Liska, M. [Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Kanicky, V.; Otruba, V. [Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2008-10-15

    Laser-ablation based analytical techniques represent a simple way for fast chemical analysis of different materials. In this work, an exploratory study of multi-element (Ca, Al, Fe, Mn) mappings of a granite sample surface was performed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and subsequently by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis. The operating parameters (e.g. pulse energy, ablation-crater size) were optimized for both techniques in order to achieve the appropriate conditions for two-dimensional high-resolution compositional mappings of mineral microstructures in large sample areas. The sample was scanned with 100 x 100 individual sample points to map an area of 20 x 20 mm{sup 2}. The normalized signals were used for construct of contour plots which were colored according local distribution of the selected elements. The results of two laser-based methods were compared and found to be similar.

  4. Side-by-side comparison of analytical techniques; organic acids, total organic carbon, and anions in PWR secondary cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total Organic Carbon TOC samples should be analyzed no later than one week after they are taken and they should be stored in a refrigerated condition, if at all possible. It can be inferred that for TOC levels in the range of 50 to 120 ppb, state-of-the-art sampling and analysis techniques can produce results varying by 20 to 50 ppb. Any proposed limits for TOC should be reviewed in that light. Agreement between anion results appeared to improve over the course of the project. Both contractors agree that increased attention and care with sampling and analytical techniques probably accounted for this improvement. Utility personnel can therefore conclude that proper employee training, supervision, and motivation for proper sampling and analysis are critical if accurate anion results are to be obtained. Resonable agreement between calculated and measured values of cation conductivity suggest that both contractors had accurately determined all major anionic species

  5. Elucidating the crystal-chemistry of Jbel Rhassoul stevensite (Morocco) by advanced analytical techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rhouta, Benaïssa; Kaddami, H.; Elbarqy, J.; Amjoud, M'Barek; Daoudi, Lahcen; Maury, Francis; Senocq, François; Maazouz, Abderrahim; GERARD, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    The composition of Rhassoul clay is controversial regarding the nature of the puremineral clay fraction which is claimed to be stevensite rather than saponite. In this study, the raw and mineral fractions were characterized using various techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR). The isolated fine clay mineral fraction contained a larger amount of Al (>1 wt.%) than that reported for other stevensite occurrences. ...

  6. Challenging wax-cast figurine serial production unravelled by multi-analytical techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Le Gac, Agnès; Madeira, Teresa Isabel; Pereira, Marco Stanojev; Santos, Joana; Piorro, Luís; Dias, Luís; Manso, Marta; Bleton, Jean; Longelin, Stéphane; Prazeres, Cátia Marques; Mirão, José; Candeias, António; Marques, José Gonçalves; Carvalho, Maria Luísa

    2015-01-01

    Eight complementary techniques were successfully applied to study a pair of very alike eighteenth-century colored wax figurines belonging to the Museu Nacional Machado de Castro, Coimbra (Portugal): examination under visible and ultraviolet light, X-ray radiography (XRR), neutron radiography and tomography (NR and NT), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD), gas chr...

  7. A modified analytical technique for Jeffery–Hamel flow using sumudu transform

    OpenAIRE

    Sushila; Jagdev Singh; Y. S. Shishodia

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present a reliable approach to compute an approximate solution of Jeffery–Hamel flow by using the modified homotopy perturbation method coupled with sumudu transform. The method finds the solution without any discretization or restrictive assumptions and avoids the round-off errors. The fact that this technique solves nonlinear problems without using Adomian’s polynomials can be considered as a clear advantage of this algorithm over the decomposition met...

  8. Mass Spectrometry as a Powerful Analytical Technique for the Structural Characterization of Synthesized and Natural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Safi, Nour-Eddine; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Massoui, Mohamed; Banoub, Joseph

    Mass spectrometry is an important tool for the identification and structural elucidation of natural and synthesized compounds. Its high sensitivity and the possibility of coupling liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection make it a technique of choice for the investigation of complex mixtures like raw natural extracts. The mass spectrometer is a universal detector that can achieve very high sensitivity and provide information on the molecular mass. More detailed information can be subsequently obtained by resorting to collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID-MS/MS). In this review, the application of mass spectrometric techniques for the identification of natural and synthetic compounds is presented. The gas-phase fragmentation patterns of a series of four natural flavonoid glycosides, three synthesized benzodiazepines and two synthesized quinoxalinone derivatives were investigated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry techniques. Exact accurate masses were measured using a modorate resolution quadrupole orthogonal time-of-flight QqTOF-MS/MS hybrid mass spectrometer instrument. Confirmation of the molecular masses and the chemical structures of the studied compounds were achieved by exploring the gas-phase breakdown routes of the ionized molecules. This was rationalized by conducting low-energy collision CID-MS/MS analyses (product ion- and precursor ion scans) using a conventional quadrupole hexapole-quadrupole (QhQ) tandem mass spectrometer.

  9. characterization of alumino and ferosilicate high siliceous zeolites by thermo analytical and Moessbauer spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneous thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) techniques were used to measure quantitatively the degree of crystallization and confirmation of tetrapropylammonium (TPA /sup +/) and tetraethylammonium (TEA /sup +/) species incorporated in ZSM5 and BETA-zeolite structure framework respectively. It is observed from thermal analysis that 3.3 to 3.8 TPA entities are normally present per unit cell of the ZSM-5 structure while for BETA the corresponding values are 6.2 to 6.7 for TEA. The propyl organic molecule was found to be located preferentially in the zigzag channel of ZSM5-AL and ZSM5-Fe in agreement with the results of the other techniques. 67Fe Moessbauer spectroscopic studies on as-synthesized and calcined samples have confirmed the uniform dispersion of Fe/sup 3+/ in the tetrahedral framework of ZSM5-Fe zeotype. Crystallinity and unit cell parameters of the materials were determined by powder x-ray diffraction, which are the function of Al and Fe content of the zeolites. A good correlation was obtained between the degree of crystallinity as established by TG/DSC techniques and x-ray diffraction crystallinity. (author)

  10. Elementary mechanics using Matlab a modern course combining analytical and numerical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book – specifically developed as a novel textbook on elementary classical mechanics – shows how analytical and numerical methods can be seamlessly integrated to solve physics problems. This approach allows students to solve more advanced and applied problems at an earlier stage and equips them to deal with real-world examples well beyond the typical special cases treated in standard textbooks. Another advantage of this approach is that students are brought closer to the way physics is actually discovered and applied, as they are introduced right from the start to a more exploratory way of understanding phenomena and of developing their physical concepts. While not a requirement, it is advantageous for the reader to have some prior knowledge of scientific programming with a scripting-type language. This edition of the book uses Matlab, and a chapter devoted to the basics of scientific programming with Matlab is included. A parallel edition using Python instead of Matlab is also available. Last but not...

  11. Elementary mechanics using Python a modern course combining analytical and numerical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book – specifically developed as a novel textbook on elementary classical mechanics – shows how analytical and numerical methods can be seamlessly integrated to solve physics problems. This approach allows students to solve more advanced and applied problems at an earlier stage and equips them to deal with real-world examples well beyond the typical special cases treated in standard textbooks. Another advantage of this approach is that students are brought closer to the way physics is actually discovered and applied, as they are introduced right from the start to a more exploratory way of understanding phenomena and of developing their physical concepts. While not a requirement, it is advantageous for the reader to have some prior knowledge of scientific programming with a scripting-type language. This edition of the book uses Python, and a chapter devoted to the basics of scientific programming with Python is included. A parallel edition using Matlab instead of Python is also available. Last but not...

  12. Markov-CA model using analytical hierarchy process and multiregression technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unprecedented increase in population and rapid rate of urbanisation has led to extensive land use changes. Cellular automata (CA) are increasingly used to simulate a variety of urban dynamics. This paper introduces a new CA based on an integration model built-in multi regression and multi-criteria evaluation to improve the representation of CA transition rule. This multi-criteria evaluation is implemented by utilising data relating to the environmental and socioeconomic factors in the study area in order to produce suitability maps (SMs) using an analytical hierarchical process, which is a well-known method. Before being integrated to generate suitability maps for the periods from 1984 to 2010 based on the different decision makings, which have become conditioned for the next step of CA generation. The suitability maps are compared in order to find the best maps based on the values of the root equation (R2). This comparison can help the stakeholders make better decisions. Thus, the resultant suitability map derives a predefined transition rule for the last step for CA model. The approach used in this study highlights a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating land-use and land-cover changes in Kirkuk city, Iraq owing changes in the structures of governments, wars, and an economic blockade over the past decades. The present study asserts the high applicability and flexibility of Markov-CA model. The results have shown that the model and its interrelated concepts are performing rather well

  13. Markov-CA model using analytical hierarchy process and multiregression technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, N. Q.; Sanusi, S. A. M.; Hussin, W. M. W.; Samat, N.; Mohammed, K. S.

    2014-06-01

    The unprecedented increase in population and rapid rate of urbanisation has led to extensive land use changes. Cellular automata (CA) are increasingly used to simulate a variety of urban dynamics. This paper introduces a new CA based on an integration model built-in multi regression and multi-criteria evaluation to improve the representation of CA transition rule. This multi-criteria evaluation is implemented by utilising data relating to the environmental and socioeconomic factors in the study area in order to produce suitability maps (SMs) using an analytical hierarchical process, which is a well-known method. Before being integrated to generate suitability maps for the periods from 1984 to 2010 based on the different decision makings, which have become conditioned for the next step of CA generation. The suitability maps are compared in order to find the best maps based on the values of the root equation (R2). This comparison can help the stakeholders make better decisions. Thus, the resultant suitability map derives a predefined transition rule for the last step for CA model. The approach used in this study highlights a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating land-use and land-cover changes in Kirkuk city, Iraq owing changes in the structures of governments, wars, and an economic blockade over the past decades. The present study asserts the high applicability and flexibility of Markov-CA model. The results have shown that the model and its interrelated concepts are performing rather well.

  14. Trace element air pollution monitoring studies in Slovenia using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, only a few investigations have been performed in Slovenia concerning trace elements, toxic elements, heavy metals and radionuclides in the atmosphere. During recent years, several projects were initiated, involving health-related studies connected to air pollution in highly exposed areas, mapping the status of air pollution in the whole country using biomonitors, as well as some specific research, i.e. involving studies of mercury speciation in the atmosphere around a mercury mine or concentration levels of radionuclides in biomonitors around a uranium mine. Since all these projects were or are of a preliminary nature, in this report, the emphasis is mainly on the methodology and analytical development (neutron activation analysis and X-ray spectrometry), and to a lesser extent on the results obtained up to now. Efforts are being put into co-ordination of all the presently running projects in order to complement the results and to make a unified database for their later evaluation and statistical interpretation. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques to Investigate the Authenticity of Art Objects. Chapter 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and twenty-seven Nazca pottery and ten imitations were analysed by thermoluminescence, neutron activation analysis, X ray fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, X ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy, to obtain analytical differences that allow differentiating them quickly. Additionally, 20 pieces of the Wari culture found in the city of Cahuachi were analysed. The multielementary composition of the Nazca ceramics obtained by AAN allows, owing to a multivariate analysis, differentiation of the samples according to their geographic origin but a chronological classification could not be obtained. This indicates that the Nazca pottery of each city was always prepared with the same raw material. However, samples from the museum of the UNMSM could not be classified, since these samples were collected in all Nazca regions. The brown, orange and yellow pigments of Nazca pottery contain different amounts of manganese and iron oxides. The same elements were found in modern ceramics, but additionally lead and zinc were detected in the yellow colour of modern ceramics. The presence of illita in the paste of all the analysed samples indicates that the firing temperature of Nazca pottery did not exceed 800 deg. C. Also, the fact that the quadrupole splitting in the Moessbauer spectra as a function of temperature stays more or less constant until 700 deg. C and soon falls quickly indicates that the firing temperature was approximately 700 deg. C. This was corroborated with the same analysis on samples from modern ceramics heated to approximate temperatures of 700 deg. C and 900 deg. C. (author)

  16. Applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques to Investigate the Authenticity of Art Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    127 Nasca pottery and 10 imitations were analyzed by TL, NAA, XRF, TEM, DRX and Mossbauer spectroscopy to obtain analytical differences that allow differentiating them quickly. Additionally 20 pieces of the Wari culture found in the city of Cahuachi were analyzed. The multielementary composition of Nasca ceramics obtained by AAN allows, thanks to the multivariate analysis, differentiates the samples according to its geographic origin but we couldn't obtain a chronological classification. This indicates that Nasca pottery of each city was always prepared with the same raw material. However we can not classified samples from the Museum of the UNMSM, since these samples were collected in all Nazca regions. The brown, orange and yellow pigments of Nasca pottery contain different amounts of manganese and iron oxides. The same elements were found in modern ceramic, but additionally Pb and Zn were detected in the yellow color of the modern ones. The presence of illita in the paste of all the analyzed samples indicates that the firing temperature of Nasca pottery did not exceed 800 deg. C. Also, the fact that the quadrupole splitting in Mossbauer spectra as a function of temperature stays more or less constant until 700 deg. C and soon it falls quickly indicates that the firing temperature was approximately 700 deg. C. This was corroborated with the same analysis on samples from modern ceramic warmed up to approximate temperatures of 700 deg. C and 900 deg. C. (author)

  17. Characterization of ancient pottery from Greater Accra Region using nuclear analytical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeology in Ghana has a long and respectable tradition. Despite this encouraging situation, significant gaps still exist in our understanding of the history of some early societies in Ghana. The need to apply an archaeological research approach coupled with a scientific analytical tool as a means of reconstructing a general and broad history to fill in the gaps needs to be considered. Accumulated evidence revealed that the Ga, Dangme-Shai and the Wulff had trade and other cultural contacts with their Akan and Guan neighbours as well as the various European factors who traded and established footholds in the Accra coast. The vestiges of these activities are the material remains that form the archaeological data recovered during excavation. The archaeological data from here therefore, might serve as a representative basis for the reconstruction of the early history of the Ga, Dangme Shai and the Wulff. In all 15 trace elements were determined in 40 pottery shards using Instrumental neutron activation analysis which has very high accuracy and sensitivity. The elemental concentrations were processed using multivariate statistical methods, such as cluster, factor and discriminant analysis. which revealed patterns of trade between these communities and also classified the 40 samples into two major groups based on variations in elemental chemical compositions. The groupings suggested a clear separation between the shards from Shai and that from Ayawaso. Scattered amongst these groups were the samples from the Wulff which confirms the evidence that Wulff community never produced their own pots. (au)

  18. Study on sodium viewing technique applying sodium gamma-rays emission tomography. Verification of basic principle by analytical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To confirm structural integrity of a primary cooling system and in-vessel components in a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor, monitoring and inspection technique applying Gamma-rays emitted from sodium are proposed. The basic principle is as follows. As radioisotope 24Na decays, photons are emitted and a fraction of these photons penetrate materials. If the number of these photons is counted by radiation detectors, an image of gamma-rays source is reconstructed by a computed tomography technique. In this report, Applicability and problems concerned with the technique are investigated. Main results are as follows: (1) To verify applicability, the technique was analytically investigated based on gamma-rays emitted from sodium coolant in a typical pipe of a primary cooling system. As a result, it was confirmed that the image of gamma-rays source could be reconstructed. (2) A required time to measure in a spatial resolution of about 1mm was investigated in the detection efficiency of 20%. The time was about 4 minutes per section by a thousand detectors in the typical pipe of a primary cooling system. And in a typical steam generator, the time was about 2 days per section by ten thousand detectors. (3) To realize a fluoroscopic inspection system, it is necessary that the principle should be verified by experimental researches. Main equipments of the system are a collimator, radiation detector, scanner, signal processing device and image processing device. As a spatial resolution is decide by the collimator, the shape must be evaluated by experimental researches and analytical investigation. (author)

  19. Predicting core losses and efficiency of SRM in continuous current mode of operation using improved analytical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsapour, Amir, E-mail: amirparsapour@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian, E-mail: mirzaeian@eng.ui.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moallem, Mehdi, E-mail: moallem@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    In applications in which the high torque per ampere at low speed and rated power at high speed are required, the continuous current method is the best solution. However, there is no report on calculating the core loss of SRM in continuous current mode of operation. Efficiency and iron loss calculation which are complex tasks in case of conventional mode of operation is even more involved in continuous current mode of operation. In this paper, the Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is modeled using finite element method and core loss and copper loss of SRM in discontinuous and continuous current modes of operation are calculated using improved analytical techniques to include the minor loop losses in continuous current mode of operation. Motor efficiency versus speed in both operation modes is obtained and compared. - Highlights: • Continuous current method for Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is explained. • An improved analytical technique is presented for SRM core loss calculation. • SRM losses in discontinuous and continuous current operation modes are presented. • Effect of mutual inductances on SRM performance is investigated.

  20. Study of emission episodes of urban aerosol by ion beam analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Aerosol pollution has impact on the climate and on human health. Thus investigation of atmospheric aerosol is important in urban environment such as Debrecen. One of the main goals of our study was to define the sources of the particles. The hourly evolution of atmospheric aerosol concentration was used to identify sources of fine (aerodynamic diameter < 2,5 μm) and coarse (10 μm ≥ aerodynamic diameter ≥ 2.5 μm) urban particulate matter in Debrecen. In both size fractions sources were found which were characterized by high heavy metal content. In this study we provide accurate information of the sources of coarse mode heavy metals by using nuclear and scanning electron microscopy. Single particle analysis of chosen samples was carried out on the ATOMKI Scanning Nuclear Microprobe Facility. Elemental composition for Z ≥ 6, morphology and size of around 500 coarse mode particles were determined by Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy, light-element PIXE and PIXE analytical methods. Furthermore Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate particles morphology. The main components of the particles were Na, K, Ca, S, P and Fe with traces of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Co, Pb. S-rich particles were enriched in one or more of the following elements: Na, Ca, K, Fe, Zn. Trace metals (Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr) occurred together Fe supposedly originated from industrial emission or traffic. P appeared in the Ca-rich particles. Particles with high concentration of Ni were rich in V, Fe and S. Thus this source was identified as residual combustion. V-rich particles occurred together with Fe, Mn and Cr. Their possible source was industry. Pb was attached to Ca, Fe, S containing particles. As result of the SEM study the following particle types (Figure 1.) were identified: semitransparent material (S-K-rich, S-Zn-rich, PCa-rich), spherical (FeO, Fe-Ni-Cr-V-rich), cubic (KCl, CaCl) and crystalline (S-Ca-rich). The main sources of

  1. Quantification of Optical and Physical Properties of Combustion-Generated Carbonaceous Aerosols (Analytical and Microscopic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Inoka Eranda; Litton, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to quantify and characterize the optical and physical properties of combustion-generated aerosols during both flaming and smoldering combustion of three materials common to underground mines—Pittsburgh Seam coal, Styrene Butadiene Rubber (a common mine conveyor belt material), and Douglas-fir wood—using a combination of analytical and gravimetric measurements. Laser photometers were utilized in the experiments for continuous measurement of aerosol mass concentrations and for comparison to measurements made using gravimetric filter samples. The aerosols of interest lie in the size range of tens to a few hundred nanometers, out of range of the standard photometer calibration. To correct for these uncertainties, the photometer mass concentrations were compared to gravimetric samples to determine if consistent correlations existed. The response of a calibrated and modified combination ionization/photoelectric smoke detector was also used. In addition, the responses of this sensor and a similar, prototype ionization/photoelectric sensor, along with discrete angular scattering, total scattering, and total extinction measurements, were used to define in real time the size, morphology, and radiative transfer properties of these differing aerosols that are generally in the form of fractal aggregates. SEM/TEM images were also obtained in order to compare qualitatively the real-time, continuous experimental measurements with the visual microscopic measurements. These data clearly show that significant differences exist between aerosols from flaming and from smoldering combustion and that these differences produce very different scattering and absorption signatures. The data also indicate that ionization/photoelectric sensors can be utilized to measure continuously and in real time aerosol properties over a broad spectrum of applications related to adverse environmental and health effects.

  2. PROGRESS IN PROTEOME ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES%蛋白质组分析技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解建勋; 蒲小平; 李玉珍; 李长龄

    2001-01-01

    The proteome represents the protein pattern of a speciy,anorganism,a cell,an organelle,or even a body fluid determined quantitatively at a certain moment and under precisely defined limiting conditions.Proteome research techniques are important tools in the Post-Genome Era.Quantitative separation and analysis of proteins in the proteome involve many techniques,including sample preparation,two dimension(2D)gel electrophoresis, capillary electrophoresis,chromatographic techniques,mass spectrometry,and so on.The 2D gel electrophoresis is currently a quite good method which is available to provide enough space for several thousand components and separate protein mixtures with in a few hours.Combined use of various analysis techniques and automation in instrumentation will be the recent trend in this field.%蛋白质组是指某一物种、个体、器官、组织、细胞乃至体液在精确控制其环境条件之下,特定时刻的全部蛋白质表达图谱。继基因组之后,它的研究即将成为分子生物学的研究热点。蛋白质组研究中常用分离分析技术包括样品制备,双向凝胶电泳,毛细管电泳,色谱技术和质谱技术。双向凝胶电泳是在较短时间内分离大量蛋白质组分,提供足够分离空间的比较成熟的方法。各种分析技术的连用和分析过程的自动化将是蛋白质组研究技术的发展方向。

  3. Characterization of Natural Dyes and Traditional Korean Silk Fabric by Surface Analytical Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Yeonhee Lee; Kang-Bong Lee; Min Hwa Kang; Jihye Lee

    2013-01-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are well established surface techniques that provide both elemental and organic information from several monolayers of a sample surface, while also allowing depth profiling or image mapping to be carried out. The static TOF-SIMS with improved performances has expanded the application of TOF-SIMS to the study of a variety of organic, polymeric and biological materials. In this work, TOF-SIMS, X...

  4. Role of analytical techniques in the diagnosis of asbestos-associated disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing concern over the adverse health effects resulting from asbestos exposure. The mineralogy of asbestos and the pathology of asbestos-associated diseases is briefly reviewed. Techniques for tissue sampling, histopathological diagnostic criteria and the role of light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD)--in the identification and quantitation of asbestos bodies and fibers in the lung tissue samples--are discussed. The value of a systematic quantitative approach is emphasized in order to differentiate the dose relationships and disease patterns. 112 references

  5. Characterization of Natural Dyes and Traditional Korean Silk Fabric by Surface Analytical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhee Lee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS are well established surface techniques that provide both elemental and organic information from several monolayers of a sample surface, while also allowing depth profiling or image mapping to be carried out. The static TOF-SIMS with improved performances has expanded the application of TOF-SIMS to the study of a variety of organic, polymeric and biological materials. In this work, TOF-SIMS, XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR measurements were used to characterize commercial natural dyes and traditional silk fabric dyed with plant extracts dyes avoiding the time-consuming and destructive extraction procedures necessary for the spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods previously used. Silk textiles dyed with plant extracts were then analyzed for chemical and functional group identification of their dye components and mordants. TOF-SIMS spectra for the dyed silk fabric showed element ions from metallic mordants, specific fragment ions and molecular ions from plant-extracted dyes. The results of TOF-SIMS, XPS and FTIR are very useful as a reference database for comparison with data about traditional Korean silk fabric and to provide an understanding of traditional dyeing materials. Therefore, this study shows that surface techniques are useful for micro-destructive analysis of plant-extracted dyes and Korean dyed silk fabric.

  6. Review of analytical techniques to determine the chemical forms of vapours and aerosols released from overheated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive review has been undertaken of appropriate analytical techniques to monitor and measure the chemical effects that occur in large-scale tests designed to study severe reactor accidents. Various methods have been developed to determine the chemical forms of the vapours, aerosols and deposits generated during and after such integral experiments. Other specific techniques have the long-term potential to provide some of the desired data in greater detail, although considerable efforts are still required to apply these techniques to the study of radioactive debris. Such in-situ and post-test methods of analysis have been also assessed in terms of their applicability to the analysis of samples from the Phebus-FP tests. The recommended in-situ methods of analysis are gamma-ray spectroscopy, potentiometry, mass spectrometry, and Raman/UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Vapour/aerosol and deposition samples should also be obtained at well-defined time intervals during each experiment for subsequent post-test analysis. No single technique can provide all the necessary chemical data from these samples, and the most appropriate method of analysis involves a complementary combination of autoradiography, AES, IR, MRS, SEMS/EDS, SIMS/LMIS, XPS and XRD

  7. New Analytic and Computational Techniques for Finite Temperature Condensed Matter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Tomas Alberto

    By employing a special summation technique we find that the breakdown of the Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect in the three dimensional Bose gas as the applied field passes through its critical value is an entropy driven weakly first order transition, rather than the second order transition usually ascribed to the system. The transition is second order at the usual Bose condensation temperature T_{c} as well as at T = 0, with a line of first order transitions connecting these critical points. The first order transitions make the Bose gas resemble familiar superconductors, and a Landau -Ginzburg analysis indicates that the Bose gas is always a type I superconductor. We employ the recently introduced conjugate-gradient methods for minimization of the electronic energy functional to perform an extensive ab initio study of the Sigma = 5 tilt (310) grain boundary in germanium. We find that the boundary reliably reconstructs to the tetrahedrally bonded network observed in HREM experiments without the proliferation of false local minima observed in similar twist boundaries. The reduced density of bonds crossing the grain boundary plane leads us to conjecture that the boundary may be a preferred fracture interface. We then combine these conjugate-gradient methods with a new technique for generating trial wavefunctions to produce an efficient ab initio molecular dynamics scheme that is that is at least two orders of magnitude more accurate than previous schemes and thus allows accurate calculation of dynamic correlation functions while maintaining tolerable energy conservation for microcanonical averages of those correlation functions over picosecond time scales. We present two advances which greatly enhance the efficiency of our new ab initio molecular dynamics technique. We introduce a class of generalizations of traditional Fermionic energy functionals which allow us to lift the orthonormality constraints on the single particle orbitals and thus speed convergence by permitting

  8. New Insights into Amino Acid Preservation in the Early Oceans using Modern Analytical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. T.; Brinton, K. L.; Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bada, J.

    2015-12-01

    Protein- and non-protein-amino acids likely occupied the oceans at the time of the origin and evolution of life. Primordial soup-, hydrothermal vent-, and meteoritic-processes likely contributed to this early chemical inventory. Prebiotic synthesis and carbonaceous meteorite studies suggest that non-protein amino acids were likely more abundant than their protein-counterparts. Amino acid preservation before abiotic and biotic destruction is key to biomarker availability in paleoenvironments and remains an important uncertainty. To constrain primitive amino acid lifetimes, a 1992 archived seawater/beach sand mixture was spiked with D,L-alanine, D,L-valine (Val), α-aminoisobutyric acid (α-AIB), D,L-isovaline (Iva), and glycine (Gly). Analysis by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) showed that only D-Val and non-protein amino acids were abundant after 2250 days. The mixture was re-analyzed in 2012 using HPLC-FD and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS). The analytical results 20 years after the inception of the experiment were strikingly similar to those after 2250 days. To confirm that viable microorganisms were still present, the mixture was re-spiked with Gly in 2012. Aliquots were collected immediately after spiking, and at 5- and 9-month intervals thereafter. Final HPLC-FD/QqQ-MS analyses were performed in 2014. The 2014 analyses revealed that only α-AIB, D,L-Iva, and D-Val remained abundant. The disappearance of Gly indicated that microorganisms still lived in the mixture and were capable of consuming protein amino acids. These findings demonstrate that non-protein amino acids are minimally impacted by biological degradation and thus have very long lifetimes under these conditions. Primitive non-protein amino acids from terrestrial synthesis, or meteorite in-fall, likely experienced greater preservation than protein amino acids in paleo-oceanic environments. Such robust molecules may have reached a steady

  9. Uncertainty in soil-structure interaction analysis arising from differences in analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study addresses uncertainties arising from variations in different modeling approaches to soil-structure interaction of massive structures at a nuclear power plant. To perform a comprehensive systems analysis, it is necessary to quantify, for each phase of the traditional analysis procedure, both the realistic seismic response and the uncertainties associated with them. In this study two linear soil-structure interaction techniques were used to analyze the Zion, Illinois nuclear power plant: a direct method using the FLUSH computer program and a substructure approach using the CLASSI family of computer programs. In-structure response from two earthquakes, one real and one synthetic, was compared. Structure configurations from relatively simple to complicated multi-structure cases were analyzed. The resulting variations help quantify uncertainty in structure response due to analysis procedures

  10. An analytical framework for data stream mining techniques based on challenges and requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Kholghi, Mahnoosh

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of applications that generate massive streams of data need intelligent data processing and online analysis. Real-time surveillance systems, telecommunication systems, sensor networks and other dynamic environments are such examples. The imminent need for turning such data into useful information and knowledge augments the development of systems, algorithms and frameworks that address streaming challenges. The storage, querying and mining of such data sets are highly computationally challenging tasks. Mining data streams is concerned with extracting knowledge structures represented in models and patterns in non stopping streams of information. Generally, two main challenges are designing fast mining methods for data streams and need to promptly detect changing concepts and data distribution because of highly dynamic nature of data streams. The goal of this article is to analyze and classify the application of diverse data mining techniques in different challenges of data stream mining. In this...

  11. Ion implanters contamination on wafer surface analyzed by ToF-SIMS and SPV analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ULSI processes, metallic contamination controls are very important issues. For the ion implantation process it is known that several sources of contaminations still need to be controlled: metals from sputtering of the apertures or wafer holders, Na+ contaminations from filament impurities and messy maintenance procedure. ToF-SIMS is one of the most promising candidates to perform in-line surface analysis due to its high sensitivity. It is very common to use surface photo-voltage (SPV) techniques to control ion implanter equipments but this kind of analysis is an indirect measure for metallic contamination. The aim of this work is to study the possibility to use ToF-SIMS instead of SPV for in line equipment contamination monitoring. For this reason a comparison between SPV and ToF-SIMS data occurred. Good correlation between the data is shown; moreover ToF-SIMS spectra give detailed information about the other contaminations present on the wafer surface

  12. Ion implanters contamination on wafer surface analyzed by ToF-SIMS and SPV analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciari, R.; Bertini, M.; Ferlito, E. P.; Pizzo, G.; Anastasi, G.; Mello, D.; Franco, G.

    2007-04-01

    In ULSI processes, metallic contamination controls are very important issues. For the ion implantation process it is known that several sources of contaminations still need to be controlled: metals from sputtering of the apertures or wafer holders, Na+ contaminations from filament impurities and messy maintenance procedure. ToF-SIMS is one of the most promising candidates to perform in-line surface analysis due to its high sensitivity. It is very common to use surface photo-voltage (SPV) techniques to control ion implanter equipments but this kind of analysis is an indirect measure for metallic contamination. The aim of this work is to study the possibility to use ToF-SIMS instead of SPV for in line equipment contamination monitoring. For this reason a comparison between SPV and ToF-SIMS data occurred. Good correlation between the data is shown; moreover ToF-SIMS spectra give detailed information about the other contaminations present on the wafer surface.

  13. Development and utilization of nuclear analytical techniques for analysis of nuclear forensic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: When packages are seized at borders and have been identified as containing illicit nuclear or other radiological materials, it is very important to determine the origin of the materials, the last legal user of the materials, and the smuggling route. This is required to (i) close the 'hole' that allowed that material to escape, and (ii) to prosecute the smuggler. Both classic and nuclear forensics techniques are used to answer these questions. Under this project, laboratories were identified in Turkey to receive suspect radiological or nuclear samples. Considerable work was done to develop the methodology of activities for these laboratories. Work is ongoing to improve (i) the methods of analysis, (ii) legal 'traceability' of the samples, (iii) interpretation of the results, and (iv) the confidential handling of suspect materials. (author)

  14. Analytical techniques for assessment of coastal impact of natural disasters Tsunami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunami is a less known and less frequent coastal hazard, in comparison to the other commonly occurring hazards namely the storm surge, oil spills, coastal pollution, coastal erosion, algal bloom and effect of climate change on flora and fauna. Marine sediments contain a record of past events and proved to be an interesting indicator matrix for this study. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) techniques offer adequate sensitivity for analysis of trace elements for conducting geo-chemical studies. Grain size analysis of sediment samples before and after tsunami showed a shift in textural characteristics of the sediment which is not observed during regular monsoon and seasonal changes

  15. Petroleum-specific analytical and interpretive techniques for product identification and source allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a class, petroleum and refined petroleum products represent the single largest source of contamination to the terrestrial and aquatic environments. Petroleum products including crude oil and a wide spectrum of refined petroleum products are accidentally released by a variety of mechanisms including surface spills, tanker accidents, storage tank leaks, and pipeline ruptures. In many cases, the petroleum and other hydrocarbon products discovered in impacted environments usually cannot be readily linked to a source, because the products are often complex mixtures of various hydrocarbon-based components. The identification of hydrocarbon products in the environment is further confounded by complex physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms that alter the fresh hydrocarbons through processes known collectively as weathering. The dilution, mixing, transport, and weathering of these hydrocarbon materials in the environment renders them very different in composition and appearance from their original source materials. This paper describes the use of EPA methods of analysis that have been modified for measurement of a large suite of petrogenic organic compounds that can be used for sensitive measurement of fresh and degraded petroleum in environmental samples ranging from volatile products such as gasoline to heavy crude oils. Petroleum specific data is reduced using multivariate chemometric techniques including hierarchal cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis to evaluate linkage between the samples and likely petroleum source products. Combined with high quality, petroleum specific data, these analysis techniques offer unparalleled means of identifying materials, differentiating between similar products such as gasolines, and linking contaminated samples to sources. Examples of the use of the methods to deduce sources of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel to terrestrial spills will be presented

  16. Development of analytical techniques to study H2s poisoning of PEMFCs and components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosha, Eric L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Uribe, Francisco A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garzon, Fernando H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are sensitive to impurities that may be present in either the oxidizer or fuel. H{sub 2}S, even at the ppb level, will have a dramatic and adverse affect on fuel cell performance. Not only is it important to know a particular material's affinity to adsorb H{sub 2}S, when considering materials for PEMFC applications, issues such as permeation and crossover rates also become extremely important Several experimental methods have been developed to quantify H{sub 2}S adsorption onto surfaces and to quantify H{sub 2}S permeation through Nafion(reg.) membranes using readily available and inexpensive Ag/AgS ion probes. In addition to calculating the H{sub 2}S uptake on commonly used XC-72 carbon supports and PtlXC-72 catalysts, the H{sub 2}S permeability through dry and humidified Nafion(reg.) PEMFC membranes was also studied using these specialized techniques. In each ion probe experiment performed, a sulfide anti-oxidant buffer solution was used to trap and concentrate trace quantities of H{sub 2}S during the course of the measurement. Crossover experiments were conducted for up to 24 hours in order to achieve sulfide ion concentrations high enough to be precisely determined by subsequent titration with Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. By using these techniques, we have confirmed H{sub 2}S crossover in Nafion(reg.) membranes and have calculated preliminary rates of H{sub 2}S crossover.

  17. Analytical Methods, Preformulation Study and Physicochemical Evaluation Techniques for Transdermal Patches of Antihypertensive Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilegave Kailash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since early 1980s, this dosage form of transdermal therapeutic system has been available in the pharmaceutical market. The discovery of transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS is a breakthrough in the field of controlled drug delivery systems. The ability of TDDS to deliver drugs for systemic effect through intact skin while bypassing first pass metabolism has accelerated transdermal drug delivery research in the field of pharmaceutics. Over a decade of such extensive research activities, many transdermal patches have been developed and successfully commercialized. The present study was carried out to evaluate transdermal formulation containing carvedilol with different ratios of hydrophilic (Eudragit RL100,HPMC and hydrophobic polymeric (Eudragit RS100,Ethyl Cellulose combinations plasticized with triethyl Citrate and dibutyl phthalate by the solvent evaporation technique. The prepared patches were tested for their physicochemical characteristics such as thickness, weight and drug content uniformity, water vapour transmission, folding endurance, and tensile strength.In vitro release studies of carvedilol-loaded patches in 30% v/v Methanolic Isotonic Phosphate Buffer(MIPB of pH 7.4 . The antihypertensive activity of the patches was studied using methyl prednisolone acetate induced hypertensive rats. This article describes various methods of evaluation of transdermal dosage form containing Antihypertensive drug Carvedilol.

  18. INSTRUMENTS MEASURING PERCEIVED RACISM/RACIAL DISCRIMINATION: REVIEW AND CRITIQUE OF FACTOR ANALYTIC TECHNIQUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Rahshida

    2015-01-01

    Several compendiums of instruments that measure perceived racism and/or discrimination are present in the literature. Other works have reviewed the psychometric properties of these instruments in terms of validity and reliability and have indicated if the instrument was factor analyzed. However, little attention has been given to the quality of the factor analysis performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exploratory factor analyses done on instruments measuring perceived racism/racial discrimination using guidelines from experts in psychometric theory. The techniques used for factor analysis were reviewed and critiqued and the adequacy of reporting was evaluated. Internet search engines and four electronic abstract databases were used to identify 16 relevant instruments that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Principal component analysis was the most frequent method of extraction (81%). Sample sizes were adequate for factor analysis in 81 percent of studies. The majority of studies reported appropriate criteria for the acceptance of un-rotated factors (81%) and justified the rotation method (75%). Exactly 94 percent of studies reported partially acceptable criteria for the acceptance of rotated factors. The majority of articles (69%) reported adequate coefficient alphas for the resultant subscales. In 81 percent of the studies, the conceptualized dimensions were supported by factor analysis. PMID:25626225

  19. ERGs, cone-isolating VEPs and analytical techniques in children with cone dysfunction syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John P; Crognale, Michael A; Weiss, Avery H

    2003-05-01

    Photoreceptor and post-receptoral function in children with congenital and acquired cone disorders was measured by full-field electroretinogram (ERG) and transient visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Subjects were five rod monochromats (RM), five with cone dystrophy (CD), and 30 controls. Patients were diagnosed by clinical findings, ERGs, and standard color vision tests. VEP stimuli were check reversals and color grating onsets that stimulated each photoreceptor type (L-, M-, or S-cones) or post-receptoral pathways (L-M, white/black). VEP signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) were calculated by Fourier analysis of VEP epochs. All RM patients showed extinguished cone ERGs. A near normal S-cone VEP was recorded from a blue-cone rod monochromat without any signal from the L- or M-cone stimuli. Two other RM patients were classified as incomplete RM based on a low-level VEP signal from either L- or M-cone stimuli. CD patients had mildly to severely reduced ERGs and VEPs were abnormal to all cone-isolating stimuli. The VEP S/N ratio was not significantly correlated with the amount of rod contrast in the color stimuli. Color VEPs provide an objective assessment of macular cone function in children with cone dysfunction syndromes that is more sensitive to residual central cone function than standard full-field ERGs. VEP techniques may be useful in the early detection of cone loss in children, especially in children who do not tolerate ERG testing. PMID:12737507

  20. Implementation of an analytical technique for Samarium; Implementacion de una tecnica analitica para Samario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia G, N. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Since the Samarium presents the same chemical properties that the plutonium, it has been used as homologous in studies that allow us to know the behavior that the plutonium presents in solution, with the advantage of working with an inactive and not very dangerous element. At the moment studies of sorption of plutonium or samarium are made on some mineral matrices that present certain surface properties. Due to the low concentrations that are used in the studies of sorption of samarium on those reagent substrates, their detection becomes very difficult for the conventional analysis media. The luminescence is a technique that can detect lower concentrations, smaller at 1 X 10{sup -} {sup 2} M, but when fluorofors are used this limit of detection increases in several orders of magnitude. In this work it has been used the arsenazo-III as fluorofor agent since it reacts in a specific way with the samarium, forming a complex that presents a proportional luminescence to the concentration of the present samarium. The advantage of making the quantification of samarium by luminescence is that it can use the same instrumental equipment to determine the speciation of the samarium sipped in the zircon. (Author)

  1. Analysis of size-fractionated coal combustion aerosols by PIXE and other analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to study the chemical composition of size-fractionated in-stack fly-ash particles emitted during coal combustion. The samples were collected before the electrostatic precipitator at a gas temperature of 120deg C during the combustion of Venezuelan coal in a 81 MW capacity circulating fluidized bed boiler. The sampling device consisted of a Berner low pressure impactor, which was operated with a cyclone precutter. The Nuclepore polycarbonate foils, which were used as collection surfaces in the low pressure impactor, were analyzed by the three techniques, and the results of common elements were critically compared. The PIXE results were systematically lower than the INAA data, and the percentage difference appeared to be stage-dependent, but virtually independent upon the element. The discrepancies are most likely due to bounce-off effects, particle reentrainment and other sampling artifacts, which may make that a fraction of the aerosol particles is deposited on the impaction foils outside the section analyzed by PIXE. However, by restoring to a 'mixed internal standard' approach, accurate PIXE data are obtained. Also in the comparison between the ICP-MS and the INAA data significant discrepancies were observed. These are most likely due to incomplete dissolution of the particulate material, and in particular of the alumino-silicate fly-ash matrix, during the acid digestion sample preparation step for ICP-MS. It is suggested that a comparison between ICP-MS data of acid digested samples and INAA can advantageously be used to provide speciation information on the various elements. Selected examples of size distributions are presented and briefly discussed. (orig.)

  2. Tracer Elements analysis of Aerosols in the Atmosphere of Lahore using Radio analytical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The perturbations of atmospheric processes by anthropogenic activities of man have been of great concern these days. The deposition of trace and major elements from the atmosphere to the ground is an important factor for animal and plant health, and it is of major consideration in studies on the cycling of elements that may function in the atmosphere as nutrients or potentially toxic pollutants. When assessing the input of materials in natural waters and land, the sources and composition of atmosphere need to be determined. Geological and anthropogenic contributions to air pollution were monitored by analyzing aerosol particulates present in the atmosphere of Lahore. Various sorts of experiments were performed for studying total suspended particulate matter (TSPs using gravimetric techniques. The average value of TSPs was found 450 ug/m2 in working days and 240 ug/m2 in holidays. Their size distribution and trace elemental composition and their wet removal through precipitation in the atmosphere of Lahore was studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA respectively. Eighteen elements were analyzed. Geological nature of the land was attributed the presence of Yb, Cs, Sc, Rb, Co, Eu, La, Ba, Zn and Hf s in the aerosol particulates. The presence of Cr, Fe, Ce, Pb and Cd could be linked to anthropogenic activities. Their amount was two times higher than the limits reccomended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the urban environment, mostly during working days and at various day and night time.

  3. Analytical solution of the multigroup neutron diffusion kinetic equation in one-dimensional cartesian geometry by the integral transform technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to obtain an analytical solution of the neutron diffusion kinetic equation in one-dimensional cartesian geometry, to monoenergetic and multigroup problems. These equations are of the type stiff, due to large differences in the orders of magnitude of the time scales of the physical phenomena involved, which make them difficult to solve. The basic idea of the proposed method is applying the spectral expansion in the scalar flux and in the precursor concentration, taking moments and solving the resulting matrix problem by the Laplace transform technique. Bearing in mind that the equation for the precursor concentration is a first order linear differential equation in the time variable, to enable the application of the spectral method we introduce a fictitious diffusion term multiplied by a positive value which tends to zero. This procedure opened the possibility to find an analytical solution to the problem studied. We report numerical simulations and analysis of the results obtained with the precision controlled by the truncation order of the series. (author)

  4. Towards a green analytical laboratory: microextraction techniques as a useful tool for the monitoring of polluted soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Garcia, Ignacio; Viñas, Pilar; Campillo, Natalia; Hernandez Cordoba, Manuel; Perez Sirvent, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Microextraction techniques are a valuable tool at the analytical laboratory since they allow sensitive measurements of pollutants to be carried out by means of easily available instrumentation. There is a large number of such procedures involving miniaturized liquid-liquid or liquid-solid extractions with the common denominator of using very low amounts (only a few microliters) or even none of organic solvents. Since minimal amounts of reagents are involved, and the generation of residues is consequently minimized, the approach falls within the concept of Green Analytical Chemistry. This general methodology is useful both for inorganic and organic pollutants. Thus, low amounts of metallic ions can be measured without the need of using ICP-MS since this instrument can be replaced by a simple AAS spectrometer which is commonly present in any laboratory and involves low acquisition and maintenance costs. When dealing with organic pollutants, the microextracts obtained can be introduced into liquid or gas chromatographs equipped with common detectors and there is no need for the most sophisticated and expensive mass spectrometers. This communication reports an overview of the advantages of such a methodology, and gives examples for the determination of some particular contaminants in soil and water samples The authors are grateful to the Comunidad Autonóma de la Región de Murcia , Spain (Fundación Séneca, 19888/GERM/15) for financial support

  5. Investigation of Stainless Steel Corrosion in Ultrahigh-Purity Water and Steam Systems by Surface Analytical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xia; Iacocca, Ronald G.; Bustard, Bethany L.; Kemp, Craig A. J.

    2010-02-01

    Stainless steel pipes with different degrees of rouging and a Teflon®-coated rupture disc with severe corrosion were thoroughly investigated by combining multiple surface analytical techniques. The surface roughness and iron oxide layer thickness increase with increasing rouge severity, and the chromium oxide layer coexists with the iron oxide layer in samples with various degrees of rouging. Unlike the rouging observed for stainless steel pipes, the fast degradation of the rupture disc was caused by a crevice corrosion environment created by perforations in the protective Teflon coating. This failure analysis clearly shows the highly corrosive nature of ultrapure water used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products, and demonstrates some of the unexpected corrosion mechanisms that can be encountered in these environments.

  6. Analytical investigation of fluorescent complexes of leucine-8-hydroxyquinaldine and leucine-8-hydroxyquinoline in aqueous phase using spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method has been developed by preparing complexes involving condensation of Leucine with 8-hydroxyquinaldine and 8-hydroxyquinoline separately. The products so obtained are being investigated for identification and quantitative estimation using different spectroscopic techniques including fluorescence activity of newly synthesized complexes. The method adopted in our laboratory is rapid, versatile, reproducible and provides excellent results for adoption by analytical, agriculture and biomedical laboratories to estimate amino acids and metals in composite matrix at economical costs. Identification of amino acids in nano mole quantities has become possible by fluorescence activity of leucine- 8-hydroxyquinaldine and leucine-8-hydroxyquinoline complexes involving different excitation and emission wavelengths. This fluorescence activity of the complexes is 100 to 1000 times higher than assay method involving ninhydrin and amino acid analyzer. (author)

  7. Painted Fiberglass-Reinforced Contemporary Sculpture: Investigating Composite Materials, Techniques and Conservation Using a Multi-Analytical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Barbara; Cantisani, Emma; Colombini, Maria Perla; Tognon, Cecilia Gaia Rachele

    2016-01-01

    A multi-analytical approach was used to study the constituent materials, manufacturing technique, and state of conservation of a contemporary sculpture. This sculpture, entitled Nuredduna, was created by Aligi Sassu in 1995 and is located in the "Bellariva garden" in Florence (Italy). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), optical and electronic microscopy (OM and SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) highlighted the multi-layered structure of the statue: fiberglass and an overlay of different layers (gel coat) applied with an unsaturated polyester resin added with aggregate materials and bromine compounds. A top-coat in acrylic black varnish, used as a finish, was also found. The combination of these materials with their different compositions, environmental impact, and even vandalism have negatively affected the state of conservation of Nuredduna, causing the loss of strata in its lower parts (legs and feet). PMID:26767643

  8. Advanced analytical techniques for the extraction and characterization of plant-derived essential oils by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Rabia; Low, Kah Hin

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, essential oils have received a growing interest because of the positive health effects of their novel characteristics such as antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. For the extraction of plant-derived essential oils, there is the need of advanced analytical techniques and innovative methodologies. An exhaustive study of hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction, pressurized liquid extraction, pressurized hot water extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion, and gas chromatography (one- and two-dimensional) hyphenated with mass spectrometry for the extraction through various plant species and analysis of essential oils has been provided in this review. Essential oils are composed of mainly terpenes and terpenoids with low-molecular-weight aromatic and aliphatic constituents that are particularly important for public health. PMID:25403494

  9. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the evaluation of some Nigeria’s natural minerals: Fluorite, tourmaline and topaz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Ige, O. A.; Mazzoli, C.; Ceccato, D.; Akintunde, J. A.; De Poli, M.; Moschini, G.

    2005-10-01

    For the first time, the complementary accelerator-based analytical technique of PIXE and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) were employed for the characterization of some Nigeria's natural minerals namely fluorite, tourmaline and topaz. These minerals occur in different areas in Nigeria. The minerals are mainly used as gemstones and for other scientific and technological applications and therefore are very important. There is need to characterize them to know the quality of these gemstones and update the geochemical data on them geared towards useful applications. PIXE analysis was carried out using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro, Padova, Italy. The novel results which show many elements at different concentrations in these minerals are presented and discussed.

  10. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the evaluation of some Nigeria's natural minerals: Fluorite, tourmaline and topaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)]. E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk; Ige, O.A. [Natural History Museum, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Mazzoli, C. [Dipartimento di Mineralogia e Petrologia, Universita di Padova, 35100 Padova (Italy); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy); Akintunde, J.A. [CERD, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); De Poli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy)

    2005-10-15

    For the first time, the complementary accelerator-based analytical technique of PIXE and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) were employed for the characterization of some Nigeria's natural minerals namely fluorite, tourmaline and topaz. These minerals occur in different areas in Nigeria. The minerals are mainly used as gemstones and for other scientific and technological applications and therefore are very important. There is need to characterize them to know the quality of these gemstones and update the geochemical data on them geared towards useful applications. PIXE analysis was carried out using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro, Padova, Italy. The novel results which show many elements at different concentrations in these minerals are presented and discussed.

  11. Plastics from household waste as a source of heavy metal pollution: An inventory study using INAA as the analytical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inventory study to the levels of cadmium in the plastic component of household waste was carried out utilizing INAA as the analytical technique. In a 2-h irradiation, 2-d decay, and 1-h measurement, protocol adequate sensitivities could be obtained for Cd, but also for a group of other metals: Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Sr, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Sn, Sb, Ba, and Hg. Red-, orange-, and yellow-colored plastics either contain Cd at high levels (over 1000 mg/kg) or have relatively low Cd concentrations (<50 mg/kg). High concentrations were also occasionally found for Sr,Se,Ba,Sb, and Hg. INAA appeared very well to be routinely usable for such analysis because of the absence of a destruction step, adequate sensitivity, high accuracy, and multielement results

  12. Analytical Study of Pair Production Rate from Vacuum in an Elliptic Polarized Field by a Two-Level Transition Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron-positron pair production rate created from vacuum in the presence of an elliptically polarized laser field is investigated. By applying the technique of two level transition amplitude, a routine for obtaining pair production rate is presented, and approximate analytical expressions are given both for the low frequency strong field regime and the high frequency weak field regime. We found that for an elliptically polarized field, the electron-positron pair production rate decrease when the elliptic eccentricity increase in the high frequency weak field regime, however, in the low frequency strong field regime, there is almost the same electron-positron pair production rate as in the constant electric field case. (physics of elementary particles and fields)

  13. Propuesta de pautas para la Identificación del Conocimiento en el Perfeccionamiento Empresarial (Proposal Guidelines for the Identification of Knowledge in Business Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maité Núñez Hernández

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En la presente investigación se caracteriza brevemente el contexto en el que sedesarrolla la Gestión del Conocimiento y se describe el proceso de Identificación delConocimiento. Se realiza un análisis sobre la trayectoria que ha alcanzado la implementación del proceso de Perfeccionamiento Empresarial en Cuba. Se proponen las pautas para identificar el conocimiento que requiere la aplicación del Perfeccionamiento Empresarial; y finalmente se confecciona un mapa del conocimiento en aras de contribuir al funcionamiento de dicho proceso. Abstract This research briefly characterizes the context in which knowledge management is developed and describes knowledge process identification. In particular, the trajectory reached on the implementation of business improvement process in Cuba is analysed. Guidelines are proposed to identify the knowledge required in the application of business improvement and finally a map of knowledge is proposed in order to contribute to the operation of the process

  14. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in transilvanian plateau of romania studied by the moss bio monitoring Technique employing nuclear and related analytical Techniques and gis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents data for 39 elements of 69 moss samples (Hypnum cupressiforme) collected in the Transilvanian Plateau of Romania. This results have obtained in the framework of the project Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Rural and Urban Areas of Romania Studied by the Moss Bio monitoring Technique Employing Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques and GIS Technology carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.The samples collected have been analyzed by ENAA with the exception of Cu, Cd, and Pb which were determined by AAS. IAEA certified materials were used to ensure the quality of the measurements. The regional concentration variations of selected elements are presented in the form of maps constructed by GIS technology. Extremely high values are observed for elements such as Cu, Zn, As and Sb in parts of this territory affected by local metal industries. The levels are among the highest observed in the world, and could be partly responsible for the unfortunate health situation in some of these areas

  15. ICP-MS as advantageous analytical technique for the determination of long-lived /sup 99/Tc in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium (Tc) was the first artificially created by man and has no stable isotope. The most crucial technetium isotope environmentally /sup 99/Tc is a pure beta emitter with a half-life of 2.1 X 105 years. The main source of /sup 99/Tc to the environment is the disposal of liquid wastes from nuclear installations or during separation and recovery of spent nuclear fuels. Because of its long half life, high fission yield, mobility and current interest in the collective long term doses, it is necessary to establish a knowledge of the behavior of /sup 99/Tc in the environment for complete assessment of the impact of nuclear industry. Due to various analytical difficulties however, data on the behavior of Tc in the environment are limited. In the literature, many techniques are reported for the analysis of Tc. A very sensitive, precise and powerful technique is required which can be applied to environmental samples in order to gain information by obtaining more precise data to assess the impact of Tc releases on man. Attention has been focussed for this purpose on a new powerful technique i.e. inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This report has been directed towards the development of ICP-MS. The technique gives a very high sensitivity enabling long lived radionuclides including /sup 99/Tc to be measured directly down to pg ml-1 levels in solution. Because of its versatility ICP-MS is finding applications for trace multielement analysis and low detection limits in almost all fields. (author)

  16. Introduction on microbiological and biological methods and their possible combination with other analytical techniques for the detection of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is a physical method of processing and preserving food. One of the main purposes of the application of this technology to food is to obtain specific biological effects on the treated foodstuff. Typical examples of these treatment effects are listed in the article. A whole range of techniques is at disposal of the analyst to assure the Quality Control (QC) of various foodstuffs. They are based on microbiological, organoleptical, chemical, biochemical, immunological and/or physical methods. In the case of irradiation preserved food the opinion of the writer is that very often only a combination of analytical methods can solve the problem of detection of irradiated foodstuffs and in particular in most cases this combination could be formed by a biological or microbiological method + a chemical or physical one. The meaning of these combination of techniques is manifold. Combining the advantages of a rapid screening method with those of a more refined, reliable, even if more time consuming one; offering the possibility to carry out the analysis for the control of irradiated foodstuffs to different kinds of food control laboratories, often equipped in a different way, are some of the most evident advantages. These methods are briefly explained. At present, none method seems promising for the quantitative determination of the irradiation dose. Moreover, some of the proposed methods can only give a good presumption of the irradiation treatment applied to particular foodstuffs. (18 refs)

  17. Establishment of a trimodality analytical platform for tracing, imaging and quantification of gold nanoparticles in animals by radiotracer techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Hung; Lin, Fong-Sian; Liao, Wei-Neng; Liang, Sanching L; Chen, Min-Hua; Chen, Yo-Wen; Lin, Wan-Yu; Hsu, Ming-Hua; Wang, Mei-Ya; Peir, Jinn-Jer; Chou, Fong-In; Chen, Ching-Ya; Chen, Sih-Yu; Huang, Su-Chin; Yang, Mo-Hsiung; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Hwu, Yeukuang; Yang, Chung-Shi; Chen, Jen-Kun

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to establish a (198)Au-radiotracer technique for in vivo tracing, rapid quantification, and ex vivo visualization of PEGylated gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in animals, organs and tissue dissections. The advantages of GNPs lie in its superior optical property, biocompatibility and versatile conjugation chemistry, which are promising to develop diagnostic probes and drug delivery systems. (198)Au is used as a radiotracer because it simultaneously emits beta and gamma radiations with proper energy and half-life; therefore, (198)Au can be used for bioanalytical purposes. The (198)Au-tagged radioactive gold nanoparticles ((198)Au-GNPs) were prepared simply by irradiating the GNPs in a nuclear reactor through the (197)Au(n,γ)(198)Au reaction and subsequently the (198)Au-GNPs were subjected to surface modification with polyethylene glycol to form PEGylated (198)Au-GNPs. The (198)Au-GNPs retained physicochemical properties that were the same as those of GNP before neutron irradiation. Pharmacokinetic and biodisposition studies were performed by intravenously injecting three types of (198)Au-GNPs with or without PEGylation into mice; the γ radiation in blood specimens and dissected organs was then measured. The (198)Au-radiotracer technique enables rapid quantification freed from tedious sample preparation and shows more than 95% recovery of injected GNPs. Clinical gamma scintigraphy was proved feasible to explore spatial- and temporal-resolved biodisposition of (198)Au-GNPs in living animals. Moreover, autoradiography, which recorded beta particles from (198)Au, enabled visualizing the heterogeneous biodisposition of (198)Au-GNPs in different microenvironments and tissues. In this study, the (198)Au-radiotracer technique facilitated creating a trimodality analytical platform for tracing, quantifying and imaging GNPs in animals. PMID:25424326

  18. Advances in analytical spectrochemistry with ionized gases. I. Improved fundamental understanding through laser based techniques. II. Novel bioanalytical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez, Gerardo

    Over the past several decades plasma spectrochemistry has become the workhorse for performing elemental analysis. Nevertheless, we are still far from fully understanding the fundamental mechanisms that affect and led to the production of the analytical signal. Thus, the first part of this study was focused on improving our knowledge of plasma fundamental processes. First, the effect of exposing an inductively coupled plasma to a mass spectrometer sampling interface was investigated. Our results show that the mass spectrometer sampler affects the plasma fundamental parameters in a way that changes with gas flow, forward r.f. power, and plasma torch-to-sampler distance. The findings help to better explain the plasma sampling process and have made clear that results from mass-spectrometry based plasma diagnostics are applicable to unperturbed plasmas only as a rough approximation. Second, and instrument was constructed to characterize the fundamental parameters of an analytical glow discharge by using Thomson and Rayleigh laser scattering. A continuous dc glow discharge source was studied and a set of corresponding numerical modeling experiments were performed. The resulting theory agrees qualitatively with the experimental findings; moreover, the theoretical and experimental techniques often provide complementary information. Finally, a temporally and spatially resolved map of the fundamental parameters of a dc glow discharge operated in pulsed mode was obtained. The results confirm previously proposed electron energy-transfer mechanisms at the beginning of the pulse. In contrast, the findings call into question other mechanisms involving plasma gas metastable formation proposed for the time period immediately after the end of the pulse. In the second part of the study an imaging radio frequency glow discharge instrument was developed to provide three-dimensional elemental analysis of solids. The newly developed instrument was then applied to the simultaneous

  19. Investigation of trace element atmospheric pollution by nuclear analytical techniques at a global scale: Harmonized approaches supported by the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There are two conceptually different approaches for assessing trace element atmospheric pollution: (1) compositional analysis of directly collected APM, precipitation, and/or total deposit, and (2) the analysis of suitable air pollution bio indicators. In both approaches, multielement databases should be generated for subsequent emission source identification and apportionment. Nuclear analytical techniques are very suitable for the analysis of such kind of samples because they are multielement and non-destructive, having a high degree of sensitivity and selectivity for a large number of elements. For these reasons the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been systematically supporting air pollution research since 1992. As part of general support to improving analytical performance of laboratories in its Member States (MS) the IAEA has carried out several interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests on filters loaded with particulate matter, lichens and mosses. The results obtained over the years has showed a definite performance improvement in the laboratories carrying out such analyses. Some typical results are summarised and presented in the paper. The IAEA has been supporting its MS' activities aimed at identifying major sources of air pollution affecting each of the participating countries and obtaining comparative data on pollution levels in areas of high pollution and low pollution. For these purposes an appropriate APM sampler was selected (about 100 such samplers have been distributed to nearly 50 countries worldwide), detailed sampling and sample preparation procedures elaborated, and data evaluation/interpretation procedures harmonized. The obtained results evidence that the levels of several pollutants (e.g. mass, S, Pb) in many countries exceed the United States Environmental Protection Agency prescribed limits. The IAEA has also been co-ordinating development of biomonitoring metrology for assessing (trace) element atmospheric

  20. Determination of PASHs by various analytical techniques based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: application to a biodesulfurization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezcua, Milagros; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; Boltes, Karina; Alonso Del Aguila, Raul; Leton, Pedro; Rodríguez, Antonio; García-Calvo, Eloy

    2008-06-15

    Polycyclic aromatic sulphur heterocyclic (PASH) compounds, such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and alkylated derivatives are used as model compounds in biodesulfurization processes. The development of these processes is focused on the reduction of the concentration of sulphur in gasoline and gas-oil [D.J. Monticello, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 11 (2000) 540], in order to meet European Union and United States directives. The evaluation of biodesulfurization processes requires the development of adequate analytical techniques, allowing the identification of any transformation products generated. The identification of intermediates and final products permits the evaluation of the degradation process. In this work, seven sulfurated compounds and one non-sulfurated compound have been selected to develop an extraction method and to compare the sensitivity and identification capabilities of three different gas chromatography ionization modes. The selected compounds are: dibenzothiophene (DBT), 4-methyl-dibenzothiophene (4-m-DBT), 4,6-dimethyl-dibenzothiophene (4,6-dm-DBT) and 4,6 diethyl-dibenzothiophene (4,6 de-DBT), all of which can be used as model compounds in biodesulfurization processes; as well as dibenzothiophene sulfoxide (DBTO(2)), dibenzothiophene sulfone (DBTO) and 2-(2-hydroxybiphenyl)-benzenesulfinate (HBPS), which are intermediate products in biodesulfurization processes of DBT [ A. Alcon, V.E. Santos, A.B. Martín, P. Yustos, F. García-Ochoa, Biochem. Eng. J. 26 (2005) 168]. Furthermore, a non-sulfurated compound, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP), has also been selected as it is the final product in the biodesulfurization process of DBT [A. Alcon, V.E. Santos, A.B. Martín, P. Yustos, F. García-Ochoa. Biochem. Eng. J. 26 (2005) 168]. Since, typically, biodesulfurization reactions take place in a biphasic medium, two extraction methods have been developed: a liquid-liquid extraction method for the watery phase and a solid phase extraction method for the organic phase

  1. Rapid Late Holocene glacier fluctuations reconstructed from South Georgia lake sediments using novel analytical and numerical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bilt, Willem; Bakke, Jostein; Werner, Johannes; Paasche, Øyvind; Rosqvist, Gunhild

    2016-04-01

    The collapse of ice shelves, rapidly retreating glaciers and a dramatic recent temperature increase show that Southern Ocean climate is rapidly shifting. Also, instrumental and modelling data demonstrate transient interactions between oceanic and atmospheric forcings as well as climatic teleconnections with lower-latitude regions. Yet beyond the instrumental period, a lack of proxy climate timeseries impedes our understanding of Southern Ocean climate. Also, available records often lack the resolution and chronological control required to resolve rapid climate shifts like those observed at present. Alpine glaciers are found on most Southern Ocean islands and quickly respond to shifts in climate through changes in mass balance. Attendant changes in glacier size drive variations in the production of rock flour, the suspended product of glacial erosion. This climate response may be captured by downstream distal glacier-fed lakes, continuously recording glacier history. Sediment records from such lakes are considered prime sources for paleoclimate reconstructions. Here, we present the first reconstruction of Late Holocene glacier variability from the island of South Georgia. Using a toolbox of advanced physical, geochemical (XRF) and magnetic proxies, in combination with state-of-the-art numerical techniques, we fingerprinted a glacier signal from glacier-fed lake sediments. This lacustrine sediment signal was subsequently calibrated against mapped glacier extent with the help of geomorphological moraine evidence and remote sensing techniques. The outlined approach enabled us to robustly resolve variations of a complex glacier at sub-centennial timescales, while constraining the sedimentological imprint of other geomorphic catchment processes. From a paleoclimate perspective, our reconstruction reveals a dynamic Late Holocene climate, modulated by long-term shifts in regional circulation patterns. We also find evidence for rapid medieval glacier retreat as well as a

  2. Implementation of a quality system to a study on natural contamination using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear and other related analytical techniques are used for the general purpose of investigating the causes, as well as the primary and secondary sources, of natural contamination with arsenic in the Pampa plain of Argentina. The main objective of the overall study is the definition of the geographical distribution of the process of contamination with arsenic, and some other particular objectives of the investigation are oriented to obtain additional information on: (a) geochemical behaviour of arsenic and other associated trace elements; (b) characteristics of the primary and secondary sources of contribution; (c) eventual presence of other toxic elements; and (d) influence on the quality of groundwater and soils of the area. For the analysis of water, soils and loess deposits of the whole region, the following techniques and elements are included. Neutron activation analysis: As, Al, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr (soils and loess). Atomic absorption spectrometry: As (waters). Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry: As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Sr and Pb (waters). Wave dispersive X ray fluorescence: Rb and Sr (soils and loess), As, Co, Cu, V and Zn (waters). Total reflection X ray fluorescence: As, Br, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, V and Zn (waters). A quality system for the study has been implemented. The stages were connected with a group of actions, starting from the specific quality assurance programmes of the laboratories and, in relation with the present study, through sampling, chemical analyses with their procedures and, finally, treatment of the results. As a complement, the laboratories participated in IAEA intercomparison rounds. The results and the implications of the implementation of the system are discussed. (author)

  3. Analytic Formulae for Concrete Mix Design Based on Experimental Data Base and Predicting the Concrete Behavior Using ANN Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A. M. Abdeen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Local Egyptian practice in producing concrete for different structural applications is based on the known properties of cement. Cement has been produced locally under the Egyptian standards ES 372, 373 and 584 for ordinary, rapid hardening and sulphate resisting types. In 2007, the Egyptian standards issued ES 4756 that adopted the European standard EN 197 for producing cement. This resulted in new types of cements to replace the types that local construction companies used to apply for decades. Many doubts appeared about whether the rules applied for concrete mix proportioning are still valid. In the current research, an experimental investigation of concrete properties is made using two of the locally most common types of cements CEM I 32.5 R & CEM I 42.5 N. Slump, compressive strength, rebound number and ultrasonic pulse velocities were investigated for 64 mixes. The main parameters were type of cement, cement content, water content, and fine/coarse aggregate ratio. Data base was established for the mix proportions and corresponding properties. Analytic formulae are proposed for utilizing the collected data base for concrete mix design. Also, using the experimental data base presented in the current study, numerical approach, using one of the artificial intelligence techniques, is adopted to simulate the concrete behavior for different mix proportions. Artificial Neural Network (ANN technique is developed in the present work to simulate the concrete slump and concrete compressive strength for different mix proportions at different ages for the two types of cement and then predict the concrete behavior for different mix proportions at ages rather than those investigated in the experimental work.

  4. Radio analytical non-destructive technique in performance evaluation of nuclear grade resins indion ARU 103 and Purolite NRW 5050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondestructive radio analytical technique using 131I and 82Br tracer isotopes was used to assess the performance of two nuclear grade anion exchange resins Indion ARU 103 and Purolite NRW 5050. It was observed that for both the resins under identical experimental conditions, iodide ion- isotopic exchange reaction take place at a faster rate as compared to bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction. The results of present investigation indicate that during the two ion-isotopic exchange reactions, for both the resins, there exists a strong positive linear correlation between amount of ions exchanged and concentration of ionic solution; and strong negative correlation between amount of ions exchanged and temperature of exchanging medium. Also at a constant temperature of 30.0 0C, as the concentration of labeled iodide ion solution increases from 0.001 mol/L to 0.004 mol/L, the percentage of iodide ions exchanged increases from 77.72 % to 84.60 % for Purolite NRW 5050 resins and from 58.28 % to 65.76 % for Indion ARU 103 resins. Similarly results were observed in case of bromide ion-isotopic exchange reactions for the two resins. The overall results indicate that under identical experimental conditions, Purolite NRW 5050 resins shows superior performance over Indion ARU 103 resins.

  5. Characterization of pre-hispanic pigments by modern analytical techniques; Caracterizacion de pigmentos prehispanicos por tecnicas analiticas modernas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega A, M

    2003-07-01

    In this work, the study of mural painting pigments from two archaeological sites (The Great Temple in Mexico city and Cacaxtla) was performed to know their materials composition, identify their structural characteristics and properties by using modern analytical techniques. Blue, ochre, red and black pigments of Mexica culture (1325-1521 a.C. / late Post Classic period); blue, ochre, red, brown, pink, green and white of Olmeca- Xicalanca culture (700-900 a.C. / Epiclassic period) were studied. Data about materials used, technological evolution, mineralogical background, cultural interchange and origin was obtained. Environmental exposition of these paintings since their discovering has produced changes and damage on their materials. Therefore, stability of some pigments has been notorious, ''Maya Blue'' specially presents extraordinary resistance to diluted and concentrated acids and alkalis including boiling condition, acqua regia, solvents, oxidant and reducing agents, moderate heat and biocorrosi6n; for that reason its study was emphasized. ''Maya Blue'' pigment was synthesized in laboratory using the processes described by historic sources (with indigophera suffruticosa leaves and synthetic indigo) up to obtain a stable pigment including acqua regia action. Clay matrix sorbs nearly 0.4 weight percent of organic dye, which cover 79% of palygorskita surface area. (Author)

  6. Differentiation of lemon essential oil based on volatile and non-volatile fractions with various analytical techniques: a metabolomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, Florence; Marti, Guillaume; Boccard, Julien; Debrus, Benjamin; Merle, Philippe; Delort, Estelle; Baroux, Lucie; Raymo, Vilfredo; Velazco, Maria Inés; Sommer, Horst; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Rudaz, Serge

    2014-01-15

    Due to the importance of citrus lemon oil for the industry, fast and reliable analytical methods that allow the authentication and/or classification of such oil, using the origin of production or extraction process, are necessary. To evaluate the potential of volatile and non-volatile fractions for classification purposes, volatile compounds of cold-pressed lemon oils were analyzed, using GC-FID/MS and FT-MIR, while the non-volatile residues were studied, using FT-MIR, (1)H-NMR and UHPLC-TOF-MS. 64 Lemon oil samples from Argentina, Spain and Italy were considered. Unsupervised and supervised multivariate analyses were sequentially performed on various data blocks obtained by the above techniques. Successful data treatments led to statistically significant models that discriminated and classified cold-pressed lemon oils according to their geographic origin, as well as their production processes. Studying the loadings allowed highlighting of important classes of discriminant variables that corresponded to putative or identified chemical functions and compounds. PMID:24054247

  7. Biomonitoring of air pollution in Jamaica through trace-element analysis of epiphytic plants using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air quality has been monitored at selected areas in Jamaica using high volume samplers. The results obtained, showed elevated levels of aluminium in bauxitic areas and very high lead concentrations in urban areas, from 5 to 35 times greater than in rural areas. The lower throughput of the conventional air particulate samplers however, restricts the air quality and health assessment on a nation-wide scale. Biomonitoring offers a cost-effective alternative to air-quality assessment if appropriate indicator species are chosen. The epiphytic lower plants such as lichens and mosses have been used as indicators of regional air quality in several European countries and USA. However, there is not enough studies on lichens and mosses in tropical countries, probably due to the lower occurrence of these species, which cover only 8% of the world's land surface. In Jamaica the epiphytic higher plants, represented by the genus Tillandsia are widely distributed, which make them along with the lichens and mosses potential site-specific bioindicators of air quality. The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project entitled 'Biomonitoring of Air Pollution in Jamaica Through Trace-Element Analysis of Epiphytic Plants Using Nuclear And Related Analytical Techniques' will address these needs of the country. The primary purpose of the present study was to develop specific bioindicators of atmospheric air pollution in Jamaica, which will provide baseline information for health hazards assessment

  8. The use of nuclear related analytical techniques for the determination of ingestion and body content of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of observations revealed that various human disease states are associated with measurable abnormalities of trace element levels. Until present there is no data on trace element levels in human tissues and dietary intake representing the population in Indonesia. Trace element level in various biological materials, especially human serum related to health syndrome (e.g. acute myocardial infarction and goiter prevalences) was performed by National Atomic Energy Agency in cooperation with relevant institutes. The present study is concerned with determination of ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection (Cs, Sr, I, Th and U). Quantitation of the elements in the samples will be determined by neutron activation analysis, complemented by nuclear related analytical techniques, e.g. inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. Samples to be analyzed consist of (a) total diets and individual staple foodstuffs, (b) autopsy specimens of liver, lung, kidney, muscle, thyroid and bone, and (c) drinking water. It seems difficult for us to define nationally representative specimens of total diets and individual staple foodstuffs. Based on these facts, in the first year activity samples of dietary intake from various socio economic levels of population in West Java will be collected. Human tissue sample is obtained from autopsy of normal persons who are killed in traffic accident or homicide victim. Traces of Th and U in drinking water are determined by neutron activation analysis following preconcentration of these elements in chelating resin Chlelex 100. (author)

  9. Speciation of trace elements in biological samples by nuclear analytical and related techniques coupled with chemical and biochemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, most analytical problems relating to biological systems were addressed by measuring the total concentrations of elements. Now there is increasing interest of the importance of their chemical forms, in which an element is present in biological systems, e.g., the oxidation state, the binding state with macromolecules, or even the molecular structure. The biological effects of chromium, which is classified as an essential nutrient, are dependent upon its oxidation. state. In general, trivalent chromium is biochemically active, whereas hexavalent chromium is considered to be toxic. Mercury is one of serious environmental persistent pollutants. However, organic forms of mercury are known to possess much higher toxicity than inorganic mercury. Therefore, information on speciation is critically required in order to better understanding of their bioavailability, metabolism, transformation, and toxicity in vivo. Recently, chemical speciation of selenium, mercury, copper, zinc, iron, and so on, has been investigated by INAA, ICP-MS, XRF, EXAFS and related techniques combined with chemical and biochemical separation (extraction, chromatography, gel electrophoresis, etc.). INAA, XRF, and ICP-MS have superior advantages in aspect of multielemental analysis with high accuracy and sensitivity, which render the possibility of analyzing various elements of interest simultaneously. These offline or online techniques have been flexibly applied to different biological matrixes, such as human hair, serum, urine, various tissues and organs in our researches. In addition, EXAFS provides structural information about the moiety of metal centers up to a distance of approximately 4-5 Anstrom. For instance, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Imbalance of elements, such as Se, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cd, Ca, etc., has been found in the whole blood or serum of patients with HCC. We found that the profiles of Se, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cu-containing proteins

  10. Development of an analytical technique for the detection of alteration minerals formed in bentonite by reaction with alkaline solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, H.; Shibata, M.; Owada, H.; Kaneko, M.; Kuno, Y.; Asano, H.

    A multibarrier system consisting of cement-based backfill, structures and support materials, and a bentonite-based buffer material has been studied for the TRU waste disposal concept being developed in Japan, the aim being to restrict the migration of radionuclides. Concern regarding bentonite-based materials in this disposal environment relates to long-term alteration under hyper-alkaline conditions due to the presence of cementitious materials. In tests simulating the interaction between bentonite and cement, formation of secondary minerals due to alteration reactions under the conditions expected for geological disposal of TRU waste (equilibrated water with cement at low liquid/solid ratio) has not been observed, although alteration was observed under extremely hyper-alkaline conditions with high temperatures. This was considered to be due to the fact that analysis of C-S-H gel formed at the interface as a secondary mineral was difficult using XRD, because of its low crystallinity and low content. This paper describes an analytical technique for the characterization of C-S-H gel using a heavy liquid separation method which separates C-S-H gel from Kunigel V1 bentonite (bentonite produced in Japan) based on the difference in specific gravity between the crystalline minerals constituting Kunigel V1 and the secondary C-S-H gel. For development of C-S-H gel separation methods, simulated alteration samples were prepared by mixing 990 mg of unaltered Kunigel V1 and 10 mg of C-S-H gel synthesized using pure chemicals at a ratio of Ca/Si = 1.2. The simulated alteration samples were dispersed in bromoform-methanol mixtures with specific gravities ranging from 2.00 to 2.57 g/cm 3 and subjected to centrifuge separation to recover the light density fraction. Subsequent XRD analysis to identify the minerals was complemented by dissolution in 0.6 N hydrochloric acid to measure the Ca and Si contents. The primary peak (2 θ = 29.4°, Cu Kα) and secondary peaks (2 θ = 32.1

  11. Big data analytics from strategic planning to enterprise integration with tools, techniques, NoSQL, and graph

    CERN Document Server

    Loshin, David

    2013-01-01

    Big Data Analytics will assist managers in providing an overview of the drivers for introducing big data technology into the organization and for understanding the types of business problems best suited to big data analytics solutions, understanding the value drivers and benefits, strategic planning, developing a pilot, and eventually planning to integrate back into production within the enterprise. Guides the reader in assessing the opportunities and value propositionOverview of big data hardware and software architecturesPresents a variety of te

  12. Nondestructive atomic compositional analysis of BeMgZnO quaternary alloys using ion beam analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolnai, Z., E-mail: zolnai.zsolt@ttk.mta.hu [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science (MFA), Konkoly-Thege M. út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Toporkov, M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, 601W Main St, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States); Volk, J. [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science (MFA), Konkoly-Thege M. út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, 601W Main St, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States); Demchenko, D.O. [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, 701W. Grace St., Richmond, VA 23284 (United States); Okur, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, 601W Main St, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States); Szabó, Z. [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science (MFA), Konkoly-Thege M. út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.; Avrutin, V. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, 601W Main St, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States); Kótai, E. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Konkoly-Thege M. út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • BeMgZnO thin layers were grown with plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). • The Be contents were accurately measured with RBS and proton elastic backscattering. • The Tauc bandgap was measured from optical transmittance experiments. • The bandgap has been varied between 3.26 eV and 4.62 eV via the Be and Mg content. • Experimental and density functional theory calculated bandgaps were in good agreement. - Abstract: The atomic composition with less than 1–2 atom% uncertainty was measured in ternary BeZnO and quaternary BeMgZnO alloys using a combination of nondestructive Rutherford backscattering spectrometry with 1 MeV He{sup +} analyzing ion beam and non-Rutherford elastic backscattering experiments with 2.53 MeV energy protons. An enhancement factor of 60 in the cross-section of Be for protons has been achieved to monitor Be atomic concentrations. Usually the quantitative analysis of BeZnO and BeMgZnO systems is challenging due to difficulties with appropriate experimental tools for the detection of the light Be element with satisfactory accuracy. As it is shown, our applied ion beam technique, supported with the detailed simulation of ion stopping, backscattering, and detection processes allows of quantitative depth profiling and compositional analysis of wurtzite BeZnO/ZnO/sapphire and BeMgZnO/ZnO/sapphire layer structures with low uncertainty for both Be and Mg. In addition, the excitonic bandgaps of the layers were deduced from optical transmittance measurements. To augment the measured compositions and bandgaps of BeO and MgO co-alloyed ZnO layers, hybrid density functional bandgap calculations were performed with varying the Be and Mg contents. The theoretical vs. experimental bandgaps show linear correlation in the entire bandgap range studied from 3.26 eV to 4.62 eV. The analytical method employed should help facilitate bandgap engineering for potential applications, such as solar blind UV photodetectors and

  13. Nondestructive atomic compositional analysis of BeMgZnO quaternary alloys using ion beam analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • BeMgZnO thin layers were grown with plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). • The Be contents were accurately measured with RBS and proton elastic backscattering. • The Tauc bandgap was measured from optical transmittance experiments. • The bandgap has been varied between 3.26 eV and 4.62 eV via the Be and Mg content. • Experimental and density functional theory calculated bandgaps were in good agreement. - Abstract: The atomic composition with less than 1–2 atom% uncertainty was measured in ternary BeZnO and quaternary BeMgZnO alloys using a combination of nondestructive Rutherford backscattering spectrometry with 1 MeV He+ analyzing ion beam and non-Rutherford elastic backscattering experiments with 2.53 MeV energy protons. An enhancement factor of 60 in the cross-section of Be for protons has been achieved to monitor Be atomic concentrations. Usually the quantitative analysis of BeZnO and BeMgZnO systems is challenging due to difficulties with appropriate experimental tools for the detection of the light Be element with satisfactory accuracy. As it is shown, our applied ion beam technique, supported with the detailed simulation of ion stopping, backscattering, and detection processes allows of quantitative depth profiling and compositional analysis of wurtzite BeZnO/ZnO/sapphire and BeMgZnO/ZnO/sapphire layer structures with low uncertainty for both Be and Mg. In addition, the excitonic bandgaps of the layers were deduced from optical transmittance measurements. To augment the measured compositions and bandgaps of BeO and MgO co-alloyed ZnO layers, hybrid density functional bandgap calculations were performed with varying the Be and Mg contents. The theoretical vs. experimental bandgaps show linear correlation in the entire bandgap range studied from 3.26 eV to 4.62 eV. The analytical method employed should help facilitate bandgap engineering for potential applications, such as solar blind UV photodetectors and heterostructures

  14. Las variables de información e informática dentro del perfeccionamiento organizacional: Centro de Investigaciones y Servicios Ambientales y Tecnológicos (CISAT de Holguín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anays Más Basnuevo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de un proyecto territorial de ciencia e innovación, que cumplió con el objetivo de contribuir al proceso de perfeccionamiento del Centro de Investigaciones y Servicios Ambientales y Tecnológicos (CISAT con el desarrollo de dos de las variables que inciden en él: la Información y la Informática. Los resultados obtenidos responden al paradigma científico-tecnológico actual y la política establecida dentro del país y el ministerio. Se recomienda que para su implementación se establezca una estructura y se asignen funciones. Se recomienda que los resultados expuestos sean tomados en cuenta como apoyo al proceso de dirección y perfeccionamiento del centro.

  15. A study on environmental pollution monitoring and occupational health in the Capital Iron and Steel Company, Beijing, China, using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the First Research Coordination Meeting in Vienna, 20-24 October 1997, on the CRP on Assessment of Levels and Health-effects of Airborne Particulate Matter in Mining, Metal Refining and Metal Working Industries using Nuclear and related Analytical Techniques, our research group has completed the work plan defined by the contract with the Agency, including: (1) collection of airborne particulate, plant and soil samples from sites around the Capital Iron and Steel Company and of human hair, urine, and blood samples from the exposed workers and the control group; (2) validation of the analytical methods (NAA, XRF, SRXRF, JCP-AES etc.) by analyzing appropriate reference materials and by participating in relevant Agency's quality assurance exercises; and (3) analysis of part of the collected samples and preliminary discussion on the available analytical results. Finally, plan for future work was outlined as well. (author)

  16. Characterizing Subcore Heterogeneity: A New Analytical Model and Technique to Observe the Spatial Variation of Transverse Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Maartje; Niu, Ben; Krevor, Sam

    2015-04-01

    Transverse dispersion, the lateral spread of chemical components in an aqueous solution caused by small heterogeneities in a rock, plays an important role in spreading, mixing and reaction during flow through porous media. Conventionally, transverse dispersion has been determined with the use of an annular core device and concentration measurements of the effluent (Blackwell, 1962; Hassinger and Von Rosenberg, 1968) or concentration measurements at probe locations along the core (Han et al, 1985; Harleman and Rumer, 1963). Both methods were designed around an analytical model of the transport equations assuming a single constant for the transverse dispersion coefficient, which is used to analyse the experimental data. We have developed a new core flood test with the aim of characterising chemical transport and dispersion directly in three dimensions to (1) produce higher precision observations of transverse dispersion than has been possible before and (2) so that the effects of rock heterogeneity on transport can also be observed and summarised using statistical descriptions allowing for a more nuanced picture of transport than allowed by description with a single transverse dispersion coefficient. The dispersion of a NaI aqueous solution injected into a Berea sandstone rock core was visualised in 3D with the use of a medical x-ray CT scanner. A device consisting out of three annular regions was used for injection. Water was injected into the centre and outer annular region and a NaI aqueous solution was injected in the middle annular region. An analytical solution to the flow and transport equations for this new inlet configuration was derived to design the tests. The Berea sandstone core was 20 cm long and had a diameter of 7.62cm. The core flood experiments were carried out for Peclet nr 0.5 and Peclet nr 2. At steady state, x-ray images were taken every 0.2 cm along the core. This resulted in a high quality 3D digital data set of the concentration distribution

  17. Analytical testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, W. G.; Fabunmi, J. A.; Nagy, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical methods for combining flight acceleration and strain data with shake test mobility data to predict the effects of structural changes on flight vibrations and strains are presented. This integration of structural dynamic analysis with flight performance is referred to as analytical testing. The objective of this methodology is to analytically estimate the results of flight testing contemplated structural changes with minimum flying and change trials. The category of changes to the aircraft includes mass, stiffness, absorbers, isolators, and active suppressors. Examples of applying the analytical testing methodology using flight test and shake test data measured on an AH-1G helicopter are included. The techniques and procedures for vibration testing and modal analysis are also described.

  18. Learning Analytics and Computational Techniques for Detecting and Evaluating Patterns in Learning: An Introduction to the Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Taylor; Sherin, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The learning sciences community's interest in learning analytics (LA) has been growing steadily over the past several years. Three recent symposia on the theme (at the American Educational Research Association 2011 and 2012 annual conferences, and the International Conference of the Learning Sciences 2012), organized by Paulo Blikstein, led…

  19. Experiences with IAEA project: TC Regional Project on Quality Control and Quality Assurance for Nuclear Analytical Techniques (RER/2/004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the TC Regional Project on Quality Control and Quality Assurance for Nuclear Analytical Techniques RER/2/004, 12 laboratories from east and central European countries participated. Within this project 4 workshops, 2 audit inspections and 2 proficiency tests were organized. The aim of this project was to help these laboratories to implement quality assurance system based on the ISO 17025 standard and to help them on the way towards accreditation. (author)

  20. Carbon and nitrogen determination in Zr by photon or proton activation analysis. Comparison between the results obtained by this method and other analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon and nitrogen are determined by the following nuclear reactions: 12C(γ,n)11C and 14N(p,α)11C. The performances of the method and the main interferences are considered. The process developed for the separation of carbon-11 from zirconium is described and its efficiency evaluated. The results obtained are compared with those given by different laboratories using various analytical techniques

  1. A microwave assisted desolvation system based on the use of a TM010 cavity for inductively coupled plasma based analytical techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Grindlay Lledó, Guillermo; Maestre Pérez, Salvador; Mora Pastor, Juan; Hernandis Martínez, Vicente; Gras García, Luis

    2005-01-01

    A new microwave assisted desolvation system based on the use of a TM010 cavity (MWDS2) has been developed and evaluated in plasma based analytical techniques: inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The new design overcomes the main experimental drawbacks shown by previous designs based on the use of domestic ovens: (i) lack of control on microwave generation and application; and (ii) inappropriate MW cavity ...

  2. Development of an absolute x-ray fluorescence technique and high accuracy analytical methods for the determination of metals in catalytic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique to produce characteristic x-rays by direct beta excitation for x-ray fluorescence analysis is presented. This is carried out by the introduction of 100 uCi of Pm-147 or Ni-63 to a small sample, which is placed directly in the window of a modified Si(Li) semiconductor. Corrected intensities are only given at 300 seconds for synthetic standards oscillating within the range 22 3 was used, to which the radioisotope was directly added. Preliminary results of the determination of eleven different radionuclides by means of an elementary x-ray analysis by using a new analytical technique, are discussed. In this technique the radioisotope and the sample are directly mixed, then this source-sample in the detector window and is protected from contamination with a thin plastic film. Future and possible applications of this technique are presented

  3. Estrategia didáctica para el perfeccionamiento del proceso de formación interpretativa en la matemática superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongo Gungula, Eurico

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es síntesis del aporte práctico de una tesis doctoral desarrollada en la dinámica del proceso de formación interpretativa en la Matemática Superior, realizada en la Universidad de Oriente, Cuba, desde Septiembre de 2010 hasta Junio de 2014. Para su implementación en la práctica educativa se diseñó una serie de acciones conducentes al desarrollo del pensamiento interpretativo de los estudiantes universitarios, pautadas esencialmente en la socialización de procedimientos de resolución de problemas matemáticos y de interpretación de los resultados en correspondencia con las necesidades de aplicación en la solución de problemas concretos de la vida y de la profesión. El enfoque metodológico seguido en su desarrollo y ejemplificación práctica es fundamentalmente cualitativo, pautado en la investigación-acción, como un tipo de investigación social basada en la observación de fenómenos asociados a la acción y la resolución de problemas concretos, donde la participación activa y comprometida del investigador y demás implicados en el proceso, juegan un rol fundamental en su transformación. Su objetivo es contribuir al perfeccionamiento del proceso de formación matemática en la educación superior angolana, dadas las insuficiencias que se aprecian en este contexto, que obligan a contratar sistemáticamente profesores formados en universidades extranjeras para garantizar la continuidad del proceso formativo, principalmente en los últimos años de las carreras de Licenciatura en Matemática. Los resultados obtenidos evidencian el rol de la contextualización de los contenidos, ejercicios, problemas y su interpretación lógica, como herramienta indispensable para el perfeccionamiento de la formación profesional de los futuros profesores de Matemática.

  4. Combination of various analytical techniques for characterisation of low and high molecular weight carbohydrates in Norway spruce needles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabálková, J.; Chmelík, Josef; Wahlund, K. G.

    Glasgow : Royal Society of Chemistry, 2004, P80. [International Carbohydrate Symposium /22./. Glasgow (GB), 23.07.2004-27.07.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/03/1182 Grant ostatní: GA FR VŠ(CZ) G4/1685/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : Norway spruce needles * carbohydrates * size exclusion chromatography Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  5. Profiling of bacterial cells and cell-surface proteins of plant-associated bacteria by standard analytical techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Dana; Horká, Marie; Šalplachta, Jiří; Kubesová, Anna; Vykydalová, Marie; Kahle, Vladislav

    Latvia: Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis, 2011 - (Kažoka, H.). s. 94 [Nordic Separation Science Society Conference /6./. 24.09.2011-27.09.2011, Riga] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701; GA MV VG20112015021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : bacterial profiling * Rhizobium * MALDI-TOF MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://www.nosss.eu

  6. A Novel Environmental Performance Evaluation of Thailand’s Food Industry Using Structural Equation Modeling and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Anirut Pipatprapa; Hsiang-Hsi Huang; Ching-Hsu Huang

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the environment and sustainability are important topics for every industry. The food industry is particularly complicated in this regard because of the dynamic and complex character of food products and their production. This study uses structural equation modeling (SEM) and a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) to investigate which factors are suitable for evaluating the environmental performance of Thailand’s food industry. A first-stage questionnaire survey was conducted wit...

  7. Uncertainty in soil-structure interaction analysis of a nuclear power plant due to different analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the results of the dynamic response analysis of the Zion reactor containment building using three different soil-structure interaction (SSI) analytical procedures which are: the substructure method, CLASSI; the equivalent linear finite element approach, ALUSH; and the nonlinear finite element procedure, DYNA3D. Uncertainties in analyzing a soil-structure system due to SSI analysis procedures were investigated. Responses at selected locations in the structure were compared through peak accelerations and response spectra

  8. Theory of stochastic differential equations with jumps and applications mathematical and analytical techniques with applications to engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Situ, Rong

    2006-01-01

    Stochastic differential equations (SDEs) are a powerful tool in science, mathematics, economics and finance. This book will help the reader to master the basic theory and learn some applications of SDEs. In particular, the reader will be provided with the backward SDE technique for use in research when considering financial problems in the market, and with the reflecting SDE technique to enable study of optimal stochastic population control problems. These two techniques are powerful and efficient, and can also be applied to research in many other problems in nature, science and elsewhere.

  9. Age estimation of blood stains using different analytical techniques and the in-situ identification of proteins using BCA

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Waseeh

    2014-01-01

    The issue of establishing a correct timeline in terms of body fluids has always been an important aspect in any forensic investigation. The techniques currently being used have all proved to work quite well but have certain limitations. One of the main problems with these techniques is their invasiveness to the sample in question. This is a major problem as, in most cases, the sample analysed is quite small and the destruction of it via the use of one technique can limit it being used for oth...

  10. Development of analytical techniques for studies on dispersion of actinides in the environment and characterization of environmental radioactive particles

    OpenAIRE

    Jernström, Jussi

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive particles from three locations were investigated for elemental composition, oxidation states of matrix elements, and origin. Instrumental techniques applied to the task were scanning electron microscopy, X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and synchrotron radiation based microanalytical techniques comprising X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence tomography, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. Uranium-containing l...

  11. Neutron Capture Radiography: Neutron Capture Radiography:a technique for isotopic labelling and analytical imaging with a few stable isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Thellier; Camille Ripoll

    2006-01-01

    NCR (neutron capture radiography) may be used successfully for the imaging of one of the stable isotopes of a few chemical elements (especially 6Li and 10B, possibly also 14N, 17O, and others) and for labelling experiments using these stable isotopes. Other physical techniques compete with NCR. However, NCR can remain extremely useful in a certain number of cases, because it is usually more easily done and is less expensive than the other techniques.

  12. Neutron Capture Radiography: Neutron Capture Radiography:a technique for isotopic labelling and analytical imaging with a few stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Thellier

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available NCR (neutron capture radiography may be used successfully for the imaging of one of the stable isotopes of a few chemical elements (especially 6Li and 10B, possibly also 14N, 17O, and others and for labelling experiments using these stable isotopes. Other physical techniques compete with NCR. However, NCR can remain extremely useful in a certain number of cases, because it is usually more easily done and is less expensive than the other techniques.

  13. Analytical performance of different X-ray spectroscopic techniques for the environmental monitoring of the recultivated uranium mine site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsecz, A.; Osán, J.; Kurunczi, S.; Alföldy, B.; Várhegyi, A.; Török, S.

    2007-08-01

    One uranium deposit exists in Hungary, with continuous radiological monitoring of the site. Nuclear spectroscopical methods are well established in order to study the problem concerning radionuclides. However, very limited information is available on the distribution and chemical form of uranium in the tailings sludge. In order to solve this complex analytical problem, a combination of different analytical methods is necessary. One of the most applied methods for studying the major elemental composition of particulate samples is electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). However, uranium and its daughter elements are often present only at trace amounts in the particles, below detection limit of EPMA. For most actinides that are long-lived radionuclides, microbeam X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) has superior sensitivity to determine elements in microparticles. Detection limits and applicability of EPMA and laboratory μ-XRF are discussed for localization of uranium-rich particles in the inhomogeneous tailings material. Laboratory μ-XRF provided an efficient way to identify these particles that can be easily relocated for further non-destructive microchemical investigations. Finally, for water analysis a simple and reliable method for U analysis is presented using total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) that can be applied for on-site analysis in situations of accidental uranium contamination.

  14. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The division for Analytical Chemistry continued to try and develope an accurate method for the separation of trace amounts from mixtures which, contain various other elements. Ion exchange chromatography is of special importance in this regard. New separation techniques were tried on certain trace amounts in South African standard rock materials and special ceramics. Methods were also tested for the separation of carrier-free radioisotopes from irradiated cyclotron discs

  15. Development of analytical methodology for determination of chloroform in samples of flavoured waters using headspace-solid phase microextraction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Silveira dos Santos

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple and fast analytical methodology was developed using the headspace-solid phase micro extration (HS-SPME for the determination of chloroform in 15 samples of flavoured waters. The extraction of the chloroform was performed with the fiber CAR-PDMS and analyzed on a gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector (ECD - 63Ni. The variables that affect the efficiency of extraction: temperature and time of extraction, volume of headspace, magnetic stirring and salt addition were optimized. The linearity of the method ranged from 0,5 - 45 µg L-1. Low limit of detection was obtained, 0,46 µg L-1. The method showed excellent precision, calculated as the relative standard deviation (RSD% (n = 6 using spiked solutions of 1, 15 and 35 µg L-1 of chloroform, values obtained: 11,2%, 6,4% and 5,7%. Excellent relative sensitivity of 94% was obtained.

  16. New analytical techniques for mycotoxins in complex organic matrices. [Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicking, M.K.L.

    1982-07-01

    Air samples are collected for analysis from the Ames Solid Waste Recovery System. The high level of airborne fungi within the processing area is of concern due to the possible presence of toxic mycotoxins, and carcinogenic fungal metabolites. An analytical method has been developed to determine the concentration of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in the air of the plant which produces Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF). After extraction with methanol, some components in the matrix are precipitated by dissolving the sample in 30% acetonitrile/chloroform. An aliquot of this solution is injected onto a Styragel column where the sample components undergo simultaneous size exclusion and reverse phase partitioning. Additional studies have provided a more thorough understanding of solvent related non-exclusion effects on size exclusion gels. The Styragel column appears to have a useable lifetime of more than six months. After elution from Styragel, the sample is diverted to a second column containing Florisil which has been modified with oxalic acid and deactivated with water. Aflatoxins are eluted with 5% water/acetone. After removal of this solvent, the sample is dissolved in 150 ..mu..L of a spotting solvent and the entire sample applied to a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plate using a unique sample applicator developed here. The aflatoxins on the TLC plate are analyzed by laser fluorescence. A detection limit of 10 pg is possible for aflatoxin standards using a nitrogen laser as the excitation source. Sample concentrations are determined by comparing with an internal standard, a specially synthesized aflatoxin derivative. In two separate RDF samples, aflatoxin B1 was found at levels of 6.5 and 17.0 ppB. The analytical method has also proven useful in the analysis of contaminated corn and peanut meal samples. 42 figures, 8 tables.

  17. The development of an analytical technique for the determination of traces of mercury by substoichiometric isotope dilution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure has been developed for the quantitative determination of traces of mercury in biological samples. The radiochemical separation method used involves the combustion of samples in an oxygen flask, followed by a substoichiometric isotope dilution method utilizing a solvent extraction technique. The method was primarily tested using radiotracer experiments and then by analyzing two already certified NBS Standard Reference Materials, Orchard Leaves and Bovine Liver, and a Bowen's Standard Kale Sample. The limit of detection is 0.005 ppm. The technique developed is comparatively simple, inexpensive, fast and suitable for routine work. (author)

  18. Final report of the IAEA advisory group meeting on accelerator-based nuclear analytical techniques for characterization and source identification of aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of aerosol characterization and source identification covers a wide range of scientific and technical activities in many institutions, in both developed and developing countries. This field includes research and applications on urban air pollution, source apportionment of suspended particulate matter, radioactive aerosol particles, organic compounds carried on particulate matter, elemental characterization of particles, and other areas. The subject of this AGM focused on the use of accelerator-based nuclear analytical techniques for determination of elemental composition of particles (by either bulk or single particle analysis) and the use of accumulated knowledge for source identification

  19. Development of the double-pulse technique to improve the analytical performance of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) on solids: Nuclear and geological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The double-pulse technique has been developed to improve the analytical performance of Laser Ablation coupled to Optical Emission Spectroscopy (LA/OES). This approach relies on the addition of a second time-resolved laser pulse to the classical LA/OES system. It has been studied on aluminium alloys according to different geometries of the two laser beams (orthogonal and collinear geometries) before being applied to different materials (synthetic glass, rock, steel, sodium chloride). The increase in emission intensity depends on the temporal parameters, on the excitation energy level of the emission line, on the concentration of the studied element and on the analyzed matrix. The double-pulse LA/OES technique can be particularly interesting to improve the sensitivity towards vitreous matrices containing elements emitting lines with high excitation energy levels. (author)

  20. Application of hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction techniques in analytical toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Sharifi; Ali Abbasi; Anahita Nosrati

    2016-01-01

    The recent developments in hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction are reviewed. Applications of these newly emerging developments in extraction and preconcentration of a vast category of compounds including heavy metals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and abused drugs in complex matrices (environmental and biological matrices) are reviewed and discussed. The new developments in these techniques including the use of solvents lighter than water, ioni...

  1. Studying pigments on painted plaster in Minoan, Roman and Early Byzantine Crete. A multi-analytical technique approach

    OpenAIRE

    Westlake, P.; Siozos, P; A Philippidis.; Apostolaki, C.; Derham, B; Terlixi, A.; V. Perdikatsis; Jones, R E; Anglos, D

    2012-01-01

    Wall paintings spanning two millennia of Cretan painting history and technology were analysed in an effort to determine similarities and evolutions of painting materials and technology. A multi-technique approach was employed that combined the use of (a) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman microspectroscopy, based on mobile instrumentation, appropriate for rapid, routine-level object characterization, and (b) non-destructive X-ray diffractometry (XRD), performed directly on ...

  2. Studying pigments on painted plaster in Minoan, Roman and early Byzantine Crete. A multi-analytical technique approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, Polly; Siozos, Panayiotis; Philippidis, Aggelos; Apostolaki, Chryssa; Derham, Brendan; Terlixi, Agni; Perdikatsis, Vasilios; Jones, Richard; Anglos, Demetrios

    2012-02-01

    Wall paintings spanning two millennia of Cretan painting history and technology were analysed in an effort to determine similarities and evolutions of painting materials and technology. A multi-technique approach was employed that combined the use of (a) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman microspectroscopy, based on mobile instrumentation, appropriate for rapid, routine-level object characterization, and (b) non-destructive X-ray diffractometry (XRD), performed directly on the wall painting fragment, which provides detailed information on the minerals constituting the paint. Elemental analysis data obtained through LIBS were compared with molecular and crystal structure information from Raman spectroscopy and XRD. Cross-sections from selected samples were also investigated by means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled to micro-probe analysis and X-ray mapping that enabled identification of several mineral components of the paint confirming the results of the XRD analysis. In parallel, replica wall paintings, created with known pigments and binding media for reference purposes, were examined with optical microscopy and stain tested for organic materials. The overall study shows that the LIBS and Raman techniques offer key advantages, such as instrument mobility and speed of data collection and interpretation that are particularly important when dealing with on-site investigations. Thus, they are capable of providing important compositional information in an effective manner that enables quick surveying of wall paintings and permit targeted sample selection for further analysis by advanced laboratory techniques. PMID:21845529

  3. Analytical capillary isotachophoresis: a routine technique for the analysis of lipoproteins and lipoprotein subfractions in whole serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, G; Borgmann, U; Assmann, G

    1985-02-22

    A capillary isotachophoretic separation technique was developed for lipoproteins in native serum which, compared with previous electrophoretic techniques, has negligible molecular sieve effects, does not need gel casting, is suitable for whole serum and has a high discriminative power for lipoprotein subfractions. The technique is based on pre-staining whole serum lipoproteins for 30 min at 4 degrees C before separation of 0.5 microliter of the sample in a free-flow capillary system (0.5 mm I.D.) with discontinuous buffer system. In normolipidaemic sera, high-density (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) are separated into two major subpopulations according to their net electric mobility. The identification of these fractions was confirmed by substitution with ultracentrifugally isolated lipoproteins and by their complete absence from Tangier and abetalipoproteinaemic serum. Triglyceride-rich very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) revealed a defined zone between the HDL and LDL subpopulations. Our preliminary results indicate that the separation of human whole serum lipoproteins by capillary isotachophoresis is a promising method for the determination of lipoprotein subfractions. PMID:4030932

  4. Advanced analytical mass spectrometric techniques and bioassays to characterize untreated and ozonated oil sands process-affected water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Nian; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Klamerth, Nikolaus; McPhedran, Kerry N; Islam, Md Shahinoor; Perez-Estrada, Leonidas; Drzewicz, Przemysław; Blunt, Brian J; Reichert, Megan; Hagen, Mariel; Tierney, Keith B; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2014-10-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is a toxic and poorly biodegradable mixture of sand, silt, heavy metals, and organics. In this study, qualitative and quantitative comparisons of naphthenic acids (NAs) were done using ultraperformance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC TOF-MS), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) MS, and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). The unique combination of these analyses allowed for the determination and correlation of NAs, oxidized NAs, and heteroatom (sulfur or nitrogen) NAs. Despite its lower resolution, UPLC-TOF MS was shown to offer a comparable level of reliability and precision as the high resolution FT-ICR MS. Additionally, the impacts of ozonation (35 mg/L utilized ozone dose) and subsequent NAs degradation on OSPW toxicity were assessed via a collection of organisms and toxicity end points using Vibrio fischeri (nonspecific), specific fish macrophage antimicrobial responses, and fish olfactory responses. Fish macrophages exposed to ozonated OSPW for 1 week showed higher production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates; however, after 12 weeks the responses were reduced significantly. Fish olfactory tests suggested that OSPW interfered with their perception of odorants. Current results indicate that the quantification of NAs species, using novel analytical methods, can be combined with various toxicity methods to assess the efficiency of OSPW treatment processes. PMID:25211339

  5. A Novel Environmental Performance Evaluation of Thailand’s Food Industry Using Structural Equation Modeling and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirut Pipatprapa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the environment and sustainability are important topics for every industry. The food industry is particularly complicated in this regard because of the dynamic and complex character of food products and their production. This study uses structural equation modeling (SEM and a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP to investigate which factors are suitable for evaluating the environmental performance of Thailand’s food industry. A first-stage questionnaire survey was conducted with 178 managers in the food industry that obtained a certificate from the Department of Industrial Work of Thailand to synthesize the performance measurement model and the significance of the relationship between the indicators. A second-stage questionnaire measured 18 experts’ priorities regarding the criteria and sub-factors involved in the different aspects and assessment items regarding environmental performance. SEM showed that quality management, market orientation, and innovation capability have a significantly positive effect on environmental performance. The FAHP showed that the experts were most concerned about quality management, followed by market orientation and innovation capability; the assessment items for quality policy, quality assurance, and customer orientation were of the most concern. The findings of this study can be referenced and support managerial decision making when monitoring environmental performance.

  6. Background air pollution studies in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh using nuclear-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trace element constituents of aerosols such as Hg, Pb, Cd, Se, As, Cu, Zn, Cr, V, etc. are permanent pollutants affecting the biosphere and the general ecosystem. The measurements of these elements collected on air filters, in rainwater, and also in some bioindicators such as moss and lichen, can yield very significant information on the origin, transport, removal and deposition of these pollutants. A set of sensitive and precise nuclear-related and chemical methods such as PIXE, EDXRF, FAAS and DPASV have, therefore, been developed and applied to analyze a number of trace and minor elements in air particulates, coal fly ash, plant materials, moss and water. Further analytical developments would include INAA and TRXRF. Some of the results from air particulates (integral), coal fly ash and moss analyses are presented to illustrate the experience level of the Laboratory. A core programme of study on the trace element composition of aerosols from urban and rural atmosphere in Bangladesh has been planned for implementation within the framework of this CRP. 10 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  7. Analytical sensitivity of staining and molecular techniques for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts isolated from bovines in water samples: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Díaz-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium spp. is a globally distributed protozoan that causes digestive disease in different animals including humans. Excreted oocysts contaminate water and soil, constituting a public health threat. Sensitive and fast methods to detect oocysts in water samples are necessary due to the small number of oocysts present in the environment and their low infectious dose. This study compared the analytical sensitivity of two staining techniques, modified Ziehl-Neelsen and Auramine versus a nested PCR that amplifies a region of ~520bp from 18S rDNA gene, to detect Cryptosporidium spp. in water samples. Water was inoculated with oocysts using serial dilutions, and then a water filtration method was used to recover the parasite oocysts. The staining techniques had similar analytical sensitivity, detecting 8 oocysts/mL, while the nested PCR detected down to 6 oocysts/mL. In conclusion, all of these methods are effective for Cryptosporidium spp. detection in water samples, contributing to the implementation of standardized diagnostic methods for environmental water infectious agents.

  8. Investigation of organic thin layers (iron-porphyrin complex) prepared by spin-coating method with ion beam analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Nowadays, keep increasing interests in metalloporphyrin complexes because of their considerable importance in numerous fields such as biochemistry, medical science and catalysis. As a consequence of the diverse photophysical and photochemical properties of these compounds, they are used in optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices, sensors, artificial photosynthesis systems, and photodynamic therapy. The porphyrin derivatives, for example a kind of free base porphyrin (H2TPPS, tetrakis(4-sulfonato-phenyl)porphyrin) or its metallo-complexes with iron(II) or iron(III) ions have very high molar light absorption and its spectral properties are well characterized. The different functional groups linked on the porphyrin macrocycle or coordinated to the central atom has effect to the electronic structure, and because of this, to the spectral properties of the whole molecule. This kind of behaviour make these kind of compounds applicable to, for example, as a chemical sensing base material. In the Institute of Nuclear Research of MTA we prepared thin layers by spin-coating technique with the porphyrin complex's chloroform solution (c=0,014 M/dm3). To optimize the thin layer preparation method and to investigate the layer properties we use Rutherford-backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) techniques. In addition, we use profilometry technique as well. An ERDA and RBS spectrum of the thin porphyrin complex (FeIIITPPCl) layer on a Si substrate prepared at our laboratory is show on Fig. 2. and 3. According to our measurements the layer thickness is 35 nm

  9. Assessment of waste management options in the oil and gas industry in Ghana using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghana's oil find is growing steadily as more discoveries are being made. Oil and gas exploration and production coupled with their related activities produce wastes. These wastes could be put into three primary categories such as produced water, drilling cuttings and associated wastes (any other waste related with the exploration, development and production of crude oil or natural gas). These wastes may contain varying amount of contaminants such as heavy metals, suspended solid particles and radioactive materials such as Ra-226 or Rn-228, product of U-238 decay that occur in some geologic formations and sediments. The main objective of this study is to assess the waste management practices in the oil and gas industry in Ghana by qualification and quantification of waste generated during exploration and production, examining the system put in place by oil and gas companies to manage these wastes and also determine some basic contaminants in some of these wastes brought to shore for management. Waste samples were taken from Tema Oil Refinery (TOR) and Zeal Environmental Technology Limited at Takoradi. The samples were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) analytical methods to determine heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, As, Ag, Ba, Se) in the oily waste water, oil based mud, block and ash samples. The results showed that the levels of heavy metals were below the EPA permissible limit for discharge into the natural drainage except the level of Pb in the mud samples taken from Zeal before treatment. The levels ranged from 3.99mg/l to 7.44mgl. Even though these levels were above 0.1mg/l discharge standard limit, there was no cause for alarm because the levels dropped below the EPA limit after treatment. Furthermore, the quantity of general garbage deposited in the landfill at Takoradi be Zeal Environmental Technology Limited from 2011 to 2012 increased from 497m3 to 1,314.29m3 respectively. (author)

  10. Contributions of radiochemistry and nuclear analytical techniques to society and technology: some examples of 35 years’ experience in Delft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budget cuts and the oscillating public debates on the benefits of nuclear research reactor facilities are a continuous threat to many nuclear institutions. University affiliated institutions often face additional problems if their facilities offer sufficient scientific challenge and if an education in nuclear sciences provide students a sound outlook for a professional career. Such discussions may be an excuse for non-fulfilment of vacancies and reduced priority in the academic curriculum. Universities tend to reallocate their funds to more contemporary sciences such as molecular biology and nanotechnology. Their choices are based on relevance, quality viability and productivity. Relevance is often measured on the basis of external funding of research programs as well as on career opportunities for students. However, the areas with opportunities for external funding are largely determined by socio-economic developments, sometimes even at the (inter)national political level. The thematic areas in the scientific Framework Programs of the European Union illustrate this. The relevance and viability of an expensive facility like a nuclear reactor centre can also be demonstrated by making the facilities available to provide measurements on request by outsiders. Ideally, such services should be sustainable, but even the existence may lead to consider the centre being of regional or national importance. Nuclear reactor centres have various options for such services, like production of radionuclides; neutron transmutation doping; neutron activation analysis; neutron radiography and others. This contribution gives examples of the typical analytical services provided by the Interuniversity Reactor Institute of the Delft University of Technology. This institute houses the only university research reactor in the Netherlands, a 2 MW swimming pool reactor, with associated facilities for neutron research, neutron activation and radiochemistry. Within the services provided by the

  11. Identification of heavy metals sources in the Mexico city atmosphere, using the proton induced x-ray analytical technique and multifactorial statistics techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this work are: to identify the heavy metals present in the air, and its concentrations. To know the behavior from the polluting chemical elements to the long of an annual cycle corresponding to 1990, based on the concentrations of the same ones, obtained through the PIXE technique. To identify the suitable statistical methods to use to the data of metals concentration in form of total suspended particle (PST), found in this investigation. To relate the concentrations and the meteorological parameters considered to be able to suggest the possible pollution sources. In function of the obtained results, to serve as base to the decisions making and measures control that are planned by diverse institutions focused to the problem of the atmospheric pollution in the Metropolitan area of Mexico City (ZMCM). (Author)

  12. Study of the Pd-Rh interdiffusion by three complementary analytical techniques: PIXE, RBS and ToF-SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, R.L. [Laboratoire d' Analyses par Reactions Nucleaires, Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, rue de Bruxelles, 61-B-5000 Namur (Belgium)]. E-mail: renaud.hubert@fundp.ac.be; Brison, J. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Spectroscopie Electronique Facultes, Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, rue de Bruxelles, 61-B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Houssiau, L. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Spectroscopie Electronique Facultes, Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, rue de Bruxelles, 61-B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Lucas, S. [Laboratoire d' Analyses par Reactions Nucleaires, Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, rue de Bruxelles, 61-B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2005-10-15

    Pd diffusion in Rh has a great interest in the {sup 103}Pd* production intended to brachytherapy, a cancer treatment using radioactive implants. In order to study that diffusion, DC-magnetron sandwich layers of natural Pd and Rh were produced, annealed, and the Pd profiles were measured by ToF-SIMS. Nevertheless, because ToF-SIMS depth profiles suffer from a lack of quantification and depth calibration, the study was completed by RBS, PIXE. The combination of these techniques allowed us to convert the ToF-SIMS depth profiles from an intensity-time to a concentration-depth profile and thus to study the Pd diffusion in Rh.

  13. Clinically relevant analytical techniques, organizational concepts for application and future perspectives of point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppa, Peter B; Bietenbeck, Andreas; Beaudoin, Christopher; Giannetti, Ambra

    2016-01-01

    Applications of near-patient testing have developed rapidly during the last years. It offers quick test results and minimal preanalytical interference, having the potential to improve patient outcomes, even when still under scrutiny by laboratory and healthcare professionals. Near-patient diagnostics are currently also used increasingly in developing countries, due to the burden of inadequate healthcare services in resource-constrained settings. This review describes the underlying emerging techniques that are based on advanced microfluidics and nanomaterials, device miniaturization, and multiplexing the detection mode. The organizational concepts for reasonable applications, contributing significantly to the future perspectives of this nascent diagnostic modality, are supplementary portrayed. PMID:26808189

  14. Ancient artefacts and modern analytical techniques - Usefulness of laser ablation ICP-MS demonstrated with ancient gold coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser ablation (LA) is a sampling technique which is well suited for the characterization of precious archaeological artefacts. Using the example of Celtic gold coins - so-called 'Regenbogenschuesselchen' - the benefits of LA attached to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with a sector field mass spectrometer and multiple Faraday detectors are reviewed. It will be shown that osmium isotopic ratios determined by this method are a valuable guide for investigations on the provenance of Celtic gold. The precision and accuracy achieved with LA-ICP-MS are discussed. Corrections for chemical interferences and mass bias are exemplified

  15. Propuesta para el perfeccionamiento del componente investigativo de la carrera de Estomatología Improvement of the Researching Component in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizette Albertí Vázquez

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo constituye el resultado de la fase final de una investigación, dirigida a elaborar una propuesta basada en acciones que contribuyan a perfeccionar el diseño de la carrera en cuanto a la actividad investigativa a partir del perfeccionamiento de los programas de las asignaturas que tienen posibilidades de dar tratamiento a la actividad científica investigativa y de la capacitación de los profesores, de manera que el egresado pueda dar respuestas a los problemas de salud de Estomatología a través de la investigación científica. Se diseñó una propuesta basadas en tres acciones, donde la 1ra y 2da acción están dirigidas a explicitar y precisar al nivel de objetivos y contenidos lo referido a la actividad investigativa y la 3ra acción dirigida a la capacitación de los profesoresThe present work constitutes the result of the final phase of an investigation, directed to elaborate a proposal based on actions that contribute to perfect the design of the career as for the investigative activity starting from the improvement of the programs of those subjects with possibilities to give treatment to the investigative activity and that contribute to the training of professors, so that the graduate can cope effectively with health problems through scientific investigation. A proposal was designed based on three actions. The 1ra and 2da action are directed to specify investigative activity to the level of objectives and contents. The 3ra action is directed to the training of professors

  16. Identifying and Prioritizing Effective Factors on Classifying A Private Bank Customers by Delphi Technique and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khayatmoghadam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking industry development and presence of different financial institutions cause to increase competition in customer and their capitals attraction so that there are about 28 banks and many credit and financial institutions from which 6 banks are public and 22 banks are private. Among them, public banks have a more appropriate situation than private banks with regard to governmental relations and support and due to geographical expansion and longer history. But due to lack of above conditions; private banks try to attract customers with regarding science areas to remedy this situation. Therefore, in this study we are decided to review banking customers from a different viewpoint. For this reason, we initially obtained ideal indications from banking viewpoint in two-story of uses and resources customers using experts and Delphi technique application which based on this, indicators such as account workflow, account average, lack of returned cheque, etc and in uses section, the amount of facility received, the amount of received warranties, etc, were determined. Then, using a Hierarchical Analysis (AHP method and experts opinions through software Expert Choice11, priority of these criteria were determined and weight of each index was determined. It should be noted that statistical population of bank experts associated with this study were queue and staff. Also obtained results can be used as input for customer grouping in line with CRM techniques implementation.

  17. Análisis crítico acerca del perfeccionamiento del proceso de otorgamiento de las licencias ambientales para la minería niquelífera cubana

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Santiago Barzaga Sablón; Alberto Mauricio Hernández Pérez; Alejandro Merayo Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Se abordó el perfeccionamiento continuo de la gestión ambiental que implica elevar la efectividad del proceso de otorgamiento de las licencias ambientales a través de la aplicación consecuente de la teoría del riesgo y la vulnerabilidad para la toma de decisiones. Los resultados del nuevo enfoque científico permitirán alcanzar resultados satisfactorios en cuanto a la elevación de la calidad, conservación y sostenibilidad ambiental.

  18. Análisis crítico acerca del perfeccionamiento del proceso de otorgamiento de las licencias ambientales para la minería niquelífera cubana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Santiago Barzaga Sablón

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se abordó el perfeccionamiento continuo de la gestión ambiental que implica elevar la efectividad del proceso de otorgamiento de las licencias ambientales a través de la aplicación consecuente de la teoría del riesgo y la vulnerabilidad para la toma de decisiones. Los resultados del nuevo enfoque científico permitirán alcanzar resultados satisfactorios en cuanto a la elevación de la calidad, conservación y sostenibilidad ambiental.

  19. Perfeccionamiento de la estructura metálica de la cosechadora cañera KTP-2M. // Improvement of the metallic structure in the KTP-2M sugar-cane harvester

    OpenAIRE

    R. Estrada Cingualbres; J. Sanfort Navarro; F. Mora Lizabeth; R. Guethón Rico; Castellanos, D.

    2001-01-01

    El bastidor de la cosechadora cubana de caña de azúcar KTP-2M, es un elemento de un elevado grado de hiperestaticidady de una alta complejidad constructiva. Garantizar el diseño óptimo del mismo es un problema actual. En la presenteponencia se expone el trabajo realizado para lograr el perfeccionamiento del bastidor de la cosechadora KTP-2M,garantizando la resistencia y durabilidad de este con un gasto mínimo de materiales, para ello se utilizó el métodoextensométrico eléctrico de medición de...

  20. Las variables de información e informática dentro del perfeccionamiento organizacional: Centro de Investigaciones y Servicios Ambientales y Tecnológicos (CISAT) de Holguín

    OpenAIRE

    Anays Más Basnuevo; Dermidio Parra Valdés; Ana M. Ochoa Fernández; Rayma Cantillo Arrebol

    2006-01-01

    Se presentan los resultados de un proyecto territorial de ciencia e innovación, que cumplió con el objetivo de contribuir al proceso de perfeccionamiento del Centro de Investigaciones y Servicios Ambientales y Tecnológicos (CISAT) con el desarrollo de dos de las variables que inciden en él: la Información y la Informática. Los resultados obtenidos responden al paradigma científico-tecnológico actual y la política establecida dentro del país y el ministerio. Se recomienda que para su implement...

  1. Bridging the gap between intuition and analysis in the decision process: A guidebook to para-analytic techniques, Final report, May 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, R.W., Jr.; Goldberg, N.; Goldberg, T.

    1988-05-01

    This guidebook aims to bring a utility perspective to the extensive literature on decision making, leadership, group dynamics, communication, and creative problem solving. The Guidebook begins with an introduction to para-analytics and an overview of group process and dynamics. The remainder of the volume is divided into three sections. The first section addresses techniques for obtaining new data and resources and includes chapters on information gathering techniques (questionnaires, interviews, focus group interviews, environmental scanning) and on multiple perspectives analysis. The second section focuses on developing new or alternative perspectives through the use of scenario planning, inquiry systems (dialectrical inquiry, devil's advocacy, strategic assumptions analysis), creativity enhancement, brainstorming, and synectics. The final section describes techniques for establishing effective group process and includes chapters on leadership and decision making, conflict management, consensus building and communication skills. The discussion of each technique is organized into seven sections: description, applications, strengths and weaknesses, usage guidelines, example of use, associated tools, and references. 9 refs., 37 figs.

  2. A Comparative Study of Fouling and Bottom Ash from Woody Biomass Combustion in a Fixed-Bed Small-Scale Boiler and Evaluation of the Analytical Techniques Used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Febrero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, fouling and bottom ash were collected from a low-power boiler after wood pellet combustion and studied using several analytical techniques to characterize and compare samples from different areas and determine the suitability of the analysis techniques employed. TGA results indicated that the fouling contained a high amount of organic matter (70%. The XRF and SEM-EDS measurements revealed that Ca and K are the main inorganic elements and exhibit clear tendency in the content of Cl that is negligible in the bottom ash and increased as it penetrated into the innermost layers of the fouling. Calcite, magnesia and silica appeared as the major crystalline phases in all the samples. However, the bottom ash was primarily comprised of calcium silicates. The KCl behaved identically to the Cl, preferably appeared in the adhered fouling samples. This salt, which has a low melting point, condenses upon contact with the low temperature tube and played a crucial role in the early stages of fouling formation. XRD was the most useful technique applied, which provided a semi-quantitative determination of the crystalline phases. FTIR was proven to be inadequate for this type of sample. The XRF and SEM-EDS, techniques yield similar results despite being entirely different.

  3. Comparison of sediment pollution in the rivers of the Hungarian Upper Tisza Region using non-destructive analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osán, János; Török, Szabina; Alföldy, Bálint; Alsecz, Anita; Falkenberg, Gerald; Baik, Soo Yeun; Van Grieken, René

    2007-02-01

    The rivers in the Hungarian Upper Tisza Region are frequently polluted mainly due to mining activities in the catchment area. At the beginning of 2000, two major mining accidents occurred in the Romanian part of the catchment area due to the failure of a tailings dam releasing huge amounts of cyanide and heavy metals to the rivers. Surface sediment as well as water samples were collected at six sites in the years 2000-2003, from the northeast-Hungarian section of the Tisza, Szamos and Túr rivers. The sediment pollution of the rivers was compared based on measurements of bulk material and selected single particles, in order to relate the observed compositions and chemical states of metals to the possible sources and weathering of pollution. Non-destructive X-ray analytical methods were applied in order to obtain different kinds of information from the same samples or particles. In order to identify the pollution sources, their magnitude and fate, complementary analyses were carried out. Heterogeneous particulate samples were analyzed from a large geographical territory and a 4-year time period. Individual particles were analyzed only from the "hot" samples that showed elevated concentrations of heavy metals. Particles that were classified as anthropogenic were finally analyzed to identify trace concentrations and chemical states of heavy metals. Although the Tisza river was affected by water pollution due to the two major mining accidents at the beginning of 2000, the concentration of heavy metals in sediments decreased to the mineral background level 1 year after the pollution event. In the tributaries Szamos and Túr, however, no significant decrease of the heavy metal concentrations was observed in the recent years, indicating a continuous pollution. Among the water suspended particles collected from river Túr, fibers of unknown origin were observed by electron microscopy; these particles were aluminosilicates enriched in Zn and Mn. Cd was also concentrated in

  4. Comparison of sediment pollution in the rivers of the Hungarian Upper Tisza Region using non-destructive analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rivers in the Hungarian Upper Tisza Region are frequently polluted mainly due to mining activities in the catchment area. At the beginning of 2000, two major mining accidents occurred in the Romanian part of the catchment area due to the failure of a tailings dam releasing huge amounts of cyanide and heavy metals to the rivers. Surface sediment as well as water samples were collected at six sites in the years 2000-2003, from the northeast-Hungarian section of the Tisza, Szamos and Tur rivers. The sediment pollution of the rivers was compared based on measurements of bulk material and selected single particles, in order to relate the observed compositions and chemical states of metals to the possible sources and weathering of pollution. Non-destructive X-ray analytical methods were applied in order to obtain different kinds of information from the same samples or particles. In order to identify the pollution sources, their magnitude and fate, complementary analyses were carried out. Heterogeneous particulate samples were analyzed from a large geographical territory and a 4-year time period. Individual particles were analyzed only from the 'hot' samples that showed elevated concentrations of heavy metals. Particles that were classified as anthropogenic were finally analyzed to identify trace concentrations and chemical states of heavy metals. Although the Tisza river was affected by water pollution due to the two major mining accidents at the beginning of 2000, the concentration of heavy metals in sediments decreased to the mineral background level 1 year after the pollution event. In the tributaries Szamos and Tur, however, no significant decrease of the heavy metal concentrations was observed in the recent years, indicating a continuous pollution. Among the water suspended particles collected from river Tur, fibers of unknown origin were observed by electron microscopy; these particles were aluminosilicates enriched in Zn and Mn. Cd was also concentrated in

  5. Analysis of Cm contained in irradiated fuel of experimental fast reactor JOYO'. Development of the analytical technique and measurement of Cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytical technique for Cm contained in a MOX fuel was developed and analysis of Cm contained in irradiated fuel of experimental fast reactor JOYO' was carried out, to contribute to evaluation of transmutation characteristics of MA nuclide in the fast reactor. The procedure of ion-exchange separation of Cm with nitric acid-methanol mixed media essential for the isotopic analysis in irradiated MOX fuel was adopted considering for being rapid and easy. The fundamental test to grasp separation characteristics of this procedure, such as Cm elution position and separation capacity between Cm and Am or Eu, was carried out. In applying this procedure to the analysis of Cm contained in actual specimen, separation condition was evaluated and optimized, and the procedure consist of impurity removal and Am removal process was devised. This procedure resulted in high recovery rate of Cm and high removal rate of Am and impurity which becomes a problem in sample handling and mass-spectrometry such as Eu and Cs. The Cm separation test from irradiated MOX fuel was carried out using this technique, and Cm isotopic ratio analysis was enabled. The analytical technique for Cm contained in irradiated MOX fuel was established using the procedure of ion-exchange separation with nitric acid-methanol mixed media. The analysis of Cm contained in irradiated MOX fuel of experimental fast reactor 'Joyo' was carried out. As a result, it was revealed from measured data that Cm content rate was 1.4-4.0x10-3 atom%, small amount of 247Cm was generated and Cm isotopic ratio was constant above burn-up 60 GWd/t. (author)

  6. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the study of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)], E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk; Omobuwajo, O.R. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Adebajo, A.C. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Buoso, M.C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    Diabetes mellitus, a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to deficiency of insulin, is a disease involving the endocrine pancreas and causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the world. In Nigeria, many plants, especially those implicated in herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes, have not been screened for their elemental constituents while information on phytochemistry of some of them is not available. There is therefore the need to document these constituents as some of these plants are becoming increasingly important as herbal drugs or food additives. The accelerator-based technique PIXE, using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova) Italy, was employed in the determination of the elemental constituents of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants. Leaves of Gardenia ternifolia, Caesalpina pulcherrima, Solemostenon monostachys, whole plant of Momordica charantia and leaf and stem bark of Hunteria umbellata could be taken as vegetables, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in the management of diabetes. However, Hexabolus monopetalus root should be used under prescription.

  7. Studies of atmospheric pollution: Concentration of selected elements in the lower atmosphere using nuclear-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this research is to study the elemental composition (mainly sulphur and heavy metals) of the lower atmosphere of San Lorenzo. This is a university city located at about 10 km from Asuncion. We will use X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques to make a multielemental analysis of the components in air samples taken in San Lorenzo. Then, we will compare these results with samples we take from a rural community. We have selected San Lorenzo because it is a town with a relatively large population and also has a relatively high industrial activity. At the Municipality of San Lorenzo, there a growing interest in the monitoring and control of airborne pollution arising from industrial processes and transportation effects. Two rural stations were selected; one, in the Oriental Region ''Jhere Company'' that is located 200 km from Asuncion and far from urban centres, and the other, at the western Region, Chaco, which has characteristics different from the first one and it is about 400 km from Asuncion. The objective of this research is to get results to establish a baseline for comparison. We intend to get: a) Preliminary information from rural stations that could give us the baseline. b) Information about the situation of airborne pollution in San Lorenzo city. (author). 3 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

  8. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the study of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetes mellitus, a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to deficiency of insulin, is a disease involving the endocrine pancreas and causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the world. In Nigeria, many plants, especially those implicated in herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes, have not been screened for their elemental constituents while information on phytochemistry of some of them is not available. There is therefore the need to document these constituents as some of these plants are becoming increasingly important as herbal drugs or food additives. The accelerator-based technique PIXE, using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova) Italy, was employed in the determination of the elemental constituents of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants. Leaves of Gardenia ternifolia, Caesalpina pulcherrima, Solemostenon monostachys, whole plant of Momordica charantia and leaf and stem bark of Hunteria umbellata could be taken as vegetables, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in the management of diabetes. However, Hexabolus monopetalus root should be used under prescription

  9. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the study of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Omobuwajo, O. R.; Ceccato, D.; Adebajo, A. C.; Buoso, M. C.; Moschini, G.

    2008-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to deficiency of insulin, is a disease involving the endocrine pancreas and causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the world. In Nigeria, many plants, especially those implicated in herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes, have not been screened for their elemental constituents while information on phytochemistry of some of them is not available. There is therefore the need to document these constituents as some of these plants are becoming increasingly important as herbal drugs or food additives. The accelerator-based technique PIXE, using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova) Italy, was employed in the determination of the elemental constituents of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants. Leaves of Gardenia ternifolia, Caesalpina pulcherrima, Solemostenon monostachys, whole plant of Momordica charantia and leaf and stem bark of Hunteria umbellata could be taken as vegetables, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in the management of diabetes. However, Hexabolus monopetalus root should be used under prescription.

  10. Insights into metals in individual fine particles from municipal solid waste using synchrotron radiation-based micro-analytical techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumin Zhu; Hua Zhang; Liming Shao; Pinjing He

    2015-01-01

    Excessive inter-contamination with heavy metals hampers the application of biological treatment products derived from mixed or mechanically-sorted municipal solid waste (MSW).In this study,we investigated fine particles of <2 mm,which are small fractions in MSW but constitute a significant component of the total heavy metal content,using bulk detection techniques.A total of 17 individual fine particles were evaluated using synchrotron radiation-based micro-X-ray fluorescence and micro-X-ray diffraction.We also discussed the association,speciation and source apportionment of heavy metals.Metals were found to exist in a diffuse distribution with heterogeneous intensities and intense hot-spots of <10 μm within the fine particles.Zn-Cu,Pb-Fe and Fe-Mn-Cr had significant correlations in terms of spatial distribution.The overlapped enrichment,spatial association,and the mineral phases of metals revealed the potential sources of fine particles from size-reduced waste fractions (such as scraps of organic wastes or ceramics) or from the importation of other particles.The diverse sources of heavy metal pollutants within the fine particles suggested that separate collection and treatment of the biodegradable waste fraction (such as food waste) is a preferable means of facilitating the beneficial utilization of the stabilized products.

  11. Assessment of levels and 'health-effects' of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been supporting, over the years, several coordinated research programmes (CRPs) on various research topics related to environmental issues impacting human health. The primary aim of these CRPs has been to help enhance the research and development capabilities in the Member States, particularly among developing countries; to identify the sources of various environmental contaminants and evaluate their fate; and to provide for the basis of improved health among human populations by the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques. The CRP on Assessment of Levels and Health-Effects of Airborne Particulate Matter in Mining, Metal Refining and Metal Working Industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques focused on improving the competence for research on workplace monitoring in a variety of industrial environments. The personal monitoring of the APM (airborne particulate matter) of the exposed workforce was carried out for the first time by many participants. Nuclear and related analytical techniques, including the application of proton micro-beam, were used to generate the trace element concentration profiles in various biomarkers tissues of the exposed workers. The quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) aspects related to the CRP were addressed through intercomparison analyses of APM on filter paper samples and freeze dried human urine samples to generate validated data. These data have helped to generate correlations between the occupational exposure measured and the magnitude of the biological response. Such new information is essential to evolve procedures to considerably reduce/eliminate the pollutants in the workplace environment and to make informed decisions on the evolution of standards in working environments aimed at preserving the health of workers. The purpose of this TECDOC is to provide an overview of the activities performed under the CRP by the participants. The overall achievements

  12. SVPWM Technique with Varying DC-Link Voltage for Common Mode Voltage Reduction in a Matrix Converter and Analytical Estimation of its Output Voltage Distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhee, Varsha

    converter. This conceivably aids the sizing and design of output passive filters. An analytical estimation method has been presented to achieve this purpose for am IMC. Knowledge of the fundamental component in output voltage can be utilized to calculate its Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). The effectiveness of the proposed SVPWM algorithms and the analytical estimation technique is substantiated by simulations in MATLAB / Simulink and experiments on a laboratory prototype of the IMC. Proper comparison plots have been provided to contrast the performance of the proposed methods with the conventional SVPWM method. The behavior of output voltage distortion and CMV with variation in operating parameters like modulation index and output frequency has also been analyzed.

  13. New analytical methods for materials characterization using the techniques of nuclear activation reactions induced by thermal neutrons and accelerated ion beams, coupled to gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is a comprehensive collection of the author's works in the field of 'Nuclear Activation Techniques with accelerated Charged Particles and Thermal Neutrons' carried out within the framework of the research contracts the author initiated and performed in the period 1990 - 1999. The works objective was to achieve a consistent and complete methodological and instrumental assembly for accurate elemental analysis of technological samples of interest for industry, medicine, and monitoring of the environmental radioactivity. The experiments were carried out using the IFIN-HH facilities: U-120 Cyclotron, 8 MV Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator, and the WWR-S nuclear reactor. Part of the reported works were initiated and performed in collaboration with partners from the chemical industry and metallurgic industry, wishing to employ the sensitive nuclear analytical techniques, which are able to put in evidence simultaneously major, minor elements, and impurities in the investigated samples. The impact with the challenging topics and the characteristics of some investigated technological samples, generated the studies having both theoretical and experimental features, presented in this thesis, as well as the original analytical and methodological solutions. The thesis structure has two parts: The 1st part (Chapter 1) is a survey of the literature until 1999, that concerns the theory of nuclear activation reactions with accelerated charged particles (CPAA) and thermal neutrons (NAA), evidencing the analytical performance of both techniques; details are also given about the 'critical' phenomena encountered in CPAA, whose origin is still under discussion in the literature. The 2 nd part of the thesis contains the original contributions of the author in the theoretical, methodological, and software fields (Chapters 2-8), the experimental results obtained, and the nuclear database software based on the 'Fox-Pro' operation system, conceived for processing the experimental

  14. Improved sampling and analytical techniques for characterization of very-low-level radwaste materials from commercial nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, D.E. [Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (United States); Robinson, P.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1989-11-01

    This paper summarizes the unique sampling methods that were utilized in a recently completed project sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to perform accurate and precise radiological characterizations of several very-low-level radwaste materials from commercial nuclear power stations. The waste types characterized during this project included dry active waste (DAW), oil, secondary-side ion exchange resin, and soil. Special precautions were taken to insure representative sampling of the DAW. This involved the initial direct, quantitative gamma spectrometric analyses of bulk quantities (208-liter drums) of DAW utilizing a specially constructed barrel scanner employing a collimated intrinsic germanium detector assembly. Subsamples of the DAW for destructive radiochemical analyses of the difficult-to-measure 10CF61 radionuclides were then selected which had the same isotopic composition (to within {+-}25%) as that measured for the entire drum of DAW. The techniques for accomplishing this sampling are described. Oil samples were collected from the top, middle and bottom sections of 208-liter drums for radiochemical analyses. These samples were composited to represent the entire drum of oil. The accuracy of this type of sampling was evaluated by comparisons with direct, quantitative assays of a number of the drums using the barrel scanning gamma-ray spectrometer. The accuracy of sampling drums of spent secondary-side ion exchange resin was evaluated by comparing the radionuclide contents of grab samples taken from the tops of the drums with direct assays performed with the barrel scanner. The results of these sampling evaluations indicated that the sampling methods used were generally adequate for providing a reasonably representative subsample from bulk quantities of DAW, oil, and resin. The study also identified a number of potential pitfalls, in sampling of these materials.

  15. Contribution of analytical nuclear techniques in the reconstruction of the Brazilian pre-history analysing archaeological ceramics of Tupiguarani tradition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Gleikam Lopes de Oliveira; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Silva, Maria Aparecida, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: cida@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Reator e Tecnicas Analiticas. Laboratorio de Ativacao Neutronica; Sabino, Claudia de V.S. [PUC-Minas, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the high importance of the material vestiges for a culture of a nation, the Brazilian Council for Environment determined that the license to establish new enterprises are subjected to a technical report concerning environmental impact, including archaeological sites affected by that enterprise. Therefore, answering the report related to the Program for Prospection and Rescue of the Archaeological Patrimony of the Areas impacted by the installation of the Second Line of Samarco Mining Pipeline, the archaeological interventions were carried out along the coast of Espirito Santo. Tupi-Guarani Tradition vestiges were found there, where the main evidence was a interesting ceramics. Archaeology can fill the gap between ancient population and modern society elucidating the evidences found in archaeological sites. In this context, several ceramic fragments found in the archaeological sites - Hiuton and Bota-Fora - were analyzed by neutron activation technique, {sub k}0-standardization method, at CDTN using the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 reactor, in order to characterize their elemental composition. The elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, La, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. Applying R software, a robust multivariate statistical analysis, the results pointed out that the pottery from the sites was made with clay from different sources. The X-ray powder diffraction analyses were carried out to determine the mineral composition and Moessbauer spectroscopy was applied to provide information on both the degree of burning and atmosphere in order to reconstruct the Indian burning strategies temperature used on pottery production. (author)

  16. Characterization of anatomical features and silica distribution in rice husk using microscopic and micro-analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice husk is a by-product of rice milling process, and a great resource as a raw biomass material for manufacturing value-added composite products. One of the potential applications is to use rice husk as filler for manufacturing lignocellulosic fiber-thermoplastic composites. This study was conducted to examine the silica distribution in rice husk in preparation to use it as reinforcing filler for thermoplastic polymers. Microscopic techniques, such as light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and field-emission SEM (FE-SEM) were used to observe the surface and internal structure of rice husk. Microscopic examination showed that two main components of husk, lemma and palea consisted of outer epidermis, layers of fibers, vascular bundles, parenchyma cells, and inner epidermis, in sequence from the outer to the inner surface. Histochemical staining showed that epidermal and fiber cell walls were lignified, and the walls of parenchyma and lower epidermal cells were not lignified. The outer epidermal walls were extremely thick, highly convoluted and lignified. The outer surface of both lemma and palea were conspicuously ridged. The energy dispersive X-ray micro-analysis attached to the FE-SEM provided information on the distribution of silica in the husk. Most of the silica was present in the outer epidermal cells, being particularly concentrated in the dome-shaped protrusions. These observations provided valuable background information on the organization of husk tissues and the distribution of silica, which will help optimize processes related to the use of rice husk for making lignocellulosic fiber-thermoplastic composites in our future work

  17. A Variant Perspective to Multi Criteria ABC Analysis Problem: Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process - Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Kılıç

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In today's competitive market conditions, organizations have to develop and implement effective inventory policies to minimize their costs, and maximize profit. Inventories have an important place in the total assets of production enterprises. Applying efficient inventory control and management policies for this significant item is very important for the future of the organizations. In this paper, initially an ABC analysis method had been applied to a firm operating at the chemical group of a conglomerate. Then, to classify the inventory as multi criteria; primarily criteria weights are determined by the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP and then stock keeping units are ranked according to their significances with Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS method. Finally, the differences are presented between classical ABC analysis and FAHP-TOPSIS results for classifying the inventories.

  18. Analytical approaches for the determination of pesticide residues in nutraceutical products and related matrices by chromatographic techniques coupled to mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Domínguez, Gerardo; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Romero-González, Roberto; Garrido-Frenich, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    A review of sample preparation and analytical techniques currently used to analyze pesticides in nutraceutical products is shown. Different sample treatments are commented, and the QuEChERS method is the most used (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe). For the chromatographic determination, gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) are evaluated. Different detection modes are discussed, and simple quadrupole mass spectrometry (Q-MS) and triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (QqQ-MS/MS) are the most used. Finally, a review of the occurrence of pesticides (from the revised literature) in real samples is presented, evaluating several matrices, such as nutraceuticals, dietary supplements, medicinal plants, and fish oil. The occurrence of several pesticides was reported: γ-HCH (lindane), endosulfan, procymidone, azoxystrobin, p,p'-DDE, metalaxyl, quintozene, tolclofos-methyl, chlorpyrifos and hexachlorobenzene. PMID:24274299

  19. Workplace monitoring and occupational health studies at the centre for production of phosphorus mineral fertilizers, Voskresensk (Moscow Region, Russian Federation), using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phosphate fertilizer production has a pathological impact on its occupational staff causing fluorosis, respiratory and other diseases. Nuclear and related analytical techniques such as NAA, AAS, and XRF were used to establish correlation between the concentrations of elemental pollutants in raw materials, byproducts, humans, and the workplace. This, in turn, allowed us to determine how man's biosubstrates can be used to follow the rate of pathological changes in the organism as it is being exposed to intense technogenic environments. For the first time an attempt was made to elucidate the problem Phosphate Fertilizer - Occupational Health. The most typical associations of element-pollutants in the shops and premises of the 'Mineral Ferlilizer' plant in Voskresensk, Russian Federation, were revealed while monitoring the workplace. The monitoring strategy developed in our study for this kind of industry in Russia is offered for dissemination at similar fertilizer plants in any part of the world. (author)

  20. Achievements and advantages of participation in the IAEA project RER 002/004/1999-2001 'QA/QC of Nuclear Analytical Techniques'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Institute for Physics and Engineering 'Horia Hulubei' (IFIN-HH) decided in the late 1990s to start applying nuclear techniques in economy and social life on a routine scale; reaching this goal implied achieving first-rate analytical performances and complying with the QA/QC requirements, as detailed in the ISO 17025. The IAEA Project appeared in 1999 as the best opportunity and tool for our specialists to become familiar with the standard requirements and begin to implement them in their operations, thus further enabling them to apply for accreditation according to the international criteria. This report outlines the experience gained from the participation in the project. The accomplishments of the project are presented and the main difficulties are identified

  1. Effect Of Soil Contamination Due To Wastewater Irrigation On Total Co As Determined By Neutron Activation And Other Conventional Analytical Techniques In Some Soils Of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen soil samples were chosen from different locations (five different locations at north greater Cairo, Egypt) to represent different soils (alluvial and sandy) as well as different sources of contaminated wastewater (sewage and industrial effluent). Using sequential extraction technique (extracting the soil with different solutions, which is designed to separate metal fractions), Co was separated into six operationally defined fractions: water soluble, exchangeable, carbonate bound, Fe-Mn oxides bound, organic bound and residual fractions. Moreover, total-Co in soils as determined by three analytical methods (sum of sequential extracting, Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques) were compared. Cobalt distribution between different extractants shows that the greatest amounts are found in the residual and Occluded in Fe and Mn-Oxides fractions followed by carbonate or organic fractions. In most cases the proportion of all tested Co-forms has increased in contaminated soil layers with higher enrichment in organically bound Co, occluded in Fe and Mn oxides, carbonate exchangeable and soluble fractions. Results indicate that soil properties have a significant role on Co fractions in soil. In the mean time, soil properties are affected by pollution factors such as source of pollution and load of pollution on the studied soil. Data showed that values of total Co determined by NAA method were always higher than the relevant values determined by AAS or those calculated after the sequential extraction method. (Authors)

  2. Geomechanical Facies Concept In Fractured Resevoirs and the Application of Hybrid Numerical and Analytical Techniques for the Description of Coupled Transport In Fractured Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, C. I.; Wenqing, W.; Kolditz, O.

    2009-04-01

    Exploiting and geo-engineering of fractured rocks in the context of reservoir storage and utilisation is important to applications such as hydrogeology, petroleum geology, geothermal energy, nuclear waste storage and CO2-sequestration. Understanding fluid, mass and energy transport in the three dimensional fracture network is critical to the evaluation planned operating efficiency. Hydraulic, thermal, mechanical and chemical coupled processes under the typical reservoir conditions operate at different scales. Depending on whether the process is continuum dominated (e.g. transfer of stress in the rock body) or discontinuity dominated (e.g. hydraulic transport processes) different methods of numerically investigating and quantifying the system can be applied. A geomechanical facies approach provides the basis for large scale numerical analysis of the coupled processes and prediction of system response. It also provides the basis for a three dimensional holistic understanding of the reservoir systems and the appropriate investigation techniques which could be used to evaluate the capacities of the reservoirs to be investigated as well as appropriate development techniques. Concentrating on the numerical modelling there is often a difficult balance between the numerical stability criteria of the different equation systems which need to be solved to describe the interaction of the dominant processes. The introduction of analytical solutions where possible, functional dependencies and multiple meshes provides on the framework of the geo-mechanical facies concept provides an efficient and stable method for the prediction of the effect of the in situ coupling.

  3. Study of factors affecting the productivity of nurses based on the ACHIEVE model and prioritizing them using analytic hierarchy process technique, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Farhadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Improving productivity is one of the most important strategies for social-economic development. Human resources are known as the most important resources in the organizations′ survival and success. Aims: To determine the factors affecting the human resource productivity using the ACHIEVEa model from the nurses′ perspective and then prioritize them from the perspective of head nurses using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP technique. Settings and Design: Iran, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences teaching hospitals in 2012. Materials and Methods: This was an applied, cross-sectional and analytical-descriptive study conducted in two phases. In the first phase, to determine the factors affecting the human resource productivity from nurses′ perspective, 110 nurses were selected using a two-stage cluster sampling method. Required data were collected using the Persian version of Hersey and Goldsmith′s Human Resource Productivity Questionnaire. In the second phase, in order to prioritize the factors affecting human resource productivity based on the ACHIEVE model using AHP technique, pairwise comparisons matrices were given to the 19 randomly selected head nurses to express their opinions about those factors relative priorities or importance. Statistical Analysis Used: Collected data and matrices in two mentioned phases were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 and some statistical tests including Independent-Samples T-Test and Pearson Correlation coefficient, as well as, Super Decisions software (Latest Beta. Results: The human resource productivity had significant relationships with nurses′ sex (P = 0.008, marital status (P < 0.001, education level (P < 0.001, and all questionnaire factors (P < 0.05. Nurses′ productivity from their perspective was below average (44.97 ΁ 7.43. Also, the priorities of factors affecting the productivity of nurses based on the ACHIEVE model from the head nurses′ perspective using AHP technique, from the

  4. Analytic technique for router comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for printed circuit boards which can be used to predict the probability that a router will successfully make a connection is presented. The model reflects certain characteristics of the circuit board that is being routed and the model incrementally changes as the board is routed. Routing procedures typically have certain parameters which influence selection of the set of paths that are explored, and determine the order of exploration. These parameters obviously influence the probability that a particular connection can be made. These parameters may also be used to formulate a model of the behavior of a particular routing procedure

  5. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV-visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casale, M., E-mail: monica@dictfa.unige.it [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy); Oliveri, P.; Casolino, C. [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy); Sinelli, N. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Food Science and Technology, Via Celoria, 2 - I-20133 Milan (Italy); Zunin, P.; Armanino, C.; Forina, M.; Lanteri, S. [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterisation of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between non-selective (UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergy among spectroscopic techniques, by the fusion of the respective spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction of the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the olive oils. - Abstract: An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV-visible (UV-vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV-vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil

  6. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV–visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Characterisation of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. ► Comparison between non-selective (UV–vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques. ► Synergy among spectroscopic techniques, by the fusion of the respective spectra. ► Prediction of the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the olive oils. - Abstract: An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV–visible (UV–vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV–vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV–vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV–vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico.

  7. Quality control and quality assurance of nuclear analytical techniques. Thematic planning of QC/QA in technical co-operations. Report of the external participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In areas of trade, health, safety, and environmental protection users of a laboratory's analytical results, for example by governments and private institutions, are increasingly requiring demonstrable proof of the reliability and credibility of the laboratory's analytical results using internationally accepted standards. This is so that the products and the decisions based on these laboratory results will be accepted in the respective national and international communities. These requirements are being imposed, for example by the European Community and others, for products to be imported and can be a significant barrier to trade, especially for developing nations. In addition to this there is a growing need for these laboratories to operate efficiently and effectively to reduce internal waste, to provide reports on time in an economical manner and to become self supporting. The need for change is global and this proposal is for the Agency to pursue a thematic plan for the implementation of quality assurance as partners in development with the selected laboratories using nuclear analytical techniques. This report describes a model project for this thematic approach to confirm the models immediate benefits as well as facilitating long-term sustainability of member states' laboratories. The model is thematic in that it is also applicable to all other projects for which the credibility and reliability of the results of a laboratory's processes and results must be demonstrated. This model project provides a cost effective approach for protecting the Agency's investment in these laboratories and strengthening the ability of these national institutions to define, organize, and manage the application of nuclear technology in their respective countries. This pilot project consists of (1) determining the general levels of knowledge and application of quality assurance principles (as delineated in ISO Guide 25) in the responding laboratories; (2) selecting a trail group of

  8. Noise-immune cavity-enhanced analytical atomic spectrometry — NICE-AAS — A technique for detection of elements down to zeptogram amounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) is a powerful technique for detection of molecular compounds in gas phase that is based on a combination of two important concepts: frequency modulation spectroscopy (FMS) for reduction of noise, and cavity enhancement, for prolongation of the interaction length between the light and the sample. Due to its unique properties, it has demonstrated unparalleled detection sensitivity when it comes to detection of molecular constituents in the gas phase. However, despite these, it has so far not been used for detection of atoms, i.e. for elemental analysis. The present work presents an assessment of the expected performance of Doppler-broadened (Db) NICE-OHMS for analytical atomic spectrometry, then referred to as noise-immune cavity-enhanced analytical atomic spectrometry (NICE-AAS). After a description of the basic principles of Db-NICE-OHMS, the modulation and detection conditions for optimum performance are identified. Based on a previous demonstrated detection sensitivity of Db-NICE-OHMS of 5 × 10−12 cm−1 Hz−1∕2 (corresponding to a single-pass absorbance of 7 × 10−11 over 10 s), the expected limits of detection (LODs) of Hg and Na by NICE-AAS are estimated. Hg is assumed to be detected in gas phase directly while Na is considered to be atomized in a graphite furnace (GF) prior to detection. It is shown that in the absence of spectral interferences, contaminated sample compartments, and optical saturation, it should be feasible to detect Hg down to 10 zg/cm3 (10 fg/m3 or 10−5 ng/m3), which corresponds to 25 atoms/cm3, and Na down to 0.5 zg (zg = zeptogram = 10−21 g), representing 50 zg/mL (parts-per-sextillion, pps, 1:1021) in liquid solution (assuming a sample of 10 μL) or solely 15 atoms injected into the GF, respectively. These LODs are several orders of magnitude lower (better) than any previous laser-based absorption technique previously demonstrated under

  9. New development on materials and techniques used in the heraldic designs of illuminated Manueline foral charters by multi-analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the illuminated foral charters commissioned by D. Manuel I, King of Portugal (1495–1521), heraldry played a prominent role. In this work, royal emblems corresponding to the third heraldic design, applied to the Charter of Couto de Teixedo, are studied by means of EDXRF, SEM–EDS, micro-Raman, micro-FTIR and HPLC–DAD to characterize the materials and techniques used to produce this masterpiece of Portuguese Renaissance. By comparing this data with the results previously obtained in other three charters, this research allows for the first time an accurate insight into the reformed manuscripts production, especially since the illuminated charters under consideration were all investigated on the basis of similar micro-spectroscopic techniques. Inks, metal coatings, pigments, organic dyes, fillers or extenders, and binding media are discussed, and their use enlightened by the politic and legal messages the foral charters had to convey. Parchment analysis allowed us to identify the animal species, and all undertaken processes along its preparation. HPLC–DAD allowed us to differentiate the gums used. CaSO4 was observed in the parchment as a degradation product of CaCO3 used in parchment production in the presence of metal sulfates coming from the ink. Pigments used in the different colors as well as some specific phases for some colors were identified. Silvering and gilding processes, metal caratage and silver oxidation compounds were also objects of the present study. - Highlights: • Complementary analytical techniques using portable XRF and molecular techniques were used for the complete characterization of Portuguese illuminated manuscripts. • A comparison between four Manueline foral charters was undertaken, providing an accurate insight into their heraldic designs and production. • Inks, pigments and some of their specific phases, organic dyes, fillers or extenders, and binding media are discussed. • Silvering and gilding processes, metal caratage

  10. Multi-analytical study of techniques and palettes of wall paintings of the monastery of Žiča, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka; Stojanović-Marić, Milica; Bajuk-Bogdanović, Danica; Žikić, Radiša; Uskoković-Marković, Snežana

    2016-03-01

    The present multi-analytical study concentrates on establishing the painting techniques and the identity of the wall painting materials used by the artists from the 13th and 14th centuries to decorate the Žiča monastery, Serbia. For this purpose, we demonstrate that micro-Raman spectroscopy is an efficient, non-destructive method with high spatial resolution which gives molecular and crystal structural information of a wide variety of both inorganic and organic materials. It is shown that elementary composition revealed through scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is necessary in some cases to confirm the identity of pigments and binders identified by micro-Raman spectroscopy. It was found that a fresco technique, in combination with mainly natural earth pigments such as red ochre, yellow ochre and green earth, was used. Expensive natural pigment lapis lazuli was exclusively used for obtaining blue colour while pure vermilion was used by the artists from the first period of decorations at the beginning of the 13th century. A mixture of pigments was used for attaining different colour shades. For the gilding of saint's haloes, thin golden foil was deposited over the tin sheet. In order to get a desirable optical and aesthetical impression, the metallic leaves were deposited over the yellow ochre preparatory layer. Deposits of gypsum on wall paintings as well as traces of weddellite are degradation products formed as a result of exposing wall paintings to environmental conditions.

  11. Effect of soil contamination due to wastewater irrigation on total cesium as determined by destructive and nondestructive analytical techniques in some soils of egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen soil samples were chosen from different locations to represent different soils irrigated with different sources of contaminated wastewater (sewage and industrial effluent). Sequential extraction experiment was carried out to determine different forms of Cs in soils. Moreover, Soil samples were analyzed for total Cs using two analytical methods i.e. destructive wet digestion technique (Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, AAS or by summation of all sequential extracted fractions, SUM) and non-destructive technique (Neutron Activation Analysis, NAA). The aim of this study was to evaluate soil total Cs-forms (especially, bio-available fraction) as affected by soil pollution. Cesium was mostly concentrated in the residual fraction, and its values ranged from 57.4% to 82.9 % of total Cs in sandy soils and from 31.5% to 64.5 % of total Cs in tested clayey soil. Then organically bound Cs- fraction followed by Cs-occluded in Fe-Mn fraction, carbonate, exchangeable and water soluble fractions. Results suggested that, Cs level is affected by soil organic matter content, Fe-Mn oxides and clay content. The mobile Cs fraction (the sum of soluble and exchangeable fractions) ranged from 2% up to 9.9 % of total Cs in sandy soils. However, a higher value (9.82% to 15.31 %) could be observed in case of the tested clayey soils. Soils D and E were more contaminated than other tested soils. Data show obviously, that soil contaminated due to the irrigation with either sewage effluent or industrial wastewater has resulted in a drastic increase in both metal-organic and occluded in Fe and Mn oxide fractions followed by the carbonate fraction

  12. Kinetic study and application of analytical techniques in the obtention of TeO2 for the production of 131 I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this investigation work were: A) To synthesize TeO2 starting from the reaction among the Te and HNO3 with a superior yield to 90% b) To determine the good temperature of obtaining of the TeO2 at laboratory level, c) To determine those constant of reaction kinetics, for each one of the tests carried out to different temperatures, and the activation energy of the reaction, d) To characterize the produced TeO2, e) To check the viability of using the obtained TeO2 as raw matter in the production of 131 I in order to contribute to the technological development of our country inside the radioisotope production area. The production process of TeO2 consists primarily of seven phases: 1) Preparing and assembly of the production equipment of TeO2, 2) Oxidation reaction of tellurium, 3) Drying and elimination of sludges of TeO2, 4) Sintering of TeO2, 5) Characterization of the TeO2 by means of analytical techniques, 6) Irradiation of the TeO2, 7) Quality control. The present document has five chapters, which allow the reader to follow the development of this work to achieve the objectives and to contrast with the hypothesis of the work. (Author)

  13. Analytical techniques for the determination of tryptamines and β-carbolines in plant matrices and in psychoactive beverages consumed during religious ceremonies and neo-shamanic urban practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaujac, Alain; Navickiene, Sandro; Collins, Mark I; Brandt, Simon D; de Andrade, Jailson Bittencourt

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of ayahuasca, a hallucinogenic beverage used by indigenous communities in the Amazon, is increasing worldwide due to the expansion of syncretic religions founded in the north of Brazil in the first half of the twentieth century, such as Santo Daime and União do Vegetal. Another example is the jurema wine, a drink that originated from indigenous cultures of the northeast of Brazil. It is currently used for several religious practices throughout Brazil involving urban neo-shamanic rituals and syncretic Brazilian religions, such as Catimbó and Umbanda. Both plant products contain N,N-dimethyltryptamine which requires co-administration of naturally occurring monoamine oxidase inhibitors, for example β-carboline derivatives, in order to induce its psychoactive effects in humans. This review explores the cultural use of tryptamines and β-carbolines and focuses on the analytical techniques that have been recently applied to the determination of these compounds in ayahuasca, its analogues, and the plants used during the preparation of these beverages. PMID:22577086

  14. A study on environmental pollution monitoring and occupational health in the capital iron and steel company, Beijing, China, using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric pollution in some Chinese cities is becoming more and more serious with the industrial development and urbanization in the past decades. The airborne particulate concentration in Beijing, the Capital of China, far exceeds the allowable level set by the Chinese government and by the related international organizations. The main contribution source for the Beijing atmospheric particles is the Capital Iron and Steel Company that constitutes 55% of total airborne particulate in Beijing. In the framework of this Coordinated Research Project organized by IAEA, this company was selected as a target workplace. The instrumental neutron activation analysis, proton induced X ray emission analysis, synchronous radiation X ray fluorescence spectrometry and other related techniques were applied to determine the concentrations of some target elements, such as heavy metals and toxic elements, in environmental samples (including airborne particles, soil and plants) and human samples (including head hair, urine and blood) collected from workers and staff members at this company. In the meantime, a surrounding region and a clean region were selected as control. All the analytical results obtained during this CRP period are presented here with statistical treatment of human health survey. Some significant conclusions and suggestion to alleviate or control the pollution are also outlined as well. (author)

  15. Analytical and mineralogical studies of ore and impurities from a chromite mineral using X-ray analysis, electrochemical and microscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ramos, S; Doménech-Carbó, A; Gimeno-Adelantado, J V; Peris-Vicente, J

    2008-02-15

    A wide analytical study of South African chromite ore, material with high interest in ceramic industry, has been carried out. With this purpose, an accurate chemical identification and mineralogical characterization of the mineral and the gangue have been performed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), voltammetry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), light microscopy (LM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX). The elemental composition of the sample (ore and gangue) has been obtained by XRF. The voltammetric analysis has allowed to demonstrate that iron in the sample was as Fe(II). The main compound of the chromite ore was a spinel (magnesiochromite ferroan), identified by XRD from the sample, which constitutes the chromite ore. This technique has also been useful to characterize some silicates as impurities in the chromite ore sample. Light microscopy has allowed the detection of the spinel and the identification of a silicate impurity (chrome chlorite), by means of their colouration. On the other hand, the other silicate impurity was identified as labradorite by means of X-ray microscopy by SEM/EDX. Finally, a strategy was developed to calculate the composition of each mineral in the unknown sample. The obtained results were: chromite spinel 82.89%, chlorite 12.79% and labradorite 4.32%. PMID:18371822

  16. A new analytical approach in characterisation of water soluble pool of heavy metals in soils by diffusive gradient in thin film technique - Assessment of availability of heavy metals to plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dočekal, Bohumil; Mládková, Z.; Dočekalová, H.

    University of Antwerp, 2012. s. 149. [International Symposium on Environmental Analytical Chemistry /37./. 22.05.2012-25.05.2012, Antwerp] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/2002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : heavy metals * DGT technique * soils

  17. Elemental compositions of sediments at Haiphong harbour area as determined by nuclear analytical techniques application in sediment transport studies and conservation of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear analytical techniques were applied to determine the elemental compositions of suspended and bottom sediments, collected at different sites in Haiphong harbor area (North Viet nam). The study was aimed at: 1/Understanding the origin of the sediment filling up the access channel and causing large expenditures for dredging operations. 2/Determining the background concentrations of trace elements in sediment. This would allow to detect in the future any pollution caused by the discharge of industrial wastes in the water due to the growing industrialization of the area. 3/Identifying the elements, which can be served as activatable tracers in sediment transport studies. The results obtained for the concentrations of nearly 30 elements show rather similar elemental compositions, reflecting a common origin of the sediments taken from different locations in the harbour area. The results could not allow to identify the pathway of the sediment transported to and deposited on the bottom of the access channel. Meanwhile, a considerable difference was found in the elemental compositions of the sediment and the soil taken at the nearby to the channel island bank. This would definitely exclude any hypothesis on the interrelationship between the sediment on the bottom of the channel with the soil abraded from the island. Among the tracer elements with concentrations in sediment at the ppm level, indium and selenium have been selected as the most suitable activatable tracers. Experiments on tracer preparation are in progress and some preliminary results have been obtained. The analysis also provides the background levels of the elements-pollutants, on the basis of which any industrial pollution in the future could be revealed.(Authors)(1 Table)

  18. New analytical technique for establishing the quality of Soil Organic Matter affected by a wildfire. A first approach using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, José A.; Waggoner, Derek C.; Almendros, Gonzalo; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Fire is one of the most important modulator factors of the environment and the forest. It is able to induce chemical and biological shifts and these, in turn, can alter the physical properties of soil. Generally, fire affects the most reactive fraction, soil organic matter (SOM) (González-Pérez et al., 2004) resulting in changes to several soil properties and functions. To study changes in SOM following a wildfire, researchers can count on several traditional as well as new analytical techniques. One of the most recently employed techniques is Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). This new powerful ultra-high resolution mass spectral technique, together with graphic interpretation tools such as van Krevelen diagrams (Kim et al, 2003), may be used to shed light on alterations caused by the burning of SOM. The objective of this research is to study fire impacts on SOM, using a sandy soil collected under a Cork oak (Quercus suber) in Doñana National Park, Southwest Spain. that was affected by a wildfire in August 2012. Methods: The impact of fire on SOM was studied in various different sieve fractions (coarse, 1-2 mm, and fine, families; condensed aromatic compounds, unspecific aromatics, tannins, lignin, lipids, protein and carbohydrate derived. The unburnt SOM in the coarse fraction was mainly composed of compounds with a high intensity in the tannin-like, lignin-like and carbohydrate-like regions of the van Krevelen diagram, whereas the SOM in the fine fraction showed a high intensity in the lipid-like and protein-like regions. These results suggest that the SOM in the coarse fraction was less altered than that of the fine fraction; the latter believed to be subjected to higher microbial activity. We suggest that the observed changes occurs via a methylation process, producing a SOM that is highly humified (Jiménez-Morillo et al., 2014). The SOM in the coarse fraction affected by fire, showed a high relative

  19. New analytical technique for establishing the quality of Soil Organic Matter affected by a wildfire. A first approach using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, José A.; Waggoner, Derek C.; Almendros, Gonzalo; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Fire is one of the most important modulator factors of the environment and the forest. It is able to induce chemical and biological shifts and these, in turn, can alter the physical properties of soil. Generally, fire affects the most reactive fraction, soil organic matter (SOM) (González-Pérez et al., 2004) resulting in changes to several soil properties and functions. To study changes in SOM following a wildfire, researchers can count on several traditional as well as new analytical techniques. One of the most recently employed techniques is Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). This new powerful ultra-high resolution mass spectral technique, together with graphic interpretation tools such as van Krevelen diagrams (Kim et al, 2003), may be used to shed light on alterations caused by the burning of SOM. The objective of this research is to study fire impacts on SOM, using a sandy soil collected under a Cork oak (Quercus suber) in Doñana National Park, Southwest Spain. that was affected by a wildfire in August 2012. Methods: The impact of fire on SOM was studied in various different sieve fractions (coarse, 1-2 mm, and fine, University. Results: The van Krevelen diagrams together with the relative intensity of each chemical compound, both obtained by FT-ICR-MS, allowed us to assess SOM quality for each sample and size fractions. The chemical compounds were grouped into the 7 main families; condensed aromatic compounds, unspecific aromatics, tannins, lignin, lipids, protein and carbohydrate derived. The unburnt SOM in the coarse fraction was mainly composed of compounds with a high intensity in the tannin-like, lignin-like and carbohydrate-like regions of the van Krevelen diagram, whereas the SOM in the fine fraction showed a high intensity in the lipid-like and protein-like regions. These results suggest that the SOM in the coarse fraction was less altered than that of the fine fraction; the latter believed to be

  20. Using analytic derivatives to assess the impact of phase function Fourier decomposition technique on the accuracy of a radiative transfer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourier decomposition of the phase function is essential to decouple the azimuthal component of the radiative transfer equation for multiple scattering calculations. This decomposition can be carried out by means of a direct numerical method based on the definition of the Fourier transform (numFT), or by an expansion of the phase function in terms of spherical Legendre polynomials (sphFT). numFT requires interpolation of the phase function between discrete angles, leading to spurious errors in the final computations. This error is difficult to quantify by means of intensity-only computations, since it is hard to determine the absolute accuracy of any given approach. We show that a linearization (analytic computation of derivatives) of the intensity with respect to parameters governing the phase function can be compared against results using the finite difference method, thereby providing a self-consistency test for characterizing and quantifying the error. We have applied this approach to two linearized versions of the Matrix Operator Method, which are identical in all respects except that one uses numFT while the other uses sphFT. In both cases, we compute the derivatives of the intensity with respect to aerosol parameters governing scattering in the simulated atmosphere. Comparison of the derivatives against their finite difference estimates shows a reduction of error by several orders of magnitude when Legendre polynomials are employed. We have also examined the effect of the angular resolution of the phase function on the error due to the numFT technique. A general reduction of error is seen with increasing angular resolution, indicating that interpolation is indeed the major error source. Also, we have pointed out a related source of error in numFT computations that occurs when Fourier decomposition is carried out on the composite phase function of a layer consisting of more than one scatterer. We conclude that an expansion of the phase function in terms of

  1. Analytic trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, William J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N

    1963-01-01

    Analytic Trigonometry details the fundamental concepts and underlying principle of analytic geometry. The title aims to address the shortcomings in the instruction of trigonometry by considering basic theories of learning and pedagogy. The text first covers the essential elements from elementary algebra, plane geometry, and analytic geometry. Next, the selection tackles the trigonometric functions of angles in general, basic identities, and solutions of equations. The text also deals with the trigonometric functions of real numbers. The fifth chapter details the inverse trigonometric functions

  2. Analytical quality, performance indices and laboratory service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilden, Jørgen; Magid, Erik

    analytical error, bias, cost effectiveness, decision-making, laboratory techniques and procedures, mass screening, models, statistical, quality control......analytical error, bias, cost effectiveness, decision-making, laboratory techniques and procedures, mass screening, models, statistical, quality control...

  3. Study of the analytic quality in the determinations of Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg through conventional and nuclear analytical techniques in mosses of the MATV; Estudio de la calidad analitica en las determinaciones de Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb y Hg a traves de tecnicas analiticas nucleares y convencionales en musgos de la ZMVT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero S, B.

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the environmental risks of air pollution and to facilitate the decision-making for control, is necessary to have the capacity to generate data with analytical quality. A comparison between nuclear (Neutron activation analysis and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and no nuclear analytical techniques (atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) for simultaneous determination of metal content (Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn) in mosses from Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (MATV) was performed. Epiphytic mosses (Fabriona ciliaris and Leskea angustata) were sampled in two campaigns, 16 sites (urban, transition and natural) and were prepared for each technique. The biological certified reference materials were used for the quality control and to evaluate accuracy, precision, linearity, detection and quantification limits. Results show that nuclear analytical techniques and no nuclear applied in chemical analysis of Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn in moss from MATV are comparable and therefore all of these can potentially be used for this purpose. However, if its considered both, the performance parameters and economic/operational characteristics is widely recommended inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, conventional analytical technique, which showed the highest analytical grade quality. Also were observed spatial and temporal variations in the concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn in mosses from MATV and was discussed its potential origin. The urban sites had the highest concentration of anthropogenic elements as Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn because are strongly impacted by roads with high vehicle traffic. (Author)

  4. Analytical Chemistry: A Literary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides an anthology of references to descriptions of analytical chemistry techniques from history, popular fiction, and film which can be used to capture student interest and frame discussions of chemical techniques. (WRM)

  5. Summary report of the TC regional project on 'QA/QC of nuclear analytical techniques' RER-2-004 (1999-2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a summary of the Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre participation in the Project. The Project helped in setting up quality assurance system in the Centre and resulted in a progress in analytical proficiency as shown in the proficiency test results. The main accomplishments are listed along with the tasks to be done

  6. Analytical Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s analytical laboratories in Pittsburgh, PA, and Albany, OR, give researchers access to the equipment they need to thoroughly study the properties of materials...

  7. Determination of total iron in iron ore by x-ray fluorescence analysis using the Compton effect: comparison with others analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total iron in iron ores is determines by X-ray fluorescence analysis method using the compton effect. The Bragg angle is determined for compton no-coherent scattering related to K alpha of Rhodium. This measurement procedure can be used for best fitting of analytical results in X-ray fluorescence, when compared with others methods used for results corrections. (M.V.M.)

  8. Optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis method by means of 2{sup k} experimental design technique aiming the validation of analytical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: rpetroni@ipen.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods were carried out for the determination of the elements arsenic, chromium, cobalt, iron, rubidium, scandium, selenium and zinc in biological materials. The aim is to validate the analytical methods for future accreditation at the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO). The 2{sup k} experimental design was applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. Samples of Mussel Tissue Certified Reference Material and multi-element standards were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, counting time and sample distance to detector. The standard multi-element concentration (comparator standard), mass of the sample and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN - CNEN/SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect and interaction effects. The results obtained with the different experimental configurations were evaluated for accuracy (precision and trueness) for each measurement. (author)

  9. Optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis method by means of 2k experimental design technique aiming the validation of analytical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods were carried out for the determination of the elements arsenic, chromium, cobalt, iron, rubidium, scandium, selenium and zinc in biological materials. The aim is to validate the analytical methods for future accreditation at the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO). The 2k experimental design was applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. Samples of Mussel Tissue Certified Reference Material and multi-element standards were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, counting time and sample distance to detector. The standard multi-element concentration (comparator standard), mass of the sample and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN - CNEN/SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect and interaction effects. The results obtained with the different experimental configurations were evaluated for accuracy (precision and trueness) for each measurement. (author)

  10. X-ray fluorescence in Member States (Spain): Main activities related to the use of XRF techniques at the Analytical and Environmental Chemistry Research Group of the University of Girona (UdG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Analytical and Environmental Chemistry Group (QAA) is a consolidated research group of the Department of Chemistry of the University of Girona (North- East Spain). The main research topics of the group are related to the development and application of analytical methodologies for the determination of inorganic and organic species in different kind of environmental, clinical and industrial samples. From the beginning of the 2000’s, one of the research focuses of the group, is the use of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) for the determination of trace amounts of metals and metalloids mostly in samples related to the environmental and industrial fields. For instance, in collaboration with the Institute of Earth Sciences “Jaume Almera” (ICTJA-CSIC, Spain), we have developed and successfully applied several analytical approaches based on the use of EDXRF (Energy dispersive XRF), WDXRF (Wavelength dispersive XRF) and PEDXRF (Polarised EDXRF) for the determination of metals at trace levels in complex liquid samples such as sea water or electroplating waters in vegetation samples collected around mining environments or in active pharmaceutical ingredients. At present, the evaluation of the analytical possibilities of TXRF (Total reflection XRF) in the chemical analysis field is also one of the research topics of QAA. In this sense, several contributions related to the use of this technique for element determination in liquid and solid samples have been developed. A summary of these contributions is summarized in the last section of this review

  11. Co-ordinated research project on assessment of levels and health-effects of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overall objectives: To demonstrate the applicability of nuclear and related techniques in studies that may impact on human health, giving emphasis to the solution of problems that have been identified to be of high priority in national and international programmes for sustainable development. Specific objectives: To develop strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter (APM) and of human tissues and body fluids (hair, blood, etc.) of exposed and non-exposed persons; To development suitable analytical procedures for analysis of such types of samples, using nuclear and related analytical techniques; To carry out workplace and personal monitoring of APM and characterise the health effects of such exposure in terms of the observed elemental concentration; To carry out tissue analyses of the workers so exposed for biological monitoring and the health effects studies. Achievements: a) Specific industries not previously monitored in individual countries have been targeted in respect of pollution assessment. Some examples are: Stainless steel processing and construction; Galvanising industry; Zinc smelting operations; Mineral fertiliser industry. b) Validation of analytical techniques through quality control exercises: NAT-3 Interlaboratory comparison for the determination of trace and minor elements in urban dust artificially loaded on air filters; NAT-4 Proficiency test on selected trace elements in lyophilised urine and air filters. c) Capacity building through the establishment of new multidisciplinary teams, personnel training and laboratory expertise. d) The sampling procedures have been harmonised through: The application of the ''Gent'' sampler for APM collection, IAEA procedures and IUPAC guidelines for sampling and sample handling of hair, blood and urine. e) All participants performed surveys on targeted industries and selected pollutants. f) The scientific output of the CRP is materialised in various national and international

  12. Authentication of Kalix (N.E. Sweden) vendace caviar using inductively coupled plasma-based analytical techniques: Evaluation of different approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodushkin, I. [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden) and Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-97775 Lulea (Sweden)]. E-mail: ilia.rodushkin@analytica.se; Bergman, T. [BD Fisk AB, Besiktningsvaegen 10, S-973 45 Lulea (Sweden); Douglas, G. [Kalix kommun, Nygatan 4, S-952 81 Kalix (Sweden); Engstroem, E. [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); Soerlin, D. [Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-97775 Lulea (Sweden); Baxter, D.C. [Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-97775 Lulea (Sweden)

    2007-02-05

    Different analytical approaches for origin differentiation between vendace and whitefish caviars from brackish- and freshwaters were tested using inductively coupled plasma double focusing sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). These approaches involve identifying differences in elemental concentrations or sample-specific isotopic composition (Sr and Os) variations. Concentrations of 72 elements were determined by ICP-SFMS following microwave-assisted digestion in vendace and whitefish caviar samples from Sweden (from both brackish and freshwater), Finland and USA, as well as in unprocessed vendace roe and salt used in caviar production. This data set allows identification of elements whose contents in caviar can be affected by salt addition as well as by contamination during production and packaging. Long-term method reproducibility was assessed for all analytes based on replicate caviar preparations/analyses and variations in element concentrations in caviar from different harvests were evaluated. The greatest utility for differentiation was demonstrated for elements with varying concentrations between brackish and freshwaters (e.g. As, Br, Sr). Elemental ratios, specifically Sr/Ca, Sr/Mg and Sr/Ba, are especially useful for authentication of vendace caviar processed from brackish water roe, due to the significant differences between caviar from different sources, limited between-harvest variations and relatively high concentrations in samples, allowing precise determination by modern analytical instrumentation. Variations in the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio for vendace caviar from different harvests (on the order of 0.05-0.1%) is at least 10-fold less than differences between caviar processed from brackish and freshwater roe. Hence, Sr isotope ratio measurements (either by ICP-SFMS or by MC-ICP-MS) have great potential for origin differentiation. On the contrary, it was impossible to

  13. Authentication of Kalix (N.E. Sweden) vendace caviar using inductively coupled plasma-based analytical techniques: evaluation of different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodushkin, I; Bergman, T; Douglas, G; Engström, E; Sörlin, D; Baxter, D C

    2007-02-01

    Different analytical approaches for origin differentiation between vendace and whitefish caviars from brackish- and freshwaters were tested using inductively coupled plasma double focusing sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). These approaches involve identifying differences in elemental concentrations or sample-specific isotopic composition (Sr and Os) variations. Concentrations of 72 elements were determined by ICP-SFMS following microwave-assisted digestion in vendace and whitefish caviar samples from Sweden (from both brackish and freshwater), Finland and USA, as well as in unprocessed vendace roe and salt used in caviar production. This data set allows identification of elements whose contents in caviar can be affected by salt addition as well as by contamination during production and packaging. Long-term method reproducibility was assessed for all analytes based on replicate caviar preparations/analyses and variations in element concentrations in caviar from different harvests were evaluated. The greatest utility for differentiation was demonstrated for elements with varying concentrations between brackish and freshwaters (e.g. As, Br, Sr). Elemental ratios, specifically Sr/Ca, Sr/Mg and Sr/Ba, are especially useful for authentication of vendace caviar processed from brackish water roe, due to the significant differences between caviar from different sources, limited between-harvest variations and relatively high concentrations in samples, allowing precise determination by modern analytical instrumentation. Variations in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio for vendace caviar from different harvests (on the order of 0.05-0.1%) is at least 10-fold less than differences between caviar processed from brackish and freshwater roe. Hence, Sr isotope ratio measurements (either by ICP-SFMS or by MC-ICP-MS) have great potential for origin differentiation. On the contrary, it was impossible to

  14. Authentication of Kalix (N.E. Sweden) vendace caviar using inductively coupled plasma-based analytical techniques: Evaluation of different approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different analytical approaches for origin differentiation between vendace and whitefish caviars from brackish- and freshwaters were tested using inductively coupled plasma double focusing sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). These approaches involve identifying differences in elemental concentrations or sample-specific isotopic composition (Sr and Os) variations. Concentrations of 72 elements were determined by ICP-SFMS following microwave-assisted digestion in vendace and whitefish caviar samples from Sweden (from both brackish and freshwater), Finland and USA, as well as in unprocessed vendace roe and salt used in caviar production. This data set allows identification of elements whose contents in caviar can be affected by salt addition as well as by contamination during production and packaging. Long-term method reproducibility was assessed for all analytes based on replicate caviar preparations/analyses and variations in element concentrations in caviar from different harvests were evaluated. The greatest utility for differentiation was demonstrated for elements with varying concentrations between brackish and freshwaters (e.g. As, Br, Sr). Elemental ratios, specifically Sr/Ca, Sr/Mg and Sr/Ba, are especially useful for authentication of vendace caviar processed from brackish water roe, due to the significant differences between caviar from different sources, limited between-harvest variations and relatively high concentrations in samples, allowing precise determination by modern analytical instrumentation. Variations in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio for vendace caviar from different harvests (on the order of 0.05-0.1%) is at least 10-fold less than differences between caviar processed from brackish and freshwater roe. Hence, Sr isotope ratio measurements (either by ICP-SFMS or by MC-ICP-MS) have great potential for origin differentiation. On the contrary, it was impossible to

  15. Development of a Technique of an Analytical Assessment of Crossing of Ellipses of Distribution on Polarizing Raman Ranges at Identification of Nanoparticles of Silver on Polyester Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Dobrovolskaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical estimates of crossing of ellipses of distribution at recognition of nanoparticles of colloidal silver are given in polyair fibers on multidimensional correlation components of the Raman ranges with control according to polarizing characteristics. Reliability of recognition of nanoparticles was estimated on joint probability of normal distributions of intensivnost of the Raman spectrograms of nanoparticles of silver on polyair fibers depending on longitudinal and cross polarization of laser radiation on all range of a range with the analysis of 9 main peaks.

  16. The SIFT and FALP techniques; applications to ionic and electronic reactions studies and their evolution to the SIFT-MS and FA-MS analytical methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 377, SI (2015), s. 467-478. ISSN 1387-3806 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : flow tubes * mass spectrometry * FALP techniques Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.972, year: 2014

  17. Game Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seif El-Nasr, Magy; Drachen, Anders; Canossa, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Game Analytics has gained a tremendous amount of attention in game development and game research in recent years. The widespread adoption of data-driven business intelligence practices at operational, tactical and strategic levels in the game industry, combined with the integration of quantitative...... measures in user-oriented game research, has caused a paradigm shift. Historically, game development has not been data-driven, but this is changing as the benefits of adopting and adapting analytics to inform decision making across all levels of the industry are becoming generally known and accepted....

  18. Analytical quadrics

    CERN Document Server

    Spain, Barry; Ulam, S; Stark, M

    1960-01-01

    Analytical Quadrics focuses on the analytical geometry of three dimensions. The book first discusses the theory of the plane, sphere, cone, cylinder, straight line, and central quadrics in their standard forms. The idea of the plane at infinity is introduced through the homogenous Cartesian coordinates and applied to the nature of the intersection of three planes and to the circular sections of quadrics. The text also focuses on paraboloid, including polar properties, center of a section, axes of plane section, and generators of hyperbolic paraboloid. The book also touches on homogenous coordi

  19. Application of nuclear analytical techniques and other methods to investigate the contents of some heavy-toxic metal elements in marine environmental samples in some special areas at the south of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Analytical Techniques have been studied and applied to analyze trace and nutrition elements in biological and environmental samples in Nuclear Research Institute. In 2006 year, we carried out the subject: Application of Nuclear Analytical Techniques and other methods to investigate the contents of some heavy-toxic metal elements in marine environmental samples in some special areas at the south of Vietnam. The aim of this topic is to study for determination of trace and micro elements in some marine environmental object such as marine sediment, seawater and marine creature. The methods for the determination of elements Cu, Pb, Zn, Se, Cd, As, Sb, Co, Hg, Cr, Ca, Mg, etc... are presented in this paper. The obtained analytical results are basis to monitor marine environmental pollution and to evaluate the impact of exploitation of rare earth- radioactive ores near by the sea coast; exploitation of crude oil in offshore and to monitor happening of technology actives of our country in the future. The analytical results of toxic and trace element's contents in the studying field is also to attend the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation of Asia (FNCA) in which Vietnam is one of member's nine counties. The subject is to be carried in two years of 2006-2007; the first year focuses to carry out some contents as following: 1. Study the methods for determination of some elements in marine sediment, seawater and sea-biota samples in that the Neutron Activation Analysis method is difficult to determine; 2. Determination of the content of elements Cu, Pb, Zn, Se, As, Cd, Hg, Sb, Co , Cr and some others microelements in collected samples; 3. Preliminary estimation of contents of these elements in studying object. (author)

  20. Analytical Searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses analytical searching, a process that enables searchers of electronic resources to develop a planned strategy by combining words or phrases with Boolean operators. Defines simple and complex searching, and describes search strategies developed with Boolean logic and truncation. Provides guidelines for teaching students analytical…

  1. Co-ordinated research project on use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in studying human health impacts of toxic elements consumed through foodstuffs contaminated by industrial activities. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of the Co-ordinated research project is to provide a scientific basis for better assessment of selected pollutants in the food chain with a view to elucidating their impacts on human health and nutrition. Results of this study will enhance the existing body of knowledge and can be used to develop preventive strategies. Specific objectve: To determine the extent to which toxic element levels in food are affected by surrounding industrial activities and to assess potential human exposure from the consumption of such foodstuffs. EXPECTED RESEARCH OUTPUTS (RESULTS): Harmonized protocols and procedures for sampling and analyses; ? Compiled results for toxic element levels and their average daily dietary intake (ADDI) / dietary intake; Evaluated toxic element exposure levels based on biological indicators (where applicable); Publications of the study results in an IAEA TECDOC, and in peer-reviewed journals by participants. ACTION PLAN (ACTIVITIES) a. Core research activities: 1 Identification of the study areas and population groups. 2 Collection of information on food consumption patterns of the population groups under study (e.g. through questionnaires). 3 Development of harmonized protocols and validation of analytical methodologies in compliance with ISO/IEC 17025. 4 Collection and analysis of food samples, and estimation of the dietary intake. 5 Collection and analysis of biological indicators where applicable. 6 Evaluation of possible relationships between human exposures and biological indicators for the pollutants studied. 4b. Supplementary activities: ? Speciation studies of pollutants. ? Comparison of present and previous data on relevant parameters. ? Possible production and distribution of laboratory intercomparison samples. 7. Recommendations for nuclear analytical techniques ? Nuclear analytical technique (NAT) such as INAA, PIXE, PIGE, XRF should be the primary technique of analysis; Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA

  2. analysis of some human-daily - used products and studying the correlation between elemental content and possible health harm using chemical and nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    radiochemical and chemical techniques have been used for analysis of some human-daily-used products. these techniques were: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). the first technique was used for simultaneously multi-element determination of some trace, minor, and major elements in the analyzed samples, whereas icp-ms was used for analysis of Cd,Cu,Hg, and Pb in some samples. in the present study samples of various products as indicated below were analyzed: 1- samples of various kinds of cosmetic products such as : compact face powder, compact rouge make-up, compact eyeshadow, 2-samples of some common drugs. 3- samples of different kinds of toothpaste, and shaving cream. 4- samples of some mosquitoes exterminators. these samples have been randomly selected from the egyptian market. some of these samples were imported from the world market, and the others were manufactured in Egypt

  3. Achievements and experiences in the 'TC Regional Project on Quality Control and Quality Assurance for Nuclear Analytical Techniques RER/2/004' obtained in the fields of radionuclide and trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiochemical Laboratory participated in the 2-year-long TC Project on Quality Control and Quality Assurance for Nuclear Analytical Techniques RER/2/004 organized by the IAEA during the period June 1999 and September 2001. Motivations, major goals of participation in the project, cornerstones of implementation of the project, establishing the quality system, improvements fulfilling both technical and management requirements as well as major achievements for future activities of the laboratory with respect to technical and financial conditions are discussed in detail. (author)

  4. Determination of dynamic metal complexes and their diffusion coefficients in the presence of different humic substances by combining two analytical techniques.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Manek, A.; Niyogi, S.; Hudson, J.

    The combined use of a competing ligand exchange (CLE) method and a diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique in a quasi-labile system provides a better understanding of dynamic metal (Cu and Ni) complexes in the presence of humic substances...

  5. Measurement and Modelling: Sequential Use of Analytical Techniques in a Study of Risk-Taking in Decision-Making by School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmer, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates reasoned risk-taking in decision-making by school principals using a methodology that combines sequential use of psychometric and traditional measurement techniques. Risk-taking is defined as when decisions are made that are not compliant with the regulatory framework, the primary governance mechanism for public schools in…

  6. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  7. State-of-the-art thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) - an analytical technique approaching its 100th “birthday” and still going strong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first report of analyses of ion beams (or “positive rays” as they were called at the time) produced by thermal ionisation and using a magnetic sector field was published 97 years ago (A.J.Dempster; Phys. Rev. 11 (1918), p 316). In the meantime the technique has developed a lot and TIMS is still the method of choice for many applications in various fields of research. No other technique can routinely achieve higher reproducibility for the analysis of selected isotope ratios than TIMS (e.g. 2-3 ppm relative standard deviation for Sr or Nd). This presentation will introduce the hardware and the procedures required to achieve such high-precision measurements. Also, the current status of a development of the TIMS ion source will be presented, the thermal ionisation cavity source. (author)

  8. Determination, speciation and distribution of mercury in soil in the surroundings of a former chlor-alkali plant: assessment of sequential extraction procedure and analytical technique

    OpenAIRE

    Frentiu, Tiberiu; Pintican, Bogdan Petru; Butaciu, Sanziana; Mihaltan, Alin Ironim; Ponta, Michaela; Frentiu, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Background The paper presents the evaluation of soil contamination with total, water-available, mobile, semi-mobile and non-mobile Hg fractions in the surroundings of a former chlor-alkali plant in connection with several chemical soil characteristics. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were used to evaluate the chemical composition variability of soil and factors influencing the fate of Hg in such areas. The sequential extraction EPA 3200-Method and the determination technique...

  9. Discovering diamonds under coal piles: Revealing exclusive business intelligence about online consumers through the use of Web Data Mining techniques embedded in an analytical customer relationship management framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Ertz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Web Mining has gained prominence over the last decade. This rise is concomitant with the upsurge of pure players, the multiple challenges of data deluge, the trend toward automation and integration within organization, as well as a desire for hyper segmentation. Confronted, partly or totally, with these multiple issues, companies recourse increasingly to replicate the data mining toolbox on web data. Although much is known about the technical aspect of WM, little is known about the extent to which WM actually fits within a customer relationship management system, designed at attracting and retaining the maximum amount of customers. An exploratory study involving twelve senior professionals and scholars indicated that WM is well-suited to achieve most of the customer relationship management objective, with regards to the profiling of existing web customers. The results of this study suggest that the engineering of WM processes into analytic customer relationship management systems, may yield highly beneficial returns, provided that some guidelines are scrupulously followed.

  10. A high-throughput 2D-analytical technique to obtain single protein parameters from complex cell lysates for in silico process development of ion exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner, Frieder; Elsäßer, Dennis; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2013-11-29

    The accelerating growth of the market for biopharmaceutical proteins, the market entry of biosimilars and the growing interest in new, more complex molecules constantly pose new challenges for bioseparation process development. In the presented work we demonstrate the application of a multidimensional, analytical separation approach to obtain the relevant physicochemical parameters of single proteins in a complex mixture for in silico chromatographic process development. A complete cell lysate containing a low titre target protein was first fractionated by multiple linear salt gradient anion exchange chromatography (AEC) with varying gradient length. The collected fractions were subsequently analysed by high-throughput capillary gel electrophoresis (HT-CGE) after being desalted and concentrated. From the obtained data of the 2D-separation the retention-volumes and the concentration of the single proteins were determined. The retention-volumes of the single proteins were used to calculate the related steric-mass action model parameters. In a final evaluation experiment the received parameters were successfully applied to predict the retention behaviour of the single proteins in salt gradient AEC. PMID:24139506

  11. Advances in analytical chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  12. Text and Context: Language Analytics in Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Sanjiv Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    This monograph surveys the technology and empirics of text analytics in finance. I present various tools of information extraction and basic text analytics. I survey a range of techniques of classification and predictive analytics, and metrics used to assess the performance of text analytics algorithms. I then review the literature on text mining and predictive analytics in finance, and its connection to networks, covering a wide range of text sources such as blogs, news, web posts, corporate...

  13. FEASIBILITY OF INVESTMENT IN BUSINESS ANALYTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Varga

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Trends in data processing for decision support show that business users need business analytics, i.e. analytical applications which incorporate a variety of business oriented data analysis techniques and task-specific knowledge. The paper discusses the feasibility of investment in two models of implementing business analytics: custom development and packed analytical applications. The consequences of both models are shown on two models of business analytics implementation in Croatia.

  14. Progress in animal foods detection by near infrared spectroscopy analytical technique%近红外光谱分析技术在动物源性食品检测中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴浩; 刘源; 董若琰; 顾赛麒; 王锡昌

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of animal foods is increasing nowadays,and the quality and safety of animal foods are highly valued by people.Near infrared spectroscopy(NIR)analytical technique has many advantages such as fast analytical speed,non-destruction,less necessary samples,multiple targets detected at the same time and it can monitor productive process at real time.The basic principles and pretreatments methods of NIR were presented in the article as well as the current progress of detection for animal foods, including quality evaluation and safety evaluation.Furthermore, development tendencies of detection for animal foods by NIR were also discussed.In conclusion,NIR analytical technique is suit to evaluate the quality and safety of animal foods.%近年来动物源性食品的消费量日益增大,关于动物源性食品的质量安全也受到人们的高度重视.近红外光谱(NIR)分析技术具有分析速度快、非破坏性、所需样品量小、多组分同时测定,且可对生产过程进行实时监控等优点.本文对NIR分析技术进行了简介,并列举了常用的光谱预处理方法;综述了该技术在动物源性食品检测中的研究进展,包括品质评价和安全评价;并对该技术在动物源性食品检测中的发展趋势进行了阐述.表明NIR分析技术适合评价动物源性食品的品质和安全.

  15. Report of the first research co-ordination meeting on the co-ordinated research programme: Development and selection of analytical techniques for measuring accidentally released radionuclides in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The participants at the second Research Co-ordination Meeting (Vienna, 12-16 August 1991) of the CRP on 'Rapid Instrumental and Separation Methods for Monitoring Radionuclides in Food and Environmental Samples', recommended that a new CRP be established. The current CRP on 'Development and Selection of Analytical Techniques and Procedures for Measuring Accidentally Released Radionuclides in Environment' was established based on this recommendation. The objectives of this CRP are to conduct research and development on applicable methodologies for response to accidental releases, and to improve and maintain the capabilities of the network of laboratories and provide training of individuals within member states. Thus, the CRP serves as a vehicle to maintain contact within the network of laboratories, while developing and transferring analytical techniques and procedures for measuring accidentally released radioactivity. The purpose of the Research Co-ordination Meeting is to discuss the proposed research programs, the status to date and the work planned for the duration of the CRP. The meeting also provides the opportunity for the CRP participants to exchange ideas and possibly develop collaborations in their research. The members of the CRP also need to discuss issues related to the previous CRP on Rapid methods. These include: the preparation of the final report of the previous CRP, the preparation of an addendum to TRS-295 and the ultimate revision or updating of TRS-295. Finally, it is intended that the members of the CRP should discuss the mandate and scope of work of the network of analytical laboratories and the steps needed to firmly establish this network

  16. Perfeccionamiento de la estructura metálica de la cosechadora cañera KTP-2M. // Improvement of the metallic structure in the KTP-2M sugar-cane harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Estrada Cingualbres

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available El bastidor de la cosechadora cubana de caña de azúcar KTP-2M, es un elemento de un elevado grado de hiperestaticidady de una alta complejidad constructiva. Garantizar el diseño óptimo del mismo es un problema actual. En la presenteponencia se expone el trabajo realizado para lograr el perfeccionamiento del bastidor de la cosechadora KTP-2M,garantizando la resistencia y durabilidad de este con un gasto mínimo de materiales, para ello se utilizó el métodoextensométrico eléctrico de medición de deformaciones y se creó un modelo físico-matemático del mismo, el cual fuecalculado mediante un sistema automatizado de análisis de estructuras basado en el cálculo matricial de estas.Palabras claves: Bastidor, extensometría, strain gage, análisis, estructuras, durabilidad, frame.______________________________________________________________________AbstractThe frame of the cuban KTP-2M sugar cane harvester is an element of hight hyperstatic degree and hight constructivecomplexity. In the following report is exposed the work done to assure the improvement of the frame in the KTP-2Mharvester, warranting its strength and durability with a minimum expense of materials. The extensometer-electrical methodof measuring distortions has been used and has been created a physical-mathematical model of the structure, which wascalculated by means of an automated system of analysis based on the Finite Elements Method.Key words: Extensometer, strain gage, analysis, structures, durability, frame.

  17. Multispectral analytical image fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With new and advanced analytical imaging methods emerging, the limits of physical analysis capabilities and furthermore of data acquisition quantities are constantly pushed, claiming high demands to the field of scientific data processing and visualisation. Physical analysis methods like Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) or Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and others are capable of delivering high-resolution multispectral two-dimensional and three-dimensional image data; usually this multispectral data is available in form of n separate image files with each showing one element or other singular aspect of the sample. There is high need for digital image processing methods enabling the analytical scientist, confronted with such amounts of data routinely, to get rapid insight into the composition of the sample examined, to filter the relevant data and to integrate the information of numerous separate multispectral images to get the complete picture. Sophisticated image processing methods like classification and fusion provide possible solution approaches to this challenge. Classification is a treatment by multivariate statistical means in order to extract analytical information. Image fusion on the other hand denotes a process where images obtained from various sensors or at different moments of time are combined together to provide a more complete picture of a scene or object under investigation. Both techniques are important for the task of information extraction and integration and often one technique depends on the other. Therefore overall aim of this thesis is to evaluate the possibilities of both techniques regarding the task of analytical image processing and to find solutions for the integration and condensation of multispectral analytical image data in order to facilitate the interpretation of the enormous amounts of data routinely acquired by modern physical analysis instruments. (author)

  18. A Review on Analytic Techniques of Fibrinolytic Protein%纤溶活性蛋白检测方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明星; 叶韵; 韩雅莉

    2011-01-01

    迄今为止,对纤溶活性蛋白(fibrinolytic protein)的检测主要有4种方法:纤维平板法(fibrin plate method)、显色底物法(colorimetric assay using chromogenic substrates)、反相纤维蛋白自显影法(reverse fibrin autography)和纤维蛋白酶谱法(fibrin zymography).纤维平板法可以用来快速判断样品是否具有纤溶活性,同时,纤维平板法和显色底物法也可以用来对纤溶活性蛋白进行半定量分析.反相自显影法和纤维蛋白酶谱法则是两种较新的技术,主要用来对纤溶活性蛋白进行定性分析.详细阐述了这几种技术的发展过程、原理、优缺点和应用范围.%Pas are serine proteases of tryptic specificity which can convert the proenzyme, plasminogen, into an active enzyme plasmin. For the assay of Pas activity, four techniques have been established. Fibrin plate method and colorimetric assay using chromogenic substrates are two early methods which can be used for semi-quantitative analysis. Reverse fibrin autography and fibrin zymography are two new qualitative techniques which can be used to detect the molecular weight or isoelectric point of unknown Pas. The developing process and principle of these four techniques were reviewed, and the potential applications, advantages and disadvantages were discussed.Fibrinolytic protein Fibrin plate method Colorimetric assay using chromogenic substrates

  19. Comparison of XAD with other dissolved lignin isolation techniques and a compilation of analytical improvements for the analysis of lignin in aquatic settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R.G.M.; Aiken, G.R.; Dyda, R.Y.; Butler, K.D.; Bergamaschi, B.A.; Hernes, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript highlights numerous incremental improvements in dissolved lignin measurements over the nearly three decades since CuO oxidation of lignin phenols was first adapted for environmental samples. Intercomparison of the recovery efficiency of three common lignin phenol concentration and isolation techniques, namely XAD, C18 with both CH3OH (C18M) and CH3CN (C18A) used independently for priming and elution steps, and tangential flow filtration (TFF) for a range of aquatic samples including fresh, estuarine and marine waters, was undertaken. With freshwater samples XAD8-1, C18M and TFF were all observed to recover ca. 80-90% of the lignin phenols and showed no fractionation effects with respect to diagnostic lignin parameters. With estuarine and marine samples more lignin phenols were recovered with C18M and XAD8-1 than TFF because of the increased prevalence of low molecular weight lignin phenols in marine influenced samples. For marine systems, differences were also observed between diagnostic lignin parameters isolated via TFF vs. C18M and XAD8-1 as a result of the high molecular weight lignin phenols being less degraded than the bulk. Therefore, it is recommended for future studies of marine systems that only one technique is utilized for ease of intercomparison within studies. It is suggested that for studies solely aimed at recovering bulk dissolved lignin in marine environments that C18M and XAD8-1 appear to be more suitable than TFF as they recover more lignin. Our results highlight that, for freshwater samples, all three common lignin phenol concentration and isolation techniques are comparable to whole water concentrated by rotary evaporation (i.e. not isolated) but, that for marine systems, the choice of concentration and isolation techniques needs to be taken into consideration with respect to both lignin concentration and diagnostic parameters. Finally, as the study highlights XAD8-1 to be a suitable method for the isolation of dissolved lignin

  20. Análisis y Visualización de Big Data mediante técnicas de realidad virtual = Big Data Visual Analytics using virtual reality techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Raya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gracias a los avances de la tecnología, el número de datos que son generados y su complejidad crece exponencialmente. Las nuevas técnicas de adquisición de datos, así como las técnicas de computación de altas prestaciones han posibilitado la gestión de grandes conjuntos de datos con mayor resolución. Sin embargo, nuestra capacidad en el incremento de cantidad y complejidad en la generación de datos actuales, supera nuestra habilidad para entenderlos fácilmente y darles sentido. En el presente trabajo, proponemos el uso de técnicas de realidad virtual que exploten los diferentes canales sensoriales para facilitar la visualización, análisis, interpretación e interacción de grandes conjuntos de datos complejos. Abstract Advances in technology have made it possible to increase the data size generated causing its complexity grows exponentially. New data acquisition and high performance computing techniques have enabled to manage large data sets with high resolution. However, the amount and complexity of current generation of data exceeds our ability to easily understand and make sense of them. In this paper, we propose the use of virtual reality techniques that exploit different sensory channels for improving the visualization, analysis, interpretation and interaction of large complex datasets.

  1. Detection of Matrix Elements and Trace Impurities in Cu(In, Ga)Se2 Photovoltaic Absorbers Using Surface Analytical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Jihye; Kim, Seon Hee; Kim, Haidong; Lee, Kang-Bong; Lee, Yeonhee

    2015-10-01

    Chalcopyrite Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films are well known as the next-generation solar cell materials notable for their high absorption coefficient for solar radiation, suitable band gap, and ability for deposition on flexible substrate materials, allowing the production of highly flexible and lightweight solar panels. To improve solar cell performances, a quantitative and depth-resolved elemental analysis of photovoltaic thin films is much needed. In this study, Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin films were prepared on molybdenum back contacts deposited on soda-lime glass substrates via three-stage evaporation. Surface analyses via AES and SIMS were used to characterize the CIGS thin films and compare their depth profiles. We determined the average concentration of the matrix elements, Cu, In, Ga, and Se, using ICP-AES, XRF, and EPMA. We also obtained depth profiling results using TOF-SIMS, magnetic sector SIMS and AES, and APT, a sub-nanometer resolution characterization technique that enables three-dimensional elemental mapping. The SIMS technique, with its high detection limit and ability to obtain the profiles of elements in parallel, is a powerful tool for monitoring trace elements in CIGS thin films. To identify impurities in a CIGS layer, the distribution of trace elements was also observed according to depth by SIMS and APT. PMID:26726401

  2. Elemental compositions of PM10–2.5 and PM2.5 aerosols of a Nigerian urban city using ion beam analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paucity of data on air quality studies in Nigeria prompted us to commence the sampling of particulate matter (PM10–2.5 and PM2.5) in Mushin Lagos, Nigeria. Both size-segregated fractions were collected using a double staged ‘Gent’ stack filter unit sampler. Elemental characterization was carried out by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced γ-ray Emission (PIGE) techniques using an external ion beam set-up. Twenty-four elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Cs and Pb) were detected in both fractions and their concentrations were assessed. A study of their inter-elemental correlations indicated that some elements could have common source origins or similar chemical properties while enrichment factors (EF) displayed that most elements emanated from anthropogenic sources. Source apportionment studies are thus recommended

  3. Evaluation of halogen element level in foodstuffs contaminated by pesticides and herbicides in Beijing and its health impact on children by nuclear analytical and related techniques. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The halogen elements (F, Cl, Br and I), when they exist as organohalide compounds (e.g. chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans, etc.), have long been known as persistent environmental pollutants. Although human exposure to this type of pollutant comes from air, water and diet, many studies have shown that about 95 % of organochlorine compounds intake are estimated to come from food. It is reported that about 4.9 million tons of HCHs and 0.4 millions DDTs had been used from 1960 to 1983 in China. Although the use of these pesticides and herbicides in agriculture has been officially banned since 1983, their persistent metabolites and residues still exist in the environment. These pesticides and herbicides in the environment can be finally accumulated and concentrated in milk and other foodstuffs through the food chain. A preliminary result obtained by nuclear analytical technique in our laboratory indicated that the concentration of organohalide compounds in the dairy products in Beijing was quite high with the maximum of 615.5 ng/ml. However, up to now little information about the pollution status of organohalide compounds in various foods and their impact on human health, especially on children - a sensitive population, is available. The traditional analytical techniques, like gas chromatography (GC), GC-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), etc. cannot reflect the overall pollution status of organohalide compounds. Many reports have indicated that the contents of organochlorine compounds given by GC only amounted to about 10-20 % of the actual contents. Due to the advantageous nuclear properties of Cl, Br and I, neutron activation analysis is able to easily evaluate the whole pollution status of the halogen elements and their organic species, when it combines the organic extraction techniques

  4. Flight validated high-order models of UAV helicopter dynamics in hover and forward flight using analytical and parameter identification techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Subodh

    There has been a significant growth in the use of UAV helicopters for a multitude of military and civilian applications over the last few years. Due to these numerous applications, from crop dusting to remote sensing, UAV helicopters are now a major topic of interest within the aerospace community. The main research focus is on the development of automatic flight control systems (AFCS). The design of AFCS for these vehicles requires a mathematical model representing the dynamics of the vehicle. The mathematical model is developed either from first-principles, using the equations of motion of the vehicle, or from the flight data, using parameter identification techniques. The traditional six-degrees-of-freedom (6-DoF) dynamics model is not suitable for high-bandwidth control system design. Such models are valid only within the low- to mid-frequency range. The agility and high maneuverability of small-scale helicopters require a high-bandwidth control system for full authority autonomous performance. The design of a high-bandwidth control system in turn requires a high-fidelity simulation model that is able to capture the key dynamics of the helicopter. These dynamics include the rotor dynamics. This dissertation presents the development of a 14-degrees-of-freedom (14-DoF) state-space linear model for the KU Thunder Tiger Raptor 50 UAV helicopter from first-principles and from flight test data using a parameter identification technique for the hovering and forward flight conditions. The model includes rigid body, rotor regressive, rotor inflow, stabilizer bar, and rotor coning dynamics. The model is implemented within The MathWork's MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results show that the high-order model is able to predict the helicopter's dynamics up to the frequency of 30 rad/sec. The main contributions of this dissertation are the development of a high-order simulation model for a small UAV helicopter from first-principles and the identification of a

  5. Rapid analytical technique to identify alpha emitting isotopes in water, air-filters, urine, and solid matrices using a Frisch Grid detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpitta, Salvatore C; Miltenberger, Robert P; Gaschott, Robert; Carte, Nina

    2003-04-01

    A 5-inch-diameter Frisch Grid gas-proportional ionization chamber was utilized at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to rapidly characterize and quantify alpha-emitting actinides in unprocessed water, soil, air-filter, urine, and solid matrices. Instrument calibrations for the various matrices were performed by spiking representative samples with National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable isotopes of 230Th, 232U, 236Pu, and 243Am. Detection efficiencies were typically 15-20% for solid matrices (soil, concrete, filters, dry urine) and 45% for mass-less water samples. Instrument background over a 512-channel alpha-energy range of 3-8 MeV is very low at 0.01 cps. At optimum efficiency, minimum detectable levels of 0.56 mBq Kg(-1), 74 mBq L(-1) and 14.8 mBq filter(-1) were achievable for 40 x 10(-6) Kg soil, 1 x 10(-3) L tap water (or urine), and 4.5 cm diameter air-filter samples, respectively, each counted for 60 min. Data and spectra are presented showing the quality of results obtained using untreated samples obtained from the BNL Graphite Research Reactor Decommissioning Project. These samples contained Bq to MBq per gram amounts of (239,240)Pu, 241Am, and/or (234,235/238)U (as well as other beta/gamma emitters). Data and spectra are also presented for a very finely pulverized and homogeneous U.S. DOE/RESL soil reference standard (spiked with 239Pu, 241Am, and 233U) that was used to assess precision, accuracy, and reproducibility. Although this technique has its limitations, the advantages are (1) minimal sample preparation, (2) no separation chemistry required, (3) no chemical or hazardous waste generated, and (4) ability to immediately characterize and quantify alpha-emitting nuclides in most matrices. The benefits of this technique to the BNL/DOE Project Managers were rapid (1-2 d) turn-around times coupled with significant cost savings, as compared to commercial off-site analyses. PMID:12705448

  6. Review of Current Student-Monitoring Techniques used in eLearning-Focused recommender Systems and Learning analytics. The Experience API & LIME model Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Corbi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems require input information in order to properly operate and deliver content or behaviour suggestions to end users. eLearning scenarios are no exception. Users are current students and recommendations can be built upon paths (both formal and informal, relationships, behaviours, friends, followers, actions, grades, tutor interaction, etc. A recommender system must somehow retrieve, categorize and work with all these details. There are several ways to do so: from raw and inelegant database access to more curated web APIs or even via HTML scrapping. New server-centric user-action logging and monitoring standard technologies have been presented in past years by several groups, organizations and standard bodies. The Experience API (xAPI, detailed in this article, is one of these. In the first part of this paper we analyse current learner-monitoring techniques as an initialization phase for eLearning recommender systems. We next review standardization efforts in this area; finally, we focus on xAPI and the potential interaction with the LIME model, which will be also summarized below.

  7. A study on environmental pollution monitoring and occupational health in the capital iron and steel company, Beijing, China, using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmosphere pollution in some Chinese cities is becoming more and more serious with the industrial development in the past decades. The airborne particulate concentration in Beijing, the Capital of China, far exceeds the allowable level set by the Chinese government and by the related international organizations. The main contribution source for the Beijing atmospheric particulate is the Capital Iron and Steel Company, which constitutes 55% of total air-borne particulate in Beijing. In the framework of this CRP organized by IAEA, we select this company as a target workplace. The INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis), PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission analysis), SRXRF (synchronous radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and other related techniques will be applied to determine the concentrations of some target elements, e.g. heavy metal and toxic elements, in environmental samples (including airborne particulate, soil and plants) and human samples (including head hair, urine and blood) collected from this company, its surrounding region and a non-polluted region as a control. The activity completed at the first year and the working plan for next year is outlined in this report. Other related information will be dealt with as well. (author)

  8. A analytical comparison of different estimators for the density distribution of the catalyst in a experimental riser by a gammametric technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Emerson Alexandre de Oliveira [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia. Dept. de Estatistica e Informatica]. E-mail: eal@dei.unicap.br; Dantas Carlos C. [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Melo, Silvio de Barros [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Informatica; Santos, Valdemir Alexandre dos [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, we solve the following questions: what will be the estimate of the r = r (x, y, z) function format? Which method would describe the density distribution function more precisely? Which is the best estimator? Also, once the {rho}={rho}(x, y, z) format and the approximation technique is defined, comes the experimental arrangement and pass length configuration, which are the next problems to be solved. Finding the best parameter estimation for the {rho}={rho}(x, y, z) function according to the C pass lengths and their spatial configuration. The latter is required to define the {rho}={rho}(x, y, z) function resolution and the mechanical scanning movements of the arrangement. Such definitions will be implemented for an automate arrangement, by a computational program, to further development of the reconstruction of catalyst density distribution on experimental risers.. The precision evaluation was finally compared to the arrangement geometry that yields the best pass length spatial configuration. The results are shown in graphics for the two known density distributions. As a conclusion, the parameters for an automate arrangement design, are given under the required precision for the catalyst distribution reconstruction. (author)

  9. Evaluation of halogen element level in foodstuffs contaminated by pesticides and herbicides in Beijing and its health impact on children by nuclear analytical and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several monitoring programmes for chlorinated pesticides and their metabolites and residues have been conducted on a large scale to evaluate actual food contamination in China. A more recent programme (1996-2000), i.e. Food Pollution and Its Control in Beijing indicated that the chlorinated pesticides contamination in food is a serious problem, because of their extensive use from 50s to late 60s. In the framework of this CRP organized by IAEA, we are focused on evaluation the level of halogen elements and their organic species in foodstuffs contaminated by pesticides and herbicides using neutron activation analysis combined with organic extraction technique. The preliminary results show that the extractable organahalide concentrations in Chinese milk samples are quite high. The highest reaches 615.5 ng/ml. Their health effects on children will be evaluated via the analysis of the contents of organohalide compounds in hair samples and clinical diagnostics. The activities completed or being implemented related to this project at present and the working plan for next two years are outlined in this report. Other related information will be provided as well. (author)

  10. LC-MS screening techniques for wastewater analysis and analytical data handling strategies: Sartans and their transformation products as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letzel, Thomas; Bayer, Anne; Schulz, Wolfgang; Heermann, Alexandra; Lucke, Thomas; Greco, Giorgia; Grosse, Sylvia; Schüssler, Walter; Sengl, Manfred; Letzel, Marion

    2015-10-01

    A large number of anthropogenic trace contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, their human metabolites and further transformation products (TPs) enter wastewater treatment plants on a daily basis. A mixture of known, expected, and unknown molecules are discharged into the receiving aquatic environment because only partial elimination occurs for many of these chemicals during physical, biological and chemical treatment processes. In this study, an array of LC-MS methods from three collaborating laboratories was applied to detect and identify anthropogenic trace contaminants and their TPs in different waters. Starting with theoretical predictions of TPs, an efficient workflow using the combination of target, suspected-target and non-target strategies for the identification of these TPs in the environment was developed. These techniques and strategies were applied to study anti-hypertensive drugs from the sartan group (i.e., candesartan, eprosartan, irbesartan, olmesartan, and valsartan). Degradation experiments were performed in lab-scale wastewater treatment plants, and a screening workflow including an inter-laboratory approach was used for the identification of transformation products in the effluent samples. Subsequently, newly identified compounds were successfully analyzed in effluents of real wastewater treatment plants and river waters. PMID:26246044

  11. Application of new analytical techniques to the order-disorder transformation in Ni-Mo alloys; Ni-Mo gokin no kisoku-fukisoku hentai ni okeru atarashii kozo kaiseki no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, K.; Hata, S.; Kuwano, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-09-20

    This paper presents the analytical example of the ordering process of order-disorder transformation in Ni-Mo alloy using recent experimental techniques. Monte Carlo simulation clarified the fact that the ordering process in Ni4-Mo alloy is largely affected by short range interaction in the early stage of ordering, and forms D1a, D022 and Pt2Mo structure units with a similar atomic pair correlation. The ordering process is largely affected by long range interaction with an advance of ordering, and develops only D1a structure most stable in energy. In order to check the existence of SRO (short range order) structure obtained by Monte Carlo simulation, the analysis of high-resolution TEM images under SRO condition was carried out using the imaging plate recently developed for TEM. The analytical result showed that the observed N2M3 pattern is derived from not always the existence of N2M3 structure but superimposition of D1a, D022 and Pt2Mo structure units. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Analytical Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2015, the Soil and Water Management & Crop Nutrition (SWMCNL) Laboratory analysed 2700 samples for stable isotopes and 180 samples for fallout radionuclides. These soil and plant samples were mainly from ongoing activities at the SWMCNL focusing on the design of affordable isotope and nuclear techniques to develop climate-smart agricultural practices

  13. A Primer on Spreadsheet Analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides guidance to an analyst who wants to extract insight from a spreadsheet model. It discusses the terminology of spreadsheet analytics, how to prepare a spreadsheet model for analysis, and a hierarchy of analytical techniques. These techniques include sensitivity analysis, tornado charts,and backsolving (or goal-seeking). This paper presents native-Excel approaches for automating these techniques, and discusses add-ins that are even more efficient. Spreadsheet optimization and spreadsheet Monte Carlo simulation are briefly discussed. The paper concludes by calling for empirical research, and describing desired features spreadsheet sensitivity analysis and spreadsheet optimization add-ins.

  14. Semiconductor Research Experimental Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Balkan, Naci

    2012-01-01

    The book describes the fundamentals, latest developments and use of key experimental techniques for semiconductor research. It explains the application potential of various analytical methods and discusses the opportunities to apply particular analytical techniques to study novel semiconductor compounds, such as dilute nitride alloys. The emphasis is on the technique rather than on the particular system studied.

  15. Toward analytical chaos in nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2014-01-01

    Exact analytical solutions to periodic motions in nonlinear dynamical systems are almost not possible. Since the 18th century, one has extensively used techniques such as perturbation methods to obtain approximate analytical solutions of periodic motions in nonlinear systems. However, the perturbation methods cannot provide the enough accuracy of analytical solutions of periodic motions in nonlinear dynamical systems. So the bifurcation trees of periodic motions to chaos cannot be achieved analytically.  The author has developed an analytical technique that is more effective to achieve period

  16. El Modelo de Gestión de Información y Conocimiento: resultados de su aplicación en una empresa en perfeccionamiento (Information and Knowledge Management Framework: its application results in company upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Artiles Visbal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El Modelo de Gestión de Información y Conocimiento para la empresa en perfeccionamiento (MOGICEP utiliza la gestión del conocimiento como enfoque gerencial, se sustenta en el marco regulatorio del país para la organización de la información, su aplicación se basa en el cumplimento de las etapas que lo conforman y las herramientas que permiten la evaluación de la organización objeto de estudio, estas aportan datos e información y además facilitan el control del modelo propuesto. Esta combinación resulta en extremo necesaria para las organizaciones cualquiera que sea su sector de aplicación. Todo sistema de información debe contribuir decisivamente a propiciar espacios de intercambio, de identificación y de generación de nuevo conocimiento, de ordenación de los datos y de la información interna, para que sean utilizados en el momento preciso por quienes lo necesiten y demanden. Si logramos organizar la información de conjunto con el conocimiento podemos alcanzar en más breve tiempo mejores resultados; este trabajo expone algunas de las experiencias obtenidas en la aplicación del MOGICEP. Abstract The Information and Knowledge Management Framework for company upgrading (MOGICEP uses knowledge management as a managerial approach and is based on the country's regulatory framework for the organization of information. Its application is based on the fulfillment of the stages involved and on the tools to assess the organization under study. These tools provide data and information, at the same time that allow for the control of the proposed model. This combination is extremely necessary for organizations, irrespective of their field of application. Any information system should contribute decisively to promote not only opportunities for exchange, identification and generation of new knowledge, but also data management and internal information, in a way that this information system may be used for those who need and demand it

  17. ANALYTICS OF BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asst. Prof. Shubhada Talegaon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Big Data analytics has started to impact all types of organizations, as it carries the potential power to extract embedded knowledge from big amounts of data and react according to it in real time. The current technology enables us to efficiently store and query large datasets, the focus is now on techniques that make use of the complete data set, instead of sampling. This has tremendous implications in areas like machine learning, pattern recognition and classification, sentiment analysis, social networking analysis to name a few. Therefore, there are a number of requirements for moving beyond standard data mining technique. Purpose of this paper is to understand various techniques to analysis data.

  18. ANALYTICS OF BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Shubhada Talegaon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Big Data analytics has started to impact all types of organizations, as it carries the potential power to extract embedded knowledge from big amounts of data and react according to it in real time. The current technology enables us to efficiently store and query large datasets, the focus is now on techniques that make use of the complete data set, instead of sampling. This has tremendous implications in areas like machine learning, pattern recognition and classification, sentiment analysis, social networking analysis to name a few. Therefore, there are a number of requirements for moving beyond standard data mining technique. Purpose of this paper is to understand various techniques to analysis data.

  19. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection

  20. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  1. Red mud characterization using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red mud is a toxic waste left as a byproduct in aluminum production Bayer process. Since it contains significant concentrations of other chemical elements interesting for industry, including REE, it is also potential secondary ore source. Recent events in some countries have shown that red mud presents a serious environmental hazard if not properly stored. The subject of our study is the red mud from an ex-aluminum plant in Obrovac, Croatia, left from processing of bauxite mined during late 70's and early 80's at the eastern Adriatic coast and since than stored in open concrete basins for more than 30 years. We have used energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (both tube and radioactive source excitation), fast neutron activation analysis and passive gamma spectrometry to identify a number of elements present in the red mud, their concentration levels and radioactivity in the red mud. The high concentrations of Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Fe have been measured. Chemical elements Sc, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Pb, Th and U were found in lower concentrations. No significant levels of radioactivity have been measured. (authors)

  2. Analytical techniques for instrument design - matrix methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, R.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-09-01

    We take the traditional Cooper-Nathans approach, as has been applied for many years for steady-state triple-axis spectrometers, and consider its generalisation to other inelastic scattering spectrometers. This involves a number of simple manipulations of exponentials of quadratic forms. In particular, we discuss a toolbox of matrix manipulations that can be performed on the 6- dimensional Cooper-Nathans matrix: diagonalisation (Moller-Nielsen method), coordinate changes e.g. from ({Delta}k{sub I},{Delta}k{sub F} to {Delta}E, {Delta}Q & 2 dummy variables), integration of one or more variables (e.g. over such dummy variables), integration subject to linear constraints (e.g. Bragg`s Law for analysers), inversion to give the variance-covariance matrix, and so on. We show how these tools can be combined to solve a number of important problems, within the narrow-band limit and the gaussian approximation. We will argue that a generalised program that can handle multiple different spectrometers could (and should) be written in parallel to the Monte-Carlo packages that are becoming available. We will also discuss the complementarity between detailed Monte-Carlo calculations and the approach presented here. In particular, Monte-Carlo methods traditionally simulate the real experiment as performed in practice, given a model scattering law, while the Cooper-Nathans method asks the inverse question: given that a neutron turns up in a particular spectrometer configuration (e.g. angle and time of flight), what is the probability distribution of possible scattering events at the sample? The Monte-Carlo approach could be applied in the same spirit to this question.

  3. Characterization of marine sediments using analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the characterization of a marine sediments profile from the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Ten sediment samples obtained from a core of 18.3 m of length were analysed. Although there have been numerous marine sediments studies carried out in Mexico, more are needed to better understand the sea floor formation. Crystallographic, morphologic, physical, chemical and gamma ray activity analysis were carried out on the samples. The analysis results showed a decrease in organic matter content as a function of sea depth; this value is related to the specific surface area. Some hazardous materials as Cr, Mn, Ni, Sr and Hg were also identified by PIXE in some samples, probably due to anthropogenic activity. The presence of uranium a naturally occurring element was found in all the samples, suggesting a migration through all materials of strata, radioactive elements such as 226Ra, 235U, 212Pb, 214Pb, 228Ac, 208Ti, 214Bi, 228Ac and 40K were detected. (author)

  4. Internet promotion tools and techniques: analytical review

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Illiashenko; T.Ye. Ivanova

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is an analysis and systematization of modern communication Internet marketing tools, development of recommendations for their management to promote products in a virtual environment and maintaining the highest level of communication with their economic partners and contact groups. The results of the analysis. The systematic analysis and systematization of the known Internet marketing tools were made. Authors divide them into 8 categories of th...

  5. Analytical techniques for instrument design - matrix methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We take the traditional Cooper-Nathans approach, as has been applied for many years for steady-state triple-axis spectrometers, and consider its generalisation to other inelastic scattering spectrometers. This involves a number of simple manipulations of exponentials of quadratic forms. In particular, we discuss a toolbox of matrix manipulations that can be performed on the 6- dimensional Cooper-Nathans matrix: diagonalisation (Moller-Nielsen method), coordinate changes e.g. from (ΔkI,ΔkF to ΔE, ΔQ ampersand 2 dummy variables), integration of one or more variables (e.g. over such dummy variables), integration subject to linear constraints (e.g. Bragg's Law for analysers), inversion to give the variance-covariance matrix, and so on. We show how these tools can be combined to solve a number of important problems, within the narrow-band limit and the gaussian approximation. We will argue that a generalised program that can handle multiple different spectrometers could (and should) be written in parallel to the Monte-Carlo packages that are becoming available. We will also discuss the complementarity between detailed Monte-Carlo calculations and the approach presented here. In particular, Monte-Carlo methods traditionally simulate the real experiment as performed in practice, given a model scattering law, while the Cooper-Nathans method asks the inverse question: given that a neutron turns up in a particular spectrometer configuration (e.g. angle and time of flight), what is the probability distribution of possible scattering events at the sample? The Monte-Carlo approach could be applied in the same spirit to this question

  6. Spatial Game Analytics and Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Schubert, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The recently emerged field of game analytics and the development and adaptation of business intelligence techniques to support game design and development has given data-driven techniques a direct role in game development. Given that all digital games contain some sort of spatial operation......, techniques for spatial analysis had their share in these developments. However, the methods for analyzing and visualizing spatial and spatio-temporal patterns in player behavior being used by the game industry are not as diverse as the range of techniques utilized in game research, leaving room...... for a continuing development. This paper presents a review of current work on spatial and spatio-temporal game analytics across industry and research, describing and defining the key terminology, outlining current techniques and their application. We summarize the current problems and challenges in the field...

  7. Evaluation of two semi-analytical techniques in air quality applications Avaliação de duas técnicas semi-analíticas em aplicações na qualidade do ar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas C. Carvalho

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article an evaluation of two semi-analytical techniques is carried out, considering the quality and accuracy of these techniques in reproducing the ground-level concentration values of passive pollutant released from low and high sources. The first technique is an Eulerian model based on the solution of the advection-diffusion equation by the Laplace transform technique. The second is a Lagrangian model based on solution of the Langevin equation through the Picard Iterative Method. Turbulence parameters are calculated according to a parameterization capable of generating continuous values in all stability conditions and in all heights of the planetary boundary layer. Numerical simulations and comparisons show a good agreement between predicted and observed concentrations values. Comparisons between the two proposed techniques reveal that Lagrangian model generated more accurate results, but Eulerian model demands a lesser computational time.Neste artigo é realizada uma avaliação de duas técnicas semi-analíticas, considerando a qualidade e a exatidão destas técnicas em reproduzir valores de concentração ao nível da superfície de poluentes passivos emitidos a partir de fontes baixas e altas. A primeira técnica é um modelo Euleriano baseado na solução da equação advecção-difusão através da técnica de transformada de Laplace. A segunda é um modelo Lagrangiano baseado na solução da equação de Langevin através do Método Iterativo de Picard. Parâmetros da turbulência são calculados de acordo com uma parametrização capaz de gerar valores contínuos em todas as condições de estabilidade e em todas as alturas na camada limite planetária. Simulações numéricas e comparações mostram uma boa concordância entre valores de concentração previstos e observados. Comparações entre as duas técnicas revelam que o modelo Lagrangiano gera resultados mais precisos, mas o modelo Euleriano exige um menor tempo

  8. Characterization by FTIR and nuclear analytical techniques of CN{sub x} films elaborated by laser ablation; Caracterizacion por FTIR y tecnicas analiticas nucleares de peliculas de CN{sub x} elaboradas por ablacion laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olea M, O.F

    2003-07-01

    At the present time the technique of deposit of laser ablation is used to produce different types of thin films. At the moment in the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it is carried out an investigation on the thermoluminescent response of thin films of CN{sub x} with possible application in dosimetry of electromagnetic radiation. Under this context, the present work is part of this investigation and has as objective to characterize thin films of CN{sub x} by means of Infrared spectrometry and nuclear analytical techniques. The deposits were elaborated by laser ablation under different such experimental conditions as: pressure of Nitrogen in the system (3 x 10{sup -3} and 7.5 X 10{sup -2} Torr), Distance target-substrate (3 and 5 cm) and density of incident energy in the target (from 17.5 up to 23.8 J/cm{sup 2}). Graphite of high purity was used like target and the deposits were made on their substrates of intrinsic silicon (100). By means of infrared spectrometry by Fourier Transform (Ftir) the type of bonds which are in the structure of the films of CN{sub x} were determined. The spectra of this type of samples present in general four characteristic bands related with different types of bonds among the elements C, O, H, N such as: C-C, C-N, C-H, N-H, O-H, C=N, C{identical_to}N, among others. It was carried out a semi quantitative study of the samples isolating each band of the total infrared spectra and making a comparison between their intensities and forms. This study allowed to observe that there is a dependence of the structure of the films with regard to the time, since mainly bonds of the type Sp{sup 3} between Hydrogen and Carbon (C-H) they presented a remarkable variation in intensity, increasing as it lapsed the time until reaching to a stabilization where the bonds already not varying. This increase probably is due to the absorption of water of the atmosphere, although one has seen in the literature that the incorporation of this compound in

  9. The pyrolysis of coffee paper cup waste samples using non-isothermal thermo-analytical techniques. The use of combined kinetic and statistical analysis in the interpretation of mechanistic features of the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Coffee paper cups as high heating value fuel. • Pyrolysis process comprising the reactions of higher reaction-orders. • Main pyrolysis stage belongs to cellulose decomposition with autocatalysis mechanism. • β-Scission reactions with cleavage of C–C bonds inside the polymer backbone. • Discrete distribution of reactivity. - Abstract: Pyrolysis process of coffee paper cup samples was investigated in a flow stream of nitrogen at different heating rates (10, 20, 30 and 40 °C min−1), using thermo-analytical techniques. It was found that second pyrolysis stage can be described by Šesták–Berggren (SB) autocatalytic model, with mechanism function f(α) = α0.011(1 − α)1.459. Based on analysis of SB kinetic exponents (designated by M and N), it was found that second pyrolysis stage is mainly controlled by chemical process, involving reactions with reaction-order (n) higher than unity. Applying specific statistical analysis, in order to obtain precise distribution of reactivity, the discrete (binomial) distribution has shown that there are two important areas of current distribution for corresponding energy outcomes, within the apparent activation energy as random variable. The first “concentration” area of energy outcomes corresponds to start of chain end depolymerization reaction forming levoglucosan at high enough temperature region, while second “concentration” area of energy outcomes includes occurrence of macro-radicals in liquid phase propagate with radical addition on unsaturated C–C bonds, with cross-linking and formation of small chemical species. It was found that further elevating of temperature (above 340 °C), will leads to fact that rate of tar-forming reactions increases and formation of char decreases

  10. Hybrid FAHP (fuzzy analytical hierarchy process)-FTOPSIS (fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity of an ideal solution) approach for performance evaluation of the V down perforated baffle roughened rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study a methodology has been proposed to evaluate the performance of the V down perforated baffle roughened rectangular channel using hybrid FAHP-FOPSIS approach. The hybrid FAHP (fuzzy analytical hierarchy process) and FTOPSIS (fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity of an ideal solution) approach, taking into account PDAs (performance defining attributes), such as Nusselt number ratio, friction factor ratio, thermohydraulic performance parameter and effective efficiency, was used for the performance prediction of the V down perforated baffle roughened rectangular channel. The weight of different PDAs was evaluated by FAHP; Nurat (0.060, 0.093, 0.138), frat (0.045, 0.066, 0.105), ε (0.170, 0.244, 0.352) and ηeff (0.431, 0.597, 0.821), respectively. FTOPSIS was employed to determine the optimum ranking of the V down perforated baffle roughened rectangular channel and the values obtained as; C6 > C5 > C8 > C7 > C9 > C10 > C2>C11 > C12 > C1 > C3 > C13 > C14 > C4 >  C15 > C16. The test plate (alternative) with an open area ratio (β) of 24%, relative roughness pitch (P/e) of 2 and relative roughness height (e/H) of 0.4, exhibits the optimal formulation. - Highlights: • Combined FAHP and FTOPSIS MCDM approach applied for performance prediction. • The weight of performance defining attribute is calculated using FAHP. • Ranking of alternatives is carried out using FTOPSIS. • The optimum test plate configuration is β: 24%, P/e: 2 and e/H: 0.4

  11. Environmental impact assessment of Ar41 released by normal operation of Triga-Mark reactor. Analysis of the submitted Moroccan inputs to the IAEA Nuclear Information System related to analytic nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In accordance with the international regulation of nuclear safety and radiological protection of the environment applicable to the basic Nuclear Installations, category in which the Triga-Mark reactor is considered, an assessment of this reactor impact in to the environment is accomplished. This assessment is based on the radioactive materials inventory released in normal operation of this reactor and the characteristics of the site where this reactor is installed. It is carried out using CEA Gaussian models and mathematical models developed in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory . Considering the assumptions of impact assessments of Ar41 in the atmosphere, the most important exposure is relatively corresponding to the location witch is approximately at about 1Km from the reactor. This exposure is approximately 0,07% of the lawful limit. Beyond this locality, the exposure becomes lower than 0.002% of this limit. Beyond 5 Km, it becomes lower than 10 nono-Sivert. In the basis of the Triga-Mark nuclear reactor site radiological baseline, the environmental impact of Ar41 is negligible in the studied case. The second work presented in this paper concerns the analysis of the input records of IAEA Nuclear Information system regarding analytic nuclear techniques. The results obtained from this work shows that the Moroccan contribution to theses inputs until 2011, is still very low - about 0.01%. Nevertheless, the evolution, in time, of the scientific production in the field studied is about 28%. It is then expected progressively a big increasing of the production in this field

  12. Analytics for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Sheila; Campbell, Lorna M.; Hawksey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the development and use of analytics in the context of education. Using Buckingham Shum's three levels of analytics, the authors present a critical analysis of current developments in the domain of learning analytics, and contrast the potential value of analytics research and development with real world…

  13. Future analytical provision - Relocation of Sellafield Ltd Analytical Services Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellafield Ltd Analytical Services provide an essential view on the environmental, safety, process and high hazard risk reduction performances by analysis of samples. It is the largest and most complex analytical services laboratory in Europe, with 150 laboratories (55 operational) and 350 staff (including 180 analysts). Sellafield Ltd Analytical Services Main Laboratory is in need of replacement. This is due to the age of the facility and changes to work streams. This relocation is an opportunity to -) design and commission bespoke MA (Medium-Active) cells, -) modify HA (High-Active) cell design to facilitate an in-cell laboratory, -) develop non-destructive techniques, -) open light building for better worker morale. The option chosen was to move the activities to the NNL Central laboratory (NNLCL) that is based at Sellafield and is the UK's flagship nuclear research and development facility. This poster gives a time schedule

  14. Data Analytics - Machine Learning - Tutorial - Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Riedel, Morris

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this tutorial is to introduce participants to two concrete and widely used data analytics techniques for analyzing ‘big data’ for scientific and engineering applications. After a brief introduction to the general approach of using machine learning, data mining, and statistics in data analytics, we start with the ‘clustering’ technique that partitions datasets into subgroups (i.e. clusters) previously unknown. From the broad class of available methods we focus on the Density-based ...

  15. Croatian Analytical Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelan-Macan; M.

    2008-01-01

    Results of analytical research are necessary in all human activities. They are inevitable in making decisions in the environmental chemistry, agriculture, forestry, veterinary medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and biochemistry. Without analytical measurements the quality of materials and products cannot be assessed, so that analytical chemistry is an essential part of technical sciences and disciplines.The language of Croatian science, and analytical chemistry within it, was one of the goals...

  16. Co-ordinated research project on assessment of levels and health-effects of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting (RCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the CRP are to: (1) improve competence for research on workplace monitoring in terms of proper sampling and analytical procedures, (2) obtain relevant and reliable data on sources and levels of workplace pollution in various countries, (3) promote a better understanding of methods for the interpretation of such data including occupational heath studies, and (4) encourage closer collaboration between analytical scientists and researchers in the field of occupational health in the countries concerned. The CRP focuses on the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques for the following kinds of studies: (1) strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter and of human tissues and body fluids (hair, blood, etc.) sampling of exposed and non-exposed persons; (2) development of suitable analytical procedures for analysis of such types of samples; (3) workplace and personal monitoring of airborne particulate matter in the mining, refining and metal working industries, and the health effects of such exposure; and (4) tissue analysis of the workers exposed for biological monitoring and the health effects studies. This report includes the core and supplementary programme of the CRP; technical aspects of sampling, analysis, data processing, and quality assurance; and organizational aspects. The report includes also 10 papers contributed by the participants. Each individual contribution was indexed and provided with an abstract

  17. Analytical chemistry of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last two decades have witnessed an enormous development in chemical analysis. The rapid progress of nuclear energy, of solid-state physics and of other fields of modern industry has extended the concept of purity to limits previously unthought of, and to reach the new dimensions of these extreme demands, entirely new techniques have been invented and applied and old ones have been refined. Recognizing these facts, the International Atomic Energy Agency convened a Panel on Analytical Chemistry of Nuclear Materials to discuss the general problems facing the analytical chemist engaged in nuclear energy development, particularly in newly developing centre and countries, to analyse the represent situation and to advise as to the directions in which research and development appear to be most necessary. The Panel also discussed the analytical programme of the Agency's laboratory at Seibersdorf, where the Agency has already started a programme of international comparison of analytical methods which may lead to the establishment of international standards for many materials of interest. Refs and tabs

  18. International Congress on Analytical Chemistry. Abstracts. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection of materials of the international congress on analytical chemistry taken place in Moscow in June 1997. The main directs of investigations in such regions of analytical chemistry as quantitative and qualitative analysis, microanalysis, sample preparation and preconcentration, analytical reagents, chromatography and related techniques, flow analysis, electroanalytical and kinetic methods sensors are elucidated

  19. Analytical chemistry in a new analytical hot cell facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Remote Analytical Laboratory is a new facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant designed to handle samples from the processing of spent nuclear fuel. It consists of a cold laboratory for analyzing process make-up samples, a warm laboratory for analyzing low-level (<100 mR/h) radioactive samples, and a hot cell for analyzing high-level radioactive samples. The hot cell is built in an L shape and contains six work stations, each equipped with a viewing window and two master/slave manipulators. The cell interfaces with a waste handling cell and maintenance area on one end and a glove box complex that interfaces with the warm laboratory on the other end. This paper discusses the remote analytical techniques and equipment developed for use in this facility

  20. News for analytical chemists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Karlberg, Bo

    2009-01-01

    The EuCheMS Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) maintains a website with informations on groups of analytical chemistry at European universities (www.dac-euchems. org). Everyone may contribute to the database and contributors are responsible for an annual update of the information. The service...... is offered free of charge. The report on activities of DAC during 2008 was published in journals of analytical chemistry where Manfred Grasserbauer contributed with his personal view on analytical chemistry in the assessment of climate changes and sustainable application of the natural resources to...... committee directed to various topics of analytical chemistry. Although affected by the global financial crisis, the Euroanalysis Conference will be held on 6 to 10 September in Innsbruck, Austria. For next year, the programme for the analytical section of the 3rd European Chemistry Congress is in...

  1. Global analytic geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Paugam, Frederic

    2008-01-01

    We define a new type of valuation of a ring that combines the notion of Krull valuation with that of multiplicative seminorm. This definition partially restores the broken symmetry between archimedean and non-archimedean valuations. This also allows us to define a notion of global analytic space that reconciles Berkovich's notion of analytic space of a (Banach) ring with Huber's notion of non-archimedean analytic space. After defining natural generalized valuation spectra and computing the sp...

  2. Overconvergent global analytic geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Paugam, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    We define a notion of global analytic space with overconvergent structure sheaf. This gives an analog on a general base Banach ring of Grosse-Kloenne's overconvergent p-adic spaces and of Bambozzi's generalized affinoid varieties over R. This also gives an affinoid version of Berkovich's and Poineau's global analytic spaces. This affinoid approach allows the introduction of a notion of strict global analytic space, that has some relations with the ideas of Arakelov geometry, since the base ex...

  3. News for analytical chemists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Karlberg, Bo

    The EuCheMS Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) maintains a website with informations on groups of analytical chemistry at European universities (www.dac-euchems. org). Everyone may contribute to the database and contributors are responsible for an annual update of the information. The service...... is offered free of charge. The report on activities of DAC during 2008 was published in journals of analytical chemistry where Manfred Grasserbauer contributed with his personal view on analytical chemistry in the assessment of climate changes and sustainable application of the natural resources to...

  4. Prospects in Analytical Atomic Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bolshakov, A A; Nemets, V M

    2006-01-01

    Tendencies in five main branches of atomic spectrometry (absorption, emission, mass, fluorescence and ionization spectrometry) are considered. The first three techniques are the most widespread and universal, with the best sensitivity attributed to atomic mass spectrometry. In the direct elemental analysis of solid samples, the leading roles are now conquered by laser-induced breakdown and laser ablation mass spectrometry, and the related techniques with transfer of the laser ablation products into inductively-coupled plasma. Advances in design of diode lasers and optical parametric oscillators promote developments in fluorescence and ionization spectrometry and also in absorption techniques where uses of optical cavities for increased effective absorption pathlength are expected to expand. Prospects for analytical instrumentation are seen in higher productivity, portability, miniaturization, incorporation of advanced software, automated sample preparation and transition to the multifunctional modular archite...

  5. Deriving Earth Science Data Analytics Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Data Analytics applications have made successful strides in the business world where co-analyzing extremely large sets of independent variables have proven profitable. Today, most data analytics tools and techniques, sometimes applicable to Earth science, have targeted the business industry. In fact, the literature is nearly absent of discussion about Earth science data analytics. Earth science data analytics (ESDA) is the process of examining large amounts of data from a variety of sources to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations, and other useful information. ESDA is most often applied to data preparation, data reduction, and data analysis. Co-analysis of increasing number and volume of Earth science data has become more prevalent ushered by the plethora of Earth science data sources generated by US programs, international programs, field experiments, ground stations, and citizen scientists.Through work associated with the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation, ESDA types have been defined in terms of data analytics end goals. Goals of which are very different than those in business, requiring different tools and techniques. A sampling of use cases have been collected and analyzed in terms of data analytics end goal types, volume, specialized processing, and other attributes. The goal of collecting these use cases is to be able to better understand and specify requirements for data analytics tools and techniques yet to be implemented. This presentation will describe the attributes and preliminary findings of ESDA use cases, as well as provide early analysis of data analytics toolstechniques requirements that would support specific ESDA type goals. Representative existing data analytics toolstechniques relevant to ESDA will also be addressed.

  6. Sampling and sample preparation development for analytical and on-line measurement techniques of process liquids; Naeytteenoton ja kaesittelyn kehittaeminen prosessinesteiden analytiikan ja on-line mittaustekniikan tarpeisiin - MPKT 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, K. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Main goal of the research project is to develop sampling and sample handling methods and techniques for pulp and paper industry to be used for analysis and on-line purposes. The research focus specially on the research and development of the classification and separation methods and techniques needed for liquid and colloidal substances as well as in ion analysis. (orig.)

  7. Analytical Plan for Roman Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mueller, Karl T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Roman glasses that have been in the sea or underground for about 1800 years can serve as the independent “experiment” that is needed for validation of codes and models that are used in performance assessment. Two sets of Roman-era glasses have been obtained for this purpose. One set comes from the sunken vessel the Iulia Felix; the second from recently excavated glasses from a Roman villa in Aquileia, Italy. The specimens contain glass artifacts and attached sediment or soil. In the case of the Iulia Felix glasses quite a lot of analytical work has been completed at the University of Padova, but from an archaeological perspective. The glasses from Aquileia have not been so carefully analyzed, but they are similar to other Roman glasses. Both glass and sediment or soil need to be analyzed and are the subject of this analytical plan. The glasses need to be analyzed with the goal of validating the model used to describe glass dissolution. The sediment and soil need to be analyzed to determine the profile of elements released from the glass. This latter need represents a significant analytical challenge because of the trace quantities that need to be analyzed. Both pieces of information will yield important information useful in the validation of the glass dissolution model and the chemical transport code(s) used to determine the migration of elements once released from the glass. In this plan, we outline the analytical techniques that should be useful in obtaining the needed information and suggest a useful starting point for this analytical effort.

  8. Learning Analytics Considered Harmful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dringus, Laurie P.

    2012-01-01

    This essay is written to present a prospective stance on how learning analytics, as a core evaluative approach, must help instructors uncover the important trends and evidence of quality learner data in the online course. A critique is presented of strategic and tactical issues of learning analytics. The approach to the critique is taken through…

  9. Analytical mass spectrometry. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  10. Analytical mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  11. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  12. Teaching the Analytical Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Using a survey of 138 writing programs, I argue that we must be more explicit about what we think students should get out of analysis to make it more likely that students will transfer their analytical skills to different settings. To ensure our students take analytical skills with them at the end of the semester, we must simplify the task we…

  13. Analytic Moufang-transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is aimed to be an introduction to the concept of an analytic birepresentation of an analytic Moufang loop. To describe the deviation of (S,T) from associativity, the associators (S,T) are defined and certain constraints for them, called the minimality conditions of (S,T) are established

  14. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges for...

  15. Some Heterodox Analytic Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo E. Rosado Haddock

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Analytic philosophy has been the most influential philosophical movement in 20th century philosophy. It has surely contributed like no other movement to the elucidation and demarcation of philosophical problems. Nonetheless, the empiricist and sometimes even nominalist convictions of orthodox analytic philosophers have served them to inadequately render even philosophers they consider their own and to propound very questionable conceptions.

  16. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed. PMID:26631024

  17. Analytical comparison study of the clinical and radiological outcome of spine fixation using posterolateral, posterior lumber interbody and transforaminal lumber interbody spinal fixation techniques to treat lumber spine degenerative disc disease

    OpenAIRE

    Al Barbarawi, Moh’d M; Audat, Ziad M; Mohammed Z. Allouh

    2015-01-01

    Background Degenerative disc disease is a common cause of chronic and disabling back pain that requires surgical intervention, posterolateral and posterior instrumental fixation (PLF), posterior lumber interbody fusion (PLIF) and transforaminal lumber interbody fusion (TLIF) are the techniques used to deal with such a problem. Objective To compare the clinical and radiological outcome of the variable surgical techniques used to deal with Lumber degenerative disc disease and to recommend the t...

  18. Google BigQuery analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Tigani, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    How to effectively use BigQuery, avoid common mistakes, and execute sophisticated queries against large datasets Google BigQuery Analytics is the perfect guide for business and data analysts who want the latest tips on running complex queries and writing code to communicate with the BigQuery API. The book uses real-world examples to demonstrate current best practices and techniques, and also explains and demonstrates streaming ingestion, transformation via Hadoop in Google Compute engine, AppEngine datastore integration, and using GViz with Tableau to generate charts of query results. In addit

  19. Analytical measurements for safeguarding large reprocessing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verification analysis of samples taken at large reprocessing plants can be performed off site after shipment of the samples to a specialized laboratory of, more advantageously in terms of cost and timeliness, on site. The latter may be achieved either by using permanently installed equipment which is operated by an inspector or in fully equipped on-site laboratory. Analytical techniques suitable for determining uranium and plutonium isotopic compositions as well as the respective element concentrations, are applied. Experience with a number of these techniques has shown that effective analytical support in safeguarding large reprocessing plants can be provided to the safeguards authorities

  20. Analytical laboratory in NUCEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical laboratory was completed in NUCEF (the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility) of JAERI. NUCEF has two critical facilities (STACY and TRACY) and a fuel treatment system for criticality safety research. In addition, the facility has BECKY (Back-end Cycle Key Elements Research Facility) for the research on advanced reprocessing technology, TRU waste management and so on. This present report describes the design conditions and structure of the analytical laboratory as well as the specification of each analytical equipment. (J.P.N.)